WorldWideScience

Sample records for weighing

  1. A nucleonic weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    The design and operation of a nucleonic weighing machine fabricated for continuous weighing of material over conveyor belt are described. The machine uses a 40 mCi cesium-137 line source and a 10 litre capacity ionization chamber. It is easy to maintain as there are no moving parts. It can also be easily removed and reinstalled. (M.G.B.)

  2. Nucleonic weighing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teller, S.

    1977-01-01

    Nucleonic weighing systems utilize the principle of the absorption or the scattering of nuclear radiation for a contactless measurement of the weight of material per unit length, the loading, of a conveyor. The load signal is processed in an electronic unit with a tachometer signal for the conveyor velocity to indicate the flow rate and the integrated flow of material. The different sources of error in nucleonic weighing using transmitted and forward scattered radiation are discussed, and the design of two nucleonic weighing systems is described. One is a conventional transmission gauge particularly suited for measuring rapid variation in belt loading due to a fast detection and linearizing unit. The other system consists of a forward scattering gauge, particularly suitable for measuring light inhomogeneous materials due to the linear relationship between the weight per unit area and the gauge response. Results from on-line trials with different materials are presented, and experiences from more than one year of operation for a batch weighing system for quick lime and a continuous weighing system for mineral wool are reported. (author)

  3. Rounding errors in weighing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeach, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    When rounding error is large relative to weighing error, it cannot be ignored when estimating scale precision and bias from calibration data. Further, if the data grouping is coarse, rounding error is correlated with weighing error and may also have a mean quite different from zero. These facts are taken into account in a moment estimation method. A copy of the program listing for the MERDA program that provides moment estimates is available from the author. Experience suggests that if the data fall into four or more cells or groups, it is not necessary to apply the moment estimation method. Rather, the estimate given by equation (3) is valid in this instance. 5 tables

  4. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  5. Weighing fluidized powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adomitis, J.T.; Larson, R.I.

    1980-01-01

    Fluidized powder is discharged from a fluidizing vessel into a container. Accurate metering is achieved by opening and closing the valve to discharge the powder in a series of short-duration periods until a predetermined weight is measured by a load cell. The duration of the discharge period may be increased in inverse proportion to the amount of powder in the vessel. Preferably the container is weighed between the discharge periods to prevent fluctuations resulting from dynamic effects. The gas discharged into the container causes the pressures in the vessel and container to equalize thereby decreasing the rate of discharge and increasing the accuracy of metering as the weight reaches the predetermined value. (author)

  6. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  7. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  8. Dictionary of weighing terms a guide to the terminology of weighing

    CERN Document Server

    Nater, Roland; Reichmuth, Arthur; Schwartz, Roman; Zervos, Panagiotis

    2009-01-01

    This book explains over 1,000 terms from weighing technology and includes many illustrations. Terms used relate to the following topics: Fundamentals of Weighing, Using Scales, International Norms and Legal Requirements for Weighing, and Precision in Weighing.

  9. Halon containers - to weigh or not to weigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, K.C.

    1984-04-01

    The National Fire Protection Association requires that the quantity of agent in Halon fire extinguishing systems be verified every six months. The accepted method for determining the quantity of agent has been weighing the containers. Because of problems involved with this method, such as the size of the containers, access, etc., the question what other alternatives are there to weighing halon containers has arisen. This report includes the evaluation and test program whereby the Fire Engineering Group selected and tested alternative methods: the thermal strip tape method, the infrared scanner, ultrasonics, and the radiation detector. Also evaluated, but not tested, were the dip stick method, the pressure supervision method, and weighing using a transducer. As a result of this program, it was determined that weighing is still the most positive method for determining agent quantity, but there are alternatives that can be used. The use of some of these alternatives will provide cost savings, time savings, and maintain the fire protection system in service. However, it will be important for the organization or company intending to use one of the alternative methods, to evaluate and make sure it is compatible with their particular halon protection system

  10. 27 CFR 30.44 - Weighing containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Weighing containers. 30.44... Weighing containers. (a) Weighing containers of more than 10 wine gallons. The weight of containers having.... (b) Weighing containers of 10 wine gallons or less. The weight for containers of a capacity of 10...

  11. The first weighing of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  12. The first weighing of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man

  13. Radiometric weighing devices. Part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaeser, M.

    1985-01-01

    Proceeding from the physical and mathematical fundamentals and from the types of radiometric weighing devices presently available, the radiation protection problems arising from the application of radiometric gages in industry and agriculture are discussed. Nuclear weighing devices have been found to be effective from economic point of view but in some cases gravimetric conveyor weighers are indispensable. Information and guidance is given especially for users of radiometric weighing devices. 91 refs., 69 figs., and 8 tabs

  14. Individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogg, J. L.; Howell, C. A.; Smith, J. H.; Vining, G. E.

    1985-01-01

    An individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system for rods carried on a tray which moves along a materials handling conveyor. At a first tray position on the conveyor, a lifting device raises the rods off the tray and places them on an overhead ramp. A loading mechanism conveys the rods singly from the overhead ramp onto an overhead scale for individual weighing. When the tray is at a second position on the conveyor, a transfer apparatus transports each weighed rod from the scale back onto the tray

  15. Individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogg, J.L.; Smith, J.H.; Vining, G.E.; Howell, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    An individual nuclear fuel rod weighing system for rods carried on a tray which moves along a materials handling conveyor is discussed. At a first tray position on the conveyor, a lifting device raises the rods off the tray and places them on an overhead ramp. A loading mechanism conveys the rods singly from the overhead ramp onto an overhead scale for individual weighing. When the tray is at a second position on the conveyor, a transfer apparatus transports each weighed rod from the scale back onto the tray

  16. Weighing every day matters: daily weighing improves weight loss and adoption of weight control behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Dori M; Bennett, Gary G; Askew, Sandy; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-04-01

    Daily weighing is emerging as the recommended self-weighing frequency for weight loss. This is likely because it improves adoption of weight control behaviors. To examine whether weighing every day is associated with greater adoption of weight control behaviors compared with less frequent weighing. Longitudinal analysis of a previously conducted 6-month randomized controlled trial. Overweight men and women in Chapel Hill, NC, participated in the intervention arm (N=47). The intervention focused on daily weighing for weight loss using an e-scale that transmitted weights to a study website, along with weekly e-mailed lessons and tailored feedback on daily weighing adherence and weight loss progress. We gathered objective data on self-weighing frequency from the e-scales. At baseline and 6 months, weight change was measured in the clinic and weight control behaviors (total items=37), dietary strategies, and calorie expenditure from physical activity were assessed via questionnaires. Calorie intake was assessed using an online 24-hour recall tool. We used χ(2) tests to examine variation in discrete weight control behaviors and linear regression models to examine differences in weight, dietary strategies, and calorie intake and expenditure by self-weighing frequency. Fifty-one percent of participants weighed every day (n=24) over 6 months. The average self-weighing frequency among those weighing less than daily (n=23) was 5.4±1.2 days per week. Daily weighers lost significantly more weight compared with those weighing less than daily (mean difference=-6.1 kg; 95% CI -10.2 to -2.1; P=0.004). The total number of weight control behaviors adopted was greater among daily weighers (17.6±7.6 vs 11.2±6.4; P=0.004). There were no differences by self-weighing frequency in dietary strategies, calorie intake, or calorie expenditure. Weighing every day led to greater adoption of weight control behaviors and produced greater weight loss compared with weighing most days of the

  17. Weigh Station and Grid Plate Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PAJUNEN, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this test is to verify that the Shortened Fuel Canister Hook with Certified Scale (i.e. Weigh Station) can be used to weigh an empty canister from the Canister Well and the empty Primary Cleaning Machine (PCM) Strainer Basket from the process table. Drawing H-1-84835, ''Canister Handling Hook for Fuel Retrieval System Process Table,'' provides details of the Shortened Fuel Canister Hook. It is also necessary to verify that the grid plate can be lifted and tilted over a canister in the canister well. This testing shall be performed before N Reactor fuel is processed through the FRS in Phase 3. The Phase 3 Test will repeatedly weigh fuel and scrap canisters and the PCM strainer basket containing N Reactor fuel (Pajunen, et. al, 2000). Advance testing of this weigh station will ensure that accurate fuel weight data can be recorded in the Phase 3 Test. This document satisfies the requirements EN-6-031-00, ''Testing Process'' for a test plan, test specification and test procedure

  18. Creation and Reliability Analysis of Vehicle Dynamic Weighing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ling XU

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is modeled by using ADAMS to portable axle load meter of dynamic weighing system, controlling a single variable simulation weighing process, getting the simulation weighing data under the different speed and weight; simultaneously using portable weighing system with the same parameters to achieve the actual measurement, comparative analysis the simulation results under the same conditions, at 30 km/h or less, the simulation value and the measured value do not differ by more than 5 %, it is not only to verify the reliability of dynamic weighing model, but also to create possible for improving algorithm study efficiency by using dynamic weighing model simulation.

  19. Uncertainty evaluation of a modified elimination weighing for source preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacais, F.L.; Loayza, V.M., E-mail: facacais@gmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Delgado, J.U. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    Some modification in elimination weighing method for radioactive source allowed correcting weighing results without non-linearity problems assign a uncertainty contribution for the correction of the same order of the mass of drop uncertainty and check weighing variability in series source preparation. This analysis has focused in knowing the achievable weighing accuracy and the uncertainty estimated by Monte Carlo method for a mass of a 20 mg drop was at maximum of 0.06%. (author)

  20. New laser power sensor using weighing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinot, P.; Silvestri, Z.

    2018-01-01

    We present a set-up using a piece of pyrolytic carbon (PyC) to measure laser power in the range from a few milliwatts to a few watts. The experimental configuration consists in measuring the magnetic repulsion force acting between a piece of PyC placed on a weighing pan and in a magnetic induction generated by a magnet array in a fixed position above the PyC sheet. This involves a repulsion force on the PyC piece which is expressed in terms of mass by the balance display. The quantities affecting the measurement results have been identified. An example of metrological characterization in terms of accuracy, linearity and sensitivity is given. A relative uncertainty of optical power measurement for the first experimental set-up is around 1%. The wavelength and power density dependence on power response of this device has been demonstrated. This PyC-based device presented here in weighing configuration and the other one previously studied in levitation configuration offer a new technique for measuring optical power.

  1. Uncertainty estimation in nuclear material weighing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thaure, Bernard [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay aux Roses, (France)

    2011-12-15

    The assessment of nuclear material quantities located in nuclear plants requires knowledge of additions and subtractions of amounts of different types of materials. Most generally, the quantity of nuclear material held is deduced from 3 parameters: a mass (or a volume of product); a concentration of nuclear material in the product considered; and an isotopic composition. Global uncertainties associated with nuclear material quantities depend upon the confidence level of results obtained in the measurement of every different parameter. Uncertainties are generally estimated by considering five influencing parameters (ISHIKAWA's rule): the material itself; the measurement system; the applied method; the environmental conditions; and the operator. A good practice guide, to be used to deal with weighing errors and problems encountered, is presented in the paper.

  2. Online weighing of kiwifruit using impact method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Mir-ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran is one of the main producers of kiwifruit in the world. Unfortunately, the sorting and grading of the kiwifruits are manual, which is a time consuming and labor intensive task. Due to the lack of appropriate devices for sorting and grading of kiwifruit based on the quality parameters, only 10% of total production is exported (Mohammadian & Esehaghi Teymouri, 1999. One of the main quality attribute for evaluating the kiwifruits is weight. Based on the standards, the minimum weight for an excellent kiwifruit is 90 g, while these values for the first and second classes should be 70 and 65 g, respectively (Abedini, 2003. Therefore, developing a device for fast weighing of fruits in the sorting lines can be useful in packaging, storage, exporting and distributing kiwifruit to the consumer markets. In the past, the mechanical-based systems were commonly used for online weighing of the agricultural materials, but they did not lead to the promising accuracy and speed in sorting lines. Today, electrical instruments equipped with the precise load cells are substituted for fast weighing in the sorting lines. The dropping impact method, in which a free falling fruit drops on a load cell, is one of the suitable techniques for this purpose. Different studies have addressed the application of dropping impact for fast weighing of agricultural materials (Rohrbach et al., 1982; Calpe et al., 2002; Gilman & Bailey, 2005; Stropek & Gołacki, 2007; Elbeltagi, 2011. The aim of this study reported here was to develop an on-line system for fast weighing of kiwifruit and compare the accuracy of different methods for extracting the weight predictive models. Materials and Methods: Sample selection: A total of 232 samples with the weight range of 40 to 120 g were selected. Before conducting the main experiments, the weight and dimensions of the sample were measured using a digital balance and caliper, with the precisions of 0.001 g and 0.01 mm

  3. Self-weighing in weight management: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaguang; Klem, Mary Lou; Sereika, Susan M; Danford, Cynthia A; Ewing, Linda J; Burke, Lora E

    2015-02-01

    Regular self-weighing, which in this article is defined as weighing oneself regularly over a period of time (e.g., daily, weekly), is recommended as a weight loss strategy. However, the published literature lacks a review of the recent evidence provided by prospective, longitudinal studies. Moreover, no paper has reviewed the psychological effects of self-weighing. Therefore, the objective is to review the literature related to longitudinal associations between self-weighing and weight change as well as the psychological outcomes. Electronic literature searches in PubMed, Ovid PsycINFO, and Ebscohost CINAHL were conducted. Keywords included overweight, obesity, self-weighing, etc. Inclusion criteria included trials that were published in the past 25 years in English; participants were adults seeking weight loss treatment; results were based on longitudinal data. The results (N=17 studies) revealed that regular self-weighing was associated with more weight loss and not with adverse psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety). Findings demonstrated that the effect sizes of association between self-weighing and weight change varied across studies and also that the reported frequency of self-weighing varied across studies. The findings from prospective, longitudinal studies provide evidence that regular self-weighing has been associated with weight loss and not with negative psychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  4. Reduction of weighing errors caused by tritium decay heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium source gas mixture for laser targets is formulated by weight. Experiments show that the maximum weighing error caused by tritium decay heating is 0.2% for a 104-cm 3 mix vessel. Air cooling the vessel reduces the weighing error by 90%

  5. Baxter elastomeric pumps: Weighing as an alternative to visual inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ellen L; Ali, Raafi; Sawyer, Michael B; Chambers, Carole R; Tang, Patricia A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose Elastomeric pumps are used to administer 46-hour infusions of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Baxter suggests patients visually monitor their pumps to ensure that infusions are proceeding correctly. This can be confusing and lead to concerns about under- or over-dosing. Baxter has not considered weighing pumps as a validated method for monitoring. This study aims to validate weighing as a more accurate method for patients and healthcare professionals, and describe real life Baxter Infusor™ variability. Methods Patients who had been started on a 46-hour 5FU infusion returned to the clinic approximately 24 h after starting treatment. The pump was weighed on a StarFrit kitchen scale, and date, time, and weights recorded. Patients were asked if they had a preference for weighing or visually inspecting their pump. Results Pumps ( n = 103) were weighed between 17.25 and 27.5 h after connection. The average weight of a pump was 189 g. Of 103 pumps weighed, 99 weighed less than expected, corresponding to average flow rates of 5.69 mL/h over the elapsed time. The expected flow rate is 5 mL/h with 10% variability. Average flow rates within the 17.25- to 27.5-hour window were 4.561 mL/h, which is 8.78% slower than expected, but within the 10% known variability. Forty-seven percent of patients didn't have a preference for either method, but for those who did have a preference, more than twice as many preferred weighing. Conclusion With proper education, weighing Baxter Infusors at home with kitchen scales can be an accepted and objective alternative to the current recommendation of visual inspection.

  6. Weighing the legal basis for housing rights in Zimbabwe | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... Weighing the legal basis for housing rights in Zimbabwe ... through the Safe and Inclusive Cities partnership with the UK's Department for International Development. ... Transforming the slum: The case of Mumbai's M-Ward.

  7. Quantum Algorithms for Weighing Matrices and Quadratic Residues

    OpenAIRE

    van Dam, Wim

    2000-01-01

    In this article we investigate how we can employ the structure of combinatorial objects like Hadamard matrices and weighing matrices to device new quantum algorithms. We show how the properties of a weighing matrix can be used to construct a problem for which the quantum query complexity is ignificantly lower than the classical one. It is pointed out that this scheme captures both Bernstein & Vazirani's inner-product protocol, as well as Grover's search algorithm. In the second part of the ar...

  8. An Integrated Dynamic Weighing System Based on SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bazydło

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototyped dynamic weighing system has been presented which integrates together three advanced software environments: MATLAB, LabVIEW and iFIX SCADA. They were used for advanced signal processing, data acquisition, as well as visualization and process control. Dynamic weighing is a constantly developing field of metrology. Because of the highly complicated structure of any electronic weighing module, it is vulnerable to many sources of environmental disturbances. For this reason, there is a lot of research concerned with weighing signal processing, mechanical matters and functionality of the system. In the paper, some issues connected with dynamic weighing have been presented, and the necessity of implementing signal processing methods has been discussed. Implementation of this feature is impossible in the majority of SCADA systems. The integration of the three environments mentioned above is an attempt to create an industrial system with capabilities to deal with major dynamic weighing problems. It is innovative because it connects the industrial SCADA, laboratory/industrial product LabVIEW and MATLAB. In addition, the algorithms responsible for process control and data exchange are presented. The paper includes a description of the capabilities, performance tests, as well as benefits and drawbacks, of the system. The outcome of the research is a prototyped system and evaluation of its usefulness. (original abstract

  9. Research on Automotive Dynamic Weighing Method Based on Piezoelectric Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively measure the dynamic axle load of vehicles in motion, the dynamic weighing method of vehicles based on piezoelectric sensor was studied. Firstly, the influencing factors of the measurement accuracy in the dynamic weighing process were analyzed systematically, and the impacts of road irregularities and dynamic weighing system vibration on measurement error were discussed. On the basis of the analysis, the arithmetic mean filter method was used in the software algorithm to filter out the periodic interference added in the sensor signal, the most suitable n value was selected to get the better filtering result by simulation comparison. Then, the dynamic axle load calculation model of high speed vehicles was studied deeply, based on the theoretical response curve of the sensor, the dynamic axle load calculation method based on frequency reconstruction was established according to actual measurement signals of sensors and the analysis from time domain and frequency domain, also the least square method was used to realize the identification of temperature correction coefficient. A large amount of data that covered the usual vehicle weighing range was collected by experiment. The results show that the dynamic weighing signal system identification error all controlled within 10% at the same temperature and 60% of the vehicle data error can be controlled within 7%. The temperature correction coefficient and the correction formula at different temperatures ranges are well adapted to ensure that the vehicle temperature error at different temperatures can also be controlled within 10% and 70% of the vehicle data error within 7%. Furthermore, the weighing results remain stable regardless of the speed of the vehicle which meets the requirements for high-speed dynamic weighing.

  10. The Weighing Chair of Sanctorius Sanctorius: A Replica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollerbach, Teresa

    2018-05-14

    In 1614, the physician Sanctorius Sanctorius (1561-1636) published his most famous work entitled Ars […] de statica medicina (On static medicine). This is a work composed of aphorisms that present the practical results of a series of weighing procedures, rather than theoretical observations. De statica medicina is the result of a large number of test series that Sanctorius carried out over many years with the weighing chair he constructed himself in order to quantify the so-called perspiratio insensibilis, an insensible perspiration of the human body. Through his weighing experiments, Sanctorius introduced the idea of quantitative research into physiology. Although historical accounts ascribe an important role to Sanctorius as the founder of a new medical science, up until now the design of his weighing chair and the method of measurement have not been closely analysed. The aim of this paper is to close this gap. Through a collaboration between the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science and the Technical University of Berlin (Institute of Vocational Education and Work Studies), Sanctorius's weighing chair was reconstructed and experiments carried out with it. This opened new perspectives on Sanctorius's work and led to a reconsideration of the function and purpose of his weighing chair. With his static medicine, Sanctorius repurposed an old instrument. The replication of the weighing chair and the repetition of the experiments demonstrate that this novel application of scales posed some challenges for the mechanical design of the instrument. We recognized that the instrument fulfilled different functions that might in turn have affected its design, precision, and the measuring method applied. Although in the end we could not clarify how Sanctorius actually conducted his measurements, we were nevertheless able to develop an understanding of Sanctorius's mechanical and practical knowledge that would not have been possible for us to develop solely on

  11. Pad-weighing test performed with standardized bladder volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Rosenkilde, P; Gammelgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    The result of the one-hour pad-weighing test proposed by the International Continence Society has been demonstrated to depend on the urine load during the test. To increase reproducibility of the pad-weighing test by minimizing the influence of variation in urine load the test was done with a sta...... to +/- 24 g between two tests. It is concluded that this setup (i.e., standardized bladder volume) of the one-hour pad-weighing test allows for a more reliable assessment of urinary incontinence for quantitative purposes....... with a standardized bladder volume (50% of the cystometric bladder capacity). Twenty-five female patients with stress or mixed incontinence underwent two separate tests. Test-retest results were highly correlated (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). Nonetheless, analysis of test-retest differences revealed a variation up...

  12. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  13. 78 FR 51658 - Weighing, Feed, and Swine Contractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ..., one zero balance documented on a scale ticket along with the tare and gross weight for the grower or..., there is no need for a zero balance between individual hopper loads for one grower. This sentence was...) The zero balance; provided that when using a vehicle scale to weigh feed for more than one producer or...

  14. 9 CFR 201.73-1 - Instructions for weighing livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... come to rest at the center of the trig loop. (5) Dial scales shall be balanced by releasing all drop... lock when the weigher is not at his duty station. (3) Accurate weighing and correct weight recording... use the scale until it has been tested and inspected and found to be accurate. (6) Count-off men, gate...

  15. 7 CFR 27.16 - Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. 27.16 Section 27.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION...

  16. Weighing Designs to Detect a Single Counterfeit Coin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    research-level problems have been posed and resolved from time to time. .... 1b shows this method of fake coin detection. 2. ... the same weighing design) whether there is a fake coin of ..... He put all 101 pills in the last bottle, and mixed it up.

  17. Influence of the weighing bar position in vessel on measurement of cement’s particle size distribution by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Sihombing, R. O.; Simanjuntak, A.; Hanum, F.

    2018-02-01

    The buoyancy weighing-bar method is a new simple and cost-effective method to determine the particle size distribution both settling and floating particle. In this method, the density change in a suspension due to particle migration is measured by weighing buoyancy against a weighing-bar hung in the suspension, and then the particle size distribution is calculated using the length of the bar and the time-course change in the mass of the bar. The apparatus of this method consists of a weighing-bar and an analytical balance with a hook for under-floor weighing. The weighing bar is used to detect the density change in suspension. In this study we investigate the influences of position of weighing bar in vessel on settling particle size distribution measurements of cement by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method. The vessel used in this experiment is graduated cylinder with the diameter of 65 mm and the position of weighing bar is in center and off center of vessel. The diameter of weighing bar in this experiment is 10 mm, and the kerosene is used as a dispersion liquids. The results obtained show that the positions of weighing bar in vessel have no significant effect on determination the cement’s particle size distribution by using buoyancy weighing-bar method, and the results obtained are comparable to those measured by using settling balance method.

  18. Dynamic global model of oxide Czochralski process with weighing control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamedov, V. M.; Vasiliev, M. G.; Yuferev, V. S.

    2011-03-01

    A dynamic model of oxide Czochralski growth with weighing control has been developed for the first time. A time-dependent approach is used for the calculation of temperature fields in different parts of a crystallization set-up and convection patterns in a melt, while internal radiation in crystal is considered in a quasi-steady approximation. A special algorithm is developed for the calculation of displacement of a triple point and simulation of a crystal surface formation. To calculate variations in the heat generation, a model of weighing control with a commonly used PID regulator is applied. As an example, simulation of the growth process of gallium-gadolinium garnet (GGG) crystals starting from the stage of seeding is performed.

  19. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate......Knowing passenger numbers is important for the planning and operation of the urban rail systems. Manual and electronic counting systems (typically infrared or video) are expensive and therefore entail small sample sizes. They usually count boarding and alighting passengers, which means that errors...... in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...

  20. FFTF/IEM cell fuel pin weighing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) cell in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is used for remote disassembly of irradiated fuel and materials experiments. For those fuel experiments where the FFTF tag-gas detection system has indicated a fuel pin cladding breach, a weighing system is used in identifying that fuel pin with a reduced weight due to the escape of gaseous and volatile fission products. A fuel pin weighing machine, originally purchased for use in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), was the basis for the IEM cell system. Design modifications to the original equipment were centered around adapting the machine to the differences between the two facilities and correcting deficiencies discovered during functional testing in the IEM cell mock-up

  1. High-speed precision weighing of pharmaceutical capsules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a cost-effective method for fast and accurate in-line weighing of hard gelatin capsules based on the optimized capacitance sensor and real-time processing of the capsule capacitance profile resulting from 5000 capacitance measurements per second. First, the effect of the shape and size of the capacitive sensor on the sensitivity and stability of the measurements was investigated in order to optimize the performance of the system. The method was tested on two types of hard gelatin capsules weighing from 50 mg to 650 mg. The results showed that the capacitance profile was exceptionally well correlated with the capsule weight with the correlation coefficient exceeding 0.999. The mean precision of the measurements was in the range from 1 mg to 3 mg, depending on the size of the capsule and was significantly lower than the 5% weight tolerances usually used by the pharmaceutical industry. Therefore, the method was found feasible for weighing pharmaceutical hard gelatin capsules as long as certain conditions are met regarding the capsule fill properties and environment stability. The proposed measurement system can be calibrated by using only two or three sets of capsules with known weight. However, for most applications it is sufficient to use only empty and nominally filled capsules for calibration. Finally, a practical application of the proposed method showed that a single system is capable of weighing around 75 000 capsules per hour, while using multiple systems could easily increase the inspection rate to meet almost any requirements

  2. A Practical Probabilistic Graphical Modeling Tool for Weighing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past weight-of-evidence frameworks for adverse ecological effects have provided soft-scoring procedures for judgments based on the quality and measured attributes of evidence. Here, we provide a flexible probabilistic structure for weighing and integrating lines of evidence for ecological risk determinations. Probabilistic approaches can provide both a quantitative weighing of lines of evidence and methods for evaluating risk and uncertainty. The current modeling structure wasdeveloped for propagating uncertainties in measured endpoints and their influence on the plausibility of adverse effects. To illustrate the approach, we apply the model framework to the sediment quality triad using example lines of evidence for sediment chemistry measurements, bioassay results, and in situ infauna diversity of benthic communities using a simplified hypothetical case study. We then combine the three lines evidence and evaluate sensitivity to the input parameters, and show how uncertainties are propagated and how additional information can be incorporated to rapidly update the probability of impacts. The developed network model can be expanded to accommodate additional lines of evidence, variables and states of importance, and different types of uncertainties in the lines of evidence including spatial and temporal as well as measurement errors. We provide a flexible Bayesian network structure for weighing and integrating lines of evidence for ecological risk determinations

  3. Influence of the weighing bar size to determine optimal time of biodiesel-glycerol separation by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambun, R.; Sibagariang, Y.; Manurung, J.

    2018-02-01

    The buoyancy weighing-bar method is a novel method in the particle size distribution measurement. This method can measure particle size distributions of the settling particles and floating particles. In this study, the buoyancy weighing-bar method is applied to determine optimal time of biodiesel-glycerol separation. The buoyancy weighing-bar method can be applied to determine the separation time because biodiesel and glycerol have the different densities. The influences of diameter of weighing-bar by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method would be experimentally investigated. The diameters of weighing-bar in this experiment are 8 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm, while the graduated cylinder (diameter : 65 mm) is used as vessel. The samples used in this experiment are the mixture of 95 % of biodiesel and 5 % of glycerol. The data obtained by the buoyancy weighing-bar method are analized by using the gas chromatography to determine the purity of biodiesel. Based on the data obtained, the buoyancy weighing-bar method can be used to detect the separation time of biodiesel-glycerol by using the weighing-bar diameter of 8 mm, 10 mm, 15 mm and 20 mm, but the most accuracy in determination the biodiesel-glycerol separation time is obtained by using the weighing-bar diameter of 20 mm. The biodiesel purity of 97.97 % could be detected at 64 minutes by using the buoyancy weighing-bar method when the weighing-bar diameter of 20 mm is used.

  4. 40 CFR 92.110 - Weighing chamber and micro-balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weighing chamber and micro-balance. 92... Weighing chamber and micro-balance. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The temperature of the chamber... shall be 45±8 percent during all filter conditioning and weighing. The dew point shall be 6.4 to 12.4 °C...

  5. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase, sale...

  6. Weighing and Body Monitoring among College Women: The Scale Number as an Emotional Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Awad, Germine H.; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Coker, Angela D.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Connelly, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated weighing and body-monitoring behaviors, as well as psychological and behavioral reactions to weighing, among female college students. Weighing and body monitoring were engaged in by the majority of participants. Participants changed food intake and exercise based on weight. About 63% reported that the scale number impacts…

  7. 7 CFR 800.97 - Weighing grain in containers, land carriers, barges, and shiplots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weighing grain in containers, land carriers, barges... (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Weighing Provisions and Procedures § 800.97 Weighing grain in...

  8. Weighing the evidence of common beliefs in obesity research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is a topic on which many views are strongly held in the absence of scientific evidence to support those views, and some views are strongly held despite evidence to contradict those views. We refer to the former as "presumptions" and the latter as "myths". Here we present nine myths...... and ten presumptions surrounding the effects of rapid weight loss; setting realistic goals in weight loss therapy; stage of change or readiness to lose weight; physical education classes; breast-feeding; daily self-weighing; genetic contribution to obesity; the "Freshman 15"; food deserts; regularly...

  9. ALICE: structures weighing several tonnes are moved with millimetric precision

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration has just conducted one of its most spectacular transport operations to date in lifting the dipole of the muon spectrometer and reassembling it on the other side of the huge solenoid magnet. This incredible feat involved lifting no fewer than 900 tonnes of equipment over the red octagonal yoke inherited from the L3 experiment at a height of 18 metres. Following initial assembly and successful testing at the end of last year (see Bulletin No. 4/2005), the dipole was completely dismantled and moved to the other end of the cavern. The yoke was transported as 28 modules, each weighing 30 tonnes. The most spectacular feat of all, though, was undoubtedly the removal of the two 32-tonne coils. The first of these was moved on 18 April, as recorded in the following photos: A special lifting gantry weighing 5 tonnes had to be developed to move and install the coils. Huge clamps, which can be seen at the front, were used to rotate these enormous 32-tonne components. The whole assembly was raised ...

  10. Heart rate detection from an electronic weighing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Landaeta, R; Casas, O; Pallàs-Areny, R

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel technique for beat-to-beat heart rate detection based on the ballistocardiographic (BCG) force signal from a subject standing on a common electronic weighing scale. The detection relies on sensing force variations related to the blood acceleration in the aorta, works even if wearing footwear and does not require any sensors attached to the body because it uses the load cells in the scale. We have devised an approach to estimate the sensitivity and frequency response of three commercial weighing scales to assess their capability to detect the BCG force signal. Static sensitivities ranged from 490 nV V −1 N −1 to 1670 nV V −1 N −1 . The frequency response depended on the subject's mass but it was broad enough for heart rate estimation. We have designed an electronic pulse detection system based on off-the-shelf integrated circuits to sense heart-beat-related force variations of about 0.24 N. The signal-to-noise ratio of the main peaks of the force signal detected was higher than 30 dB. A Bland–Altman plot was used to compare the RR time intervals estimated from the ECG and BCG force signals for 17 volunteers. The error was ±21 ms, which makes the proposed technique suitable for short-term monitoring of the heart rate

  11. Static Scale Conversion Weigh-In-Motion System; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshears, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    In support of the Air Mobility Battle Lab (AMBL), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Advanced Logistics Program and the U. S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), the ultimate objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a full-scale prototype static scale conversion weigh-in-motion/Profilometry (SSC-WIM/P) system to measure and record dimensional and weight information for the Department of Defense (DoD) equipment and cargo. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), along with the AMBL, and Intercomp, Inc. have developed a long-range plan for developing a dual-use system which can be used as a standard static scale or an accurate weigh-in-motion system. AMBL will work to define requirements for additional activities with U.S. Transportation Command, Air Mobility Command, and the Joint Warfighting Battle Lab for both the SSC-WIM/P and a portable Weigh-in-Motion System for individual units. The funding goal is to fully fund the development of two prototype test articles (a SSC-WIM kit, and a laser profilometer) and have at least one fully operational system by the early 2002 timeframe. The objective of this portion of the project will be to develop a SSC-WIM system, which at a later date can be fully integrated with a profilometry system; to fully characterize DOD wheeled vehicles and cargo (individual axle weights, total vehicle weight, center of balance, height, width and length measurements). The program will be completed in phases with the initial AMBL/DARPA funding being used to initiate the efforts while AMBL/USTC obtains funding to complete the first generation system effort. At the completion of an initial effort, the interface hardware and the data acquisition/analysis hardware will be developed, fabricated, and system principles and basic functionality evaluated, tested, and demonstrated. Additional funding, when made available, will allow the successful completion of a first generation prototype system. This effort will be

  12. Design of a nucleonic conveyor belt weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.; Sunder Singh, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    A brief literature survey of the existing conventional units and the nucleonic belt weigher is made. The design of a 250 ton per hour coal weighing unit working in conjunction with a 24 inch wide belt, running at 350 feet per minute has been attempted and a unit has been built to the above specifications. Caseium-137 line source has been used as an isotope and a 10 litre volume argon filled ionisation chamber has been used as a detector. A line source has been preferred to a point source. The unit is under trial and the accuracy of the same is being evaluated by changing the variables like particle size profile of the material deposited on the belt and sudden changes in loading. Initial trials indicate that an accuracy of +- 1 p.c. can be achieved. (auth.)

  13. Hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighing with automated liquid surface positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Jesus; Wright, John D; Bean, Vern E

    2008-01-01

    We describe an automated apparatus for calibrating hydrometers by hydrostatic weighing (Cuckow's method) in tridecane, a liquid of known, stable density, and with a relatively low surface tension and contact angle against glass. The apparatus uses a laser light sheet and a laser power meter to position the tridecane surface at the hydrometer scale mark to be calibrated with an uncertainty of 0.08 mm. The calibration results have an expanded uncertainty (with a coverage factor of 2) of 100 parts in 10 6 or less of the liquid density. We validated the apparatus by comparisons using water, toluene, tridecane and trichloroethylene, and found agreement within 40 parts in 10 6 or less. The new calibration method is consistent with earlier, manual calibrations performed by NIST. When customers use calibrated hydrometers, they may encounter uncertainties of 370 parts in 10 6 or larger due to surface tension, contact angle and temperature effects

  14. Hydrometer calibration by hydrostatic weighing with automated liquid surface positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Jesus; Wright, John D.; Bean, Vern E.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an automated apparatus for calibrating hydrometers by hydrostatic weighing (Cuckow's method) in tridecane, a liquid of known, stable density, and with a relatively low surface tension and contact angle against glass. The apparatus uses a laser light sheet and a laser power meter to position the tridecane surface at the hydrometer scale mark to be calibrated with an uncertainty of 0.08 mm. The calibration results have an expanded uncertainty (with a coverage factor of 2) of 100 parts in 106 or less of the liquid density. We validated the apparatus by comparisons using water, toluene, tridecane and trichloroethylene, and found agreement within 40 parts in 106 or less. The new calibration method is consistent with earlier, manual calibrations performed by NIST. When customers use calibrated hydrometers, they may encounter uncertainties of 370 parts in 106 or larger due to surface tension, contact angle and temperature effects.

  15. Load-cell-based weighing system for weighing 9.1- and 12.7-tonne UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, W.A.; Kane, W.R.

    1986-01-01

    For the independent verification of UF 6 cylinder masses by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at uranium enrichment facilities, an 18-tonne capacity Load-Cell-Based Weighing System (LCBWS) has been developed. The system was developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant and calibrated at the US National Bureau of Standards. The principal components of the LCBWS are two load cells, with readout and ancillary equipment, and a lifting fixture that couples the load cells to a cylinder. Initial experience with the system demonstrates that it has the advantages of transportability, ease of application, stability, and an attainable accuracy of 2 kg or better for a full cylinder

  16. 40 CFR 1065.590 - PM sampling media (e.g., filters) preconditioning and tare weighing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., as follows: (1) For automatic weighing, follow the automation system manufacturer's instructions to..., covered or sealed container before removing them from the stabilization environment for transport to the...

  17. Weighing Evidence "Steampunk" Style via the Meta-Analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jack; Jackson, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The funnel plot is a graphical visualization of summary data estimates from a meta-analysis, and is a useful tool for detecting departures from the standard modeling assumptions. Although perhaps not widely appreciated, a simple extension of the funnel plot can help to facilitate an intuitive interpretation of the mathematics underlying a meta-analysis at a more fundamental level, by equating it to determining the center of mass of a physical system. We used this analogy to explain the concepts of weighing evidence and of biased evidence to a young audience at the Cambridge Science Festival, without recourse to precise definitions or statistical formulas and with a little help from Sherlock Holmes! Following on from the science fair, we have developed an interactive web-application (named the Meta-Analyser) to bring these ideas to a wider audience. We envisage that our application will be a useful tool for researchers when interpreting their data. First, to facilitate a simple understanding of fixed and random effects modeling approaches; second, to assess the importance of outliers; and third, to show the impact of adjusting for small study bias. This final aim is realized by introducing a novel graphical interpretation of the well-known method of Egger regression.

  18. Weighing the Evidence of Common Beliefs in Obesity Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne; Bertz, Fredrik; Baum, Charles; Brown, Michelle Bohan; Dawson, John; Durant, Nefertiti; Dutton, Gareth; Fields, David A; Fontaine, Kevin R; Heymsfield, Steven; Levitsky, David; Mehta, Tapan; Menachemi, Nir; Newby, P K; Pate, Russell; Raynor, Hollie; Rolls, Barbara J; Sen, Bisakha; Smith, Daniel L; Thomas, Diana; Wansink, Brian; Allison, David B

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a topic on which many views are strongly held in the absence of scientific evidence to support those views, and some views are strongly held despite evidence to contradict those views. We refer to the former as "presumptions" and the latter as "myths." Here, we present nine myths and 10 presumptions surrounding the effects of rapid weight loss; setting realistic goals in weight loss therapy; stage of change or readiness to lose weight; physical education classes; breastfeeding; daily self-weighing; genetic contribution to obesity; the "Freshman 15"; food deserts; regularly eating (versus skipping) breakfast; eating close to bedtime; eating more fruits and vegetables; weight cycling (i.e., yo-yo dieting); snacking; built environment; reducing screen time in childhood obesity; portion size; participation in family mealtime; and drinking water as a means of weight loss. For each of these, we describe the belief and present evidence that the belief is widely held or stated, reasons to support the conjecture that the belief might be true, evidence to directly support or refute the belief, and findings from randomized controlled trials, if available. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of these determinations, conjecture on why so many myths and presumptions exist, and suggestions for limiting the spread of these and other unsubstantiated beliefs about the obesity domain.

  19. The Impact of Regular Self-weighing on Weight Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welsh Ericka M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular self-weighing has been a focus of attention recently in the obesity literature. It has received conflicting endorsement in that some researchers and practitioners recommend it as a key behavioral strategy for weight management, while others caution against its use due to its potential to cause negative psychological consequences associated with weight management failure. The evidence on frequent self-weighing, however, has not yet been synthesized. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence regarding the use of regular self-weighing for both weight loss and weight maintenance. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO online databases. Reviewed studies were broken down by sample characteristics, predictors/conditions, dependent measures, findings, and evidence grade. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, but nearly half received low evidence grades in terms of methodological quality. Findings from 11 of the 12 reviewed studies indicated that more frequent self-weighing was associated with greater weight loss or weight gain prevention. Specifically, individuals who reported self-weighing weekly or daily, typically over a period of several months, held a 1 to 3 kg/m2 (current advantage over individuals who did not self-weigh frequently. The effects of self-weighing in experimental studies, especially those where self-weighing behaviors could be isolated, were less clear. Conclusion Based on the consistency of the evidence reviewed, frequent self-weighing, at the very least, seems to be a good predictor of moderate weight loss, less weight regain, or the avoidance of initial weight gain in adults. More targeted research is needed in this area to determine the causal role of frequent self-weighing in weight loss/weight gain prevention programs. Other open questions to be pursued include the optimal dose of self-weighing, as well as the

  20. Continuous weighing of conveyor-transported materials based on gamma radiation conversion to electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principle is described of the continuous weighing of conveyer-transported materials applied in the food industry. The weighing technique is based on the measurement of the absorption of gamma radiation emitted by a source located behind the material to be scaled. (Z.M.)

  1. Analysis of weighing cells based on the principle of electromagnetic force compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marangoni, Rafael R; Rahneberg, Ilko; Fröhlich, Thomas; Hilbrunner, Falko; Theska, René

    2017-01-01

    An analytical model that considers the static behaviour of weighing cells based on the principle of electromagnetic force compensation (EMFC) is presented. With this model, adjustment strategies for the stiffness and tilt sensitivity of EMFC weighing cells are derived. These parameters are known as limiting factors for the achievable sensitivity and measurement uncertainty respectively. In order to obtain the analytical equations of the system, linear and rigid-body behaviour is assumed. The results obtained with the model are compared with results from multi-body simulations. It is shown that, for the considered model, an optimum design that eliminates the tilt sensitivity of the weighing cell while minimizing its stiffness exists. (paper)

  2. Portable load-cell based system for weighing UF6 cylinders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainberg, A.; Gordon, D.; Dermendjiev, E.; Terrey, D.; Mitchell, R.

    1982-01-01

    A load-cell-based portable weighing system which is capable of verifying the weights of 2.2 tonne 30-inch UF 6 cylinders has been developed by the US National Bureau of Standards (NBS). This system weighs about 13 kg and has an attainable accuracy of about 1 kg. After an initial calibration at NBS, the system is ready for use in the field. Approximately 5 to 10 minutes are needed for assembly, and, if an overhead crane has access to all cylinders to be weighed, from 10 to 15 weighings may be performed in one hour. During the past year the system has been tested at several facilities around the world with satisfactory results and with favorable comments from the facility operators. Results of several tests are presented in this paper

  3. Weigh-in-Motion Sensor and Controller Operation and Performance Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This research project utilized statistical inference and comparison techniques to compare the performance of different Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) sensors. First, we analyzed test-vehicle data to perform an accuracy check of the results reported by the sen...

  4. Low-cost, distributed, sensor-based weigh-in-motion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    Monitoring truck weights is essential for traffic operations, roadway design, traffic safety, and regulations. : Traditional roadside static truck weighing stations have many operational shortcomings, and so there have : been ongoing efforts to devel...

  5. 40 CFR 86.1339-90 - Particulate filter handling and weighing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... humidity exchange) petri dish and place in a weighing chamber meeting the specifications of § 86.1312 for...

  6. Portable bench tester for piezo weigh-in-motion equipment : final report, June 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation's (ODOT) piezo weigh-in-motion (WIM) equipment must be tested for initial working operation and to insure continued correct operation. Currently, the only available method to verify the vehicle classification par...

  7. Portable bench tester for piezo weigh-in-motion equipment : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    The Ohio Department of Transportation's (ODOT) piezo weigh-in-motion (WIM) equipment must be tested for initial working operation and to insure continued correct operation. Currently, the only available method to verify the vehicle classification par...

  8. Wind-powered electrical systems : highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This project considered the use of wind for providing electrical power at Illinois Department of Transportation : (IDOT) highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings. The goal of the project was to determine : the extent to which wi...

  9. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... the weigher. (b) Poultry. When live poultry is weighed for the purpose of purchase, sale, acquisition...

  10. Statistical analysis of nuclear material weighing systems at the Oak Ridge - Y-12 plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, A.H.

    1980-04-01

    The variation in weight measurements on the electronic scales purchased for the Dynamic Special Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability System (DYMCAS) has been characterized and estimated to be more than is acceptable when using the current weighing methods. New weighing procedures have been developed which substantially reduce this variation and bring the weight errors within the Y-12 Plant Nuclear Materials Control and Accountability Department's desired +- 2-g accuracy

  11. Clinician’s Attitudes to the Introduction of Routine Weighing in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Hasted

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Excessive gestational weight gain poses significant short- and long-term health risks to both mother and baby. Professional bodies and health services increasingly recommend greater attention be paid to weight gain in pregnancy. A large Australian tertiary maternity hospital plans to facilitate the (reintroduction of routine weighing of all women at every antenatal visit. Objective. To identify clinicians’ perspectives of barriers and enablers to routinely weighing pregnant women and variations in current practice, knowledge, and attitudes between different staff groups. Method. Forty-four maternity staff from three professional groups were interviewed in four focus groups. Staff included midwives; medical staff; and dietitians. Transcripts underwent qualitative content analysis to identify and examine barriers and enablers to the routine weighing of women throughout pregnancy. Results. While most staff supported routine weighing, various concerns were raised. Issues included access to resources and staff; the ability to provide appropriate counselling and evidence-based interventions; and the impact of weighing on patients and the therapeutic relationship. Conclusion. Many clinicians supported the practice of routine weighing in pregnancy, but barriers were also identified. Implementation strategies will be tailored to the discrete professional groups and will address identified gaps in knowledge, resources, and clinician skills and confidence.

  12. Evidence Based Weighing Policy during the First Week to Prevent Neonatal Hypernatremic Dehydration while Breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Suzanne; Unal, Sevim; van Wouwe, Jacobus P; van Dommelen, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypernatremic dehydration is prevented by daily neonatal weight monitoring. We aim to provide evidence-based support of this universally promoted weighing policy and to establish the most crucial days of weighing. Weight measurements of 2,359 healthy newborns and of 271 newborns with clinical hypernatremic dehydration were used within the first seven days of life to simulate various weighting policies to prevent hypernatremic dehydration; its sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of these policies were calculated. Various referral criteria were also evaluated. A policy of daily weighing with a cut-off value of -2.5 Standard Deviation Score (SDS) on the growth chart for weight loss, had a 97.6% sensitivity, 97.6% specificity and a PPV of 2.80%. Weighing at birth and only at days two, four and seven with the same -2.5 SDS cut-off, resulted in 97.3% sensitivity, 98.5% specificity and a PPV of 4.43%. A weighing policy with measurements restricted to birth and day two, four and seven applying the -2.5 SDS cut-off seems an optimal policy to detect hypernatremic dehydration. Therefore we recommend to preferably weigh newborns at least on day two (i.e. ~48h), four and seven, and refer them to clinical pediatric care if their weight loss increases below -2.5 SDS. We also suggest lactation support for the mother, full clinical assessment of the infant and weighing again the following day in all newborns reaching a weight loss below -2.0 SDS.

  13. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signal processing method based on the model is presented to overcome effects of rubber mechanical properties on the dynamic weight signal. The results showed that the measurement error is less than ���±10%. All the theoretic analysis and numerical results demonstrated that appliance of this system to weigh in motion is feasible and convenient for traffic inspection.

  14. Potential Utilization of Automatic Cows Weighing for Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Condition of Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight of cows affects a large number of factors. Regular weighing and data processing can detect differences that may indicate disorders requiring nursing interventions, e.g. nutritional deficiencies, incorrect fetal development and health problems. The current weighing systems operate as stationary - the animal is fixed, identified and weighed. However, the procedure is time consuming and operation, and that is way this system is used minimally. That implies the need of complete automation of all activities associated with the weighing, which enables introduction of pass – through weight. The aim of this thesis was to develop a methodology for evaluating health and nutritional status of the herd based on data from an automated system for weighing a live weight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtain weight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already drying off, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes were established after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifested only ketosis in the weight curve with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. Additionally, the completion of growth during the first 2 periodes of lactations and weight gain due to advanced pregnancy were confirmed. The maximum daily weight difference recorded in healthy animals was 7 %, equivalent to 40 - 45 kg. The results of the study will be applied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding, monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  15. Statistical analysis of vehicle loads measured with three different vehicle weighing devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhize, ZQP

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available MEASURED WITH THREE DIFFERENT VEHICLE WEIGHING DEVICES Z Q P MKHIZE and M DE BEER CSIR Transportek, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 ABSTRACT This study introduces a new scale for weighing individual tyres of slow moving vehicles. The new technology... that vehicles exert on pavements plays a vital part in the deterioration of the structural and functional capacity of the road. It also influences the safety of the vehicles, especially when vehicles are operated under overloaded and/or inappropriately loaded...

  16. The Bohr--Einstein ''weighing-of-energy'' debate and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Bohr--Einstein debate over the ''weighing of energy'' and the validity of the time--energy uncertainty relation is reexamined in the context of gravitation theories that do not respect the equivalence principle. Bohr's use of the equivalence principle is shown to be sufficient, but not necessary, to establish the validity of this uncertainty relation in Einstein's ''weighing-of-energy'' gedanken experiment. The uncertainty relation is shown to hold in any energy-conserving theory of gravity, and so a failure of the equivalence principle does not engender a failure of quantum mechanics. The relationship between the gravitational redshift and the equivalence principle is reviewed

  17. FFTF [Fast Flux Test Facility]/IEM [Interim Examination and Maintenance] Cell Fuel Pin Weighing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1987-09-01

    A Fuel Pin Weighing Machine has been developed for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell to assist in identifying an individual breached fuel pin from its fuel assembly pin bundle. A weighing machine, originally purchased for use in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford, was used as the basis for the IEM Cell system. Design modifications to the original equipment were centered around: 1) adapting the FMEF machine for use in the IEM Cell and 2) correcting operational deficiencies discovered during functional testing in the IEM Cell Mockup

  18. A Practical Probabilistic Graphical Modeling Tool for Weighing Ecological Risk-Based Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Past weight-of-evidence frameworks for adverse ecological effects have provided soft-scoring procedures for judgments based on the quality and measured attributes of evidence. Here, we provide a flexible probabilistic structure for weighing and integrating lines of evidence for e...

  19. Testing and development of transfer functions for weighing precipitation gauges in WMO-SPICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kochendorfer

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Weighing precipitation gauges are used widely for the measurement of all forms of precipitation, and are typically more accurate than tipping-bucket precipitation gauges. This is especially true for the measurement of solid precipitation; however, weighing precipitation gauge measurements must still be adjusted for undercatch in snowy, windy conditions. In WMO-SPICE (World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation InterComparison Experiment, different types of weighing precipitation gauges and shields were compared, and adjustments were determined for the undercatch of solid precipitation caused by wind. For the various combinations of gauges and shields, adjustments using both new and previously existing transfer functions were evaluated. For most of the gauge and shield combinations, previously derived transfer functions were found to perform as well as those more recently derived. This indicates that wind shield type (or lack thereof is more important in determining the magnitude of wind-induced undercatch than the type of weighing precipitation gauge. It also demonstrates the potential for widespread use of the previously developed transfer functions. Another overarching result was that, in general, the more effective shields, which were associated with smaller unadjusted errors, also produced more accurate measurements after adjustment. This indicates that although transfer functions can effectively reduce measurement biases, effective wind shielding is still required for the most accurate measurement of solid precipitation.

  20. A Dual-Range Strain Gage Weighing Transducer Employing Automatic Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger A. Arola

    1968-01-01

    Describes a dual-range strain gage transducer which has proven to be an excellent weight-sensing device for weighing trees and tree-length logs; discusses basic principals of the design and operation; and shows that a single transducer having two sensitivity ranges with automatic internal switching can sense weight with good repeatability and that one calibration curve...

  1. "Sorpvej" for Sorption Curves - A Windows Program for collecting Weighing Data and determining Equilibrium State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømdahl, Kenneth; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1998-01-01

    The Windows program SORPVEJ collects weighing data from the balance and plots points on the sorption curve. The features of the program are: All data are transmitted automatically from the balance to the computer. Each point on the curve (upper right inset)is an original measurement and every time...

  2. 76 FR 45397 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...-AB18 Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers... permanent a waiver due to expire on July 31, 2012, for high quality specialty grain exported in containers... of high quality specialty grain exported in containers are small entities that up until recently...

  3. 78 FR 2627 - Fees for Official Inspection and Official Weighing Services Under the United States Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... authority to charge and collect reasonable fees to cover the cost of performing official services. These fees also cover the costs associated with managing the program. After a financial review of GIPSA's Fees for Official Inspection and Weighing Services, including a comparison of the costs and revenues...

  4. 78 FR 22151 - Fees for Official Inspection and Official Weighing Services Under the United States Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... Inspection Service (FGIS) with the authority to charge and collect reasonable fees to cover the cost of performing official services. The fees also cover the costs associated with managing the program. After a... associated administrative and supervisory costs. The fees for official inspection and weighing services were...

  5. Testing and development of transfer functions for weighing precipitation gauges in WMO-SPICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochendorfer, John; Nitu, Rodica; Wolff, Mareile; Mekis, Eva; Rasmussen, Roy; Baker, Bruce; Earle, Michael E.; Reverdin, Audrey; Wong, Kai; Smith, Craig D.; Yang, Daqing; Roulet, Yves-Alain; Meyers, Tilden; Buisan, Samuel; Isaksen, Ketil; Brækkan, Ragnar; Landolt, Scott; Jachcik, Al

    2018-02-01

    Weighing precipitation gauges are used widely for the measurement of all forms of precipitation, and are typically more accurate than tipping-bucket precipitation gauges. This is especially true for the measurement of solid precipitation; however, weighing precipitation gauge measurements must still be adjusted for undercatch in snowy, windy conditions. In WMO-SPICE (World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation InterComparison Experiment), different types of weighing precipitation gauges and shields were compared, and adjustments were determined for the undercatch of solid precipitation caused by wind. For the various combinations of gauges and shields, adjustments using both new and previously existing transfer functions were evaluated. For most of the gauge and shield combinations, previously derived transfer functions were found to perform as well as those more recently derived. This indicates that wind shield type (or lack thereof) is more important in determining the magnitude of wind-induced undercatch than the type of weighing precipitation gauge. It also demonstrates the potential for widespread use of the previously developed transfer functions. Another overarching result was that, in general, the more effective shields, which were associated with smaller unadjusted errors, also produced more accurate measurements after adjustment. This indicates that although transfer functions can effectively reduce measurement biases, effective wind shielding is still required for the most accurate measurement of solid precipitation.

  6. Chronic hemodialysis in children weighing less than 10 kg.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) in infants is usually used when peritoneal dialysis (PD) has failed. We describe our experience with HD, outlining the morbidity, complications, and outcomes for infants weighing less than 10 kg managed with HD for more than 6 months over a 10-year period.

  7. 75 FR 76254 - Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 802 [Docket GIPSA-2010-FGIS-0012] RIN 0580-AB19 Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain Handling Systems AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards...

  8. 7 CFR 800.17 - Special inspection and weighing requirements for sacked export grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sacked export grain. 800.17 Section 800.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE... Requirements § 800.17 Special inspection and weighing requirements for sacked export grain. (a) General...

  9. Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing (Workshop Summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Robertson, K.; Woes-Gallasch, S.; Schlamadinger, B.

    2006-01-01

    A workshop entitled ‘Greenhouse gas credits trade versus biomass trade – weighing the benefits’, jointly organised by IEA Bioenergy Tasks 38 (GHG Balances of Biomass and Bioenergy Systems) and 40 (Sustainable International Bioenergy Trade: Securing Supply and Demand), and ENOVA, took place in

  10. 21 CFR 864.9195 - Blood mixing devices and blood weighing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood mixing devices and blood weighing devices. 864.9195 Section 864.9195 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.595 - PM sample post-conditioning and total weighing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minutes before weighing. Note that 400 µg on sample media (e.g., filters) is an approximate net mass of 0... the procedures in § 1065.590(f) through (i) to determine post-test mass of the sample media (e.g., filters). (g) Subtract each buoyancy-corrected tare mass of the sample medium (e.g., filter) from its...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Successive mass determinations of each reference PM sample media (e.g., filter) must return the same value... individual test media (e.g., filter) mass readings occurring between the successive reference media (e.g., filter) mass determinations. You may reweigh these media (e.g., filter) in another weighing session. If...

  13. 7 CFR 27.10 - Supervision of cotton inspection, weighing, sampling; and other duties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of cotton inspection, weighing, sampling; and other duties. 27.10 Section 27.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER...

  14. Weighing Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William J.; Jimerson, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    The Umbridge School District's hot lunch program was hemorrhaging red ink. Each year, the school district poured more money down the sinkhole. At the same time, parents complained about the quality of the school lunches. The food services director always had excuses and nothing really changed. When no headway was evident, the superintendent said…

  15. Weighing waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. Duncan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available People have been shown to delay decision making to wait for missing noninstrumental attribute information --- information that would not have altered their decision if known at the outset --- with this delay originally attributed to uncertainty obscuring one's true preference (Bastardi and Shafir, 1998. To test this account, relative to an alternative that delay arises from low confidence in one's preference (Tykocinski and Ruffle, 2003, we manipulated information certainty and the magnitude of a penalty for delay, the latter intended to reduce the influence of easily resolved sources of delay and to magnify any influence of uncertainty. Contrary to expectations, the results were largely inconsistent with the uncertainty account in that, under a low penalty, delay did not depend on information certainty; and, under a high penalty, delay rate was actually much lower when information was uncertain. To explain the latter, we propose that people use a strategy for resolving choice under uncertainty that does not require establishing a confident preference for each value of the missing information. These findings are related to others in which choice difficulty has been found to be a major source of delay.

  16. Overestimation of infant and toddler energy intake by 24-h recall compared with weighed food records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Jennifer O; Butte, Nancy F; Mendoza, Patricia M; Wilson, Theresa A; Hodges, Eric A; Reidy, Kathleen C; Deming, Denise

    2008-08-01

    Twenty-four-hour dietary recalls have been used in large surveys of infant and toddler energy intake, but the accuracy of the method for young children is not well documented. We aimed to determine the accuracy of infant and toddler energy intakes by a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-h recall as compared with 3-d weighed food records. A within-subjects design was used in which a 24-h recall and 3-d weighed food records were completed within 2 wk by 157 mothers (56 non-Hispanic white, 51 non-Hispanic black, and 50 Hispanic) of 7-11-mo-old infants or 12-24-mo-old toddlers. Child and caregiver anthropometrics, child eating patterns, and caregiver demographics and social desirability were evaluated as correlates of reporting bias. Intakes based on 3-d weighed food records were within 5% of estimated energy requirements. Compared with the 3-d weighed food records, the 24-h recall overestimated energy intake by 13% among infants (740 +/- 154 and 833 +/- 255 kcal, respectively) and by 29% among toddlers (885 +/- 197 and 1140 +/- 299 kcal, respectively). Eating patterns (ie, frequency and location) did not differ appreciably between methods. Macronutrient and micronutrient intakes were higher by 24-h recall than by 3-d weighed food record. Dairy and grains contributed the most energy to the diet and accounted for 74% and 54% of the overestimation seen in infants and toddlers, respectively. Greater overestimation was associated with a greater number of food items reported by the caregiver and lower child weight-for-length z scores. The use of a single, telephone-administered, multiple-pass 24-h recall may significantly overestimate infant or toddler energy and nutrient intakes because of portion size estimation errors.

  17. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorite, I. J.; Santos, C.; Testi, L.; Fereres, E.

    2012-11-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm “Alameda del Obispo” in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ETc). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of the construction of the weighing lysimeter is provided in detail, including considerations relative to system resolution and wind effects on the measurements. Finally, some preliminary results of the evaporation and transpiration of young almond trees are presented demonstrating that lysimetry in orchards provides accurate ETc values needed to determine irrigation water requirements. (Author) 72 refs.

  18. A Weighing Algorithm for Checking Missing Components in a Pharmaceutical Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvestri

    2014-11-01

    image. The goal of the present work is the development of an algorithm able to optimize the production line of a pharmaceutical firm. In particular, the proposed weighing procedure allows both checking missing components in packaging and minimizing false rejects of packages by dynamic scales. The main problem is the presence at the same time, in the same package, of different components with different variable weights. The consequence is uncertainty in recognizing the absence of one or more components.

  19. Pulmonary diseases of the infants weighing under 1500 grams at birth: clinical and radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Park, Jeong Mi; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Since the introduction of the intensive perinatal care, the survival rate of the infants weighing less than 1500 gm at birth has improved substantially. However, pulmonary diseases remain to be the major causes of the high mortality of these low birthweight infants. In order to systematically assess an epidemiologic distribution of the pulmonary diseases in these very low weight prematures, we have analyzed the chest x-rays of 102 infants weighing less than 1500 gm. These consisted of 30 with extreme low birth weight (ELBW) weighing less than 1000 gm and 72 with very low birth weight (VLBW) weighing 1001 - 1500 gm. The survival rate of ELBW and VLBW was 10% and 49%, respectively. Seventy of 102 infants had abnormal findings in the chest x-ray. Forty-eight had idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), 8 immature lung, 6 Wilson-Mikity syndrome, 4 pneumonia, 2 pulmonary hemorrhage, 1 congenital heart disease, and 1 suspicious Pierre-Robin syndrome. Seven out of 48 infants with IRDS had persistent ductus arteriosus, and in only 2(30%) of 7 cases were alive. Endotracheal intubation and assisted ventilation application for the treatment of IRDS resulted in pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 4 infants and pneumothorax and / or pneumomediastinum in 4 infants. Displacement of endotracheal intubation showed lobar and / or unilateral lung atelectasis in 8 infants and a case of accidental dislodgement of intubation tube into the esophagus resulted in air esophagogram and worsened lung aeration. In spite of the development of many sophisticated methods of diagnostic radiology, the chest x-ray was still the most valuable yet simple way of evaluating the pulmonary problems in these extreme and very low birth weight prematures

  20. Probability Based Evaluation of Vehicular Bridge Load using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    OpenAIRE

    Widi Nugraha; Indra Djati Sidi

    2016-01-01

    Load and Resistance Factored Design (LRFD) method for designing bridge in Indonesia have been implemented for more than 25 years. LRFD method treating loads and strengths variables as random variables with specific safety factors for different loads and strengths variables type. The nominal loads, load factors, reduction factors, and other criteria for bridge design code can be determined to meet the reliability criteria. Statistical data of weigh-in-motion (WIM) vehicular loads measurement i...

  1. Weighing in motion and characterization of the railroad traffic with using the B-WIM technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. DE CARVALHO NETO

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge on the active moving load of a bridge is crucial for the achievement of the information on the behavior of the structure, and thus foresee maintenance, repairs and better definition of the logistics of its active vehicles. This paper presents the development of the algorithms for the application of the Bridge-Weigh In Motion (B-WIM method created by Moses for the weighing of trains during motion and also for the characterization of the rail traffic, allowing the obtainment of information like passage's train velocity and number and spacing of axles, eliminating the dynamic effect. There were implemented algorithms for the determination of the data referring to the geometry of the train and its loads, which were evaluated using a theoretical example, in which it was simulated the passage of the train over a bridge and the loads of its axles were determined with one hundred percent of precision. In addition, it was made a numerical example in finite elements of a reinforced concrete viaduct from the Carajás' Railroad, in which the developed system reached great results on the characterization and weighing of the locomotive when the constitutive equation of the Brazilian Standards was substituted by the one proposed by Collins and Mitchell.

  2. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qili [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Shirinzadeh, Bijan [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Cui, Maosheng [Biotechnology Lab of Animal Reproduction, Tianjin Animal Sciences, Tianjin 300112 (China); Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin, E-mail: zhaoxin@nankai.edu.cn [Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-07-28

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10{sup −15 }kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections.

  3. Weighing Efficiency-Robustness in Supply Chain Disruption by Multi-Objective Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates various supply chain disruptions in terms of scenario planning, including node disruption and chain disruption; namely, disruptions in distribution centers and disruptions between manufacturing centers and distribution centers. Meanwhile, it also focuses on the simultaneous disruption on one node or a number of nodes, simultaneous disruption in one chain or a number of chains and the corresponding mathematical models and exemplification in relation to numerous manufacturing centers and diverse products. Robustness of the design of the supply chain network is examined by weighing efficiency against robustness during supply chain disruptions. Efficiency is represented by operating cost; robustness is indicated by the expected disruption cost and the weighing issue is calculated by the multi-objective firefly algorithm for consistency in the results. It has been shown that the total cost achieved by the optimal target function is lower than that at the most effective time of supply chains. In other words, the decrease of expected disruption cost by improving robustness in supply chains is greater than the increase of operating cost by reducing efficiency, thus leading to cost advantage. Consequently, by approximating the Pareto Front Chart of weighing between efficiency and robustness, enterprises can choose appropriate efficiency and robustness for their longer-term development.

  4. Study on the weighing system based on optical fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaona; Yu, Qingxu; Li, Yefang

    2010-10-01

    The optical fiber sensor based on wavelength demodulation such as fiber Bragg grating(FBG), with merits of immunity to electromagnetic interference, low drift and high precision, has been widely used in many areas, such as structural health monitoring and smart materials, and the wavelength demodulation system was also studied widely. In the paper, a weighing system based on FBG was studied. The optical source is broadband Erbium-doped fiber ring laser with a spectral range of 1500~1600nm and optical power of 2mW; A Fabry-Perot Etalon with orientation precision of 1pm was adopted as real-time wavelength calibration for the swept laser; and multichannel high resolution simultaneous sampling card was used in the system to acquire sensing signals simultaneously, thus high-resolution and real-time calibration of sweep-wavelength can be achieved. The FBG was adhered to a cantilever beam and the Bragg wavelength was demodulated with the system. The weighing system was done after calibrated with standard weight. Experimental results show that the resolution of the weighing system is 0.5 g with a full scale of 2Kg.

  5. Heart rate detection from single-foot plantar bioimpedance measurements in a weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Delia H; Casas, Oscar; Pallas-Areny, Ramon

    2010-01-01

    Electronic bathroom scales are an easy-to-use, affordable mean to measure physiological parameters in addition to body weight. They have been proposed to obtain the ballistocardiogram (BCG) and derive from it the heart rate, cardiac output and systolic blood pressure. Therefore, weighing scales may suit intermittent monitoring in e-health and patient screening. Scales intended for bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) have also been proposed to estimate the heart rate by amplifying the pulsatile impedance component superimposed on the basal impedance. However, electronic weighing scales cannot easily obtain the BCG from people that have a single leg neither are bioimpedance measurements between both feet recommended for people wearing a pacemaker or other electronic implants, neither for pregnant women. We propose a method to detect the heart rate (HR) from bioimpedance measured in a single foot while standing on an bathroom weighting scale intended for BIA. The electrodes built in the weighing scale are used to apply a 50 kHz voltage between the outer electrode pair and to measure the drop in voltage across the inner electrode pair. The agreement with the HR simultaneously obtained from the ECG is excellent. We have also compared the drop in voltage across the waist and the thorax with that obtained when measuring bioimpedance between both feet to compare the possible risk of the proposed method to that of existing BIA scales.

  6. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Qili; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Cui, Maosheng; Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin

    2015-01-01

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10 −15  kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections

  7. A laboratory evaluation of the influence of weighing gauges performance on extreme events statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, Matteo; Lanza, Luca

    2014-05-01

    The effects of inaccurate ground based rainfall measurements on the information derived from rain records is yet not much documented in the literature. La Barbera et al. (2002) investigated the propagation of the systematic mechanic errors of tipping bucket type rain gauges (TBR) into the most common statistics of rainfall extremes, e.g. in the assessment of the return period T (or the related non-exceedance probability) of short-duration/high intensity events. Colli et al. (2012) and Lanza et al. (2012) extended the analysis to a 22-years long precipitation data set obtained from a virtual weighing type gauge (WG). The artificial WG time series was obtained basing on real precipitation data measured at the meteo-station of the University of Genova and modelling the weighing gauge output as a linear dynamic system. This approximation was previously validated with dedicated laboratory experiments and is based on the evidence that the accuracy of WG measurements under real world/time varying rainfall conditions is mainly affected by the dynamic response of the gauge (as revealed during the last WMO Field Intercomparison of Rainfall Intensity Gauges). The investigation is now completed by analyzing actual measurements performed by two common weighing gauges, the OTT Pluvio2 load-cell gauge and the GEONOR T-200 vibrating-wire gauge, since both these instruments demonstrated very good performance under previous constant flow rate calibration efforts. A laboratory dynamic rainfall generation system has been arranged and validated in order to simulate a number of precipitation events with variable reference intensities. Such artificial events were generated basing on real world rainfall intensity (RI) records obtained from the meteo-station of the University of Genova so that the statistical structure of the time series is preserved. The influence of the WG RI measurements accuracy on the associated extreme events statistics is analyzed by comparing the original intensity

  8. 75 FR 18134 - Function and Reliability Flight Testing for Turbine-Powered Airplanes Weighing 6,000 Pounds or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... undergo F & R flight testing regardless of the airplane's systems complexity or level of automation. After... airplanes that weigh 6,000 pounds or less to be more complex and integrated than some transport category...

  9. Second Interim Report on the Installation and Evaluation of Weigh-In-Motion Utilizing Quartz-Piezo Sensor Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the sensor survivability, accuracy and reliability of quartz-piezoelectric weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors under actual traffic conditions in Connecticut's environment. This second interim report provides a s...

  10. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Ground Snow Measurements: Comparisons of the Hotplate, Weighing and Manual Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, A.; Snider, J.; Campbell, L. S.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Burkhart, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) Hotplate was developed to avoid some of the problems associated with weighing snowfall sensors. This work compares Hotplate, weighing sensor (ETI NOAH-II) and manual measurements of liquid-equivalent depth. The main field site was at low altitude in western New York; Hotplate and ETI comparisons were also made at two forested subalpine sites in southeastern Wyoming. The manual measurement (only conducted at the New York site) was derived by weighing snow cores sampled from a snow board. The two recording gauges (Hotplate and ETI) were located within 5 m of the snow board. Hotplate-derived accumulations were corrected using a wind-speed dependent catch efficiency and the ETI orifice was heated and alter shielded. Three important findings are evident from the comparisons: 1) The Yes-derived accumulations, recorded in a user-accessible file, were compared to accumulations derived using an in-house calibration and fundamental measurements (plate power, long and shortwave radiances, wind speed, and temperature). These accumulations are highly correlated (N=24; r2=0.99), but the YES-derived values are larger by 20%. 2) The in-house Hotplate accumulations are in good agreement with ETI-based accumulations but with larger variability (N=24; r2=0.88). 3) The comparison of in-house Hotplate accumulation versus manual accumulation, expressed as mm of liquid, exhibits a fitted linear relationship Y (in-house) versus X (manual) given by Y = -0.2 (±1.4) + 0.9 (±0.1) · X (N= 20; r2=0.89). Thus, these two methods agree within statistical uncertainty.

  12. Validation of uncertainty of weighing in the preparation of radionuclide standards by Monte Carlo Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacais, F.L.; Delgado, J.U.; Loayza, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    In preparing solutions for the production of radionuclide metrology standards is necessary measuring the quantity Activity by mass. The gravimetric method by elimination is applied to perform weighing with smaller uncertainties. At this work is carried out the validation, by the Monte Carlo method, of the uncertainty calculation approach implemented by Lourenco and Bobin according to ISO GUM for the method by elimination. The results obtained by both uncertainty calculation methods were consistent indicating that were fulfilled the conditions for the application of ISO GUM in the preparation of radioactive standards. (author)

  13. Study on granulated material automatic weighing machine%颗粒状物料自动称量机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽娜; 张辉; 陈文庆

    2012-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the granulated material automatic weighing, according to the characteristics of granulated material, the granulated material automatic weighing machine based on PLC was established. A method was presented to improve the automatic weighing machine speed and accuracy effectively, that used frequency conversion motor driving synchronous belt rough charging and vibrating feeder fine dosing. The weighing experiments were evaluated on the granulated material automatic weighing machine, the several kinds of drug were tested. The experimental results show that the equipment has high weighing accuracy and weighing speed, the characteristics of the operation is stable and reliable, and the equipment can satisfy different granulated drug automatic weighing requirements.%为了解决颗粒状物料自动称量的问题,根据颗粒状物料特性,研制了一种基于PLC的颗粒状物料自动称量机,该系统采用变频电机驱动同步带进行粗加料和振动给料机精加料结合的方式,有效提高了自动称量机的速度和精度.对不同种类的颗粒状药品进行了称量试验,试验结果表明,该称量设备具有精度高、称量速度快、运行稳定可靠的特点,且可以满足不同颗粒药品的自动称量要求.

  14. Basic theory of diameter control in Czochralski growth using the melt-weighing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, T.H.

    1986-04-01

    The unconfined crystal growth in the Czochralski configuration is recognized as a process which is quite dependent upon successful control of the shape determining conditions. In the paper attention is focused on the meniscus region, and its relevance to the crystal diameter behaviour is discussed. The dynamic stability of the configuration is analyzed according to the Surek criterion. In contrast to earlier zeroth order arguments, the system is shown to be inherently stable at normal growth conditions if the thermal impedance of the meniscus is taken into account. General difficulties associated with small diameter growth are pointed out. Reference is made to various growth monitoring arrangements, and the melt-weighing method is described in detail. Assuming uniform growth with a flat interface, the exact relation between the force experienced by a weighing cell and the growth parameters during both stationary and non-stationary conditions is derived. Growth at a constant angle is analyzed, and a new procedure for deriving the crystal diameter is suggested

  15. Antenatal Weight Management: Women’s Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swift

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy sought to examine women’s self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+ were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n=80 between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n=83 between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n=97 could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2 did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  16. Estimated weight on goats with a commercial weighing tape and thoracic perimeter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Chacón-Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the technical viability of using a weighing tape to measure the pectoral circumference and estimate the body weight of goats. The study took place in the Alfredo Volio Mata Experimental Station in the University of Costa Rica, during the month of February 2015, by measuring the weight with a scale, a calibrated weighing tape and the thoracic diameter of sixty female goats. The data was adjusted through polynomial equations from rst to third degree. The thoracic diameter was used to determine the living weight of the goat population analyzed. Signi cant differences were found (p<0,05 when using the calibrated tape and the scale to determine the weight, with the obtained values of an average of 48,62kg y 39,99kg, respectively. There were differences (p<0,05 in the average of the weight depending on the age with results of 24,40kg in animals less than a year old, 40,39kg for the ages from one to three and 57,25kg for animals older with more than three years of age. The rst degree lineal regression, presented a good adjustment in the thoracic diameter and living weight( r2 = 0,88, with the values of ß0 and ß1 of -50,84 y 1,11, respectively.

  17. An automated walk-over weighing system as a tool for measuring liveweight change in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R A; Morton, J M; Beggs, D S; Anderson, G A; Pyman, M F; Mansell, P D; Blackwood, C B

    2013-07-01

    Automated walk-over weighing systems can be used to monitor liveweights of cattle. Minimal literature exists to describe agreement between automated and static scales, and no known studies describe repeatability when used for daily measurements of dairy cows. This study establishes the repeatability of an automated walk-over cattle-weighing system, and agreement with static electronic scales, when used in a commercial dairy herd to weigh lactating cows. Forty-six lactating dairy cows from a seasonal calving, pasture-based dairy herd in southwest Victoria, Australia, were weighed once using a set of static scales and repeatedly using an automated walk-over weighing system at the exit of a rotary dairy. Substantial agreement was observed between the automated and static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Weights measured by the automated walkover scales were within 5% of those measured by the static scales in 96% of weighings. Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement were -23.3 to 43.6 kg, a range of 66.9 kg. The 95% repeatability coefficient for automated weighings was 46.3 kg. Removal of a single outlier from the data set increased Lin's concordance coefficient, narrowed Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement to a range of 32.5 kg, and reduced the 95% repeatability coefficient to 18.7 kg. Cow misbehavior during walk-over weighing accounted for many of the larger weight discrepancies. The automated walk-over weighing system showed substantial agreement with the static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. This contrasted with limited agreement when assessed using Bland and Altman's method, largely due to poor repeatability. This suggests the automated weighing system is inadequate for detecting small liveweight differences in individual cows based on comparisons of single weights. Misbehaviors and other factors can result in the recording of spurious values on walk-over scales. Excluding

  18. The Effect of Flexible Pavement Mechanics on the Accuracy of Axle Load Sensors in Vehicle Weigh-in-Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-07

    Weigh-in-Motion systems are tools to prevent road pavements from the adverse phenomena of vehicle overloading. However, the effectiveness of these systems can be significantly increased by improving weighing accuracy, which is now insufficient for direct enforcement of overloaded vehicles. Field tests show that the accuracy of Weigh-in-Motion axle load sensors installed in the flexible (asphalt) pavements depends on pavement temperature and vehicle speeds. Although this is a known phenomenon, it has not been explained yet. The aim of our study is to fill this gap in the knowledge. The explanation of this phenomena which is presented in the paper is based on pavement/sensors mechanics and the application of the multilayer elastic half-space theory. We show that differences in the distribution of vertical and horizontal stresses in the pavement structure are the cause of vehicle weight measurement errors. These studies are important in terms of Weigh-in-Motion systems for direct enforcement and will help to improve the weighing results accuracy.

  19. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seok Park

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  20. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkon; Lee, Jungwhee; Park, Min-Seok; Jo, Byung-Wan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM) systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  1. System and method for weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Scudiere, Matthew B [Oak Ridge, TN; White, Clifford P [Seymour, TN

    2008-05-20

    A weigh-in-motion device and method having at least one transducer pad, each transducer pad having at least one transducer group with transducers positioned essentially perpendicular to the direction of travel. At least one pad microcomputer is provided on each transducer pad having a means for calculating first output signal indicative of weight, second output signal indicative of time, and third output signal indicative of speed. At least one host microcomputer is in electronic communication with each pad microcomputer, and having a means for calculating at least one unknown selected from the group consisting of individual tire weight, individual axle weight, axle spacing, speed profile, longitudinal center of balance, and transverse center of balance.

  2. Isoleucine requirement of pigs weighing 8 to 18 kg fed blood cell–free diets1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Shresta, Aruna; Krogh, Uffe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the minimum requirement of Ile in young pigs, enabling feeding of balanced low-CP diets. Most previous studies have used experimental diets that included blood cells, which are particularly high in Leu and known to antagonize the use of Ile. One week....... In conclusion, the average estimation of requirement in this dose-response study using blood cell–free diets was 0.52 SID Ile:Lys during a 21-d experimental period from 8 kg BW....... after weaning at d 28, 100 crossbred female pigs weighing 7.9 ± 0.7 kg were allocated to 1 of 5 dietary treatments. Diets were formulated to contain 1.15 g standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys/MJ NE and were free of blood cells. The SID Ile was 0.42, 0.47, 0.53, 0.58, and 0.62 relative to Lys...

  3. Twenty-Seven Years Experience With Transvenous Pacemaker Implantation in Children Weighing <10 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konta, Laura; Chubb, Mark Henry; Bostock, Julian; Rogers, Jan; Rosenthal, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Epicardial pacemaker implantation is the favored approach in children weighing pacemaker implantation in neonates and infants from 1987. To date there have been no long-term follow-up reports of what is for many a controversial strategy. Between 1987 and 2003, 37 neonates and infants-median age 6.7 months (1 day to 3 years) and median weight 4.6 kg (2.7-10 kg)-had a permanent transvenous pacing system implanted. Pacing leads were placed into the right ventricular apex/outflow tract through a subclavian vein puncture with a redundant loop in the atrium. Three patients were lost to follow-up, 4 patients died from complications of cardiac surgery, and 2 patients had their system removed. At long-term follow-up in 28 patients at a median of 17.2 (range, 11.2-27.4) years, 10 patients have a single chamber ventricular pacemaker, 14 a dual chamber pacemaker, 3 a biventricular pacemaker, and 1 has a single chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Subclavian vein patency was assessed in 26 patients. The overall subclavian vein occlusion rate was 10 of 13 (77%) 5 kg during long-term follow-up. After a median of 14.3 (range, 13.4-17.6) years of pacing, 7 patients continue with their original lead. Transvenous pacing in infants <10 kg results in encouraging short- and long-term clinical outcomes. Subclavian vein occlusion remains an important complication, occurring predominantly in those weighing <5 kg. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Measurement accuracy of weighing and tipping-bucket rainfall intensity gauges under dynamic laboratory testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, M.; Lanza, L. G.; La Barbera, P.; Chan, P. W.

    2014-07-01

    The contribution of any single uncertainty factor in the resulting performance of infield rain gauge measurements still has to be comprehensively assessed due to the high number of real world error sources involved, such as the intrinsic variability of rainfall intensity (RI), wind effects, wetting losses, the ambient temperature, etc. In recent years the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) addressed these issues by fostering dedicated investigations, which revealed further difficulties in assessing the actual reference rainfall intensity in the field. This work reports on an extensive assessment of the OTT Pluvio2 weighing gauge accuracy when measuring rainfall intensity under laboratory dynamic conditions (time varying reference flow rates). The results obtained from the weighing rain gauge (WG) were also compared with a MTX tipping-bucket rain gauge (TBR) under the same test conditions. Tests were carried out by simulating various artificial precipitation events, with unsteady rainfall intensity, using a suitable dynamic rainfall generator. Real world rainfall data measured by an Ogawa catching-type drop counter at a field test site located within the Hong Kong International Airport (HKIA) were used as a reference for the artificial rain generation system. Results demonstrate that the differences observed between the laboratory and field performance of catching-type gauges are only partially attributable to the weather and operational conditions in the field. The dynamics of real world precipitation events is responsible for a large part of the measurement errors, which can be accurately assessed in the laboratory under controlled environmental conditions. This allows for new testing methodologies and the development of instruments with enhanced performance in the field.

  5. Traffic volume and load data measurement using a portable weigh in motion system: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu N.M. Faruk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, traffic loading characteristics are collected for pavement design and performance prediction purposes using permanent roadside weigh-in-motion (WIM stations. However, high installation and maintenance costs associated with these permanent WIM stations dictate that their deployment be mostly limited to major highways, such as the interstate network. Quite often however, pavement damage on high volume rural highways with heavy truck proportions is more severe than anticipated, and there is no effective way of quantifying the traffic loading on these highways. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the potential application of portable WIM systems as a means for bringing the WIM technology to these high volume rural highways. A portable WIM unit was deployed in the Texas overweight corridor in Hidalgo County (Pharr District near the USA-Mexico border on highway FM 1016 for collecting traffic data for a minimum of three weeks in each direction. The collected traffic data were analyzed to generate traffic parameters such as volume, load spectra, and overloading information both in terms of the gross vehicle weight (GVW and axle weight. The computed traffic parameters were successful in partially explaining some of the existing pavement conditions on this highway. Overall, the study findings indicated that the portable WIM unit can be used as a convenient and cost-effective means for collecting reliable traffic information for design, analysis, and monitoring purposes. However, proper in-situ calibration of the portable WIM unit at each site is imperative prior to any real-time traffic data collection. Keywords: Traffic data, Load spectra, Truck overweight, Weigh-in-motion (WIM, Portable WIM, Texas overweight corridor

  6. Non-constrained monitoring of systolic blood pressure on a weighing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Kang Moo; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we developed a novel technique for estimating non-constrained and cuffless blood pressure (BP) that was based on electrocardiogram (ECG) and ballistocardiogram (BCG). The BCG was non-invasively measured using a common electronic weighing scale when a subject was standing on it. The ECG was measured using three different methods: on the chest using Ag/AgCl electrodes, on the hands using dry electrodes and on the feet also using dry electrodes. For a BP correlated parameter, a time interval parameter, which was defined as the time difference between the ECG R-peak and BCG J-peak, was employed for evaluating and estimating beat-to-beat BP. Under a BP varying experiment with a Valsalva manoeuvre, the R–J intervals were extracted at every beat cycle and a systolic blood pressure (SBP) estimation equation was established using linear regression analysis for each subject. In the case of feet delivered ECG (F-ECG), an ensemble average technique synchronized at the BCG J-peak point was applied to extract the ECG signal from the feet. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated using Finapres, a non-invasive blood pressure measurement system, as a reference BP signal, and a scatter plot was used to find the regression line between the reference values and estimated BPs. A moving-window averaging technique was applied to remove the high-frequency noise in the R–J intervals and was applied to enhance the accuracy of the SBP estimation. For all individuals, the estimated SBP was similar to the measured SBP with a reliable correlation, which makes the proposed method suitable for use in a home healthcare system to monitor blood pressure on a weighing scale at the same time as measuring weight

  7. [Weighing use and safety of therapeutic agents and feed additives (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wal, P

    1982-02-01

    (1) The pros and cons of using feed additives and therapeutic agents may be successfully weighed in the light of carefully considered consumer requirements. (2) The socio-economic interests of the producer and the welfare of the animal will also determine the response of the production apparatus to consumer requirements. (3) Consumption of the current amounts of products of animal origin and maintenance of price and quality will only be feasible in the event of rational large-scale production in which constituents used in nutrition, prophylaxis and therapeutics are highly important factors. (4) Using these ingredients should be preceded by accurate evaluation of their use and safety. Testing facilities, conduct of studies and reporting should be such as to make the results nationally and internationally acceptable to all those concerned. (5) In deciding whether feed constituents are acceptable in view of the established use and safety, compliance will have to be sought with those standards which are accepted in other fields of society. Measures which result in raising the price of food without actually helping to reduce the risks to the safety of man, animals and environment, are likely to be rejected by any well-informed consumer who is aware of the facts. (6) For accurate weighing of use and safety at a national level, possibilities are hardly adequate in Europe. Decisions reached within the framework of the European Community, also tuned to U.S.A.- conditions are rightly encouraged. A centrally managed professionally staffed and equipped test system in the European Community would appear to be indispensable.

  8. Using weigh-in-motion data to determine bridge dynamic amplification factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic component of bridge traffic loading is commonly taken into account with a Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF – the ratio between the maximum dynamic and static load effects on a bridge. In the design codes, this factor is generally higher than in reality. While this is fine for new bridges that must account for various risks during their life-time, it imposes unnecessary conservativism into assessment of the existing well defined bridges. Therefore, analysis of existing bridges should apply more realistic DAF values. One way of obtaining them experimentally is by bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM measurements, which use an existing instrumented bridge or culvert to weigh all crossing vehicles at highway speeds. The B-WIM system had been equipped with two methods of obtaining an approximation to the static response of the. The first method uses the sum of influence lines. This method relies on accurate axle identification, the failure of which can have a large influence on the DAF value. The other method uses a pre-determined low-pass filter to remove the dynamic component of the measured signal; however an expert is needed to set the filter parameters. A new approach that tries to eliminate these two drawbacks has been developed. In this approach the parameters for the filter are determined automatically by fitting the filtered response to the sum of the influence lines. The measurement of DAF on a typical bridge site agrees with experiments performed in the ARCHES [1] project: dynamic amplification decreases as static loading increases.

  9. 不客忽视的衡器监管%Weighing instrument regulation can not be ignored

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴娜

    2012-01-01

    衡器作为经济贸易中重要的计量手段之一,在我国经济飞速发展的今天起着越来越重要的作用。本文对我国衡器发展的现状和存在的问题进行分析,提出在衡器监管措施方面的建议。%Weighing instrument is as one of the important economic and trade measurement instruments, and plays a more and more role nowadays. This article analyzes current situation and existing problems of the weighing instrument development in China, and suggests on the weighing instrument regulatory measures.

  10. A laboratory assessment of the measurement accuracy of weighing type rainfall intensity gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, M.; Chan, P. W.; Lanza, L. G.; La Barbera, P.

    2012-04-01

    In recent years the WMO Commission for Instruments and Methods of Observation (CIMO) fostered noticeable advancements in the accuracy of precipitation measurement issue by providing recommendations on the standardization of equipment and exposure, instrument calibration and data correction as a consequence of various comparative campaigns involving manufacturers and national meteorological services from the participating countries (Lanza et al., 2005; Vuerich et al., 2009). Extreme events analysis is proven to be highly affected by the on-site RI measurement accuracy (see e.g. Molini et al., 2004) and the time resolution of the available RI series certainly constitutes another key-factor in constructing hyetographs that are representative of real rain events. The OTT Pluvio2 weighing gauge (WG) and the GEONOR T-200 vibrating-wire precipitation gauge demonstrated very good performance under previous constant flow rate calibration efforts (Lanza et al., 2005). Although WGs do provide better performance than more traditional Tipping Bucket Rain gauges (TBR) under continuous and constant reference intensity, dynamic effects seem to affect the accuracy of WG measurements under real world/time varying rainfall conditions (Vuerich et al., 2009). The most relevant is due to the response time of the acquisition system and the derived systematic delay of the instrument in assessing the exact weight of the bin containing cumulated precipitation. This delay assumes a relevant role in case high resolution rain intensity time series are sought from the instrument, as is the case of many hydrologic and meteo-climatic applications. This work reports the laboratory evaluation of Pluvio2 and T-200 rainfall intensity measurements accuracy. Tests are carried out by simulating different artificial precipitation events, namely non-stationary rainfall intensity, using a highly accurate dynamic rainfall generator. Time series measured by an Ogawa drop counter (DC) at a field test site

  11. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Talk: Henry Cavendish, John Michell, Weighing the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormmach, Russell

    2010-03-01

    This talk is about an interaction between two 18th-century natural philosophers (physical scientists), Henry Cavendish and John Michell, and its most important outcome, the experiment of weighing the world (their name for it) using a torsion balance (our name for it). Michell was the most inventive of the 18th century English natural philosophers, and Cavendish was the first of his countrymen to possess abilities at all comparable with Newton's. By their interests and skills, they were drawn to one another. Both were universal natural philosophers, equally adept at building scientific instruments, performing experiments, constructing theory, and using mathematics; both had a penchant for exacting, quantitative work. Both also had fitful habits of publication, which did not begin to reveal the range of their work, to the mystification of later scientists and historians. Late in life, Cavendish and Michell turned their attention to the force that Newton had examined most completely, a singular triumph of his natural philosophy, the force of universal gravitation. Over the course of the 18th century, abundant evidence of attraction had been gathered from the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets, phenomena which span the intermediate range of masses, sizes, and distances. But in three domains of experience, involving the extreme upper and lower limits of masses and dimensions, the universality of gravitation remained an article of faith. These were the gravity of the ``fixed'' stars, the mutual attraction of terrestrial bodies, and the gravitation of light and other special substances. Michell took on himself the task of deducing observable consequences from each of these prospective instances of universal gravitation. Cavendish encouraged Michell, and he followed up the resulting observational and experimental questions. The experiment of weighing the world was the last experiment Mitchell planned and the last experiment Cavendish published. The capstone of

  12. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  13. Design and realization of the high-precision weighing systems as the gravimetric references in PTB's national water flow standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, Rainer; Beyer, Karlheinz; Baade, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    PTB's ‘Hydrodynamic Test Field’, which represents a high-accuracy water flow calibration facility, serves as the national primary standard for liquid flow measurands. As the core reference device of this flow facility, a gravimetric standard has been incorporated, which comprises three special-design weighing systems: 300 kg, 3 tons and 30 tons. These gravimetric references were realized as a combination of a strain-gauge-based and an electromagnetic-force-compensation load-cell-based balance, each. Special emphasis had to be placed upon the dynamics design of the whole weighing system, due to the high measurement resolution and the dynamic behavior of the weighing systems, which are dynamically affected by mechanical vibrations caused by environmental impacts, flow machinery operation, flow noise in the pipework and induced wave motions in the weigh tanks. Taking into account all the above boundary conditions, the design work for the gravimetric reference resulted in a concrete foundation ‘rock’ of some 300 tons that rests on a number of vibration isolators. In addition to these passively operating vibration isolators, the vibration damping effect is enhanced by applying an electronic level regulation device. (paper)

  14. Use of Finite Elements Analysis for a Weigh-in-Motion Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Goanta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles. WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between –40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness, the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA, the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  15. Effect acute of resitive training with weight on hidrostatic weigh, body density and percentage of fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Zinn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify if a session of Resistive training with Weights (TRP seeking Local Muscular Resistance (RML or Increase in Muscle Volume (AVM would cause significant alterations in Hydrostatic Weight (PH, Body Density (DC and Percentage of Body Fat (%G. Nine men between the ages of 17 and 26 years participated in the study, all with a basic level of TRP and who were adapted to water. The study was carried out during three days. On the first day, the subjects performed the 1RM test for the 10 exercises included into the training. Two days later, hydrostatic weighing (pre-trainingwas measured, immediately followed by a TRP session for AVM and by another hydrostatic weighing (post-training measurement. Two days later, the same process was applied to, however this time with a TRP session for RML. The statistical analyses by Student’s-t test showed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05 between pre and post-training results for PH, DC and %G variables. The 2x2 ANOVA interaction for type of training (AVM and RML and the moment of weighing (pre and post-training was not significant, while the results of PH, DC and %G did not depend on the type of training (AVM or RML. Pearson’s linear correlation between the values of the pre and post-training was significant (r≥0.94. It can be concluded that the TRP does not have an effect on the results of PH, DC and %G, regardless of type of training performed, therefore, hydrostatic weighing can be measured either before or after the TRP, without interfering on the results. RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar se uma sessão de Treinamento Resistido com Pesos (TRP visando Resistência Muscular Localizada (RML ou objetivando Aumento de Volume Muscular (AVM causariam alterações significativas no Peso Hidrost��tico (PH, Densidade Corporal (DC e Percentual de Gordura (%G. Participaram da amostra nove homens com idade entre 17 e 26 anos que possuíam um n

  16. Densimetry in compressed fluids by combining hydrostatic weighing and magnetic levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, R.; Haynes, W.M.; Chang, R.F.; Davis, H.A.; Sengers, J.M.H.L.

    1984-01-01

    A magnetic suspension densimeter is described that has been built for measuring the density of compressed liquids at pressures up to 15 MPa in the temperature range 20 0 --200 0 C with an uncertainty of 0.1%. The densimeter combines the principle of magnetic levitation of a buoy with that of liquid density determination by hydrostatic weighing. To accomplish this, the support coil is suspended from an electronic balance, and the balance readings are recorded (1) with the buoy at rest, and (2) with the buoy in magnetic suspension. Details are given of the construction of the cell, coil, buoy, and thermostat. The procedure is described by which cell and buoy are aligned so that the suspended buoy does not touch the cell wall. Test data on the densities of seven different liquids were obtained at room temperature. They agree with reliable literature values to within 0.1%. In a separate experiment, the bulk thermal expansion coefficient of the buoy material was determined. This experiment and its results are also given here

  17. Biophysical profile in the treatment of intrauterine growth-restricted fetuses who weigh <1000 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Satinder; Picconi, Jason L; Chadha, Rati; Kruger, Michael; Mari, Giancarlo

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biophysical profile (BPP) usefulness in the prediction of cord pH, base excess, and guidance regarding the timing of delivery in preterm intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) fetuses. A BPP was performed daily in 48 IUGR fetuses and was considered abnormal when it was 2/10 on 1 single occasion or 4/10 on 2 consecutive occasions 2 hours apart. The median gestational age and fetal weight for the total population was 27.6 weeks and 632 g, respectively. In 13 fetuses with a BPP of 6, there were 3 deaths, and 7 fetuses were acidemic. In 27 fetuses with a BPP of 8, there were 3 deaths, and 12 fetuses were acidemic. BPP alone is not a reliable test in the treatment of preterm IUGR fetuses, because of high false-positive and -negative results. The common notion of a good BPP providing reassurance for at least 24 hours is not applicable in severely preterm IUGR fetuses who weigh <1000 g.

  18. A low-noise ac-bridge amplifier for ballistocardiogram measurement on an electronic weighing scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inan, O T; Kovacs, G T A

    2010-01-01

    Ballistocardiography is a non-invasive technique for evaluating cardiovascular health. This note presents an ac-bridge amplifier for low-noise ballistocardiogram (BCG) recording from a modified weighing scale. The strain gauges in a commercial scale were excited by an ac source—square or sine wave—and the differential output voltage resulting from the BCG was amplified and demodulated synchronously with the excitation waveform. A standard BCG amplifier, with a simple dc-bridge excitation, was also built and the performance was compared to both the square- and sine-wave excited ac-bridge amplifiers. The total input-referred voltage noise (rms) integrated over the relevant BCG bandwidth of 0.3–10 Hz was found to be 30 nV (square wave source) or 25 nV (sine-wave source) for the ac-bridge amplifier and 52 nV for the standard amplifier: an improvement of 4.8 dB or 6 dB, respectively. These correspond to input-referred force noise (rms) values of 5 mN, 4 mN and 8.3 mN. The improvement in SNR was also observed in recorded waveforms from a seated subject whose BCG signal was measured with both dc- and ac-bridge circuits. (note)

  19. Probability Based Evaluation of Vehicular Bridge Load using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Nugraha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Load and Resistance Factored Design (LRFD method for designing bridge in Indonesia have been implemented for more than 25 years. LRFD method treating loads and strengths variables as random variables with specific safety factors for different loads and strengths variables type. The nominal loads, load factors, reduction factors, and other criteria for bridge design code can be determined to meet the reliability criteria. Statistical data of weigh-in-motion (WIM vehicular loads measurement in Northern Java highway, Cikampek - Pamanukan, West Java (2011, used in as statistical loads variable. A 25 m simple span bridge with reinforced concrete T-girder is used as a model for structural analysis due to WIM measured and nominal vehicular load based on RSNI T-02-2005, with applied bending moment of girder as the output. The distribution fitting result of applied bending moment due to WIM measured vehicular loads is lognormal. The maximum bending moment due to RSNI T-02-2005 nominal vehicular load is 842.45 kN-m and has probability of exceedance of 5x10-5. It can be concluded, for this study, that the bridge designed using RSNI T-02-2005 is safely designed, since it has reliability index, β of 5.02, higher than target reliability, β ranging from 3.50 or 3.72.

  20. Measuring and weighing psychostasia in Q 6:37–38: Intertexts from the Old Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn Howes

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article is the first of three on the relationship between the Sayings Gospel Q and the ancient concept of ‘psychostasia,’ which is the ancient notion that a divine or supernatural figure weighed people’s souls when judging them. The ultimate goal of all three articles is to enhance our understanding of Q 6:37–38, as well as of the Q document as a whole. In the current article, attention is focused on intertexts from the Old Testament, and the occurrences therein of the word ‘measure’ and the concept of ‘psychostasia’. The implications of these results for our interpretation of Q 6:37–38 are briefly noted. A second (future article will focus on intertexts in apocryphal and pseudepigraphical writings from Second Temple Judaism dealing with ‘psychostasia’. A third study will ultimately spell out in more comprehensive detail the implications of the foregoing intertextual investigations on both our understanding of Q 6:37–38 and our understanding of the Sayings Gospel Q as a whole.

  1. On balance: weighing harms and benefits in fundamental neurological research using nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnason, Gardar; Clausen, Jens

    2016-06-01

    One of the most controversial areas of animal research is the use of nonhuman primates for fundamental research. At the centre of the controversy is the question of whether the benefits of research outweigh the harms. We argue that the evaluation of harms and benefits is highly problematic. We describe some common procedures in neurological research using nonhuman primates and the difficulties in evaluating the harm involved. Even if the harm could be quantified, it is unlikely that it could be meaningfully aggregated over different procedures, let alone different animals. A similar problem arises for evaluating benefits. It is not clear how benefits could be quantified, and even if they could be, values for different aspects of expected benefits cannot be simply added up. Sorting harms and benefits in three or four categories cannot avoid the charge of arbitrariness and runs the risk of imposing its structure on the moral decision. The metaphor of weighing or balancing harms and benefits is inappropriate for the moral decision about whether to use nonhuman primates for research. Arguing that the harms and benefits in this context are incommensurable, we suggest describing the moral consideration of harms and benefits as a coherent trade-off. Such a decision does not require commensurability. It must be well-informed about the suffering involved and the potential benefits, it must be consistent with the legal, regulatory and institutional framework within which it is made, and it must cohere with other judgments in relevant areas.

  2. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-11-03

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  3. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses − a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-01-01

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. PMID:27874827

  4. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin; Heilmeier, Hermann; Bringezu, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewable energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the production of biomass requires agricultural land and is often associated with adverse environmental effects such as eutrophication of surface and ground water. Decision making in favor of or against bio-based and conventional fossil product alternatives therefore often requires weighing of environmental impacts. In this article, we apply distance-to-target weighing methodology to aggregate LCA results obtained in four different environmental impact categories (i.e., non-renewable energy consumption, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, and acidification potential) to one environmental index. We include 45 bio- and fossil-based product pairs in our analysis, which we conduct for Germany. The resulting environmental indices for all product pairs analyzed range from -19.7 to +0.2 with negative values indicating overall environmental benefits of bio-based products. Except for three options of packaging materials made from wheat and cornstarch, all bio-based products (including energy, fuels, and materials) score better than their fossil counterparts. Comparing the median values for the three options of biomass utilization reveals that bio-energy (-1.2) and bio-materials (-1.0) offer significantly higher environmental benefits than bio-fuels (-0.3). The results of this study reflect, however, subjective value judgments due to the weighing methodology applied. Given the uncertainties and controversies associated not only with distance-to-target methodologies in particular but also with weighing approaches in general, the authors strongly recommend using weighing for decision finding only as a

  5. Flexible spatial perspective-taking: Conversational partners weigh multiple cues in collaborative tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia eGalati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on spatial perspective-taking often focuses on the cognitive processes of isolated individuals as they adopt or maintain imagined perspectives. Collaborative studies of spatial perspective-taking typically examine speakers’ linguistic choices, while overlooking their underlying processes and representations. We review evidence from two collaborative experiments that examine the contribution of social and representational cues to spatial perspective choices in both language and the organization of spatial memory. Across experiments, speakers organized their memory representations according to the convergence of various cues. When layouts were randomly configured and did not afford intrinsic cues, speakers encoded their partner’s viewpoint in memory, if available, but did not use it as an organizing direction. On the other hand, when the layout afforded an intrinsic structure, speakers organized their spatial memories according to the person-centered perspective reinforced by the layout’s structure. Similarly, in descriptions, speakers considered multiple cues whether available a priori or at the interaction. They used partner-centered expressions more frequently (e.g., to your right when the partner’s viewpoint was misaligned by a small offset or coincided with the layout’s structure. Conversely, they used egocentric expressions more frequently when their own viewpoint coincided with the intrinsic structure or when the partner was misaligned by a computationally difficult, oblique offset. Based on these findings we advocate for a framework for flexible perspective-taking: people weigh multiple cues (including social ones to make attributions about the relative difficulty of perspective-taking for each partner, and adapt behavior to minimize their collective effort. This framework is not specialized for spatial reasoning but instead emerges from the same principles and memory-depended processes that govern perspective-taking in

  6. Flexible spatial perspective-taking: conversational partners weigh multiple cues in collaborative tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galati, Alexia; Avraamides, Marios N

    2013-01-01

    Research on spatial perspective-taking often focuses on the cognitive processes of isolated individuals as they adopt or maintain imagined perspectives. Collaborative studies of spatial perspective-taking typically examine speakers' linguistic choices, while overlooking their underlying processes and representations. We review evidence from two collaborative experiments that examine the contribution of social and representational cues to spatial perspective choices in both language and the organization of spatial memory. Across experiments, speakers organized their memory representations according to the convergence of various cues. When layouts were randomly configured and did not afford intrinsic cues, speakers encoded their partner's viewpoint in memory, if available, but did not use it as an organizing direction. On the other hand, when the layout afforded an intrinsic structure, speakers organized their spatial memories according to the person-centered perspective reinforced by the layout's structure. Similarly, in descriptions, speakers considered multiple cues whether available a priori or at the interaction. They used partner-centered expressions more frequently (e.g., "to your right") when the partner's viewpoint was misaligned by a small offset or coincided with the layout's structure. Conversely, they used egocentric expressions more frequently when their own viewpoint coincided with the intrinsic structure or when the partner was misaligned by a computationally difficult, oblique offset. Based on these findings we advocate for a framework for flexible perspective-taking: people weigh multiple cues (including social ones) to make attributions about the relative difficulty of perspective-taking for each partner, and adapt behavior to minimize their collective effort. This framework is not specialized for spatial reasoning but instead emerges from the same principles and memory-depended processes that govern perspective-taking in non-spatial tasks.

  7. Human milk consumption and full enteral feeding among infants who weigh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisk, Paula M; Lovelady, Cheryl A; Gruber, Kenneth J; Dillard, Robert G; O'Shea, T Michael

    2008-06-01

    Establishing enteral feeding is an important goal in the care of very low birth weight infants. In such infants, receipt of >/=50 mL/kg per day human milk during hospitalization has been associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding. The objective of this study was to determine whether high proportions (>/=50%) of human milk during feeding advancement are associated with shorter time to full enteral feeding and improved feeding tolerance. This was a prospective cohort study of very low birth weight infants (n = 127) who were grouped into low (/=50%; n = 93) human milk consumption groups according to their human milk proportion of enteral feeding during the time of feeding advancement. The primary outcomes of interest were ages at which 100 and 150 mL/kg per day enteral feedings were achieved. The high human milk group reached 100 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 4.5 days faster than the low human milk group. The high human milk group reached 150 mL/kg per day enteral feeding 5 days faster than the low human milk group. After adjustment for gestational age, gender, and respiratory distress syndrome, times to reach 100 and 150 mL/kg per day were significantly shorter for those in the high human milk group. Infants in the high human milk group had a greater number of stools per day; other indicators of feeding tolerance were not statistically different. In infants who weighed milk was associated with fewer days to full enteral feedings.

  8. Assessment of soil hydrology variability of a new weighing lysimeter facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. E.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Berg, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    Diversifying annual crop rotations is a strategy that mimics natural ecosystems and is postulated to increase agricultural resilience to climate change, soil quality and provision of soil ecosystem services. However, diverse cropping systems could increase soil mineral N levels and lead to greater leaching and/or N2O emissions; which raises the questions: (i) are diverse cropping systems actually beneficial for air and water quality? (ii) what are the trade-offs between soil, water, and air quality upon implementing a diverse cropping rotation? It can be difficult to fully evaluate the interactions between the two N-pollution pathways simultaneously in traditional field studies as drainage is largely unconstrained. Weighing lysimeters solve this issue by providing a closed system to measure N outputs via drainage and soil gas fluxes. A set of 18 weighting lysimeters were installed in Elora, Ontario, Canada in May 2016, to establish a long-term study of N-leaching and greenhouse gas emission from traditional and diverse cropping rotations for two different soil types. Each lysimeter is equipped with an automated chamber for continuous measurement of soil N2O and CO2 fluxes. A full characterization of variations of physical properties that may affect GHG emissions and N-leaching (e.g., soil temperature, moisture, drainage and evapotranspiration rates) amongst the lysimeters is required prior to application and assessment of the management treatments. Novel techniques such as wavelet analysis is required as standard statistical analyses are not applicable to the time series data. A full description of the lysimeters will be presented along with results of the characterization.

  9. Behavioural problems in children who weigh 1000 g or less at birth in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, E T; den Ouden, A L; Saigal, S; Wolke, D; Lambert, M; Whitaker, A; Pinto-Martin, J A; Hoult, L; Meyer, R; Feldman, J F; Verloove-Vanhorick, S P; Paneth, N

    2001-05-26

    The increased survival chances of extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants (weighing cultural comparisons are lacking. Our aim was to compare behavioural problems in ELBW children of similar ages from four countries. We prospectively studied 408 ELBW children aged 8-10 years, whose parents completed the child behaviour checklist. The children came from the Netherlands, Germany, Canada, and USA. The checklist provides a total problem score consisting of eight narrow-band scales. Of these, two (aggressive and delinquent behaviour) give a broad-band externalising score, three (anxious, somatic, and withdrawn behaviour) give a broad-band internalising score, and three (social, thought, and attention problems) indicate difficulties fitting neither broad-band dimension. For each cohort we analysed scores in ELBW children and those in normal- birthweight controls (two cohorts) or national normative controls (two cohorts). Across countries, we assessed deviations of the ELBW children from normative or control groups. ELBW children had higher total problem scores than normative or control children, but this increase was only significant in European countries. Narrow-band scores were raised only for the social, thought, and attention difficulty scales, which were 0.5-1.2 SD higher in ELBW children than in others. Except for the increase in internalising scores recorded for one cohort, ELBW children did not differ from normative or control children on internalising or externalising scales. Despite cultural differences, types of behavioural problems seen in ELBW children were very similar in the four countries. This finding suggests that biological mechanisms contribute to behavioural problems of ELBW children.

  10. FFTF/IEM [Fast Flux Test Facility/Interim Examination and Maintenance] cell fuel pin weighing system: Remote maintenance design considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, P.W.

    1986-06-01

    A Fuel Pin Weighing Machine has been developed for use in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell to assist in identifying an individual breached fuel pin from its fuel assembly pin bundle. Optimum configuration for remote maintenance was a major consideration in the design of each element of the Pin Weighing System

  11. Validation of a Dietary History Questionnaire against a 7-D Weighed Record for Estimating Nutrient Intake among Rural Elderly Malays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, S; Earland, J; Abdulrahman, S

    2000-03-01

    Energy and nutrient intake estimated using a pre-coded dietary history questionnaire (DHQ) was compared with results obtained from a 7-d weighed intake record (WI) in a group of 37 elderly Malays residing in rural areas of Mersing District, Johor, Malaysia to determine the validity of the DHQ. The DHQ consists of a pre-coded dietary history with a qualitative food frequency questionnaire which was developed to obtain information on food intake and usual dietary habits. The 7-d WI requires subjects to weigh each food immediately before eating and to weigh any leftovers. The medians of intake from the two methods were rather similar and varied by less than 30% for every nutrient, except for vitamin C (114%). For most of the nutrients, analysis of group means using the Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank sum test showed no significant difference between the estimation of intake from the DHQ and from the WI, with the exceptions of vitamin C and niacin. The DHQ significantly overestimated the intake of vitamin C compared to the WI (ppopulation with a high prevalence of illiteracy, a specially designed DHQ can provide very similar estimations to that obtained from 7-d WI.

  12. Research on the Influence of Weighing Accuracy Caused by the Position of Tension Wheel on the Electronic Belt-Conveyor Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Hu; Song, Qiuzhi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a Single- Idler electronic belt-conveyor scale is the Object of study. The contact force between the belt and the supporting roller is calculated by the finite element analysis software ABAQUS. The relationship between the tension distance of the tension wheel and the contact force between the belt and the weighing roller is obtained. The best stretching distance is found through analysis. And the conclusion which is the weighing error is different at the same stretching distance but the different weight of material is obtained. A compensation mechanism is proposed to improve the weighing accuracy.

  13. Human-milk intake measured by administration of deuterium oxide to the mother: a comparison with the test-weighing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butte, N.F.; Wong, W.W.; Patterson, B.W.; Garza, C.; Klein, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    A comparison was made between the dose-to-the-mother deuterium-dilution method and the conventional test-weighing technique for determining human-milk intake in five exclusively breast-fed infants and in four breast-fed infants who received supplemental foods. After administration of 2 H to the mothers human milk and infant urine were sampled over 14 d and analyzed for 2 H: 1 H ratios by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry. Infant total body water was determined by 18 O dilution. The test-weighing procedure was conducted for 5 d consecutively. The intake of human milk (mean +/- SD) estimated by 2 H dilution was 648 +/- 63 g/d and estimated by test-weighing was 636 +/- 84 g/d. The mean difference between the two methods was not significantly different from 0. The 2 H-dilution and test-weighing techniques provide similar estimates of human-milk intake

  14. Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, and hypertension in children weighing more than normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Phatale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension (pre-HT, and hypertension (HT in children weighing more than normal. Materials and Methods: Three- to eighteen-year old children weighing more than normal were included. Pathological short children were excluded. According to Centre for Disease Control (CDC, children are grouped into overweight (OW and obese (OB. Indian B.P. reference tables are used for defining HT and pre-HT. [2] HbA1c by HPLC (BIO RAD method was used to define pre-diabetes and diabetes. [3] Children with HbA1c ≥6.5 were subjected for Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT. C-peptide assay was done to rule out (r/o IDDM. Observations: When we compare this with our earlier presentation at PEDICON 2011, we found that hypertension (HTN (22.9% vs. 23.07% is not significantly different but pre-HTN (28.09% vs. 33.9%, pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM (3.7% vs. 64.3%, and diabetes mellitus (DM (0.35% vs. 3.8% are significantly high in this study. Conclusion: (1 Prevalence of HT (22.90% vs. 23.07% is similar in both groups but pre-HT (33.9% vs. 28.09% is high in this study. (2 Significant rise in prevalence of diabetes (3.84% vs. 0.35% and pre-diabetes (64.33% vs. 3.7% is seen in this study. (3 This change is because of using HbA1c as screening tool in children weighing more than normal.

  15. The analysis of overloaded trucks in indonesia based on weigh in motion data (east of sumatera national road case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihanny Jongga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Overloaded trucks phenomena generally common in developing countries where the traffic control is poor. In Indonesia, the percentage of overloaded trucks can reach more than 60% in the total number of trucks and may be one of the substantial factors that reduce the service life of the road pavements. This paper presents the analysis results of the weigh in motion survey data at East of Sumatera National Road (Jalintim in Indonesia and the impact of overloaded trucks on the pavement. For the analysis the simplified approach was used, the axle loads were converted into representative single-axle loads based on 4th power formula by AASHTO 1993 equation. The vehicle damage factor of vehicles is presented and will be compared with the Highways National Standard to estimate the remaining service life of pavement and IRI value prediction. The analysis showed that the vehicle damage factor that determined from weigh in motion data is extremely greater than vehicle damage factor of the national standard in Indonesia which may lead to accelerated deterioration, reducing the service life of the pavement structures and significantly influence the IRI value.

  16. Desien, ConstruThe design, fabrication and evaluation of egg weighing device using capacitive sensor and neural networksction and Evaluation of Egg Weighing Device Using Capacitive Sensor and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khalili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Grading agricultural products always has a particular important position for submission to domestic and overseas markets. The grading causes more profitable product ranges and customer satisfaction. Grading treatment is carried out based on various parameters such as color, ripeness level, dimensions and weight. Product weight is one of the most effective parameters in grading operation. Egg weight is directly related to the smallness and coarseness of eggs. In egg grading, the largeness value is very important in marketing. This research aimed to design, fabricate and evaluate the egg weighing system based on its dielectric properties. Materials and Methods: To perform this research, the stages of work are divided into several sections including, design and construction of the hardware section, writing code for the software section to collect data, conducting nondestructive tests and data collection, analysis of obtained data using artificial intelligence, and giving the results of analysis for device calibration of the system as the software code. The large eggs as dielectric substances cause more increase in the capacity of the capacitive sensor. Furthermore, by derivation of a relation between capacity of capacitive sensor and egg weight, one can predict the weight of the sample. A prototype unit of weighing system was designed and fabricated. The designed unit was composed of a chassis, a voltage source, a sinusoidal signal generator, a voltage measurement unit, an AVR micro controller, a COM port, a capacitive sensor, and an LCD and a keyboard. Neural network technique was used for egg weight prediction. The designed net receives 16 voltage values at different frequencies as inputs and its output is the egg weight. In order to calibrate and evaluate the weighing unit, 150 fresh egg samples were provided on egg laying day from a local poultry farm. Experiments were divided into three groups. The experiments were carried out on

  17. Comparative analysis of objective techniques for criteria weighing in two MCDM methods on example of an air conditioner selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujičić Momčilo D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with comparative analysis of two different types of objective techniques for criteria weighing: Entropy and CRITIC and two MCDM methods: MOORA and SAW on example of an air conditioner selection. We used six variants for calculation of normalized performance ratings. Results showed that the decision of the best air conditioner was basically independent of the MCDM method used, despite the applied technique for determination of criteria weights. Complete ranking within all of the combinations of methods and techniques with diverse ratio calculation variants showed that the best ranked air conditioner was A7, while the worst ones were A5 and A9. Significant positive correlation was obtained for almost all the pairs of variants in all the combinations except for the MOORA - CRITIC combination with SAW - Entropy combination to have the highest correlations between variants (p < 0.01.

  18. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  19. Challenges in device closure of a large patent ductus arteriosus in infants weighing less than 6 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalakshmi, I B; Chitra, Narasimhan; Praveen, Jayan; Prasanna, Simha Rao

    2013-02-01

    Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) has replaced surgery in most institutions. Despite improvements in techniques and the devices available, closure of large PDA in very small infants remains a challenge. To assess the challenges, feasibility, and efficacy of device closure of large PDA, in infants weighing ≤6 kg. Analysis of device closure of a PDA was done in 61 infants ≤6 kg. Their ages, ranged from 9 days-12 months (mean 8.9 months), weight ranged from 2.2 to 6 kg (mean 5.3 kg), and PDA measured 3.2-8.7 mm (mean 4.8 mm). The fluoroscopy time was 3-18 minutes. The largest device used was 12 × 10 mm. Successful device placement was achieved in 60/61 infants (98.4%). Mild aortic obstruction occurred in 2 cases (3.3%), as the device got displaced towards the aorta after release. The device embolized in 2 cases (3.3%). In one it was retrieved by a novel method like fastening the screw in the aorta and was closed with a 4 × 6 ADO II. In the other infant, with a single kidney, died of uremia after device retrieval. Mild left pulmonary artery (LPA) obstruction occurred in one case (1.6%). Four cases (6.6%) had minor vascular complications. The postprocedure weight gain after 3 months was between 2.5 kg ± 250 mg. Device closure of large PDA in infants weighing ≤6 kg with left ventricular failure is challenging but possible, safe and effective. Retrieval of embolized device could be tricky. © 2012, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The rational reconstruction of weighing and balancing on the basis of teleological-evaluative considerations in the justification of judicial decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feteris, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    In this contribution the author develops an argumentation model for the reconstruction of weighing and balancing on the basis of teleological-evaluative considerations. The model is intended as a heuristic and critical tool for the rational reconstruction of the justification of judicial decisions.

  1. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin

    2015-10-30

    In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  2. Modelling Truck Weigh Stations’ Locations based on Truck Traffic Flow and Overweight Violation: A Case Study in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirsad Kulović

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of registered commercial freight vehicles is constantly increasing, increasing therefore as well the traffic load on the roads in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A significant part of freight vehicles moving along the main and regional roads are overloaded and cause significant damage to road infrastructure, affect road safety and result in an increase of emissions of harmful gases for people and the environment. The overloading rate is extremely high, in particular with 5-axle trucks representing 58.7%. The research showed that the increased overload level ranges from 10-20% of the maximum permissible weight. The importance of load limits was recognized early in the history of road development. This interrelation led directly to limitations on vehicle loads, and laws were enacted in many countries to establish the maximum allowable motor vehicle sizes and weights. Strict enforcement of motor vehicle size and weight laws is a step toward reducing motor vehicle size and weight violations, heavy truck accidents, and, even more, improving road maintenance, rehabilitation expenditures and road safety. Thus, based on the applied model the objective of this paper is to evaluate and optimize the locations of truck weigh stations on the road network of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  3. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In a cognitive sensor network (CSN, the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF energy of the primary node (PN to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  4. Sampling optimization for high-speed weigh-in-motion measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) measurement has been widely used for weight enforcement, pavement design, freight management, and intelligent transportation systems to monitor traffic in real-time. However, to use such sensors effectively, vehicles must exit the traffic stream and slow down to match their current capabilities. Hence, agencies need devices with higher vehicle passing speed capabilities to enable continuous weight measurements at mainline speeds. The current practices for data acquisition at such high speeds are fragmented. Deployment configurations and settings depend mainly on the experiences of operation engineers. To assure adequate data, most practitioners use very high frequency measurements that result in redundant samples, thereby diminishing the potential for real-time processing. The larger data memory requirements from higher sample rates also increase storage and processing costs. The field lacks a sampling design or standard to guide appropriate data acquisition of high-speed WIM measurements. This study develops the appropriate sample rate requirements as a function of the vehicle speed. Simulations and field experiments validate the methods developed. The results will serve as guidelines for future high-speed WIM measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors. (paper)

  5. Further miniaturisation of the Thermochron iButton to create a thermal bio-logger weighing 0.3 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virens, Josef; Cree, Alison

    2018-06-05

    Thermochron iButtons are commonly used by thermal biologists to continuously measure body temperature from animals. However, if unmodified, these devices are of a size that limits their use with very small animals. To allow iButtons to be used to study smaller species, methods to miniaturise them by 61% have been previously described. We present a method to reduce iButton mass by a further 71%. The modified devices have a shorter battery life, but the minimum size of vertebrates able to carry the devices is reduced from 28.9 g to 6.6 g, if the arbitrary, yet widely cited, maximum of 5% body mass for attached devices is adhered to. We demonstrate the application of our method by recording surface temperatures of captive and wild skinks and show that captive cockroaches weighing 0.8 g are also able to carry the device. We believe this to be the first time that temperature data have been recorded from an insect in this way. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  6. Sampling optimization for high-speed weigh-in-motion measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) measurement has been widely used for weight enforcement, pavement design, freight management, and intelligent transportation systems to monitor traffic in real-time. However, to use such sensors effectively, vehicles must exit the traffic stream and slow down to match their current capabilities. Hence, agencies need devices with higher vehicle passing speed capabilities to enable continuous weight measurements at mainline speeds. The current practices for data acquisition at such high speeds are fragmented. Deployment configurations and settings depend mainly on the experiences of operation engineers. To assure adequate data, most practitioners use very high frequency measurements that result in redundant samples, thereby diminishing the potential for real-time processing. The larger data memory requirements from higher sample rates also increase storage and processing costs. The field lacks a sampling design or standard to guide appropriate data acquisition of high-speed WIM measurements. This study develops the appropriate sample rate requirements as a function of the vehicle speed. Simulations and field experiments validate the methods developed. The results will serve as guidelines for future high-speed WIM measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors.

  7. Mathematical evaluation of similarity factor using various weighing approaches on aceclofenac marketed formulations by model-independent method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, T G; Desai, J U; Nagda, C D; Gandhi, T R; Chotai, N P

    2008-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) guidance for industry on dissolution testing of immediate-release solid oral dosage forms describes that drug dissolution may be the rate limiting step for drug absorption in the case of low solubility/high permeability drugs (BCS class II drugs). US FDA Guidance describes the model-independent mathematical approach proposed by Moore and Flanner for calculating a similarity factor (f2) of dissolution across a suitable time interval. In the present study, the similarity factor was calculated on dissolution data of two marketed aceclofenac tablets (a BCS class II drug) using various weighing approaches proposed by Gohel et al. The proposed approaches were compared with a conventional approach (W = 1). On the basis of consideration of variability, preference is given in the order of approach 3 > approach 2 > approach 1 as approach 3 considers batch-to-batch as well as within-samples variability and shows best similarity profile. Approach 2 considers batch-to batch variability with higher specificity than approach 1.

  8. Counting and Weighing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf; Rezetko, Robert; Young, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The intuition of established scholars often holds them back from appreciating revolutionary advances in the understanding of how the biblical texts evolved and how to view their language in that context. Kuhn’s theory of paradigm shifts helps elucidate what is currently going on in our field. We...

  9. Students 'Weigh' Atmospheric Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaloni, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Describes a procedure developed by students that measures the mass concentration of particles in a polluted urban atmosphere. Uses a portable fan and filters of various materials. Compares students' data with official data. (DDR)

  10. Weighing halo nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunney, D.

    2009-01-01

    Weak binding energy is one of the fundamental criteria characterizing the unique properties of nuclear halos. As such, it must be known with great accuracy and is best obtained through direct mass measurements. The global mass market is now a competitive one. Of the many investment vehicles, the Penning trap has emerged as providing the best rate of return and reliability. We examine mass-market trends, highlighting the recent cases of interest. We also hazard a prediction for the halo futures market. (author)

  11. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    VLT Finds Young, Very Low Mass Objects Are Twice As Heavy As Predicted Summary Thanks to the powerful new high-contrast camera installed at the Very Large Telescope, photos have been obtained of a low-mass companion very close to a star. This has allowed astronomers to measure directly the mass of a young, very low mass object for the first time. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its host star, is still 93 times as massive as Jupiter. And it appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be. This discovery therefore suggests that, due to errors in the models, astronomers may have overestimated the number of young "brown dwarfs" and "free floating" extrasolar planets. PR Photo 03/05: Near-infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion (NACO SDI/VLT) A winning combination A star can be characterised by many parameters. But one is of uttermost importance: its mass. It is the mass of a star that will decide its fate. It is thus no surprise that astronomers are keen to obtain a precise measure of this parameter. This is however not an easy task, especially for the least massive ones, those at the border between stars and brown dwarf objects. Brown dwarfs, or "failed stars", are objects which are up to 75 times more massive than Jupiter, too small for major nuclear fusion processes to have ignited in its interior. To determine the mass of a star, astronomers generally look at the motion of stars in a binary system. And then apply the same method that allows determining the mass of the Earth, knowing the distance of the Moon and the time it takes for its satellite to complete one full orbit (the so-called "Kepler's Third Law"). In the same way, they have also measured the mass of the Sun by knowing the Earth-Sun distance and the time - one year - it takes our planet to make a tour around the Sun. The problem with low-mass objects is that they are very faint and will often be hidden in the glare of the brighter star they orbit, also when viewed in large telescopes. Astronomers have however found ways to overcome this difficulty. For this, they rely on a combination of a well-considered observational strategy with state-of-the-art instruments. High contrast camera First, astronomers searching for very low mass objects look at young nearby stars because low-mass companion objects will be brightest while they are young, before they contract and cool off. In this particular case, an international team of astronomers [1] led by Laird Close (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona), studied the star AB Doradus A (AB Dor A). This star is located about 48 light-years away and is "only" 50 million years old. Because the position in the sky of AB Dor A "wobbles", due to the gravitational pull of a star-like object, it was believed since the early 1990s that AB Dor A must have a low-mass companion. To photograph this companion and obtain a comprehensive set of data about it, Close and his colleagues used a novel instrument on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. This new high-contrast adaptive optics camera, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI [2], was specifically developed by Laird Close and Rainer Lenzen (Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany) for hunting extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. A world premiere ESO PR Photo 03/05 ESO PR Photo 03/05 Infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 406 pix - 99k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 812 pix - 235k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 03/05 is an enhanced, false-colour near-infrared image of AB Dor A and C. The faint companion "AB Dor C" - seen as the pink dot at 8 o'clock - is 120 times fainter than its primary star. The tiny separation between A and C, only 0.156 arcsec, is smaller than a one Euro coin seen at 20 km distance. Nevertheless, the new NACO SDI camera was able to distinguish it as a "redder" dot surrounded by the "bluer" light from AB Dor A. The orbit of AB Dor C around AB Dor A is shown as a yellow ellipse. It takes 11.75 years for the 93 Jupiter-mass companion to complete this orbit. Turning this camera towards AB Dor A in February 2004, they were able for the first time to image a companion so faint - 120 times fainter than its star - and so near its star. Says Markus Hartung (ESO), member of the team: "This world premiere was only possible because of the unique capabilities of the NACO SDI instrument on the VLT. In fact, the Hubble Space Telescope tried but failed to detect the companion, as it was too faint and too close to the glare of the primary star." The tiny distance between the star and the faint companion (0.156 arcsec) is the same as the width of a one Euro coin (2.3 cm) when seen 20 km away. The companion, called AB Dor C, was seen at a distance of 2.3 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. It completes a cycle around its host star in 11.75 years on a rather eccentric orbit. Using the companion's exact location, along with the star's known 'wobble', the astronomers could then accurately determine the companion's mass. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its close primary star, has one tenth of the mass of its host star, i.e., it is 93 times more massive than Jupiter. It is thus slightly above the brown dwarf limit. Using NACO on the VLT, the astronomers further observed AB Dor C at near infrared wavelengths to measure its temperature and luminosity. "We were surprised to find that the companion was 400 degrees (Celsius) cooler and 2.5 times fainter than the most recent models predict for an object of this mass," Close said. "Theory predicts that this low-mass, cool object would be about 50 Jupiter masses. But theory is incorrect: this object is indeed between 88 to 98 Jupiter masses." These new findings therefore challenge current ideas about the brown dwarf population and the possible existence of widely publicized "free-floating" extrasolar planets. Indeed, if young objects hitherto identified as brown dwarfs are twice as massive as was thought, many must rather be low-mass stars. And objects recently identified as "free-floating" planets are in turn likely to be low-mass brown dwarfs. For Close and his colleagues, "this discovery will force astronomers to rethink what masses of the smallest objects produced in nature really are."

  12. Eat More, Weigh Less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aim for a slow, steady weight loss by decreasing calorie intake while maintaining an adequate nutrient intake and increasing physical activity. You can cut calories without eating less nutritious ...

  13. Weighing the antiproton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayano, Ryugo S., E-mail: hayano@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    Antiprotonic helium is a metastable three-body neutral atom consisting of an antiproton, a helium nucleus and an electron, which we serendipitously discovered some 20 years ago. The antiproton, which normally annihilates within a few picoseconds when injected into matter, can be 'stored' in this system for up to several microseconds, and laser spectroscopy is possible within this time window. From the laser transition frequency, the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio can be deduced to high precision. Recent progress at CERN's antiproton decelerator (AD) will be discussed.

  14. Computational methods using weighed-extreme learning machine to predict protein self-interactions with protein evolutionary information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ji-Yong; Zhang, Lei; Zhou, Yong; Zhao, Yu-Jun; Wang, Da-Fu

    2017-08-18

    Self-interactions Proteins (SIPs) is important for their biological activity owing to the inherent interaction amongst their secondary structures or domains. However, due to the limitations of experimental Self-interactions detection, one major challenge in the study of prediction SIPs is how to exploit computational approaches for SIPs detection based on evolutionary information contained protein sequence. In the work, we presented a novel computational approach named WELM-LAG, which combined the Weighed-Extreme Learning Machine (WELM) classifier with Local Average Group (LAG) to predict SIPs based on protein sequence. The major improvement of our method lies in presenting an effective feature extraction method used to represent candidate Self-interactions proteins by exploring the evolutionary information embedded in PSI-BLAST-constructed position specific scoring matrix (PSSM); and then employing a reliable and robust WELM classifier to carry out classification. In addition, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) approach is used to reduce the impact of noise. The WELM-LAG method gave very high average accuracies of 92.94 and 96.74% on yeast and human datasets, respectively. Meanwhile, we compared it with the state-of-the-art support vector machine (SVM) classifier and other existing methods on human and yeast datasets, respectively. Comparative results indicated that our approach is very promising and may provide a cost-effective alternative for predicting SIPs. In addition, we developed a freely available web server called WELM-LAG-SIPs to predict SIPs. The web server is available at http://219.219.62.123:8888/WELMLAG/ .

  15. Jeans that fit: weighing the mass of the Milky Way analogues in the ΛCDM universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, Prajwal R.; Sharma, Sanjib; Robotham, Aaron S. G.; Elahi, Pascal J.; Driver, Simon P.

    2018-04-01

    The spherical Jeans equation is a widely used tool for dynamical study of gravitating systems in astronomy. Here, we test its efficacy in robustly weighing the mass of Milky Way analogues, given they need not be in equilibrium or even spherical. Utilizing Milky Way stellar haloes simulated in accordance with Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmology by Bullock and Johnston and analysing them under the Jeans formalism, we recover the underlying mass distribution of the parent galaxy, within distance r/kpc ∈ [10, 100], with a bias of ˜ 12 per cent and a dispersion of ˜ 14 per cent. Additionally, the mass profiles of triaxial dark matter haloes taken from the SURFS simulation, within scaled radius 0.2 < r/rmax < 3, are measured with a bias of ˜ - 2.4 per cent and a dispersion of ˜ 10 per cent. The obtained dispersion is not because of Poisson noise due to small particle numbers as it is twice the later. We interpret the dispersion to be due to the inherent nature of the ΛCDM haloes, for example being aspherical and out-of-equilibrium. Hence, the dispersion obtained for stellar haloes sets a limit of about 12 per cent (after adjusting for random uncertainty) on the accuracy with which the mass profiles of the Milky Way-like galaxies can be reconstructed using the spherical Jeans equation. This limit is independent of the quantity and quality of the observational data. The reason for a non-zero bias is not clear, hence its interpretation is not obvious at this stage.

  16. Highly sensitive, reproducible and stable SERS substrate based on reduced graphene oxide/silver nanoparticles coated weighing paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Guina, E-mail: xiaoguina@shnu.edu.cn; Li, Yunxiang; Shi, Wangzhou; Shen, Leo; Chen, Qi; Huang, Lei, E-mail: leihuang@shnu.edu.cn

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • We developed a paper-based SERS substrate by gravure and inkjet printing methods. • The S-RGO/AgNPs comoposite structure had higher SERS activity than the pure AgNPs. • The Raman enhancement factor of S-RGO/AgNPs substrate was calculated to be 10{sup 9}. • The paper-based substrate exhibited good reproducibility and long-term stability. - Abstract: Paper-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates receive a great deal of attention due to low cost and high flexibility. Herein, we developed an efficient SERS substrate by gravure printing of sulfonated reduced graphene-oxide (S-RGO) thin film and inkjet printing of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on weighing paper successively. Malachite green (MG) and rhodamine 6G (R6G) were chosen as probe molecules to evaluate the enhanced performance of the fabricated SERS-active substrates. It was found that the S-RGO/AgNPs composite structure possessed higher enhancement ability than the pure AgNPs. The Raman enhancement factor of S-RGO/AgNPs was calculated to be as large as 10{sup 9}. The minimum detection limit for MG and R6G was down to 10{sup −7} M with good linear responses (R{sup 2} = 0.9996, 0.9983) range from 10{sup −4} M to 10{sup −7} M. In addition, the S-RGO/AgNPs exhibited good uniformity with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 7.90% measured by 572 points, excellent reproducibility with RSD smaller than 3.36%, and long-term stability with RSD less than 7.19%.

  17. Diet-related greenhouse gas emissions assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and validated using 7-day weighed food records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjörs, Camilla; Raposo, Sara E; Sjölander, Arvid; Bälter, Olle; Hedenus, Fredrik; Bälter, Katarina

    2016-02-09

    The current food system generates about 25 % of total greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE), including deforestation, and thereby substantially contributes to the warming of the earth's surface. To understand the association between food and nutrient intake and GHGE, we therefore need valid methods to assess diet-related GHGE in observational studies. Life cycle assessment (LCA) studies assess the environmental impact of different food items. We linked LCA data expressed as kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per kg food product to data on food intake assessed by the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) Meal-Q and validated it against a 7-day weighed food record (WFR). 166 male and female volunteers aged 20-63 years completed Meal-Q and the WFR, and their food intake was linked to LCA data. The mean GHGE assessed with Meal-Q was 3.76 kg CO2e per day and person, whereas it was 5.04 kg CO2e using the WFR. The energy-adjusted and deattenuated Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients were 0.68 and 0.70, respectively. Moreover, compared to the WFR, Meal-Q provided a good ranking ability, with 90 % of the participants classified into the same or adjacent quartile according to their daily average CO2e. The Bland-Altman plot showed an acceptable level of agreement between the two methods and the reproducibility of Meal-Q was high. This is the first study validating the assessment of diet-related GHGE by a questionnaire. The results suggest that Meal-Q is a useful tool for studying the link between food habits and CO2e in future epidemiological studies.

  18. Weighing the value of memory loss in the surgical evaluation of left temporal lobe epilepsy: a decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akama-Garren, Elliot H; Bianchi, Matt T; Leveroni, Catherine; Cole, Andrew J; Cash, Sydney S; Westover, M Brandon

    2014-11-01

    Anterior temporal lobectomy is curative for many patients with disabling medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy, but carries an inherent risk of disabling verbal memory loss. Although accurate prediction of iatrogenic memory loss is becoming increasingly possible, it remains unclear how much weight such predictions should have in surgical decision making. Here we aim to create a framework that facilitates a systematic and integrated assessment of the relative risks and benefits of surgery versus medical management for patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy. We constructed a Markov decision model to evaluate the probabilistic outcomes and associated health utilities associated with choosing to undergo a left anterior temporal lobectomy versus continuing with medical management for patients with medically refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy. Three base-cases were considered, representing a spectrum of surgical candidates encountered in practice, with varying degrees of epilepsy-related disability and potential for decreased quality of life in response to post-surgical verbal memory deficits. For patients with moderately severe seizures and moderate risk of verbal memory loss, medical management was the preferred decision, with increased quality-adjusted life expectancy. However, the preferred choice was sensitive to clinically meaningful changes in several parameters, including quality of life impact of verbal memory decline, quality of life with seizures, mortality rate with medical management, probability of remission following surgery, and probability of remission with medical management. Our decision model suggests that for patients with left temporal lobe epilepsy, quantitative assessment of risk and benefit should guide recommendation of therapy. In particular, risk for and potential impact of verbal memory decline should be carefully weighed against the degree of disability conferred by continued seizures on a patient-by-patient basis. Wiley

  19. Percutaneous closure of a large patent ductus arteriosus in a preterm newborn weighing 1400 g without using arterial sheath: an innovative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Gaurav; Garg, Vishal; Prakash, Amit

    2018-03-01

    Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus is well established in infants weighing >5 kg, but data regarding outcome of preterm especially very low birth weight infants is minimal. Although surgical ligation of patent ductus arteriosus is the preferred and well-accepted modality of treatment after failure of drug therapy in preterm infants, it has also got its own demerits in such a small and fragile subset. Device closure in infants weighing closure of large patent ductus arteriosus. Percutaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus was done successfully and the infant was discharged on room air with a weight of 1.8 kg. We present here an innovative technique in which successful patent ductus arteriosus device closure was done in a 1.4-kg infant without using arterial sheath.

  20. Community based weighing of newborns and use of mobile phones by village elders in rural settings in Kenya: a decentralised approach to health care provision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisore Peter

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying every pregnancy, regardless of home or health facility delivery, is crucial to accurately estimating maternal and neonatal mortality. Furthermore, obtaining birth weights and other anthropometric measurements in rural settings in resource limited countries is a difficult challenge. Unfortunately for the majority of infants born outside of a health care facility, pregnancies are often not recorded and birth weights are not accurately known. Data from the initial 6 months of the Maternal and Neonatal Health (MNH Registry Study of the Global Network for Women and Children's Health study area in Kenya revealed that up to 70% of newborns did not have exact weights measured and recorded by the end of the first week of life; nearly all of these infants were born outside health facilities. Methods To more completely obtain accurate birth weights for all infants, regardless of delivery site, village elders were engaged to assist in case finding for pregnancies and births. All elders were provided with weighing scales and mobile phones as tools to assist in subject enrollment and data recording. Subjects were instructed to bring the newborn infant to the home of the elder as soon as possible after birth for weight measurement. The proportion of pregnancies identified before delivery and the proportion of births with weights measured were compared before and after provision of weighing scales and mobile phones to village elders. Primary outcomes were the percent of infants with a measured birth weight (recorded within 7 days of birth and the percent of women enrolled before delivery. Results The recorded birth weight increased from 43 ± 5.7% to 97 ± 1.1. The birth weight distributions between infants born and weighed in a health facility and those born at home and weighed by village elders were similar. In addition, a significant increase in the percent of subjects enrolled before delivery was found. Conclusions Pregnancy

  1. Semiportable load-cell-based weighing system prototype of 18.14-metric-ton (20-ton) capacity for UF6 cylinder weight verifications: description and testing procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAuley, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    The 18.14-metric-ton-capacity (20-ton) Load-Cell-Based Weighing System (LCBWS) prototype tested at the Oak Ridge (Tennessee) Gaseous Diffusion Plant March 20-30, 1984, is semiportable and has the potential for being highly accurate. Designed by Brookhaven National Laboratory, it can be moved to cylinders for weighing as opposed to the widely used operating philosophy of most enrichment facilities of moving cylinders to stationary accountability scales. Composed mainly of commercially available, off-the-shelf hardware, the system's principal elements are two load cells that sense the weight (i.e., force) of a uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) cylinder suspended from the LCBWS while the cylinder is in the process of being weighed. Portability is achieved by its attachment to a double-hook, overhead-bridge crane. The LCBWS prototype is designed to weigh 9.07- and 12.70-metric ton (10- and 14-ton) UF 6 cylinders. A detailed description of the LCBWS is given, design information and criteria are supplied, a testing procedure is outlined, and initial test results are reported. A major objective of the testing is to determine the reliability and accuracy of the system. Other testing objectives include the identification of (1) potential areas for system improvements and (2) procedural modifications that will reflect an improved and more efficient system. The testing procedure described includes, but is not limited to, methods that account for temperature sensitivity of the instrumentation, the local variation in the acceleration due to gravity, and buoyance effects. Operational and safety considerations are noted. A preliminary evaluation of the March test data indicates that the LCBWS prototype has the potential to have an accuracy in the vicinity of 1 kg

  2. A MultiFactorial Risk Score to weigh toxicities and co-morbidities relative to costs of antiretrovirals in a cohort of HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    M Tontodonati; F Sozio; F Vadini; E Polilli; T Ursini; G Calella; P Di Stefano; E Mazzotta; A Costantini; C D'Amario; G Parruti

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Considering costs of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV patients is increasingly needed. A simple and comprehensive tool weighing comorbidities and ARV-related toxicities could be useful to judge the appropriateness of use of more expensive drugs. We conceived a MultiFactorial Risk Score (MFRS) to evaluate the appropriateness of ARVs prescription relative to their costs. Methods: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled in 2010-2011. We considered socio-demographic character...

  3. Effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement in a developing country using weigh-in-motion sorting system considering vehicle by-pass and enforcement capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle overloading has been identified as one of the major contributors to road pavement damage in Malaysia. In this study, the weigh-in-motion (WIM system has been used to function as a vehicle weight sorting tool to complement the exsiting static weigh bridge enforcement station. Data collected from the developed system is used to explore the effectiveness of using WIM system in terms of generating more accurate data for enforcement purposes and at the same time improving safety and reducing the number of vehicle weight violations on the roads. This study specifically focus on the effect of vehicle by-pass and static weigh station enforcement capability on the overall effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement system in a developing country. Results from this study suggest that the WIM system will significantly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the current vehicle weight enforcement, thus generating substantial revenue that would greatly off-set the current road maintenance budget that comes from tax payers money. If there is substantial reduction in overloaded vehicles, the public will still gain through reduction in road maintenance budget, less accident risks involving heavy trucks, and lesser greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  4. Validity of hydration non-invasive indices during the weightcutting and official weigh-in for Olympic combat sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Martínez-Abellán, Alberto; López-Gullón, José María; Morán-Navarro, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G; De la Cruz-Sánchez, Ernesto; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In Olympic combat sports, weight cutting is a common practice aimed to take advantage of competing in weight divisions below the athlete's normal weight. Fluid and food restriction in combination with dehydration (sauna and/or exercise induced profuse sweating) are common weight cut methods. However, the resultant hypohydration could adversely affect health and performance outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine which of the routinely used non-invasive measures of dehydration best track urine osmolality, the gold standard non-invasive test. Immediately prior to the official weigh-in of three National Championships, the hydration status of 345 athletes of Olympic combat sports (i.e., taekwondo, boxing and wrestling) was determined using five separate techniques: i) urine osmolality (UOSM), ii) urine specific gravity (USG), iii) urine color (UCOL), iv) bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and v) thirst perception scale (TPS). All techniques were correlated with UOSM divided into three groups: euhydrated (G1; UOSM 250-700 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), dehydrated (G2; UOSM 701-1080 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), and severely dehydrated (G3; UOSM 1081-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)). We found a positive high correlation between the UOSM and USG (r = 0.89: p = 0.000), although this relationship lost strength as dehydration increased (G1 r = 0.92; G2 r = 0.73; and G3 r = 0.65; p = 0.000). UCOL showed a moderate although significant correlation when considering the whole sample (r = 0.743: p = 0.000) and G1 (r = 0.702: p = 0.000) but low correlation for the two dehydrated groups (r = 0.498-0.398). TPS and BIA showed very low correlation sizes for all groups assessed. In a wide range of pre-competitive hydration status (UOSM 250-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1)), USG is highly associated with UOSM while being a more affordable and easy to use technique. UCOL is a suitable tool when USG is not available. However, BIA or TPS are not sensitive enough to detect hypohydration at official weight

  5. Kangaroo mother care for clinically unstable neonates weighing ≤2000 g: Is it feasible at a hospital in Uganda?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Melissa C; Nambuya, Harriet; Waiswa, Peter; Tann, Cally; Elbourne, Diana; Seeley, Janet; Allen, Elizabeth; Lawn, Joy E

    2018-06-01

    /peer counselling, resources, family support, and community outreach. There remains a need for an evidence-based approach to consistently define stability criteria for KMC to improve care. We found that KMC for unstable neonates weighing ≤2000g was feasible and acceptable at Jinja Hospital in Uganda. Randomised controlled trials are needed to demonstrate the effect of KMC on survival among unstable neonates in low-resource settings.

  6. Transcatheter occlusion of the patent ductus arteriosus in premature infants weighing less than 1200 g.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morville, Patrice; Douchin, Stephanie; Bouvaist, Helene; Dauphin, Claire

    2018-05-01

    Over the last few decades different strategies have been proposed to treat persistent ductal patency in premature infants. The advent of the Amplatzer Duct Occluder II Additional Size (ADOIIAS) provided the potential to close the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Opinions differ on the significance and treatment of PDA in premature neonates. Because surgical ligation and medical therapy both have their drawbacks, interventional catheterisation can be considered as an alternative means of closing the ductus arteriosus. Our aim was to analyse the feasibility, safety and efficacy of this device in premature infants weighing closure. The procedure was performed in the catheterisation laboratory by venous cannulation without angiography. The position of the occluder was directed by X-ray and ultrasound. We looked at procedural details, device size selection, complications and short-term and mid-term outcomes. Eighteen infants born at gestational ages ranging between 23.6 and 29+6 weeks (mean±SD 25+6±3 weeks) underwent transcatheter PDA closure. Their mean age and weight at the time of the procedure was 20 days (range 8-44 days) and 980 g (range 680-1200 g), respectively. The mean PDA and device waist diameters were 3.2±0.6 mm (range 2.2-4 mm) and 4.5±0.6 mm, respectively, and the mean PDA and device lengths were 4.3±1.2 mm (range 2-10 mm) and 2.5±0.9 mm, respectively. Complete closure was achieved in all but one patient. There was no device migration. One patient developed a left pulmonary artery obstruction. Three infants died. Two deaths were related to complications of prematurity and one to the procedure. Transcatheter closure of a PDA is feasible in very low weight infants with ADOIIAS and is an alternative to surgery. Success requires perfect selection and placement of the occluder. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless

  7. Hemolysis During Open-Heart Surgery With Vacuum-Assisted Venous Drainage at Different Negative Pressures in Pediatric Patients Weighing Less Than 10 kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jae Gun; Lee, Jinkwon; Park, Minkyoung; Seo, Yu-Jin; Lee, Chang-Ha

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the degree of hemolysis during vacuum-assisted venous drainage at different negative pressures to identify an adequate negative pressure that provides effective venous drainage without significant hemolysis in open-heart surgery in children weighing less than 10 kg. Patients weighing less than 10 kg who underwent surgery for ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect from 2011 to 2014 were enrolled. We used one of four negative pressures (20, 30, 40, or 60 mm Hg) for each patient. We measured haptoglobin, plasma hemoglobin, aspartate aminotransferase, and lactate dehydrogenase levels in the patients' blood three times perioperatively and determined the potential correlation between the change in each parameter with the level of negative pressure. Forty-six patients were enrolled in this study (mean age: 7.1 ± 7.0 months, mean body weight: 6.1 ± 1.8 kg). There were no significant differences according to the degree of negative pressure with respect to patient age, body weight, cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time, aorta cross-clamping time, blood flow during CPB, or lowest body temperature. All parameters that we measured reflected progression of hemolysis during CPB; however, the degree of change in the parameters did not correlate with negative pressure. In pediatric patients weighing less than 10 kg, the change in the degree of hemolysis did not differ with the amount of negative pressure. We may apply negative pressures up to 60 mm Hg without increasing the risk of hemolysis, with almost same the level of hemolysis using negative pressures of 20, 30, and 40 mm Hg for effective venous drainage and an ideal operative field during open-heart surgery.

  8. Demonstration and evaluation of the 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system, Eldorado Resources, Ltd., Port Hope, Ontario, September 3-4, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooley, J.N.; Huxford, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    On September 3 and 4, 1986, the prototype 20-ton-capacity load-cell-based weighing system (LCBWS) developed by the US Enrichment Safeguards Program (ESP) at Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., was field tested at the Eldorado Resources, Ltd., (ERL) facility in Port Hope, Ontario. The 20-ton-capacity LCBWS has been designed and fabricated for use by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for verifying the masses of large-capacity UF 6 cylinders during IAEA safeguards inspections at UF 6 handling facilities. The purpose of the Canadian field test was to demonstrate and to evaluate with IAEA inspectorates and with UF 6 bulk handling facility operators at Eldorado the principles, procedures, and hardware associated with using the 20-ton-capacity LCBWS as a portable means for verifying the masses of 10- and 14-ton UF 6 cylinders. Session participants included representatives from the IAEA, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Eldorado Resources, Ltd., the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB), and the International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Appendix A presents the list of participants and their organization affiliation. The two-day field test involved a formal briefing by ESP staff, two cylinder weighing sessions, IAEA critiques of the LCBWS hardware and software, and concluding discussions on the field performance of the system. Appendix B cites the meeting agenda. Summarized in this report are (1) the technical information presented by the system developers, (2) results from the weighing sessions, and (3) observations, suggestions, and concluding statements from meeting participants

  9. Transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus in children weighing 10 kg or less: Initial experience at Sohag University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Safaa; El Sisi, Amel

    2016-04-01

    To assess the challenges, feasibility, and efficacy of device closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in small children weighing ⩽10 kg for different types of devices used in an initial experience at Sohag University hospital. Between March 2011 and September 2014, 91 patients with PDA underwent transcatheter closure in our institute, among whom 54 weighed ⩽10 kg. All of these patients underwent transcatheter closure of PDA using either a Cook Detachable Coil, PFM Nit-Occlud, or Amplatzer duct occluder. A retrospective review of the treatment results and adverse events was performed. Successful device placement was achieved in 53/54 small children (98.1%). The median minimum PDA diameter was 2.4 mm [interquartile range (IQR, 1.8-3.5 mm), median weight 8 kg (IQR, 7-10 kg), and median age 10 months (IQR, 8-17 months)]. Mild aortic obstruction occurred in one case (1.9%), as the device became displaced towards the aorta after release. The device embolized in one case (1.9%) and no retrieval attempt was made. Five cases (9.3%) had minor vascular complications. With the current availability of devices for PDA closure, transcatheter closure of PDA is considered safe and efficacious in small children weighing ⩽10 kg with good mid-term outcome. The procedure had a low rate of high-severity adverse events even with the initial experience of the catheterization laboratory.

  10. Outcomes of systemic to pulmonary artery shunts in patients weighing less than 3 kg: analysis of shunt type, size, and surgical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John W; Ghanayem, Nancy S; Cao, Yumei; Simpson, Pippa; Trapp, Katie; Mitchell, Michael E; Tweddell, James S; Woods, Ronald K

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate outcomes of systemic to pulmonary artery shunts (SPS) in patients weighing less than 3 kg with regard to shunt type, shunt size, and surgical approach. Patients weighing less than 3 kg who underwent modified Blalock-Taussig or central shunts with polytetrafluoroethylene grafts at our institution from January 1, 2000, to May 31, 2011, were reviewed. Patients who had undergone other major concomitant procedures were excluded from the analysis. Primary outcomes included mortality (discharge mortality and mortality before next planned palliative procedure or definitive repair), cardiac arrest and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), and shunt reintervention. In this cohort of 80 patients, discharge survival was 96% (77/80). Postoperative cardiac arrest or ECMO occurred in 6/80 (7.5%), and shunt reintervention was required in 14/80 (17%). On univariate analysis, shunt reintervention was more common in patients with 3-mm shunts (11/30, 37%) compared with 3.5-mm (2/36, 6%) or 4-mm shunts (1/14, 7%) (P approach and cardiac arrest/ECMO or mortality. Multiple logistic regression demonstrated that a shunt size of 3 mm (P = .019) and extracardiac anomaly (P = .047) were associated with shunt reintervention, whereas no variable was associated with cardiac arrest/ECMO or mortality. In this high-risk group of neonates weighing less than 3 kg at the time of SPS, survival to discharge and the next planned surgical procedure was high. Outcomes were good with the 3.5- and 4-mm shunts; however, shunt reintervention was common with 3-mm shunts. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Belt deviation and its solution of belt weighing feeder machine%皮带称重绐料机皮带跑偏问题殁对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣轩

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the reasons of common belt deviation problems during the using of belt weighing feeder machine, and combining practical work experience, proposed its solutions.%本文就皮带称重给料机在使用过程中常见的皮带跑偏问题进行了原因分析,并结合本人多年的工作实践经验,提出其相应的解决办法。

  12. Quantitative control of belt weighing feeder quick loading system%定量控制皮带称重式给料机快速装车系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣轩

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a kind of belt weighing feeder quantitative control technology, which realizes the bulk material rapid loading design and widely used in coal metallurgy, chemical industry, building materials industry.%本文介绍了一种对皮带称重式给料机进行定量控制技术,实现散状物料快速装车的设计方案,广泛适用于煤炭、冶金、化工和建材等行业。

  13. The ALICE collaboration has just conducted one of its most spectacular transport operations to date: structures weighing several tonnes are moved with millimetric precision

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration has just lifted the dipole of the muon spectrometer and reassembled it on the other side of the huge solenoid magnet. This incredible feat involved lifting no fewer than 900 tonnes of equipment over the red octagonal yoke inherited from the L3 experiment at a height of 18 metres. A special lifting gantry weighing 5 tonnes had to be developed to move and install the coils. Huge clamps, which can be seen at the front, were used to rotate these enormous 32-tonne components. The whole assembly was raised to the cavern ceiling using an overhead travelling crane. With just 3 centimetres to spare below and 2 centimetres above, there was just enough room for the coil to pass. The operation required the overhead travelling crane to be operated with extreme precision. The coil was then placed on a 4.5-metre-high platform on the other side of the magnet.

  14. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cathyln Atukunda

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241. Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6% developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0% had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85% in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

  15. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu eHung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar or unknown (unfamiliar to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-year-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch, English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch, English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch, or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch. They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., Can you give me the blicket? Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting

  16. Estimation of caffeine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d weighed diet records based on a food composition database newly developed for Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies in Western populations have linked caffeine intake with health status. While detailed dietary assessment studies in these populations have shown that the main contributors to caffeine intake are coffee and tea, the wide consumption of Japanese and Chinese teas in Japan suggests that sources of intake in Japan may differ from those in Western populations. Among these teas, moreover, caffeine content varies widely among the different forms consumed (brewed, canned or bottled), suggesting the need for detailed dietary assessment in estimating intake in Japanese populations. Here, because a caffeine composition database or data obtained from detailed dietary assessment have not been available, we developed a database for caffeine content in Japanese foods and beverages, and then used it to estimate intake in a Japanese population. The caffeine food composition database was developed using analytic values from the literature, 16 d weighed diet records were collected, and caffeine intake was estimated from the 16 d weighed diet records. Four areas in Japan, Osaka (Osaka City), Okinawa (Ginowan City), Nagano (Matsumoto City) and Tottori (Kurayoshi City), between November 2002 and September 2003. Two hundred and thirty Japanese adults aged 30-69 years. Mean caffeine intake was 256.2 mg/d for women and 268.3 mg/d for men. The major contributors to intake were Japanese and Chinese teas and coffee (47 % each). Caffeine intake above 400 mg/d, suggested in reviews to possibly have negative health effects, was seen in 11 % of women and 15 % of men. In this Japanese population, caffeine intake was comparable to the estimated values reported in Western populations.

  17. Retinopatía de la prematuridad en el neonato con peso menor de 1 500 g Retinopathy of prematurity in neonate weighing less than 1 500 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fernández Ragi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La retinopatía del prematuro (ROP es una retinopatía neovascular que se desarrolla hasta en el 84 % de los niños prematuros. Es inversamente proporcional al peso y a la edad gestacional y muy frecuente en el menor de 1500 g. El objetivo de esta investigación fue conocer la incidencia de retinopatía de la prematuridad en los neonatos de menos de 1500 g de peso, así como algunos factores asociados. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo longitudinal en el cual se incluyeron 31 neonatos con peso menor de 1500 g, ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos neonatales del Hospital «Iván Portuondo» entre enero del 2004 y diciembre del 2008. No se incluyeron los fallecidos en ese período. En todos los casos se realizaron pesquisas de ROP. Se tomó en cuenta el sexo y la edad gestacional menor de 36 semanas. Se valoraron algunos factores de riesgo para ROP. RESULTADOS. Se encontró ROP en el 25,8 % de los 31 neonatos: el 6,5 % con ROP I Y ROP II, el 9,7 % con ROP III y el 3,2 % con ROP IV. Se encontró retina inmadura en el 74,2 % de los pacientes. El 9,7 % de los casos y el paciente con grado IV recibieron tratamiento quirúrgico con rayos láser. Se encontró mayor incidencia en el sexo masculino y factores asociados como la dificultad respiratoria y la ventilación, en el 75 % de los casos. CONCLUSIÓN. La incidencia de ROP fue baja en comparación con los resultados de otros estudios.INTRODUCTION: Retinopathy of prematurity (RP is a neovascular retinopathy developing in the 84 % of premature infants. It is proportional in inverse order to weight and to gestational age and its frequent in an infant weighing less than 1500 g. The aim of present research was to know the prematurity retinopathy incidence in neonates weighing less than 1500 g, s well as some related factors. METHODS: A longitudinal and prospective study was conducted including 31 neonates weighing less than 1500 g, admitted in neonatal intensive care

  18. Application of gamma spectrometry technique in combination with weighing for material balance taking in the production of highly enriched U-A1 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serin, P.A.

    1975-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to obtain the data on material balance for a batch of highly enriched U-Al alloys (used in the NRX and NRU reactors) during production of fuel, using gamma spectrometry (mainly the 186 KeV photopeak) and weighing, and to determine operational data of the Agency's single channel stabilized spectrometer (SAM-1) for measurement of the product typical for the production of highly enriched U-Al fuel (U-Al billets, fuel elements, scrap). The data collected indicates that gamma spectrometry using the single channel stabilized spectrometer is a valid non-destructive method of determining quantitatively U-235 content of U-Al alloy in the form of cast billets or extruded fuel elements providing that adequate standards are available. An accuracy of better than + 1% relative can be obtained using a simple jig to provide reproducible counting geometry. Count rates should be kept well below the saturation level of the detector and counter, preferably by a lead collimator in front of the detector. This non-destructive method is not easily applicable to scrap because of the inability to maintain constant geometry and to prepare standards closely similar in size and shape to the samples

  19. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eriksen

    Full Text Available Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013 across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680 and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891. Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  20. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface. PMID:25494041

  1. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C M; Carson, Henry S; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J; Borerro, Jose C; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  2. Chubby children; weighing the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, M. van

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis aimed to describe the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors, (which are predictive for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease) among overweight/obese children with or without type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Also, we aimed to assess the prevalence of the

  3. Weighing in on Dietary Fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to simply reduce your portion sizes. “Choose more lean meats, like poultry without the skin. Eat more ... and Use the Nutrition Facts Label (FDA) NIH Office of Communications and Public Liaison Building 31, Room ...

  4. Not all Anchors Weigh Equally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenstein, Michael; Velazquez, Alexandra

    2017-11-01

    The anchoring bias is a reliable effect wherein a person's judgments are affected by initially presented information, but it is unknown specifically why this effect occurs. Research examining this bias suggests that elements of both numeric and semantic priming may be involved. To examine this, the present research used a phenomenon wherein people treat numeric information presented differently in Arabic numeral or verbal formats. We presented participants with one of many forms of an anchor that represented the same value (e.g., twelve hundred or 1,200). Thus, we could examine how a concept's meaning and its absolute numeric value affect anchoring. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that people respond to Arabic and verbal anchors differently. Experiment 3 showed that these differences occurred largely because people tend to think of numbers in digit format. This suggests that one's conceptual understanding of the anchored information matters more than its strict numeric value.

  5. The Potential and Beneficial Use of Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Systems Integrated with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems for Characterizing Disposal of Waste Debris to Optimize the Waste Shipping Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abercrombie, Robert K.; Buckner, Dooley Jr.; Newton, David D.

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system provides a portable and/or semi-portable means of accurately weighing vehicles and its cargo as each vehicle crosses the scales (while in motion), and determining (1) axle weights and (2) axle spacing for vehicles (for determination of Bridge Formula compliance), (3) total vehicle/cargo weight and (4) longitudinal center of gravity (for safety considerations). The WIM system can also weigh the above statically. Because of the automated nature of the WIM system, it eliminates the introduction of human errors caused by manual computations and data entry, adverse weather conditions, and stress. Individual vehicles can be weighed continuously at low speeds (approximately 3-10 mph) and at intervals of less than one minute. The ORNL WIM system operates and is integrated into the Bethel Jacobs Company Transportation Management and Information System (TMIS, a Radio-Frequency Identification (RFID) enabled information system). The integrated process is as follows: Truck Identification Number and Tare Weight are programmed into a RFID Tag. Handheld RFID devices interact with the RFID Tag, and Electronic Shipping Document is written to the RFID Tag. The RFID tag read by an RFID tower identifies the vehicle and its associated cargo, the specific manifest of radioactive debris for the uniquely identified vehicle. The weight of the cargo (in this case waste debris) is calculated from total vehicle weight information supplied from WIM to TMIS and is further processed into the Information System and kept for historical and archival purposes. The assembled data is the further process in downstream information systems where waste coordination activities at the Y-12 Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) are written to RFID Tag. All cycle time information is monitored by Transportation Operations and Security personnel.

  6. Online dietary intake estimation: reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me food frequency questionnaire against a 4-day weighed food record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Forster, Hannah; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Mathers, John C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2014-08-11

    Advances in nutritional assessment are continuing to embrace developments in computer technology. The online Food4Me food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was created as an electronic system for the collection of nutrient intake data. To ensure its accuracy in assessing both nutrient and food group intake, further validation against data obtained using a reliable, but independent, instrument and assessment of its reproducibility are required. The aim was to assess the reproducibility and validity of the Food4Me FFQ against a 4-day weighed food record (WFR). Reproducibility of the Food4Me FFQ was assessed using test-retest methodology by asking participants to complete the FFQ on 2 occasions 4 weeks apart. To assess the validity of the Food4Me FFQ against the 4-day WFR, half the participants were also asked to complete a 4-day WFR 1 week after the first administration of the Food4Me FFQ. Level of agreement between nutrient and food group intakes estimated by the repeated Food4Me FFQ and the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR were evaluated using Bland-Altman methodology and classification into quartiles of daily intake. Crude unadjusted correlation coefficients were also calculated for nutrient and food group intakes. In total, 100 people participated in the assessment of reproducibility (mean age 32, SD 12 years), and 49 of these (mean age 27, SD 8 years) also took part in the assessment of validity. Crude unadjusted correlations for repeated Food4Me FFQ ranged from .65 (vitamin D) to .90 (alcohol). The mean cross-classification into "exact agreement plus adjacent" was 92% for both nutrient and food group intakes, and Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement for energy-adjusted macronutrient intakes. Agreement between the Food4Me FFQ and 4-day WFR varied, with crude unadjusted correlations ranging from .23 (vitamin D) to .65 (protein, % total energy) for nutrient intakes and .11 (soups, sauces and miscellaneous foods) to .73 (yogurts) for food group intake. The mean cross

  7. Validation of uncertainty of weighing in the preparation of radionuclide standards by Monte Carlo Method; Validacao da incerteza de pesagens no preparo de padroes de radionuclideos por Metodo de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacais, F.L.; Delgado, J.U., E-mail: facacais@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Loayza, V.M. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Qualidade e Tecnologia

    2016-07-01

    In preparing solutions for the production of radionuclide metrology standards is necessary measuring the quantity Activity by mass. The gravimetric method by elimination is applied to perform weighing with smaller uncertainties. At this work is carried out the validation, by the Monte Carlo method, of the uncertainty calculation approach implemented by Lourenco and Bobin according to ISO GUM for the method by elimination. The results obtained by both uncertainty calculation methods were consistent indicating that were fulfilled the conditions for the application of ISO GUM in the preparation of radioactive standards. (author)

  8. How to insure measurement accuracy of belt feeder machine weighing installment%如何保证皮带绐料机称重装置的计量精度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李双; 吴江; 陈以振

    2012-01-01

    本文从皮带给料机这一称重产品的结构、校准原理、计量精度等几个主要方面,以图文结合的形式着重阐述了怎样保证皮带给料机称重装置的计量精度。%In the form of a graphic combination, according to structure, calibration principle, measurement accuracy and some other factors, this article elaborates how to insure measurement accuracy of belt feeder machine weighing installmenL

  9. Comparison between radiation exposure levels using an image intensifier and a flat-panel detector-based system in image-guided central venous catheter placement in children weighing less than 10 kg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Cortis, Kelvin; Gerasia, Roberta; Maggio, Simona; Luca, Angelo [Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services, Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Palermo (Italy); Piazza, Marcello [Department of Anesthesia, Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Palermo (Italy); Tuzzolino, Fabio [Department of Information Technology, Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Palermo (Italy)

    2014-09-10

    Ultrasound-guided central venous puncture and fluoroscopic guidance during central venous catheter (CVC) positioning optimizes technical success and lowers the complication rates in children, and is therefore considered standard practice. The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation exposure levels recorded during CVC placement in children weighing less than 10 kg in procedures performed using an image intensifier-based angiographic system (IIDS) to those performed in a flat-panel detector-based interventional suite (FPDS). A retrospective review of 96 image-guided CVC placements, between January 2008 and October 2013, in 49 children weighing less than 10 kg was performed. Mean age was 8.2 ± 4.4 months (range: 1-22 months). Mean weight was 7.1 ± 2.7 kg (range: 2.5-9.8 kg). The procedures were classified into two categories: non-tunneled and tunneled CVC placement. Thirty-five procedures were performed with the IIDS (21 non-tunneled CVC, 14 tunneled CVC); 61 procedures were performed with the FPDS (47 non-tunneled CVC, 14 tunneled CVC). For non-tunneled CVC, mean DAP was 113.5 ± 126.7 cGy cm{sup 2} with the IIDS and 15.9 ± 44.6 cGy . cm{sup 2} with the FPDS (P < 0.001). For tunneled CVC, mean DAP was 84.6 ± 81.2 cGy . cm{sup 2} with the IIDS and 37.1 ± 33.5 cGy cm{sup 2} with the FPDS (P = 0.02). The use of flat-panel angiographic equipment reduces radiation exposure in small children undergoing image-guided CVC placement. (orig.)

  10. Practice on Protection and Improvement of Withstand Voltage Weighing Belt Coal Feeder%耐压称重式皮带给煤机保护改进实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the traits of withstand voltage weighing belt coal feeder. According to the modification and practice of parameters of the frequency converter, when there is a malfunction, the automatic recovery of the frequency converter of coal feeder can be achieved. The reliability of the coal feeder ’s operation will be improved, and the effects of the accident power supply perturbation on the coal feeder can be eliminated. Eventually, the safety and stability of the boilers can be guaranteed.%文章介绍了耐压称重式皮带给煤机的特性,通过对变频器参数修改实践,实现给煤机变频器故障保护自动恢复,提高给煤机运行的可靠性,消除电源意外扰动对给煤机的影响,保障锅炉安全持续稳定运行。

  11. Comparison of soybean evapotranspirations measured by weighing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... of the surface, integrating latent heat fluxes over large areas ... to determine whether Bowen ratio system could provide accurate .... glass electrode pH-meter. ... measured in soil paste using standard Wheatstone resistance.

  12. Physicists weigh up new budget reality

    CERN Document Server

    Gwynne, P

    2001-01-01

    The physics community faces new challenges following the New York terrorist attacks. Policy makers think that while it may not face long-term funding cuts, there will be short-term disruption (1/2 page).

  13. Brazilian daycares: weighing the risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, D

    1994-10-01

    The number of day care centers in Brazil has doubled over the last few years; with this increase has come a rise in the numbers of cases of communicable disease, particularly pneumonia (the main cause of child mortality in Brazil). A study by Dr. Walter V.C. da Fonseca states that a day care child is 5 times more likely to contact pneumonia. However, since the income earned by women in Brazil today is necessary to meet basic needs, children must be left at home with relatives or sent to day care. Most of the centers taking in children under 6 years of age are urban; they care for, on average, 125-200 children. These children are usually from low income families who live on the outskirts of cities; free day care is only provided to working mothers. There are 3 social factors involved: the greater number of single-parent families, more households supported solely by the mother, and an economic crisis that has hit the poor particularly hard. Financial and administrative responsibility for these centers varies. The centers provide meals, baths, rest, education (including some special education services), and health care (doctors, dentists, and nurses). Some accept abandoned children, who are cared for until they are adopted. However, new studies indicate that the centers represent the primary risk factor for respiratory illnesses and were, until recently, the principal causes of diarrhea and child mortality. An ongoing comparative study by da Fonseca is analyzing the incidence rates of respiratory and infectious diseases among 400 children attending a nursery in Fortaleza in comparison to those for 400 cared for at home by family. Doctor Aluiso Barros, in another study, is observing 1000 children in 40 nurseries in Campinas. For 8 weeks, data was collected on the health, socioeconomic situation, medical history, and family medical history of each child. The nurseries were examined and information was collected regarding the number of diseases reported each month, their causes, possible associations with services provided, and possibilities of transmission. Dr. Barros' research is supported by IDRC; Dr. da Fonseca's is supported by the British Overseas Development Agency.

  14. Weighing Posthumanism: Fatness and Contested Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Apostolidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed to be an “entrepreneur of himself, being for himself his own capital, being for himself his own producer, being for himself the source of [his] earnings” (Foucault, 2008, p. 226. From this perspective, we analyse instances of collective hatred towards fat subjects as direct results of the biopolitical triplet of responsibility, rationality, and morality. Morality is our bridge into the field of posthumanism, in which, as we demonstrate, these biopolitical imperatives also apply, reinforced by the field’s fascination with prosthetics and enhancement. Where, by biopolitical standards, fat subjects have failed to manage themselves, posthuman subjects find themselves guilty of not responsibly, rationally, and morally manipulating themselves to optimal productivity. Using criticism that disability studies scholars like Sarah S. Jain and Vivian Sobchack have voiced about posthumanism, we demonstrate the ways in which, within posthumanism, all subjects can be found as lacking when compared to their potential, enhanced post­human version.

  15. ADA members weigh in on critical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Karen; Ruesch, Jon D; Mikkelsen, Matthew C; Wagner, Karen Schaid

    2003-01-01

    Science, new technology, patient care, dental reimbursement and government regulations all affect today's dental practitioners. To find out more about how such challenges may affect current private practitioners, the American Dental Association conducted the 2000 Membership Needs and Opinions Survey. A questionnaire was sent to 6,310 ADA members in January 2000 with follow-up mailings in February, March and April 2000. Data collection was completed in July 2000. The survey included questions on critical professional issues, and on perceptions of the ADA and ADA priorities. A total of 3,558 completed surveys were received for an adjusted response rate of 59.5 percent. Members rated the identified issues' level of importance to them. The top three issues included "maintaining my ability to recommend the treatment option I feel is most appropriate for my patients," "receiving fair reimbursement for the dental services I provide," and "protecting myself, my staff and my patients from communicable diseases." New dentists found other items to be more significant to them compared with members overall. Although ADA members as a whole had similar views on critical issues facing dentistry and ADA priorities, there were significant differences regarding some issues. New dentists were far more concerned about securing funds for their practice and paying off debt than were all ADA members. Minority dentists expressed greater levels of concern about certain issues than did all ADA members. When planning and implementing ADA activities, the Association should continue to take into account members' relative rankings of professional issues and note issues of special interest to selected membership subgroups.

  16. How Much Do M&M's Weigh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froelich, Amy G.; Stephenson, W. Robert

    2013-01-01

    This article presents activities appropriate for the first half of a general introductory statistics course. All activities revolve around the same data set collected early in the course. The activities require students to make decisions about how they should proceed. (Contains 2 tables and 5 figures.)

  17. Prevention of obesity : weighing ethical arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. ten Have (Marieke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTaxes on unhealthy food, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools, or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees: efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity sometimes raise questions about what is ethically acceptable. This thesis examines

  18. Gender discrimination weighs heavily down on babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, L M

    1995-12-30

    During a pediatric conference in New Delhi, India, physicians compared their experiences with various diseases to the body of knowledge contained in Western-oriented medical textbooks. One physician noted that the most important longterm intervention to prevent low birth weight babies and congenital malformations is social and involves reducing discrimination against women in India. Many childhood disorders, such as thalassemia, can be prevented by proper genetic screening. Children with thalassemia depend upon blood transfusions to survive, yet they can contract serious and life-threatening illness from an unsafe blood supply. Another physician implicated improper handling by parents in habit disorders such as thumb sucking. A report on childhood epilepsy noted that 20% of the cases are resistant to therapy. A session on nephrotic syndrome relayed the practical experiences of the pediatricians. The fact that this syndrome recurs until puberty and, thus, requires longterm management makes it an important pediatric topic. Asthma was described as a condition which is increasing and which parents are afraid to acknowledge. Another physician suggested adding childbirth to the list of medical emergencies in India, since 75% of them are attended by untrained personnel who may contribute to the incidence of death from neonatal tetanus.

  19. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You How to File a Complaint Dietary Supplements Fake News Sites Promote Acai Supplements Tips for Buying Exercise ... in well-known news organizations by setting up fake news sites with the logos of legitimate news organizations ...

  20. Weighing environmental externalities: Let's do it right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joskow, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Should we as a society adopt policies to internalize external environmental costs? Of course we should. But we should do it correctly. State public utility commissions (PUCs) that are using numerical 'externality adders' reflecting global and regional environmental impacts in the resource planning and selection process are doing it wrong. The use of these adders is likely to lead to higher electricity prices without a commensurate improvement in environmental impacts in the resource planning and selection process are doing it wrong. The use of these adders is likely to lead to higher electricity prices without a commensurate improvement in environmental quality. Alternative approaches for dealing with environmental damages or externalities exist that can lead utilities to take account of the environmental costs associated with the generation of electricity more effectively and at lower cost. This article discusses what an externality is and why the use of environmental adders by PUCs in the resource selection process, while well intentioned, is a bad idea. The author discusses how the most egregious errors associated with the use of adders can be corrected if PUCs insist on using them. Finally, he outlines an alternative approach that state PUCs can pursue which will better serve the electricity customers they are supposed to protect and promote a cleaner environment at the lowest reasonable cost. The author emphasizes that this is not a debate about whether or not environmental costs should be factored into the investment and operating decisions of firms that produce pollution. Rather, it is about how it should be done and whether state PUCs are in a particularly good position to do it well, given their expertise, legal authorities, other responsibilities and scarce resources

  1. Market Collapse Weighs Heavily on College Endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    College endowments earned an average return of minus-3 percent for the 2008 fiscal year and an estimated minus-22.5 percent in the five months after that, two new reports show. More than a quarter of all institutions said they plan to draw less money from their endowment this year than they had expected to spend. After a half-decade of soaring…

  2. Ballmer, Barrett weigh in on security

    CERN Multimedia

    Sullivan, T

    2003-01-01

    ORLANDO, Fla. - Speaking in separate sessions Tuesday at the Gartner Symposium/ITxpo, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer and Intel's chief Craig Barrett discussed the problems of computer/network security (1/2 page).

  3. How Can "Weightless" Astronauts Be Weighed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Jesus; Reyes, Francisco; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2012-01-01

    In introductory physics courses, within the context of studying Newton's laws, it is common to consider the problem of a body's "weight" when it is in free fall. The solution shows that the "weight" is zero and this leads to a discussion of the concept of weight. There are permanent free-fall situations such as astronauts in a spacecraft orbiting…

  4. Análisis de la morbilidad y mortalidad en recién nacidos con peso inferior a 1500 g Analysis of morbidity and mortality in newborns weighing less than 1500 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanett Sarmiento Portal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Los recién nacidos (RN con peso inferior a 1500 g continúan contribuyendo desproporcionadamente a la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal a pesar de representar sólo el 1,0 -1,5 % del total de nacimientos. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar la morbilidad y mortalidad en los RN de muy bajo peso al nacer en el servicio de Neonatología del Hospital General Universitario «Abel Santamaría Cuadrado», en Pinar del Río. MÉTODOS. Se realizó una investigación observacional, longitudinal, prospectiva y analítica, en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN de dicho hospital, entre enero y diciembre de 2007. El universo estuvo constituido por todos los neonatos vivos con peso inferior a 1500 g que ingresaron en la UCIN en el período establecido, y la muestra quedó formada por 52 neonatos. Se analizaron las variables sexo, edad gestacional, peso, crecimiento intrauterino, necesidad de ventilación mecánica, complicaciones y supervivencia. Se elaboró una base de datos en SPSS 12. Las variables fueron analizadas mediante el método porcentual. RESULTADOS. Predominó el sexo masculino (53,9 %, la edad gestacional entre 27 y 29,6 semanas (44,2 % y el crecimiento uterino con peso adecuado según la edad gestacional (84,6 %. La enfermedad de la membrana hialina (55,8 % y los trastornos metabólicos (50 % constituyeron las morbilidades más frecuentes. El 59,6 % de los recién nacidos necesitaron ventilación mecánica, y la bronconeumonía fue la principal causa de muerte en el 40 % de los casos. La supervivencia fue del 90,4 %.INTRODUCTION: The newborns (NB weighing less than 1500 g contribute en a disproportionate way to the perinatal morbidity and mortality despite representing only the 1,0 1,5% of birth total. The objective of present research was to analyze the morbidity and the mortality in newborns with a very low birth weight in Neonatology Service of "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado" University Hospital

  5. Anemia muy precoz del prematuro con peso ≤ 1 500 g:: prevalencia y factores asociados Very early anemia in premature weighing ≤ 1 500 g:: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusleivy Milagros López Negrín

    2010-06-01

    enfermedad grave y el volumen total de sangre extraída.INTRODUCTION. At "Ramón González Coro" Gynecology and Obstetrics Hospital the prevalence of the very early anemia of prematurity and factors associated with its appearance has not been studied. Present research was conducted to answer this question mark and to provide the bases to managerial authorities for the design of more effectiveness preventive strategies to reduce this complication and its consequences. METHODS. A cross-sectional and retrospective study was conducted including all newborn (NB weighing ≤ 1 500 g delivered before the 37 weeks and seen in the Neonatology Service of this hospital for 2008. Study sample included 25 neonates determining in each the presence or not of a very early anemia, as well as the prevalence of this disease and the associated maternal, perinatal and postnatal factors. RESULTS. The 52% of neonates (13/25 had a very early anemia. A low maternal hemoglobin was not associated with this type of anemia (RP 0,62; 95% CI 0,21-1,80. No perinatal variable was associated with the above anemia, although we found that the prevalence of this disease decrease according the increase in gestational age at birth (linear trend: X² 4,33; gl 1; p 0,037. The newborns with any severe morbidity had 2,44 times more chance to have a very early anemia (RP 2,44; 95% CI 1,01-5,87. The prevalence of this type of anemia increased according the increase of milliliters by kg/w of blood extracted (linear trend: X² 7,6195; gl 1; p 0,0058. The newborn with blood extractions between 5 and 10 mL/kg and > 10 mL/kg had 5,3 and 4,5 times more chance to have anemia (R 5,33; 95% CI 1,4739-19,2988 and RP4,5; 95% CI 1,1254-17,9930, respectively. CONCLUSIONS. More or less the half of cases had a very early anemia and the independent factors associated with its appearance were the presence of a severe disease and to total volume of blood extracted.

  6. Weighing Photons Using Bathroom Scales: A Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Jay Orear, in his introductory physics text, defined the weight of a person as the reading one gets when standing on a (properly calibrated) bathroom scale. Here we will use Jay's definition of weight in a thought experiment to measure the weight of a photon. The thought experiment uses the results of the Pound-Rebka-Snider experiments, Compton…

  7. Cost-benefit as weighed on genetic scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.

    1976-01-01

    The genetic cost that may be incurred by exposure to mutagenic agents in the coal and nuclear fuel cycles is assessed, using as a point of departure the presently estimated burden of spontaneously occurring genetic defects in human populations. Risk estimates are necessarily derived from radiation studies, but chemical mutagenic hazards can probably be evaluated relative to the known dose-response relationships of radiation exposure. Cost-benefit analyses for the coal and nuclear fuel cycles are discussed and translated into monetary terms. Coal-associated risks are almost entirely somatic while nuclear risks are somatic and genetic in equal proportions. Dollar costs per man-rem are concluded to be in the $100 range. Pollution abatement costs for the nuclear cycle lie in the range of several hundreds to many thousands of dollars per man-rem reduction. It is considered appropriate to incur such costs, because genetic risks to future generations involve primarily societal and ethical issues rather than economic considerations

  8. Statin Side Effects: Weigh the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may also reduce some of the cholesterol-lowering benefits your medication has. Another option is to take the medication every other day. Take it easy when exercising. Unaccustomed vigorous exercise might increase the risk of ...

  9. Gist of making reports on management of weighing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This guide was published by the Nuclear Material Management Center under the supervision by the Nuclear Safety Bureau, Science and Technology Agency, and it gives instruction on the points when the reports on the management of nuclear materials are written. The contents are as follows. 1. Report of rounding adjustment: Examples of making reports (1) when rounding adjustment is made, (2) when rounding adjustment is not made, (3) in the case of changing to the method reporting book values as they are. 2. Report of nuclear materials of small amount. 3. Report of shipper- receiver difference: (1) Writing material balance reports in the case of no SR/D, (2) report of rebatching in SR/D-material balance areas, (3) report of SR/D in SR/D-material balance areas. 4. Report of category change: (1) Report of category change in one material balance report without dividing into each element, (2) report by dividing into the material balance report for each element. 5. Report of weight difference arising from rebatching. 6. Other points of caution when reports are written: (1) Report of inventory change dated same as the day of determining physical inventory, (2) report formats. (Kako, I.)

  10. Simple weighing lysimeters for measuring reference and crop evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of cotton crop evapotranspiration is important in scheduling irrigations, optimizing crop production, and modeling evapotranspiration and crop growth. The ability to measure, estimate, and predict evapotranspiration and cotton crop water requirements can result in better satisfying the cr...

  11. 20 CFR 220.14 - Weighing of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY Disability Under the Railroad Retirement Act for Work in an Employee's Regular Railroad Occupation... consistent history of conditions between treating physicians and other health care providers. (b) Factors...

  12. The NRC weighs public input on plant cleanup standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.

    1993-01-01

    In the wake of seven public open-quotes work-shopsclose quotes held around the country over the past several months, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is preparing to develop radiological criteria for decommissioning nuclear power plants. The criteria will apply to plants that operate for their normal lifespan, those that shut down prematurely, as well as a range of other NRC-licensed facilities, including materials licensees, fuel reprocessing and fabrication plants, and independent spent fuel storage installations. The criteria have been years in the making, and their progress is being monitored closely by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which shares with the NRC the authority to regulate radiological hazards. Both agencies have made abortive attempts to promulgate standards in the past. The EPA's most recent proposal, dating from 1986, has yet to reach the final rule stage. The NCRC's 1990 policy statement, open-quotes Below Regulatory Concern,close quotes was overturned by the Energy Policy Act of 1992, a setback that prompted the Commission's call for open-quotes enhanced participatory rulemakingclose quotes-a.k.a., public meetings-last December. In its Rulemaking Issues Paper, the NRC outlined for discussion four open-quotes fundamentalclose quotes objectives as a basis for developing decommissioning criteria: (1) establishing limits above which the risks to the public are deemed open-quotes unacceptableclose quotes; (2) establishing open-quotes goalsclose quotes below which the risks to the public are deemed open-quotes trivialclose quotes; (3) establishing criteria for what is achievable using the open-quotes best availableclose quotes cleanup technology; and (4) removing all radioactivity attributable to plant activity. The NRC expects to publish a proposed rule and a draft generic environmental impact statement in April 1994; the final rule is scheduled for May 1995

  13. Weighing the cost of educational inflation in undergraduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ronald; Busche, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Woloschuk, Wayne; Chadbolt, Karen; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2017-08-01

    Despite the fact that the length of medical school training has remained stable for many years, the expectations of graduating medical students (and the schools that train them) continue to increase. In this Reflection, the authors discuss motives for educational inflation and suggest that these are likely innocent, well-intentioned, and subconscious-and include both a propensity to increase expectations of ourselves and others over time, and a reluctance to reduce training content and expectations. They then discuss potential risks of educational inflation, including reduced emphasis on core knowledge and clinical skills, and adverse effects on the emotional, psychological, and financial wellbeing of students. While acknowledging the need to change curricula to improve learning and clinical outcomes, the authors proffer that it is naïve to assume that we can inflate educational expectations at no additional cost. They suggest that before implementing and/or mandating change, we should consider of all the costs that medical schools and students might incur, including opportunity costs and the impact on the emotional and financial wellbeing of students. They propose a cost-effectiveness framework for medical education and advocate prioritization of interventions that improve learning outcomes with no additional costs or are cost-saving without adversely impacting learning outcomes. When there is an additional cost for improved learning outcomes or a decline in learning outcomes as a result of cost saving interventions, they suggest careful consideration and justification of this trade-off. And when there are neither improved learning outcomes nor cost savings they recommend resisting the urge to change.

  14. How to weigh coastal hazard against economic consequence (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wainwright, D.; Callaghan, D.; Jongejan, R.B.; Ranasinghe, R.; Cowell, P.

    2012-01-01

    It is well recognised that sea level change over the coming century will have an extraordinary economic impact on coastal communities. To overcome the uncertainty that still surrounds the mechanics of shoreline recession and stochastic forcing, landuse planning and management decisions will require

  15. Minister Savisaar appoints advisor, weighs ferry link, sell-offs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi nõunikuks saanud ärimees Oleg Harlamov tekitab probleeme, kuna omab aktsiaid suhtekorraldusfirmas, mis konsulteerib raudtee-ettevõtet Spacecom. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaare sõnul võib riik müüa oma Esonian Airways'i aktsiad.

  16. Weighing the Low-Redshift Lyman-alpha Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shull, Mike

    2005-01-01

    In 2003-2004, our FUSE research group prepared several major surveys of the amount of baryonic matter in the intergalactic medium (IGM), using the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) satellite. These surveys include measurements of the Lyman-alpha absorption line of neutral hydrogen (H I), the far-ultraviolet (1032,1038 Angstrom) doublet of highly ionized oxygen ( O VI), the higher Lyman-series lines (Ly-beta, Ly-gamma, etc) of H I, and the 977 Angstrom line of c III. As an overview, our FUSE spectroscopic studies, taken together with data from the Hubble Space Telescope, show that approximately 30% of the normal matter is contained in intergalactic hydrogen gas clouds (the Lyman-alpha forest). Another 5-10% resides in hotter gas at temperatures of 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) K, visible in 0 VI and C III absorption. Along with the matter attributed to galaxies, we have now accounted for approximately HALF of all the baryonic matter in the universe. Where is the other half? That matter my exist in even hotter gas, invisible through the ultraviolet absorption lines, but perhaps detectable through X-ray absorption lines of more highly ionized oxygen and neon.

  17. Policy Reform with Marijuana Use: Weighing Risks and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkemdirim Okere, Arinze

    2018-03-01

    With the current legalization of medical marijuana and the possibility of recreational use being permitted in some states, the health care benefits associated with the use of marijuana is questionable. States that are on the path of legalizing marijuana, should recognize that as there are perceived positive benefits, there are also many evidence-based negative health consequences which may result in negative economic and societal consequences. As more data on health outcomes regarding the use of marijuana continue to emerge, policies directed toward legalizing marijuana, whether medical or recreational, should consider protecting the society from both harm and societal cost.

  18. Nuclear versus fossil weighing up the safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gittus, Dzh.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of nuclear power plant safety are discussed as compared with those for the plants based on fossil fuel utilization. The conclusion is made that merits of nuclear power are much greater than its disadvantages as far as the environmental impacts are concerned

  19. Young Children and Sports--Weighing the Risks and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines the contemporary rationales of parents placing their preschool children in organized sports, including: (1) earlier is better; (2) parent peer pressure; (3) contemporary dangers; and (4) learning of self confidence, self esteem, cooperation and competition. Finds little value and much risk in engaging children at an early age in organized…

  20. WEIGHING THE OPTIONS: A LEGAL APPROACH TO CHILDHOOD OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Solomon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing childhood obesity rates are increasingly putting the lives of Canadian children at risk. Using schools as the foundation for tackling childhood obesity is significantly more achievable than attempting to place blanket measures that intrude into Canadian homes. Measures should be taken to address childhood obesity by promoting healthy eating, education and exercise. Yet it is important to recognise obesity both as a medical and as a pyschosocial problem in order to construct these preventative policies: by doing so we can begin to understand the potential challenges such as stigma along with negative exogenous influences in the home and as consumers.   Les taux croissants d’obésité juvénile montrent que les enfants canadiens sont de plus en plus exposés à un risque pour leur santé. Il est beaucoup plus réaliste de passer par les écoles pour s’attaquer au problème de l’obésité juvénile que de tenter de mettre en œuvre des mesures générales qui constituent une ingérence dans les foyers canadiens. Il faut prendre des mesures pour lutter contre l’obésité juvénile en encourageant les saines habitudes alimentaires, l’éducation et l’exercice. Il importe aussi de reconnaître l’obésité comme un problème d’ordre tant médical que psychosocial avant d’élaborer ces politiques préventives : de cette façon, nous pourrons commencer à comprendre les difficultés possibles telles que l’ostracisme et les influences exogènes négatives dans les foyers et comme consommateurs.

  1. Colleges Weigh "Yes We Can" Approach to Fund Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Blue State Digital, the company that helped catapult Barack Obama into the White House, is courting colleges. Some are welcoming the political rainmaker inside their wrought-iron gates. But some skeptics question whether what works in the digital war room of a political campaign can translate into the academic arena. The world of college fund…

  2. Weighing evidence: quantitative measures of the importance of bitemark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelson, J M; Kieser, J A; Buckingham, D M; Herbison, G P

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative measures of the importance of evidence such as the "likelihood ratio" have become increasingly popular in the courtroom. These measures have been used by expert witnesses formally to describe their certainty about a piece of evidence. These measures are commonly interpreted as the amount by which the evidence should revise the opinion of guilt, and thereby summarize the importance of a particular piece of evidence. Unlike DNA evidence, quantitative measures have not been widely used by forensic dentists to describe their certainty when testifying about bitemark evidence. There is, however, no inherent reason why they should not be used to evaluate bitemarks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the likelihood ratio as it might be applied to bitemark evidence. We use a simple bitemark example to define the likelihood ratio, its application, and interpretation. In particular we describe how the jury interprets the likelihood ratio from a Bayesian perspective when evaluating the impact of the evidence on the odds that the accused is guilty. We describe how the dentist would calculate the likelihood ratio based on frequentist interpretations. We also illustrate some of the limitations of the likelihood ratio, and show how those limitations apply to bitemark evidence. We conclude that the quality of bitemark evidence cannot be adequately summarized by the likelihood ratio, and argue that its application in this setting may be more misleading than helpful.

  3. Institutional and financial analysis of weigh station performance in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    This report examines the State of Georgias commercial vehicle oversize and overweight enforcement : program over the past 10 years. An overview of the federal and state regulations for both oversize and overweight : vehicles is presented, which in...

  4. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU

    OpenAIRE

    Seyyed-Abolfazl Afjeh; Mohammad-Kazem Sabzehei; Seyyed-Ali-Reza Fahimzad; Farideh Shiva; Ahmad-Reza Shamshiri; Fatemeh Esmaili

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), prolonged hospital course (HC) and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. ...

  5. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afjeh, Seyyed-Abolfazl; Sabzehei, Mohammad-Kazem; Fahimzad, Seyyed-Ali-Reza; Shiva, Farideh; Shamshiri, Ahmad-Reza; Esmaili, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), prolonged hospital course (HC) and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns. Materials and Methods Prospective study in VLBW neonates admitted to NICU and survived > 2 W, from July 2011 - June 2012. All relevant perinatal and postnatal data including duration of antibiotics therapy (Group I 2W) and outcome up to the time of discharge or death were documented and compared. Results Out of 145 newborns included in the study, 62 were in group I, and 83 in Group II. Average duration of antibiotic therapy was 14 days (range 3 - 62 days); duration in Group I and Group II was 10 ± 2.3 vs 25.5 ± 10.5 days. Hospital stay was 22.3 ± 11.5 vs 44.3 ± 14.7 days, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed following risk factors as significant for prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy: VLBW especially stage II, 12 (8.3%) newborns died. Infant mortality alone and with LOS/NEC was higher in group II as compared to group I (P < 0.002 and < 0.001 respectively). Conclusions Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy caused increasing rates of LOS, NEC, HC and infant mortality. PMID:27307961

  6. Weighing the legal basis for housing rights in Zimbabwe | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    13 déc. 2016 ... La criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain. La manière dont la criminalité et la pauvreté interagissent a été étudiée et débattue dans la littérature de recherche occidentale, mais on sait pe. Voir davantageLa criminalité et la pauvreté au Ghana urbain ...

  7. 49 CFR 1037.1 - Weights and weighing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... on supervised scales, establishes prima facie that the loss occurred in transit and that the railroad... in combination with a supervised weight establishes prima facie that the loss occurred in transit and... the above exception, a prima facie case of railroad liability for loss in transit has not been...

  8. Weighing the potential effectiveness of various treatments for sleep bruxism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Nelly; Manzini, Christiane; Rompré, Pierre H; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2007-10-01

    Sleep bruxism may lead to a variety of problems, but its pathophysiology has not been completely elucidated. As such, there is no definitive treatment, but certain preventive measures and/or drugs may be used in acute cases, particularly those involving pain. This article is intended to guide clinician scientists to the treatment most appropriate for future clinical studies. To determine the best current treatment, 2 measures were used to compare the results of 10 clinical studies on sleep bruxism, 3 involving oral devices and 7 involving pharmacologic therapy. The first measure, the number needed to treat (NNT), allows several randomized clinical studies to be compared and a general conclusion to be drawn. The second measure, effect size, allows evaluation of the impact of treatment relative to a placebo using different studies of similar design. Taking into account the NNT, the effect size and the power of each study, it can be concluded that the following treatments reduce sleep bruxism: mandibular advancement device, clonidine and occlusal splint. However, the first 2 of these have been linked to adverse effects. The occlusal splint is therefore the treatment of choice, as it reduces grinding noise and protects the teeth from premature wear with no reported adverse effects. The NNT could not be calculated for an alternative pharmacologic treatment, short-term clonazepam therapy, which had a large effect size and reduced the average bruxism index. However, the risk of dependency limits its use over long periods. Assessment of efficacy and safety of the most promising treatments will require studies with larger sample sizes over longer periods.

  9. Weighing in on the hidden Asian American obesity epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Stella S; Kwon, Simona C; Wyatt, Laura; Islam, Nadia; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-04-01

    According to national estimates, obesity prevalence is lower in Asian Americans compared to other racial/ethnic groups, but this low prevalence may be misleading for three reasons. First, a lower body mass index (BMI) cutoff as proposed by the World Health Organization may be more appropriate to use in Asian populations. However, evidence is limited to substantiate the potential costs and burden of adopting these cutoffs. Increasing BMI in Asians (as in other racial/ethnic groups) should be considered across the spectrum of BMI, with a minimum awareness of these lower cutoffs among healthcare researchers. Second, the need for disaggregated data across Asian American subgroups is illustrated by the higher obesity (and diabetes) prevalence estimates observed in South Asian Americans. Third, prevalence of obesity should be placed in the larger context of immigration and globalization through cross-national comparisons and examination of acculturation-related factors. However these types of studies and collection of salient variables are not routinely performed. Data from a metropolitan area where many Asian Americans settle is presented as a case study to illustrate these points. Clear evidence that incorporates these three considerations is necessary for program planning and resource allocation for obesity-related disparities in this rapidly growing and diverse population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Weighing the Dark and Light in Cosmology with Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trac, Hy

    2017-09-01

    Galaxy clusters contain large amounts of cold dark matter, hot ionized gas, and tens to hundreds of visible galaxies. They are the largest gravitationally bound systems in the Universe and make excellent laboratories for studying cosmology and astrophysics. Historically, Fritz Zwicky postulated the existence of dark matter when he inferred the total mass of the nearby Coma Cluster from the motions of its galaxies and found it to be much larger than the visible mass. Nowadays, the abundance of clusters as a function of mass and time can be used to study structure formation and constrain cosmological parameters. Dynamical measurements of the motions of galaxies can be used to probe the entire mass distribution, but standard analyses yield unwanted high mass errors. First, we show that modern machine learning algorithms can improve mass measurements by more than a factor of two compared to using standard scaling relations. Support Distribution Machines are used to train and test on the entire distribution of galaxy velocities to maximally use available information. Second, we discuss how Deep Learning can be used to train on multi-wavelength images of galaxies and clusters and to predict the underlying total matter distribution. By applying machine learning to observations and simulations, we can map out the dark and light in the Universe. DOE DE-SC0011114, NSF RI-1563887.

  11. Dynamic weighing for accurate fertilizer application and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergeijk, van J.; Goense, D.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Speelman, L.

    2001-01-01

    The mass flow of fertilizer spreaders must be calibrated for the different types of fertilizers used. To obtain accurate fertilizer application manual calibration of actual mass flow must be repeated frequently. Automatic calibration is possible by measurement of the actual mass flow, based on

  12. Weighing the dark : cosmological applications of gravitational lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhlinger, F.

    2016-01-01

    According to Einstein's theory of general relativity the light of an object is deflected by a mass in its foreground. The deflections can be very weak or so strong that they are visible by eye yielding strangely distorted arcs or even multiple images of the same source. Measurements of strong or

  13. Weighing neutrinos with microwave background and galaxy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias; Hamilton, Andrew J.S.

    2000-01-01

    Cosmological constraints on neutrino masses are improving rapidly. We compute the joint constraints on 11 cosmological parameters from the latest cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data, and find that at 95% confidence, the total (cold+hot) dark matter density is h 2 Ω dm 0.20 +.12 -.10 . As much as 38% of this dark matter is allowed to be hot (due to neutrinos). Indeed, the data favors a non-zero neutrino fraction, but not at a statistically significant level

  14. Weighing environmental externalities: How to do it right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, A.M. III; Burtraw, D.; Harrington, W.; Krupnick, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors focus on the procedure of incorporating monetary measures of external damages as address to private bids and ranking alternatives on the basis of their social costs. They assume that it will be possible to develop methods and models to calculate environmental damages for specific electricity supply options. They reject the use of marginal control cost as a proxy for marginal damages. The question they address here is whether the marginal damage from an increase in electricity supply is the correct adjustment or adder to private cost for least-cost utility planning. They show that arriving at the correct adder depends on both the form that the existing environmental regulations take - that is, whether pollution is controlled by taxation, tradable emissions permits, or direct regulation - and, in the case of an emissions tax, whether the degree of control of pollution is optimal, too strict, or not strict enough according to the criterion of economic efficiency. They make explicit the circumstances under which the correct adder will be equal to marginal damages, will be some other positive number, or zero, or even negative. If emissions reductions are achieved by direct regulation or command and control policies (CAC), then the correct adder is always just equal to marginal damages

  15. Weighing Evidence: The Design and Comparison of Probability Thought Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    ics and Other Logical Essays, R. G. Braithwaite (ed.), Routledge and Kegan Paul. Richardson, H. R., and Stone, L. D.: 1971, ’Operations analysis...Systems Department ONR Detachment Code 35 1030 East Green Street Naval Underwater Systems Center Pasadena, CA 91106 Newport, RI 02840 CDR James Offutt...Officer-in-Charge Human Factors Department ONR Detachment Code N-71 1030 East Green Street Naval Training Equipment Center Pasadena, CA 91106 Orlando

  16. A Czochralski crystal puller automated by the weighing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumberg, H.; Reiche, P.; Watzinger, W.

    1981-01-01

    The automated crystal growing equipment makes use of a commercial electronic balance equipped with a microprocessor. The mode of operation is explained and experiences got on the occasion of crystal growth experiments are presented. (author)

  17. Quality use machines: Weighing SSRIs and TCAs | Gray | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Family Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 45, No 6 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  18. Colleges Weigh Liability in Alcohol and Sexual-Harassment Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Cheryl M.

    1988-01-01

    A review of court decisions indicates that colleges generally had not been held liable for injuries arising from use of alcohol in dormitories or fraternities. Sexual harassment perpetrators are becoming more sophisticated and the incidents are less blatant. (MLW)

  19. Outcome after regional anesthesia: weighing risks and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lirk, P.; Hollmann, M. W.

    2014-01-01

    Regional anesthesia has become a widely used method to provide intraoperative anesthesia, and postoperative analgesia. This review seeks to address the question whether patient outcomes are improved to an extent that justifies using regional anesthesia as a routine method. During the past decade, a

  20. Weighing both sides: morality, mortality, and framing contests over obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C; Riley, Kevin W

    2005-10-01

    Despite recent and growing media attention surrounding obesity in the United States, the so-called obesity epidemic remains a highly contested scientific and social fact. This article examines the contemporary obesity debate through systematic examination of the claims and claimants involved in the controversy. We argue that four primary groups-antiobesity researchers, antiobesity activists, fat acceptance researchers, and fat acceptance activists-are at the forefront of this controversy and that these groups are fundamentally engaged in framing contests over the nature and consequences of excess body weight. While members of the fat acceptance groups embrace a body diversity frame, presenting fatness as a natural and largely inevitable form of diversity, members of the antiobesity camp frame higher weights as risky behavior akin to smoking, implying that body weight is under personal control and that people have a moral and medical responsibility to manage their weight. Both groups sometimes frame obesity as an illness, which limits blame by suggesting that weight is biologically or genetically determined but simultaneously stigmatizes fat bodies as diseased. While the antiobesity camp frames obesity as an epidemic to increase public attention, fat acceptance activists argue that concern over obesity is distracting attention from a host of more important health issues for fat Americans. We examine the strategies claimants use to establish their own credibility or discredit their opponents, and explain how the fat acceptance movement has exploited structural opportunities and cultural resources created by AIDS activism and feminism to wield some influence over U.S. public health approaches. We conclude that notions of morality play a central role in the controversy over obesity, as in many medical disputes, and illustrate how medical arguments about body weight can be used to stymie rights claims and justify morality-based fears.

  1. Coeficiente de cultura da lima-ácida tahiti no outono-inverno determinado por lisimetria de pesagem em Piracicaba - SP Crop coefficient of acid lime tahiti during autumn-winter period determined by weighing lysimeter technique in Piracicaba - SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero R. A. Barboza Júnior

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor mundial de citros, com destaque para o Estado de São Paulo, maior produtor nacional. Recentes estudos mostram que a área irrigada de citros em São Paulo tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos. Porém, a falta de informações sobre o manejo eficiente da irrigação na cultura de citros é uma das principais dificuldades enfrentadas pelos produtores. Com o intuito de atender a essa necessidade, este trabalho teve como objetivos determinar a evapotranspiração de uma planta adulta de limeira-ácida 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tan. e o coeficiente de cultivo (Kc no período seco (outono-inverno, utilizando a técnica de lisimetria de pesagem. O experimento foi realizado na ESALQ/USP em Piracicaba - SP, em área irrigada por gotejamento, com plantas espaçadas de 7 x 4 m, sendo cada planta atendida por quatro pontos de molhamento no solo, distribuídos de forma equidistantes entre si. Foi realizado o monitoramento climático, utilizando estação meteorológica automatizada, e a determinação da evapotranspiração da cultura por lisímetro de pesagem. Durante o período de estudo, o Kc variou entre 0,82 e 1,18, e a ETc variou entre 1,2 e 5,6.Brazil is the largest world producer of citrus crop, with São Paulo state leading as the largest national producer. Recent studies show that irrigated areas of citrus in the state have been increasing significantly in the last few years. However, lack of information on irrigation management related to this crop is one of the main problems encountered by the farmers. In order to help solve the above problem, the objective of this work was to determine the evapotranspiration of acid lime adult plant variety 'Tahiti' (Citrus latifolia Tan. and the crop coefficient during dry period (autumn - winter using a weighing lysimeter technique. The experiment was carried out at ESALQ/USP in Piracicaba - SP, Brazil, in a drip irrigated area with plant spacing of 7 x 4 m. Each

  2. Ganho de peso, conversão alimentar, ingestão diária de nutrientes e digestibilidade de garrotes não-castrados de três grupos genéticos em recria e terminação Weigh gain, feed conversion, daily ingestion of nutrients and apparent digestibility of bulls of three genetic groups in growing and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Jorge Fernandes

    2004-12-01

    the weight of 310 to 330 kg for the growing animals and 450 to 480 kg for the finishing ones. The same diet was supplied to all animals, with concentrate level of 50% in the dry matter and 50% of coastcross hay silage. The animals were fed ad libitum and weighed every 28 days. Weekly samples of ration and individual orts were removed and composed for each period of 28 days. A digestibility test was done at the 50th day of the experimental period. A significant effect of genetic group was not observed on dry matter intake (6.06 kg/day for the growing animals and 905 kg/d for the finishing ones, live weight gain (0.994 and 1.293 kg/d for growing and finishing animals, or digestibility coeficient of evaluated nutrients. The crossbred ½ Caracu x Nellore growing animals presented higher feed conversion (30% than the other genetic groups. The TDN daily ingestion was 26% smaller than the NRC (1996 predictions.

  3. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits. PMID:26339215

  4. 77 FR 66578 - Cancellation of Indianapolis Grain Inspection & Weighing Service, Inc. Designation; Selection of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The USDA, Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration published a document in the Federal Register on October 31, 2012, concerning... Stockyards Administration. [FR Doc. 2012-27079 Filed 11-5-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 3410-KD-P ...

  5. Simpler and More Accurate: Weighing the Mercury in Electrolytic Cells by Radiotracer Dilution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Weight of mercury in electrolytic cell of soda industry is usually measured gravimetrically, which is typical labor work in character. Error sources of the gravimetric method might have come from the fact that some mercury’s are usually trapped in the cell due to complicated structure of electrolytic cell. This cause unknown errors. In addition, formation of amalgam at the cathode may cause a further uncertainty in the measurement. Total error from gravimetric method is 4% on average. Radiotracer dilution method provides advantages either for simplification of procedure and reduction of measurement error. In this experiment radioisotope mercury 203Hg, which was prepared in nuclear reactor was used to examine 13 of 14 electrolytic cells of soda plant. Each electrolytic cell was designed containing approximately 700 kg inactive mercury. Before injection, the radioisotope mercury was mixed with non radioisotope mercury in a bath to obtain a suitable injection aliquots and standard references. Calibration curve, which was derived from two stage dilution processes taken from standard references, was used to examine degree of mixing between radioisotope and non radioisotope mercury and it was also used in weight calculation of non radioisotope mercury in electrolytic cell. Injection was carried out simply by pouring the injection aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell. Mercury samples from the cells were extracted at regular time intervals and filled into vials for counting. This was done for the primary conformation of the completeness of mixing of the tracer with the non radioisotope mercury in each cell. When complete mixing is achieved, the unknown quantity of mercury in each cell was calculated based on mass balance principle. From the calculation the weight of mercury in each electrolytic cell was not the same and maximum error of measurement obtained from this method is 2.48 %. Compared to gravimetrically error mentioned above, it was clear that radiotracer dilution method gives better result in terms of higher accuracy and simpler procedure in measurement of the weight of mercury in electrolytic cells. Above all, this method is very suitable to be implemented in soda industry.

  6. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Neave, Fraser B.; Sullivan, W. Paul; Young, Robert J.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected in each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  7. Variation of weigh and viability of seeds of Pinus tropicalis from different populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bonilla Vichot

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pinus tropicalis Morelet is endemic in the province of Pinar del Rio and Isla de la Juventud. In this paper the variation is evaluated in weight and viability of seeds from 4 seed areas of the province of Pinar del Rio, Cuba, which were harvested in July and stored for five months at room temperature until They were made to the corresponding analysis. Samples of each of the sources weretaken to determine the weight of 1000 seeds, as established methodology ISTA (1993. Viability was also determined from the tetrazolium Test. It was observed that the individual weight of the seeds of Pinus tropicalis has 0,0051g values to 0,050g, while the average weight of 1000 seeds shows variation by origin, showing the greatest weight to the seeds from the seed mass Ceja del Negro (orchard seedling genetically enhanced trees, which directly influences the quality of seeds. The viability was also superior in the origin of Ceja del Negro.

  8. Towards climate justice: how do the most vulnerable weigh environment-economy trade-offs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Katrina

    2015-03-01

    The world's poor are especially vulnerable to environmental disasters, including the adverse consequences of climate change. This creates a challenge for climate justice advocates who seek to ensure that those least responsible for causing climate change do not bear unwanted burdens of mitigation. One way to promote climate justice could be to pay particular attention to the environmental policy preferences of citizens from poorer, lower-emitting countries. This paper examines opinions on environment-economy trade-offs and willingness to make personal financial contributions to protect the environment among residents of 42 developed and developing countries using data from the 2005-2008 World Values Survey, the 2010 Climate Risk Index, and World Bank development indicators. Results reveal that individuals in developing countries are less likely to support policies to prioritize environmental protection over economic growth but are more willing to donate personal income for pro-environmental efforts compared to citizens of more developed nations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Social Networks in Later Life: Weighing Positive and Negative Effects on Health and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Karen S

    2015-02-01

    Social networks provide a mix of positive and negative experiences. Network members can provide help in times of need and day-to-day companionship, but they can also behave in ways that are inconsiderate, hurtful, or intrusive. Researchers must grapple with these dualities in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how social network ties affect health and well-being. This article provides an overview of research that has examined the health-related effects of positive and negative aspects of social network involvement. If focuses on later life, a time when risks for declining health and for the loss or disruption of social relationships increase.

  10. Addressing obesity in the management of knee and hip osteoarthritis - weighing in from an economic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flego, Anna; Dowsey, Michelle M; Choong, Peter F M; Moodie, Marj

    2016-05-26

    Obesity is one of the only modifiable risk factors for both incidence and progression of Osteoarthritis (OA). So there is increasing interest from a public health perspective in addressing obesity in the management of OA. While evidence of the efficacy of intereventions designed to address obesity in OA populations continues to grow, little is known about their economic credentials. The aim of this study is to conduct a scoping review of: (i) the published economic evidence assessing the economic impact of obesity in OA populations; (ii) economic evaluations of interventions designed to explicitly address obesity in the prevention and management of OA in order to determine which represent value for money. Besides describing the current state of the literature, the study highlights research gaps and identifies future research priorities. In July 2014, a search of the peer reviewed literature, published in English, was undertaken for the period January 1975 - July 2014 using Medline Complete (Ebscohost), Embase, Econlit, Global Health, Health Economics Evaluation Database (HEED), all Cochrane Library databases as well as the grey literature using Google and reference lists of relevant studies. A combination of key search terms was used to identify papers assessing the economic impact of obesity in OA or economic evaluations conducted to assess the efficiency of obesity interventions for the prevention or management of OA. 14 studes were identified; 13 were cost burden studies assessing the impact of obesity as a predictor for higher costs in Total Joint Arthroplasty (TJA) patients and one a cost-effectiveness study of an intervention designed to address obesity in the managment of mild to moderate OA patients. The majority of the economic studies conducted are cost burden studies. While there is some evidence of the association between severe obesity and excess hospital costs for TJA patients, heterogeneity in studies precludes definitive statements about the strength of the association. With only one economic evaluation to inform policy and practice, there is a need for future research into the cost-effectiveness of obesity interventions designed both for prevention or management of OA along the disease spectrum and over the life course.

  11. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Climate Change to Our Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Groom, Ben; Pizer, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Our efforts to put the brakes on climate change or adapt to a warming climate present a fundamental tradeoff between costs borne today and benefits that accrue to the children and grandchildren of the current generation. In making investments today that affect future generations' prospects, we need to think carefully about how we value their…

  12. Weighing the options : Compulsory treatment, mental capacity and decision making in anorexia nervosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzakkers, I.F.F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a severe mental illness impacting on all life domains and one of the leading causes of burden of disease in young females. Lifetime prevalence is 1 to 4 % in Europe indicating that AN is not uncommon. Central features are an intense fear of weight gain, body image

  13. Weighing the galactic disc using the Jeans equation: lessons from simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candlish, G. N.; Smith, R.; Moni Bidin, C.; Gibson, B. K.

    2016-03-01

    Using three-dimensional stellar kinematic data from simulated galaxies, we examine the efficacy of a Jeans equation analysis in reconstructing the total disk surface density, including the dark matter, at the `Solar' radius. Our simulation data set includes galaxies formed in a cosmological context using state-of-the-art high-resolution cosmological zoom simulations, and other idealized models. The cosmologically formed galaxies have been demonstrated to lie on many of the observed scaling relations for late-type spirals, and thus offer an interesting surrogate for real galaxies with the obvious advantage that all the kinematical data are known perfectly. We show that the vertical velocity dispersion is typically the dominant kinematic quantity in the analysis, and that the traditional method of using only the vertical force is reasonably effective at low heights above the disk plane. At higher heights the inclusion of the radial force becomes increasingly important. We also show that the method is sensitive to uncertainties in the measured disk parameters, particularly the scalelengths of the assumed double exponential density distribution, and the scalelength of the radial velocity dispersion. In addition, we show that disk structure and low number statistics can lead to significant errors in the calculated surface densities. Finally, we examine the implications of our results for previous studies of this sort, suggesting that more accurate measurements of the scalelengths may help reconcile conflicting estimates of the local dark matter density in the literature.

  14. Does the Student-Loan Burden Weigh into the Decision to Start a Family?

    OpenAIRE

    Gicheva, Dora

    2011-01-01

    I examine the relationship between student debt and the timing of marriage. The life-cycle consumption smoothing model implies that student loans should have a very small effect on consumption at any given point in time and should not affect the timing of family formation. I use the Survey of Consumer Finances to show that the amount of student borrowing is negatively related to the probability of marriage, but the strength of this relationship diminishes with age. I use exogenous variations ...

  15. Women and cosmetic breast surgery: weighing the medical, social, and lifestyle risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, Tiffany N; Malacrida, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    In this article we provide a comparative analysis of qualitative, semistructured interviews with 24 women who had undergone different forms of cosmetic breast surgery (CBS). We argue that women must negotiate three types of risk: potential medical risks, lifestyle risks connected with choosing "frivolous" self-enhancements, and countervailing social risks affiliated with pressures to maximize one's feminine beauty. In addition, we highlight the challenges faced in negotiating these risks by examining the limits to traditional forms of medical informed consent provided to the women, who received little information on the medical risks associated with CBS, or who were given uncertain and contradictory risk information. Even respondents who felt that they were well informed expressed difficulties in making "wise" choices because the risks were distant or unlikely, and hence easily minimized. Given this, it is fairly understandable that the known social risks of "failed" beauty faced by the women often outweighed the ambiguous or understated risks outlined by medicine. We argue that traditional notions of informed consent and risk awareness might not be adequate for women choosing CBS.

  16. STELLAR ATMOSPHERES, ATMOSPHERIC EXTENSION, AND FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS: WEIGHING STARS USING THE STELLAR MASS INDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neilson, Hilding R.; Lester, John B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Baron, Fabien; Norris, Ryan; Kloppenborg, Brian, E-mail: neilson@astro.utoronto.ca [Center for High Angular Resolution Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 5060, Atlanta, GA 30302-5060 (United States)

    2016-10-20

    One of the great challenges of understanding stars is measuring their masses. The best methods for measuring stellar masses include binary interaction, asteroseismology, and stellar evolution models, but these methods are not ideal for red giant and supergiant stars. In this work, we propose a novel method for inferring stellar masses of evolved red giant and supergiant stars using interferometric and spectrophotometric observations combined with spherical model stellar atmospheres to measure what we call the stellar mass index, defined as the ratio between the stellar radius and mass. The method is based on the correlation between different measurements of angular diameter, used as a proxy for atmospheric extension, and fundamental stellar parameters. For a given star, spectrophotometry measures the Rosseland angular diameter while interferometric observations generally probe a larger limb-darkened angular diameter. The ratio of these two angular diameters is proportional to the relative extension of the stellar atmosphere, which is strongly correlated to the star’s effective temperature, radius, and mass. We show that these correlations are strong and can lead to precise measurements of stellar masses.

  17. Scientific research in school psychology: Leading researchers weigh in on its past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Martinez, Rebecca S; Ty, Sophie V; McClain, Maryellen B

    2013-06-01

    A survey of established researchers in school psychology was conducted to reflect on the state of the science of school psychology research. A total of 54 members of the Society for the Study of School Psychology shared their perceptions of (a) the most significant findings of the past 25years that have influenced research and practice in school psychology, (b) current, exciting research topics, and (c) topics that are likely to guide the future of research in school psychology. Qualitative analyses revealed 6 major categories and 17 minor categories within the major categories. Four major categories were present across each of the three time periods: (a) Data-Informed Practices and their Implementation, (b) Theory Development, (c) Changing Role and Function, and (d) Biological Bases of Behavior. Additional major categories included Advances in Research Methodology and Psychometrics (found across past and present time periods) and There is Not One Single Most Important Idea (found during only the past time period). Quotations are provided to illustrate these categories and share the respondents' ideas in their own words. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Contemporary contestations over working time: time for health to weigh in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Jane; Carey, Gemma; Strazdins, Lyndall; Banwell, Cathy; Woodman, Dan; Burgess, John; Bittman, Michael; Venn, Danielle; Sargent, Ginny

    2014-10-13

    Non-communicable disease (NCD) incidence and prevalence is of central concern to most nations, along with international agencies such as the UN, OECD, IMF and World Bank. As a result, the search has begun for 'causes of the cause' behind health risks and behaviours responsible for the major NCDs. As part of this effort, researchers are turning their attention to charting the temporal nature of societal changes that might be associated with the rapid rise in NCDs. From this, the experience of time and its allocation are increasingly understood to be key individual and societal resources for health. The interdisciplinary study outlined in this paper will produce a systematic analysis of the behavioural health dimensions, or 'health time economies' (quantity and quality of time necessary for the practice of health behaviours), that have accompanied labour market transitions of the last 30 years--the period in which so many NCDs have risen sharply. The study takes a mixed-methods approach to capture and explain the relationships between work time and health behaviours. It combines: longitudinal analysis of temporal organisation of work in Australia, with the goal of establishing associations between labour timescapes and health behaviours and health time economies; an in-depth qualitative investigation of employee experiences of the perceived impact of their labour timescapes on 'health time economies'; and, a stakeholder analysis, will uncover whether, how and why (or why not) stakeholders consider health an important dimension- of work and industrial relations policy, and what efforts are being made to mitigate health impacts of work. The study posits that time is a key mechanism through which particular forms of labour market policies impact health. The labour market flexibility agenda appears to be operating as a time re-distributive device: it has supported the removal of regulations that governed 'the when' of working time and removed limits over the amount of working time, thus extending by many hours the notion of the 'standard' working week and forcing employees to adapt their shared or social times as well as their time for health.

  19. Risk and reward in the cloud. Choosing a cloud vendor involves weighing risks versus benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degaspari, John

    2012-05-01

    More hospitals are looking to the cloud as a viable way to store clinical, imaging, and financial data. Experts acknowledge its advantages, but caution it's a step that requires careful planning and vetting of potential cloud vendors.

  20. "Platooning" Instruction: Districts Weigh Pros and Cons of Departmentalizing Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    To platoon or not to platoon? That's the question facing Irving Hamer, Deputy Superintendent of Academic Operations, Technology and lnnovation for the Memphis City Schools. This year for the first time, the state's achievement test, Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP), will include algebraic concepts on the 5th-grade test. Of the…

  1. Early BCG-Denmark and Neonatal Mortality Among Infants Weighing <2500 g: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Aaby, Peter; Lund, Najaaraq

    2017-01-01

    ratios (MRRs). We had prespecified an analysis censoring follow-up at oral poliovirus vaccine campaigns. Results. Early administration of BCG-Denmark was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in neonatal mortality rate (MRR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], .47–1.04) and a 34% reduction (0.......66; .44–1.00) when censoring for oral poliovirus vaccine campaigns. There was no reduction in mortality rate for noninfectious diseases, but a 43% reduction in infectious disease mortality rate (MRR, 0.57; 95% CI, .35–.93). A meta-analysis of 3 BCG trials showed that early BCG-Denmark reduced mortality...

  2. 78 FR 43753 - Inspection and Weighing of Grain in Combined and Single Lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... USGSA regulations for shiplots, unit trains, and lash barges. This final rule allows for breaks in... the loading of the lot must be reasonably continuous, with no consecutive break in loading to exceed... superseded; (iii) The location of the grain, if at rest, or the name(s) of the elevator(s) from which or into...

  3. Correct acceptance weighs more than correct rejection: a decision bias induced by question framing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kareev, Yaakov; Trope, Yaacov

    2011-02-01

    We propose that in attempting to detect whether an effect exists or not, people set their decision criterion so as to increase the number of hits and decrease the number of misses, at the cost of increasing false alarms and decreasing correct rejections. As a result, we argue, if one of two complementary events is framed as the positive response to a question and the other as the negative response, people will tend to predict the former more often than the latter. Performance in a prediction task with symmetric payoffs and equal base rates supported our proposal. Positive responses were indeed more prevalent than negative responses, irrespective of the phrasing of the question. The bias, slight but consistent and significant, was evident from early in a session and then remained unchanged to the end. A regression analysis revealed that, in addition, individuals' decision criteria reflected their learning experiences, with the weight of hits being greater than that of correct rejections.

  4. International Conference on Heavy Vehicles : HVParis 2008 : Weigh-In-Motion (ICWIM5)

    OpenAIRE

    JACOB, Bernard; O'BRIEN, Eugene; O'CONNOR, Alan; BOUTELDJA, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    The conference addresses the broad range of technical issues related to heavy vehicles, surface transport technology, safety and weight measurement systems. It provides access to current research, best practice and related policy issues. It is a multi-disciplinary, inter-agency supported event.

  5. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION... handling livestock and live poultry. (a) Each stockyard owner, market agency, dealer, packer and live poultry dealer shall exercise reasonable care and promptness with respect to loading, transporting...

  6. Weighing In: The "Evidence of Experience" and Canadian Fat Women's Activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This article adds historical dimension to the developing literature on "obesity stigma": negative treatment and discrimination experienced as a consequence of the belief that overweight people are lazy and lacking willpower and basic knowledge about nutrition. Interviews with women who identified as fat suggest that medical and cultural concern about weight was conflated in their interactions with doctors, peers, and family. Stigma was a cause of frustration and despair for those deemed obese, who felt that unfair assumptions were made about their lifestyle and their abilities. In response, the women interviewed formed organizations, exercise classes, and social activities for "fat women only." Fat activists offer unique insight, because their work sheds light not only on the impact of obesity stigma but also on how some women responded to and resisted the medicalization and objectification of their bodies.

  7. Settling Indigenous Claims to Protected Areas: Weighing Māori Aspirations Against Australian Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil O′B. Lyver

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to resolve indigenous peoples′ grievances about the negative impacts of protected areas established on their customary estates by governments are driving the development of shared governance and management. The Tϋhoe people have sought that the settlement of their grievances against the New Zealand government include unencumbered rights to manage Te Urewera, guided by scientific and traditional knowledge and practices, for conservation and social benefits for the Tϋhoe people and the broader public. We led a study tour to allow Tϋhoe and other Mβori representatives to gain first-hand experience of long-standing jointly managed protected areas in Australia that the New Zealand government had drawn on in proposing mechanisms to resolve the Tϋhoe claim. We found that these areas were a poor fit to the study tour participants′ aspirations that indigenous world views would underpin governance and that indigenous people would be empowered. Our findings highlight that settlement must be transformational in terms of attitudes and relationships. Collaborative problem-solving processes that build trust can contribute. In areas like Te Urewera, where tenure boundaries fragment a landscape that is a coherent whole in indigenous world views, settlement processes can offer the prospect of landscape-scale outcomes for social justice and conservation.

  8. 75 FR 41693 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Specialty Grains Transported in Containers AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration... rule to potentially make permanent the current waiver for high quality grain exported in containers... exported in containers that was established by a final rule on December 13, 2005 (70 FR 73556). This...

  9. "In the End, Our Message Weighs": "Blood Run," NAGPRA, and American Indian Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Penelope; Carpenter, Cari M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors juxtapose Allison Hedge Coke's poetry collection "Blood Run" (2006) with the larger context in which Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) operates in order to investigate how "Blood Run" exposes the limitations of repatriation legislation, most significantly, how NAGPRA's…

  10. Rock-Solid Support: Florida District Weighs Effectiveness of Science Professional Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shear, Linda; Penuel, William R.

    2010-01-01

    The best science teachers are not only experts in teaching and knowledgeable about science content, but they are also great at teaching science. They have specialized teaching knowledge, including knowledge of effective pedagogical practices in science, student difficulties with understanding content, and curricular purposes. As a result,…

  11. A weak current amplifier and output circuit used in nuclear weighing scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jinhua; Zheng Mingquan; Wang Mingqian; Jia Changchun; Jin Hanjuan; Shi Qicun; Tang Ke

    1998-01-01

    A weak current amplifier and output circuit with a maximum nonlinear error of +-0.06% has been developed. Experiments show that it can work stably and therefore be used in nuclear industrial instruments

  12. From hazard identification to weighing the benefits and drawbacks of prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainio, Harri; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2005-01-01

    In this commentary, we briefly summarize and give examples of evaluations done by the International Agency for Research on Cancer, WHO (IARC-WHO, Lyon, France) about the identification of carcinogenic substances or agents and the evaluation of the efficacy and effectiveness of cancer preventive substances, agents or strategies. In the 1970's the IARC initiated a series of Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans for the purposes of primary prevention. During the last 35 years of the IARC Monographs, many agents that are important to the public health perspective have been evaluated. The agent or exposure is described and classified according to the wording of one of the following groups: group 1, carcinogenic to humans; group 2A, probably carcinogenic to humans; group 2B, possibly carcinogenic to humans; group 3, not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans; group 4, probably not carcinogenic to humans. In 1997, the IARC started a new series of handbooks, the IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, which aimed for the evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of cancer preventive agents and strategies. The process of evaluation is quite similar to the IARC Monographs. In total, 10 Handbooks were published in topics such as mammography screening, cervical cancer screening, consumption of fruits and vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and weight control and physical activity. We discuss in general terms ways of preventing cancer and of evaluating preventive strategies, giving as example mammography screening

  13. Weighing Animal Lives : A Critical Assessment of Justification and Prioritization in Animal-Rights Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Fredrik

    2009-01-01

    The project underlying this dissertation aims at analyzing three pro-animal-rights theories, evaluating the theories, and outlining an alternative theoretical account of animal rights. The analytical categories are justification and function of animal rights, the definition of the right holder, and the resolution approach to rights conflict. The categories are applied to a naturalist, a theocentric, and a contractarian approach to defend animal rights. The evaluation is substantiated by the a...

  14. Treatment of Hepatitis C during Pregnancy-Weighing the Risks and Benefits in Contrast to HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barritt, A Sidney; Jhaveri, Ravi

    2018-04-01

    Increasing hepatitis C virus (HCV) cases over the past decade have raised concerns about subsequent increased cases in infants due to mother to child transmission (MTCT). Many are reminded of the early days of HIV and the rationale for using antiretroviral agents during pregnancy. Direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) that are highly potent, all-oral, short-duration regimens that cure HCV have led many to consider what it would entail to use DAAs for pregnant women. Considering HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) as two infections with MTCT to draw lessons from, DAA use to interrupt HCV MTCT comes with risks, costs, and many potential benefits. When considering how to effectively curb the current epidemic of HCV in the US population, using DAAs to treat pregnant women with HCV offers potential benefits to the mother immediately, to the pair in the short-term and to the child, family, and society over a lifetime.

  15. The Department of Defense and the Power of Cloud Computing: Weighing Acceptable Cost Versus Acceptable Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    of control 8 2 PAAS component stack and scope of control 9 3 SAAS component stack and scope of control 10 vii Foreword It is my great pleasure to...service (PAAS), or software as a service ( SAAS ). Regardless of the model or service selected, the process of implementing a cloud-computing environment... SAAS . To- gether, these build on each other, providing more service to the customer while limiting customers’ abilities to operate, maintain, and

  16. Weighing of risk factors for penetrating keratoplasty graft failure: application of Risk Score System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Karim Tourkmani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the relationship between the score obtained in the Risk Score System (RSS proposed by Hicks et al with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP graft failure at 1y postoperatively and among each factor in the RSS with the risk of PKP graft failure using univariate and multivariate analysis. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study had 152 PKPs from 152 patients. Eighteen cases were excluded from our study due to primary failure (10 cases, incomplete medical notes (5 cases and follow-up less than 1y (3 cases. We included 134 PKPs from 134 patients stratified by preoperative risk score. Spearman coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the score obtained and risk of failure at 1y. Univariate and multivariate analysis were calculated for the impact of every single risk factor included in the RSS over graft failure at 1y. RESULTS: Spearman coefficient showed statistically significant correlation between the score in the RSS and graft failure (P0.05 between diagnosis and lens status with graft failure. The relationship between the other risk factors studied and graft failure was significant (P<0.05, although the results for previous grafts and graft failure was unreliable. None of our patients had previous blood transfusion, thus, it had no impact. CONCLUSION: After the application of multivariate analysis techniques, some risk factors do not show the expected impact over graft failure at 1y.

  17. Towards weighing individual atoms by high-angle scattering of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argentero, G.; Mangler, C.; Kotakoski, J.; Eder, F.R.; Meyer, J.C., E-mail: Jannik.Meyer@univie.ac.at

    2015-04-15

    We consider theoretically the energy loss of electrons scattered to high angles when assuming that the primary beam can be limited to a single atom. We discuss the possibility of identifying the isotopes of light elements and of extracting information about phonons in this signal. The energy loss is related to the mass of the much heavier nucleus, and is spread out due to atomic vibrations. Importantly, while the width of the broadening is much larger than the energy separation of isotopes, only the shift in the peak positions must be detected if the beam is limited to a single atom. We conclude that the experimental case will be challenging but is not excluded by the physical principles as far as considered here. Moreover, the initial experiments demonstrate that the separation of gold and carbon based on a signal that is related to their mass, rather than their atomic number. - Highlights: • We explore how energy loss spectroscopy could be used to obtain information about the mass, rather than the charge, of atoms. • The dose and precision that would be needed to distinguish between the two isotopes of carbon, C12 and C13, is estimated. • Signal broadening due to phonons is included in the calculation. • Initial experiments show the separation between gold and carbon based on their mass rather than charge.

  18. Weighing the evidence: risks and benefits of participatory documentary in corporatized clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helena

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the effects of one U.S.-based public psychiatry clinic's shift to a centralized, corporate style of management, in response to pressures to cut expenditures by focusing on "evidence based" treatments. Participant observation research conducted between 2008 and 2012 for a larger study involving 127 interviews with policy makers, clinic managers, clinical practitioners and patients revealed that the shift heralded the decline of arts based therapies in the clinic, and of the social networks that had developed around them. It also inspired a participatory video self-documentary project among art group members, to portray the importance of arts-based therapies and garner public support for such therapies. Group members found a way to take action in the face of unilateral decision making, but experienced subsequent restrictions on clinic activities and discharge of core members from the clinic. The paper ends with a discussion of biopolitics, central legibility through corporate standardization, and the potential and risks of participatory documentaries to resist these trends. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Ventromedial Frontal Lobe Damage Alters how Specific Attributes are Weighed in Subjective Valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Avinash R; Sefranek, Marcus; Fellows, Lesley K

    2017-10-23

    The concept of subjective value is central to current neurobiological views of economic decision-making. Much of this work has focused on signals in the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF) that correlate with the subjective value of a variety of stimuli (e.g., food, monetary gambles), and are thought to support decision-making. However, the neural processes involved in assessing and integrating value information from the attributes of such complex options remain to be defined. Here, we tested the necessary role of VMF in weighting attributes of naturalistic stimuli during value judgments. We asked how distinct attributes of visual artworks influenced the subjective value ratings of subjects with VMF damage, compared to healthy participants and a frontal lobe damaged control group. Subjects with VMF damage were less influenced by the energy (emotion, complexity) and color radiance (warmth, saturation) of the artwork, while they were similar to control groups in considering saliency, balance and concreteness. These dissociations argue that VMF is critical for allowing certain affective content to influence subjective value, while sparing the influence of perceptual or representational information. These distinctions are important for better defining the often-underspecified concept of subjective value and developing more detailed models of the brain mechanisms underlying decision behavior. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Calibrating care in midwifery : weighing the evidence on weight and weight gain for pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darie Daemers

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning of the twenty first century obesity entered Dutch maternity care as a ‘new illness’ challenging maternity care professionals in providing optimal care for women with higher BMI’s. International research revealed that obese women had more perinatal problems than normal weight women.

  1. Global warming and energy technology choices: An approach to weighing the alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGroat, K.J.

    1991-01-01

    Responses to global warming must be fashioned in the face of great uncertainty as to the actual costs and benefits of the actions. Yet the possible consequences of inaction are so great that policy makers are having to move ahead on the basis of science's incomplete knowledge of the true impacts of global warming. Energy technology is a key component of any response becauseof fossil fuels' dominant role in generating the gases that are the cause of the greenhouse effect. This paper presents an approach to analyzing CO 2 emissions from both fossil fuel and alternative energy technologies on a basis that normalizes emissions as a function of useful power output over the life of a generating technology, and over its entire fuel cycle. A scenario for analyzing wood-fired electricity generation from a short-rotation wood plantation is developed in detail to illustrate the application of the approach to assessing the CO 2 impact of biomass energy. The paper concludes that wood energy supplied by a short-rotation woody plantation not only balances the emissions during the operation of the generating plant, but also sequesters CO 2 in the 'infrastructure' of growing biomass that remains on the plantation after harvesting. The paper finishes with a caution that this analysis tends to highlight only the environmental issues involved in technology selection; economics, technical feasibility and important technical parameters are intentionally simplified in order to focus attention on emissions and power output. However, if used properly this approach does provide useful inputs for policy makers concerned with integrating environmental concerns into energy decisions

  2. Weighing the costs: Implementing the SLMTA programme in Zimbabwe using internal versus external facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Shumba

    2014-11-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the financial costs of SLMTA implementation using two models (external facilitators; and internal local or MoHCW facilitators from the perspective of the implementing partner and to estimate resources needed to scale up the programme nationally in all 10 provinces. Methods: The average expenditure per laboratory was calculated based on accounting records; calculations included implementing partner expenses but excluded in-kind contributions and salaries of local facilitators and trainees. We also estimated theoretical financial costs, keeping all contextual variables constant across the two models. Resource needs for future national expansion were estimated based on a two-phase implementation plan, in which 12 laboratories in each of five provinces would implement SLMTA per phase; for the internal facilitator model, 20 facilitators would be trained at the beginning of each phase. Results: The average expenditure to implement SLMTA in 11 laboratories using external facilitators was approximately US$5800 per laboratory; expenditure in 19 laboratories using internal facilitators was approximately $6000 per laboratory. The theoretical financial cost of implementing a 12-laboratory SLMTA cohort keeping all contextual variables constant would be approximately $58 000 using external facilitators; or $15 000 using internal facilitators, plus $86 000 to train 20 facilitators. The financial cost for subsequent SLMTA cohorts using the previously-trained internal facilitators would be approximately $15 000, yielding a break-even point of 2 cohorts, at $116 000 for either model. Estimated resources required for national implementation in 120 laboratories would therefore be $580 000 using external facilitators ($58 000 per province and $322 000 using internal facilitators ($86 000 for facilitator training in each of two phases plus $15 000 for SLMTA implementation in each province. Conclusion: Investing in training of internal facilitators will result in substantial savings over the scale-up of the programme. Our study provides information to assist policy makers to develop strategic plans for investing in laboratory strengthening.

  3. The Leaky Pipe: Lead Pipers Weigh in on WikiLeaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Let’s start off with a little background and context, just in case you haven’t been glued to the news to catch every nuance of the WikiLeaks story. The Guardian has a helpful timeline of the saga to get you (at least partially up to speed, and if you don’t like theirs, there are plenty [...

  4. Weighing the Benefits of Anchored Math Instruction for Students with Disabilities in General Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottge, Brian A.; Heinrichs, Mary; Mehta, Zara Dee; Hung, Ya-Hui

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the effectiveness of enhanced anchor instruction and traditional problem instruction in improving the problem-solving performance of 42 seventh-graders with and without disabilities in inclusive classrooms. Students without disabilities profited from contextualized instruction, but benefits for the students with disabilities were…

  5. The right to privacy and the transparency of justice: two weighing exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poalelungi Mihail

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Within this article, the author emphasizes a problem which is nowadays largely debated in our society, a subject especially highlighted by the journalists – the anonymization of court decisions. In the Republic of Moldova, by way of invoking the practice of general anonymization of judgments, also existent in some of the European Union states, and the recent developments in the field of personal data protection, was proposed the amendment of the Regulation on the manner of publication of judgments on the unique online portal of the national courts. The draft amendment establishes that the judgments must be anonymised „in accordance with the provisions of the Law on the protection of personal data”. The proposals have raised negative reactions among journalists and some lawyers. The author considers that, actually, the circumstances are those which determine the beneficial form and character of the principles and decided to analyse if this solution is justified in the case of the Republic of Moldova. He suggests balancing as a means of striking the fair balance inherent to the European Convention on Human Rights and to the Constitution of the Republic of Moldova, a method which is used even by the European Court of Human Rights.

  6. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits.

  7. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  8. Weighing up crime: the over estimation of drug-related crime

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is generally accepted that harms from crime cause a very large part of the total social harm that can be attributed to drug use. For example, crime harms accounted for 70% of the weighting of the British Drug Harm Index in 2004. This paper explores the linkage of criminal harm to drug use and challenges the current overestimation of the proportion of crime that can be causally attributed to drug use. It particularly examines the use of data from arrested drug users to estimate ...

  9. Validation of a dietary questionnaire assessed with multiple weighed dietary records or 24-hour recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    The authors evaluated the validity of a 152-item semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ) by comparing it with two 7-day dietary records (7DDRs) or up to 4 automated self-administered 24-hour recalls (ASA24s) over a 1-year period in the women's Lifestyle Validation Study (2010-2012), con...

  10. Weighing in on Education: A Study of Childhood Obesity and Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guindon, John R., Sr.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative causal comparative study looked to see if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement. Because of the many conflicting results in the research available, it was not known if there was a relationship between childhood obesity and student achievement among inner-city middle school students in a school…

  11. COSMOS soil water sensor compared with EM sensor network & weighing lysimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water sensing methods are widely used to characterize the root zone and below, but only a few are capable of delivering water content data with accuracy for the entire soil profile such that evapotranspiration (ET) can be determined by soil water balance and irrigations can be scheduled with mi...

  12. Nuclear Power’s Global Expansion: Weighing Its Costs and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    Physics Department); Tanta University ( Mathematics Department, Physics Department). 471 107. Al Azhar University and Zagazig University. 108. Atomic...assessment is therefore done on an actuarial and theoretical ba- sis, rather than using real data. The inherent uncertainty of this methodology makes many

  13. Weighing up the weighted case mix tool (WCMT): a psychometric investigation using confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, B G; Humphris, G; Richards, D; Okeefe, E J; Gordon, K; Freeman, R

    2014-12-01

    To assess the use of the WCMT in two Scottish health boards and to consider the impact of simplifying the tool to improve efficient use. A retrospective analysis of routine WCMT data (47,276 cases). Public Dental Service (PDS) within NHS Lothian and Highland. The WCMT consists of six criteria. Each criterion is measured independently on a four-point scale to assess patient complexity and the dental care for the disabled/impaired patient. Psychometric analyses on the data-set were conducted. Conventional internal consistency coefficients were calculated. Latent variable modelling was performed to assess the 'fit' of the raw data to a pre-specified measurement model. A Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used to test three potential changes to the existing WCMT that included, the removal of the oral risk factor question, the removal of original weightings for scoring the Tool, and collapsing the 4-point rating scale to three categories. The removal of the oral risk factor question had little impact on the reliability of the proposed simplified CMT to discriminate between levels of patient complexity. The removal of weighting and collapsing each item's rating scale to three categories had limited impact on reliability of the revised tool. The CFA analysis provided strong evidence that a new, proposed simplified Case Mix Tool (sCMT) would operate closely to the pre-specified measurement model (the WMCT). A modified sCMT can demonstrate, without reducing reliability, a useful measure of the complexity of patient care. The proposed sCMT may be implemented within primary care dentistry to record patient complexity as part of an oral health assessment.

  14. A semi-quantitative model for risk appreciation and risk weighing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Peter M.J.; Boon, Polly E.; van der Voet, Hilko

    2009-01-01

    Risk managers need detailed information on (1) the type of effect, (2) the size (severity) of the expected effect(s) and (3) the fraction of the population at risk to decide on well-balanced risk reduction measures. A previously developed integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model...... provides quantitative information on these three parameters. A semi-quantitative tool is presented that combines information on these parameters into easy-readable charts that will facilitate risk evaluations of exposure situations and decisions on risk reduction measures. This tool is based on a concept...... detailed information on the estimated health impact in a given exposure situation. These graphs will facilitate the discussions on appropriate risk reduction measures to be taken....

  15. Minding the carbon store: Weighing U.S. forestry strategies to slow global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trexler, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    If global warming is to be slowed heat-trapping gases must be controlled but, in addition, carbon sinks must be expanded. This document provides economic, political and technical analyses for each of seven biotic policy options that are feasible for the US. Individual chapters were indexed separately for the data base

  16. Shedding light on the mercury mass discrepancy by weighing Hg52+ ions in a Penning trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritioff, T.; Bluhme, H.; Schuch, R.; Bergstroem, I.; Bjoerkhage, M.

    2003-01-01

    In their nuclear tables Audi and Wapstra have pointed out a serious mass discrepancy between their extrapolated values for the mercury isotopes and those from a direct measurement by the Manitoba group. The values deviate by as much as 85 ppb from each other with claimed uncertainties of about 16 and 7 ppb, respectively. In order to decide which values are correct the masses of the 198 Hg and 204 Hg isotopes have been measured in the Stockholm Penning trap mass spectrometer SMILETRAP using 52+ ions. This charge state corresponds to a filled Ni electron configuration for which the electron binding energy can be accurately calculated. The mass values obtained are 197.966 768 44(43) u for 198 Hg and 203.973 494 10(39) u for 204 Hg. These values agree with those measured by the Manitoba group, with a 3 times lower uncertainty. This measurement was made possible through the implementation of a cooling technique of the highly charged mercury ions during charge breeding in the electron beam ion source used for producing the Hg 52+ ions

  17. Simpler and More Accurate: Weighing the Mercury in Electrolytic Cells by Radiotracer Dilution Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiharto; Santoso, S.B.; Santoso, G.B.

    2010-01-01

    Weight of mercury in electrolytic cell of soda industry is usually measured gravimetrically, which is typical labor work in character. Error sources of the gravimetric method might have come from the fact that some mercury's are usually trapped in the cell due to complicated structure of electrolytic cell. This cause unknown errors. In addition, formation of amalgam at the cathode may cause a further uncertainty in the measurement. Total error from gravimetric method is 4% on average. Radiotracer dilution method provides advantages either for simplification of procedure and reduction of measurement error. In this experiment radioisotope mercury 203 Hg, which was prepared in nuclear reactor was used to examine 13 of 14 electrolytic cells of soda plant. Each electrolytic cell was designed containing approximately 700 kg inactive mercury. Before injection, the radioisotope mercury was mixed with non radioisotope mercury in a bath to obtain a suitable injection aliquots and standard references. Calibration curve, which was derived from two stage dilution processes taken from standard references, was used to examine degree of mixing between radioisotope and non radioisotope mercury and it was also used in weight calculation of non radioisotope mercury in electrolytic cell. Injection was carried out simply by pouring the injection aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell. Mercury samples from the cells were extracted at regular time intervals and filled into vials for counting. This was done for the primary conformation of the completeness of mixing of the tracer with the non radioisotope mercury in each cell. When complete mixing is achieved, the unknown quantity of mercury in each cell was calculated based on mass balance principle. From the calculation the weight of mercury in each electrolytic cell was not the same and maximum error of measurement obtained from this method is 2.48 %. Compared to gravimetrically error mentioned above, it was clear that radiotracer dilution method gives better result in terms of higher accuracy and simpler procedure in measurement of the weight of mercury in electrolytic cells. Above all, this method is very suitable to be implemented in soda industry. (author)

  18. Weighed down by development: Reflections on early childhood care and education in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dachyshyn Darcey M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on qualitative research undertaken in West Nile Uganda and Coastal Kenya as part of a broader development project. A wide range of stakeholders, including government officials, parents, and early childhood practitioners were involved in sharing their perspectives of what life is like for young children (birth to age 8 in their homes, communities, and institutions. Data gathered were then brought back to community members to solicit action plans. The author brings to the data her reflections and lived experience as a mzungu (white person brought to the region under the guise of development work and the ethical issues that ensued. It was clear that minority world discourses and conceptions of what constitutes a good life for children had permeated the value systems and goals of many adults in this majority world context. However, when challenged to think deeply about the systemic issues affecting their children, participants began to see the importance of finding ways to meld indigenous values, beliefs, and practices with the globalization agenda.

  19. Weighing in on Genetic Engineering and Morality: Students Reveal Their Ideas, Expectations, and Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    The ability to negotiate and resolve socioscientific issues has been posited as integral components of scientific literacy. Although philosophers and science educators have argued that socioscientific issues inherently involve moral and ethical considerations, the ultimate arbiters of morality are individual decision-makers. This study explored…

  20. TAPIR: a device for automatic titration with incremental weighing of the titration reagent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganivet, Michel

    TAPIR is a titration device enabling automatic analyses with weighting of the titration reagent. The titration method used can be based on potentiometry, amperometry, color indicator change... The reproducibility is about 3.10 -4 [fr

  1. To Parcel or Not To Parcel: Exploring the Question, Weighing the Merits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Todd D.; Cunningham, William A.; Shahar, Golan; Widaman, Keith F.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the evidence for the practice of using parcels of item as manifest variables in structural equation modeling procedures. Findings suggest that the unconsidered use of parcels is never warranted, but the considered use of parcels cannot be dismissed out of hand. Describes a number of parceling techniques and their strengths and weaknesses.…

  2. 40 CFR 86.1312-88 - Weighing chamber and microgram balance specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New Otto-Cycle and Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous and Particulate... permit humidity exchange) petri dishes. These reference filter pairs shall be placed in the same general...

  3. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  4. Peri-intraventricular hemorrhage in newborns weighing less than 1500 grams: comparative analysis between 2 institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponte Marinice Duarte da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aims to characterize the peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in the neonatal period in very low birth weight newborns in 2 institutions that provide neonatal tertiary assistance. METHOD: This was a comparative and observational study in 2 neonatal intensive care units, the Maternity Hospital of Campinas and the "Centro de Atenção Integrada à Saúde da Mulher" of the State University of Campinas, from December 01, 1998 to November 30, 1999. We examined 187 newborns for peri-intraventricular hemorrhages, using transfontanel ultrasound (76 and 11 respectively at the first and second unit, and classified them into 4 grades. We observed their gender, intrauterine growth, weight, and gestational age at birth. RESULTS: We diagnosed 34 cases of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages (13 and 21, respectively, and both groups differed as to the birth weight and the adequacy of weight to the gestational age at birth. There was no difference in the prevalence or extent of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages among cases. There was a statistically significant occurrence of lower birth weight at gestational ages of less than 30 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in our study was compared to that reported in the world literature. Although the cases of the second institution had a smaller mean birth weight, the prevalence of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages was similar to that at the first institution, probably because in the first one, 69% of the gestational ages of the neonates with hemorrhage were less than 30 weeks as compared to 48% in the second one. We stress the importance of the ultrasonographic method for diagnosing peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in very low birth weight newborns.

  5. Installation and evaluation of weigh-in-motion utilizing quartz-piezo sensor technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-28

    The objective of the research study was: to install a quartz-piezo based WIM system, and to : determine sensor survivability, accuracy and reliability under actual traffic conditions in : Connecticuts environment. If the systems prove dependable a...

  6. Weighing the Anti-Ischemic Benefits and Bleeding Risks from Aspirin Therapy: a Rational Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugani, Sagar; Ames, Jeffrey M; Manson, JoAnn E; Mora, Samia

    2018-02-21

    The role of aspirin in secondary cardiovascular prevention is well understood; however, the role in primary prevention is less clear, and requires careful balancing of potential benefits with risks. Here, we summarize the evidence base on the benefits and risks of aspirin therapy, discuss clinical practice guidelines and decision support tools to assist in initiating aspirin therapy, and highlight ongoing trials that may clarify the role of aspirin in cardiovascular disease prevention. In 2016, the USPSTF released guidelines on the use of aspirin for primary prevention. Based on 11 trials (n = 118,445), aspirin significantly reduced all-cause mortality and nonfatal myocardial infarction, and in 7 trials that evaluated aspirin ≤ 100 mg/day, there was significant reduction in nonfatal stroke. The USPSTF recommends individualized use of aspirin based on factors including age, 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score, and bleeding risk. Several ongoing trials are evaluating the role of aspirin in primary prevention, secondary prevention, and in combination therapy for atrial fibrillation. Evidence-based approaches to aspirin use should consider the anti-ischemic benefits and bleeding risks from aspirin. In this era of precision medicine, tools that provide the personalized benefit to risk assessment, such as the freely available clinical decision support tool (Aspirin-Guide), can be easily incorporated into the electronic health record and facilitate more informed decisions about initiating aspirin therapy for primary prevention. Aspirin has a complex matrix of benefits and risks, and its use in primary prevention requires individualized decision-making. Results from ongoing trials may guide healthcare providers in identifying appropriate candidates for aspirin therapy.

  7. Early BCG-Denmark and Neonatal Mortality Among Infants Weighing <2500 g: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Sofie; Aaby, Peter; Lund, Najaaraq

    2017-01-01

    -Denmark” (intervention group; n = 2083) or “control” (local policy for LW and no BCG-Denmark; n = 2089) at discharge from the maternity ward or at first contact with the health center. The infants were randomized (1:1) without blinding in blocks of 24. Data was analyzed in Cox hazards models providing mortality rate...... ratios (MRRs). We had prespecified an analysis censoring follow-up at oral poliovirus vaccine campaigns. Results. Early administration of BCG-Denmark was associated with a nonsignificant reduction in neonatal mortality rate (MRR, 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], .47–1.04) and a 34% reduction (0......Background. BCG vaccine may reduce overall mortality by increasing resistance to nontuberculosis infections. In 2 randomized trials in Guinea-Bissau of early BCG-Denmark (Statens Serum Institut) given to low-weight (LW) neonates (mortality rates, we observed...

  8. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk.

  9. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature sup...

  10. View from the UN Balts weigh in at general debate / Ann Charles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Charles, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese, Läti presidendi Valdis Zatlersi, Leedu presidendi Valdas Adamkuse, Ukraina presidendi Viktor Juštšenko ja Prantsusmaa presidendi Nicolas Sarkozy sõnavõttudest ÜRO peaassambleel. Vabariigi President töövisiidil New Yorgis 23.-27.09.2008

  11. Tipping the Proteome with Gene-Based Vaccines: Weighing in on the Role of Nano materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, K.J.; Craig, M.; Smith, J.J.; DeLong, R.K.; Wanekaya, A.; Dong, L.

    2012-01-01

    Since the first generation of DNA vaccines was introduced in 1988, remarkable improvements have been made to improve their efficacy and immunogenicity. Although human clinical trials have shown that delivery of DNA vaccines is well tolerated and safe, the potency of these vaccines in humans is somewhat less than optimal. The development of a gene-based vaccine that was effective enough to be approved for clinical use in humans would be one of, if not the most important, advance in vaccines to date. This paper highlights the literature relating to gene-based vaccines, specifically DNA vaccines, and suggests possible approaches to boost their performance. In addition, we explore the idea that combining RNA and nano materials may hold the key to successful gene-based vaccines for prevention and treatment of disease

  12. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses − A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkema, R.S. (Reina S.); G.S. Freidl (Gudrun); E.I. de Bruin (Esther); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAssessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal

  13. 75 FR 9157 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Scale and Catch Weighing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... Fisheries Act (AFA) catcher/ processors, AFA motherships, AFA shoreside processors and stationary floating... effectively manage fisheries, NMFS must have data that will provide reliable independent estimates of the...

  14. Implicit theories of body weight: entity beliefs can weigh you down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Jeni L

    2010-03-01

    The current research extended the implicit theory approach to a weight management context and merged it with value expectancy theory. Three studies investigated the hypothesis that individuals are especially unlikely to self-regulate effectively after dieting setbacks when they believe body weight to be fixed (entity theory) rather than malleable (incremental theory). Study 1 examined avoidant coping after a hypothetical dieting setback. Study 2 examined the implicit theory-avoidant coping relation after naturally occurring challenges to participants' weight-loss goals. Across both studies, entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported more avoidant coping after setbacks. In Study 2, avoidant coping, in turn, predicted difficulty achieving weight-loss success. Study 3 manipulated implicit theories of weight to test the causal effects of implicit theories on effortful regulation. Entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported less persistence following setbacks. Across the three studies, expectations about the potential for future dieting success mediated the link between implicit theory and self-regulation.

  15. Multipolar moments of weak lensing signal around clusters. Weighing filaments in harmonic space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, C.; Gavazzi, R.; Codis, S.; Pichon, C.; Peirani, S.; Dubois, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Upcoming weak lensing surveys such as Euclid will provide an unprecedented opportunity to quantify the geometry and topology of the cosmic web, in particular in the vicinity of lensing clusters. Aims: Understanding the connectivity of the cosmic web with unbiased mass tracers, such as weak lensing, is of prime importance to probe the underlying cosmology, seek dynamical signatures of dark matter, and quantify environmental effects on galaxy formation. Methods: Mock catalogues of galaxy clusters are extracted from the N-body PLUS simulation. For each cluster, the aperture multipolar moments of the convergence are calculated in two annuli (inside and outside the virial radius). By stacking their modulus, a statistical estimator is built to characterise the angular mass distribution around clusters. The moments are compared to predictions from perturbation theory and spherical collapse. Results: The main weakly chromatic excess of multipolar power on large scales is understood as arising from the contraction of the primordial cosmic web driven by the growing potential well of the cluster. Besides this boost, the quadrupole prevails in the cluster (ellipsoidal) core, while at the outskirts, harmonic distortions are spread on small angular modes, and trace the non-linear sharpening of the filamentary structures. Predictions for the signal amplitude as a function of the cluster-centric distance, mass, and redshift are presented. The prospects of measuring this signal are estimated for current and future lensing data sets. Conclusions: The Euclid mission should provide all the necessary information for studying the cosmic evolution of the connectivity of the cosmic web around lensing clusters using multipolar moments and probing unique signatures of, for example, baryons and warm dark matter.

  16. 40 CFR 1065.190 - PM-stabilization and weighing environments for gravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications... will control the amount of water associated with sulfuric acid (H2SO4) PM, such that 1.2216 grams of... not been within the applicable tolerances for the past 60 min. (2) Continuously measure atmospheric...

  17. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Monitoring Beban dan Kecepatan Kendaraan Menggunakan Teknologi Weigh in Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisya Septiana

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Weight in Motion (WIM merupakan salah satu solusi inovatif dalam manajemen lalu lintas yang memungkinkan kendaraan ditimbang pada saat dalam perjalanan. Pada penelitian ini dirancang sebuah sistem monitoring yang mampu mengolah dan menghitung data kendaraan berupa beban dan kecepatan kendaraan melalui sistem WIM. Untuk mendukung sistem ini digunakan perangkat keras berupa sensor WIM yang terdiri dari Load Cell, modul penguat HX711 dan Arduino serta untuk data sinyal beban yang telah dihasilkan sistem WIM menggunakan metode analisa pengolahan sinyal. Pengujian sistem ini dilakukan menggunakan sebuah mobil penumpang dengan kecepatan yang berbeda-beda. Dari hasil pengujian didapatkan sistem WIM mampu melakukan pengukuran kendaraan berjalan dengan nilai rata-rata error yang dihasilkan untuk kecepatan 8.94%, jarak sumbu kendaraan 14.64%, dan beban kendaraan 10.21%.

  18. Mass sensors with mechanical traps for weighing single cells in different fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yaochung; Delgado, Francisco Feijó; Son, Sungmin; Burg, Thomas P; Wasserman, Steven C; Manalis, Scott R

    2011-12-21

    We present two methods by which single cells can be mechanically trapped and continuously monitored within the suspended microchannel resonator (SMR) mass sensor. Since the fluid surrounding the trapped cell can be quickly and completely replaced on demand, our methods are well suited for measuring changes in cell size and growth in response to drugs or other chemical stimuli. We validate our methods by measuring the density of single polystyrene beads and Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cells with a precision of approximately 10(-3) g cm(-3), and by monitoring the growth of single mouse lymphoblast cells before and after drug treatment.

  19. Weighing the Merits. Several States Are implementing Pay-for-Performance Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    Some 37.1 percent of education spending was earmarked for teachers in 2001-02, according to the American Federation of Teachers, and most of that money was paid out using traditional compensation systems. But as expectations for accountability increase, a handful of states are looking to pay-for-performance systems to attract quality…

  20. Dose management: weighing up the costs and benefits of remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.; Lochard, J.; Blain, A.

    1989-01-01

    Reducing occupational exposure during maintenance, while at the same time preserving the economic viability of nuclear power plants, will be one of the major challenges to be faced by the industry over the next decade. Increased use of robotics is a possibility. The costs and benefits are examined in this paper. (author)

  1. 78 FR 39576 - Adoption of Statutory Prohibition on the Operation of Jets Weighing 75,000 Pounds or Less That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    .... Authority for This Rulemaking The FAA's authority to issue rules on aviation safety is found in Title 49 of... 0.5 22 Malaysia 2 0.5 23 Morocco 2 0.5 24 Nigeria 2 0.5 25 Sudan 2 0.5 26 Syria 2 0.5 27 Turkey 2 0... protection of safety, and does not operate in a manner that excludes imports that meet this objective. The...

  2. A ROAD AHEAD FROM CANCUN? WEIGHING UP SOME GIVE-AND-TAKE SCENARIOS IN A DDA SPIRIT

    OpenAIRE

    Shakur, Shamim; Rae, Allan N.; Chatterjee, Srikanta

    2004-01-01

    Given that around 20 percent of the members of the World Trade Organisation (WTO) are identified as least developed countries (LDC's), global trade negotiations, resumed after the Cancun fiasco of September 2003, must address some major development issues in the spirit of the Doha Development Agenda (DDA), if they are to make any headway. This will, predictably, involve some sensible give-and-take not only between the developed countries and the LDC's, but also amongst the LDC's themselves, a...

  3. Soil fertility dynamics in a semiarid basin: impact of scale level in weighing the effect of the landscape variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Navarro, A.; Barbera, G. G.; Albaladejo, J.

    2009-01-01

    Arid and semi-arid Mediterranean soils are particularly sensitive to degradation processes, and soil fertility could play important role in restoration/conservation practices. Our objective was to study the relationships between soil and landscape at different scales in order to understand the main drivers of soil fertility on a semiarid catchment. A stratified sampling plan was carried out to take soil and landscape representative variability. Multivariate statistic techniques were used to elucidate the relationship between both. The results showed that soil fertility are positively related with density of vegetation and topographical conditions favourable to soil moisture at small scale, while negatively with topographical factors that contributed erosion dynamic on ero debility lithologies at medium and large scale. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Hyperglycaemia Among Nigerian Infants Weighing Less Than 1,500 Grammes at Birth: A Retrospective Assessment of the Clinical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In very low birthweight (VLBW infants, birthweight < 1,500g, hyperglycaemia is associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity. Our study aimed at determining the prevalence of hyperglycaemia among VLBW infants and describing their clinical characteristics. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all inborn VLBW infants was performed. Information obtained included birthweight, gestational age (best obstetric record, gender, and history of chorioamnionitis/maternal medical disorders, type and rates of intravenous fluid administration. Blood glucose level ≥ 7 mmol/L on at least two occasions defined hyperglycaemia. Results: Of the 279 blood glucose values, obtained from 93 infants, 91 (32.6%; 95% CI = 27.1% -38.1% were in the hyperglycaemic range, with the majority (61.5% occurring in the first 48 hours of life. The frequency of hyperglycaemia was significantly associated with a rate of infusion greater than 0.4g/kg/hour (Odds Ratio, OR = 3.76; 95% CI=1.58-8.94 and a positive history of maternal chorioamnionitis (OR = 3.04; 95%CI= 1.15-8.01. Conclusion: In the first 48 hours of life, hyperglycaemia co-existing with or complicating primary illnesses was common in VLBW infants who had dextrose infusion and a positive history of maternal chorioamnionitis

  5. Classification of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer by weighing gene expression profiles with connectivity information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ao; Tian, Suyan

    2018-05-01

    Pathway-based feature selection algorithms, which utilize biological information contained in pathways to guide which features/genes should be selected, have evolved quickly and become widespread in the field of bioinformatics. Based on how the pathway information is incorporated, we classify pathway-based feature selection algorithms into three major categories-penalty, stepwise forward, and weighting. Compared to the first two categories, the weighting methods have been underutilized even though they are usually the simplest ones. In this article, we constructed three different genes' connectivity information-based weights for each gene and then conducted feature selection upon the resulting weighted gene expression profiles. Using both simulations and a real-world application, we have demonstrated that when the data-driven connectivity information constructed from the data of specific disease under study is considered, the resulting weighted gene expression profiles slightly outperform the original expression profiles. In summary, a big challenge faced by the weighting method is how to estimate pathway knowledge-based weights more accurately and precisely. Only until the issue is conquered successfully will wide utilization of the weighting methods be impossible. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Extending Foster Care to Age 21: Weighing the Costs to Government against the Benefits to Youth. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Clark M.; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.; Pollack, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 allows states to claim federal reimbursement for the costs of caring for and supervising Title IV-E eligible foster youth until their 21st birthday. This issue brief provides preliminary estimates of what the potential costs to government and the benefits to young people…

  7. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes

    2008-01-01

    Much research and development effort is directed towards advances in municipal wastewater treatment aiming at reducing the effluent content of micro-pollutants and pathogens. The objective is to further reduce the eco-toxicity, hormone effects and pathogenic effects of the effluent. Such further ...

  8. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes

    2007-01-01

    Much research and development effort is directed towards advances in municipal wastewater treatment aiming at reducing the effluent content of micro-pollutants and pathogens. The objective is to further reduce the eco-toxicity, hormone effects and pathogenic effects of the effluent. Such further ...

  9. Weighing the Consequences: Self-Disclosure of HIV-Positive Status among African American Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Maribel; Levy, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Theorists posit that personal decisions to disclose being HIV positive are made based on the perceived consequences of that disclosure. This study examines the perceived costs and benefits of self-disclosure among African American injection drug users (IDUs). A total of 80 African American IDUs were interviewed in-depth subsequent to testing HIV…

  10. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156419912; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X; Heilmeier, H.; Bringezu, S.

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of

  11. 78 FR 57790 - Adoption of Statutory Prohibition on the Operation of Jets Weighing 75,000 Pounds or Less That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ...://www.regulations.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical questions concerning this [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION Background In section 506 of the FAA Modernization and Reform... States. If all of the owners chose to purchase the hushkit, doing so would reduce the societal cost of...

  12. When does mechanical plantar stimulation promote sensory re-weighing: standing on a firm or compliant surface?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preszner-Domjan, Andrea; Nagy, Edit; Szíver, Edit; Feher-Kiss, Anna; Horvath, Gyöngyi; Kranicz, Janos

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different types of mechanical stimulation of the sole on standing postural stability in healthy, young adults. Fifty subjects (34 women, 16 men; mean age 23 ± 2 (mean ± SE)) stood barefoot on fixed force plates both with open and closed eyes on firm surface and then on compliant surface (foam). A modified clinical test of sensory interaction on balance protocol was employed to assess the center of gravity (COG) excursions along anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) axes on each surface and visual condition. After the baseline measurement, a stimulation was applied with an elastic spiked layer topped to the firm and then foam surface, and the COG excursions were measured during the stimulation, and then at least 30 min after the stimulation of the spiked layer, we used 10 min of manual static and glide pressure applied to the plantar surface of both feet. Immediately after manual stimulation, static balance parameters were measured again. Results showed that after manual stimulation, the sway path with closed eyes decreased significantly on the AP and ML directions on firm surface conditions. The spiked layer caused significantly decreased sway path on firm platform in both directions, but it was ineffective on compliant surface. Our results established that the activation of plantar mechanoreceptors by 10-min manual stimulation can partially compensate subjects for the absence of visual input and the lack of accurate pressure information from the supporting surface, too.

  13. Weighing the Evidence: A Systematic Review on Long-Term Neurocognitive Effects of Cannabis Use in Abstinent Adolescents and Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganzer, Florian; Bröning, Sonja; Kraft, Stefanie; Sack, Peter-Michael; Thomasius, Rainer

    2016-06-01

    Findings on neurocognitive effects of sustained cannabis use are heterogeneous. Previous work has rarely taken time of abstinence into account. In this review, we focus on understanding sustained effects of cannabis, which begin when clinical symptoms of the drug have worn off after at least 14 days. We conducted a search between 2004 and 2015 and found 38 studies with such a prolonged abstinence phase. Study-design quality in terms of evidence-based medicine is similar among studies. Studies found some attention or concentration deficits in cannabis users (CU). There is evidence that chronic CU might experience sustained deficits in memory function. Findings are mixed regarding impairments in inhibition, impulsivity and decision making for CU, but there is a trend towards worse performance. Three out of four studies found evidence that motor function remains impaired even after a time of abstinence, while no impairments in visual spatial functioning can be concluded. Functional imaging demonstrates clear differences in activation patterns between CU and controls especially in hippocampal, prefrontal and cerebellar areas. Structural differences are found in cortical areas, especially the orbitofrontal region and the hippocampus. Twenty studies (57 %) reported data on outcome effects, leading to an overall effect size of r mean = .378 (CI 95 % = [.342; .453]). Heavy use is found to be more consistently associated with effects in diverse domains than early age of onset. Questions of causality-in view of scarce longitudinal studies, especially those targeting co-occurring psychiatric disorders-are discussed.

  14. Children in hospital in Ireland - what do they eat and what do they weigh: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flinn Aisling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity is a growing problem in Ireland. Many parents are unaware when their child is overweight or obese. Our objectives were to examine parents’ perceptions of a healthy diet and their children’s BMI; and to evaluate the food offered to children in our paediatric in-patient unit. Findings A retrospective questionnaire was distributed to 95 patients and their families admitted over one month. Seventy-eight had BMI values calculated (42 males, 36 females. Twenty-one children (26.9% were overweight/obese: 14/21 parents (66.7% thought their child had a normal weight. Sixty percent of children served dinner in the hospital were given fried potatoes. Four had fruit/vegetables. Forty-six parents brought food into hospital, of these 14 brought purchased food. Conclusions This study highlights the problem of child obesity in Ireland and parental underestimation of this problem. The nutritional value of food served to children in hospital needs to be improved and hospital admissions used as opportunities to promote healthy eating habits.

  15. Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Paul E; Waldock, Joanna; Christophides, George K; Hemming, Deborah; Agusto, Folashade; Evans, Katherine J; Fefferman, Nina; Gaff, Holly; Gumel, Abba; LaDeau, Shannon; Lenhart, Suzanne; Mickens, Ronald E; Naumova, Elena N; Ostfeld, Richard S; Ready, Paul D; Thomas, Matthew B; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge; Michael, Edwin

    2015-04-05

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is owing not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but also, perhaps most crucially, to the multitude of epidemiological, ecological and socio-economic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the past 10-15 years. In this review, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector-pathogen systems. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  17. Weighing in on risk factors for body dissatisfaction: a one-year prospective study of middle-adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtowicz, Amy E; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2012-01-01

    Body dissatisfaction is a common problem among adolescent girls that is linked to serious outcomes, including the development of eating disorders. This study tested to what degree five theorized risk factors (weight-related teasing, thin-ideal internalization, body mass index [BMI], self-esteem, and perfectionism) predicted prospective changes in body dissatisfaction. At baseline, 393 10th and 11th grade girls (M=15.8 years) completed questionnaires and had their height and weight measured. One year later, 316 participants' body dissatisfaction was reassessed (80.4% retention). Results suggested that self-esteem was the most potent risk factor, followed by BMI, when used to categorize girls into high- and low-risk groups for body dissatisfaction at follow-up. However, weight-related teasing, thin-ideal internalization, and perfectionism did not prove to be risk factors. These results suggest self-esteem and BMI are relevant variables for helping to identify middle-adolescent girls who may be at risk for subsequent increases in body dissatisfaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Children in hospital in Ireland - what do they eat and what do they weigh: a cross-sectional study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flinn, Aisling

    2012-09-06

    AbstractBackgroundOverweight and obesity is a growing problem in Ireland. Many parents are unaware when their child is overweight or obese. Our objectives were to examine parents’ perceptions of a healthy diet and their children’s BMI; and to evaluate the food offered to children in our paediatric in-patient unit.FindingsA retrospective questionnaire was distributed to 95 patients and their families admitted over one month. Seventy-eight had BMI values calculated (42 males, 36 females). Twenty-one children (26.9%) were overweight\\/obese: 14\\/21 parents (66.7%) thought their child had a normal weight. Sixty percent of children served dinner in the hospital were given fried potatoes. Four had fruit\\/vegetables. Forty-six parents brought food into hospital, of these 14 brought purchased food.ConclusionsThis study highlights the problem of child obesity in Ireland and parental underestimation of this problem. The nutritional value of food served to children in hospital needs to be improved and hospital admissions used as opportunities to promote healthy eating habits.

  19. Weighing black holes using open-loop focus corrections for LGS-AO observations of galaxy nuclei at Gemini Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermid, Richard M.; Krajnovic, Davor; Cappellari, Michele; Trujillo, Chadwick; Christou, Julian; Davies, Roger L.

    2010-07-01

    We present observations of early-type galaxies with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) obtained at Gemini North telescope using the NIFS integral field unit (IFU). We employ an innovative technique where the focus compensation due to the changing distance to the sodium layer is made 'open loop', allowing the extended galaxy nucleus to be used only for tip-tilt correction. The purpose of these observations is to determine high spatial resolution stellar kinematics within the nuclei of these galaxies to determine the masses of the super-massive black holes. The resulting data have spatial resolution of 0.2" FWHM or better. This is sufficient to positively constrain the presence of the central black hole in even low-mass early-type galaxies, suggesting that larger samples of such objects could be observed with this technique in the future. The open-loop focus correction technique is a supported queue-observing mode at Gemini, significantly extending the sky coverage in particular for faint, extended guide sources. We also provide preliminary results from tests combining tip/tilt correction from the Gemini peripheral guider with on-axis LGS. The current test system demonstrates feasibility of this mode, providing about a factor 2-3 improvement over natural seeing. With planned upgrades to the peripheral wave-front sensor, we hope to provide close to 100% sky coverage with low Strehl corrections, or 'improved seeing', significantly increasing flux concentration for deep field and extended object studies.

  20. Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Paul E.; Waldock, Joanna; Christophides, George K.; Hemming, Deborah; Agusto, Folashade; Evans, Katherine J.; Fefferman, Nina; Gaff, Holly; Gumel, Abba; LaDeau, Shannon; Lenhart, Suzanne; Mickens, Ronald E.; Naumova, Elena N.; Ostfeld, Richard S.; Ready, Paul D.; Thomas, Matthew B.; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge; Michael, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is owing not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but also, perhaps most crucially, to the multitude of epidemiological, ecological and socio-economic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the past 10–15 years. In this review, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector–pathogen systems. PMID:25688012

  1. 76 FR 64229 - Function and Reliability Flight Testing for Turbine-Powered Airplanes Weighing 6,000 Pounds or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... F & R flight testing regardless of the airplane's systems complexity or level of automation. After... than some transport category airplanes of the 1960s and earlier. The NPRM contains more of the...

  2. New approaches in the management of insomnia: weighing the advantages of prolonged-release melatonin and synthetic melatoninergic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rüdiger HardelandJohann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Hypnotic effects of melatonin and melatoninergic drugs are mediated via MT1 and MT2 receptors, especially those in the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts on the hypothalamic sleep switch. Therefore, they differ fundamentally from GABAergic hypnotics. Melatoninergic agonists primarily favor sleep initiation and reset the circadian clock to phases allowing persistent sleep, as required in circadian rhythm sleep disorders. A major obstacle for the use of melatonin to support sleep maintenance in primary insomnia results from its short half-life in the circulation. Solutions to this problem have been sought by developing prolonged-release formulations of the natural hormone, or melatoninergic drugs of longer half-life, such as ramelteon, tasimelteon and agomelatine. With all these drugs, improvements of sleep are statistically demonstrable, but remain limited, especially in primary chronic insomnia, so that GABAergic drugs may be indicated. Melatoninergic agonists do not cause next-day hangover and withdrawal effects, or dependence. They do not induce behavioral changes, as sometimes observed with z-drugs. Despite otherwise good tolerability, the use of melatoninergic drugs in children, adolescents, and during pregnancy has been a matter of concern, and should be avoided in autoimmune diseases and Parkinsonism. Problems and limits of melatoninergic hypnotics are compared.Keywords: agomelatine, hypnotics, melatonin, prolonged-release, ramelteon, tasimelteon

  3. Weighing the evidence of low glycemic index dietary intervention for the management of gestational diabetes mellitus: an Asian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Yusof, Barakatun-Nisak; Firouzi, Somayyeh; Mohd Shariff, Zalilah; Mustafa, Norlaila; Mohamed Ismail, Nor Azlin; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi

    2014-03-01

    This review aims to evaluate the effectiveness of low glycemic index (GI) dietary intervention for the treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), specifically from the Asian perspective. A systematic review of the literature using multiple databases without time restriction was conducted. Three studies were retrieved based upon a priori inclusion criteria. While there was a trend towards improvement, no significant differences were observed in overall glycemic control and pregnancy outcomes in GDM women. However, a tendency for lower birth weight and birth centile if the intervention began earlier was noted. Low GI diets were well accepted and had identical macro-micronutrient compositions as the control diets. However, due to genetic, environment and especially food pattern discrepancies between Western countries and Asians, these results may not be contributed to Asian context. Clearly, there are limited studies focusing on the effect of low GI dietary intervention in women with GDM, particularly in Asia.

  4. Parents of elementary school students weigh in on height, weight, and body mass index screening at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubik, Martha Y; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Story, Mary; Rieland, Gayle

    2006-12-01

    School-based body mass index (BMI) screening and parent notification programs have been recommended as a childhood overweight prevention strategy. However, there are little empirical data available to guide decision making about the acceptability and safety of programs. A pilot study was conducted using a quasiexperimental research design. In fall 2004, children in 4 suburban elementary schools (kindergarten to sixth grade) in the St Paul/Minneapolis, MN, metropolitan area completed height/weight screening. The following spring, parents in 2 schools received letters containing height/weight and BMI results. A self-administered post-only survey examined parents' opinions and beliefs regarding school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs (response rate: 790/1133 = 70%). The chi2 test of significance was used to examine differences in program support by treatment condition, child's weight status, and sociodemographic characteristics. Among all parents, 78% believed it was important for schools to assess student's height/weight annually and wanted to receive height, weight, and BMI information yearly. Among parents receiving the letter, 95% read most/all of the letter. Most parents (80%) and children (83%) reported comfort with the information in the letter. Parents of overweight children were more likely to report parental discomfort as well as child discomfort with letter content. There was considerable parental support for school-based BMI screening and parent notification programs. Programs may be a useful overweight prevention tool for children. However, continued attention to how best to support parents and children affected by overweight is required.

  5. Applications of fiber optics sensors in weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems for monitoring truck weights on pavements and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    The main objective of this project was to investigate emerging technologies and to establish criteria for evaluating fiber optic sensors used to measure actual dynamic loads on pavements and structures. The dynamic load of particular interest for thi...

  6. Energy vulnerability. Far from urban centres, space heating and fuel costs weigh heavily on the household budget

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochez, Nicolas; Durieux, Eric; Levy, David; Moreau, Sylvain; Baudu-Baret, Claude

    2015-01-01

    For 15% of resident households in metropolitan France, the proportion of income going on home and water heating is high, in the sense that it is twice the median housing-expense to income ratio. With this same criterion, the cost of the most mandatory car journeys is high for 10% of households, in relation to their budgets. In all, 22% of households (i.e. 5.9 million) are experiencing energy vulnerability for one or other of the items of consumption, and 3% of households (i.e. 700 000) are vulnerable for both items. The risk of vulnerability varies over national territory, with differences depending on the items of expenditure considered: climate is the primary factor where disparity in housing-related vulnerability is concerned, whereas the predominant factor for travel is distance from urban centres

  7. Urban Pre-Service K-6 Teachers' Conceptions of Citizenship and Civic Education: Weighing the Risks and Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Michael-Luna, Sara; Cormier, Maria Scott; Keegan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    To effectively help urban pre-service teachers to provide civic education opportunities in their future classrooms, teacher educators should know how urban pre-service teachers themselves conceptualize citizenship and civic engagement. Through the research question--how do urban K-6 pre-service teachers currently enrolled in an urban education…

  8. How the past weighs on the present: social representations of history and their role in identity politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James H; Hilton, Denis J

    2005-12-01

    Socially shared representations of history have been important in creating, maintaining and changing a people's identity. Their management and negotiation are central to interethnic and international relations. We present a narrative framework to represent how collectively significant events become (selectively) incorporated in social representations that enable positioning of ethnic, national and supranational identities. This perspective creates diachronic (temporal) links between the functional (e.g. realistic conflict theory), social identity, and cognitive perspectives on intergroup relations. The charters embedded in these representations condition nations with similar interests to adopt different political stances in dealing with current events, and can influence the perceived stability and legitimacy of social orders. They are also instrumental in determining social identity strategies for reacting to negative social comparisons, and can influence the relationships between national and ethnic identities.

  9. System for monitoring of green roof performance: use of weighing roof segment and non-invasive visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Vladmira; Dohnal, Michal; Picek, Tomas; Sacha, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the performance of technogenic substrates for green roofs is a significant task in the framework of sustainable urban planning and water/energy management. The potential retention and detention of the anthropogenic, light weight soil systems and their temporal soil structure changes are of major importance. A green roof test segment was built to investigate the benefits of such anthropogenic systems. Adaptable low-cost system allows long-term monitoring of preferred characteristics. Temperature and water balance measurements complemented with meteorological observations and knowledge of physical properties of the substrates provide basis for detailed analysis of thermal and hydrological regime in green roof systems. The first results confirmed the benefits of green roof systems. The reduction of temperature fluctuations as well as rainfall runoff was significant. Depending on numerous factors such substrate material or vegetation cover the test green roof suppressed the roof temperature amplitude for the period analyzed. The ability to completely prevent (light rainfall events) or reduce and delay (medium and heavy rainfall events) the peak runoff was also analyzed. Special attention is being paid to the assessment of soil structural properties related to possible aggregation/disaggregation, root growth, weather conditions and associated structural changes using non-invasive imaging method. X-ray computed microtomography of undisturbed soil samples (taken from experimental segments) is used for description of pore space geometry, evaluation of surface to volume ratio, additionally for description of cracks and macropores as a product of soil flora and fauna activity. The information from computed tomography imaging will be used for numerical modeling of water flow in variable saturated porous media. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  10. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations.

  11. Resolving contradictions in boundedly rational search: How strategists weigh contradictory beliefs to evaluate conjectures about the future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrig, Timo; Schmidt, Jens

    2018-01-01

    When strategists form conjectures about the future (such as whether a technol- ogy will solve a particular problem or what will be future sources of competitive advantage) they typically face multiple plausible but mutually contradictory possi- bilities, as the future may unfold in a myriad...... as ”un- willingness to give up”. Our results provide for a mechanism that allows managers to economize on their cognitive resources when resolving contradictions, and they also show that how managers resolve contradictions provides direction for their fur- ther search process. We develop propositions...... that are empirically testable and thus allow identifying boundary conditions of our results, and we discuss how our results may be useful to managers and teachers....

  12. Diffusion-weighed MR of the thyroid gland in Graves' disease: assessment of disease activity and prediction of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek; Sadek, Ahmed Galal; Gaballa, Gada

    2010-06-01

    To assess the activity and clinical course of Graves' disease with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Fifty-one patients with Graves' disease and 25 volunteers underwent diffusion MR imaging of the thyroid gland using a single shot echo-planar imaging with b-factor of 0, 300 and 600 second/mm(2). The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the thyroid gland were calculated. Patients with active Graves' disease included untreated patients at initial diagnosis (n = 12), patients under antithyroid drugs (n = 11), and patients in relapse after withdrawal of therapy (n = 13). Patients with inactive disease had a remission of hyperthyroidism (n = 15). The mean ADC values of thyroid gland with active Graves' disease was 0.65 +/- 0.03 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second in patients at initial diagnosis, 0.81 +/- 0.02 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second in patients undergoing antithyroid drug and 0.72 +/- 0.07 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second in patients with relapse of hyperthyroidism. The mean ADC of patients with remission was 0.94 +/- 0.03 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second and for normal volunteer was 1.06 +/- 0.08 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second. There was significant difference in the ADC value of patients with active disease and remission (P = .001). The cutoff ADC value used for differentiating patients with active disease from patients with remission was 0.82 x 10(-3) mm(2)/second. The mean ADC value of thyroid gland had positive correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (r = 0.87, P = .001) and negative correlation with serum T4 (r = -0.82, P = .001) and serum T3 (r = -0.71, P = .001). The ADC value of the thyroid gland is a promising non invasive parameter for diagnosis of different clinical stages of Graves' disease. Hence it can be used to assess the activity and predict the outcome of patients during and after medical treatment. Crown Copyright (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Weighing galaxy clusters with gas. II. On the origin of hydrostatic mass bias in ΛCDM galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Kaylea; Nagai, Daisuke; Yu, Liang; Lau, Erwin T.; Rudd, Douglas H.

    2014-01-01

    The use of galaxy clusters as cosmological probes hinges on our ability to measure their masses accurately and with high precision. Hydrostatic mass is one of the most common methods for estimating the masses of individual galaxy clusters, which suffer from biases due to departures from hydrostatic equilibrium. Using a large, mass-limited sample of massive galaxy clusters from a high-resolution hydrodynamical cosmological simulation, in this work we show that in addition to turbulent and bulk gas velocities, acceleration of gas introduces biases in the hydrostatic mass estimate of galaxy clusters. In unrelaxed clusters, the acceleration bias is comparable to the bias due to non-thermal pressure associated with merger-induced turbulent and bulk gas motions. In relaxed clusters, the mean mass bias due to acceleration is small (≲ 3%), but the scatter in the mass bias can be reduced by accounting for gas acceleration. Additionally, this acceleration bias is greater in the outskirts of higher redshift clusters where mergers are more frequent and clusters are accreting more rapidly. Since gas acceleration cannot be observed directly, it introduces an irreducible bias for hydrostatic mass estimates. This acceleration bias places limits on how well we can recover cluster masses from future X-ray and microwave observations. We discuss implications for cluster mass estimates based on X-ray, Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, and gravitational lensing observations and their impact on cluster cosmology.

  14. Surgical Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature Neonates Weighing Less Than 1,000 grams: Contemporary Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehenbauer, David G; Fraser, Charles D; Crawford, Todd C; Hibino, Naru; Aucott, Susan; Grimm, Joshua C; Patel, Nishant; Magruder, J Trent; Cameron, Duke E; Vricella, Luca

    2018-07-01

    The safety of surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in very low birth weight premature neonates has been questioned because of associated morbidities. However, these studies are vulnerable to significant bias as surgical ligation has historically been utilized as "rescue" therapy. The objective of this study was to review our institutions' outcomes of surgical PDA ligation. All neonates with operative weight of ≤1.00 kg undergoing surgical PDA ligation from 2003 to 2015 were analyzed. Records were queried to identify surgical complications, perioperative morbidity, and mortality. Outcomes included pre- and postoperative ventilator requirements, pre- and postoperative inotropic support, acute kidney injury, surgical complications, and 30-day mortality. One hundred sixty-six preterm neonates underwent surgical ligation. One hundred twenty-one (70.3%) had failed indomethacin closure. One hundred sixty-four (98.8%) patients required mechanical ventilation prior to surgery. At 17 postoperative days, freedom from the ventilator reached 50%. Of 109 (66.4%) patients requiring prolonged preoperative inotropic support, 59 (54.1%) were liberated from inotropes by postoperative day 1. Surgical morbidity was encountered in four neonates (2.4%): two (1.2%) patients had a postoperative pneumothorax requiring tube thoracostomy, one (0.6%) patient had a recurrent laryngeal nerve injury, and one (0.6%) patient had significant intraoperative bleeding. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 1.8% (n = 3); no deaths occurred intraoperatively. In this retrospective investigation, surgical PDA closure was associated with low 30-day mortality and minimal morbidity and resulted in rapid discontinuation of inotropic support and weaning from mechanical ventilation. Given the safety of this intervention, surgical PDA ligation merits consideration in the management strategy of the preterm neonate with a PDA.

  15. How do physicians weigh benefits and risks associated with treatments in patients with osteoarthritis in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arden, Nigel K; Hauber, A Brett; Mohamed, Ateesha F; Johnson, F Reed; Peloso, Paul M; Watson, Douglas J; Mavros, Panagiotis; Gammaitoni, Arnold; Sen, Shuvayu S; Taylor, Stephanie D

    2012-05-01

    To quantify the relative importance that UK physicians attach to the benefits and risks of current drugs when making treatment decisions for patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Physicians treating at least 10 patients with OA per month completed an online discrete-choice experiment survey and answered 12 treatment-choice questions comparing medication profiles. Medication profiles were defined by 4 benefits (reduction in ambulatory pain, resting pain, stiffness, and difficulty doing daily activities) and 3 treatment-related risks [bleeding ulcer, stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI)]. Each physician made medication choices for 3 of 9 hypothetical patients (varied by age, history of MI, hypertension, and history of gastrointestinal bleeding). Importance weights were estimated using a random-parameters logit model. Treatment-related risks physicians were willing to accept in exchange for various reductions in ambulatory and resting pain also were calculated. The final sample was 475. A reduction in ambulatory pain from 75 mm to 25 mm (1.6 units) was 1.1 times as important as an increase in MI risk from 0% to 1.5% (1.5 units). The greatest importance was for eliminating a 3% treatment-related risk of MI or stroke. On average, physicians were willing to accept an increase in bleeding ulcer risk of 0.7% (95% CI 0.4%-1.7%) for a reduction in ambulatory pain of 75 mm to 50 mm. When presented with well-known benefits and risks of OA treatments, physicians placed greater importance on the risks than on the analgesic properties of the drug. This has implications for the reporting of the results of clinical research to physicians.

  16. Effect of Age on Energy Requirement for Maintenance and Growth of Dorper and Hu Crossbred F1 Ewes Weighing 20 to 50 kg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, H. T.; Wan, Y. J.; You, J. H.; Wang, Z. Y.; Lan, S.; Fan, Y. X.; Wang, F.

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to define the energy requirement of Dorper and Hu Hybrid F1 ewes 20 to 50 kg of body weight, furthermore to study energy requirement changes with age and evaluate the effect of age on energy requirement parameters. In comparative slaughter trial, thirty animals were divided into three dry matter intake treatments (ad libitum, n = 18; low restricted, n = 6; high restricted, n = 6), and were all slaughtered as baseline, intermediate, and final slaughter groups, to calculate body chemical components and energy retained. In digestibility trial, twelve ewes were housed in individual metabolic cages and randomly assigned to three feeding treatments in accordance with the design of a comparative slaughter trial, to evaluate dietary energetic values at different feed intake levels. The combined data indicated that, with increasing age, the net energy requirement for maintenance (NEm) decreased from 260.62±13.21 to 250.61±11.79 kJ/kg0.75 of shrunk body weight (SBW)/d, and metabolizable energy requirement for maintenance (MEm) decreased from 401.99±20.31 to 371.23±17.47 kJ/kg0.75 of SBW/d. Partial efficiency of ME utilization for maintenance (km, 0.65 vs 0.68) and growth (kg, 0.42 vs 0.41) did not differ (p>0.05) due to age; At the similar condition of average daily gain, net energy requirements for growth (NEg) and metabolizable energy requirements for growth (MEg) for ewes during late fattening period were 23% and 25% greater than corresponding values of ewes during early fattening period. In conclusion, the effect of age upon energy requirement parameters in the present study were similar in tendency with previous recommendations, values of energy requirement for growth (NEg and MEg) for Dorper and Hu crossbred female lambs ranged between the NRC (2007) recommendation for early and later maturating growing sheep. PMID:26104522

  17. Pharmaceutical counselling about different types of tablet-splitting methods based on the results of weighing tests and mechanical development of splitting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, O; Meskó, A; Csorba, L; Szabó, P; Zelkó, R

    2017-08-30

    The division of tablets and adequate methods of splitting them are a complex problem in all sectors of health care. Although tablet-splitting is often required, this procedure can be difficult for patients. Four tablets were investigated with different external features (shape, score-line, film-coat and size). The influencing effect of these features and the splitting methods was investigated according to the precision and "weight loss" of splitting techniques. All four types of tablets were halved by four methods: by hand, with a kitchen knife, with an original manufactured splitting device and with a modified tablet splitter based on a self-developed mechanical model. The mechanical parameters (harness and friability) of the products were measured during the study. The "weight loss" and precision of splitting methods were determined and compared by statistical analysis. On the basis of the results, the external features (geometry), the mechanical parameters of tablets and the mechanical structure of splitting devices can influence the "weight loss" and precision of tablet-splitting. Accordingly, a new decision-making scheme was developed for the selection of splitting methods. In addition, the skills of patients and the specialties of therapy should be considered so that pharmaceutical counselling can be more effective regarding tablet-splitting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. PROPIEDADES REOLÓGICAS DE EMULSIONES DE PETRÓLEO PESADO EN AGUA REOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF EMULSIONS OF PETROLEUM WEIGHED IN WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Laurencio Alfonso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar la influencia que ejerce la variación de temperatura de 15, 25 y 35 0C sobe las propiedades reológicas de las emulsiones de petróleo pesado en agua. Se estudio una mezcla formada por 70 % de petróleo de 15 º API, 29 % de agua y 1 % de tensoactivo. A partir del estudio reológico se da el comportamiento de la viscosidad aparente con relación al gradiente de velocidad para diferentes temperaturas. Se observa que la emulsión presenta propiedades seudoplásticas; la presencia de la variación de temperatura no provoco variaciones en el índice de flujo, no siendo así con la viscosidad aparente y el índice de consistencia, que disminuyen con el aumento de la temperatura, lo que se corrobora con estudios de otros autores.The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of temperature variations on the reological properties of the emulsions of heavy oil in water. It was studied a mixture formed by 70% of petroleum of 15 or API, 29% of water and 1 tensoactivo%. Starting from the reologic study the behavior of the apparent viscosity is given with relationship to the shear rate for different temperatures. It is observed that the emulsion presents properties seudoplastic; not being i this variation of temperature doesn't cause variations in the index of flow, way with the apparent viscosity and the index of consistency that diminish with the increase of the temperature, what is corroborated with other authors studies.

  19. NuSTARand Swift observations of the very high state in GX 339-4: Weighing the black hole with X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, M. L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kennea, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0.95(-0.08)(+0.02) and ......We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0...

  20. NuSTAR AND Swift Observations of the Very High State in GX 339-4: Weighing the Black Hole With X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M. L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kennea, J. A.; Miller, J. M.; Harrison, F. A.; Barret, D.; Boggs, S. E.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Fabian, A. C.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0.95+0.08/-0.02 and inclination of 30deg +/- 1deg (statistical errors). These values agree well with previous results from reflection modeling. With the exceptional sensitivity of NuSTAR at the high-energy side of the disk spectrum, we are able to constrain multiple physical parameters simultaneously using continuum fitting. By using the constraints from reflection as input for the continuum fitting method, we invert the conventional fitting procedure to estimate the mass and distance of GX 339-4 using just the X-ray spectrum, finding a mass of 9.0+1.6/-1.2 Stellar Mass and distance of 8.4 +/- 0.9 kpc (statistical errors).

  1. [Corporal image and pregnancy: A look at psychometric properties of the French translation of the Pregnancy and Weigh Gain Attitude Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, A; Bouillon, A; Lefebvre, L; Séjourné, N; Denis, A

    2016-08-01

    Body dissatisfaction among pregnant women can provoke behaviors to control weight gain and make them more vulnerable to eating disorders. Body dissatisfaction and strategies to control weight during pregnancy can have many consequences for both the mother and baby. Excessive weight gain may cause complications during childbirth and, reciprocally, a too weak weight gain could be associated with the risk of having a baby with a very low birth weight. Thus, it appears important to have a tool to detect these body image disorders in this population. As far as we know, no French-speaking tool exists, and the objective of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the French translation of the Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale (PWGAS), which assesses the attitudes about weight gain during pregnancy. The sample consisted of 553 women (29.32±4.82 years) in their third trimester of pregnancy. Participants were volunteer women recruited in hospitals during obstetric consultation. All participants completed an anamnestic questionnaire, the PWGAS and a questionnaire assessing body dissatisfaction (Body Shape Questionnaire [BSQ]). The PWGAS, in its original version, includes 18 items and consists of four subscales: Positive Pregnancy Body Image; Negative Pregnancy Body Image; Indifference toward Weight Gain and Weight Gain Restrictive Behaviors. The instrument was translated and verified by expert translators. Confirmatory factor analysis of the original version showed fit indices below recommended limits. An exploratory factor analysis on the PWGAS revealed the existence of five factors: "Fear about weight gain" (4 items); "Absence of weight gain preoccupation" (2 items); "Positive attitudes about weight gain" (4 items); "Feeling overwhelmed by weight gain" (3 items); and "Control over weight gain" (3 items). The goodness-of-fit of the five-factor model was satisfactory. The PWGAS (total and factors) is negatively correlated with the BSQ demonstrating its concurrent validity. The PWGAS has satisfactory psychometric properties. This questionnaire could certainly be integrated in the monitoring of pregnant women in order to detect and guide those who show negative attitudes about the weight gain so that they can benefit from adequate care and prevent the development of eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; de Kok, Inge M C M; Bulten, Johan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Vedder, Judith E M; Arbyn, Marc; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; Siebers, Albertus G; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2012-08-01

    Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiveness threshold analyses to investigate under what circumstances manually screened ThinPrep LBC is cost-effective for screening. The MISCAN-Cervix microsimulation model and data from the Dutch NETHCON trial (including 89,784 women) were used to estimate the costs and (quality-adjusted) life years ((QA)LYs) gained for EU screening schedules, varying cost-effectiveness threshold values. Screening strategies were primary cytological screening with LBC or CP, and triage with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Threshold analyses showed that screening with LBC as a primary test can be cost-effective if LBC is less than 3.2 more costly per test than CP, if the sensitivity of LBC is at least 3-5 % points higher than CP, if the quality of life for women in triage follow-up is only 0.39, or if the rate of inadequate CP smears is at least 16.2 %. Regarding test characteristics and costs of LBC and CP, only under certain conditions will a change from CP to manually screened ThinPrep LBC be cost-effective. If none of these conditions are met, implementation of manually screened ThinPrep LBC seems warranted only if there are advantages other than cost-effectiveness. Further research is needed to establish whether other LBC systems will be more favorable with regard to cost-effectiveness.

  3. Weigh the pros and cons to ovarian reserve before stripping ovarian endometriomas prior to IVF/ICSI: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xin; Chen, Lei; Ge, Shuqi; Cai, Lisi

    2017-01-01

    To explore the effects of conservative surgery for endometriomas on ovarian responsiveness during assisted reproductive technology (ART) and provide reproductive and gynecological doctors with a more reliable reference program for the treatment of endometriomas. A literature search was performed by searching the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Science Direct databases. Studies with inter- and intra-patient comparisons of ovarian responses and oocyte quality between operated and unoperated ovaries and that met the inclusion criteria were retrieved, and the data from the outcome measures were extracted and pooled for this meta-analysis. Twenty-one published studies (2649 ART cycles) were included. The total amount of gonadotropin (Gn) used (inverse variance (IV):0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.13, 1.82], P = 0.0007) was significantly increased in the women with endometriomas who had a history of cystectomy. The estrogen (E) level on the day of hCG administration (IV: -0.29; 95% CI: [-0.41, -0.17], P<0.00001), the number of mature or dominant follicles (IV: -1.17; 95% CI: [-1.51, -0.82], P<0.00001) and the total number of oocytes retrieved (IV: -1.78; 95% CI: [-2.38, -1.17], P<0.00001) were significantly decreased in the women with endometriomas who had a history of cystectomy. The duration of stimulation (IV: 0.02; 95% CI: [-0.09, 0.13], P = 0.77), the total number of formed embryos (IV: -0.06; 95% CI: [-0.17, 0.04], P = 0.25), the pregnancy rate(IV:0.98;95%CI[0.82,1.18], P = 0.83) and the live birth rate(IV:0.93;95%CI[0.70,1.23], P = 0.61)were not statistically different between the two groups. Similar intra-patient results were found in the number of mature or dominant follicles (IV: -0.88; 95% CI: [-1.25, -0.52], P<0.00001) and the total number of oocytes retrieved (IV: -3.48; 95% CI: [-4.77, -2.19], P<0.00001). ART might be a better therapeutic method for ovarian endometrioma-related infertility than cystectomy.

  4. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers' purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J J; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products - even when presented product information contradicts the label's image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels' potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers' motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers' ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants' pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information.

  5. The ALICE collaboration has just conducted one of its most spectacular transport operations to date: structures weighing several tonnes are moved with millimetric precision

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration has just lifted the dipole of the muon spectrometer and reassembled it on the other side of the huge solenoid magnet. This incredible feat involved lifting no fewer than 900 tonnes of equipment over the red octagonal yoke inherited from the L3 experiment at a height of 18 metres. The work resumed on 19 April, the following day. The coil was turned over into an upright position and lifted over the blue yoke of the muon spectrometer's dipole magnet. Remarkable precision was required yet again. The space between the red magnet inherited from the L3 experiment and the descending coil was no more than a few centimetres and this tiny gap had to be maintained throughout the operation to bring the 6-metre high coil down into position.

  6. How much should we weigh for a long and healthy life span?The need to reconcile caloric restriction versus longevity with body mass index versus mortality data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello eLorenzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Total caloric restriction (CR without malnutrition is a well-established experimental approach to extend life span in laboratory animals. Although CR in humans is capable of shifting several endocrinological parameters it is not clear where the minimum inflection point of the U shaped curve linking body mass index (BMI with all-cause mortality lies. The exact trend of this curve, when used for planning preventive strategies for public health is of extreme importance. Normal BMI ranges from 18.5 to 24.9; many epidemiological studies show an inverse relationship between mortality and BMI inside the normal BMI range. Other studies show that the lowest mortality in the entire range of BMI is obtained in the overweight range (25 to 29.9. Reconciling the extension of life span in laboratory animals by experimental CR with the BMI-mortality curve of human epidemiology is not trivial. In fact, one interpretation is that the CR data are identifying a known: excess fat is deleterious for health; although a second interpretation may be that: additional leanness from a normal body weight may add health and life span delaying the process of aging. This short review hope to start a discussion aimed at finding the widest consensus on which weight range should be consider the healthiest for our species, contributing in this way to the picture of what is the correct life style for a long and healthy life span.

  7. Overweight and obesity among Ghanaian residents in the Netherlands: How do they weigh against their urban and rural counterparts in Ghana?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, C.; Owusu-Dabo, E.; Jonge, A. de; Martins, D.; Ogedegbe, G.; Stronks, K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in overweight and obesity between first-generation Dutch-Ghanaian migrants in The Netherlands and their rural and urban counterparts in Ghana. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A total of 1471 Ghanaians (rural Ghanaians, n 532; urban Ghanaians, n 787;

  8. Weighing the Risks of Nuclear Energy and Climate Change: Trust in Different Information Sources, Perceived Risks, and Willingness to Pay for Alternatives to Nuclear Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka; Paloniemi, Riikka; Varho, Vilja

    2017-03-01

    We examined how individuals perceive nuclear energy in the context of climate change mitigation and how their perceptions are associated with trust in different risk information sources. We analyzed the interrelationships between trust, perceived risk of nuclear power, climate change concern, perception of nuclear energy as an acceptable way to mitigate climate change, and willingness to pay (WTP) for alternatives to nuclear power. A nationwide survey (N = 967) collected in Finland was analyzed with structural equation modeling. The associations between trust and perceived risk of nuclear power, climate change concern, and perception of nuclear power as a way to mitigate climate change varied by the type of information source. Political party support and other background variables were associated with trust in different information sources. The effect of trust in information sources on WTP was mediated by perceived risks and benefits. The results will increase our understanding of how individuals perceive nuclear energy as a way to cut CO 2 emissions and the role of trust in different information sources in shaping nuclear risk perceptions and energy choices. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. CARS: the CFHTLS-Archive-Research Survey. II. Weighing dark matter halos of Lyman-break galaxies at z = 3-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, H.; Pielorz, J.; Erben, T.; van Waerbeke, L.; Simon, P.; Capak, P.

    2009-05-01

    Aims: We measure the clustering properties for a large samples of u- (z˜3), g- (z˜4), and r- (z˜5) dropouts from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS) Deep fields. Methods: Photometric redshift distributions along with simulations allow us to de-project the angular correlation measurements and estimate physical quantities such as the correlation length, halo mass, galaxy bias, and halo occupation as a function of UV luminosity. Results: For the first time we detect a significant one-halo term in the correlation function at z˜5. The comoving correlation lengths and halo masses of LBGs are found to decrease with decreasing rest-frame UV-luminosity. No significant redshift evolution is found in either quantity. The typical halo mass hosting an LBG is M⪆1012~h-1~M_⊙ and the halos are typically occupied by less than one galaxy. Clustering segregation with UV luminosity is clearly observed in the dropout samples, however redshift evolution cannot clearly be disentangled from systematic uncertainties introduced by the redshift distributions. We study a range of possible redshift distributions to illustrate the effect of this choice. Spectroscopy of representative subsamples is required to make high-accuracy absolute measurements of high-z halo masses. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at TERAPIX and the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on zCOSMOS and VVDS observations carried out using the Very Large Telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory under Programme IDs: LP175.A-0839 and 070.A-9007. Based on DEEP2 observations obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory. Funding for the DEEP2 survey has been provided by NSF grants AST95-09298, AST-0071048, AST-0071198, AST-0507428, and AST-0507483 as well as NASA LTSA grant NNG04GC89G.

  10. What weighs more-low compliance with self-deferral or minor medical procedures? Explaining the high rate of hepatitis C virus window-period donations in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwinski, Michal; Grabarczyk, Piotr; Stepien, Malgorzata; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Tkaczuk, Katarzyna; Brojer, Ewa; Rosinska, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Since the introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT) for routine blood donor screening, hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-only detection rates reported from Poland have been higher than in most other European countries. To examine factors that likely contribute to these window-period donations, we conducted a case-control study among 47 recently HCV-infected blood donors (cases), who gave blood between July 2002 and June 2014, and 141 controls matched by age, sex, and donation dates. Firth-corrected, conditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Adjusted population-attributable fractions were calculated based on the distribution of exposure among the cases. On multivariate analysis, recent exposures in health care environments not routinely ascertained through predonation questionnaires were strongly associated with recently acquired HCV infection. These exposures included minor medical and dental procedures in the preceding 6 months (adjusted odds ratio, 5.77; 95 % confidence interval, 2.01-18.53). However, based on the population-attributable fraction, more important were behavioral deferrable risks that went unreported at the time of donation, such as high-risk sexual behaviors in the preceding 6 months (population-attributable fraction, 34%) or lifetime histories of drug use (population-attributable fraction, 28%). This study raises questions about the effectiveness of deferral policy in excluding high-risk individuals. In addition, it provides further evidence supporting short, temporal deferrals for small medical procedures and dental treatments in Poland. © 2017 AABB.

  11. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 679 - Performance and Technical Requirements for Scales Used To Weigh Catch at Sea in the Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Load (Lot) 3.2.4Influence Quantities 3.2.4.1Temperature 3.2.4.1.1Operating Temperature 3.2.4.2Power... 4.2.1.2Increasing and Decreasing Load and Shift Tests 4.2.2Accuracy Classes 4.2.3Minimum Load 4.2.4Influence Quantities 4.2.4.1Temperature 4.2.4.1.1Operating Temperature 4.2.4.2Power Supply 4.3Technical...

  12. Determination of the necessary parameters for a protection insulation disk of sodium circuit weighing system for thermomechanical and small component tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, M.; Cesar, S.B.G.

    1985-01-01

    The parameters requisited for a plastic disk used as thermal insulation, between feeding tank and weghing system, where the tank is supported are defined. The tank and weghing system are component parts of sodium circuit for thermomechanical and small component tests. During the circuit operation the temperature at tank reaches 600 0 C, however the temperature at weghing system should not reach 50 0 C. The temperature distribution in insulation disk is obtained by finit element method in function of thickness and thermal conductivity of material. The results obtained indicate for thickness E = 32 mm should be K 0 C and for E = 48 mm the thermal conductivity should be K 0 C. In both cases the pressure is σ > 14.5 Kgf/mm 2 . (M.C.K.) [pt

  13. Weighing neutrinos in the scenario of vacuum energy interacting with cold dark matter: application of the parameterized post-Friedmann approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Rui-Yun; Li, Yun-He; Zhang, Jing-Fei; Zhang, Xin, E-mail: guoruiyun110@163.com, E-mail: liyh19881206@126.com, E-mail: jfzhang@mail.neu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangxin@mail.neu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, College of Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2017-05-01

    We constrain the neutrino mass in the scenario of vacuum energy interacting with cold dark matter by using current cosmological observations. To avoid the large-scale instability problem in interacting dark energy models, we employ the parameterized post-Friedmann (PPF) approach to do the calculation of perturbation evolution, for the Q = β H ρ{sub c} and Q = β H ρ{sub Λ} models. The current observational data sets used in this work include Planck (cosmic microwave background), BSH (baryon acoustic oscillations, type Ia supernovae, and Hubble constant), and LSS (redshift space distortions and weak lensing). According to the constraint results, we find that β > 0 at more than 1σ level for the Q = β H ρ{sub c} model, which indicates that cold dark matter decays into vacuum energy; while β = 0 is consistent with the current data at 1σ level for the Q = β H ρ{sub Λ} model. Taking the ΛCDM model as a baseline model, we find that a smaller upper limit, ∑ m {sub ν} < 0.11 eV (2σ), is induced by the latest BAO BOSS DR12 data and the Hubble constant measurement H {sub 0} = 73.00 ± 1.75 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}. For the Q = β H ρ{sub c} model, we obtain ∑ m {sub ν}<0.20 eV (2σ) from Planck+BSH. For the Q = β H ρ{sub Λ} model, ∑ m {sub ν}<0.10 eV (2σ) and ∑ m {sub ν}<0.14 eV (2σ) are derived from Planck+BSH and Planck+BSH+LSS, respectively. We show that these smaller upper limits on ∑ m {sub ν} are affected more or less by the tension between H {sub 0} and other observational data.

  14. Development of weigh training programs for children Elaboração de programas de treinamento de força para crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiclei Risso

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A hypokinetic lifestyle has increased among children and adolescents in the past few years, leading to risk factors which favor the chronic-degenerative diseases in the early childhood. Thus, the development of physical activity programs for this age group becomes necessary. The purpose of this study was to review the literature about the factors that can be related to the development of weight training programs with extra load for children. Aspects related to the physical activity in the childhood, caloric damage, physical fitness related to health, reasons that make children and adolescents practise or give up physical activity, physical fitness stability during childhood, physiological aspects and growth factors, are discussed. The factors that can interfere in the motor capacity strength, the myths related to weight training with children, possible benefits obtained from this practice, factors that should be taken into consideration regarding specific weight training for children, weight training supervision during childhood, general guidelines for weight training in children, developing weight training programs for children and discussion about strength testing, are dealt with more specifically. When supervised properly by specialists, the specific and individualized training for children and adolescents can generate a significant muscular strength gain, and contribute favorably for health promotion and life quality in this age group.   Um estilo de vida hipocinético tem aumentado entre crianças e adolescentes nos últimos anos, e isso faz com que os fatores de risco se apresentem mais facilmente, favorecendo o surgimento de doenças crônico-degenerativas já na infância. Logo, torna-se necessário a criação de programas de atividade física para essa faixa etária. O objetivo desse estudo é realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca dos fatores que se relacionam à montagem de um programa de treinamento com sobrecarga para crianças. Discutemse aspectos relacionados à atividade física na infância, gasto calórico, aptidão física relacionada à saúde, motivos que levam as crianças à praticar, ou desistir da atividade física, estabilidade da aptidão física na infância, aspectos fisiológicos e fatores de crescimento. Mais específicamente, são tratados os fatores que interferem na capacidade motora força, os mitos relacionados ao treinamento de força muscular em crianças, possíveis benefícios advindos dessa prática, fatores que devem ser levados em consideração no treinamento de força específico para crianças, supervisão do treinamento de força muscular em crianças, orientações para progressão do treinamento de força muscular em crianças, elaboração dos programas de treinamento de força muscular para crianças e adolescentes e discussão acerca dos testes de força. Quando devidamente supervisionado por especialistas, o treinamento específico e individualizado para crianças e adolescentes pode propiciar um ganho considerável de força muscular, e  contribuir favoravelmente para a promoção da saúde e qualidade de vida nessa faixa etária.  

  15. A comparison of surfactant administration through i-gel and ET-tube in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in newborns weighing more than 2000 grams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghnia

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the surfactant administration using i-gel was more successful in oxygenation improvement than the INSURE method, and the i-gel method could even be promoted to the standard care position. However, more research is needed in this area.

  16. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J. J.; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1–3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information. PMID:26441767

  17. Pressure Weighing Belt Coal Feeder Protection Improvement Practice%耐压称重式皮带给煤机保护改进实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良

    2016-01-01

    文章简绍了耐压称重式皮带给煤机的特性,通过对变频器参数修改实践,实现给煤机变频器故障保护自动恢复,提高给煤机运行的可靠性,消除电源意外扰动对给煤机的影响,保障锅炉安全持续稳定运行.

  18. Improvement of Totally-enclosed Weighing Belt Coal Feeder JGC-30%JGC-30型称重式全封闭胶带给煤机改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙康; 许建新

    2007-01-01

    针对JGC-30型称重式全封闭胶带给煤机故障发生率高的现象,经分析得出是给煤机原结构设计不合理、传动链轮加工工艺不当、检修工艺存在问题造成的,通过对给煤机清扫链、传动链、导煤槽挡板的改造,降低了给煤机的故障频次,取得了良好的经济效益.

  19. Weighing in on the Issue: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of Selected Individual Factors and the Sports Context on the Developmental Trajectories of Eating Pathology among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain…

  20. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker-Grob, E.W. de; Kok, I.M. de; Bulten, J.; Rosmalen, J. van; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Siebers, A.G.; Ballegooijen, M. van

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted

  1. Can long-term alopecia occur after appropriate pulsed-dye laser therapy in hair-bearing sites? Pediatric dermatologists weigh in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Stephanie; Totri, Christine R; Friedlander, Sheila F

    2015-03-01

    The risk of long-term alopecia after pulsed-dye laser (PDL) therapy is unknown. To identify how many practitioners treat hair-bearing sites with PDL and how commonly long-term alopecia occurs, the authors queried pediatric dermatologists about their experiences using this modality. A survey was designed to evaluate the frequency of and factors contributing to long-term alopecia after PDL treatment of port-wine stains (PWS). "Long-term" was defined as no sign of hair regrowth after several years of nontreatment. The survey was administered to attendees at the 2014 Society for Pediatric Dermatology biannual meeting. Sixty-four pediatric dermatologists completed the survey, 50 of whom had experience using PDL. Of these physicians, 86% have used PDL to treat PWS of the eyebrow and 80% have treated PWS of the scalp. Over one-quarter of respondents (25.5%) using PDL on hair-bearing areas had at least 1 of their patients develop long-term alopecia after PDL treatment. The incidence of long-term alopecia after PDL treatment in the surveyed population was 1.5% to 2.6%. The occurrence of long-term alopecia at hair-bearing sites after treatment with PDL may be greater than previously thought. Because the majority of physicians using PDL treat hair-bearing areas, prospective studies are needed to more accurately determine the risk of long-term alopecia and the factors that contribute to it.

  2. Weighing the Oligocene extensional event in the Salar de Atacama Basin by analysis of depth-converted sections and geophysical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascunan, S. A.; Maksymowicz, A.; Martínez, F.; Becerra, J.; Rubilar, J. F.; Arriagada, C.; Peña Gomez, M. A.; Gómez, I.

    2016-12-01

    Multiple studies of industry seismic lines across the Salar de Atacama Basin, in the Central Andes of northern Chile (22°-24°S), have led to opposite interpretations regarding its internal architecture, particularly for the Cenozoic successions. These differences can be attributed to the yet uncertain stratigraphy of the 5425 m-deep Toconao-1 well, its relation to outcrops around the El Bordo Escarpment, the tie between the well and the seismic lines, and the lack of a depth conversion of these lines. An analysis of these data allows for the proper location in the depth domain of the most important reflectors found in line Z-1G010, which intersects the borehole. The vertical seismic profile and the density log show that the most significant change in lithological properties occurs at ca. 1 s TWT (1580 m), at the transition from mainly evaporitic deposits to more clastic units, presumably belonging to the Loma Amarilla Formation. This modification in velocity and density can be seen in the seismic line as a major west-dipping surface, dubbed the San Pedro Reflector (SPR). The use of 3D software and the depth conversion allow following the SPR along most of the basin. The surface shows an east-to-west, south-to-north increase in depth, reaching a maximum close to 8 km. The geometry of the surface closely follows the trend of the El Bordo Escarpment. Based on paleomagnetic data, recent mapping and geochronology data, the reflector is estimated to have formed during the Oligocene. Additional extensional features confirm its origin due to small-scale collapse of the Cordillera de Domeyko after the Eocene Incaic Event, after which the deformation front migrated eastwards, thus explaining the presence of extension and compression along the margin at the same time. This change in stress state also affected other parts of the range, such as the Calama Basin.

  3. The power of putting a label on it: Green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf J. J. Hahnel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels, this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e. product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3. Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2. We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3. Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information.

  4. Improving the K-12 Online Course Design Review Process: Experts Weigh in on iNACOL National Standards for Quality Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, David; Barbour, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    Within the K-12 online learning environment there are a variety of standards that designers can utilize when creating online courses. To date, the only research-based standards available are proprietary in manner. As such, many jurisdictions have begun adopting online course design standards from the leading advocacy organization, which that have…

  5. Towards a broader weighing and regulating framework for investments in interconnectors. The societal cost benefit analysis; Naar een breder afwegings- en reguleringskader voor investeringen in interconnectoren. De Maatschappelijke Kosten-Baten Analyse (MKBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sijm, J.P.M.; Welle, A.J. van der [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Tieben, B.; Hof, B.; Kocsis, V. [SEO Economisch Onderzoek, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    Interconnectors that link national grids are important for further integration of the European electricity grid. Against this background, the main question of this study is as follows: What does a broadened assessment and regulatory framework for investments in interconnectors look like which secures optimal contribution of these investments to the social welfare of the involved countries? To answer this question, the broadened assessment framework is developed first, i.e. the Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA). Next, the implications for the regulatory framework are analysed with regard to the following three aspects: (1) cost allocation, (2) network planning, and (3) efficiency versus investment incentives. Finally, a case study is conducted of a 'fictitious but realistic' investment project in interconnection to illustrate how certain social effects from the developed SCBA framework can be practically and concretely established [Dutch] Interconnectoren voor de verbinding tussen nationale netwerken zijn belangrijk voor de verdere integratie van het Europese elektriciteitsnetwerk. In het huidige afwegingskader worden investeringsbeslissingen ten aanzien van interconnectoren in Nederland genomen door de nationale netwerkbeheerder, TenneT, na goedkeuring door het Ministerie van Economische Zaken (EZ), gebaseerd op een advies van de Nederlandse Mededingingsautoriteit (NMa). Binnen dit kader baseert TenneT zijn investeringsbeslissingen in het bijzonder op de kosten en handelseffecten van de interconnector. Een belangrijke beperking van dit kader is dat er relatief weinig aandacht wordt besteed aan andere overwegingen en (externe) effecten, zowel positief als negatief, zoals de effecten op meer marktintegratie en concurrentie, de voorzienings- en leveringszekerheid van elektriciteit, de inpassing van duurzame elektriciteit in het net, milieueffecten, de effecten op netwerkcongestie en op investeringen in nieuwe productiecapaciteit. De vraag is nu hoe zowel het afwegingskader als het reguleringskader dusdanig kunnen worden vormgegeven dat de nationale netwerkbeheerder, TenneT, voldoende investeringen in interconnectie uitvoert die een netto positief effect hebben op de maatschappelijke welvaart. Een dergelijk afwegingskader dient aan te sluiten bij de systematiek die binnen de EU wordt ontwikkeld voor de beoordeling van investeringen in grensoverschrijdende infrastructuur. Tegen deze achtergrond luidt de centrale vraagstelling van de onderhavige studie: Hoe ziet een verbreed afwegings- en reguleringskader voor investeringen in interconnectoren eruit dat waarborgt dat deze investeringen optimaal zullen bijdragen aan de maatschappelijke welvaart in de betrokken landen?.

  6. Weighing in on the Issue of Childhood Obesity: An Overweight Child Often Becomes the Target of Discrimination and Ridicule on the Playground. Clearly, the Problems that Overweight Children Encounter Go beyond the Physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn-Garbe, Cynthia; Hoot, James L.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on overweight children and the role that educators (and schools) might play in supporting and reinforcing this unhealthful lifestyle. Included are strategies for promoting more healthful eating and activity habits. The article concludes with a list of resources offering additional help in addressing this growing threat.

  7. Lisímetro de pesagem de grande porte. parte II: consumo hídrico do coqueiro anão verde irrigado Large-scale weighing lysimeter. part II: water requirements of the irrigated dwarf-green coconut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inajá F. Sousa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho, como segunda parte de uma pesquisa realizada no Estado de Sergipe, objetiva determinar a evapotranspiração e o coeficiente de cultura na fase de crescimento do coqueiro anão-verde (Cocos nucifera L., com base em medições lisimétricas e no modelo do balanço de energia, segundo a razão de Bowen. Obteve-se a evapotranspiração de referência pelo método de Penman-Monteith, na escala diária em todo o período experimental. O sistema de aquisição de dados foi programado para a automação da coleta de todos os sensores necessários à obtenção dos componentes do balanço de energia. O consumo hídrico do coqueiro durante a fase de crescimento é de 1.263,30 mm, com média diária de 3,90 mm d-1. O coeficiente de cultura nessa fase fenológica da palmeira varia entre 0,50 e 1,80, com média de 0,96.This paper, as Part II of a research carried out in Sergipe state, aims to determine evapotranspiration and crop coefficient of dwarf-green coconut (Cocos nucifera L. based on lysimeter measurements and Bowen ratio-energy balance method. The reference evapotranspiration was obtained by the Penman-Monteith approach on daily-scale during the experimental period. The data acquisition system was used to obtain all data from the sensors necessary to determine the energy balance components. The water requirements of coconut palm during the phenological growth stage is 1263.30 mm, with daily average of 3.90 mm d-1. The crop coefficient during this phenological growth stage varies between 0.50 and 1.80, with daily mean of 0.96.

  8. Weighing 'El Gordo' with a precision scale: Hubble space telescope weak-lensing analysis of the merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102–4915 at z = 0.87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jee, M. James; Ng, Karen Y.; Hughes, John P.; Menanteau, Felipe; Sifón, Cristóbal; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Infante, Leopoldo

    2014-01-01

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope weak-lensing study of the merging galaxy cluster 'El Gordo' (ACT-CL J0102–4915) at z = 0.87 discovered by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration as the strongest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich decrement in its ∼1000 deg 2 survey. Our weak-lensing analysis confirms that ACT-CL J0102–4915 is indeed an extreme system consisting of two massive (≳ 10 15 M ☉ each) subclusters with a projected separation of ∼0.7 h 70 −1 Mpc. This binary mass structure revealed by our lensing study is consistent with the cluster galaxy distribution and the dynamical study carried out with 89 spectroscopic members. We estimate the mass of ACT-CL J0102–4915 by simultaneously fitting two axisymmetric Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profiles allowing their centers to vary. We use only a single parameter for the NFW mass profile by enforcing the mass-concentration relation from numerical simulations. Our Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo analysis shows that the masses of the northwestern (NW) and the southeastern (SE) components are M 200c =(1.38±0.22)×10 15 h 70 −1 M ⊙ and (0.78±0.20)×10 15 h 70 −1 M ⊙ , respectively, where the quoted errors include only 1σ statistical uncertainties determined by the finite number of source galaxies. These mass estimates are subject to additional uncertainties (20%-30%) due to the possible presence of triaxiality, correlated/uncorrelated large scale structure, and departure of the cluster profile from the NFW model. The lensing-based velocity dispersions are 1133 −61 +58 km s −1 and 1064 −66 +62 km s −1 for the NW and SE components, respectively, which are consistent with their spectroscopic measurements (1290 ± 134 km s –1 and 1089 ± 200 km s –1 , respectively). The centroids of both components are tightly constrained (∼4'') and close to the optical luminosity centers. The X-ray and mass peaks are spatially offset by ∼8'' (∼62 h 70 −1 kpc), which is significant at the ∼2σ confidence level. The mass peak, however, does not lead the gas peak in the direction expected if we are viewing the cluster soon after first core passage during a high speed merger. Under the assumption that the merger is happening in the plane of the sky, extrapolation of the two NFW halos to a radius r 200a =2.4 h 70 −1 Mpc yields a combined mass of M 200a =(3.13±0.56)×10 15 h 70 −1 M ⊙ . This extrapolated total mass is consistent with our two-component-based dynamical analysis and previous X-ray measurements, projecting ACT-CL J0102–4915 to be the most massive cluster at z > 0.6 known to date.

  9. Weighing 'El Gordo' with a precision scale: Hubble space telescope weak-lensing analysis of the merging galaxy cluster ACT-CL J0102–4915 at z = 0.87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jee, M. James; Ng, Karen Y. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Hughes, John P.; Menanteau, Felipe [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghysen Rd., Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Sifón, Cristóbal [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, NL-2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Mandelbaum, Rachel [Department of Physics, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Barrientos, L. Felipe; Infante, Leopoldo [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Ponticia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2014-04-10

    We present a Hubble Space Telescope weak-lensing study of the merging galaxy cluster 'El Gordo' (ACT-CL J0102–4915) at z = 0.87 discovered by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) collaboration as the strongest Sunyaev-Zel'dovich decrement in its ∼1000 deg{sup 2} survey. Our weak-lensing analysis confirms that ACT-CL J0102–4915 is indeed an extreme system consisting of two massive (≳ 10{sup 15} M {sub ☉} each) subclusters with a projected separation of ∼0.7 h{sub 70}{sup −1} Mpc. This binary mass structure revealed by our lensing study is consistent with the cluster galaxy distribution and the dynamical study carried out with 89 spectroscopic members. We estimate the mass of ACT-CL J0102–4915 by simultaneously fitting two axisymmetric Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profiles allowing their centers to vary. We use only a single parameter for the NFW mass profile by enforcing the mass-concentration relation from numerical simulations. Our Markov-Chain-Monte-Carlo analysis shows that the masses of the northwestern (NW) and the southeastern (SE) components are M{sub 200c}=(1.38±0.22)×10{sup 15} h{sub 70}{sup −1} M{sub ⊙} and (0.78±0.20)×10{sup 15} h{sub 70}{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}, respectively, where the quoted errors include only 1σ statistical uncertainties determined by the finite number of source galaxies. These mass estimates are subject to additional uncertainties (20%-30%) due to the possible presence of triaxiality, correlated/uncorrelated large scale structure, and departure of the cluster profile from the NFW model. The lensing-based velocity dispersions are 1133{sub −61}{sup +58} km s{sup −1} and 1064{sub −66}{sup +62} km s{sup −1} for the NW and SE components, respectively, which are consistent with their spectroscopic measurements (1290 ± 134 km s{sup –1} and 1089 ± 200 km s{sup –1}, respectively). The centroids of both components are tightly constrained (∼4'') and close to the optical luminosity centers. The X-ray and mass peaks are spatially offset by ∼8'' (∼62 h{sub 70}{sup −1} kpc), which is significant at the ∼2σ confidence level. The mass peak, however, does not lead the gas peak in the direction expected if we are viewing the cluster soon after first core passage during a high speed merger. Under the assumption that the merger is happening in the plane of the sky, extrapolation of the two NFW halos to a radius r{sub 200a}=2.4 h{sub 70}{sup −1} Mpc yields a combined mass of M{sub 200a}=(3.13±0.56)×10{sup 15} h{sub 70}{sup −1} M{sub ⊙}. This extrapolated total mass is consistent with our two-component-based dynamical analysis and previous X-ray measurements, projecting ACT-CL J0102–4915 to be the most massive cluster at z > 0.6 known to date.

  10. Validation of protein intake assessed from weighed dietary records against protein estimated from 24 h urine samples in children, adolescents and young adults participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokhof, Beate; Günther, Anke L B; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    from a simultaneously collected 24 h urine sample. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analyses including 439 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study from four age groups (3-4, 7-8, 11-13 and 18-23 years). Mean differences, Pearson correlation coefficients (r), cross.......5 (95 % CI -18.7, -8.3) g/d at age 18-23 years. Correlation coefficients were r = 0.7 for the total study sample and ranged from r = 0.5 to 0.6 in the different age groups. Both methods classified 85 % into the same/adjacent quartile for the whole study group (83-86 % for the different age groups) and 2...

  11. 称重式皮带给煤机在火电厂应用中存在的问题及改进%Weighing type coal belt feeder in power plant application problems and improvement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱青生

    2014-01-01

    简述了HD-BSC26型皮带给煤机的给煤量控制原理,重点对该型给煤机在实际运行中出现的问题进行分析并提出了可行的改进方案,为其它电厂改进同类型给煤机控制有较好的参考价值.

  12. Commissioning of Weighing Unit of Belt Conveyor for 3200 m3 BF Coal Feeder%3 200 m3高炉工程给煤机皮带秤调试

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘清玉

    2007-01-01

    介绍给煤机常采用的DNGK-3型电子称重控制系统.重点探讨了该系统的组成,调试、校准方法.该系统在运输过程中完成煤粉重量的精确称量,在天钢东移煤粉制备系统中得到较好的应用.

  13. 瑞士哈斯勒公司POWDRIT粉状物料用称重给料机%SWISS HASLER CO. POWDRIT Powder Material Using Belt -weighing Feeder Material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方原柏

    2002-01-01

    粉状物料的计量是固体物料计量的一个难点,瑞士哈斯勒公司POWDRIT新型粉状物料称重给料机通过在秤上方增加沉降室来缓冲料仓高料柱的压力,设计构思巧妙.本文介绍了这种称重给料机的系统构成、机械部分、辅助设备选型及控制系统.

  14. 微流量定量给料机秤在湿法炼锌溶液净化中的应用%Application of micro-capacity weigh belt feeder to zinc hydro-metallurgy solution purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方原柏

    2010-01-01

    湿法炼锌工厂的溶液净化过程要求作为净化剂加入的锌粉应进行计量及实现定量控制,微流量的定量给料机秤可以满足这一要求,本文介绍了微流量的定量给料机秤的特点、系统构成及在湿法冶金中的应用前景.

  15. Skin cancer associated with commonly prescribed drugs: tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNF-αIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) and statins -weighing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Beatrice; Orrell, Kelsey A; Vakharia, Paras P; West, Dennis P

    2018-02-01

    Skin cancers, including both malignant melanoma (MM) and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), are the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the US. The incidence of both MM and NMSC continues to rise. Areas covered: Current evidence for an association between four of the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs in the U.S. and risk for MM and NMSC is reported. Medline was searched (January 2000 to May 2017) for each drug in the classes and for 'basal cell carcinoma', 'squamous cell carcinoma', 'non-melanoma skin cancer', 'skin cancer' and 'melanoma'. Skin cancer risk information was reported for: tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (TNF-αIs), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARBs), phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5Is) and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA)-reductase inhibitors (statins). Expert opinion: Since skin cancer risk is associated with all four classes of these commonly prescribed drugs that represent nearly 20% of the Top 100 drugs in the U.S., these important findings warrant enhanced education, especially for prescribers and those patients at high risk for skin cancer.

  16. Time to Weigh-In: An Analysis of What, if Anything, U.S. Public 2-Year Colleges in the SACS Region Are Doing to Curb Obesity among Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Angela

    2014-01-01

    American higher education's mission has always been to educate the "whole" student. Educating the entire student includes nurturing their academic, emotional, social, vocational, moral, spiritual, economic, and physical development to ensure they are prepared to successfully compete in a changing global society in and after college. Each…

  17. IMPLEMENTANDO UN ÍNDICE QUE PONDERE EL IMPACTO DE UNA REVISTA CIENTÍFICA EN FUNCIÓN DE SU JUVENTUD (Implementing an Index that Weighs the Impact of a Scientific Journal Based on its Early Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascual Izquierdo-Egea

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Se propone un índice que pondere el impacto de una revista científica en función de su juventud. Hasta ahora, solo algunos índices contemplan factores como la antigüedad o el prestigio en la valoración del impacto, ignorando la importancia de la juventud. ENGLISH: This article proposes an index that weights the impact of a scientific journal based on its early age. Until now, only a few indexes consider factors such as age or prestige, ignoring the role that the early age of a journal might play in its impact assessment.

  18. 40 CFR 63.7525 - What are my monitoring, installation, operation, and maintenance requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Testing, Fuel Analyses, and Initial... (e.g., weigh belt, weigh hopper, or hopper flow measurement device), you must meet the requirements...

  19. 7 CFR 70.10 - Basis of grading service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY GRADING OF POULTRY...-cook carcasses weighing under 6 pounds in large bulk containers. For individual carcasses weighing...

  20. Effects of physical variables on settling velocities of calcium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    weighed on a Gulfex Medical and Scientific electronic weighing ... real systems would enhance complete removal or recovery of either ... colloidal state to crystalline one in the process of controlled ... IOSR Journal of Applied. Chemistry8(2): ...

  1. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects you to ... brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. Watch the "Send the Message ...

  2. Vehicle Travel Information System (VTRIS) - Data Download Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The VTRIS W-Tables are designed to provide a standard format for presenting the outcome of the Vehicle Weighing and Classification efforts at truck weigh sites. The...

  3. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh ... change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh ...

  4. Start of Final Assembly of the CMS Barrel Yoke on schedule at P5 the 1st august, 2000. I

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert Gerwig, CERN/ EP-CMI

    2000-01-01

    The Barrel Yoke and the vacuumtank weigh 6500 tonnes. The barrel Yoke consists of 5 rings eacu one weighing 1200 tonnes. The vacuum tank is a stainless steel structure weighing 270 tonnes (length = 13 m , outer diamter 7.6 m) The final assembly of these items will take approximately 1 year from now on.

  5. IJAAAR 2012 COMPLETE ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011

    readily available agro-industrial by- products is palm kernel cake. The palm kernel represents 50% of .... The remaining carcass was weighed with a 100kg capacity weighing scale (Hanging scale) and expressed as a ... removal of the contents) were also weighed using a sensitive top- loading balance and expressed as a.

  6. Assistência humanizada ao neonato prematuro e/ou de baixo peso: implantação do Método Mãe Canguru em Hospital Universitário Asistencia humanizada al recién nacido prematuro y/o de bajo peso: implantación del Método Madre Canguro en el Hospital Universitario Humanized assistence to premature and/or low weigh newborn: implantation of Kangaroo-Mother Method at a University Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrícia Adriana Mazzo Neves

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Relato de experiência de enfermeiros e equipe multiprofissional no processo de implantação do Método Mãe Canguru no Hospital Universitário, da Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Paraná, em 2002, com os objetivos de: humanizar o cuidado ao recém-nascido prematuro e/ou de baixo peso, aprimorando o suporte familiar; promoção de maior nível de satisfação da equipe assistencial. O bebê fica em contato pele a pele com o peito da mãe, pai ou familiar significativo, com benefícios para seu peso, temperatura, afetividade, aleitamento materno, além da provável redução no tempo de internação e risco de infecção. Capacitada pelo Ministério da Saúde, uma equipe passou à implantação e multiplicação do Método; elaborado um Projeto de Extensão institucional, multiprofissional, como organizador e integrador do ensino à assistência. Dificuldades encontradas foram em relação à associação entre tecnologia, relacionamento interpessoal e entre as diversas áreas, cuidado humano e participação familiar.Se trata del relato de experiencia de enfermeros y grupo multiprofesional en el proceso de implantación del Método Madre Canguro en el Hospital Universitario, de la Universidad Estatal de Maringá, Paraná, en el 2002, con los objetivos de: humanizar el cuidado al recién nacido prematuro o bajo peso, mejorando el soporte familiar, promoción de mayor nivel de satisfacción del grupo asistencial. El bebé permanece en contacto piel a piel con el pecho de la madre, padre o familiar significativo, con beneficios para el peso, temperatura, afecto, amamantamiento, además de la probable reducción en el tiempo de internamiento y riesgos de infección. Capacitado por el Ministerio de Salud, un grupo pasó a la implantación y multiplicación del Método; elaborado un Proyecto de Extensión institucional multiprofesional como organizador e integrador de la enseñanza y asistencia. Fueron encontradas dificultades en relación a la asociación entre tecnología, relación interpersonal y entre diversas áreas, cuidado humano y participación familiar.Experience report about nurses and multiprofessional group during the process of implantation of Kangaroo-Mother Method at the University Hospital of Maringá State University, Paraná, in 2002, with the objectives of: humanize the care to premature and/or low weight newborn, refining the familiar support; promote a better level of satisfaction to the assistance group. The baby stands on skin to skin contact with the mother, father or significative relative's breast, with benefits to his weight, temperature, affection, breastfeeding, besides the probable decrease of time in hospital and infection risks. A group, trained by the Ministry of Health started the implantation and multiplication of the Method; sophisticated a multiprofessional Extension Project in the institution as organizer and integrating studies and assistance. The difficulties found were about association among tecnology, people's relation and many common areas, human care and familiar participation.

  7. The systems of automatic weight control of vehicles in the road and rail transport in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available . Condition of roads in Poland, despite the on-going modernisation works is still unsatisfactory. One reason is the excessive wear caused by overloaded vehicles. This problem also applies to rail transport, although to a much lesser extent. One solution may be the system of automatic weight control of road and rail vehicles. The article describes the legal and organizational conditions of oversize vehicles inspection in Poland. Characterized current practices weighing road vehicles, based on measurements of static technology. The article includes the description of the existing applications of the automatic dynamic weighing technology, known as systems WIM (Weigh in Motion. Additionally, the weighing technology and construction of weighing stands in road and rail are characterized. The article ends with authors' conclusions indicating the direction and ways of improving the weighing control systems for vehicles.

  8. Theory Interpretation of Control System and Design Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Heon Sul

    2003-11-01

    This book tells of theory interpretation of control system and design practice using automatic balancing weighing machine , including what control is, basic use of CEM Tool such as summary, work environment of CEM Tool, Symbol of CEM Tool, instruction of CEM Tool, drawing graph, and practice of making of CEM Tool, basic use of SIM Tool, driving test of sensor measurement motor such as LED, Pulse pick-up, answer test of RC circuit, structure of balancing weighing machine and wheel mathematical model, analysis of time response and frequency response of balancing weighing machine, and mathematical model and material property of balancing weighing machine.

  9. Whole-tree water balance and indicators for short-term drought stress in non-bearing 'Barnea' olives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben-Gal, A.; Kool, D.; Agam, N.; Halsema, van G.E.; Yermiyahu, U.; Yafe, A.; Presnov, E.; Erel, R.; Majdop, A.; Zipori, I.; Segal, E.; Rüger, S.; Zimmermann, U.; Cohen, Y.; Alchanatis, V.; Dag, A.

    2010-01-01

    Drainage-weighing lysimetersallowedmonitoringofwaterbalancecomponentsofnon-bearingolive (Olea europaea cv Barnea)treesovera3-monthperiodincludingshort-termeventsofcontrolledbut severe waterstress.Theobjectiveofthestudywastoevaluateavarietyofsoilandplant-basedwater status

  10. Foreign Students in the United States: Policies and Legislation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haddal, Chad C

    2007-01-01

    Five years after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks by foreign nationals -- including several terrorists on student visas -- the security concerns over foreign student visas are being weighed...

  11. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  12. Preventing Excessive Gestational Weight Gain and Postpartum Weight Retention.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, V

    2017-10-01

    regnancy and the postpartum period are unique opportunities to promote healthy lifestyle choices including a healthy diet and regular exercise. This is especially important for those who are overweight or obese. Women are weighed at their first antenatal visit and body mass index (BMI) calculated, but not all hospitals routinely weigh women throughout pregnancy. A qualitative Dublin study examined experiences of routine weighing during antenatal care. This study found that women expected to be weighed during pregnancy and postpartum. The benefits of this included providing reassurance and minimising postpartum weight retention. Furthermore, women were eager to receive more information about healthy lifestyle interventions and gestational weight gain (GWG) from healthcare professionals

  13. 49 CFR 1220.0 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... companies Electric railway companies Express companies Persons furnishing cars to railroads Ratemaking... associations, demurrage and car service bureaus, weighing and inspection bureaus, and other joint activities...

  14. Student Dissertation Explores Privatization of Global Security

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2012-01-01

    NPS national security affairs doctoral student Cmdr. Dan Straub weighs the benefits and challenges of using private security contractors for United Nations peacekeeping efforts in his upcoming dissertation.

  15. 49 CFR 375.521 - What must I do if an individual shipper wants to know the actual weight or charges for a shipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transmissions; e-mail; overnight courier; or certified mail, return receipt requested. (b) The individual... transported on a collect-on-delivery basis specifically requests notification of the actual weight or volume... weighed (i.e., weighed at destination). (2) Pickup and delivery encompass two consecutive weekdays, if the...

  16. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects you to information about the ... brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. Watch the "Send the Message About Drugs and ...

  17. Effects of false yam tuber meals and charcoal on broiler chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-04

    Oct 4, 2017 ... collected, weighed using an electronic precision balance (3,500 g weighing ... Following the standard procedures of the Association of German Agricultural Analytic and ...... This work was carried out as part of the UrbanFoodPlus Project, .... Life Sci. 1, 37-40. Shikora, S.A., 2002. Nutritional considerations in ...

  18. Effect of Light and Darkness on Packed Cell Volume in the Rat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study is to identify and characterize the circadian oscillation of Packed Cell Volume (PCV) within a 24-hour time frame in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. 56 adult Sprague-Dawley rats consists of 28 male and 28 female rats were used. Male animals weighed 150-170g while the females weighed 130140g.

  19. Variations in the Circumplex Structure of Mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Lisa A.

    1995-01-01

    Researchers have emphasized the similarity of the semantic and self-report mood circumplexes. Study investigated systematic differences in theses structures. Demonstrated that when making judgments of their mood, people weigh the arousal dimension less than the valence dimension. Dimensions are weighed equally in semantic structure. (JBJ)

  20. 21 CFR 520.2041 - Pyrantel pamoate chewable tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 520.2041 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... weight for dogs weighing more than 5 pounds, and at least 4.54 milligrams of pyrantel base per pound body weight for dogs weighing 5 pounds or less. (2) Indications for use—(i) In dogs and puppies. For removal...

  1. 21 CFR 524.1044g - Gentamicin sulfate, betamethasone valerate, clotrimazole ointment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL...- or 15-g tubes, or 215-g bottles. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. Instill ointment twice... 30-g bottles: 4 drops for dogs weighing less than 30 pounds (lb) or 8 drops for dogs weighing 30 lb...

  2. 21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL.... 000061 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use in dogs—(1) Amount. For dogs weighing less than 30 lbs. instill 4 drops once daily into the ear canal. For dogs weighing 30 lbs. or more, instill...

  3. 21 CFR 520.1510 - Nitenpyram tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... order of a licensed veterinarian. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Dogs—(i) Amount—(A) One 11.4-mg tablet for dogs weighing less than 25 pounds (lb) or one 57-mg tablet for dogs weighing more than 25 lb, as needed...

  4. Using container weights to determine irrigation needs: A simple method

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Mark E. Montville; Jeremiah R. Pinto

    2015-01-01

    Proper irrigation can reduce water use, water waste, and incidence of disease. Knowing when to irrigate plants in container nurseries can be determined by weighing containers. This simple method is quantifiable, which is a benefit when more than one worker is responsible for irrigation. Irrigation is necessary when the container weighs some target as a proportion of...

  5. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    the villages by a variety of small scale methods into many different products that cater for the local preferences and for industrial use. The popular form in which cassava is eaten in West Africa is in a ... weighed using analytical weighing balance and added to 10 ml of sterile distilled water in a test tube. The content was then ...

  6. hybridisation between cherry tomato (small fry) and petomech for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Scientific Industrial Research (CSIR)-Crops. Research Institute, Kwadaso, Kumasi in Ghana. The research field area of ... fresh by weighing pericarp tissues including external, internal and transverse parts, excluding seeds, using a weighing scale. Twenty-three fruits were collected from each of the genotypes, representing ...

  7. Anti-diarrhoeal effects of three Nigerian medicinal plant extracts on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects of these plant extracts on E. coli - induced diarrhoea in albino rats. Fresh tender roots and ... two years of life and declines as a child grows older. ... weighed using an electric weighing balance by Kern .... carried out all laboratory works.

  8. The seasonal growth patterns of a Tall Grassveld sward | NFG ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth patterns of a Tall Grassveld sward measured with an inclined point and by clipping and weighing were determined by moisture conditions except in winter when temperature was limiting. The inclined point as a method of determining yield which might replace clipping and weighing, holds promise but is unlikely ...

  9. Bidie et al., Afr. J. Trad. CAM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African J. TradCAM

    Wistar rats weighing about 200 g and rabbits (Orictlagus cumulus) weighing about 1.5 Kg were used to run experiments on mechanical activities of the heart and ..... associated with inhibition of monovalent cation active transport by Ouabain in cultured myocardial cells. J. Gen. Physiol., 74: 479-494. 4. Djè, M.K., Djaman, A., ...

  10. Effect of a velogenic newcastle disease virus on body and organ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were weighed before being sacrificed and their internal organs (liver, spleen, thymus, heart, bursa of Fabricius, brain and adrenal glands) were removed and weighed. Sections of these organs were taken and stored in Bouin's solution for 24 h and lat er sent for histology. The liver, spleen, thymus, heart and adrenal ...

  11. CASE REPORT: A GIANT URINARY BLADDER STONE IN A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A vesical calculus weighing more than 100g is categorized as a giant urinary bladder stone. Male preponderance for urinary bladder calculi is well known. A rare case of a giant urinary bladder calculus weighing 1200g and occurring in a female patient is reported. The stone was removed by open vesicolithotomy.

  12. Effect of methanol, n-hexane and aqueous extract of Irvingia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    children below 5 years in Asia, Latin America and Africa resulting in 4-5 million deaths. (Abdullahi et al. ... two years of life and declines as a child grows older. Mortality from diarrhoea has declined over the past two ... powder was weighed using an electric weighing balance by Kern ALS 220 – 4. The powder was then ...

  13. 7 CFR 802.0 - Applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Automatic Bulk Weighing Systems Code, and the Weights Code of the 2002 edition of National Institute of....Computing Scales S.1.8.2.Money-Value Computation S.1.8.3.Customer's Indications S.1.8.4.Recorded... Load, Grain Dockage Automatic Bulk Weighing Systems (2.22) N.1.3.Decreasing-Load Test [68 FR 34522...

  14. Validating the breeding value for maternal preweaning gain in beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this research was to validate the maternal breeding value for preweaning gain as a predictor of genetic differences in milk production. Phenotypic variation in preweaning gain and in milk production measured by the weigh-suckle-weigh method was partitioned into genetic and non-genetic components.

  15. 49 CFR 375.509 - How must I determine the weight of a shipment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—origin weigh. You determine the difference between the tare weight of the vehicle before loading at the origin of the shipment and the gross weight of the same vehicle after loading the shipment. (2) Second... fuel tanks on the vehicle must be full at the time of each weighing, or, in the alternative, when you...

  16. 7 CFR 800.115 - Who may request original services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Who may request original services. 800.115 Section 800... Original Services § 800.115 Who may request original services. (a) General. Any interested person may request original inspection and weighing services. The kinds of inspection and weighing services are...

  17. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    compression coat weight to 200 mg. Estimation of Tablet Physical Parameters. The prepared tablets were assessed for weight variation, hardness, friability and for drug content. To compute the weight variation, 20 tablets of each formulation were weighed using an electronic weighing balance (Shimadzu, Japan) and ...

  18. Weight Regain: No Link to Success in a Real-Life Multiday Boxing Tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Reid; Cox, Gregory R; Slater, Gary; Burke, Louise M

    2017-08-01

    Combat-sport athletes acutely reduce body mass (BM) before weigh-in in an attempt to gain a size/strength advantage over smaller opponents. Few studies have investigated these practices among boxers and none have explored the impact of this practice on competitive success. One hundred (30 women, 70 men) elite boxers participating in the Australian national championships were weighed at the official weigh-in and 1 h before each competition bout. Regain in BM after weigh-in was compared between finalists and nonfinalists, winners and losers of each fight, men and women, and weight divisions. Boxers were surveyed on their pre- and post-weigh-in nutrition practices. The lightest men's weight category displayed significantly greater relative BM regain than all other divisions, with no difference between other divisions. BM prebout was higher than official weigh-in for men (2.12% ± 1.62%; P < .001; ES = 0.13) and women (1.49% ± 1.65%; P < .001; ES = 0.11). No differences in BM regain were found between finalists and nonfinalists, winners and losers of individual bouts, or between preliminary or final bouts. BM regain was significantly greater (0.37% BM, P < .001; ES = 0.25) before an afternoon bout compared with a morning bout. Boxers engage in acute BM-loss practices before the official competition weigh-in, but this does not appear to affect competition outcomes, at least when weight regain between weigh-in and fighting is used as a proxy for the magnitude of acute loss. While boxers recognize the importance of recovering after weigh-in, current practice is not aligned with best-practice guidance.

  19. Processing facility for metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awano, Toshihiko; Kataoka, Yoshitsune.

    1998-01-01

    Each steps of temporarily storing materials to be reduced in the volume to a storage vessel, transferring them to a weighing machine by a conveyor, weighing them by a weighing machine, drying them by a drying means, packing them in containing canisters, sealing and welding them, carrying out the containing canisters after sealing are conducted independently respectively or optionally simultaneously in parallel. Accordingly, isolation from peripheral circumstances is ensured, and improvement of working efficiency, ensuring of safety and simplification of structure of processing devices can be attained. (T.M.)

  20. Modified Diet Recipes for Army Medical Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-20

    meatballs , Eggs , whole slightly 1 egg 45 weighing 33 grams each. beaten 3. Place on sheet pan and bake Water 1/3 cup 1/3 cup 10 minutes, or until... egg , water, and rolled oats. Shape into 30 meatballs , weighing 45 grams each. Place on sheet pan and bake 20 minutes or until done* Drain well... egg , water, and rolled oats. Shape into 30 meatballs , weighing 45 grams each. Place on sheet pan and bake 20 minutes or until done. Drain well

  1. The Toxicity of Inhaled Sulphur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    lobes, weighed and then dried in an oven (40 oC). The samples were weighed daily until a stable weight had been achieved (approx. 5 days), to...into account). Lung samples were taken, weighed and then dried in an oven (40o C) until a stable weight had been achieved, to determine lung wet...large porcine model: A 6 hour study. Inhal. Tox. (in press). 16. Garner JP, Watts S, Parry C, Bird J and Kirkman E. 2009. Development of a large

  2. Techno-economic benefits of radiation curing: a comparison studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, D [Universal Wood Inc., Lousville (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In comparing radiation cure versus conventional heat cure systems, the factors are considered in this studies i.e. environmental laws - includes the future regulations concerning volatile organic emissions and waste disposal may weigh heavily in the decision.

  3. Social Skills in Adults with AD/HD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Section 504 Assignment Accommodations Reading Assignments Written Assignments Math Assignments NRC Library About NRC Recursos en español ... are not exactly "social accountants," but on some level, people do weigh the costs and benefits of ...

  4. Combined reflection and transmission microscope for telemedicine applications in field settings

    OpenAIRE

    Biener, Gabriel; Greenbaum, Alon; Isikman, Serhan O.; Lee, Kelvin; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a field-portable upright and inverted microscope that can image specimens in both reflection and transmission modes. This compact and cost-effective dual-mode microscope weighs only ~135 grams (

  5. Guo et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2014) 11(1):97-102

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cadewumi

    of diet control, drug regulation and physical exercise is the foundation and basis for controlling this disease (Lu et al., 2000; Xing ... Traditional Chinese medicine alleviates its symptoms by ... Body weight was weighed once a week, in order to.

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) ... fish were washed then weighed and thereafter, smoked in a traditional smoking kiln and .... carbonization of the tissues and other components by wood smoke [8]. ... temperature or exposure to light can also increase the oxidation rate [21].

  7. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-10

    Sep 10, 2017 ... parameters including energy consumption, moisture adsorption, Meyer hardness .... was measured using weighing balance and for the volume was .... system for internal combustion engine in presence of acoustic resonator.

  8. ANALYSIS OF COCONUT ETHYL ESTER (BIODIESEL) AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Energy is an indispensable and significant issue of world concern. ... both metal parts of diesel engine whereas biodiesel from other ... study reported on the blend characterization and ... weighing balance was used to measure the weight of.

  9. Effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2013-06-28

    Jun 28, 2013 ... each of forward and reverse primers and 2.0 µl of template DNA. Oligonucleotide ... weighed and milled using a mill (Hormeku Engineering Company. Ltd., Ghana) .... cassava varieties exhibit tolerance to CMD, it is important.

  10. nvj 36 3.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRAPHICS DEPT

    were purchased from Bodija market, Ibadan,. Nigeria. TPP was ... field test. After weighing the rats, the tests were th performed on the 26 day of the experiment so as to investigate the ..... declines rapidly in the postnatal mouse neocortex.

  11. A method for the gravimetric determination of plutonium in pure plutonium nitrate concentrate solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, M.A.; Savage, D.J.

    1986-12-01

    Plutonium nitrate solution is treated with sulphuric acid before being heated and finally ignited. The stoichiometric plutonium dioxide so formed is weighed and hence the plutonium content is calculated. (author)

  12. OCCAMS: Optically Controlled and Corrected Active Meta-material Space Structures (Ultra-Lightweight Photonic Muscle Space Structures Phase II)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Photons weigh nothing. Why must even small space telescopes have high mass? Our team has demonstrated this is not the case using a completely novel approach to...

  13. Miniaturized Low-Power Piezo Microvalve for NanoSat and CubeSat Propulsion, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I effort, Busek developed a miniature precision piezo-actuated microvalve weighing 32g and occupying 4.5 cm^3. The valve demonstrated continuous flow...

  14. Contracted Logistics Support and Technology During Information Age Transformation - The Solution! or the National Strategic Trap?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bryant, Russell E

    2003-01-01

    ...). While offering assistance, CLS also has some included risks which may have been weighed at some levels of decision making, and still possibly not fully addressed through discourse with and by...

  15. Guide to Eating for Sports

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... caffeine. That's especially true if you'll be exercising in hot weather. When it comes to caffeine and exercise, it's good to weigh any benefits against potential problems. Although some studies find that ...

  16. Calcium intake and knowledge among white adolescent girls in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Calcium intake and knowledge using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and 7-day weighed records ... Selection of schools ... was made with each of the teachers, during which time .... and high blood pressure resulted in 42% stating that it.

  17. The Leopard Tortoise in the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H Grobler

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 69 leopard tortoises Geochelone pardalis babcocki (Loveridge 1935 were captured, marked, sexed, weighed and released. The results of this exercise together with other field data are presented and discussed.

  18. Guide to Eating for Sports

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    Full Text Available ... caffeine and exercise, it's good to weigh any benefits against potential problems. Although some studies find that ... Game-Day Eats Your performance on game day will depend on the foods you've eaten over ...

  19. Factors affecting the survival of HIV-infected children after ART ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Factors affecting the survival of HIV-infected children after. ART initiation ... balance between treating the disease and maintaining quality of life must be weighed carefully. An evaluation .... children were forced to work in early life, especially in.

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

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    Full Text Available ... HIV Learn the Link - Drugs and HIV ... Drugs can change the way the brain works, disrupting the parts of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. ...

  1. Cardiac Amyloidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... adding salt to food, and avoiding eating in restaurants. Daily weighing can be helpful: a weight gain ... effective but toxic therapy, and very careful patient selection is needed. View this table: View inline View ...

  2. Zoology by Self-Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Keith; Hammond, Roger

    1976-01-01

    A historical account is given of how a conventional university first-year undergraduate course in zoology has been replaced by a self-instructional one. Advantages and problems are weighed, and successful student achievement and interest are described. (LBH)

  3. Cognitive functioning and associated factors in older adults in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (physical activity, no smoking and moderate alcohol use).15-20. We aimed to .... sleeping, such as falling asleep, waking up frequently during the night or waking ... computed by weighing each activity type by energy requirement in metabolic ...

  4. 13 Comparative Effects of Cassava Starch and Simple Sugar in ...

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    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    special treatment has been known to be attacked by ... Table 1: Composition of simple laboratory sugar. Water insoluble. Matter. Loss on ... in weighed water before mixing at ..... 2nd Natiuonal conference on nanotechnology NANO 2008.

  5. As They Grow: Teaching Your Children How to Use Medicines Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Buying & Using Medicine Safely Understanding Over-the-Counter Medicines ... years old. They may try to copy your behavior. 8-year-olds Know how much you weigh. ...

  6. Look Again: A Response to "Another Look."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Jack R.

    1991-01-01

    Answers criticism directed at utilitarianism. Argues that the philosophy evaluates choices by identifying the factors that should be considered in weighing the morality of an act. Suggests that the distributive principle of impartiality means everyone's pleasure should count equally. (DK)

  7. Download this PDF file

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    DMPZz

    perennial shrub of the Family Euphorbiaceae African Dwarf (WAD) bucks weighing commonly ... Blood samples were collected intravenously Differential White Blood Cell Count: Aclean from the ... heamocytometer, the five square that formed.

  8. Guide to Eating for Sports

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    Full Text Available ... caffeine and exercise, it's good to weigh any benefits against potential problems. Although some studies find that ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  9. Appendectomy: Surgical Removal of the Appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blocked opening can be from an illness, thick mucus, hard stool, or a tumor. Appendix Large intestine ... any thing over 10 pounds. A gallon of milk weighs 9 pounds. 6 Your Recovery and Discharge ...

  10. Growth response of juveniles of Clarias bidorsalis to imported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... Growth response of Clarias bidorsalis juveniles weighing between 5 - 10 g that were fed with extruded. (floating) imported ... and showed that daily food consumption and weight gain of fish that were ... mental period. The feed ...

  11. Effects of overweight vehicles on NYSDOT infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report develops a methodology for estimating the effects of different categories of overweight : trucks on NYSDOT pavements and bridges. A data mining algorithm is used to categorize truck : data collected at several Weigh-In-Motion stations aro...

  12. Defining overweight and obesity in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body fat. It is not the same as overweight, which means weighing too much. Obesity is becoming ... different age. To determine if a child is overweight or obese, experts compare BMI levels of children ...

  13. Effects of overweight vehicles on New York State DOT infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This report develops a methodology for estimating the effects of different categories of overweight : trucks on NYSDOT pavements and bridges. A data mining algorithm is used to categorize truck : data collected at several Weigh-In-Motion stations aro...

  14. proximate, caffeine and tannin analyses in some brands of tea

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    DR. AMINU

    fifteen essential trace and toxic elements in some green tea samples and ... grade, distilled water was used as solvent for solution preparation and all ... weighing the ash and calculation (ACCA, 2002). Ether .... Pharmacologyonline 3: 164-174.

  15. Relapsing-Remitting MS (RRMS)

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    Full Text Available ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Evoked Potentials (EP) d Other Conditions to Rule Out Lyme ... activity or worsening. Together, you can weigh the potential risks and benefits of other treatment options. If ...

  16. A System Dynamics Model for Integrated Decision Making: The Durham-Orange Light Rail Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s Sustainable and Healthy Communities Research Program (SHC) is conducting transdisciplinary research to inform and empower decision-makers. EPA tools and approaches are being developed to enable communities to effectively weigh and integrate human health, socioeconomic, envi...

  17. Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... what's considered healthy for his or her height. Obesity happens over time when you eat more calories ...

  18. Obesity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight, which means weighing too ... always easy to know when a child has obesity or is overweight. Ask your health care provider ...

  19. Ethical Dilemma and Management of Infertility in HIV Seropositive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aunts, uncles, sisters, brothers and in‑laws all work as a unit through life. Family relationships are guided by hierarchy and seniority. Individuals .... Nevertheless, the physician has to weigh the balance of the ... Ethical issues in professional life.

  20. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the brain that people use to weigh risks and benefits when making decisions. This page connects ... not just injection) can put a person at risk for getting HIV. Drug and alcohol intoxication affect ...