WorldWideScience

Sample records for weighing

  1. Eat More, Weigh Less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Eat More, Weigh ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español ( ...

  2. Weigh - in - motion (WIM)

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Neven B.; Subotić Marko M.

    2014-01-01

    The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and tol...

  3. Weigh - in - motion (WIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Neven B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and toll control systems and so on. Advantages of using WIM technology are various and its benefits affects all road users (transport companies, public, public transport authorities. Potential of WIM application has been recognized in the leading EU countries, so the existence of the numerous WIM projects.

  4. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  5. Portable pallet weighing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An assembly for use with several like units in weighing the mass of a loaded cargo pallet supported by its trunnions has a bridge frame for positioning the assembly on a transportation frame carrying the pallet while straddling one trunnion of the pallet and its trunnion lock, and a cradle assembly for incrementally raising the trunnion. The mass at the trunnion is carried as a static load by a slidable bracket mounted upon the bridge frame for supporting the cradle assembly. The bracket applies the static loading to an electrical load cell symmetrically positioned between the bridge frame and the bracket. The static loading compresses the load cell, causing a slight deformation and a potential difference at load cell terminals which is proportional in amplitude to the mass of the pallet at the trunnion.

  6. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  7. Menopause: Weighing Your Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Menopause Weighing Your Treatment Options Past Issues / Winter 2017 ... What led you to study older women and menopause? I started studying women's health many years ago ...

  8. The first weighing of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  9. Let's Weigh in on "Deflategate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Terrence

    2016-09-01

    The September 2015 paper "Bouncing Back from `Deflategate'" is a very interesting article from a physics viewpoint. However, we doubt that the National Football League (NFL) officials will bounce footballs and measure the coefficient of restitution to verify that the footballs remain properly inflated. The release of a few pounds per square inch (psi) from a football seems trivial until one reads about the millions of dollars in suspensions, fines, and legal fees that were accrued. What is a possible solution that the NFL might actually use? Weigh the ball! When a small amount of air is deliberately released, causing a change in pressure, the change in mass can be calculated and measured. Note that the change in mass can be measured without making another pressure measurement. This is important because the reinsertion of the needle of the gauge to make another measurement causes a small inadvertent loss of pressure and mass from the ball.

  10. Portable weighing system with alignment features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2012-11-06

    A system for weighing a load is disclosed. The weighing system includes a pad having at least one transducer for weighing a load disposed on the pad. In some embodiments the pad has a plurality of foot members and the weighing system may include a plate that disposed underneath the pad for receiving the plurality of foot member and for aligning the foot members when the weighing system is installed. The weighing system may include a spacer disposed adjacent the pad and in some embodiments, a spacer anchor operatively secures the spacer to a support surface, such as a plate, a railway bed, or a roadway. In some embodiments the spacer anchor operatively secures both the spacer and the pad to a roadway.

  11. Contactless Bridge Weigh-in-Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Ojio, T.; Carey, Ciaran; O'Brien, Eugene J.; Doherty, C; Taylor, S E

    2016-01-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion (WIM) uses existing bridges to find the weights of vehicles that pass overhead. Contactless bridge weigh-in-motion (cBWIM) uses bridges to weigh vehicles without the need for any sensors to be attached to the bridge. A camera is mounted on the back of a telescope, which magnifies the image to the extent that submillimeter bridge deflections can be measured accurately. A second camera is used to monitor traffic and to determine axle spacings. The two cameras are synchron...

  12. Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167159.html Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss Put an end to guesstimating calories with simple ... of calories a day. And that can slow weight loss to a snail's pace. The answer is to ...

  13. Weighing Ultra-Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    the Sun. The astronomers then used the photometric data of each star obtained in several wavebands, as well as spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope to study the two objects in more detail. Using the latest stellar models of the group of the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, they found that both stars have roughly the same surface temperature, around 1500 °C (1800 K). For a star, this is ultra-cool indeed - by comparison, the surface temperature of the Sun is more than three times higher. Using theoretical models, the team also found that the two stars are rather young (in astrophysical terms) - their age is between 500 and 1,000 million years only. The more massive of the two has a mass between 7.5 and 9.5% the mass of the Sun, while its companion has a mass between 5 and 7% of the solar mass. Objects weighing less than about 7% of our Sun have been variously called "Brown Dwarfs", "Failed Stars" or "Super Planets". Indeed, since they have no sustained energy generation by thermal nuclear reactions in their interior, many of their properties are more similar to those of giant gas planets in our own solar system such as Jupiter, than to stars like the Sun. The system 2MASSW J0746425+2000321 is thus apparently made up of a brown dwarf orbiting a slightly more massive ultra-cool dwarf star. It is a true "Rosetta stone" in the new field of low-mass stellar astrophysics and further studies will surely provide more valuable information about these objects in the transitional zone between stars and planets. More information The research described in this press release is published in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics ("First determination of the dynamical mass of a binary L1.5 dwarf" by H. Bouy et al.). The paper is available in PDF format on the publisher web site.

  14. Error Reduction for Weigh-In-Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Federal and State agencies need certifiable vehicle weights for various applications, such as highway inspections, border security, check points, and port entries. ORNL weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology was previously unable to provide certifiable weights, due to natural oscillations, such as vehicle bouncing and rocking. Recent ORNL work demonstrated a novel filter to remove these oscillations. This work shows further filtering improvements to enable certifiable weight measurements (error < 0.1%) for a higher traffic volume with less effort (elimination of redundant weighing).

  15. Weigh in Motion Based on Parameters Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-feng; CAI Ping; CHEN Ri-xing

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic tire forces are the main factor affecting the measurement accuracy of the axle weight of moving vehicle. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the influence of the dynamic tire forces on the weighing accuracy. On the basis of analyzing the characteristic of the dynamic tire forces, the objective optimization equation is constructed. The optimization algorithm is presented to get the optimal estimations of the objective parameters. According to the estimations of the parameters, the dynamic tire forces are separated from the axle weigh signal. The results of simulation and field experiments prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Noise Reduction Methods for Weighing Lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical vibration of the grass and crop weighing lysimeters, located at the University of California West Side Field Research and Extension Station at Five Points, CA generated noise in lysimeter mass measurements and reduced the quality of evapotranspiration (ET) data. Two filtering methods for ...

  17. Wood anatomical classification using iterative character weighing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, P.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the pattern of wood anatomical variation in some groups of Rubiaceae (i.e. Cinchoneae, Rondeletieae and Condamineae) by using a numerical pattern detection method which involves character weighing (Hogeweg 1975). In this method character weights are obtained iteratively

  18. Requirements of weighing in legal metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källgren, Håkan; Pendrill, Leslie

    2003-12-01

    A review is given of recent developments in the formulation of requirements of weighing where such measurements are performed in society and industry with legal implications such as safety, fair trade and environmental considerations. Traditional legal metrology in the area of weights and measures has been developed and given an expanded scope in recent years. This reflects, on the one hand, technical and scientific development (computerization of weighing devices, improved weight manufacturing and new methods of magnetism determination, for example), and on the other hand, administrative evolution (global requirements of the market and the Measurement Instrument Directive). Particularly fruitful has been the joint effort by the scientific mass metrology and legal metrology communities in the development in the last decade of international recommendations—especially OIML R111—on weighing. Consensus has been reached in the international weighing forum concerning important areas such as maximum permissible errors for weights, how to calculate measurement uncertainty and how measurement uncertainty should be accounted for in relation to conformity assessment. These international recommendations for weights as mass standards include both tolerances and extensive instructions about various influence quantities that affect the weight result, such as magnetization, surface roughness and volume of weights. Much remains to be done, however: corresponding requirements of weighing devices in particular need to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing technology. The promising collaboration between scientific and legal metrology initiated in the area of weights may act as a model and stimulate similar developments in other areas of metrology, particularly where requirements are generic (for instance uncertainty and conformity) or analogous.

  19. Thermal Property Analysis of Axle Load Sensors for Weighing Vehicles in Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Burnos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems which permit the weighing of vehicles in motion are called dynamic Weigh-in-Motion scales. In such systems, axle load sensors are embedded in the pavement. Among the influencing factors that negatively affect weighing accuracy is the pavement temperature. This paper presents a detailed analysis of this phenomenon and describes the properties of polymer, quartz and bending plate load sensors. The studies were conducted in two ways: at roadside Weigh-in-Motion sites and at a laboratory using a climate chamber. For accuracy assessment of roadside systems, the reference vehicle method was used. The pavement temperature influence on the weighing error was experimentally investigated as well as a non-uniform temperature distribution along and across the Weigh-in-Motion site. Tests carried out in the climatic chamber allowed the influence of temperature on the sensor intrinsic error to be determined. The results presented clearly show that all kinds of sensors are temperature sensitive. This is a new finding, as up to now the quartz and bending plate sensors were considered insensitive to this factor.

  20. Thermal Property Analysis of Axle Load Sensors for Weighing Vehicles in Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Gajda, Janusz

    2016-12-15

    Systems which permit the weighing of vehicles in motion are called dynamic Weigh-in-Motion scales. In such systems, axle load sensors are embedded in the pavement. Among the influencing factors that negatively affect weighing accuracy is the pavement temperature. This paper presents a detailed analysis of this phenomenon and describes the properties of polymer, quartz and bending plate load sensors. The studies were conducted in two ways: at roadside Weigh-in-Motion sites and at a laboratory using a climate chamber. For accuracy assessment of roadside systems, the reference vehicle method was used. The pavement temperature influence on the weighing error was experimentally investigated as well as a non-uniform temperature distribution along and across the Weigh-in-Motion site. Tests carried out in the climatic chamber allowed the influence of temperature on the sensor intrinsic error to be determined. The results presented clearly show that all kinds of sensors are temperature sensitive. This is a new finding, as up to now the quartz and bending plate sensors were considered insensitive to this factor.

  1. Weigh-in-motion and smart bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Leon L.

    1997-05-01

    The bridge Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system uses bridge structures as weigh scales to measure axle and gross vehicle weights and vehicle configurations without stopping or detouring the vehicles. Because the system is mobile and is almost invisible to the truck drivers, it can be used to collect unbiased traffic data for transportation and loadometer study. The WIM + RESPONSE system, which is an expansion of the original WIM system, was developed to collect additional bridge response data and perform bridge structural evaluation. These additional bridge response data provide bridge engineers with information necessary for improving bridge design and evaluation procedures. Bridge health monitoring and damage detection may also be conducted with long term installation of the WIM + RESPONSE system. This paper discusses what has been achieved by the WIM + RESPONSE system and how the system can be further improved to enhance its functions in a smart bridge.

  2. System identification based approach to dynamic weighing revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Meller, Michał; Pietrzak, Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic weighing, i.e., weighing of objects in motion, without stopping them on the weighing platform, allows one to increase the rate of operation of automatic weighing systems, used in industrial production processes, without compromising their accuracy. Since the classical identification-based approach to dynamic weighing, based on the second-order mass-spring-damper model of the weighing system, does not yield satisfactory results when applied to conveyor belt type checkweighers, several extensions of this technique are examined. Experiments confirm that when appropriately modified the identification-based approach becomes a reliable tool for dynamic mass measurement in checkweighers.

  3. 7 CFR 27.16 - Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. 27.16... Samples § 27.16 Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. The inspection, weighing, and sampling of... Services Office shall be (a) under the supervision of a supervisor of cotton inspection, or (b) by or...

  4. I-65 Seymour Weigh Station - Indiana's First Mainline Weigh-in-Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Jim; Shattuck, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In 2014 INDOT selected CDM Smith to design the replacement of an abandoned truck weigh station on I-65 in Seymour. Due to site physical constraints, prescreening of trucks with weigh-in-motion (WIM) must take place on the mainline as opposed to a screening lane—the first such design in Indiana. Construction will be completed spring 2017, and the design team will participate in final testing of the entire WIM and weight enforcement system. Join us to hear more about this project.

  5. Prototype Weigh-In-Motion Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Beshears, David L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2006-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed and patented methods to weigh slowly moving vehicles. We have used this technology to produce a portable weigh-in-motion system that is robust and accurate. This report documents the performance of the second-generation portable weigh-in-motion prototype (WIM Gen II). The results of three modes of weight determination are compared in this report: WIM Gen II dynamic mode, WIM Gen II stop-and-go mode, and static (parked) mode on in-ground, static scales. The WIM dynamic mode measures axle weights as the vehicle passes over the system at speeds of 3 to 7 miles per hour (1.3 to 3.1 meters/second). The WIM stop-and-go mode measures the weight of each axle of the vehicle as the axles are successively positioned on a side-by-side pair of WIM measurement pads. In both measurement modes the center of balance (CB) and the total weight are obtained by a straight-forward calculation from axle weights and axle spacings. The performance metric is measurement error (in percent), which is defined as 100 x (sample standard deviation)/(average); see Appendix A for details. We have insufficient data to show that this metric is predictive. This report details the results of weight measurements performed in May 2005 at two sites using different types of vehicles at each site. In addition to the weight measurements, the testing enabled refinements to the test methodology and facilitated an assessment of the influence of vehicle speed on the dynamic-mode measurements. The initial test at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN, involved measurements of passenger and light-duty commercial vehicles. A subsequent test at the Arrival/Departure Airfield Control Group (A/DACG) facility in Ft. Bragg, NC, involved military vehicles with gross weights between 3,000 and 75,000 pounds (1,356 to 33,900 kilograms) with a 20,000-pound (9,040 kilograms) limit per axle. For each vehicle, four or more separate measurements were done

  6. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency.

  7. Online weighing of kiwifruit using impact method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Mir-ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran is one of the main producers of kiwifruit in the world. Unfortunately, the sorting and grading of the kiwifruits are manual, which is a time consuming and labor intensive task. Due to the lack of appropriate devices for sorting and grading of kiwifruit based on the quality parameters, only 10% of total production is exported (Mohammadian & Esehaghi Teymouri, 1999. One of the main quality attribute for evaluating the kiwifruits is weight. Based on the standards, the minimum weight for an excellent kiwifruit is 90 g, while these values for the first and second classes should be 70 and 65 g, respectively (Abedini, 2003. Therefore, developing a device for fast weighing of fruits in the sorting lines can be useful in packaging, storage, exporting and distributing kiwifruit to the consumer markets. In the past, the mechanical-based systems were commonly used for online weighing of the agricultural materials, but they did not lead to the promising accuracy and speed in sorting lines. Today, electrical instruments equipped with the precise load cells are substituted for fast weighing in the sorting lines. The dropping impact method, in which a free falling fruit drops on a load cell, is one of the suitable techniques for this purpose. Different studies have addressed the application of dropping impact for fast weighing of agricultural materials (Rohrbach et al., 1982; Calpe et al., 2002; Gilman & Bailey, 2005; Stropek & Gołacki, 2007; Elbeltagi, 2011. The aim of this study reported here was to develop an on-line system for fast weighing of kiwifruit and compare the accuracy of different methods for extracting the weight predictive models. Materials and Methods: Sample selection: A total of 232 samples with the weight range of 40 to 120 g were selected. Before conducting the main experiments, the weight and dimensions of the sample were measured using a digital balance and caliper, with the precisions of 0.001 g and 0.01 mm

  8. Method and system for reducing errors in vehicle weighing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Abercrombie, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-08-24

    A method and system (10, 23) for determining vehicle weight to a precision of <0.1%, uses a plurality of weight sensing elements (23), a computer (10) for reading in weighing data for a vehicle (25) and produces a dataset representing the total weight of a vehicle via programming (40-53) that is executable by the computer (10) for (a) providing a plurality of mode parameters that characterize each oscillatory mode in the data due to movement of the vehicle during weighing, (b) by determining the oscillatory mode at which there is a minimum error in the weighing data; (c) processing the weighing data to remove that dynamical oscillation from the weighing data; and (d) repeating steps (a)-(c) until the error in the set of weighing data is <0.1% in the vehicle weight.

  9. Self-weighing in weight management: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaguang; Klem, Mary Lou; Sereika, Susan M; Danford, Cynthia A; Ewing, Linda J; Burke, Lora E

    2015-02-01

    Regular self-weighing, which in this article is defined as weighing oneself regularly over a period of time (e.g., daily, weekly), is recommended as a weight loss strategy. However, the published literature lacks a review of the recent evidence provided by prospective, longitudinal studies. Moreover, no paper has reviewed the psychological effects of self-weighing. Therefore, the objective is to review the literature related to longitudinal associations between self-weighing and weight change as well as the psychological outcomes. Electronic literature searches in PubMed, Ovid PsycINFO, and Ebscohost CINAHL were conducted. Keywords included overweight, obesity, self-weighing, etc. Inclusion criteria included trials that were published in the past 25 years in English; participants were adults seeking weight loss treatment; results were based on longitudinal data. The results (N=17 studies) revealed that regular self-weighing was associated with more weight loss and not with adverse psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety). Findings demonstrated that the effect sizes of association between self-weighing and weight change varied across studies and also that the reported frequency of self-weighing varied across studies. The findings from prospective, longitudinal studies provide evidence that regular self-weighing has been associated with weight loss and not with negative psychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  10. Advanced weigh-in-motion system for weighing vehicles at high speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshears, D.L.; Muhs, J.D.; Scudiere, M.B. [and others

    1998-02-01

    A state-of-the-art, Advanced Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system has been designed, installed, and tested on the west bound side of Interstate I-75/I-40 near the Knox County Weigh Station. The project is a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Road Dynamics, Inc. (IRD) sponsored by the Office of Uranium Programs, Facility and Technology Management Division of the Department of Energy under CRADA No. ORNL95-0364. ORNL, IRD, the Federal Highway Administration, the Tennessee Department of Safety and the Tennessee Department of Transportation have developed a National High Speed WIM Test Facility for test and evaluation of high-speed WIM systems. The WIM system under evaluation includes a Single Load Cell WIM scale system supplied and installed by IRD. ORNL developed a stand-alone, custom data acquisition system, which acquires the raw signals from IRD`s in-ground single load cell transducers. Under a separate contract with the Federal Highway Administration, ORNL designed and constructed a laboratory scale house for data collection, analysis and algorithm development. An initial advanced weight-determining algorithm has been developed. The new advanced WIM system provides improved accuracy and can reduce overall system variability by up to 30% over the existing high accuracy commercial WIM system.

  11. Baxter elastomeric pumps: Weighing as an alternative to visual inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ellen L; Ali, Raafi; Sawyer, Michael B; Chambers, Carole R; Tang, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Elastomeric pumps are used to administer 46-hour infusions of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Baxter suggests patients visually monitor their pumps to ensure that infusions are proceeding correctly. This can be confusing and lead to concerns about under- or over-dosing. Baxter has not considered weighing pumps as a validated method for monitoring. This study aims to validate weighing as a more accurate method for patients and healthcare professionals, and describe real life Baxter Infusor™ variability. Methods Patients who had been started on a 46-hour 5FU infusion returned to the clinic approximately 24 h after starting treatment. The pump was weighed on a StarFrit kitchen scale, and date, time, and weights recorded. Patients were asked if they had a preference for weighing or visually inspecting their pump. Results Pumps ( n = 103) were weighed between 17.25 and 27.5 h after connection. The average weight of a pump was 189 g. Of 103 pumps weighed, 99 weighed less than expected, corresponding to average flow rates of 5.69 mL/h over the elapsed time. The expected flow rate is 5 mL/h with 10% variability. Average flow rates within the 17.25- to 27.5-hour window were 4.561 mL/h, which is 8.78% slower than expected, but within the 10% known variability. Forty-seven percent of patients didn't have a preference for either method, but for those who did have a preference, more than twice as many preferred weighing. Conclusion With proper education, weighing Baxter Infusors at home with kitchen scales can be an accepted and objective alternative to the current recommendation of visual inspection.

  12. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  13. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  14. FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162849.html FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes Agency ... The Associated Press reported last month that the FDA had identified 66 instances of e-cigarette explosions ...

  15. Weighing Evidence: The Design and Comparison of Probability Thought Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    this design is attractive, but a number of experiments, beginning with Alpert and Raiffa in 1969, have reported that the Weighing Evidence 38 initial...Grant N00014-79-C-0077 to the second author. Ia Weighing Evidence 67 References Alpert , M., and Raiffa, H.: 1982, ’A progress report on the training of...C. 20360 Dr. L. Chmura Naval Research Laboratory Larry Olmstead Code 7592 Naval Surface Weapons Center Computer Sciences & Systems NSWC/DL

  16. An Integrated Dynamic Weighing System Based on SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bazydło

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototyped dynamic weighing system has been presented which integrates together three advanced software environments: MATLAB, LabVIEW and iFIX SCADA. They were used for advanced signal processing, data acquisition, as well as visualization and process control. Dynamic weighing is a constantly developing field of metrology. Because of the highly complicated structure of any electronic weighing module, it is vulnerable to many sources of environmental disturbances. For this reason, there is a lot of research concerned with weighing signal processing, mechanical matters and functionality of the system. In the paper, some issues connected with dynamic weighing have been presented, and the necessity of implementing signal processing methods has been discussed. Implementation of this feature is impossible in the majority of SCADA systems. The integration of the three environments mentioned above is an attempt to create an industrial system with capabilities to deal with major dynamic weighing problems. It is innovative because it connects the industrial SCADA, laboratory/industrial product LabVIEW and MATLAB. In addition, the algorithms responsible for process control and data exchange are presented. The paper includes a description of the capabilities, performance tests, as well as benefits and drawbacks, of the system. The outcome of the research is a prototyped system and evaluation of its usefulness. (original abstract

  17. Use of FBG sensors for weigh in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardis, S.; Caponero, Michele A.; Felli, F.; Rocco, F.

    2005-05-01

    Techniques able to perform weighing of road vehicles not requiring any lowering of their cruise speed are of great interest for a large amount of applications. Many of such applications are traditionally related to determining custom duties, toll-way fares and cost of paying freight, but new applications often concerned with high-speed travelling vehicles are arising, as for instance the smart management of highway lorry traffic. In this paper we present preliminary results for the development of a weigh-in-motion technique based on Fibre Bragg Grating sensors. The proposed technique is intended for the production of a weigh-in-motion station suitable for high-speed road vehicle and high load resolution.

  18. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...... trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate...

  19. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  20. WAVE - A European Research Project on Weigh-in-Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Bernard; O'Brien, Eugene J.

    1996-01-01

    WAVE (Weigh-in-motion of Axles and Vehicles for Europe) is a research project, part-funded by the European Commission, with the objective of improving the accuracy and performance of Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) technology. It has a budget of the order of $ 2 million and will run from mid 1996 to mid 1998. It has close links and a substantial overlap of membership with COST323, a pan-European group with representatives from about 20 countries which coordinates nationally funded activi...

  1. Statistics by Example, Weighing Chances, Teachers' Commentary and Solutions Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Martha; Weisberg, Sanford

    Part I of the teachers' guide for "Weighing Chances" briefly describes the mathematical background necessary for the student, lists the substantive areas touched upon by the problems in the pamphlet, suggests classroom uses for the booklet, and gives background information on the individual chapters. Part II provides complete solutions for the…

  2. An Innovative Nanosensor for Weigh-In-Motion Applications

    OpenAIRE

    GHADDAB, Boutheina; Gaudefroy, Vincent; Michelis, Fulvio; Ruiz Hitzky, Eduardo; Aranda,Pilar; Ruiz-García, Cristina; Lebental, Bérengère

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This study deals with the development of an innovative weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensor. An electrically conductive nanocomposite material based on a mixture of graphene supported on sepiolite and carbon nanotubes was developed. Deposited on bituminous mix with copper electrodes, it is used as a force sensor. We detail the sensor fabrication process and study its sensitivity to a compressive force.

  3. Low-cost fiber optic weigh-in-motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaai-Jazi, A.; Ardekani, S. A.; Mehdikhani, M.

    1990-11-01

    A design for a fiber optic weigh in motion (WIM) sensor is proposed. A prototype of the proposed sensor is designed, manufactured, and tested in the laboratory for different load frequency combinations using a material testing system (MTS) machine. Statistical analysis of data are performed to assess the response of the sensor under varying load frequencies for comparison.

  4. A new approach to the CZ crystal growth weighing control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimkin, P. V.; Moskovskih, V. A.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Yuferev, V. S.; Vasiliev, M. G.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of a new approach was to improve the robustness of the weighing control of CZ growth especially for semiconductors, for which the “anomalous“ behavior of the apparent weight provokes instability of the servo-loop. In the described method, the periodic reciprocating measuring motion of small amplitude is superposed on the uniform pull-rod movement. The cross-sectional area is determined from the weight sensor responses that are modulated mainly by the forces of hydrostatic pressure. By the example of germanium crystal growth, it is shown that in the control system, based on such a way of the diameter measuring, a simple PI control law provides a good close loop system's stability and dynamics for the materials with the “anomalous” behavior of a weighing signal. The effect of a meniscus on the modulation measuring of a crystal diameter is also discussed.

  5. Weigh-In-Motion Data Checking and Imputation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ting; Fricker, Jon D.

    2003-01-01

    There are about 46 weigh-in-motion (WIM) stations in Indiana. When operating properly, they provide valuable information on traffic volumes, vehicle classifications, and axle weights. Because there are great amounts of WIM data collected everyday, the quality of these data should be monitor without further delay. The first objective of this study is to develop effective and efficient methods to identify missing or erroneous WIM data. The second objective is to develop a data imputation method...

  6. Credibility and Security of Weighing System for Large Structure Object

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The weighing system designed for large structure object is mainly composed of three parts. The part of hydraulic system is made up of hydraulic cylinders, high pressure hydraulic hoses and electric pumps; the part of computer controlling system comprises pressure sensors, displacement sensors, data acquisitions, RS 485 network and the computer controlling model; the part of loading system is composed of the fulcrum structure and the concrete girder. The measurement principle and composition of the weighing system are discussed in this paper. Credibility and security of the weighing system are fully considered during the design phase. The hydraulic system is controlled by pilot operated check valves in case of the sudden loss of system pressure. The states of all gauges and RS485 network are monitored by computer controlling system functioning in different modules. When the system is running incorrectly, it will be switched to manual mode and givealarm. The finite element method is employed to analyze fulcrum structure so that the system has enough intensity to be lifted. Hence the reliability of the whole system is enhanced.

  7. Pavement management and weigh-in-motion. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cation, K.A.; Shahin, M.Y.; Scullion, T.; Lytton, R.L.; Butt, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 15 papers in the report deal with the following areas: development of a preventive maintenance algorithm for use in pavement-management systems; pavement-performance prediction model using the Markov Process; roadway modeling and data conversion for a transportation-facilities information system; development of a methodology to estimate pavement maintenance and repair costs for different ranges of pavement-condition index; new techniques for modeling pavement deterioration; pavement management at the local government level; a comprehensive ranking system for local-agency pavement management; expert system as a part of pavement management; MAPCON: a pavement-evaluation data-analysis computer system; a microcomputer procedure to analyze axle load limits and pavement damage responsibility; selected results from the first three years of the Oregon automatic monitoring demonstration project; automated acquisition of truck-tire pressure data; calibration and accuracy testing of weigh-in-motion systems; accuracy and tolerances of weigh-in-motion systems; on-site calibration of weigh-in-motion systems.

  8. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase,...

  9. 7 CFR 800.97 - Weighing grain in containers, land carriers, barges, and shiplots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weighing grain in containers, land carriers, barges... (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Weighing Provisions and Procedures § 800.97 Weighing grain in...

  10. Weighing and Body Monitoring among College Women: The Scale Number as an Emotional Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Awad, Germine H.; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Coker, Angela D.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Connelly, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated weighing and body-monitoring behaviors, as well as psychological and behavioral reactions to weighing, among female college students. Weighing and body monitoring were engaged in by the majority of participants. Participants changed food intake and exercise based on weight. About 63% reported that the scale number impacts…

  11. 40 CFR 92.110 - Weighing chamber and micro-balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weighing chamber and micro-balance. 92... Weighing chamber and micro-balance. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The temperature of the chamber.... (b) Weighing balance specifications. The microbalance used to determine the weights of all...

  12. Weighing and Body Monitoring among College Women: The Scale Number as an Emotional Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Awad, Germine H.; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Coker, Angela D.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Connelly, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated weighing and body-monitoring behaviors, as well as psychological and behavioral reactions to weighing, among female college students. Weighing and body monitoring were engaged in by the majority of participants. Participants changed food intake and exercise based on weight. About 63% reported that the scale number impacts…

  13. Pad-weighing test performed with standardized bladder volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Rosenkilde, P; Gammelgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    with a standardized bladder volume (50% of the cystometric bladder capacity). Twenty-five female patients with stress or mixed incontinence underwent two separate tests. Test-retest results were highly correlated (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). Nonetheless, analysis of test-retest differences revealed a variation up...... to +/- 24 g between two tests. It is concluded that this setup (i.e., standardized bladder volume) of the one-hour pad-weighing test allows for a more reliable assessment of urinary incontinence for quantitative purposes....

  14. Simulator for a packing and weighing system of granulated powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto Rodrigues de Oliveira, Rafael; Garcia, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    The development of a simulator for a packing and weighing system (PWS) of granulated powder is described. It employed system identification to obtain the deterministic part of the model and stochastic processes to reproduce disturbances. It reproduces the fluctuations in carton weight observed in real packing systems. Its final use is to evaluate proposed improvements in the PWS, aiming at reducing overweight and underweight. Its performance is satisfactory, as the oscillations observed in the carton weights, due to powder density variability, are close to reality as well as the monetary losses due to overweight and underweight and the power spectral density graphs of the real and simulated weights.

  15. Bridge Damage Detection Using Weigh-In-Motion Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero, Daniel; González, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new level I damage detection technique for short to medium span road bridges using weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology. The technique is based on the input provided by two different WIM systems: (a) a pavement-based WIM station located prior to the bridge (which gives vehicle weight estimates without the influence of the bridge) and (b) a bridge-based WIM system which estimates vehicle weights based on the deformation of the bridge. It is shown that the ratio of estimations...

  16. ALICE: structures weighing several tonnes are moved with millimetric precision

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration has just conducted one of its most spectacular transport operations to date in lifting the dipole of the muon spectrometer and reassembling it on the other side of the huge solenoid magnet. This incredible feat involved lifting no fewer than 900 tonnes of equipment over the red octagonal yoke inherited from the L3 experiment at a height of 18 metres. Following initial assembly and successful testing at the end of last year (see Bulletin No. 4/2005), the dipole was completely dismantled and moved to the other end of the cavern. The yoke was transported as 28 modules, each weighing 30 tonnes. The most spectacular feat of all, though, was undoubtedly the removal of the two 32-tonne coils. The first of these was moved on 18 April, as recorded in the following photos: A special lifting gantry weighing 5 tonnes had to be developed to move and install the coils. Huge clamps, which can be seen at the front, were used to rotate these enormous 32-tonne components. The whole assembly was raised ...

  17. A cost-effective weighing chamber for particulate matter filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R; Box, M; Liu, L J; Larson, T V

    2001-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a ubiquitous air pollutant that has been receiving increasing attention in recent years due in part to the association between PM and a number of adverse health outcomes, including mortality and increases in emergency room visits and respiratory symptoms, as well as exacerbation of asthma and decrements in lung function. As a result, the ability to accurately sample ambient PM has become important, both to researchers and to regulatory agencies. The federal reference method for the determination of fine PM as PM2.5 in the atmosphere recommends that particle-sampling filters be conditioned and weighed in an environment with constant temperature and relative humidity (RH). It is also recommended that vibration, electrostatic charges, and contamination of the filters from laboratory air be minimized to reduce variability in filter weight measurements. These controls have typically been maintained in small, environmentally controlled "cleanrooms." As an alternative to constructing an elaborate cleanroom, we have designed, and presented in this paper, an inexpensive weighing chamber to maintain the necessary level of humidity control.

  18. What is the psychological impact of self-weighing? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Yael; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Harkin, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Many people self-weigh and many interventions addressing weight-related problems such as obesity promote self-weighing. However, while self-weighing has been associated with weight loss, there is mixed evidence regarding the psychological impact of this behaviour. The present review aimed to quantify the relationship between self-weighing and: (i) affect (e.g., anxiety, depression); (ii) psychological functioning (e.g., self-esteem); (iii) body-related attitudes and (iv) disordered eating. A computerized search of scientific databases in September 2014 and subsequent ancestry and citation searches identified 29 independent tests of the relationship between self-weighing on psychological outcomes. Meta-analysis was used to quantify the size of the association across the tests. Results indicated that there was no association between self-weighing and affect, body-related attitudes or disordered eating. There was, however, a small-sized negative association between self-weighing and psychological functioning. The age of participants, obesity status, the extent of weight loss, duration of self-weighing and study design (RCT versus correlational) were found to influence at least some of the psychological outcomes of self-weighing. The findings suggest that, for the most part, self-weighing is not associated with adverse psychological outcomes. However, in some cases the association between self-weighing and psychological outcomes may be more negative than in others.

  19. [Bioethics: a proposal for decision making. Towards a weighed syncretism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala Blanco, Jaime; Seco García, Raquel

    2008-09-01

    The professional nursing business bears with it ethical problems related to scientific and technical development, the ethical-cultural plurality in our society and changes in clinical relationships. This situation has generated a crisis in classical decision-making models which has led to a point where we confront a new reality that requires an adequate adjustment not only to technical criteria but, moreover, to moral criteria. The challenge we undertake implies a search for concrete solutions to concrete problems in concrete instances, and what is most important, related to concrete persons. The procedures for decision making which have been proposed up until now should not be viewed as exclusive rather as complementary and enriching ones in the quest to find the best possible solutions; along this line we propose, from a weighed syncretism aspect, a procedure not thought of only for use in great conflicts but rather and mainly, to resolve daily problems.

  20. Weighing the black hole via quasi-local energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yuan K.

    2017-08-01

    We set to weigh the black holes at their event horizons in various spacetimes and obtain masses which are substantially higher than their asymptotic values. In each case, the horizon mass of a Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, or Kerr black hole is found to be twice the irreducible mass observed at infinity. The irreducible mass does not contain electrostatic or rotational energy, leading to the inescapable conclusion that particles with electric charges and spins cannot exist inside a black hole. This is proposed as the External Energy Paradigm. A higher mass at the event horizon and its neighborhood is obligatory for the release of gravitational waves in binary black hole merging. We describe how these horizon mass values are obtained in the quasi-local energy approach and applied to the black holes of the first gravitational waves GW150914.

  1. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Carly R; Bertz, Fredrik C; Levitsky, David A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation) tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency.

  2. Static Scale Conversion Weigh-In-Motion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshears, D.L.

    2001-05-18

    In support of the Air Mobility Battle Lab (AMBL), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Advanced Logistics Program and the U. S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), the ultimate objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a full-scale prototype static scale conversion weigh-in-motion/Profilometry (SSC-WIM/P) system to measure and record dimensional and weight information for the Department of Defense (DoD) equipment and cargo. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), along with the AMBL, and Intercomp, Inc. have developed a long-range plan for developing a dual-use system which can be used as a standard static scale or an accurate weigh-in-motion system. AMBL will work to define requirements for additional activities with U.S. Transportation Command, Air Mobility Command, and the Joint Warfighting Battle Lab for both the SSC-WIM/P and a portable Weigh-in-Motion System for individual units. The funding goal is to fully fund the development of two prototype test articles (a SSC-WIM kit, and a laser profilometer) and have at least one fully operational system by the early 2002 timeframe. The objective of this portion of the project will be to develop a SSC-WIM system, which at a later date can be fully integrated with a profilometry system; to fully characterize DOD wheeled vehicles and cargo (individual axle weights, total vehicle weight, center of balance, height, width and length measurements). The program will be completed in phases with the initial AMBL/DARPA funding being used to initiate the efforts while AMBL/USTC obtains funding to complete the first generation system effort. At the completion of an initial effort, the interface hardware and the data acquisition/analysis hardware will be developed, fabricated, and system principles and basic functionality evaluated, tested, and demonstrated. Additional funding, when made available, will allow the successful completion of a first generation prototype system. This effort will be

  3. 49 CFR 375.511 - May I use an alternative method for shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... weighing 3,000 pounds or less? 375.511 Section 375.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... alternative method for shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less? For shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less (1,362 kilograms or less), you may weigh the shipment upon a platform or warehouse certified scale...

  4. Road Weigh Stations, Statewide weigh station point layer, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Office of Shared Solutions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Weigh Stations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. It is described as...

  5. Weighing Evidence "Steampunk" Style via the Meta-Analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jack; Jackson, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The funnel plot is a graphical visualization of summary data estimates from a meta-analysis, and is a useful tool for detecting departures from the standard modeling assumptions. Although perhaps not widely appreciated, a simple extension of the funnel plot can help to facilitate an intuitive interpretation of the mathematics underlying a meta-analysis at a more fundamental level, by equating it to determining the center of mass of a physical system. We used this analogy to explain the concepts of weighing evidence and of biased evidence to a young audience at the Cambridge Science Festival, without recourse to precise definitions or statistical formulas and with a little help from Sherlock Holmes! Following on from the science fair, we have developed an interactive web-application (named the Meta-Analyser) to bring these ideas to a wider audience. We envisage that our application will be a useful tool for researchers when interpreting their data. First, to facilitate a simple understanding of fixed and random effects modeling approaches; second, to assess the importance of outliers; and third, to show the impact of adjusting for small study bias. This final aim is realized by introducing a novel graphical interpretation of the well-known method of Egger regression.

  6. The Impact of Regular Self-weighing on Weight Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welsh Ericka M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular self-weighing has been a focus of attention recently in the obesity literature. It has received conflicting endorsement in that some researchers and practitioners recommend it as a key behavioral strategy for weight management, while others caution against its use due to its potential to cause negative psychological consequences associated with weight management failure. The evidence on frequent self-weighing, however, has not yet been synthesized. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence regarding the use of regular self-weighing for both weight loss and weight maintenance. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO online databases. Reviewed studies were broken down by sample characteristics, predictors/conditions, dependent measures, findings, and evidence grade. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, but nearly half received low evidence grades in terms of methodological quality. Findings from 11 of the 12 reviewed studies indicated that more frequent self-weighing was associated with greater weight loss or weight gain prevention. Specifically, individuals who reported self-weighing weekly or daily, typically over a period of several months, held a 1 to 3 kg/m2 (current advantage over individuals who did not self-weigh frequently. The effects of self-weighing in experimental studies, especially those where self-weighing behaviors could be isolated, were less clear. Conclusion Based on the consistency of the evidence reviewed, frequent self-weighing, at the very least, seems to be a good predictor of moderate weight loss, less weight regain, or the avoidance of initial weight gain in adults. More targeted research is needed in this area to determine the causal role of frequent self-weighing in weight loss/weight gain prevention programs. Other open questions to be pursued include the optimal dose of self-weighing, as well as the

  7. 40 CFR 1065.190 - PM-stabilization and weighing environments for gravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environments for gravimetric analysis. 1065.190 Section 1065.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 1065.190 PM-stabilization and weighing environments for gravimetric analysis. (a) This section describes the two environments required to stabilize and weigh PM for gravimetric analysis: the...

  8. MR diffusion-weighed imaging of rabbit liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Hong Yuan; En-Hua Xiao; Zhong He; Jun Xiang; Ke-Li Tang; Rong-Hua Yan; Ke Jin; Zi-Wen Peng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the techniques of MR diffusion-weighed imaging (DWI) for normal rabbit liver.METHODS: After 15 normal New Zealand white rabbits and one New Zealand white rabbit implanted with VX-2 tumor were anesthetized with 3% soluble pentobarbitone,DWI was performed respectively for different b values,repetition times (TR) or thicknesses, when other parameters were the same and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)was performed respectively, or with different field of views (FOV) or coil when other parameters were the same. The distinction between groups was analyzed by SPSS10.0 with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), quality index (QI) or signal-noise ratio (SNR).RESULTS: As b value increased, liver ADC, QI and SNR of DWI became smaller and simultaneously (F= 292.87,156.1, 88.23, P<0.01). QI of DWI was high, when bvalue was 10, 50 or 100 respectively, but the distinction between them was insignificant; when b value was 800, QI and SNR of DWI were low. QI and SNR of DWI had no significant difference between TR = 4 000, 6 000 and 8 000. QI of DWI with 2 mm thickness was bigger than that with 5 mm thickness (t = 3.04, P<0.01), but SNR of DWI with 2 mm thickness was significantly smaller (t = -17.86, P<0.01).SNR of MRI with knee joint coil was obviously bigger than that with cranium coil [t = -5.77 (T1WI) or -4.02 (T2WI),P<0.01], but QI of MRI was smaller on the contrary [t = 7.10 (T1WI) or 3.97 (T2WI), P<0.01]. When FOV was enlarged gradually, SNR of MRI increased [F= 85.81 (T1WI) or 221.96 (T2WI), P<0.01], but QI firstly increased, then decreased [F= 68.67 (T1WI) or 69.46 (T2WI), P<0.01] and QI of MRI was the biggest when FOV was 20 cm×15 cm.CONCLUSION: The scanning technique is very important in DWI of rabbit liver and the overall quality of DWI with b (100 s/mm2), thickness (2 mm), cranium coils and FOV (20 cm× 15 cm) was best in our study, when other parameters were the same.

  9. Retinopathy of prematurity in babies weighing <1800 g; with special reference to babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g: An experience from a tertiary care hospital in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kapoor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease related to low birth weight, prematurity, oxygen administration, and various other factors, which are yet to be identified. Aims: The aim was to find incidence of ROP and risk factors for causation in babies weighing <1800 g; and in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Neonates weighing ≤1800 g taking birth in our institution from January 2011 to January 2012 for a span of 1 year; were included in the study. The data were analyzed to determine risk factors for ROP causation. Information was collected using the standardized performa which included the maternal risk factors as well. Infants were classified by ophthalmologic examination findings using ICROP revisited. Statistics: Qualitative data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test and possible risk factors were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 278 subjects was included in the study. Incidence of ROP in babies ≤1800 g was found to be 13.67% (38/278. Incidence of ROP in babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g was 11.64% (17/146. Twenty-one risk factors were significant on univariate analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and 18 risk factors in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Multiple gestations (P < 0.01, blood transfusion (P < 0.01, antepartum hemorrhage (P < 0.01, pregnancy-induced hypertension (P < 0.01, mechanical ventilation (MV (P < 0.01, and APGAR at 1 min (P < 0.01 were found to be independently significant for ROP causation on logistic regression analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and MV (P < 0.01 and resuscitation (P < 0.01 were significant for babies weighing 1501-1800 g. Conclusion: It should be considered to incorporate screening of babies ≤1800 g uniformly in developing nations. It is recommended that further studies be done taking representative

  10. Density Measurement System for Weights of 1 kg to 20 kg Using Hydrostatic Weighing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jae; Lee, Woo Gab; Abdurahman, Mohammed; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    This paper presents a density measurement system to determine density of weights from 1 kg to 20 kg using hydrostatic weighing. The system works based on Archimedes principle. The density of reference liquid is determined using this setup while determining the density of the test weight. Density sphere is used as standard density ball to determine density of the reference liquid. A new immersion pan is designed for dual purpose to carry the density sphere and the cylindrical test weight for weighing in liquid. Main parts of the setup are an electronic balance, a thermostat controlled liquid bath, reference weights designed for bottom weighing, dual purpose immersion pans and stepping motors to load and unload in weighing process. The results of density measurement will be evaluated as uncertainties for weights of 1 kg to 20 kg.

  11. Probability Model of Hangzhou Bay Bridge Vehicle Loads Using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Dezhang; Wang, Xu; Chen, Bin; Sun, Baitao

    2015-01-01

    ... of weigh-in-motion data from the site. The results showed that when all the vehicle samples were included in the statistical analysis, the histogram of the vehicles exhibited a multimodal distribution, which could not be fitted...

  12. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... the weigher. (b) Poultry. When live poultry is weighed for the purpose of purchase, sale,...

  13. Self-weighing behaviors in young adults: tipping the scale toward unhealthy eating behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E; Hannan, Peter J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-11-01

    This study examined associations between frequency of self-weighing and healthy weight-control behaviors (WCBs), unhealthy WCBs, muscle-enhancing behaviors (e.g., steroid use, protein powders), and psychological well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depression, body satisfaction) in a community sample of young adults. Data were drawn from Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), the third wave of a population-based study. Participants included young adults (n = 2,287, mean age = 25.3 years) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Self-weighing a few times per week or more frequently was reported by 18% of young adult women and 12% of young adult men. Linear regression models, adjusted for body mass index and demographic characteristics, indicated that in both women and men, more frequent self-weighing was associated with a higher prevalence of dieting, both healthy and unhealthy WCBs, and muscle-enhancing behaviors. Additionally, young women who reported more frequent self-weighing were more likely to report binge eating. More frequent self-weighing was also associated with more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in women and lower body satisfaction in young men. More frequent self-weighing is associated with healthy and unhealthy weight-control practices, muscle-enhancing behaviors, and poorer psychological well-being in young adults. Young adults engaging in self-weighing behaviors should be screened for these health indicators and counseled as appropriate. Before recommending self-weighing as a weight-monitoring tool, health care providers should ensure that young adults are not at risk for an unhealthy preoccupation with body weight or shape. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Are breaks in daily self-weighing associated with weight gain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina E Helander

    Full Text Available Regular self-weighing is linked to successful weight loss and maintenance. However, an individual's self-weighing frequency typically varies over time. This study examined temporal associations between time differences of consecutive weight measurements and the corresponding weight changes by analysing longitudinal self-weighing data, including 2,838 weight observations from 40 individuals attending a health-promoting programme. The relationship between temporal weighing frequency and corresponding weight change was studied primarily using a linear mixed effects model. Weight change between consecutive weight measurements was associated with the corresponding time difference (β = 0.021% per day, p<0.001. Weight loss took place during periods of daily self-weighing, whereas breaks longer than one month posed a risk of weight gain. The findings emphasize that missing data in weight management studies with a weight-monitoring component may be associated with non-adherence to the weight loss programme and an early sign of weight gain.

  15. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signal processing method based on the model is presented to overcome effects of rubber mechanical properties on the dynamic weight signal. The results showed that the measurement error is less than ���±10%. All the theoretic analysis and numerical results demonstrated that appliance of this system to weigh in motion is feasible and convenient for traffic inspection.

  16. Potential Utilization of Automatic Cows Weighing for Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Condition of Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight of cows affects a large number of factors. Regular weighing and data processing can detect differences that may indicate disorders requiring nursing interventions, e.g. nutritional deficiencies, incorrect fetal development and health problems. The current weighing systems operate as stationary - the animal is fixed, identified and weighed. However, the procedure is time consuming and operation, and that is way this system is used minimally. That implies the need of complete automation of all activities associated with the weighing, which enables introduction of pass – through weight. The aim of this thesis was to develop a methodology for evaluating health and nutritional status of the herd based on data from an automated system for weighing a live weight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtain weight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already drying off, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes were established after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifested only ketosis in the weight curve with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. Additionally, the completion of growth during the first 2 periodes of lactations and weight gain due to advanced pregnancy were confirmed. The maximum daily weight difference recorded in healthy animals was 7 %, equivalent to 40 - 45 kg. The results of the study will be applied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding, monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  17. Results of a portable fiber-optic weigh-in-motion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, J.D.; Jordan, J.K.; Scudiere, M.B.; Tobin, K.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on a portable, low speed fiber-optic weigh-in motion system are described that demonstrate the applicability of fiber-optic-based sensors in transportation, defense, and law enforcement applications where accurate weight determination of moving vehicles is necessary. Results are given on the systems' dynamic range (0.1--30 metric tons), velocity range (up to 5 km/h), accuracy error (0.5--3.0%), and repeatability. Also included in the paper is a discussion of the sources of error associated with low-speed weigh-in-motion systems and methods of minimizing these errors for practical deployment.

  18. Results of a portable fiber optic weigh-in-motion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Jordan, John K.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.

    1991-12-01

    Experimental results on a portable, low-speed fiber-optic weigh-in-motion system are described that demonstrate the applicability of fiber-optic-based sensors in transportation, defense, and law enforcement applications where accurate weight determination of moving vehicles is necessary. Results are given on the systems' dynamic range (0.1 - 30 metric tons), velocity range (up to 5 km/h), accuracy error (0.5 - 3.0%), and repeatability. Also included in the paper is a discussion of the sources of error associated with low speed weigh-in-motion systems and methods of minimizing these errors for practical deployment.

  19. Results of a portable fiber-optic weigh-in-motion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, J.D.; Jordan, J.K.; Scudiere, M.B.; Tobin, K.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Experimental results on a portable, low speed fiber-optic weigh-in motion system are described that demonstrate the applicability of fiber-optic-based sensors in transportation, defense, and law enforcement applications where accurate weight determination of moving vehicles is necessary. Results are given on the systems` dynamic range (0.1--30 metric tons), velocity range (up to 5 km/h), accuracy error (0.5--3.0%), and repeatability. Also included in the paper is a discussion of the sources of error associated with low-speed weigh-in-motion systems and methods of minimizing these errors for practical deployment.

  20. A bridge-style fiber-optic weigh-in-motion sensor for military vehicle monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wei, Zhanxiong; Chen, Bingquan; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2005-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel design of "bridge style" fiber-optic weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensor using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. Compared with other designs of fiber-optic WIM sensors, the bridge-style design is reliable, sensitive and can bear more loads. With these advantages, the bridge-style WIM sensor is specifically suitable for heavy vehicle dynamic weighing, especially for military vehicles, cargos and equipments. Experiment is conducted and the results show good repeatability and sensitivity under large loads. The minimum achieved resolvable weight is 7.1 kilograms. Finally, WIM sensor on-site installation method is suggested.

  1. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS AC...

  2. Chronic hemodialysis in children weighing less than 10 kg.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) in infants is usually used when peritoneal dialysis (PD) has failed. We describe our experience with HD, outlining the morbidity, complications, and outcomes for infants weighing less than 10 kg managed with HD for more than 6 months over a 10-year period.

  3. Early Development of the Low SES Infant Weighing Less Than 1001 Grams at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finello, Karen M.; And Others

    To evaluate outcomes in infants of very low birth weight born in 1982-83 to families of extremely low socioeconomic status (SES), 33 infants who weighed less than 1001 grams at birth and survived the nursery period were followed for 1 year. The sample was 79 percent Hispanic and 58 percent female. Mean birth weight was 868 grams and mean…

  4. 75 FR 76254 - Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 802 RIN 0580-AB19 Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain Handling Systems AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  5. 7 CFR 800.17 - Special inspection and weighing requirements for sacked export grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sacked export grain. 800.17 Section 800.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE... Requirements § 800.17 Special inspection and weighing requirements for sacked export grain. (a) General...

  6. Analysis of Crown Block Weighing System%天车称重系统解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钰捷

    2012-01-01

    The hardware architecture, working principle, transmission mode, instrument fimction, weighing sensor princi- ple, wire rope supplement and correction, signal transmission,weighing instruments of crown block weighing system are intro- duced using the example of 240t crown block weighing system of steel making and rolling plant of Hebei Tangshan Iron & Steel Co., LTD. Combing with practical operation in production, the common problems in maintenance are summarized and the solutions are given.%以河北钢铁集团唐山钢铁有限责任公司一钢轧厂240t天车称重系统为例,介绍天车称重系统的硬件结构、工作原理、传输方式、仪表功能、称重传感器原理、钢丝绳补偿、信号传输、称重仪表等,结合在生产中的实际运行状况,总结出在生产维护中的常见问题,并提出具体的解决方法。

  7. Hybrid bayesian networks for traffic load models from weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Nápoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge engineering, in infrastructure monitoring and assessment and inspection and reinforcement strategies. In the Netherlands and some other countries, the video-WIM system was implemented for pre-selection, and

  8. 78 FR 2627 - Fees for Official Inspection and Official Weighing Services Under the United States Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... ``Vomitoxin Qualitative'' and ``Vomitoxin Quantitative'' fees with one fee, ``All other Mycotoxins,'' in order... replace the ``Vomitoxin Qualitative'' and ``Vomitoxin Quantitative'' fees with one fee, ``All other... Services, including a comparison of the costs and revenues associated with official inspection and weighing...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Successive mass determinations of each reference PM sample media (e.g., filter) must return the same value... individual test media (e.g., filter) mass readings occurring between the successive reference media (e.g., filter) mass determinations. You may reweigh these media (e.g., filter) in another weighing session. If...

  10. In situ sensors, weighing lysimeters and COSMOS under vegetated and bare conditions with subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long term weighing lysimeter records may have utility for assessment of climate changes occurring during the period of record. They typically enclose a depth of soil that exceeds the root zone of vegetation normally grown on them and have drainagy systems so that more or less natural hydrologic flux...

  11. POS intelligent electronic weighing system%POS智能电子秤量系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳

    2015-01-01

    Articleabstract:This paper introduces the POS intelligent electronic weighing system, which greatly satisfy the needs of customers of all walks of life.%本文介绍了POS智能电子秤量系统,其极大地满足了各行各业客户的需求。

  12. Hybrid bayesian networks for traffic load models from weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Nápoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge engineering, in infrastructure monitoring and assessment and inspection and reinforcement strategies. In the Netherlands and some other countries, the video-WIM system was implemented for pre-selection, and

  13. Self-weighing and weight control behaviors among adolescents with a history of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Mary E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2009-05-01

    To assess the relationships between self-weighing frequency, weight control behaviors, and weight status among male and female adolescents who have a history of being overweight. This study compared weight control behaviors between two groups of adolescents with a history of being overweight (body mass index [BMI] >85th percentile): those who weighed themselves weekly or more (frequent self-weighers) and those who weighed themselves monthly or less (infrequent self-weighers). Participants completed a survey on weight control behaviors, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary activity. Height and weight were also measured. Logistic regression analyses were used for categorical outcomes and linear regressions for continuous outcomes. Of the 130 adolescents, 43% were frequent weighers and 57% were infrequent weighers. In comparison to infrequent self-weighers, frequent self-weighers were more likely to report using behavior change strategies, following a structured diet, and engaging in healthy weight control behaviors, especially decreasing caloric intake, high fat food intake, and "junk food" intake. Also, more frequent self-weighers reported engaging in more strenuous physical activity and spending less time playing videogames than infrequent self-weighers. Although not significant, a trend resulted indicating lower average BMI percentile among frequent self-weighers. No significant differences were found between the two groups in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These results suggest that adolescents with a history of overweight who self-weigh at least weekly are more likely to report using healthy weight control behaviors than adolescents who self-weigh monthly or less frequently. Self-monitoring of weight may be a useful component of a comprehensive weight management plan for some overweight adolescents.

  14. EFFECTS OF WRIST WEIGHING IN REDUCING UPPER LIMB TREMORS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBELLAR LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Priya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: An intentional tremor is one of the most untreated causes in patients with cerebellar ataxia. Upper limb tremors decreases the performance of many activities of daily life Thus treatment of patients with tremor probably implies better functional ability. It is one of the major areas of concern to improve functional independence hence, this study proposed to know the effects of wrist weighing in reducing upper limb tremors in cerebellar injury patients. Materials and Methods: A total number of 21 patients with various abnormalities of cerebellum were selected depending on selection criteria. These patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with wrist weighing by using Velcro weight cuffs for 15 minutes along with conventional physiotherapy for 5 days a week for 2 months & other group is treated with conventional physiotherapy for 5 days in a week for 2 months. The objectives were tested by using tremor rating scale and nine hole peg test. The values are collected before and after the treatment Results: In the group treated with wrist weighing the improvement in the tremor rating scale is very significant (p: 0.0001 and in nine hole peg test is extremely significant (p: 0.0001. In conventional therapy group the improvement in the tremor rating scale is not significant (p: 0.0051 and in nine hole peg test is very significant (p: 0.0002. Conclusion: Incorporation of wrist weighing along with conventional therapy reduced the intensity of upper limb tremors in patients with cerebellar injuries but both the treatments are effective in improving upper limb functions. KEY WORDS: Intentional tremor, Rehabilitation, Wrist weighing

  15. Weighing Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    This article talks about the Academy of the Sierras, a new private school which is billed as the US' first weight-loss school for obese teenagers. Students must be at least 30 pounds overweight for two years to attend this yearlong boarding school, which offers mandatory exercise, behavioral therapy, college-prep classes, and a healthy food…

  16. Weighing waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. Duncan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available People have been shown to delay decision making to wait for missing noninstrumental attribute information --- information that would not have altered their decision if known at the outset --- with this delay originally attributed to uncertainty obscuring one's true preference (Bastardi and Shafir, 1998. To test this account, relative to an alternative that delay arises from low confidence in one's preference (Tykocinski and Ruffle, 2003, we manipulated information certainty and the magnitude of a penalty for delay, the latter intended to reduce the influence of easily resolved sources of delay and to magnify any influence of uncertainty. Contrary to expectations, the results were largely inconsistent with the uncertainty account in that, under a low penalty, delay did not depend on information certainty; and, under a high penalty, delay rate was actually much lower when information was uncertain. To explain the latter, we propose that people use a strategy for resolving choice under uncertainty that does not require establishing a confident preference for each value of the missing information. These findings are related to others in which choice difficulty has been found to be a major source of delay.

  17. Weighing Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William J.; Jimerson, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    The Umbridge School District's hot lunch program was hemorrhaging red ink. Each year, the school district poured more money down the sinkhole. At the same time, parents complained about the quality of the school lunches. The food services director always had excuses and nothing really changed. When no headway was evident, the superintendent said…

  18. Weighing Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William J.; Jimerson, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    The Umbridge School District's hot lunch program was hemorrhaging red ink. Each year, the school district poured more money down the sinkhole. At the same time, parents complained about the quality of the school lunches. The food services director always had excuses and nothing really changed. When no headway was evident, the superintendent said…

  19. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorite, I. J.; Santos, C.; Testi, L.; Fereres, E.

    2012-11-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm “Alameda del Obispo” in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ETc). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of the construction of the weighing lysimeter is provided in detail, including considerations relative to system resolution and wind effects on the measurements. Finally, some preliminary results of the evaporation and transpiration of young almond trees are presented demonstrating that lysimetry in orchards provides accurate ETc values needed to determine irrigation water requirements. (Author) 72 refs.

  20. A novel weighed cooperative bandwidth spectrum sensing for spectrum occupancy of cognitive radio network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 陈琨奇; 闫钧华

    2016-01-01

    In cognitive radio network (CRN), a secondary user (SU) may utilize the spectrum resource of the primary user (PU) and avoid causing harmful interference to the primary network (PN) via spectrum sensing. In the traditional time spectrum sensing, the SU cannot detect the PU’s presence during its transmission, thus increasing interference to the PN. In this work, a novel weighed cooperative bandwidth spectrum sensing method is proposed, which allows multiple SUs to use part of the bandwidth to perform cooperative spectrum sensing throughout the whole frame in order to detect the PU’s reappearance in time. The SU’s spectrum efficiency is maximized by jointly optimizing sensing bandwidth proportion, number of cooperative SUs and detection probability, subject to the constraints on the SU’s interference and the false alarm probability. Simulation results show significant decrease on the interference and improvement on the spectrum efficiency using the proposed weighed cooperative bandwidth spectrum sensing method.

  1. Hospital-based home health: weighing finances and philosophy of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkony, Lisa

    2010-02-01

    As we begin a new decade, hospital-based home health agencies have been waning over the last one, and for a number of reasons. An examination of hospital-based home health since its beginnings in this country yields some answers, but also reveals the importance of many of these home health programs in the communities they serve. There are often more components to consider when weighing the value of these programs than financial statements alone can illuminate.

  2. A Weighing Algorithm for Checking Missing Components in a Pharmaceutical Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvestri

    2014-11-01

    image. The goal of the present work is the development of an algorithm able to optimize the production line of a pharmaceutical firm. In particular, the proposed weighing procedure allows both checking missing components in packaging and minimizing false rejects of packages by dynamic scales. The main problem is the presence at the same time, in the same package, of different components with different variable weights. The consequence is uncertainty in recognizing the absence of one or more components.

  3. The Department of Defense and the Power of Cloud Computing: Weighing Acceptable Cost Versus Acceptable Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    commercial only,” “private only,” and “hybrid” models, the strengths and weakness of each will be shown. Finally, a series of recommendations will...importantly, it should not be done at the individual program level as is the current practice. The migration should take place if it is more cost -effective...Computing Weighing Acceptable Cost versus Acceptable Risk Steven C. Dudash Major, Ohio Air National Guard Wright Flyer Paper No. 52 Air University

  4. System and method for identifying, validating, weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, David L.; Batsell, Stephen G.; Abercrombie, Robert K.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; White, Clifford P.

    2007-12-04

    An asset identification and information infrastructure management (AI3M) device having an automated identification technology system (AIT), a Transportation Coordinators' Automated Information for Movements System II (TC-AIMS II), a weigh-in-motion system (WIM-II), and an Automated Air Load Planning system (AALPS) all in electronic communication for measuring and calculating actual asset characteristics, either statically or in-motion, and further calculating an actual load plan.

  5. Comparison of Two Independently Developed Bridge Weigh-In-Motion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Eugene J.; Znidaric, Ales; Dempsey, Anthony T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment in which 2 independently developed bridge weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems are tested and compared, both for accuracy and durability. The systems, an Irish prototype still under development and a commercially available American system, were tested on a bridge in Slovenia. 11 statically pre-weighted trucks were each driven over the bridge several times at a range of typical highway speeds. Accuracies for axle and gross vehicle weights are presented within the fr...

  6. Healthy Weigh (El camino saludable) phase 1: a retrospective critical examination of program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frable, Pamela Jean; Dart, Lyn; Bradley, Patricia J

    2006-07-01

    Healthy Weigh (El camino saludable) is an obesity prevention program for low-income, predominantly Hispanic and African American families in an urban community in Tarrant County, Texas. Healthy Weigh Phase 1 was a successful community-campus partnership that took place in summer (June-August) and fall (September-November) 2003. The program met stated objectives and extensively engaged students from several health disciplines in service learning. This article describes what we learned about the evaluation of the program by examining the phase 1 evaluation process. Family environments are important intervention settings for establishing life-long dietary practices. Available in English and Spanish, Healthy Weigh Phase 1 helped families that were at risk for overweight and obesity to adopt healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management patterns. Analysis of a program logic model and formative evaluation data identified evaluation questions that could have improved the phase 1 evaluation process. Questions were categorized according to Donabedian's structure-process-outcome framework, and potential benefits of each question were identified. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health standards were used to judge the overall quality of the phase 1 evaluation process. The phase 1 evaluation process successfully assessed the program's effects and generally met evaluation standards. Our critical examination also highlighted structure and process evaluation issues with potential for strengthening future interventions, community partnerships, and program outcomes. Lessons learned influenced the phase 2 grant activities. Most importantly, we learned that involvement of program participants as full partners in program design, evaluation, and implementation is essential. Our understanding and practice of program evaluation evolved as Healthy Weigh became a true community-based participatory research endeavor.

  7. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm "Alameda del Obispo" in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ET c). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of...

  8. Weighing Efficiency-Robustness in Supply Chain Disruption by Multi-Objective Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates various supply chain disruptions in terms of scenario planning, including node disruption and chain disruption; namely, disruptions in distribution centers and disruptions between manufacturing centers and distribution centers. Meanwhile, it also focuses on the simultaneous disruption on one node or a number of nodes, simultaneous disruption in one chain or a number of chains and the corresponding mathematical models and exemplification in relation to numerous manufacturing centers and diverse products. Robustness of the design of the supply chain network is examined by weighing efficiency against robustness during supply chain disruptions. Efficiency is represented by operating cost; robustness is indicated by the expected disruption cost and the weighing issue is calculated by the multi-objective firefly algorithm for consistency in the results. It has been shown that the total cost achieved by the optimal target function is lower than that at the most effective time of supply chains. In other words, the decrease of expected disruption cost by improving robustness in supply chains is greater than the increase of operating cost by reducing efficiency, thus leading to cost advantage. Consequently, by approximating the Pareto Front Chart of weighing between efficiency and robustness, enterprises can choose appropriate efficiency and robustness for their longer-term development.

  9. Weighing in motion and characterization of the railroad traffic with using the B-WIM technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. DE CARVALHO NETO

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge on the active moving load of a bridge is crucial for the achievement of the information on the behavior of the structure, and thus foresee maintenance, repairs and better definition of the logistics of its active vehicles. This paper presents the development of the algorithms for the application of the Bridge-Weigh In Motion (B-WIM method created by Moses for the weighing of trains during motion and also for the characterization of the rail traffic, allowing the obtainment of information like passage's train velocity and number and spacing of axles, eliminating the dynamic effect. There were implemented algorithms for the determination of the data referring to the geometry of the train and its loads, which were evaluated using a theoretical example, in which it was simulated the passage of the train over a bridge and the loads of its axles were determined with one hundred percent of precision. In addition, it was made a numerical example in finite elements of a reinforced concrete viaduct from the Carajás' Railroad, in which the developed system reached great results on the characterization and weighing of the locomotive when the constitutive equation of the Brazilian Standards was substituted by the one proposed by Collins and Mitchell.

  10. Accurate and portable weigh-in-motion system for manifesting air cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodine, Robert N.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Jordan, John K.

    1995-12-01

    An automated and portable weigh-in-motion system has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the purpose of manifesting cargo onto aircraft. The system has an accuracy range of plus or minus 3.0% to plus or minus 6.0% measuring gross vehicle weight and locating the center of balance of moving vehicles at speeds of 1 to 5 mph. This paper reviews the control/user interface system and weight determination algorithm developed to acquire, process, and interpret multiple sensor inputs. The development effort resulted in a self- zeroing, user-friendly system capable of weighing a wide range of vehicles in any random order. The control system is based on the STANDARD (STD) bus and incorporates custom- designed data acquisition and sensor fusion hardware controlled by a personal computer (PC) based single-board computer. The user interface is written in the 'C' language to display number of axles, axle weight, axle spacing, gross weight, and center of balance. The weighing algorithm developed functions with any linear weight sensor and a set of four axle switches per sensor.

  11. Accurate and portable weigh-in-motion system for manifesting air cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodine, R.N.; Scudiere, M.B.; Jordan, J.K.

    1995-12-01

    An automated and portable weigh-in-motion system has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the purpose of manifesting cargo onto aircraft. The system has an accuracv range of {plus_minus} 3.0% to {plus_minus} 6.0% measuring gross vehicle weight and locating the center of balance of moving vehicles at speeds of 1 to 5 mph. This paper reviews the control/user interface system and weight determination algorithm developed to acquire, process, and interpret multiple sensor inputs. The development effort resulted in a self-zeroing, user-friendly system capable of weighing a wide range of vehicles in any random order. The control system is based on the STANDARD (STD) bus and incorporates custom-designed data acquisition and sensor fusion hardware controlled by a personal computer (PC) based single-board computer. The user interface is written in the ``C`` language to display number of axles, axle weight, axle spacing, gross weight, and center of balance. The weighing algorithm developed will function with any linear weight sensor and a set of four axle switches per sensor.

  12. Frequent Self-Weighing and Visual Feedback for Weight Loss in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has suggested that self-weighing may be beneficial for weight control in adults, but few studies have independently assessed the contribution of this behavior to weight loss. This study experimentally tested daily self-weighing and visual feedback (the Caloric Titration Method (CTM as a weight loss and weight loss maintenance intervention over 2 years. 162 overweight individuals were randomized to the CTM intervention or delayed treatment control group. In year 1, weight change was compared between groups, and in year 2, the control group started using the CTM while the intervention group continued using the CTM for maintenance. A significant difference in weight loss over the first year (CTM n = 70; 2.6 ± 5.9 kg versus control n = 65; 0.5 ± 4.4 kg, p = 0.019 was qualified by a group × gender × time interaction (p = 0.002 such that men lost more weight using the CTM. In year 2, the CTM group maintained their weight and the control group lost an amount similar to the intervention group in year 1. Daily self-weighing and visual feedback facilitated a minimal amount of weight loss and maintenance of this loss. Future research investigating characteristics of those who benefit from this type of self-directed intervention is warranted.

  13. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qili; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Cui, Maosheng; Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin

    2015-07-01

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10-15 kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections.

  14. Perceived distance and obesity: It's what you weigh, not what you think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugovic, Mila; Turk, Philip; Witt, Jessica K

    2016-03-01

    Action abilities are constrained by physical body size and characteristics, which, according to the action-specific account of perception, should influence perceived space. We examined whether physical body size or beliefs about body size affect distance perception by taking advantage of naturally-occurring dissociations typical in people who are obese but believe themselves to weigh less. Normal weight, overweight, and obese individuals made verbal distance estimates. We also collected measures of beliefs about body size and measures of physical body size. Individuals who weighed more than others estimated distances to be farther. Furthermore, physical body weight influenced perceived distance but beliefs about body size did not. The results illustrate that whereas perception is influenced by physical characteristics, it is not influenced by beliefs. The results also have implications for perception as a contributing factor for lifestyle choices: people who weigh more than others may choose to perform less physically demanding actions not as a result of how they perceive their bodies, but as a result of how they perceive the environment.

  15. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qili [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Shirinzadeh, Bijan [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Cui, Maosheng [Biotechnology Lab of Animal Reproduction, Tianjin Animal Sciences, Tianjin 300112 (China); Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin, E-mail: zhaoxin@nankai.edu.cn [Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-07-28

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10{sup −15 }kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections.

  16. Investigation of the effects of air temperature and speed on performance of piezoelectric weigh-in-motion systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaziri, Shahram Hashemi; Haas, Carl T; Rothenburg, Leo; Haas, Ralph C; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems differ in terms of sensing technology, sensing element, installation procedure, structural design, and material, which make them respond differently to equivalent loading conditions...

  17. Ground Snow Measurements: Comparisons of the Hotplate, Weighing and Manual Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, A.; Snider, J.; Campbell, L. S.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Burkhart, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) Hotplate was developed to avoid some of the problems associated with weighing snowfall sensors. This work compares Hotplate, weighing sensor (ETI NOAH-II) and manual measurements of liquid-equivalent depth. The main field site was at low altitude in western New York; Hotplate and ETI comparisons were also made at two forested subalpine sites in southeastern Wyoming. The manual measurement (only conducted at the New York site) was derived by weighing snow cores sampled from a snow board. The two recording gauges (Hotplate and ETI) were located within 5 m of the snow board. Hotplate-derived accumulations were corrected using a wind-speed dependent catch efficiency and the ETI orifice was heated and alter shielded. Three important findings are evident from the comparisons: 1) The Yes-derived accumulations, recorded in a user-accessible file, were compared to accumulations derived using an in-house calibration and fundamental measurements (plate power, long and shortwave radiances, wind speed, and temperature). These accumulations are highly correlated (N=24; r2=0.99), but the YES-derived values are larger by 20%. 2) The in-house Hotplate accumulations are in good agreement with ETI-based accumulations but with larger variability (N=24; r2=0.88). 3) The comparison of in-house Hotplate accumulation versus manual accumulation, expressed as mm of liquid, exhibits a fitted linear relationship Y (in-house) versus X (manual) given by Y = -0.2 (±1.4) + 0.9 (±0.1) · X (N= 20; r2=0.89). Thus, these two methods agree within statistical uncertainty.

  18. Real-time weigh-in-motion measurement using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert; Worel, Ben; Chen, Genda

    2014-03-01

    Overloading truck loads have long been one of the key reasons for accelerating road damage, especially in rural regions where the design loads are expected to be small and in the cold regions where the wet-and-dry cycle places a significant role. To control the designed traffic loads and further guide the road design in future, periodical weight stations have been implemented for double check of the truck loads. The weight stations give chances for missing measurement of overloaded vehicles, slow down the traffic, and require additional labors. Infrastructure weight-in-motion sensors, on the other hand, keep consistent traffic flow and monitor all types of vehicles on roads. However, traditional electrical weight-in-motion sensors showed high electromagnetic interference (EMI), high dependence on environmental conditions such as moisture, and relatively short life cycle, which are unreliable for long-term weigh-inmotion measurements. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, with unique advantages of compactness, immune to EMI and moisture, capability of quasi-distributed sensing, and long life cycle, will be a perfect candidate for long-term weigh-in-motion measurements. However, the FBG sensors also surfer from their frangible nature of glass materials for a good survive rate during sensor installation. In this study, the FBG based weight-in-motion sensors were packaged by fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials and further validated at MnROAD facility, Minnesota DOT (MnDOT). The design and layout of the FRP-FBG weight-in-motion sensors, their field test setup, data acquisition, and data analysis will be presented. Upon validation, the FRP-FBG sensors can be applied weigh-in-motion measurement to assistant road managements.

  19. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations.

  20. Average Weight of Seminal Vesicles: An Adjustment Factor for Radical Prostatectomy Specimens Weighed With Seminal Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjionas, George A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Williamson, Sean R; Diaz, Mireya; Menon, Mani; Peabody, James O; Gupta, Nilesh S; Parekh, Dipen J; Cote, Richard J; Jorda, Merce; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2015-12-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology in 2010 recommended weighing prostates without seminal vesicles (SV) to include only prostate weight in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) calculation, because SV do not produce PSA. Large retrospective cohorts exist with combined weight recorded that needs to be modified for retrospective analysis. Weights of prostates and SV were separately recorded in 172 consecutive prostatectomies. The average weight of SV and proportion of prostate weight from combined weight were calculated. The adjustment factors were then validated on databases of 2 other institutions. The average weight of bilateral SV was 6.4 g (range = 1-17.3 g). The prostate constituted on average 87% (range = 66% to 98%) of the total specimen weight. There was no correlation between patient age and prostate weight with SV weight. The best performing correction method was to subtract 6.4 g from total radical prostatectomy weight and to use this weight for PSAD calculation. The average weights of retrospective specimens weighed with SV were not significantly different between the 3 institutions. Using our data allowed calibration of the weights and PSAD between the cohorts weighed with and without SV. Thus, prostate weight in specimens including SV weight can be adjusted by subtracting 6.4 g, resulting in significant change of PSAD. Some institution-specific variations may exist, which could further increase the precision of retrospective analysis involving prostate weight and PSAD. However, unless institution-specific adjustment parameters are developed, we recommend that this correction factor be used for retrospective cohorts or in institutions where combined weight is still recorded.

  1. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  2. Fiber optic weigh-in-motion sensor: correlation between modeling and practical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teral, Stephane R.; Larcher, Simon J.; Caussignac, Jean-Marie; Barbachi, Mohamed

    1996-05-01

    This paper shows the way to turn a defect inherent to single-mode fiber, namely birefringence, into a prime quality for a powerful and reliable sensor. The latter is entirely devoted to weigh- in-motion (WIM) applications extended to complete active traffic management systems. After a brief description of the sensor and its principle of operation, the theoretical model is developed. Then, a full characterization made in both static and dynamic conditions is presented. The results obtained illustrate how it is difficult to interpret a weight measured in dynamic conditions and correlate the value with the static weight.

  3. Performance of a weighing rain gauge under laboratory simulated time-varying reference rainfall rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, M.; Lanza, L. G.; La Barbera, P.

    2013-09-01

    The available calibration experiences about rain intensity gauges relying on the weighing measuring principle are based on laboratory tests performed under constant reference flow rate conditions. Although the Weighing Gauges (WG) do provide better performance than more traditional Tipping Bucket Rain Gauges (TBR) under constant reference flow rates, dynamic effects do impact on the accuracy of WG measurements under real-world/time-varying rainfall conditions. The most relevant biases are due to the response time of the measurement system and the derived systematic delay in assessing the exact weight of the volume of cumulated precipitation collected in the container. This delay assumes a relevant role in case high resolution rainfall intensity (RI) time series are sought from the instrument, as is the case of many hydrologic and meteo-climatic applications (the one-minute time resolution recommended by the WMO for rainfall intensity measurements is here assumed). A significant sampling error is also attributable to some kind of weighing gauge, which affects the low intensity range as well. A laboratory investigation of the accuracy and precision of a modern weighing gauge manufactured by OTT (Pluvio2) under unsteady-state reference RI conditions is here addressed. Three different laboratory test conditions are applied: single and double step variations of the reference flow rate and a simulated real-world event. The preliminary development and validation of a suitable rainfall simulator for the generation of time-variable reference intensities is presented. The generator is demonstrated to have a sufficiently short time response with respect to the expected instrument behavior in order to ensure effective comparison of the measured vs. reference intensities. The measurements obtained from the WG are compared with those derived from a traditional TBR (manufactured by Casella) under the same laboratory conditions. The TBR measurements have been corrected to account

  4. Nuclear DNA in the determination of weighing factors to estimate exergy from organisms biomass

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The application of ecological exergy as a suitable system-oriented development indicator of ecosystems and the estimation proposals from biomass are revised. DNA contents (C-values) of several groups of organisms are figured, either determined by flow cytometry or taken from literature. The applicability of DNA contents for determination of weighing factors to estimate ecological exergy from the biomass of organisms, as proposed by [Marques, J.C., M.Â. Pardal, S.N. Neilsen, S.E. Jørgensen, 19...

  5. Bridge Influence Line Estimation for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    OpenAIRE

    Ieng, Sio Song

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that estimates the influence line (IL) of a bridge using data collected when trucks pass over the sensors installed in the bridge. The algorithm is tested with data collected from the Millau Viaduct in France using a bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM) device. The algorithm uses the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and is compared with an old algorithm. The algorithm is more robust because it takes into account many signals for the estimation of the IL.

  6. 论衡器检定工作中的规范化%On Standardization of Calibration of Weighing Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康峰

    2011-01-01

    This paper dissertates the definition of compulsory testing on calibration of weighing machines according to the national regulation, problems and considerations during the prosess of calibration of weighing machines.%本文论述了根据国家检定规程开展衡器检定工作中衡器强检界定,衡器检定中存在的问题及衡器检定中的注意事项。

  7. 新型智能组合秤称重系统%New lntelligent Weighing System with Combination Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春友; 吴晓强

    2015-01-01

    To against the shortcomings of traditional weighing system based on combination scales, e. g. , low weighing accuracy for inhomogeneous materials, and poor timeliness, the new intelligent weighing system with combination scales is proposed. This weighing system is composed of multi-scales combination, high precision weighing sensors and high resolution A/D converter. In addition, the photoelectric detection unit and the vibrating mechanism are designed;the dynamic weighing accuracy for inhomogeneous granules is enhanced greatly, the measurement speed is improved significantly by adopting digital filtering algorithm. The simulation data and tests indicate that the design effectively adapts the weighing process of inhomogeneous materials, and increases the weighing accuracy and timeliness, to satisfy the demands for practical production.%针对传统组合秤称重系统在称重不均匀物料时存在精度较低、时效性较差的问题,提出了一款新型智能组合秤称重系统。该称重系统采用了多秤头组合、高精度的称重传感器以及高分辨率A/D转换器。设计的光电检测单元和振动机构大大提高了动态不均匀颗粒称重的精度;利用快速数字滤波算法,极大改善了测量速度。仿真数据和试验表明,该称重系统的设计有效地适应了不均匀物料的称重过程,有效地提高了称重的精度和时效性,满足生产实际的需要。

  8. Titanium microgram weight low to 50 mg and measurement based on exchange weighing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoping; Dong, Lei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-03-01

    The microgram weights have wide applications in the mechanical testing of nano- and bio-material sensors. They are increasing the requirement of small force and mass below 1 mg among the researchers, industry and bio-pharmaceutical manufacturing. In this paper, the current research status is presented, both from the measurement method and manufacture of microgram weights. The commonly used material for micro-weights is stainless steel and aluminum. Now NIM has developed another kind of microgram weights with titanium alloy. For the reason that it has smaller size than normal material like aluminum, special designed exchange weighing pan was used in measurement, which solved the problems that the weighing hooks cannot carry up and down the wire shape microgram weight. Then this kind of microgram weights was tested in subdivision measurement on an automatic mass comparator. It showed good performance in the experiment, which extends the choice for the industrial and metrological user. The uncertainty evaluation of micro-weight values range from 0.05 mg to 0.5 mg with standard uncertainty between 0.2 g and 0.1 μg.

  9. Antenatal Weight Management: Women’s Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swift

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy sought to examine women’s self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+ were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n=80 between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n=83 between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n=97 could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2 did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  10. Antenatal Weight Management: Women's Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J A; Pearce, J; Jethwa, P H; Taylor, M A; Avery, A; Ellis, S; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S

    2016-01-01

    The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy) sought to examine women's self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+) were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10-27 weeks, with 41.5% (n = 80) between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n = 83) between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n = 97) could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m(2)) did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2). The majority of women (regardless of BMI) did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  11. Algorithm for a novel fiber-optic weigh-in-motion sensor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, K.W. Jr.; Muhs, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    Over the past decade, the demand from both government and private industry for small, lightweight, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems has grown substantially. During the 1980s several techniques for weighing vehicles in motion were developed that include piezoelectric cables, capacitive mats, and hydraulic and bending-plate load cells. These different systems have advantages and disadvantages that trade off between accuracy, physical size and system complexity. The smaller portable systems demonstrate medium to poor accuracy and repeatability while the larger more accurate systems are nonportable. A small, lightweight, and portable WIM system based on a fiber-optic pressure transducer has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet the demands of government and industry. The algorithm for extracting vehicle weight from the time-dependent sensor response is developed and presented in this report, along with data collected by the system for several classes of vehicles. These results show that the ORNL fiber-optic WIM system is a viable alternative to other commercial systems that are presently available. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  12. A fiber-optic weigh-in-motion sensor using fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wei, Zhanxiong; Chen, Bingquan; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2005-11-01

    In this weigh-in-motion (WIM) research, we introduce a novel design of WIM system based-on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technologies. The novel design comes from the idea using in-service bridge as the weigh scale. While vehicles traveling over the bridge, the weights can be recorded by the strain gauges installed on the bridge abutments. In this system, the bridge beam is replaced by a piece of steel plate which supports the weight of the traveling vehicle. Four steel tubes are attached firmly at the corners of the plate serving as the bridge abutments. All weights will be finally transferred into the tubes where four FBGs are attached and can record the weight-induced strains by shifting their Bragg wavelengths. Compared with other designs of fiber-optic WIM systems, this design is easy and reliable. Especially it's suitable for heavy vehicles because of its large capacity, such as military vehicles, trucks and trailers. Over 40-ton load has been applied on the system and the experimental results show a good repeatability and linearity under such a large load. The system resolution has been achieved as low as 10 kg.

  13. Estimated weight on goats with a commercial weighing tape and thoracic perimeter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Chacón-Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the technical viability of using a weighing tape to measure the pectoral circumference and estimate the body weight of goats. The study took place in the Alfredo Volio Mata Experimental Station in the University of Costa Rica, during the month of February 2015, by measuring the weight with a scale, a calibrated weighing tape and the thoracic diameter of sixty female goats. The data was adjusted through polynomial equations from rst to third degree. The thoracic diameter was used to determine the living weight of the goat population analyzed. Signi cant differences were found (p<0,05 when using the calibrated tape and the scale to determine the weight, with the obtained values of an average of 48,62kg y 39,99kg, respectively. There were differences (p<0,05 in the average of the weight depending on the age with results of 24,40kg in animals less than a year old, 40,39kg for the ages from one to three and 57,25kg for animals older with more than three years of age. The rst degree lineal regression, presented a good adjustment in the thoracic diameter and living weight( r2 = 0,88, with the values of ß0 and ß1 of -50,84 y 1,11, respectively.

  14. The Effect of Flexible Pavement Mechanics on the Accuracy of Axle Load Sensors in Vehicle Weigh-in-Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-07

    Weigh-in-Motion systems are tools to prevent road pavements from the adverse phenomena of vehicle overloading. However, the effectiveness of these systems can be significantly increased by improving weighing accuracy, which is now insufficient for direct enforcement of overloaded vehicles. Field tests show that the accuracy of Weigh-in-Motion axle load sensors installed in the flexible (asphalt) pavements depends on pavement temperature and vehicle speeds. Although this is a known phenomenon, it has not been explained yet. The aim of our study is to fill this gap in the knowledge. The explanation of this phenomena which is presented in the paper is based on pavement/sensors mechanics and the application of the multilayer elastic half-space theory. We show that differences in the distribution of vertical and horizontal stresses in the pavement structure are the cause of vehicle weight measurement errors. These studies are important in terms of Weigh-in-Motion systems for direct enforcement and will help to improve the weighing results accuracy.

  15. Noise in Load Cell Signal in an Automatic Weighing System Based on a Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise in load cell signal in an automatic weighing system based on a belt conveyor has been examined experimentally in time and frequency domains to enhance signal quality. The noise frequency spectrum showed nonlinearly increasing multiple resonance peaks as speed increased. The noise reduction process using noise reduction algorithm, by sharply rejecting peak noise frequency component and afterward forming optimum pulse width ratio through filter slope control using selective switching of 6 LPF stages, was used for enhanced accuracy. The effectiveness of proposed method, controlling both cutoff frequency and slope of LPF, was evaluated by feeding 50 g test mass, and this noise reduction process showed better noise filtering with enhanced accuracy than fixed cutoff frequency control method. The ratio of top to bottom pulse width showed that LPF cutoff frequency above 5 Hz had the ratio above 50% up to 80 m/min speed range.

  16. System and method for weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Scudiere, Matthew B [Oak Ridge, TN; White, Clifford P [Seymour, TN

    2008-05-20

    A weigh-in-motion device and method having at least one transducer pad, each transducer pad having at least one transducer group with transducers positioned essentially perpendicular to the direction of travel. At least one pad microcomputer is provided on each transducer pad having a means for calculating first output signal indicative of weight, second output signal indicative of time, and third output signal indicative of speed. At least one host microcomputer is in electronic communication with each pad microcomputer, and having a means for calculating at least one unknown selected from the group consisting of individual tire weight, individual axle weight, axle spacing, speed profile, longitudinal center of balance, and transverse center of balance.

  17. Improving the efficiency of weigh in motion systems through optimized allocating truck checking oriented procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an effective procedure is proposed to determine the best location(s for installing Weigh in Motion systems (WIM. The main objective is to determine locations for best performance, defined as the maximum number of once-checked trucks' axle loads and minimizing unnecessary actions. The aforesaid method consists of two main stages, including solving shortest path algorithm and selecting the best location for installing WIM(s. A proper mathematical model has also been developed to achieve objective function. The number of once-checked trucks, unnecessary actions and average installing costs are defined as criteria measures. The proposed procedure was applied in a road network using experimental data, while the results were compared with the usual methods of locating enforcement facilities. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed procedure seems to be more efficient than the traditional methods and local experts' points of view.

  18. Study on weigh-in-motion system based on chirped fiber gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-sheng; Guo, Dan; Li, Wei; Li, Yong-guo; Wu, An; Yao, Kai-fang; Jiang, De-sheng

    2007-11-01

    A novel weigh-in-motion (WIM) system used for high way is developed based on Chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBG) in this paper. The WIM system consists of four CFBG pressure sensors, each of which contains a couple of CFBG. The sensor can directly output optical intensity signal, so the postprocessor instrument is simple and cheap instead of expensive wavelength demodulation apparatus. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that output optical intensity of the sensor is linearly proportional to the pressure, and the linearity and the repeated error can respectively reach to 0.9997 and 0.05%FS. We have also exceeded series experiments with several kinds of automobile with different velocity, and received good results of relative error below 5%.

  19. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkon; Lee, Jungwhee; Park, Min-Seok; Jo, Byung-Wan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM) systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  20. High-speed weigh-in motion measurement with Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Soo; Cho, Seong-Kyu; Bae, Byung-Woo

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, a high speed fiber optic sensor weigh-in-motion (WIM) system is proposed. Bragg gratings which have several advantages such as good reproducibility and good multiplicity compare to other optical fiber sensors are used for the system. Fabry-Perot filter for the signal process, which cannot be used in the high speed measurement because of the limitation in fast operation of PZT, is excluded. A new signal processing system which employs bandwidth filter is proposed and bridge type new sensor package design is also proposed. The proposed fiber optic WIM system is tested in the laboratory and experimented with actual trucks. The new concept of calibration coefficient "k" is introduced and calculated by the experiments. The calculated calibration coefficients show good approximations to real axial weights regardless tire widths.

  1. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seok Park

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  2. Weighing a single atom using a coupled plasmon–carbon nanotube system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jin Li and Ka-Di Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an optical weighing technique with a sensitivity down to a single atom, using a surface plasmon and a doubly clamped carbon nanotube resonator. The mass of a single atom is determined via the vibrational frequency shift of the carbon nanotube while the atom attaches to the nanotube surface. Owing to the ultralight mass and high quality factor of the carbon nanotube, and the spectral enhancement by the use of surface plasmon, this method results in a narrow linewidth (kHz and high sensitivity (2.3×10−28 Hzcenterdot g−1, which is five orders of magnitude more sensitive than traditional electrical mass detection techniques.

  3. Weighing stars: the identification of an Evolved Blue Straggler Star in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Mucciarelli, A; Lanzoni, B; Dalessandro, E; Pallanca, C; Massari, D

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are known to host peculiar objects, named Blue Straggler Stars (BSSs), significantly heavier than the normal stellar population. While these stars can be easily identified during their core hydrogen-burning phase, they are photometrically indistinguishable from their low-mass sisters in advanced stages of the subsequent evolution. A clear-cut identification of these objects would require the direct measurement of the stellar mass. We used the detailed comparison between chemical abundances derived from neutral and from ionized spectral lines as a powerful stellar "weighing device" to measure stellar mass and to identify an evolved BSS in 47 Tucanae. In particular, high-resolution spectra of three bright stars located slightly above the level of the "canonical" horizontal branch sequence in the color-magnitude diagram of 47 Tucanae, have been obtained with UVES spectrograph. The measurements of iron and titanium abundances performed separately from neutral and ionized lines reveal that two ta...

  4. Resonance Micro-Weighing of Sub-Picogram Mass with the Use of Adaptive Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashko Roman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass of macroscopic object is easily measured by a suitable balance. However, this approach becomes inapplicable if mass of microscopic object is to be determined. Alternative approach for mass measurement is based on using the micromechanical resonator as an inertial balance where oscillation frequency is shifted by small quantities of adsorbed mass. In this work we present experimental results of applying an adaptive interferometry technique based on dynamic hologram recorded in photorefractive CdTe crystal for measuring picogram mass adsorbed on micromechanical resonators with dimensions 215×40×15 μm3. It is also shown that the resonance micro-weighing system based on adaptive interferometer has potential for reducing the threshold of mass detection down to 10-17 g in the case of using a resonator with sub-micron dimensions

  5. Nosocomial bacterial sepsis in babies weighing 1000-1499 g in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, D; Haque, M E; Zabidi, M H; Kamaruzzaman, A

    1999-03-01

    From January to December 1992, 92 babies weighing 1000-1499 gm here to referred as very low birth weight (VLBW) were admitted to NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Sixty babies were inborn giving a VLBW rate of 7.5 per 1000 live births. Incidence of nosocomial sepsis was 32.6% (30/92) of whom 43.3% (13/30) died. Eighty percent (24/30) of the septic babies had blood culture positive for gram negative organisms of which 40% (12/30) were sensitive only to imipenem. Ventilator support within 24 hours of life was required in 41.3% (38/94) babies of whom 42% (16/38) babies developed nosocomial sepsis. Delayed initiation of feeding was significantly associated with nosocomial sepsis. A strict asepsis policy and early feeding of the VLBW infant are essential components of any strategy to prevent of sepsis due to nosocomial infection.

  6. Dosage Calculation for Intravenous Thrombolysis of Ischemic Stroke: To Weigh or to Estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ragoschke-Schumm

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation is a widely used method of assessing the weight of patients with acute stroke. Because the dosage of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA is weight-dependent, errors in estimation lead to incorrect dosing. Methods: We installed a ground-level scale in the computed tomography (CT suite of our hospital and also integrated a scale into the CT table of our Mobile Stroke Unit in order to prospectively assess the differences between reported, estimated, and measured weights of acute stroke patients. An independent rater asked patients to report their weight. The patients’ weights were also estimated by the treating physician and measured with a scale. Differences between reported, estimated, and measured weights were analyzed statistically. Results: For 100 consecutive patients, weighing was possible without treatment delays. Weights estimated by the physician diverged from measured weights by 10% or more for 27 patients and by 20% or more for 6 patients. Weights reported by the patient diverged from measured weights by 10% or more for 12 patients. Weights reported by the patients differed significantly less from measured weights (mean, 4.1 ± 3.1 kg than did weights estimated by the physician (5.7 ± 4.4 kg; p = 0.003. Conclusion: This first prospective study of weight assessment in acute stroke shows that the use of an easily accessible scale makes it feasible to weigh patients with acute stroke without the treatment delay associated with additional patient transfers. Physicians’ estimates of patients’ weights demonstrated substantial aberrations from measured weights. Avoiding these deviations would improve the accuracy of tPA dosage.

  7. Using weigh-in-motion data to determine bridge dynamic amplification factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic component of bridge traffic loading is commonly taken into account with a Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF – the ratio between the maximum dynamic and static load effects on a bridge. In the design codes, this factor is generally higher than in reality. While this is fine for new bridges that must account for various risks during their life-time, it imposes unnecessary conservativism into assessment of the existing well defined bridges. Therefore, analysis of existing bridges should apply more realistic DAF values. One way of obtaining them experimentally is by bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM measurements, which use an existing instrumented bridge or culvert to weigh all crossing vehicles at highway speeds. The B-WIM system had been equipped with two methods of obtaining an approximation to the static response of the. The first method uses the sum of influence lines. This method relies on accurate axle identification, the failure of which can have a large influence on the DAF value. The other method uses a pre-determined low-pass filter to remove the dynamic component of the measured signal; however an expert is needed to set the filter parameters. A new approach that tries to eliminate these two drawbacks has been developed. In this approach the parameters for the filter are determined automatically by fitting the filtered response to the sum of the influence lines. The measurement of DAF on a typical bridge site agrees with experiments performed in the ARCHES [1] project: dynamic amplification decreases as static loading increases.

  8. Error Reduction in Portable, Low-Speed Weigh-In-Motion (Sub-0.1 Percent Error)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    We present breakthrough findings based on significant modifications to the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) Gen II approach, so-called the modified Gen II. The revisions enable slow speed weight measurements at least as precise as in ground static scales, which are certified to 0.1% error. Concomitant software and hardware revisions reflect a philosophical and practical change that enables an order of magnitude improvement in low-speed weighing precision. This error reduction breakthrough is presented within the context of the complete host of commercial and governmental application rationale including the flexibility to extend information and communication technology for future needs.

  9. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Talk: Henry Cavendish, John Michell, Weighing the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormmach, Russell

    2010-03-01

    This talk is about an interaction between two 18th-century natural philosophers (physical scientists), Henry Cavendish and John Michell, and its most important outcome, the experiment of weighing the world (their name for it) using a torsion balance (our name for it). Michell was the most inventive of the 18th century English natural philosophers, and Cavendish was the first of his countrymen to possess abilities at all comparable with Newton's. By their interests and skills, they were drawn to one another. Both were universal natural philosophers, equally adept at building scientific instruments, performing experiments, constructing theory, and using mathematics; both had a penchant for exacting, quantitative work. Both also had fitful habits of publication, which did not begin to reveal the range of their work, to the mystification of later scientists and historians. Late in life, Cavendish and Michell turned their attention to the force that Newton had examined most completely, a singular triumph of his natural philosophy, the force of universal gravitation. Over the course of the 18th century, abundant evidence of attraction had been gathered from the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets, phenomena which span the intermediate range of masses, sizes, and distances. But in three domains of experience, involving the extreme upper and lower limits of masses and dimensions, the universality of gravitation remained an article of faith. These were the gravity of the ``fixed'' stars, the mutual attraction of terrestrial bodies, and the gravitation of light and other special substances. Michell took on himself the task of deducing observable consequences from each of these prospective instances of universal gravitation. Cavendish encouraged Michell, and he followed up the resulting observational and experimental questions. The experiment of weighing the world was the last experiment Mitchell planned and the last experiment Cavendish published. The capstone of

  10. Is Frequent Self-Weighing Associated with Poorer Body Satisfaction? Findings from a Phone-Based Weight Loss Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Hotop, Anne Marie; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of self-weighing frequency on weight change and body satisfaction. Design: Observational study based on findings from a 6-month randomized controlled telephone-based weight loss trial. Data collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting: Metropolitan community-based sample. Participants: Sixty-three obese adults. Mean…

  11. Large-scale hybrid Bayesian network for traffic load modeling from weigh-in-motion system data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Nápoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic load plays an important role not only in the design of new bridges but also in the reliability assessment of existing structures. Weigh-in-motion systems are used to collect data to determine traffic loads. In this paper, the potential of hybrid nonparametric Bayesian networks (BNs) is

  12. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  13. Is Frequent Self-Weighing Associated with Poorer Body Satisfaction? Findings from a Phone-Based Weight Loss Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Hotop, Anne Marie; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of self-weighing frequency on weight change and body satisfaction. Design: Observational study based on findings from a 6-month randomized controlled telephone-based weight loss trial. Data collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting: Metropolitan community-based sample. Participants: Sixty-three obese adults. Mean…

  14. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  15. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Configuration and Data Management Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involvement in the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) research with both government agencies and private companies dates back to 1989. The discussion here will focus on the US Army's current need for an automated WIM system to weigh and determine the center-of-balance for military wheeled vehicles and cargo and the expanded uses of WIM data. ORNL is addressing configuration and data management issues as they relate to deployments for both military and humanitarian activities. The transition from the previous WIM Gen I to the current Gen II system illustrates a configuration and data management solution that ensures data integration, integrity, coherence and cost effectiveness. Currently, Army units use portable and fixed scales, tape measures, and calculators to determine vehicle axle, total weights and center of balance for vehicles prior to being transshipped via railcar, ship, or airlifted. Manually weighing and measuring all vehicles subject to these transshipment operations is time-consuming, labor-intensive, hazardous and is prone to human errors (e.g., misreading scales and tape measures, calculating centers of balance and wheel, axle, and vehicle weights, recording data, and transferring data from manually prepared work sheets into an electronic data base and aggravated by adverse weather conditions). Additionally, in the context of the military, the timeliness, safety, success, and effectiveness of airborne heavy-drop operations can be significantly improved by the use of an automated system to weigh and determine center of balance of vehicles while they are in motion. The lack of a standardized airlift-weighing system for joint service use also creates redundant weighing requirements at the cost of scarce resources and time. This case study can be judiciously expanded into commercial operations related to safety and enforcement. The WIM program will provide a means for the Army to automatically identify/weigh and monitor

  16. Use of Finite Elements Analysis for a Weigh-in-Motion Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Goanta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles. WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between –40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness, the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA, the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  17. Probability Model of Hangzhou Bay Bridge Vehicle Loads Using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the vehicle load characteristics of bay bridges in China, especially truck loads, we performed a statistical analysis of the vehicle loads on Hangzhou Bay Bridge using more than 3 months of weigh-in-motion data from the site. The results showed that when all the vehicle samples were included in the statistical analysis, the histogram of the vehicles exhibited a multimodal distribution, which could not be fitted successfully by a familiar single probability distribution model. When the truck samples were analyzed, a characteristic multiple-peaked distribution with a main peak was obtained. The probability distribution of all vehicles was fitted using a weighting function with five normal distributions and the truck loads were modeled by a single normal distribution. The results demonstrated the good fits with the histogram. The histograms of different time periods were also analyzed. The results showed that the traffic mainly comprised two-axle small vehicles during the rush hours in the morning and the evening, and the histogram could be fitted approximately using three normal distribution functions. And the maximum value distributions of vehicles during the design life of the bay bridge were predicted by maximum value theory.

  18. Use of finite elements analysis for a weigh-in-motion sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Rigobert; Goanta, Viorel; Carlescu, Petru; Barsanescu, Paul-Doru; Taranu, Nicolae; Banu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles). WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between -40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness), the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  19. Effectiveness of Vehicle Weight Estimation from Bridge Weigh-in-Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerachai Deesomsuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of vehicle weight estimations from bridge weigh-in-motion system is studied. The measured bending moments of the instrumented bridge under a passage of vehicle are numerically simulated and are used as the input for the vehicle weight estimations. Two weight estimation methods assuming constant magnitudes and time-varying magnitudes of vehicle axle loads are investigated. The appropriate number of bridge elements and sampling frequency are considered. The effectiveness in term of the estimation accuracy is evaluated and compared under various parameters of vehicle-bridge system. The effects of vehicle speed, vehicle configuration, vehicle weight and bridge surface roughness on the accuracy of the estimated vehicle weights are intensively investigated. Based on the obtained results, vehicle speed, surface roughness level and measurement error seem to have stronger effects on the weight estimation accuracy than other parameters. In general, both methods can provide quite accurate weight estimation of the vehicle. Comparing between them, although the weight estimation method assuming constant magnitudes of axle loads is faster, the method assuming time-varying magnitudes of axle loads can provide axle load histories and exhibits more accurate weight estimations of the vehicle for almost of the considered cases.

  20. Probability Based Evaluation of Vehicular Bridge Load using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Nugraha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Load and Resistance Factored Design (LRFD method for designing bridge in Indonesia have been implemented for more than 25 years. LRFD method treating loads and strengths variables as random variables with specific safety factors for different loads and strengths variables type. The nominal loads, load factors, reduction factors, and other criteria for bridge design code can be determined to meet the reliability criteria. Statistical data of weigh-in-motion (WIM vehicular loads measurement in Northern Java highway, Cikampek - Pamanukan, West Java (2011, used in as statistical loads variable. A 25 m simple span bridge with reinforced concrete T-girder is used as a model for structural analysis due to WIM measured and nominal vehicular load based on RSNI T-02-2005, with applied bending moment of girder as the output. The distribution fitting result of applied bending moment due to WIM measured vehicular loads is lognormal. The maximum bending moment due to RSNI T-02-2005 nominal vehicular load is 842.45 kN-m and has probability of exceedance of 5x10-5. It can be concluded, for this study, that the bridge designed using RSNI T-02-2005 is safely designed, since it has reliability index, β of 5.02, higher than target reliability, β ranging from 3.50 or 3.72.

  1. FTO Biology and Obesity: Why do a billion of us weigh 3 kg more?

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    Man-Ka Marcella Cheung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Few would dispute that the current obesity epidemic has been driven by lifestyle and environmental changes. However, it is clear that individuals respond differently to these ‘obesigenic’ changes and this variation in response has a strong genetic element. Genome-wide association studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Fat mass and obesity associated transcript (FTO are robustly associated with body mass index and obesity. Although the effect of these risk alleles are modest, with heterozygous and homozygous carriers weighing approximately 1.5kg and 3kg more respectively, there are an estimated one billion homozygous carriers in the world, spanning multiple different ethnicities and populations. Yet despite its broad impact, the biological function of FTO, particularly its role in controlling energy balance, remains unknown. Although the study of severe mendelian obesity has been invaluable in illuminating critical pathways controlling food intake, the major burden of disease is carried by those of us with ‘common obesity’, which to date has resisted yielding meaningful biological insights. FTO has at last given us a handle on a huge, worldwide, common problem. In this review, we focus on the available genetic and in vivo evidence to date that implicates FTO in the control of energy balance.

  2. Weighing Evidence “Steampunk” Style via the Meta-Analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jack; Jackson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The funnel plot is a graphical visualization of summary data estimates from a meta-analysis, and is a useful tool for detecting departures from the standard modeling assumptions. Although perhaps not widely appreciated, a simple extension of the funnel plot can help to facilitate an intuitive interpretation of the mathematics underlying a meta-analysis at a more fundamental level, by equating it to determining the center of mass of a physical system. We used this analogy to explain the concepts of weighing evidence and of biased evidence to a young audience at the Cambridge Science Festival, without recourse to precise definitions or statistical formulas and with a little help from Sherlock Holmes! Following on from the science fair, we have developed an interactive web-application (named the Meta-Analyser) to bring these ideas to a wider audience. We envisage that our application will be a useful tool for researchers when interpreting their data. First, to facilitate a simple understanding of fixed and random effects modeling approaches; second, to assess the importance of outliers; and third, to show the impact of adjusting for small study bias. This final aim is realized by introducing a novel graphical interpretation of the well-known method of Egger regression. PMID:28003684

  3. Effect acute of resitive training with weight on hidrostatic weigh, body density and percentage of fat

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    João Luiz Zinn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify if a session of Resistive training with Weights (TRP seeking Local Muscular Resistance (RML or Increase in Muscle Volume (AVM would cause significant alterations in Hydrostatic Weight (PH, Body Density (DC and Percentage of Body Fat (%G. Nine men between the ages of 17 and 26 years participated in the study, all with a basic level of TRP and who were adapted to water. The study was carried out during three days. On the first day, the subjects performed the 1RM test for the 10 exercises included into the training. Two days later, hydrostatic weighing (pre-trainingwas measured, immediately followed by a TRP session for AVM and by another hydrostatic weighing (post-training measurement. Two days later, the same process was applied to, however this time with a TRP session for RML. The statistical analyses by Student’s-t test showed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05 between pre and post-training results for PH, DC and %G variables. The 2x2 ANOVA interaction for type of training (AVM and RML and the moment of weighing (pre and post-training was not significant, while the results of PH, DC and %G did not depend on the type of training (AVM or RML. Pearson’s linear correlation between the values of the pre and post-training was significant (r≥0.94. It can be concluded that the TRP does not have an effect on the results of PH, DC and %G, regardless of type of training performed, therefore, hydrostatic weighing can be measured either before or after the TRP, without interfering on the results. RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar se uma sessão de Treinamento Resistido com Pesos (TRP visando Resistência Muscular Localizada (RML ou objetivando Aumento de Volume Muscular (AVM causariam alterações significativas no Peso Hidrost��tico (PH, Densidade Corporal (DC e Percentual de Gordura (%G. Participaram da amostra nove homens com idade entre 17 e 26 anos que possuíam um n

  4. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-11-03

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  5. Evaporation from weighing precipitation gauges: impacts on automated gauge measurements and quality assurance methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Leeper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of evaporation on precipitation measurements have been understood to bias total precipitation lower. For automated weighing-bucket gauges, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO suggests the use of evaporative suppressants with frequent observations. However, the use of evaporation suppressants is not always feasible due to environmental hazards and the added cost of maintenance, transport, and disposal of the gauge additive. In addition, research has suggested that evaporation prior to precipitation may affect precipitation measurements from auto-recording gauges operating at sub-hourly frequencies. For further evaluation, a field campaign was conducted to monitor evaporation and its impacts on the quality of precipitation measurements from gauges used at US Climate Reference Network (USCRN stations. Collocated Geonor gauges with (nonEvap and without (evap an evaporative suppressant were compared to evaluate evaporative losses and evaporation biases on precipitation measurements. From June to August, evaporative losses from the evap gauge exceeded accumulated precipitation, with an average loss of 0.12 mm h−1. However, the impact of evaporation on precipitation measurements was sensitive to calculation methods. In general, methods that utilized a longer time series to smooth out sensor noise were more sensitive to gauge (−4.6% bias with respect to control evaporation than methods computing depth change without smoothing (< +1% bias. These results indicate that while climate and gauge design affect gauge evaporation rates computational methods can influence the magnitude of evaporation bias on precipitation measurements. It is hoped this study will advance QA techniques that mitigate the impact of evaporation biases on precipitation measurements from other automated networks.

  6. Prospective strategies to delay the evolution of anti-malarial drug resistance: weighing the uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie F Ellis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of drug resistance in malaria parasites highlights a need to identify and evaluate strategies that could extend the useful therapeutic life of anti-malarial drugs. Such strategies are deployed to best effect before resistance has emerged, under conditions of great uncertainty. Methods Here, the emergence and spread of resistance was modelled using a hybrid framework to evaluate prospective strategies, estimate the time to drug failure, and weigh uncertainty. The waiting time to appearance was estimated as the product of low mutation rates, drug pressure, and parasite population sizes during treatment. Stochastic persistence and the waiting time to establishment were simulated as an evolving branching process. The subsequent spread of resistance was simulated in simple epidemiological models. Results Using this framework, the waiting time to the failure of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT for malaria was estimated, and a policy of multiple first-line therapies (MFTs was evaluated. The models quantify the effects of reducing drug pressure in delaying appearance, reducing the chances of establishment, and slowing spread. By using two first-line therapies in a population, it is possible to reduce drug pressure while still treating the full complement of cases. Conclusions At a global scale, because of uncertainty about the time to the emergence of ACT resistance, there was a strong case for MFTs to guard against early failure. Our study recommends developing operationally feasible strategies for implementing MFTs, such as distributing different ACTs at the clinic and for home-based care, or formulating different ACTs for children and adults.

  7. A rheology model of soft elastomeric capacitor for Weigh-In-Motion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Venkata Dharmateja

    As a result of fast growing industry, there is an increase in traffic congestion and deterioration of transportation inventory. Real-time traffic characterisation could be used to amoliorate the efficiency of our transportation system. Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) systems offer the advantages of vehicle classification, speed measurement, in addition to weight measurement while vehicles are moving. In this thesis, state-of-the-art WIM systems are discussed and limitations of current technologies are identified. A Soft Elastomeric Capacitor (SEC) that works as a large scale surface strain gauge is introduced to address the limitations in existing techniques and investigated for its applicability as a WIM sensor. Though the novel SEC has potential advantages, the relationship axial strain-to-stress needs to be modeled to enable its utilization as a WIM sensor. A Zener model is selected and modified by the addition of a slider to characterize the polymer behavior. An overstress approach is used to study the resultant stress-strain response owing to its simplicity and computational benefits. Since the overstress approach is data-driven, an experimental testing scheme is used to identify the model parameters. The tests comprise three types of applied strain loading: multi step relaxation, simple relaxation and cyclic compression. Specimens with varying stiffness are employed for these tests. Numerical simulations for the cyclic compression loading are presented to assess the model performance. The model is found to be capable of reproducing the experimental data with an absolute maximum error value of 0.085 MPa for slow loading rate tests and 0.175 MPa for high loading rate tests. Comparative studies are completed to investigate the impact of patch stiffness on the mechanical behavior of the soft elastomeric capacitor patches. It is observed that as stiffness decreases, the nonlinearity in stress-strain response increases

  8. A continuously weighing, high frequency sand trap: Wind tunnel and field evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, XingHua; Huo, Wen; Ali, Mamtimin; Zheng, XinQian; Zhou, ChengLong; He, Qing

    2017-09-01

    A new continuously weighing, high frequency sand trap (CWHF) has been designed. Its sampling efficiency is evaluated in a wind tunnel and the potential of the new trap has been demonstrated in field trials. The newly designed sand trap allows fully automated and high frequency measurement of sediment fluxes over extensive periods. We show that it can capture the variations and structures of wind-driven sand transport processes and horizontal sediment flux, and reveal the relationships between sand transport and meteorological parameters. Its maximum sampling frequency can reach 10 Hz. Wind tunnel tests indicated that the sampling efficiency of the CWHF sand trap varies between 39.2 to 64.3%, with an average of 52.5%. It achieved a maximum sampling efficiency of 64.3% at a wind speed of 10 m s- 1. This is largely achieved by the inclusion of a vent hole which leads to a higher sampling efficiency than that of a step-like sand trap at high wind speeds. In field experiments, we show a good agreement between the mass of sediment from the CWHF sand trap, the wind speed at 2 m and the number of saltating particles at 5 cm above the ground surface. According to analysis of the horizontal sediment flux at four heights from the CWHF sand trap (25, 35, 50, and 100 cm), the vertical distribution of the horizontal sediment flux up to a height of 100 cm above the sand surface follows an exponential function. Our field experiments show that the new instrument can capture more detailed information on sediment transport with much reduced labor requirement. Therefore, it has great potential for application in wind-blown sand monitoring and process studies.

  9. Variably-saturated flow in large weighing lysimeters under dry conditions: inverse and predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iden, Sascha; Reineke, Daniela; Koonce, Jeremy; Berli, Markus; Durner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    A reliable quantification of the soil water balance in semi-arid regions requires an accurate determination of bare soil evaporation. Modeling of soil water movement in relatively dry soils and the quantitative prediction of evaporation rates and groundwater recharge pose considerable challenges in these regions. Actual evaporation from dry soil cannot be predicted without detailed knowledge of the complex interplay between liquid, vapor and heat flow and soil hydraulic properties exert a strong influence on evaporation rates during stage-two evaporation. We have analyzed data from the SEPHAS lysimeter facility in Boulder City (NV) which was installed to investigate the near-surface processes of water and energy exchange in desert environments. The scientific instrumentation consists of 152 sensors per Lysimeter which measured soil temperature, soil water content, and soil water potential. Data from three weighing lysimeters (3 m long, surface area 4 m2) were used to identifiy effective soil hydraulic properties of the disturbed soil monoliths by inverse modeling with the Richards equation assuming isothermal flow conditions. Results indicate that the observed soil water content in 8 different soil depths can be well matched for all three lysimeters and that the effective soil hydraulic properties of the three lysimeters agree well. These results could only be obtained with a flexible model of the soil hydraulic properties which guaranteed physical plausibility of water retention towards complete dryness and accounted for capillary, film and isothermal vapor flow. Conversely, flow models using traditional parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties were not able to match the observed evaporation fluxes and water contents. After identifying the system properties by inverse modeling, we checked the possibility to forecast evaporation rates by running a fully coupled water, heat and vapor flow model which solved the energy balance of the soil surface. In these

  10. Flexible spatial perspective-taking: Conversational partners weigh multiple cues in collaborative tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia eGalati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on spatial perspective-taking often focuses on the cognitive processes of isolated individuals as they adopt or maintain imagined perspectives. Collaborative studies of spatial perspective-taking typically examine speakers’ linguistic choices, while overlooking their underlying processes and representations. We review evidence from two collaborative experiments that examine the contribution of social and representational cues to spatial perspective choices in both language and the organization of spatial memory. Across experiments, speakers organized their memory representations according to the convergence of various cues. When layouts were randomly configured and did not afford intrinsic cues, speakers encoded their partner’s viewpoint in memory, if available, but did not use it as an organizing direction. On the other hand, when the layout afforded an intrinsic structure, speakers organized their spatial memories according to the person-centered perspective reinforced by the layout’s structure. Similarly, in descriptions, speakers considered multiple cues whether available a priori or at the interaction. They used partner-centered expressions more frequently (e.g., to your right when the partner’s viewpoint was misaligned by a small offset or coincided with the layout’s structure. Conversely, they used egocentric expressions more frequently when their own viewpoint coincided with the intrinsic structure or when the partner was misaligned by a computationally difficult, oblique offset. Based on these findings we advocate for a framework for flexible perspective-taking: people weigh multiple cues (including social ones to make attributions about the relative difficulty of perspective-taking for each partner, and adapt behavior to minimize their collective effort. This framework is not specialized for spatial reasoning but instead emerges from the same principles and memory-depended processes that govern perspective-taking in

  11. Non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle identification in bridge-weigh-in-motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhori, Hamed; Makki Alamdari, Mehrisadat; Zhu, Xinqun; Samali, Bijan; Mustapha, Samir

    2017-02-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) is an approach through which the axle and gross weight of trucks travelling at normal highway speed are identified using the response of an instrumented bridge. The vehicle speed, the number of axles, and the axle spacing are crucial parameters, and are required to be determined in the majority of BWIM algorithms. Nothing-on-the-road (NOR) strategy suggests using the strain signals measured at some particular positions underneath the deck or girders of a bridge to obtain this information. The objective of this research is to present a concise overview of the challenges of the current non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle determination through bending-strain and shear-strain based approaches. The problem associated with the global bending-strain responses measured at quarter points of span is discussed and a new sensor arrangement is proposed as an alternative. As for measurement of local responses rather than the global responses, the advantage of shear strains over bending strains is presented. However, it is illustrated that shear strains at quarter points of span can only provide accurate speed estimation but fail to detect the correct number of axles. As a remedy, it is demonstrated that, even for closely-spaced axles, the shear strain at the beginning of the bridge is capable of reliably identifying the number of axles. In order to provide a fully automated speed and axle identification system, appropriate signal processing including low-pass filtering and wavelet transforms are applied to the raw time signals. As case studies, the results of experimental testing in laboratory and on a real bridge are presented.

  12. A modified method for COD determination of solid waste, using a commercial COD kit and an adapted disposable weighing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, L; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2017-03-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an essential parameter in waste management, particularly when monitoring wet anaerobic digestion processes. An adapted method to determine COD was developed for solid waste (total solids >15%). This method used commercial COD tubes and did not require sample dilution. A homemade plastic weighing support was used to transfer the solid sample into COD tubes. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and glucose used as standards showed an excellent repeatability. A small underestimation of the theoretical COD value (standard values around 5% lower than theoretical values) was also observed, mainly due to the intrinsic COD of the weighing support and to measurement uncertainties. The adapted COD method was tested using various solid wastes in the range of 1-8 mgCOD, determining the COD of dried and ground cellulose, cattle manure, straw and a mixed-substrate sample. This new adapted method could be used to monitor and design dry anaerobic digestion processes.

  13. Method and appartus for converting static in-ground vehicle scales into weigh-in-motion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN); Scudiere, Matthew B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for converting in-ground static weighing scales for vehicles to weigh-in-motion systems. The apparatus upon conversion includes the existing in-ground static scale, peripheral switches and an electronic module for automatic computation of the weight. By monitoring the velocity, tire position, axle spacing, and real time output from existing static scales as a vehicle drives over the scales, the system determines when an axle of a vehicle is on the scale at a given time, monitors the combined weight output from any given axle combination on the scale(s) at any given time, and from these measurements automatically computes the weight of each individual axle and gross vehicle weight by an integration, integration approximation, and/or signal averaging technique.

  14. High speed, high-resolution fiber Bragg grating sensing system for monitoring of weigh-in-motion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, D.; Olivero, M.; Perrone, G.; Vallan, A.

    2011-05-01

    We present a fast high-resolution fiber Bragg grating sensing system for weigh-in-motion (WIM) application. The proposed system makes use of standard telecom photonics components operating at high speed and with insufficient resolution; then, using signal processing we artificially improve the accuracy of the system down to 1 μɛ. This way, the proposed architecture overcomes the state of the art of optical systems for WIM, which cannot cope with both high resolution and high frequency requirements. The developed system has been applied to a prototype weigh-in-motion device, which consists of a road speed bump. Structural deformations of the bump when perturbed by a thin-footmark load are well reproduced. Using multiple Bragg grating sensors, it is possible to unambiguously determine position and weight of a moving load on the bump with accuracy of 0.2 - 1.2 kg.

  15. Researches regarding a pressure pulse generator as a segment of model for a weighing in motion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, I.; Tiţa, I.; Pelin, R. I.

    2016-08-01

    There are many types of weighing in motion systems: with strain gauges, piezoelectric type, with optical fibre, capacitive etc. Although one of them proved to be reliable, many research teams all over the world are interested in finding new types or improving the existing ones. In this paper is presented a hydraulic Weigh-In-Motion sensor composed of a metal vessel filled with hydraulic oil connected to an accumulator through a pipe. Vehicle tires press on the deformable upper wall and pressure pulses generated in this way provides information about the load. In this paper are presented: a structure for an experimental model, the block diagram for numerical simulation, experimental model and some experimental results.

  16. Water table effects on measured and simulated fluxes in weighing lysimeters for differently-textured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegehenkel Martin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Weighing lysimeters can be used for studying the soil water balance and to analyse evapotranspiration (ET. However, not clear was the impact of the bottom boundary condition on lysimeter results and soil water movement. The objective was to analyse bottom boundary effects on the soil water balance. This analysis was carried out for lysimeters filled with fine- and coarse-textured soil monoliths by comparing simulated and measured data for lysimeters with a higher and a lower water table. The eight weighable lysimeters had a 1 m2 grass-covered surface and a depth of 1.5 m. The lysimeters contained four intact monoliths extracted from a sandy soil and four from a soil with a silty-clay texture. For two lysimeters of each soil, constant water tables were imposed at 135 cm and 210 cm depths. Evapotranspiration, change in soil water storage, and groundwater recharge were simulated for a 3-year period (1996 to 1998 using the Hydrus-1D software. Input data consisted of measured weather data and crop model-based simulated evaporation and transpiration. Snow cover and heat transport were simulated based on measured soil temperatures. Soil hydraulic parameter sets were estimated (i from soil core data and (ii based on texture data using ROSETTA pedotransfer approach. Simulated and measured outflow rates from the sandy soil matched for both parameter sets. For the sand lysimeters with the higher water table, only fast peak flow events observed on May 4, 1996 were not simulated adequately mainly because of differences between simulated and measured soil water storage caused by ET-induced soil water storage depletion. For the silty-clay soil, the simulations using the soil hydraulic parameters from retention data (i were matching the lysimeter data except for the observed peak flows on May, 4, 1996, which here probably resulted from preferential flow. The higher water table at the lysimeter bottom resulted in higher drainage in comparison with the lysimeters

  17. Estimating sap flux densities in date palm trees using the heat dissipation method and weighing lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Or; Shapira, Or; Cohen, Shabtai; Tripler, Effi; Schwartz, Amnon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2012-09-01

    In a world of diminishing water reservoirs and a rising demand for food, the practice and development of water stress indicators and sensors are in rapid progress. The heat dissipation method, originally established by Granier, is herein applied and modified to enable sap flow measurements in date palm trees in the southern Arava desert of Israel. A long and tough sensor was constructed to withstand insertion into the date palm's hard exterior stem. This stem is wide and fibrous, surrounded by an even tougher external non-conducting layer of dead leaf bases. Furthermore, being a monocot species, water flow does not necessarily occur through the outer part of the palm's stem, as in most trees. Therefore, it is highly important to investigate the variations of the sap flux densities and determine the preferable location for sap flow sensing within the stem. Once installed into fully grown date palm trees stationed on weighing lysimeters, sap flow as measured by the modified sensors was compared with the actual transpiration. Sap flow was found to be well correlated with transpiration, especially when using a recent calibration equation rather than the original Granier equation. Furthermore, inducing the axial variability of the sap flux densities was found to be highly important for accurate assessments of transpiration by sap flow measurements. The sensors indicated no transpiration at night, a high increase of transpiration from 06:00 to 09:00, maximum transpiration at 12:00, followed by a moderate reduction until 08:00; when transpiration ceased. These results were reinforced by the lysimeters' output. Reduced sap flux densities were detected at the stem's mantle when compared with its center. These results were reinforced by mechanistic measurements of the stem's specific hydraulic conductivity. Variance on the vertical axis was also observed, indicating an accelerated flow towards the upper parts of the tree and raising a hypothesis concerning dehydrating

  18. Weighing costs and losses: A decision making game using probabilistic forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Micha; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Wetterhall, Frederik; Cranston, Michael; van Andel, Schalk-Jan; Pappenberger, Florian; Verkade, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Probabilistic forecasts are increasingly recognised as an effective and reliable tool to communicate uncertainties. The economic value of probabilistic forecasts has been demonstrated by several authors, showing the benefit to using probabilistic forecasts over deterministic forecasts in several sectors, including flood and drought warning, hydropower, and agriculture. Probabilistic forecasting is also central to the emerging concept of risk-based decision making, and underlies emerging paradigms such as impact-based forecasting. Although the economic value of probabilistic forecasts is easily demonstrated in academic works, its evaluation in practice is more complex. The practical use of probabilistic forecasts requires decision makers to weigh the cost of an appropriate response to a probabilistic warning against the projected loss that would occur if the event forecast becomes reality. In this paper, we present the results of a simple game that aims to explore how decision makers are influenced by the costs required for taking a response and the potential losses they face in case the forecast flood event occurs. Participants play the role of one of three possible different shop owners. Each type of shop has losses of quite different magnitude, should a flood event occur. The shop owners are presented with several forecasts, each with a probability of a flood event occurring, which would inundate their shop and lead to those losses. In response, they have to decide if they want to do nothing, raise temporary defences, or relocate their inventory. Each action comes at a cost; and the different shop owners therefore have quite different cost/loss ratios. The game was played on four occasions. Players were attendees of the ensemble hydro-meteorological forecasting session of the 2016 EGU Assembly, professionals participating at two other conferences related to hydrometeorology, and a group of students. All audiences were familiar with the principles of forecasting

  19. Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, and hypertension in children weighing more than normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Phatale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension (pre-HT, and hypertension (HT in children weighing more than normal. Materials and Methods: Three- to eighteen-year old children weighing more than normal were included. Pathological short children were excluded. According to Centre for Disease Control (CDC, children are grouped into overweight (OW and obese (OB. Indian B.P. reference tables are used for defining HT and pre-HT. [2] HbA1c by HPLC (BIO RAD method was used to define pre-diabetes and diabetes. [3] Children with HbA1c ≥6.5 were subjected for Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT. C-peptide assay was done to rule out (r/o IDDM. Observations: When we compare this with our earlier presentation at PEDICON 2011, we found that hypertension (HTN (22.9% vs. 23.07% is not significantly different but pre-HTN (28.09% vs. 33.9%, pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM (3.7% vs. 64.3%, and diabetes mellitus (DM (0.35% vs. 3.8% are significantly high in this study. Conclusion: (1 Prevalence of HT (22.90% vs. 23.07% is similar in both groups but pre-HT (33.9% vs. 28.09% is high in this study. (2 Significant rise in prevalence of diabetes (3.84% vs. 0.35% and pre-diabetes (64.33% vs. 3.7% is seen in this study. (3 This change is because of using HbA1c as screening tool in children weighing more than normal.

  20. Body composition of anorexia nervosa patients assessed by underwater weighing and skinfold-thickness measurements before and after weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, M; Goris, M; Vandereycken, W; Van Coppenolle, H

    2001-02-01

    Weight restoration is a crucial element in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. Therefore, the validity of different methods for measuring body composition is important. We tested the concurrent validity of hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing) and anthropometry (12 skinfold thicknesses) and assessed body composition and subcutaneous fat before and after a refeeding program and a multifaceted program of therapy in a specialized inpatient unit for eating disorders. The body composition of a large sample of anorexia nervosa patients (97 restricting type, 33 binging-purging type) was studied by using 2 methods both before and after weight gain. We applied a behavioral contract for weight restoration with a minimum weekly gain of 700 g and a maximum of 3 kg. Bland-Altman analysis of agreement, Pearson correlation analysis, t tests, and analysis of covariance were used. There was good agreement between the results obtained by underwater weighing and by skinfold-thickness measurement (r = 0.76, P < 0.001); the results produced by the 2 methods did not differ significantly. On average, a significant weight gain (11.9 kg) was observed, composed of 6.6 kg fat and 5.3 kg fat-free mass. Body fat estimation by skinfold-thickness equation appeared to be as accurate as underwater weighing. The refeeding program led to a significant increase in body weight, of which 55.5% was body fat. The mean ratio of fat-free mass to fat mass at the end of the treatment was 3.4:1.

  1. Development of food photographs for use with children aged 18 months to 16 years: Comparison against weighed food diaries – The Young Person’s Food Atlas (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Adrian; Barton, Karen L.; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N. S.; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional dietary assessment methods, used in the UK, such as weighed food diaries impose a large participant burden, often resulting in difficulty recruiting representative samples and underreporting of energy intakes. One approach to reducing the burden placed on the participant is to use portion size assessment tools to obtain an estimate of the amount of food consumed, removing the need to weigh all foods. An age range specific food atlas was developed for use in assessing children’s dietary intakes. The foods selected and portion sizes depicted were derived from intakes recorded during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of children aged 1.5 to 16 years. Estimates of food portion sizes using the food atlas were compared against 4-day weighed intakes along with in-school / nursery observations, by the research team. Interviews were conducted with parents the day after completion of the diary, and for children aged 4 to 16 years, also with the child. Mean estimates of portion size consumed were within 7% of the weight of food recorded in the weighed food diary. The limits of agreement were wide indicating high variability of estimates at the individual level but the precision increased with increasing age. For children 11 years and over, agreement with weighed food diaries, was as good as that of their parents in terms of total weight of food consumed and of intake of energy and key nutrients. The age appropriate food photographs offer an alternative to weighed intakes for dietary assessment with children. PMID:28199319

  2. Development of food photographs for use with children aged 18 months to 16 years: Comparison against weighed food diaries - The Young Person's Food Atlas (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma; Hawkins, Adrian; Barton, Karen L; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2017-01-01

    Traditional dietary assessment methods, used in the UK, such as weighed food diaries impose a large participant burden, often resulting in difficulty recruiting representative samples and underreporting of energy intakes. One approach to reducing the burden placed on the participant is to use portion size assessment tools to obtain an estimate of the amount of food consumed, removing the need to weigh all foods. An age range specific food atlas was developed for use in assessing children's dietary intakes. The foods selected and portion sizes depicted were derived from intakes recorded during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of children aged 1.5 to 16 years. Estimates of food portion sizes using the food atlas were compared against 4-day weighed intakes along with in-school / nursery observations, by the research team. Interviews were conducted with parents the day after completion of the diary, and for children aged 4 to 16 years, also with the child. Mean estimates of portion size consumed were within 7% of the weight of food recorded in the weighed food diary. The limits of agreement were wide indicating high variability of estimates at the individual level but the precision increased with increasing age. For children 11 years and over, agreement with weighed food diaries, was as good as that of their parents in terms of total weight of food consumed and of intake of energy and key nutrients. The age appropriate food photographs offer an alternative to weighed intakes for dietary assessment with children.

  3. Positive weighing of the other's collective narrative among Jewish and Bedouin-Palestinian teachers in Israel and its correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2016-06-01

    Teachers play a pivotal role in the educational discourse around collective narratives, and especially the other's narrative. The study assumed that members of groups entangled in a conflict approach the different modules of the other's narrative distinctively. Jewish and Palestinian teachers, Israeli citizens, answered questionnaires dealing with the narrative of the other, readiness for interethnic contact, negative between-group emotions and preferences for resolutions of the Israeli-Palestinian (I-P) conflict. Positive weighing of the other's narrative among Jewish teachers correlated with high levels of readiness for interethnic contact and low levels of negative between-group emotions, across the various modules of the Palestinian narrative. Preferences for a peaceful resolution of the I-P conflict and rejection of a violent one were noted in two of the modules. Among Palestinian teachers, positive weighing of the other's collective narrative was exclusively noted for the Israeli narrative of the Holocaust, and this stance negatively related to negative between-group emotions and preference for a violent solution of the I-P conflict, and positively related to readiness for interethnic contact and preference of a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Practical implications of these findings for peace education are discussed.

  4. Research for Corrugated Pipe Weighing in Smoke Box Article Lack Weighing Detection System%基于波纹管称重的烟箱缺条称重检测系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡涌; 袁兴; 朱云霞; 闻平

    2016-01-01

    Along with the market,to the promotion of tobacco products for tobacco enterprise the pursuit to the high level of quality products.In smoke cigarette factories reel package workshop production packing warehousing process, often happened crates lacks the process defect,traditional generally by ray or photoelectric instrument to detect, but because of factors such as error detection and radiation, causing the effect is not very ideal. This paper analyzes in detail a kind of online weighing testing to determine the principle of different brand cigarette box article deficiency, weighing testing no radiation, detection principle is simple and reliable, recognised by the tobacco industry.%随着市场对烟草产品要求的提升,烟草企业不断追求高质量的产品水平。在卷烟厂卷包车间成品烟装箱入库工艺中,时有发生成箱缺条的工艺缺陷,传统一般通过射线或者光电仪器检测,但是因检测误差和射线辐射等因素,导致效果不是很理想。该文详细分析了一种通过在线称重检测来判断不同品牌烟箱缺条的原理,称重检测无辐射,检测原理简单可靠,得到了烟草企业的认可。

  5. Desien, ConstruThe design, fabrication and evaluation of egg weighing device using capacitive sensor and neural networksction and Evaluation of Egg Weighing Device Using Capacitive Sensor and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khalili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Grading agricultural products always has a particular important position for submission to domestic and overseas markets. The grading causes more profitable product ranges and customer satisfaction. Grading treatment is carried out based on various parameters such as color, ripeness level, dimensions and weight. Product weight is one of the most effective parameters in grading operation. Egg weight is directly related to the smallness and coarseness of eggs. In egg grading, the largeness value is very important in marketing. This research aimed to design, fabricate and evaluate the egg weighing system based on its dielectric properties. Materials and Methods: To perform this research, the stages of work are divided into several sections including, design and construction of the hardware section, writing code for the software section to collect data, conducting nondestructive tests and data collection, analysis of obtained data using artificial intelligence, and giving the results of analysis for device calibration of the system as the software code. The large eggs as dielectric substances cause more increase in the capacity of the capacitive sensor. Furthermore, by derivation of a relation between capacity of capacitive sensor and egg weight, one can predict the weight of the sample. A prototype unit of weighing system was designed and fabricated. The designed unit was composed of a chassis, a voltage source, a sinusoidal signal generator, a voltage measurement unit, an AVR micro controller, a COM port, a capacitive sensor, and an LCD and a keyboard. Neural network technique was used for egg weight prediction. The designed net receives 16 voltage values at different frequencies as inputs and its output is the egg weight. In order to calibrate and evaluate the weighing unit, 150 fresh egg samples were provided on egg laying day from a local poultry farm. Experiments were divided into three groups. The experiments were carried out on

  6. Preliminary research findings on traffic-load forecasting using weigh-in-motion data. Interim research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.E.; Pangburn, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    In order to forecast highway pavement performance and to design adequate pavement structures, detailed traffic loading information is essential. Traffic data collected by two unique weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems located in the southbound lanes of US 50 in east Texas have been analyzed and used to develop a methodology for forecasting future traffic loading patterns. The WIM systems, which have been in service continually since late 1992, have collected such data as the date, time, speed, lateral lane position, axle spacings, and wheel loads for about 7,500 individual vehicles per day. Thermocouples in the air and embedded in the pavement have measured and recorded hourly air and pavement temperatures, respectively.

  7. Automatic Weighing System for Kitchen Waste%餐厨垃圾自动称重系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席本强; 武洪岩; 谢军波

    2012-01-01

    In the current work of food waste collection and transportation, cost can't be automatically generated according to the polluters' a-mount of food waste. So an automatic system( installed in the vehicles) is design,which work through the RFID and automatic weighing modules. The core of the system is a PIC microcontroller. Data are stored in the IC through the I2C-bus card. IC card is submitted when the job finished. Then the computer will complete the statistics of pollution amount from the polluters. Test results show that the system can accurately measure food waste,and weigh automatically.%针对目前餐厨垃圾收运工作存在无法自动计算污染者的餐厨垃圾产生量的问题,设计了一种以PIC单片机为核心的餐厨垃圾自动称重系统,通过安装在收运车辆上的RFID模块和自动称重模块,对不同污染者的垃圾产生量进行自动称重.数据通过I2C总线存储在IC卡中,作业完成提交IC卡,由计算机完成对污染者污染量的统计.测试结果证明,该系统能够对餐厨垃圾进行准确测量,达到自动称重的目的.

  8. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  9. Road Weigh Stations, Permanent weigh stations of North Carolina. These data were manually heads-up digitized using either ESRI Imagery Prime World 1 meter resolution imagery (http://services.arcgisonline.com/v92) and the NC OneMap Express WMS Service as reference. The visual, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Institute for Transportation Research and Education.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Weigh Stations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2009. It is described as...

  10. Avaliação técnica de um sistema de pesagem no carregamento florestal Technical evaluation of a weighing system in log loader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Lopes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar tecnicamente um sistema de pesagem no carregamento de madeira. Os dados foram obtidos em 124 veículos de transporte, em áreas de colheita de madeira de Pinus taeda. A análise técnica englobou um estudo de tempos e movimentos e de produtividade do carregador florestal e determinação da eficiência do sistema de pesagem. Os resultados indicaram que houve aumento no tempo de carregamento devido à necessidade de pausas para estabilização do equipamento. Foi ainda verificado que a diferença média de pesos entre o sistema de pesagem e a balança da fábrica foi de 218 kg, correspondendo a um erro médio de 0,72%. Pelo teste "t", verificou-se que as leituras de pesos obtidos entre o sistema de pesagem e a balança da fábrica não diferiram entre si, comprovando a eficiência do equipamento.The objective of this research was to evaluate a weighing system in log loader. Data was obtained from 124 trucks in areas of Pinus taeda harvesting. The operational analysis included a log loader productivity, time and motion study and weighing efficiency evaluation. The analysis revealed that the mean difference between the weighing system and industry weighing was approximately 218 kg, corresponding to a 0.72% mean error. T-test showed no difference between the weight reading by the weighing system and the industry weighing, proving the equipment efficiency.

  11. Glass fiber-reinforced polymer packaged fiber Bragg grating sensors for low-speed weigh-in-motion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarawneh, Mu'ath; Huang, Ying

    2016-08-01

    The weight of rolling trucks on roads is one of the critical factors for the management of road networks due to the continuous increase in truck weight. Weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors have been widely used for weight enforcement. A three-dimensional glass fiber-reinforced polymer packaged fiber Bragg grating sensor (3-D GFRP-FBG) is introduced for in-pavement WIM measurement at low vehicle passing speed. A sensitivity study shows that the developed sensor is very sensitive to the sensor installation depth and the longitudinal and transverse locations of the wheel loading position. The developed 3-D GFRP-FBG sensor is applicable for most practical pavements with a panel length larger than 6 ft, and it also shows a very good long-term durability. For the three components in 3-D of the developed sensor, the longitudinal component has the highest sensitivity for WIM measurements, followed by the transverse and vertical components. Field testing validated the sensitivity and repeatability of the developed 3-D GFRP-FBG sensor. The developed sensor provides the transportation agency one alternative solution for WIM measurement, which could significantly improve the measurement efficiency and long-term durability.

  12. Sampling optimization for high-speed weigh-in-motion measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) measurement has been widely used for weight enforcement, pavement design, freight management, and intelligent transportation systems to monitor traffic in real-time. However, to use such sensors effectively, vehicles must exit the traffic stream and slow down to match their current capabilities. Hence, agencies need devices with higher vehicle passing speed capabilities to enable continuous weight measurements at mainline speeds. The current practices for data acquisition at such high speeds are fragmented. Deployment configurations and settings depend mainly on the experiences of operation engineers. To assure adequate data, most practitioners use very high frequency measurements that result in redundant samples, thereby diminishing the potential for real-time processing. The larger data memory requirements from higher sample rates also increase storage and processing costs. The field lacks a sampling design or standard to guide appropriate data acquisition of high-speed WIM measurements. This study develops the appropriate sample rate requirements as a function of the vehicle speed. Simulations and field experiments validate the methods developed. The results will serve as guidelines for future high-speed WIM measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors.

  13. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin

    2015-10-30

    In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  14. Weighing and measuring primary school children: evaluation of the TRENDS model for implementation of Department of Health guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R S; Connor, A M; Feltbower, R G; Robinson, M; Rudolf, M C J

    2009-05-01

    The UK Department of Health for England and Wales has issued guidance to all local Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), who have responsibility for school nursing services, for the annual weighing and measuring of all children on entry to primary school and in Year 6 (age 5 and 11 years respectively), known as the National Child Measurement Programme. The guidance places the responsibility for implementation and funding of this scheme onto the PCTs. This paper describes the conduct and evaluation of the 2006 monitoring exercise in a 10% sample of Leeds primary schools. The evaluation showed that the exercise can be carried out with little disruption in schools and minimal distress for children. Recommendations include: adequate staff training in measuring children, along with anticipation of the issues and problems they may encounter and best practice for dealing with them. A good working relationship must be established between the team and school before the measuring day. Schools need to ensure the availability of suitable accommodation and a screen to maintain privacy. Lightweight but robust and accurate scales conforming to the European Union standard should be used and routinely checked for accuracy. Where possible, children should not be lined up, but seen individually. This is considered essential for the older Year 6 children.

  15. Traffic weigh-in-motion (WIM measurements and validation of the Texas perpetual pavement structural design concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubinda F. Walubita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the State of Texas has used perpetual pavement (PP structures on its heavily trafficked highways, where the expected 20-year truck-traffic estimate of 80 kN ESALs (equivalent single axle loads is in excess of 30 million. As a means to validate the Texas PP structural design concept and to make optimal future truck-traffic design recommendations, traffic Weigh In-Motion (WIM measurements were conducted and analyzed for two PP projects. The findings indicated that the initial 80 kN ESAL traffic design estimates for PP were comparable to the projections based on the actual measured WIM traffic data. However, underestimation of the hot mix asphalt layer dynamic moduli resulted in conservative designs for the PP structures. In addition, based on the successful use of the automated WIM data stations for traffic data collection, the paper highlights possible applications and advantages (as compared to conventional manual collection of traffic data of using detailed WIM traffic data information for future analyses of both highway operation and pavement structural design.

  16. Weighing worth against uncertain work: the interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke Demirci, Jill; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L; Albrecht, Susan A; Cohen, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial post-partum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6-8-week-period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension among breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work and the ambiguity surrounding infant behaviour and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game, Letting Him Be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of LPIs that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviours.

  17. Weighing the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, M; Bokhari, A H; Karim, Munawar; Tartaglia, Angelo; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an experiment to measure the mass of the Milky Way galaxy. The experiment is based on calculated light travel times along orthogonal directions in the Schwarzschild metric of the Galactic center. We show that the difference is proportional to the Galactic mass. We apply the result to light travel times in a 10cm Michelson type interferometer located on Earth. The mass of the Galactic center is shown to contribute 10^-6 to the flat space component of the metric. An experiment is proposed to measure the effect.

  18. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  19. Weighing SSRIs and TCAs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review was prompted by a comment on the l

  20. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    VLT Finds Young, Very Low Mass Objects Are Twice As Heavy As Predicted Summary Thanks to the powerful new high-contrast camera installed at the Very Large Telescope, photos have been obtained of a low-mass companion very close to a star. This has allowed astronomers to measure directly the mass of a young, very low mass object for the first time. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its host star, is still 93 times as massive as Jupiter. And it appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be. This discovery therefore suggests that, due to errors in the models, astronomers may have overestimated the number of young "brown dwarfs" and "free floating" extrasolar planets. PR Photo 03/05: Near-infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion (NACO SDI/VLT) A winning combination A star can be characterised by many parameters. But one is of uttermost importance: its mass. It is the mass of a star that will decide its fate. It is thus no surprise that astronomers are keen to obtain a precise measure of this parameter. This is however not an easy task, especially for the least massive ones, those at the border between stars and brown dwarf objects. Brown dwarfs, or "failed stars", are objects which are up to 75 times more massive than Jupiter, too small for major nuclear fusion processes to have ignited in its interior. To determine the mass of a star, astronomers generally look at the motion of stars in a binary system. And then apply the same method that allows determining the mass of the Earth, knowing the distance of the Moon and the time it takes for its satellite to complete one full orbit (the so-called "Kepler's Third Law"). In the same way, they have also measured the mass of the Sun by knowing the Earth-Sun distance and the time - one year - it takes our planet to make a tour around the Sun. The problem with low-mass objects is that they are very faint and will often be hidden in the glare of the brighter star they orbit, also when viewed in large telescopes. Astronomers have however found ways to overcome this difficulty. For this, they rely on a combination of a well-considered observational strategy with state-of-the-art instruments. High contrast camera First, astronomers searching for very low mass objects look at young nearby stars because low-mass companion objects will be brightest while they are young, before they contract and cool off. In this particular case, an international team of astronomers [1] led by Laird Close (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona), studied the star AB Doradus A (AB Dor A). This star is located about 48 light-years away and is "only" 50 million years old. Because the position in the sky of AB Dor A "wobbles", due to the gravitational pull of a star-like object, it was believed since the early 1990s that AB Dor A must have a low-mass companion. To photograph this companion and obtain a comprehensive set of data about it, Close and his colleagues used a novel instrument on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. This new high-contrast adaptive optics camera, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI [2], was specifically developed by Laird Close and Rainer Lenzen (Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany) for hunting extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. A world premiere ESO PR Photo 03/05 ESO PR Photo 03/05 Infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 406 pix - 99k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 812 pix - 235k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 03/05 is an enhanced, false-colour near-infrared image of AB Dor A and C. The faint companion "AB Dor C" - seen as the pink dot at 8 o'clock - is 120 times fainter than its primary star. The tiny separation between A and C, only 0.156 arcsec, is smaller than a one Euro coin seen at 20 km distance. Nevertheless, the new NACO SDI camera was able to distinguish it as a "redder" dot surrounded by the "bluer" light from AB Dor A. The orbit of AB Dor C around AB Dor A is shown as a yellow ellipse. It takes 11.75 years for the 93 Jupiter-mass companion to complete this orbit. Turning this camera towards AB Dor A in February 2004, they were able for the first time to image a companion so faint - 120 times fainter than its star - and so near its star. Says Markus Hartung (ESO), member of the team: "This world premiere was only possible because of the unique capabilities of the NACO SDI instrument on the VLT. In fact, the Hubble Space Telescope tried but failed to detect the companion, as it was too faint and too close to the glare of the primary star." The tiny distance between the star and the faint companion (0.156 arcsec) is the same as the width of a one Euro coin (2.3 cm) when seen 20 km away. The companion, called AB Dor C, was seen at a distance of 2.3 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. It completes a cycle around its host star in 11.75 years on a rather eccentric orbit. Using the companion's exact location, along with the star's known 'wobble', the astronomers could then accurately determine the companion's mass. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its close primary star, has one tenth of the mass of its host star, i.e., it is 93 times more massive than Jupiter. It is thus slightly above the brown dwarf limit. Using NACO on the VLT, the astronomers further observed AB Dor C at near infrared wavelengths to measure its temperature and luminosity. "We were surprised to find that the companion was 400 degrees (Celsius) cooler and 2.5 times fainter than the most recent models predict for an object of this mass," Close said. "Theory predicts that this low-mass, cool object would be about 50 Jupiter masses. But theory is incorrect: this object is indeed between 88 to 98 Jupiter masses." These new findings therefore challenge current ideas about the brown dwarf population and the possible existence of widely publicized "free-floating" extrasolar planets. Indeed, if young objects hitherto identified as brown dwarfs are twice as massive as was thought, many must rather be low-mass stars. And objects recently identified as "free-floating" planets are in turn likely to be low-mass brown dwarfs. For Close and his colleagues, "this discovery will force astronomers to rethink what masses of the smallest objects produced in nature really are."

  1. Nonparametric factorial analysis of daily weigh-in-motion traffic: implications for the ozone "weekend effect" in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Oliver H.; Holmén, Britt A.; Niemeier, Debbie A.

    The Ozone Weekend Effect (OWE) has become increasingly more frequent and widespread in southern California since the mid-1970s. Although a number of hypotheses have been suggested to explain the effect, there remains uncertainty associated with the root factors contributing to elevated weekend ozone concentrations. Targeting the time window of the 1997 Southern California Ozone Study (SCOS97), this paper examines traffic activity data for 14 vehicle classes at 27 weigh-in-motion (WIM) stations in southern California. Nonparametric factorial analyses of light-duty vehicle (LDV) and heavy-duty truck (HDT) traffic volumes indicate significant differences in daily volumes by day of week and between the weekly patterns of daily LDV and HDT volumes. Across WIM stations, the daily LDV volume was highest on Friday and decreased by 10% on weekends compared to that on midweek days. In contrast, daily HDT volumes showed dramatic weekend drops of 53% on Saturday and 64% on Sunday. As a result, LDV to HDT ratios increased by 145% on weekends. Nonparametric tests also suggest that weekly traffic patterns varied significantly between WIM stations located close to (central) and far from (peripheral) the Los Angeles Metro area. Weekend increases in LDV/HDT ratios were more pronounced at central WIM sites due to greater weekend declines of HDT relative to LDV traffic. The implications of these weekly traffic patterns for the OWE in southern California were investigated by estimating daily WIM traffic on-road running exhaust emissions of total organic gas (TOG) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) using EMFAC2002 emission factors. The results support the California Air Resource Board's (CARB's) NO x reduction hypothesis that greater weekend NO x reductions relative to volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, in combinations with the VOC-limited ozone system, contribute to the OWE observed in the region. The results from this study can be used to develop weekend on-road mobile emission

  2. Group-living herbivores weigh up food availability and dominance status when making patch-joining decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan Stears

    Full Text Available Two key factors that influence the foraging behaviour of group-living herbivores are food availability and individual dominance status. Yet, how the combination of these factors influences the patch-joining decisions of individuals foraging within groups has scarcely been explored. To address this, we focused on the patch-joining decisions of group-living domestic goats (Capra hircus. When individuals were tested against the top four ranked goats of the herd, we found that at patches with low food availability they avoided these dominant patch-holders and only joined subordinates (i.e. costs outweighed benefits. However, as the amount of food increased, the avoidance of the top ranked individuals declined. Specifically, goats shifted and joined the patch of an individual one dominance rank higher than the previous dominant patch holder when the initial quantity of food in the new patch was twice that of the lower ranking individual's patch (i.e. benefits outweighed costs. In contrast, when individuals chose between patches held by dominant goats, other than the top four ranked goats, and subordinate individuals, we found that they equally joined the dominant and subordinate patch-holders. This joining was irrespective of the dominance gap, absolute rank of the dominant patch-holder, sex or food availability (i.e. benefits outweighed costs. Ultimately, our results highlight that herbivores weigh up the costs and benefits of both food availability and patch-holder dominance status when making patch-joining decisions. Furthermore, as the initial quantity of food increases, food availability becomes more important than dominance with regard to influencing patch-joining decisions.

  3. Weighing Scale-Based Pulse Transit Time is a Superior Marker of Blood Pressure than Conventional Pulse Arrival Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L.-O.; Carek, Andrew M.; Kim, Chang-Sei; Ashouri, Hazar; Inan, Omer T.; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-12-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is being widely pursued for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring. Most efforts have employed the time delay between ECG and finger photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms as a convenient surrogate of PTT. However, these conventional pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements include the pre-ejection period (PEP) and the time delay through small, muscular arteries and may thus be an unreliable marker of BP. We assessed a bathroom weighing scale-like system for convenient measurement of ballistocardiography and foot PPG waveforms – and thus PTT through larger, more elastic arteries – in terms of its ability to improve tracking of BP in individual subjects. We measured “scale PTT”, conventional PAT, and cuff BP in humans during interventions that increased BP but changed PEP and smooth muscle contraction differently. Scale PTT tracked the diastolic BP changes well, with correlation coefficient of ‑0.80 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) and root-mean-squared-error of 7.6 ± 0.5 mmHg after a best-case calibration. Conventional PAT was significantly inferior in tracking these changes, with correlation coefficient of ‑0.60 ± 0.04 and root-mean-squared-error of 14.6 ± 1.5 mmHg (p < 0.05). Scale PTT also tracked the systolic BP changes better than conventional PAT but not to an acceptable level. With further development, scale PTT may permit reliable, convenient measurement of BP.

  4. 基于PLC控制的铝粉自动过筛和称量系统%The Aluminium Powder Automatically Sifting and Weighing System Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆林; 邹庆勇

    2011-01-01

    本文闸述了一套基于PLC控制的铝粉自动过筛和称量系统,该系统基于西门子PLC和工业控制计算机控制,采用现场总线技术,实现了铝粉过筛和称量的远程隔离操作,提高了工作效率,保障了操作人员的身体健康和生命安全.%The article describes an aluminium powder automatically sifting and weighing system based on PLC control. The system is based on Siemens PLC and industrial control computer control, and uses field-bus technology. In the system, the aluminum powder is sifted and weighed in distance. It improves working efficiency, protects the operator's health and safety.

  5. A MultiFactorial Risk Score to weigh toxicities and co-morbidities relative to costs of antiretrovirals in a cohort of HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tontodonati, M.; Sozio, F; F Vadini; Polilli, E.; Ursini, T; G. Calella; Di Stefano, P.; Mazzotta, E.; Costantini, A.; C D'Amario; Parruti, G

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Considering costs of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV patients is increasingly needed. A simple and comprehensive tool weighing comorbidities and ARV-related toxicities could be useful to judge the appropriateness of use of more expensive drugs. We conceived a MultiFactorial Risk Score (MFRS) to evaluate the appropriateness of ARVs prescription relative to their costs. Methods: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled in 2010-2011. We considered socio-demographic character...

  6. Lessons learned from the implementation of remote control for the interoperability standard ISO/IEEE11073-20601 in a standard weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-González, Héctor Gilberto; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Led, Santiago; Serrano, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The Point of Care (PoC) version of the interoperability standard ISO/IEEE11073 (X73) provided a mechanism to control remotely agents through documents X73-10201 and X73-20301. The newer version of X73 oriented to Personal Health Devices (PHD) has no mechanisms to do such a thing. The authors are working toward a common proposal with the PHD Working Group (PHD-WG) in order to adapt the remote control capabilities from X73PoC to X73PHD. However, this theoretical adaptation has to be implemented and tested to evaluate whether or not its inclusion entails an acceptable overhead and extra cost. Such proof-of-concept assessment is the main objective of this paper. For the sake of simplicity, a weighing scale with a configurable operation was chosen as use case. First, in a previous stage of the research - the model was defined. Second, the implementation methodology - both in terms of hardware and software - was defined and executed. Third, an evaluation methodology to test the remote control features was defined. Then, a thorough comparison between a weighing scale with and without remote control was performed. The results obtained indicate that, when implementing remote control in a weighing scale, the relative weight of such feature represents an overhead of as much as 53%, whereas the number of Implementation Conformance Statements (ICSs) to be satisfied by the manufacturer represent as much as 34% regarding the implementation without remote control. The new feature facilitates remote control of PHDs but, at the same time, increases overhead and costs, and, therefore, manufacturers need to weigh this trade-off. As a conclusion, this proof-of-concept helps in fostering the evolution of the remote control proposal to extend X73PHD and promotes its inclusion as part of the standard, as well as it illustrates the methodological steps for its extrapolation to other specializations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement in a developing country using weigh-in-motion sorting system considering vehicle by-pass and enforcement capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle overloading has been identified as one of the major contributors to road pavement damage in Malaysia. In this study, the weigh-in-motion (WIM system has been used to function as a vehicle weight sorting tool to complement the exsiting static weigh bridge enforcement station. Data collected from the developed system is used to explore the effectiveness of using WIM system in terms of generating more accurate data for enforcement purposes and at the same time improving safety and reducing the number of vehicle weight violations on the roads. This study specifically focus on the effect of vehicle by-pass and static weigh station enforcement capability on the overall effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement system in a developing country. Results from this study suggest that the WIM system will significantly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the current vehicle weight enforcement, thus generating substantial revenue that would greatly off-set the current road maintenance budget that comes from tax payers money. If there is substantial reduction in overloaded vehicles, the public will still gain through reduction in road maintenance budget, less accident risks involving heavy trucks, and lesser greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  8. Validity of hydration non-invasive indices during the weightcutting and official weigh-in for Olympic combat sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín E Fernández-Elías

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Olympic combat sports, weight cutting is a common practice aimed to take advantage of competing in weight divisions below the athlete's normal weight. Fluid and food restriction in combination with dehydration (sauna and/or exercise induced profuse sweating are common weight cut methods. However, the resultant hypohydration could adversely affect health and performance outcomes. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine which of the routinely used non-invasive measures of dehydration best track urine osmolality, the gold standard non-invasive test. METHOD: Immediately prior to the official weigh-in of three National Championships, the hydration status of 345 athletes of Olympic combat sports (i.e., taekwondo, boxing and wrestling was determined using five separate techniques: i urine osmolality (UOSM, ii urine specific gravity (USG, iii urine color (UCOL, iv bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, and v thirst perception scale (TPS. All techniques were correlated with UOSM divided into three groups: euhydrated (G1; UOSM 250-700 mOsm · kg H2O(-1, dehydrated (G2; UOSM 701-1080 mOsm · kg H2O(-1, and severely dehydrated (G3; UOSM 1081-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1. RESULTS: We found a positive high correlation between the UOSM and USG (r = 0.89: p = 0.000, although this relationship lost strength as dehydration increased (G1 r = 0.92; G2 r = 0.73; and G3 r = 0.65; p = 0.000. UCOL showed a moderate although significant correlation when considering the whole sample (r = 0.743: p = 0.000 and G1 (r = 0.702: p = 0.000 but low correlation for the two dehydrated groups (r = 0.498-0.398. TPS and BIA showed very low correlation sizes for all groups assessed. CONCLUSION: In a wide range of pre-competitive hydration status (UOSM 250-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1, USG is highly associated with UOSM while being a more affordable and easy to use technique. UCOL is a suitable tool when USG is not available. However, BIA or TPS are not sensitive enough to

  9. Laparoscopic Versus Open Hysterectomy for Benign Disease in Uteri Weighing >1 kg: A Retrospective Analysis on 258 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccella, Stefano; Morosi, Chiara; Marconi, Nicola; Arrigo, Anna; Gisone, Baldo; Casarin, Jvan; Pinelli, Ciro; Borghi, Camilla; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2017-07-12

    To present a large single-center series of hysterectomies for uteri ≥1 kg and to compare the laparoscopic and open abdominal approach in terms of perioperative outcomes and complications. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). An academic research center. Consecutive women who underwent hysterectomy for uteri ≥1 kg between January 2000 and December 2016. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of uterine malignancy or suspected uterine malignancy were excluded. The subjects were divided according to the intended initial surgical approach (i.e., open or laparoscopic). The 2 groups were compared in terms of intraoperative data and postoperative outcomes. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify possible independent predictors of overall complications. A subanalysis including only obese women was accomplished. Total laparoscopic versus abdominal hysterectomy (±bilateral adnexectomy). Intra- and postoperative surgical outcomes. A total of 258 patients were included; 55 (21.3%) women were initially approached by open surgery and 203 (78.7%) by laparoscopy. Nine (4.4%) conversions from laparoscopic to open surgery were registered. The median operative time was longer in the laparoscopic group (120 [range, 50-360] vs 85 [range, 35-240] minutes, p = .014). The estimated blood loss (150 [range, 0-1700] vs 200 [50-3000] mL, p = .04), postoperative hemoglobin drop, and hospital stay (1 [range, 1-8] vs 3 [range, 1-8] days, p laparoscopic approach was found to be the only independent predictor of a lower incidence of overall complications (odds ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.9). The overall morbidity of minimally invasive hysterectomy was lower also in the subanalysis concerning only obese patients. In experienced hands and in dedicated centers, laparoscopic hysterectomy for uteri weighing ≥1 kg is feasible and safe. Minimally invasive surgery retains its well

  10. 滑槽式动态称量方法试验研究%ExPerimental StudY of DYnamiC Weighing method of Chute TYPe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易彪; 郝建军

    2015-01-01

    在固体散料称量所使用的秤体中,电子皮带秤的皮带容易磨损、跑偏、打滑,且溜槽式冲量秤在测量精度上很大程度依赖传感器的精度。针对以上问题,提出了一种新的滑槽式动态称量方法和装置,并进行了试验。结果表明:在满足称量的条件下,该方法和装置可以有效解决皮带秤的皮带磨损等问题和溜槽式冲量秤过分依靠高精度传感器的问题。%In the current used scales in the solid powder weighing,the existing electronic belt scale’s belt is easy to wear,be off tracking and skid and the chute type impulse scales depends a great extent on sensors in the measurement accuracy. To solve these problems,this paper put forward a new chute type dynamic weighing method and the device and tested it. The results show that the problem of belt wear and the problem that the chute type impulse scales depends a great extent on sensors in the meas-urement accuracy can be avoided,and also it can achieve the purpose of weighing at the same time.

  11. Application of RBF neural network algorithm in dynamic weighing%RBF神经网络算法在动态称重中的应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超波; 杨楠

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,focus on the complexity of weighing data in the dynamic detection system of the highway,the different weighing data processing methods to make a comparison,and proposed the use of RBF neural network to deal with the dynamic weighing data.Firstly review introduced the whole vehicle dynamic system,after the radial basis function network topology and the centers of the radial basis function selection are introduced.Finally the test-bed to build a testing platform,through experiments with a two axle vehicle with different speed through the test stand,the dynamic parameters acquisition.Finally,using the data collected,using MATLAB to simulate,verify the radial basis function network to the dynamic weighing data processing show good speed and accuracy.%针对高速公路动态检测系统中称重数据的复杂性,将不同的称重数据处理办法做出对比,并提出利用 RBF神经网络对动态称重数据进行处理。文章首先综述性的介绍了车辆动态系统整体构成,之后对径向基函数网络的拓扑结构以及径向基函数中心的选取进行了介绍,最后利以试验台搭建检测平台,通过实验用两轴小车进行以不同的速度通过试验台,采集其动态参数。最后利用采集到的数据,用 MATLAB 进行仿真,验证了径向基函数网络对动态称重数据的处理表现出良好的速度与精度。

  12. Retinopathy of prematurity in Asian Indian babies weighing greater than 1250 grams at birth: Ten year data from a tertiary care center in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinekar Anand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an important cause of childhood blindness in developing countries. Aim: To report the spectrum of ROP and associated risk factors in babies weighing > 1250 g at birth in a developing country. Setting and Design: Institutional, retrospective, non-randomized, observational clinical case series. Materials and Methods : Retrospective analysis (10 years of 275 eyes (138 babies with ROP. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative data with the Chi-square test. Quantitative data using the unpaired t test or the ANOVA and further tested using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The mean birth weight was 1533.9 g (range 1251 to 2750 g and the mean period of gestation was 30.9 weeks (range 26 to 35. One hundred and twenty-four of 275 eyes (45.1% had threshold or worse ROP. Risk factors for threshold or worse disease were, ′outborn babies′ ( P < 0.001, respiratory distress syndrome ( P = 0.007 and exchange transfusion ( P = 0.003. The sensitivity of the American and British screening guidelines to pick up threshold or worse ROP in our study group was 82.4% and 77.4% respectively. Conclusions : Severe ROP is often encountered in babies weighing greater than 1250 g at birth in developing countries. Western screening guidelines may require modifications before application in developing countries.

  13. An automatic weighting system for wild animals based in an artificial neural network: how to weigh wild animals without causing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Diego Francisco; Rodríguez, Carlos; Barbancho, Julio; Baena, Manuel; Angel, Miguel Leal; Marín, Jesús; León, Carlos; Bustamante, Javier

    2013-02-28

    This paper proposes a novel and autonomous weighing system for wild animals. It allows evaluating changes in the body weight of animals in their natural environment without causing stress. The proposed system comprises a smart scale designed to estimate individual body weights and their temporal evolution in a bird colony. The system is based on computational intelligence, and offers valuable large amount of data to evaluate the relationship between long-term changes in the behavior of individuals and global change. The real deployment of this system has been for monitoring a breeding colony of lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) in southern Spain. The results show that it is possible to monitor individual weight changes during the breeding season and to compare the weight evolution in males and females.

  14. Estimation of caffeine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d weighed diet records based on a food composition database newly developed for Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies in Western populations have linked caffeine intake with health status. While detailed dietary assessment studies in these populations have shown that the main contributors to caffeine intake are coffee and tea, the wide consumption of Japanese and Chinese teas in Japan suggests that sources of intake in Japan may differ from those in Western populations. Among these teas, moreover, caffeine content varies widely among the different forms consumed (brewed, canned or bottled), suggesting the need for detailed dietary assessment in estimating intake in Japanese populations. Here, because a caffeine composition database or data obtained from detailed dietary assessment have not been available, we developed a database for caffeine content in Japanese foods and beverages, and then used it to estimate intake in a Japanese population. The caffeine food composition database was developed using analytic values from the literature, 16 d weighed diet records were collected, and caffeine intake was estimated from the 16 d weighed diet records. Four areas in Japan, Osaka (Osaka City), Okinawa (Ginowan City), Nagano (Matsumoto City) and Tottori (Kurayoshi City), between November 2002 and September 2003. Two hundred and thirty Japanese adults aged 30-69 years. Mean caffeine intake was 256.2 mg/d for women and 268.3 mg/d for men. The major contributors to intake were Japanese and Chinese teas and coffee (47 % each). Caffeine intake above 400 mg/d, suggested in reviews to possibly have negative health effects, was seen in 11 % of women and 15 % of men. In this Japanese population, caffeine intake was comparable to the estimated values reported in Western populations.

  15. Bilingual children weigh speaker's referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker's intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W Q

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker's point at the familiar object, e.g., "Can you give me the blicket?" Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker's point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers' referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting environment.

  16. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu eHung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar or unknown (unfamiliar to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-year-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch, English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch, English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch, or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch. They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., Can you give me the blicket? Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting

  17. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cathyln Atukunda

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241. Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6% developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0% had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85% in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

  18. Descriptions of relationship between the weighing sensor number of divisions and the truck scale number of divisions%简述称重传感器和汽车衡的分度值关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学民

    2014-01-01

    The weighing accuracy of truck scale is affected by many factors in the course of using the truck scale, which include the relationship between truck scale precision and weighing sensor precision, as well as the relationship between the truck scale maximum number of divisions and the weighing sensor number of divisions in particular. In order to determine the relationship between the weighing sensor maximum number of divisions and the truck scale maximum number of divisions, the relationship between the weighing sensor maximum number of divisions and the truck scale minimum number of divisions is analyzed based on General Verification Regulation for Non-automatic Weighing Instrument (JJG555-1996) and Verification Regulation of Load Cell (JJG699-2003).%在汽车衡的使用中,常常涉及到汽车衡的秤量精度与汽车衡选取的称重传感器的精度的关系,特别是汽车衡的最大分度数和称重传感器的分度数的关系,影响了汽车衡秤量精度的确定。本文从JJG 555-1996非自动秤通用检定规程和JJG 699-2003称重传感器检定规程等规范文件的定义方面,来推论传感器的最大分度数与其组成汽车衡的最小分度值的关系,进而寻找传感器的最大分度数与其组成汽车衡的最大分度数的关系。

  19. Design of Fruit Sorting Machine of Weighing Type Based on SolidWorks%基于SolidWorks的称重式水果分选机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛纪帅; 黄文倩; 张弛; 密雅荣

    2012-01-01

    称重式水果分选机在水果分级市场应用最为广泛,对其传统的研究方法是以二维平面图来设计其结构,抽象且很难修改.因此利用SolidWorks软件设计了一种新型称重式水果分选机,通过SolidWorks实现了对托盘称重式水果分选机支架、托盘、传动系统和链轮轴的设计,建立了电动机减速器和轴承座的三维模型,最终实现了称重式水果分选机的整体装配,系统的对分选机零件进行三维建模、虚拟装配、干涉分析和初步的有限元分析.结果表明,SolidWorks有助于新型农业机械的设计,缩短了其开发周期,提高其设计的质量.%Fruit sorting machine of weighing type was used most widely in fruit grading market, which study on its structure adopting traditional 2D plan method is too abstract to modify hardly.The re fore a new weighing type of fruit sorting machine was designed using SolidWorks, through which the design for stents,tray institutions ,transmission system and sprocket shaft of the sorting machine was realized,and 3D model for the motor reducer and bearing socket was built so that the overall assembly for the fruit sorting machine was achieved-Afterwards ,3D modeling,virtual assembly as well as compute clash and primary FEM analysis were carried out for parts of machine. The application results show that Solidworks is beneficial to new agricultural machinery design,which shall shorten the development cycle and improve the design quality

  20. Asteroseismology for "\\`{a} la carte" stellar age-dating and weighing: Age and mass of the CoRoT exoplanet host HD 52265

    CERN Document Server

    Lebreton, Yveline

    2014-01-01

    In the context of CoRoT, Kepler, Gaia, TESS, and PLATO, precise and accurate stellar ages, masses and radii are of paramount importance. They are crucial to constrain scenarii of planetary formation and evolution.We aim at quantifying how detailed stellar modeling improves the accuracy and precision on age and mass of individual stars. We adopt a multifaceted approach where we examine how the number of observational constraints as well as the uncertainties on observations and on model input physics impact the age-dating and weighing. We modelled the exoplanet host-star HD52265, a MS, solar-like oscillator observed by CoRoT. We considered different sets of observational constraints (HR data, metallicity, seismic constraints). For each case, we determined the age, mass, and properties of HD52265 inferred from models, and quantified the impact of the models inputs. Our seismic analysis provides an age A=2.10-2.54 Gyr, a mass M=1.14-1.32 Msun, and a radius R=1.30-1.34 Rsun, which corresponds to uncertainties of 1...

  1. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C M; Carson, Henry S; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J; Borerro, Jose C; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  2. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eriksen

    Full Text Available Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013 across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680 and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891. Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  3. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove ocean surface. PMID:25494041

  4. Weighing up the costs of seeking health care for dengue symptoms: a grounded theory study of backpackers' decision-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, Bálint; Holberg, Mette; Mills, Jane; McBride, William J H

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne virus, is an ongoing public health issue in North Queensland. Importation of dengue fever by travellers visiting or returning to Australia can lead to epidemics. The mosquito can acquire the virus in the symptomatic viraemic phase, so timely recognition of cases is important to prevent epidemics. There is a gap in the literature about backpackers' knowledge of dengue fever and the decision-making process they use when considering utilising the Australian health-care system. This study uses grounded theory methods to construct a theory that explains the process backpackers use when seeking health care. Fifty semi-structured interviews with backpackers, hostel receptionists, travel agents and pharmacists were analysed, resulting in identification of a core category: 'weighing up the costs of seeking health care'. This core category has three subcategories: 'self-assessment of health status', 'wait-and-see' and 'seek direction'. Findings from this study identified key areas where health promotion material and increased access to health-care professionals could reduce the risk of backpackers spreading dengue fever.

  5. Let's Weigh in on "Deflategate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    The September 2015 paper "Bouncing Back from 'Deflategate'" is a very interesting article from a physics viewpoint. However, we doubt that the National Football League (NFL) officials will bounce footballs and measure the coefficient of restitution to verify that the footballs remain properly inflated. The release of a few pounds per…

  6. Weighing in on the Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the validity of the Standard Model, or more generally that possible physics beyond it would have only small effects on production cross sections, branching ratios and electroweak radiative corrections, I determine the mass of the Higgs boson to 124.5 +- 0.8 GeV at the 68% CL. This is arrived at by combining electroweak precision data with the results of Higgs boson searches at LEP 2, the Tevatron, and the LHC. The statistical interpretation of the method does not require a look-elsewhere effect correction.

  7. Let's Weigh in on "Deflategate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    The September 2015 paper "Bouncing Back from 'Deflategate'" is a very interesting article from a physics viewpoint. However, we doubt that the National Football League (NFL) officials will bounce footballs and measure the coefficient of restitution to verify that the footballs remain properly inflated. The release of a few pounds per…

  8. Portable Pallet-Weighing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    Portable apparatus intended for standard four-trunnion pallets readily adaptable to any large payload or other loads where shifting of cargo is to be avoided. Device lifts trunnion of pallet short distance above its resting place. Weight at trunnion applied to load cell. Similar units placed at all four trunnions.

  9. Chubby children; weighing the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, M. van

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis aimed to describe the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors, (which are predictive for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease) among overweight/obese children with or without type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Also, we aimed to assess the prevalence of the

  10. 微量药品单元动态称重系统的设计与实现%Design and realization of micro scale capsule dynamic weighing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄育锋; 翟宇

    2013-01-01

    The design method for a micro scale capsule dynamic weighing system is proposed, which can transport and classify capsules in turn and acquire the quality of the capsules. A kind of kinetic model for the dynamic weighing of capsule is established. The model is based on energy conservation principle and considers the influences of sliding chute parameters, sensor parameters and other factors. The movement process of the capsules with different weights is analyzed. MATLAB is adopted to simulate the analysis results. During the process of transporting and classifying the capsules,the weighing transducer is used to measure the weight of the capsule. The A/D converter, which is linked to the weighing transducer, sends the capsule weight data to the subsequent ARM processor. The ARM processor sends data to MCU that controls the movement of the electric motor through serial communication and the observing and controlling process is completed. Meanwhile, a graphic user interface is developed based on miniGUI, with which the ARM processor can display the capsule weight information in real time. The simulation and experiment results indicate that when the threshold of the sensor signal is 0. 195 V and the time interval of the weighing process is 1.46 s, the dynamic capsule weighing process can be realized successfully. The design for capsule weighing unit has completed the process of capsules weighing effectively and improves the reliability and high efficiency of capsule dynamic condition weighing.%提出了一种微量药品单元动态称重系统的设计方法,可依次完成药品单元的传送和分拨,并统计药品单元的质量情况.建立了药品单元动态称重的动力学模型,模型以能量守恒原理为基础,考虑了滑槽截面参数、传感器参数等因素,对不同质量药品单元的运动过程进行了分析,并利用MATLAB对分析结果进行了仿真.系统对药品单元的传送、分拨控制过程是利用称重传感

  11. 井口称重式计量系统在油田的应用%The Application of Wellhead Weighing Metering System in Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艾萤; 李秋莲; 张岳峰; 李秋香

    2016-01-01

    Put forward the "car tank storage transport" converted into pipeline technology, single- well measurement will become a key technology for pipeline transporting. Wellhead weighing metering system is mainly composed of single well entry line, multichannel valve, weighing sensor, left or right position sensor, tanks, oil and gas separator, single well gas export pipeline, hopper, distributor, skip, float controller, single well pipeline, single well flow export pipeline, etc. Metering system is added a full automatic multi-channel valve on the device, can access to ≤30 single-well respectively, through the computer to realize automatic switching of single well, continuous measurement of each single well pro-duced fluid volume, skip position sensor, automatic detection, recording, printing, dis-play operation parameters of each single well production,which can realize continuous auto-matic metering oil. The metering system can well solve the high viscosity of heavy oil and low oil and gas ratio single well oil well measurement problem,also can meet the thin oil and high oil and gas than single well oil well measurement at the same time,and has wide applica-bility.%自提出将“罐储车运”的原油输送方式改造成管道输送的工艺,单井计量就成为实现管输的关键性技术。井口称重式计量系统主要由单井入口管路、多路阀、称重传感器、左位置传感器、右位置传感器、罐体、油气分离器、单井气出口管路、集料斗、分布器、翻斗、浮子调节器、单井出口管路、单井汇流出口管路等组成。计量系统设置了一个全自动多路阀,最多可以接入30口单井,通过计算机实现单井的自动切换,连续测量每个单井的产液量。位置传感器检测翻斗的状态,自动检测、记录、打印、显示各单井的生产运行参数,可实现连续自动量油。该计量系统能较好地解决高黏度稠油和低油气比油井的单井计量

  12. Policy implications of using a household consumption and expenditures survey versus an observed-weighed food record survey to design a food fortification program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lividini, Keith; Fiedler, John L; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2013-12-01

    Observed-Weighed Food Record Surveys (OWFR) are regarded as the most precise dietary assessment methodology, despite their recognized shortcomings, which include limited availability, high cost, small samples with uncertain external validity that rarely include all household members, Hawthorne effects, and using only 1 or 2 days to identify "usual intake." Although Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) also have significant limitations, they are increasingly being used to inform nutrition policy To investigate differences in fortification simulations based on OWFR and HCES from Bangladesh. The pre- and postfortification nutrient intake levels from the two surveys were compared. The total population-based rank orderings of oil, wheat flour, and sugar coverage were identical for the two surveys. OWFR found differences in women's and children's coverage rates and average quantities consumed for all three foods that were not detected by HCES. Guided by the Food Fortification Formulator, we found that these differences did not result in differences in recommended fortification levels. Differences were found, however, in estimated impacts: although both surveys found that oil would be effective in reducing the prevalence of inadequate vitamin A intake among both subpopulations, only OWFR also found that sugar and wheat flour fortification would significantly reduce inadequate vitamin A intake among children. Despite the less precise measure of food consumption from HCES, the two surveys provide similar guidance for designing a fortification program. The external validity of these findings is limited. With relatively minor modifications, the precision of HCES in dietary assessment and the use ofHCES in fortification programming could be strengthened.

  13. 液体注肥器定量控制系统的设计%Design of Weighing Control System of Liquid Fertilizer Injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹伟; 王秀; 张睿; 郝强

    2013-01-01

      针对目前液体施肥机的不足,设计了可以定量控制施肥量的注肥控制系统。系统采用电机带动离心泵输送液态肥料,通过计算注肥器管道中流量传感器的脉冲信号,获取系统实际排出的液体体积,根据实际施肥量与设定值的差值控制电机运转,从而实现根据实际需要精确控制施肥量。实际运行结果表明,该系统运行可靠,系统对施肥控制量误差相对比较小,可以在一定程度上实现精准注肥,减少肥料浪费。%Because of deficiency of the liquid fertilizer applicator , the weighing control system of liquid fertilizer injector was designed .The liquid fertilizer is delivered by a centrifugal pump which adopts the motor drive .Through the calcula-tion of the flow sensor pulse signal in the pipe , the controller gains the actual discharged liquid volume .The difference between the actual value and the set value determines whether the motor running .The fertilizer control error of the system is relatively small , the crops can be fertilization accurately and the fertilizer waste can be reduced in a sense .

  14. 对于JJG564-2002《重力式自动装料衡器》几个问题的认识%Recognizing of several questions about JJG564-2002 "automatic gravimetric filling weighing instrument"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈立人

    2012-01-01

    JJG564-2002《重力式自动装料衡器》检定规程,是一个比较复杂的文件,它不同与非自动衡器的检定规程。它的适用范围、准确度等级和控制衡器的选择方法存在一些容易让人混淆的因素,在此交流一下个人的认识。%JJG564-2002 "automatic gravimetric filling weighing instrument" test rules, is a complex document, it is different from non-automatic weighing instrument test rules. Choosing method of scope, the level of accuracy and control instrument exists some confusing things, to exchange personal understanding in this article.

  15. 高速动态称重系统在公路车辆荷载调查中的应用%The application of highway dynamic weighing system in highway vehicle load survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少幸; 王强

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the principle using highway dynamic weighing system to detect the traffic flow and axial load situation,through the data collection,analyzed the section traffic flow,traffic flow circadian distribution and axle load distribution,pointed out the highway dynam-ic weighing system played an important role in accurately design of pavement structure and pavement management.%对采用高速动态称重系统检测道路交通流量及轴载情况的原理作了介绍,通过数据采集,分析了断面交通量、交通量昼夜分布情况及轴载情况,指出高速动态称重系统对准确设计路面结构与路面管理具有重要作用。

  16. The Potential and Beneficial Use of Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Systems Integrated with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems for Characterizing Disposal of Waste Debris to Optimize the Waste Shipping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Buckner Jr, Dooley [ORNL; Newton, David D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system provides a portable and/or semi-portable means of accurately weighing vehicles and its cargo as each vehicle crosses the scales (while in motion), and determining (1) axle weights and (2) axle spacing for vehicles (for determination of Bridge Formula compliance), (3) total vehicle/cargo weight and (4) longitudinal center of gravity (for safety considerations). The WIM system can also weigh the above statically. Because of the automated nature of the WIM system, it eliminates the introduction of human errors caused by manual computations and data entry, adverse weather conditions, and stress. Individual vehicles can be weighed continuously at low speeds (approximately 3-10 mph) and at intervals of less than one minute. The ORNL WIM system operates and is integrated into the Bethel Jacobs Company Transportation Management and Information System (TMIS, a Radio-Frequency Identification [RFID] enabled information system). The integrated process is as follows: Truck Identification Number and Tare Weight are programmed into a RFID Tag. Handheld RFID devices interact with the RFID Tag, and Electronic Shipping Document is written to the RFID Tag. The RFID tag read by an RFID tower identifies the vehicle and its associated cargo, the specific manifest of radioactive debris for the uniquely identified vehicle. The weight of the cargo (in this case waste debris) is calculated from total vehicle weight information supplied from WIM to TMIS and is further processed into the Information System and kept for historical and archival purposes. The assembled data is the further process in downstream information systems where waste coordination activities at the Y-12 Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) are written to RFID Tag. All cycle time information is monitored by Transportation Operations and Security personnel.

  17. Low incidence of complications after cephalic vein cutdown for pacemaker lead implantation in children weighing less than 10 kilograms: A single-center experience with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircanski, Bratislav; Vasic, Dragan; Savic, Dragutin; Stojanov, Petar

    2015-08-01

    Only a few studies on the cephalic vein cutdown technique for pacemaker lead implantation in children weighing ≤10 kg have been reported even though the procedure is widely accepted in adults. The purpose of this study was to prove that cephalic vein cutdown for pacemaker lead implantation is a reliable technique with a low incidence of complications in children weighing ≤10 kg. The study included 44 children weighing ≤10 kg with an endocardial pacemaker. Cephalic, subclavian, and axillary vein diameters were measured by ultrasound before implantation. The measured diameters were used to select either an endocardial or epicardial surgical technique. Regular 6-month follow-up visits included pacemaker interrogation and clinical and ultrasound examinations. Two dual-chamber and 42 single-chamber pacemakers were implanted. Mean weight at implantation was 6.24 kg (range 2.25-10.40 kg), and mean age was 11.4 months (range 1 day-47 months). In 40 children (90.1%), the ventricular leads were implanted using the cephalic vein cutdown technique, and implantation was accomplished via the prepared right external jugular vein in 4 of the children (9.9%). The atrial leads were implanted using axillary vein puncture and external jugular vein preparations. Mean follow-up was 8.9 years (range 0-20.9 years). Only 1 pacemaker-related complication was detected (a lead fracture near the connector that was successfully resolved using a lead repair kit). The cephalic vein cutdown technique is feasible and reliable in children weighing ≤10 kg, which justifies the application of additional surgical effort in the treatment of these small patients. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Instalação, calibração e funcionamento de um lisímetro de pesagem Instalation, calibration and operation of a weighing lysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Carvalho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo construir, instalar, calibrar e avaliar a sensibilidade de um lisímetro de pesagem com célula de carga, instalado em Seropédica - RJ, a fim de determinar a evapotranspiração de referência (ETo. O lisímetro, com dimensões de 1,0 m x 1,0 m e 0,7 m de profundidade, foi construído com chapas de aço galvanizado e instalado sobre estrutura metálica montada sobre barras transversais, a fim de concentrar toda a massa do conjunto sobre uma célula de carga localizada no centro do sistema. Após o preenchimento do lisímetro com solo, foi realizada a calibração do mesmo por meio de análise de regressão linear, e toda a área foi plantada com grama-batatais. O conjunto lisimétrico instalado mostrou-se adequado para a estimativa da ETo, apresentando erro-padrão de estimativa da regressão de 0,278 kg ou 0,278 mm, além de responder às variações dos principais elementos meteorológicos que influenciam na ETo.The objective of this work was to construct, install, calibrate and evaluate a weighing lysimeter with load cell, in order to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETo for the Seropédica region - RJ. The lysimeter, which has the dimensions of 1.0 m x 1.0 m and 0.7 m in depth, was built with galvanized steel and installed over a metallic structure mounted over transversal bars, in order to concentrate all the assembly mass over a load cell localized in the center of the system. The lysimeter was filled with the same soil layers of the local soil. Then a calibration was carried out by means of a linear regression analysis and the whole lysimeter area was planted with Bahia grass. The lysimeter system demonstrated to be suitable for estimating ETo, yielding a standard error of the linear regression of 0.278 kg or 0.278 mm. In addition, it displayed satisfactorily the variation of the main meteorological elements that influence in ETo.

  19. Liquid Water and Vapor Flow in Arid Soil: Comparison of Weighing Lysimeter Data with Simulations from a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, M.; Dijkema, J.; Koonce, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; Van Genuchten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Desert soils account for about a third of the Earth's land surface and are believed to be important players in terrestrial energy balance. However, the mechanisms that govern energy and mass fluxes across the land-atmosphere interface of hot deserts remain poorly understood. This knowledge gap also spills over to our insufficient understanding of the ecology and hydrology of deserts. A recently constructed weighing lysimeter (3 m deep and 2.26 m in diameter) located in Boulder City, NV, provides data of water and energy fluxes across the soil-atmosphere boundary of the Mojave Desert. The lysimeter has been filled with homogenized desert soil from nearby Eldorado Valley, instrumented with a suite of more than 150 sensors at multiple depth between 2.5 and 250 cm and under continuous operation since July 2008. In this study, we report on water content, water potential, and temperature data from one hydrologic year at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data was used to develop, calibrate and validate a coupled, process-based water flow and storage model using Hydrus-1D. The model simulates liquid water flow, heat flow, and non-isothermal vapor flow along the soil profile. Detailed soil bulk density and porosity profiles are known based on soil mass and volume determined during lysimeter soil installation. Water retention property was determined from concurrent volumetric water content and matric potential measurements. A density-dependent scaling relation was developed to adjust water retention properties to the different soil bulk densities in the profile. The water flux across the soil-atmosphere boundary was determined from high-resolution lysimeter scale data. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was estimated via inverse modeling, using a subset of the soil moisture data. The calibrated model was validated using the remainder of the data set. The model accurately captures the soil temperature dynamics through the year and across the profile. The water

  20. A MultiFactorial Risk Score to weigh toxicities and co-morbidities relative to costs of antiretrovirals in a cohort of HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tontodonati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Considering costs of antiretrovirals (ARVs for HIV patients is increasingly needed. A simple and comprehensive tool weighing comorbidities and ARV-related toxicities could be useful to judge the appropriateness of use of more expensive drugs. We conceived a MultiFactorial Risk Score (MFRS to evaluate the appropriateness of ARVs prescription relative to their costs. Methods: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled in 2010-2011. We considered socio-demographic characteristics, HIV history, cardiovascular risk factors, low energy fractures, bone density. Psychological factors were assessed by BDI, DS14 and TAS-20. The MFRS was calculated as the sum of the following: age (<30y 1 point; 1 point increase every 5y, 10 for≥70; AIDS diagnosis (5; CD4 nadir (5 if <100; 1 point less every 100 CD4 increase; ART line (0 first, up to 5 for≥6 lines; lipodistrophy (5; HCV coinfection (7; education (1 degree, 2 secondary, 3 primary; alcohol (3 and drug abuse (5; working activity (3 if unemployed; hypertension (3; cholesterol≥200 mg/dl (3; diabetes (3; Framingham score (7 if>7%; creatinine (0 if <1 mg/dl, 1 if<1.2; 2 if<1.5>1.2, 5 if<2> 1.5, 7 if≥2; bone fractures (7; bone status at DEXA (0 normal, 3 osteopenic, 5 osteoporotic; cancer (5; depression (3 if BDI>17; other psychiatric illness (5. Annual costs of individual ART regimens were calculated. MFRS was correlated in univariate and multivariate models with all variables. All statistical analyses were carried out using Stata 10.1. Summary of results: We enrolled 241 HIV patients, 74.3% males, aged 44.5±9.9y; 19 patients (7.8% were untreated, 74.8% of treated had undetectable HIV RNA. Mean Nadir CD4 counts were 218±168, 38.5% of patients had an AIDS diagnosis. Mean individual ARV annual cost was 10,976±5,360. Mean MFRS was 28.5±13.9 (4–64. MFRS was significantly higher (p<0.001 in patients with older age, longer duration of HIV infection, lower CD4 nadirs, AIDS diagnosis

  1. Behavior of Newborns Weighing less than 1 800 g Comportamiento del recién nacido con peso menor de 1 800 gramos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betsy Rodríguez González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: despite the resources made available in Public Health to care for newborn infants, low birth weight indicators remain elevated in these infants. Objective: to identify what is the behavior of infants less than 1 800 grams.¨ Enrique Cabrera Hospital ¨. Methods: we performed a longitudinal retrospective study and Enrique Cabrera Hospital during the period February 2007 to December 2008, we studied 45 infants weighing less than 1800 grams, who were admitted consecutively. Biological variables were analyzed: incidence, diseases that lead to ventilation, stay, cause of death and status at discharge. Information was collected from medical records and service statistics, the data were processed using descriptive statistics, and used to calculate percentages in tables exposing. Results: of the 8 012 45 newborns (0,56% were underweight (<1 800g fans, 24,4%, with an incidence of 0,13%, the group of 32 to 36 weeks accounted for 64, 4%, 75,6% were between 1 weight 402g to 1 800g and males with 55.5%, the causes of death were sepsis and intraventricular hemorrhage with 33,3% survival was obtained 86,6%. Conclusion: the incidence of low weight and ventilation was poor, a predominance of males, the weight group of 1 402 to 1 800 g, gestational age from 32 to 36 weeks and within the main causes of death were sepsis and intraventricular hemorrhage, and survival was obtained properly.Introducción: a pesar de los recursos que se ponen a disposición en la Salud Pública para atender a los niños recién nacidos, los indicadores de bajo peso en estos infantes permanecen elevados. Objetivo: identificar cuál es el comportamiento de los recién nacidos menores de 1 800 gramos en el Hospital ¨Enrique Cabrera¨. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo y longitudinal en el Hospital Enrique Cabrera

  2. Study protocol: the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a brief behavioural intervention to promote regular self-weighing to prevent weight regain after weight loss: randomised controlled trial (The LIMIT Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madigan, Claire D; Jolly, Kate; Roalfe, Andrea; Lewis, Amanda L; Webber, Laura; Aveyard, Paul; Daley, Amanda J

    2015-06-04

    Although obesity causes many adverse health consequences, modest weight loss reduces the incidence. There are effective interventions that help people to lose weight but weight regain is common and long term maintenance remains a critical challenge. As a high proportion of the population of most high and middle income countries are overweight, there are many people who would benefit from weight loss and its maintenance. Therefore, we need to find effective low cost scalable interventions to help people achieve this. One such intervention that has shown promise is regular self-weighing, to check progress against a target, however there is no trial that has tested this using a randomised controlled design (RCT). The aim of this RCT is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a brief behavioural intervention delivered by non-specialist staff to promote regular self-weighing to prevent weight regain after intentional weight loss. A randomised trial of 560 adults who have lost ≥ 5 % of their initial body weight through a 12 week weight loss programme. The comparator group receive a weight maintenance leaflet, a diagram representing healthy diet composition, and a list of websites for weight control. The intervention group receive the same plus minimally trained telephonists will ask participants to set a weight target and encourage them to weigh themselves daily, and provide support materials such as a weight record card. The primary outcome is the difference between groups in weight change from baseline to 12 months. If effective, this study will provide public health agencies with a simple, low cost maintenance intervention that could be implemented immediately. ISRCTN52341938 Date Registered: 31/03/2014.

  3. Validation of uncertainty of weighing in the preparation of radionuclide standards by Monte Carlo Method; Validacao da incerteza de pesagens no preparo de padroes de radionuclideos por Metodo de Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacais, F.L.; Delgado, J.U., E-mail: facacais@gmail.com [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Loayza, V.M. [Instituto Nacional de Metrologia (INMETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Qualidade e Tecnologia

    2016-07-01

    In preparing solutions for the production of radionuclide metrology standards is necessary measuring the quantity Activity by mass. The gravimetric method by elimination is applied to perform weighing with smaller uncertainties. At this work is carried out the validation, by the Monte Carlo method, of the uncertainty calculation approach implemented by Lourenco and Bobin according to ISO GUM for the method by elimination. The results obtained by both uncertainty calculation methods were consistent indicating that were fulfilled the conditions for the application of ISO GUM in the preparation of radioactive standards. (author)

  4. 举重竞赛中运动员称重后到出场前阶段能量补充的探讨%Discussion on Energy Recharge After Weighing and Before Appearance on Weight -Hfting Competition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林桂福

    2011-01-01

    通过文献综述法和专家访谈法就举重运动员称体重后到赛前能量补充进行探讨分析。提出通过合理安排赛前营养的摄入来提高运动员的比赛能力和水平。%This paper adopted methods of documentation and interview to discuss and analysis energy recharge after weighing and before appearance on weight - lifting competition, put forward that arrange the intake of nutrients reasonable before competition to improve the competitive ability and level for athletes.

  5. Validation of protein intake assessed from weighed dietary records against protein estimated from 24 h urine samples in children, adolescents and young adults participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bokhof, Beate; Günther, Anke L B; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To date, only a few nutritional assessment methods have been validated against the biomarker of urinary-N excretion for use in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to validate protein intake from one day of a weighed dietary record against protein intake estimated......-classifications and Bland-Altman plots were used to assess agreement between methods. RESULTS: Weighed dietary records significantly underestimated mean protein intake by -6.4 (95 % CI -8.2, -4.7) g/d or -11 %, with the difference increasing across the age groups from -0.6 (95 % CI -2.7, 1.5) g/d at age 3-4 years to -13.......5 % into the opposite quartile (1.9-3.1 % for the different age groups). Bland-Altman plots for the total sample indicated that differences in protein intake increased across the range of protein intake, while this bias was not obvious within the age groups. CONCLUSIONS: Protein intake in children and adolescents can...

  6. The Optimization for Anti-Bias Load of Capacitance Weighing Sensor Based on NSGA-II Algorithm%基于NSGA-II算法的电容称重传感器抗偏载能力的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 王建; 李巨韬

    2013-01-01

    为了满足在保证电容称重传感器最小识别极距变化的同时达到提高其抗偏载能力的要求,对传感器进行了多目标优化的研究。分析计算了电容称重传感器力学性能与结构参数之间的关系,建立了以其导向性能和抗弯性能为优化目标的0.001 g精度电容称重传感器的多目标优化模型。应用Isight优化软件中的改进型非支配解遗传(NSGA-域)算法得到电容称重传感器的Pareto最优解集,并通过有限元验证了优化结果的准确性。研究表明,在保证电容称重传感器最小识别极距变化的前提下,极大地屏蔽了偏载对电容精度的影响,结果具有很强的实用性。%In order to meet the requirements of improving the anti-bias load capability on the condition that the changes of minimum identified polar pitch of capacitance weighing sensor can be guaranteed, the multi-goals optimization study for the sensor has been made. And the relationship between the mechanical performance and structural parameters has been analyzed and calculated, the optimized model with multi-goals for capacitance weighing sensor with precision 0 . 001 g is established based on its guide performance and bending performance as the optimizing goal;the improved non-dominant deciphering genetic algorithm( NSGA-II) in the optimized software of Isight for getting the Pareto optimal solution set is applied, and the accuracy of the optimized results by finite elements has been verified;The study shows that,the affect on capacitance precision by bias load has been shielded at the premise that the changes of minimum identified polar pitch of capacitance weighing sensor can be ensured,the results are of strong practical.

  7. THE APPLICATION OF DSPN AND ENTROPY WEIGH DUAL-BASE METHOD IN WLAN RELIABILITY EVALUATION%DSPN和熵权双基法在WLAN网络可靠性评估中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽

    2011-01-01

    Deterministic and Stochastic Petri Net (DSPN) model has the superity in the area of discrete dynamic event system description.In this artcle, such superiority of DSPN is used to model the RTS/CTS mechanism of WLAN communication protocol.Moreover two important performance parameters of WLAN are calculated, and their reliabilities evaluation are conducted using entropy weigh dual-base method.%基于DSPN模型描述离散动态事件系统的优越性.对WLAN通信协议的RTS/CTS机制进行建模,计算出了WLAN的两个重要性能指标,并利用熵权双基法对其进行了可靠性评估.

  8. 星载GPS非差运动学定轨中的观测数据加权策略研究%Research on an Observations Weighing Method for Onboard GPS Zero-Differential Kinematic Orbit Determination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷德峰; 易东云

    2011-01-01

    星载GPS非差运动学定轨结果容易受到观测数据质量的影响,相位观测噪声远远小于伪码,如果将两种观测数据等权处理,会降低相位信息在参数解算中的作用;相位观测存在模糊,单独使用会导致参数估计结构不稳定;伪码观测噪声与接收天线高度角存在很强的相关性.本文根据星栽GPS伪码和相位联合非差运动学定轨原理,结合GPS观测数据质量分析结果,提出了一种合理的加权策略,提高了星载GPS非差运动学定轨的精度和稳定性.对一个星期的CHAMP的观测数据进行处理,将非差运动学定轨结果与GFZ事后科学轨道进行对比,结果表明二者在R、T、N分量上差值的均方根为20cm、12cm、13cm,三维点位误差的均方根为27cm.通过分析多种不同加权策略的定轨精度差异,验证了本文提出的加权策略的有效性.%Onboard GPS zero-differential kinematic orbit determination is sensitive to the observation quality. The GPS phase noise is much less than the code noise. If both the observations are equally weighed, the parameter solution performance of the highly precise phase will be decreased. However, the phase observations have ambiguity, using phase observations signally will make the structure of parameter estimation unstable. And the code noise has significant correlation with receiving antenna elevation. The GPS observation quality is analyzed. Combining the analyzed results with the principle of zero-differential kinematic orbit determination based on code and phase, a reasonable weighing method is proposed, and the precision and stability of onboard GPS zero-differential kinematic orbit determination is improved. Observations on the CHAMP satellite for one week are tested. The zero-differential kinematic orbit determination results are compared with the GFZ science orbit.The RMSs (root of mean square) in the R, T and N components are 20cm, 12cm and 13cm, and the RMS in the three-dimension is

  9. Test Data Acquisition and Processing of a Piezo Film-based Vehicle Dynamic Weighing System%基于压电薄膜的车辆动态称重系统数据采集及处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶秀; 刘礼勇; 陶圣

    2011-01-01

    介绍了基于压电薄膜的车辆动态称重系统数据采集前端的信号调理电路,针对传感器信号进行了处理及分析,着重介绍数据滤波以及系统试验方案,并给出了整个系统的程序流程图.%In this paper, the data acquisition signal conditioning circuit of a piezo film-based vehicle dynamic weighing system was introduced. Moreover, the sensor signals were processed and analyzed, with focus on data filtering and system test plan. Finally, the procedure for the whole system flowchart was also presented.

  10. Comparison between radiation exposure levels using an image intensifier and a flat-panel detector-based system in image-guided central venous catheter placement in children weighing less than 10 kg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Cortis, Kelvin; Gerasia, Roberta; Maggio, Simona; Luca, Angelo [Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services, Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Palermo (Italy); Piazza, Marcello [Department of Anesthesia, Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Palermo (Italy); Tuzzolino, Fabio [Department of Information Technology, Mediterranean Institute for Transplantation and Advanced Specialized Therapies (ISMETT), Palermo (Italy)

    2014-09-10

    Ultrasound-guided central venous puncture and fluoroscopic guidance during central venous catheter (CVC) positioning optimizes technical success and lowers the complication rates in children, and is therefore considered standard practice. The purpose of this study was to compare the radiation exposure levels recorded during CVC placement in children weighing less than 10 kg in procedures performed using an image intensifier-based angiographic system (IIDS) to those performed in a flat-panel detector-based interventional suite (FPDS). A retrospective review of 96 image-guided CVC placements, between January 2008 and October 2013, in 49 children weighing less than 10 kg was performed. Mean age was 8.2 ± 4.4 months (range: 1-22 months). Mean weight was 7.1 ± 2.7 kg (range: 2.5-9.8 kg). The procedures were classified into two categories: non-tunneled and tunneled CVC placement. Thirty-five procedures were performed with the IIDS (21 non-tunneled CVC, 14 tunneled CVC); 61 procedures were performed with the FPDS (47 non-tunneled CVC, 14 tunneled CVC). For non-tunneled CVC, mean DAP was 113.5 ± 126.7 cGy cm{sup 2} with the IIDS and 15.9 ± 44.6 cGy . cm{sup 2} with the FPDS (P < 0.001). For tunneled CVC, mean DAP was 84.6 ± 81.2 cGy . cm{sup 2} with the IIDS and 37.1 ± 33.5 cGy cm{sup 2} with the FPDS (P = 0.02). The use of flat-panel angiographic equipment reduces radiation exposure in small children undergoing image-guided CVC placement. (orig.)

  11. Montagem e acurácia de um sistema experimental de pesagem para calibração de sensores de umidade do solo Assembling and accuracy of an experimental weighing system for calibration of soil moisture sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Martins Santos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho descreve os procedimentos de desenvolvimento e teste de um sistema de pesagem de grande capacidade para utilização em gravimetria como método padrão de calibração de sensores de umidade do solo. O trabalho foi desenvolvido no Laboratório de Irrigação e Drenagem, Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais da Universidade Federal da Bahia, campus de Cruz das Almas (12º40'S, 39º30'W, BA. O princípio de funcionamento do sistema de pesagem baseia-se no seu componente principal, a célula de carga. Utilizou-se uma célula de carga do tipo flexão, de capacidade 60 kg e sensibilidade de 2 mV/V, quando submetida à carga máxima. A calibração foi realizada por meio de massas-padrão de 1, 5, 10 e 20 kg em sete ciclos de carregamento e descarregamento. O modelo de calibração encontrado foi do tipo linear (r² = 0,999 e os erros de repetibilidade, histerese e linearidade foram da ordem de 0,119, 0,068 e 0,009% do final de escala (FE, respectivamente. Os limites do erro de acurácia, que representa o desempenho geral do sistema, foram ±0,083% de FE. O sistema de pesagem foi considerado adequado, do ponto de vista de funcionalidade e desempenho, para calibração em condições controladas, de sensores de umidade do tipo sonda de capacitância, utilizando-se amostras indeformadas de solo. O custo final do sistema foi estimado em R$ 1.800,00 (US$ 766,00.This work describes the development and testing of a large-capacity weighing system for calibration of soil moisture sensors in which the gravimetric method is taken as the standard one. The experiment was conducted at the Laboratório de Irrigação e Drenagem, Centro de Ciências Agrárias e Ambientais da Universidade Federal da Bahia, town of Cruz das Almas (12º40'S, 39º30'W, State of Bahia, Brazil. The main component of the system was a 60-kg load cell with a 2-mV/V sensibility when submitted to the maximum load. In the calibration process standard weights of 1, 5

  12. Weighing Posthumanism: Fatness and Contested Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Apostolidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed to be an “entrepreneur of himself, being for himself his own capital, being for himself his own producer, being for himself the source of [his] earnings” (Foucault, 2008, p. 226. From this perspective, we analyse instances of collective hatred towards fat subjects as direct results of the biopolitical triplet of responsibility, rationality, and morality. Morality is our bridge into the field of posthumanism, in which, as we demonstrate, these biopolitical imperatives also apply, reinforced by the field’s fascination with prosthetics and enhancement. Where, by biopolitical standards, fat subjects have failed to manage themselves, posthuman subjects find themselves guilty of not responsibly, rationally, and morally manipulating themselves to optimal productivity. Using criticism that disability studies scholars like Sarah S. Jain and Vivian Sobchack have voiced about posthumanism, we demonstrate the ways in which, within posthumanism, all subjects can be found as lacking when compared to their potential, enhanced post­human version.

  13. Weighing Posthumanism : Fatness and Contested Humanity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolidou, S.; Sturm, J.

    2016-01-01

    Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed

  14. Comparison of soybean evapotranspirations measured by weighing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... balances and to estimate water availability and require- ments. Thus, many ... surement techniques using lysimeters to energy balance measurements ..... located in the control room of the lysimeter station, where software.

  15. Reflections on reducing insulin to lose weigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Val

    Diabulimia is not a recognised medical condition, although it is thought to affect one-third of women with type 1 diabetes. Diabulimia involves deliberately omitting or reducing insulin dosages to lose weight. This article reports the reflections of women with long-duration type 1 diabetes who said that they had manipulated their insulin in the past to lose weight. Many were now dealing with serious heart and neuropathic complications, which they felt were a result of their diabulimia.

  16. WEIGHING NEUTRINOS WITH COSMIC NEUTRAL HYDROGEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Bull, Philip, E-mail: villaescusa@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: viel@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: p.j.bull@astro.uio.no [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029 Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the signatures left by massive neutrinos on the spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen (H i) in the post-reionization era by running hydrodynamic simulations that include massive neutrinos as additional collisionless particles. We find that halos in massive/massless neutrino cosmologies host a similar amount of neutral hydrogen, although for a fixed halo mass, on average, the H i mass increases with the sum of the neutrino masses. Our results show that H i is more strongly clustered in cosmologies with massive neutrinos, while its abundance, Ω{sub H} {sub i}(z), is lower. These effects arise mainly from the impact of massive neutrinos on cosmology: they suppress both the amplitude of the matter power spectrum on small scales and the abundance of dark matter halos. Modeling the H i distribution with hydrodynamic simulations at z > 3 and a simple analytic model at z < 3, we use the Fisher matrix formalism to conservatively forecast the constraints that Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array will place on the sum of neutrino masses, M{sub ν} ≡ Σ m{sub ν}. We find that with 10,000 hr of interferometric observations at 3 ≲ z ≲ 6 from a deep and narrow survey with SKA1-LOW, the sum of the neutrino masses can be measured with an error σ(M{sub ν}) ≲ 0.3 eV (95% CL). Similar constraints can be obtained with a wide and deep SKA1-MID survey at z ≲ 3, using the single-dish mode. By combining data from MID, LOW, and Planck, plus priors on cosmological parameters from a Stage IV spectroscopic galaxy survey, the sum of the neutrino masses can be determined with an error σ(M{sub ν}) ≃ 0.06 eV (95% CL)

  17. Analysis weighs issues in divestiture decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spallina, J M

    1990-07-01

    Financial managers faced with the task of recommending whether diversified services should be dissolved or continued need a logical means of analysis. Their evaluations should consider not only the venture's financial results but concerns specific to the hospital and its market, as well as related social and legal issues. Failure analysis, a function of business portfolio management, helps put these variables in perspective and provides a framework for decision making.

  18. Weighing the Claims in Diet Ads

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can contact your state Attorney General . Tagged with: advertising , diet , health , scam , weight loss July 2012 You ... Email Updates Blog Feed Facebook YouTube Twitter The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is ...

  19. Prevention of obesity : weighing ethical arguments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. ten Have (Marieke)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTaxes on unhealthy food, limits to commercial advertising, a ban on chocolate drink at schools, or compulsory physical exercise for obese employees: efforts to counter the rise in overweight and obesity sometimes raise questions about what is ethically acceptable. This thesis examines ho

  20. Plant genetics. A tomato gene weighs in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebley, J

    2000-07-07

    What makes some people big and others small--obviously our genes, but which ones? Working out the complex of genes that control such quantitative traits in animals and plants is one of the big challenges facing geneticists. In his Perspective, Doebley discusses new results that identify the fw2.2 gene as one of the genes determining fruit size in the tomato (Frary et al.).

  1. Weighing black holes in the universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xue-bing

    2006-01-01

    The determination of the mass of black holes in our universe is crucial to understand their physics nature but is a great challenge to scientists.In this paper Ⅰ briefly review some methods that are currently used to estimate the mass of black holes,especially those in X-ray binary systems and in galactic nuclei.Our recent progress in improving the mass estimates of supermasssive black holes in active galactic nuclei by involving some empirical relations is presented.Finally Ⅰ point out the similarities and common physics in Galactic black hole X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei,and demonstrate that the black hole mass estimation is very much helpful to understand the accretion physics around black holes.

  2. Ballmer, Barrett weigh in on security

    CERN Multimedia

    Sullivan, T

    2003-01-01

    ORLANDO, Fla. - Speaking in separate sessions Tuesday at the Gartner Symposium/ITxpo, Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer and Intel's chief Craig Barrett discussed the problems of computer/network security (1/2 page).

  3. Weighing Rocky Exoplanets with Improved Radial Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuesong Wang, Sharon; Wright, Jason; California Planet Survey Consortium

    2016-01-01

    The synergy between Kepler and the ground-based radial velocity (RV) surveys have made numerous discoveries of small and rocky exoplanets, opening the age of Earth analogs. However, most (29/33) of the RV-detected exoplanets that are smaller than 3 Earth radii do not have their masses constrained to better than 20% - limited by the current RV precision (1-2 m/s). Our work improves the RV precision of the Keck telescope, which is responsible for most of the mass measurements for small Kepler exoplanets. We have discovered and verified, for the first time, two of the dominant terms in Keck's RV systematic error budget: modeling errors (mostly in deconvolution) and telluric contamination. These two terms contribute 1 m/s and 0.6 m/s, respectively, to the RV error budget (RMS in quadrature), and they create spurious signals at periods of one sidereal year and its harmonics with amplitudes of 0.2-1 m/s. Left untreated, these errors can mimic the signals of Earth-like or Super-Earth planets in the Habitable Zone. Removing these errors will bring better precision to ten-year worth of Keck data and better constraints on the masses and compositions of small Kepler planets. As more precise RV instruments coming online, we need advanced data analysis tools to overcome issues like these in order to detect the Earth twin (RV amplitude 8 cm/s). We are developing a new, open-source RV data analysis tool in Python, which uses Bayesian MCMC and Gaussian processes, to fully exploit the hardware improvements brought by new instruments like MINERVA and NASA's WIYN/EPDS.

  4. Mandatory Arbitration: Weighing the Pros and Cons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settenbrino, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    When big businesses enter into mandatory arbitration agreements with consumers, the large companies typically tout the fairness while the individual is left feeling cheated. Now that mandatory arbitration clauses are finding their way into more and more contracts signed by school systems, school boards and district administrators are realizing…

  5. Weighing up the EC Environmental Liability Directive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Gerd; Jans, Jan H.; Macrory, Richard; Kraemer, Ludwig

    2008-01-01

    In spite of a lengthy gestation period, the Environmental Liability Directive left conceptual puzzles that have caused difficulties of transposition by Member States and of application by authorities, operators, third parties and insurance companies. This is largely due to the fact that the

  6. Physicists weigh up new budget reality

    CERN Multimedia

    Gwynne, P

    2001-01-01

    The physics community faces new challenges following the New York terrorist attacks. Policy makers think that while it may not face long-term funding cuts, there will be short-term disruption (1/2 page).

  7. Obesity and prostate cancer: weighing the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allott, Emma H; Masko, Elizabeth M; Freedland, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    Obesity and prostate cancer (PCa) affect substantial proportions of Western society. Mounting evidence, both epidemiologic and mechanistic, for an association between the two is of public health interest. An improved understanding of the role of this modifiable risk factor in PCa etiology is imperative to optimize screening, treatment, and prevention. To consolidate and evaluate the evidence for an epidemiologic link between obesity and PCa, in addition to examining the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms. A PubMed search for relevant articles published between 1991 and July 2012 was performed by combining the following terms: obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer risk, prostate cancer incidence, prostate cancer mortality, radical prostatectomy, androgen-deprivation therapy, external-beam radiation, brachytherapy, prostate cancer and quality of life, prostate cancer and active surveillance, in addition to obesity, BMI, body mass index and prostate cancer and insulin, insulin-like growth factor, androgen, estradiol, leptin, adiponectin, and IL-6. Articles were selected based on content, date of publication, and relevancy, and their references were also searched for relevant articles. Increasing evidence suggests obesity is associated with elevated incidence of aggressive PCa, increased risk of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy and external-beam radiotherapy, higher frequency of complications following androgen-deprivation therapy, and increased PCa-specific mortality, although perhaps a lower overall PCa incidence. These results may in part relate to difficulties in detecting and treating obese men. However, multiple molecular mechanisms could explain these associations as well. Weight loss slows PCa in animal models but has yet to be fully tested in human trials. Obesity appears to be linked with aggressive PCa. We suggest clinical tips to better diagnose and treat obese men with PCa. Whether reversing obesity slows PCa growth is currently unknown, although it is an active area of research. Copyright © 2012 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 7 CFR 800.96 - Weighing procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... add other grain or material en route. Except as noted in paragraph (c) of this section, the identity of an inbound lot shall be considered lost when a portion of the lot is transferred or otherwise.... When loss of identity occurs, no amount shall be shown in the “Net Weight” portion of the...

  9. Weighing neutrinos with cosmic neutral hydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Villaescusa-Navarro, Francisco; Viel, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the signatures left by massive neutrinos on the spatial distribution of neutral hydrogen (HI) in the post-reionization era by running hydrodynamic simulations that include massive neutrinos as additional collisionless particles. We find that halos in massive/massless neutrino cosmologies host a similar amount of neutral hydrogen, although for a fixed halo mass, on average, the HI mass increases with the sum of the neutrino masses. Our results show that HI is more strongly clustered in cosmologies with massive neutrinos, while its abundance, $\\Omega_{\\rm HI}(z)$, is lower. These effects arise mainly from the impact of massive neutrinos on cosmology: they suppress both the amplitude of the matter power spectrum on small scales and the abundance of dark matter halos. Modelling the HI distribution with hydrodynamic simulations at $z > 3$, and a simple analytic model at $z<3$, we use the Fisher matrix formalism to conservatively forecast the constraints that Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array ...

  10. How Can "Weightless" Astronauts Be Weighed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnicer, Jesus; Reyes, Francisco; Guisasola, Jenaro

    2012-01-01

    In introductory physics courses, within the context of studying Newton's laws, it is common to consider the problem of a body's "weight" when it is in free fall. The solution shows that the "weight" is zero and this leads to a discussion of the concept of weight. There are permanent free-fall situations such as astronauts in a spacecraft orbiting…

  11. Educators Weigh E-Textbook Cost Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Jason

    2012-01-01

    During the first-ever Digital Learning Day, U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan and Federal Communications Commission chief Julius Genachowski unveiled an ambitious plan earlier this year to get schools to switch from print to digital textbooks by 2017. Dubbed the Digital Textbook Playbook, it's a recommendation for how schools could transform…

  12. Weighing Anchor in the "Ragged Times"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tonya B.

    2012-01-01

    In today's middle school classroom, grouping is an essential learning tool that enhances students' ability to collaborate with others and deepen their own thinking. Implementing group work effectively, though, can be a challenge, especially since groups tend to end their work at "ragged" or staggered times. Creating "anchor activities"--respectful…

  13. Weighing Posthumanism: Fatness and Contested Humanity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Apostolidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Our project on fatness begins by turning attention to the multiple cultural instances in which fatness has been intrinsically linked with notions such as self—neglect and poor self—management. In Foucauldian terms, we analyse the fat subject as a failed homo economicus, an individual who has failed to be an “entrepreneur of himself, being for himself his own capital, being for himself his own producer, being for himself the source of [his] earnings” (Foucault, 2008, p. 226. From this perspective, we analyse instances of collective hatred towards fat subjects as direct results of the biopolitical triplet of responsibility, rationality, and morality. Morality is our bridge into the field of posthumanism, in which, as we demonstrate, these biopolitical imperatives also apply, reinforced by the field’s fascination with prosthetics and enhancement. Where, by biopolitical standards, fat subjects have failed to manage themselves, posthuman subjects find themselves guilty of not responsibly, rationally, and morally manipulating themselves to optimal productivity. Using criticism that disability studies scholars like Sarah S. Jain and Vivian Sobchack have voiced about posthumanism, we demonstrate the ways in which, within posthumanism, all subjects can be found as lacking when compared to their potential, enhanced post­human version.

  14. Market Collapse Weighs Heavily on College Endowments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluemenstyk, Goldie

    2009-01-01

    College endowments earned an average return of minus-3 percent for the 2008 fiscal year and an estimated minus-22.5 percent in the five months after that, two new reports show. More than a quarter of all institutions said they plan to draw less money from their endowment this year than they had expected to spend. After a half-decade of soaring…

  15. Weighing the risks and benefits of vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, L T

    1999-01-01

    The following summarizes this author's current thoughts regarding veterinary vaccines and their safety: 1. Every licensed animal vaccine is probably effective, but also produces some adverse effects. 2. Prelicensing studies of vaccines are not specifically designed to detect adverse vaccine reactions. 3. An improved system of national postmarketing surveillance is required to identify most adverse vaccine reactions that occur at low and moderate frequency. 4. Even a good postmarketing surveillance system is unlikely, however, to detect delayed adverse vaccine reactions, and the longer the delay the less likely they will be associated with vaccination. 5. Analytic epidemiologic (field) studies are the best way to link vaccination with delayed adverse reactions, but these are often hindered by incomplete vaccination histories in medical records in veterinary practice and by a lack of veterinarians in industry trained in epidemiologic methods. 6. Each licensed veterinary vaccine should be subjected to a quantitative risk assessment, and these should be updated on a regular basis as new information becomes available. 7. Risk assessment should be used to identify gaps in information regarding the safety and efficacy of vaccines, and appropriate epidemiologic studies conducted to fill these gaps that contribute to the uncertainty in risk estimates. 8. Risk assessment is an analytical process that is firmly based on scientific considerations, but it also requires judgments to be made when the available information is incomplete. These judgments inevitably draw on both scientific and policy considerations. 9. Representatives from industry, government, veterinary medicine, and the animal-owning public should be involved in risk management, that is, deciding between policy options. The controversy regarding vaccine risks is intensifying to the point that some animal owners have stopped vaccinating their animals. They offer as justification the belief that current vaccines are "just too dangerous." Some owners report that since they completely stopped vaccinating their animals, they have been healthy. What they fail to realize is that a high percentage of animal owners are responsible and do vaccinate their animals, thus providing "herd immunity" protection to the unvaccinated animals whom they contact. The solution to the vaccine controversy is not to abandon vaccination as an effective means of disease prevention and control, but rather to encourage vaccine research to answer important questions regarding safety and to identify the biological basis for adverse reactions. Key questions to be answered include these: What components of vaccines are responsible for adverse reactions? What is the genetic basis for susceptibility to adverse health effects in animals? How can susceptible individuals be identified? Do multivalent vaccines cause a higher rate of adverse reactions than monovalent vaccines? Is administration of multiple doses of monovalent vaccines really any safer than administering a single multivalent vaccine? These and other vaccine-related questions deserve our attention as veterinarians so we can fulfill our veterinary oath to relieve animal suffering and "above all else, do no harm."

  16. Milestone, Weighing 1430 Tons, Reached at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    More on the subject of the Large Hadron Collider (see my last post, pointing to the very good Scientific American package). CERN announced today that the final piece of one of the main LHC particle detectors was at last safely lowered underground early this morning.

  17. Análisis de la morbilidad y mortalidad en recién nacidos con peso inferior a 1500 g Analysis of morbidity and mortality in newborns weighing less than 1500 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanett Sarmiento Portal

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Los recién nacidos (RN con peso inferior a 1500 g continúan contribuyendo desproporcionadamente a la morbilidad y mortalidad perinatal a pesar de representar sólo el 1,0 -1,5 % del total de nacimientos. El objetivo de la presente investigación fue analizar la morbilidad y mortalidad en los RN de muy bajo peso al nacer en el servicio de Neonatología del Hospital General Universitario «Abel Santamaría Cuadrado», en Pinar del Río. MÉTODOS. Se realizó una investigación observacional, longitudinal, prospectiva y analítica, en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Neonatales (UCIN de dicho hospital, entre enero y diciembre de 2007. El universo estuvo constituido por todos los neonatos vivos con peso inferior a 1500 g que ingresaron en la UCIN en el período establecido, y la muestra quedó formada por 52 neonatos. Se analizaron las variables sexo, edad gestacional, peso, crecimiento intrauterino, necesidad de ventilación mecánica, complicaciones y supervivencia. Se elaboró una base de datos en SPSS 12. Las variables fueron analizadas mediante el método porcentual. RESULTADOS. Predominó el sexo masculino (53,9 %, la edad gestacional entre 27 y 29,6 semanas (44,2 % y el crecimiento uterino con peso adecuado según la edad gestacional (84,6 %. La enfermedad de la membrana hialina (55,8 % y los trastornos metabólicos (50 % constituyeron las morbilidades más frecuentes. El 59,6 % de los recién nacidos necesitaron ventilación mecánica, y la bronconeumonía fue la principal causa de muerte en el 40 % de los casos. La supervivencia fue del 90,4 %.INTRODUCTION: The newborns (NB weighing less than 1500 g contribute en a disproportionate way to the perinatal morbidity and mortality despite representing only the 1,0 1,5% of birth total. The objective of present research was to analyze the morbidity and the mortality in newborns with a very low birth weight in Neonatology Service of "Abel Santamaría Cuadrado" University Hospital

  18. 大功率机车静态称重系统的设计与实现%The design and implementation of high power locomotive static weighing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉东; 伏滨; 高绍和; 杨纪富

    2015-01-01

    Articleabstract:To solve the problem after the new manufacture, use, repair of high power locomotive wheel load, axle load partial load problem, high-power locomotive static weighing system is designed and developed, the system through the detection of locomotive wheel load, axle load, heavy truck and vehicle weight, through computer processing to calculate the vehicle wheel load, axle load difference and unilateral lateral wheel weight difference, determine the plane of center of gravity of the locomotive, and can be calculated based on test result form guide adjustment scheme of locomotive wheel weight deviation, adjusting spring cushioned by the adjustment plan, so as to realize the locomotive wheel load, axle load balance.%为解决新制造、使用中、修理后的大功率机车轮重、轴重偏载问题,设计开发了大功率机车静态称重系统,该系统通过检测机车的轮重、轴重、转向架重及整车重量,经过计算机处理计算出车辆轮重差、轴重差以及单边侧轮重差,确定出机车的平面重心,并能依据检测结果计算形成指导机车轮重偏差的调整方案,依据调整方案进行调簧加垫,从而实现机车轮重、轴重均载平衡。

  19. Effect of density differences on weighing of imported refined palm olein%进口精炼棕榈液油密度差异对计重的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新; 俞晔; 金俊; 金青哲

    2014-01-01

    Density of vegetable oil is an important parameter to calculate its mass. The effect of differ-ences between density provided by the loading port and density tested in the laboratory of imported refined palm olein on weighing was studied by the method of mathematical statistics. The results showed that there were significant differences between the density provided by the loading port and density tested in the laboratory of some imported refined palm olein, and the density of the loading port was higher by 0. 3%than that tested in the laboratory at the same temperature, which resulted in the actual mass short-age over 0 . 3%. The improvement measures and suggestions were put forward aming at the mass shortage of imported vegetable oil caused by artificially high density.%植物油密度是计算植物油质量的重要参数,运用数理统计方法,研究了进口精炼棕榈液油装货港计量密度与实验室计量密度差异对植物油计重的影响。结果表明:一些进口精炼棕榈液油装货港计量密度与实验室计量密度存在显著差异,在相同温度下其装货港计量密度比实验室计量密度高出0.3%以上,导致实到货物质量比船方计量质量短缺0.3%以上。针对密度虚高引起的进口植物油短重现象,提出了改进措施与建议。

  20. Analysis of Highway Bridge Trafifc Load by a Weigh-in-Motion Approach%基于动态称重的高速桥梁车辆荷载分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢颖

    2016-01-01

    基于安装在高速某三跨连续梁桥上的动态称重系统(WIM)所记录的车辆荷载数据,对车流量、车重、车速、总轴距和车间距进行了分析,得到其统计特性和分布的一般规律。然后,通过广义极值模型(GEV)计算出最大弯矩极值分布,得出实际车辆荷载,并与规范中所规定的荷载进行比较。结果表明:一天中各时段的总交通流量具有很强的潮汐规律性;从车流构成上看,二轴车辆占绝大多数,其次为六轴及以上车辆;实际运行车辆荷载低于设计车辆荷载,实际荷载对桥梁健康状况危害不大。%Basing on data recorded by the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) system installed in a three span continuous girder bridge at highway, perform analysis of the vehicle flow, weight, speed, wheelbase and interval, as to discover general discipline of their statistical characteristics and distribution. Then, the Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) model is used to calculate the extreme value distribution of maximum bending moment. The actual vehicle load is compared with the load determined by the regulations. The results show that, traffic flow has a strong tidal regularity; from the aspect of flow composition, dual-axle dominates the largest part, and the six-axle or more dominate the secondary. The actual running vehicle load is lower than the designed, thus brings out little harm to bridge healthy status.

  1. Morbilidad y mortalidad del recién nacido pretérmino menor de 1 500 gramos Morbility and mortality of the preterm newborn weighing under 1 500 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luena Cárdenas González

    2012-03-01

    significant challenges in the field of the neonatology has been the integral treatment to a very small newborn as well as to achieve decrease the high rates of morbility and mortality in newborns with a very low gestational age. Methods: an observational and descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in 139 neonates weighing under 1 500 g and with less than 37 weeks of gestational age, over 2003-2007 in the "Dr. Eusebio Hernandez" Gynecology and Obstetric Hospital. The study variables were: gestational age, birth weight, sex, birth route, Apgar score, nutritional assessment, morbility and cause of death. Authors showed the results mainly by means of rates and percentages. Results: the incidence found was of the 0, 66 % during study period. More than a half of patients born by cesarean section (57.6 % and the 73.3 % had a normal Apgar score. The newborn incidence weighing under 1 000 g was of 11.5 %. More than the three quarter of universe was diagnosed with a restricted intrauterine growth. The first cause of morbility was the late onset sepsis, followed by the hyaline membrane disease. The 100% of immature patients dyed (less than 28 weeks, whereas the 37.5 % of the very small at birth (less than 1 000 g were alive at discharge. The entity that more deaths provoked was the sepsis (34.2 %, mainly, the late onset sepsis, with a lethality rate 1,5 higher than the congenital sepsis. Conclusions: the incidence of neonates with very low weight was lower than mentioned in the international reports. Sepsis and hyaline membrane disease were the major causes of morbility and mortality. The very little neonates and those immature were included the group with more cases of mortality.

  2. Estimativa da gordura corporal através de equipamentos de bioimpedância, dobras cutâneas e pesagem hidrostática Comparison of body fat estimation by bioelectric impedance, skinfold thickness, and underwater weighing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Nunes Rodrigues

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa do percentual de gordura (%G pela bioimpedância (BIA tem como vantagem a simplicidade da medida. Contudo, a confiabilidade da BIA tem sofrido críticas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a estimativa do %G através das técnicas de bioimpedância (RJL-101; Byodinamics A-310, Maltron BF-900 e BF-906, de dobras cutâneas (DC e da pesagem hidrostática (PH. Observaram-se 25 indivíduos, homogeneizados segundo raça (branca, gênero (masculino e idade (18 a 36 anos. Para a medida de BIA foi utilizada a padronização proposta por Lukaski et al. (1985, 1986. Para as DC foram utilizadas as equações de å 3 DC e å 7 DC (Jackson, Pollock, 1978. Os valores de %G e de volume residual para PH foram preditos, respectivamente, pelas equações de Siri (1961 e Goldman e Becklake (1959. A análise estatística compreendeu: a comparação entre os métodos através da ANOVA com medidas repetidas seguida de testes post-hoc de Tukey; b correlação de Pearson (r; e c cálculo do erro padrão de estimativa (SEE das técnicas em relação à PH. Os resultados indicaram que: a as medidas de BIA não diferiram significativamente, entre si, para o %G estimado; b As medidas dos aparelhos A-310 e BF-906 não coincidiram com a PH (p The main advantage of the bioelectric impedance method (BIA in the determination of body fat (%BF is the simplicity of the procedure. However, its accuracy and reliability have been criticized. The purpose of this study was to compare the %BF obtained by BIA (RJL-101; Biodynamics A-310, Maltron BF-900 e BF-906, by skinfold thickness (ST, and by underwater weighing (UW. Twenty-five subjects, divided in homogenous groups according to age (18 to 36 years, sex (men, and race (white participated in the study. BIA measures were taken using the Lukaski et al. standardization (1985,1986. ST was taken by using the equation of 3 and 7 skinfolds (Jackson, Pollock, 1978. The values of %BF and residual volume for the UW were estimated

  3. Tempo de recuperação entre a pesagem e o início das lutas em competições de judô do Estado de São Paulo Recovery time between weigh-in and first match in State level judo competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Giannini Artioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A perda rápida de peso é altamente prevalente entre atletas de luta. No judô, há um período entre a pesagem e o início da competição no qual atletas podem se recuperar da perda de peso. Apesar desse tempo ser determinante para o desempenho, nenhum estudo avaliou seu padrão de duração. Este estudo objetivou determinar o padrão de duração do tempo entre a pesagem e o início das lutas em competições oficiais de judô. Foram analisados 117 atletas do sexo masculino (classes juvenil, júnior e sênior durante duas competições oficiais. Registraram-se o horário de término da pesagem e do início da primeira luta de cada atleta. O tempo médio de recuperação foi de aproximadamente quatro horas. A maior parte dos atletas teve aproximadamente 2,5 - 5 horas entre a pesagem e o início das lutas. O período para a classe sênior foi significantemente maior do que o das classes júnior e juvenil (p Rapid weight loss is highly prevalent among combat sport athletes. After the weigh-in, there is a period in which athletes can refeed and rehydrate before the combats. The length of this recovery period is determinant for performance in the subsequent combats. No study, however, has determined the time patterns of such period. The purpose of this study was to determine the patterns of recovery time between the weigh-in and the first combats during judo competitions. One hundred and seventeen juvenile, junior and senior male athletes were analyzed during two São Paulo state competitions. The time at which each athlete has finished the weight-in and the time at which they have started the first combat were recorded and then the recovery period between weigh-in and combats was calculated. Average recovery time was approximately four hours. Most athletes had a 2.5 to 5-hour recovery time between the weigh-in and the first combat. Senior athletes had a significant longer recovery time compared to junior and juvenile (p < 0.001. Junior athletes

  4. 一种基于机器人自动化煤质分析系统的煤样微量添加与称量模块的特点与应用%Characteristics and application of trace add coal sample and the weighing module based on the robot automation coal quality analysis system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘振中

    2015-01-01

    Articleabstract:This paper mainly introduces characteristics and main function of trace add coal sample and the weighing module based on the robot automation coal quality analysis system, through the elaboration of robotic automation coal quality analysis system development background, and clear the importance of the research and development of the module and its application prospect, and puts forward some technical problems need to be further solved, hope the perfected constantly, serve industry rapid development.%本文主要介绍了一种基于机器人自动化煤质分析系统的煤样微量添加与称量模块的技术特点与主要功能,通过阐述机器人自动化煤质分析系统的研发背景来说明该模块研发的重要性及其应用前景,同时提出了需要进一步解决的一些技术问题,希望其不断得以完善,为工业快速发展服务。

  5. Weighing the impact (factor) of publishing in veterinary journals

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, MM

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The journal in which you publish your research can have a major influence on the perceived value of your work and on your ability to reach certain audiences. The impact factor, a widely used metric of journal quality and prestige, has evolved into a benchmark of quality for institutions and graduate programs and, inappropriately, as a proxy for the quality of individual authors and articles, affecting tenure, promotion, and funding decisions. As a result, despite its many...

  6. Automated weighing by sequential inference in dynamic environments

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, A D

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate sequential mass inference of a suspended bag of milk powder from simulated measurements of the vertical force component at the pivot while the bag is being filled. We compare the predictions of various sequential inference methods both with and without a physics model to capture the system dynamics. We find that non-augmented and augmented-state unscented Kalman filters (UKFs) in conjunction with a physics model of a pendulum of varying mass and length provide rapid and accurate predictions of the milk powder mass as a function of time. The UKFs outperform the other method tested - a particle filter. Moreover, inference methods which incorporate a physics model outperform equivalent algorithms which do not.

  7. Weighing dispositional and situational factors in accounting for suicide terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, David C

    2014-08-01

    Lankford's book makes the important point that analyses of suicide terrorists often commit the error of overestimating the importance of situational causes of behavior and underestimating dispositional causes, such as underlying pathology. Personality and individual differences are important; suicide terrorists are not ordinary people driven by situational pressures. However, citation of empirical evidence is haphazard; the scholarly argument is not well-developed.

  8. Simulation of crop evapotranspiration and crop coefficient in weighing lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate quantification of crop evapotranspiration (ET) is critical in optimizing irrigation water productivity, especially, in the semiarid regions of the world where limited rainfall is supplemented by irrigation for profitable crop production. In this context, cropping system models are potential...

  9. How Much Does a Half-Kilogram of Water "Weigh"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumaras, Panagiotis; Pierratos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Many educators have utilized the phenomenon of the so-called "hydrostatic paradox" to actively engage students in classroom instructional activities related to hydrostatic equilibrium. Various approaches requiring different levels of mathematical knowledge have been proposed in the literature to provide students clear explanations of…

  10. Minister Savisaar appoints advisor, weighs ferry link, sell-offs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi nõunikuks saanud ärimees Oleg Harlamov tekitab probleeme, kuna omab aktsiaid suhtekorraldusfirmas, mis konsulteerib raudtee-ettevõtet Spacecom. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaare sõnul võib riik müüa oma Esonian Airways'i aktsiad.

  11. WEIGHING THE OPTIONS: A LEGAL APPROACH TO CHILDHOOD OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Solomon

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Growing childhood obesity rates are increasingly putting the lives of Canadian children at risk. Using schools as the foundation for tackling childhood obesity is significantly more achievable than attempting to place blanket measures that intrude into Canadian homes. Measures should be taken to address childhood obesity by promoting healthy eating, education and exercise. Yet it is important to recognise obesity both as a medical and as a pyschosocial problem in order to construct these preventative policies: by doing so we can begin to understand the potential challenges such as stigma along with negative exogenous influences in the home and as consumers.   Les taux croissants d’obésité juvénile montrent que les enfants canadiens sont de plus en plus exposés à un risque pour leur santé. Il est beaucoup plus réaliste de passer par les écoles pour s’attaquer au problème de l’obésité juvénile que de tenter de mettre en œuvre des mesures générales qui constituent une ingérence dans les foyers canadiens. Il faut prendre des mesures pour lutter contre l’obésité juvénile en encourageant les saines habitudes alimentaires, l’éducation et l’exercice. Il importe aussi de reconnaître l’obésité comme un problème d’ordre tant médical que psychosocial avant d’élaborer ces politiques préventives : de cette façon, nous pourrons commencer à comprendre les difficultés possibles telles que l’ostracisme et les influences exogènes négatives dans les foyers et comme consommateurs.

  12. Weighing the Risks. Strength Training for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Suzanne M.

    1993-01-01

    As weight training becomes increasingly popular with children and adolescents, physicians need to advise patients and parents about what is safe and what is not. Young people who adhere to a well-supervised, progressive strength training program can improve their strength and improve performance in other sports. (SM)

  13. How Much Does a Half-Kilogram of Water "Weigh"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumaras, Panagiotis; Pierratos, Theodoros

    2015-03-01

    Many educators have utilized the phenomenon of the so-called "hydrostatic paradox" to actively engage students in classroom instructional activities related to hydrostatic equilibrium.1 Various approaches requiring different levels of mathematical knowledge have been proposed in the literature to provide students clear explanations of this paradox.2 However, these attempts take for granted that students have already been taught and have internalized the concepts of force and pressure. The hydrostatic paradox is then usually introduced as an application problem for the evaluation of the knowledge acquired.

  14. Weighing the Giants IV: Cosmology and Neutrino Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Mantz, Adam B; Allen, Steven W; Applegate, Douglas E; Kelly, Patrick L; Morris, R Glenn; Rapetti, David A; Schmidt, Robert W; Adhikari, Saroj; Allen, Mark T; Burchat, Patricia R; Burke, David L; Cataneo, Matteo; Donovon, David; Ebeling, Harald; Shandera, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    (Abridged) We employ robust weak gravitational lensing measurements to improve cosmological constraints from measurements of the galaxy cluster mass function and its evolution, using X-ray selected clusters detected in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Our lensing analysis provides a constraint on the absolute mass scale of such clusters at the 8 per cent level (including both statistical and systematic uncertainties), a factor of $\\sim 2$ improvement over the best previous work. In combination with the survey data and extensive X-ray follow-up observations, our weak lensing measurements lead to a tight constraint on a combination of the mean matter density and late-time normalization of the matter power spectrum, $\\sigma_8(\\Omega_m/0.3)^{0.17}=0.81\\pm0.03$, with marginalized, one-dimensional constraints of $\\Omega_m=0.26\\pm0.03$ and $\\sigma_8=0.83\\pm0.04$. These constraints are consistent with our own previous work, but are offset from some independent cluster studies. Our new results are in good agreement with cons...

  15. Weighing the world the quest to measure the earth

    CERN Document Server

    Danson, Edwin

    2005-01-01

    Preface. 1. I Cannot Be Wrong. 2. The Titan King. 3. A Calm And Gentle Character. 4. The Galileo Of France. 5. Extreme Science. 6. Robberies And Depredations. 7. A Magnificent Military Sketch. 8. Persons Well Versed. 9. Very Expert In His Business. 10. A Passage With My Horse. 11. Frankenstein And Other Experiments. 12. A Remarkable Hill. 13. Important Observations. 14. So Great A Noise. 15. The Attraction of Mountains. 16. The Best Of The Position. 17. Distinguished Merit. 18. Late A Whole Year. 19. Geodetic Experiments. 20. I Know It Will Answer. 21. Offering Violence To Nature. 22. A Meritorious Foreigner. 23. Men Worthy Of Confidence. 24. Irregularities We Have Discovered. Explanations and Definitions. Bibliography. Footnotes

  16. Weighing Photons Using Bathroom Scales: A Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Jay Orear, in his introductory physics text, defined the weight of a person as the reading one gets when standing on a (properly calibrated) bathroom scale. Here we will use Jay's definition of weight in a thought experiment to measure the weight of a photon. The thought experiment uses the results of the Pound-Rebka-Snider experiments, Compton…

  17. A Healthier Weigh: Nutrition and Health Education on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Luann K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Colorado had the lowest rate of obesity and overweight in the United States with less than 20% of the adult population considered obese or overweight. The health implications are serious because being overweight and/or obese increases the risks for chronic diseases. As a consequence, the incidence of Type II diabetes in adults has tripled…

  18. Weighing Uranus’ Moon Cressida with the η Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancia, Robert O.; Hedman, Matthew M.; French, Richard G.

    2017-10-01

    The η ring is one of the narrow rings of Uranus, consisting of a dense core that is 1–2 km wide and a diffuse outer sheet spanning about 40 km. Its dense core lies just exterior to the 3:2 Inner Lindblad Resonance of the small moon Cressida. We fit the η ring radius residuals and longitudes from a complete set of both ground-based and Voyager stellar and radio occultations of the Uranian rings spanning 1977–2002. We find variations in the radial position of the η ring that are likely generated by this resonance, and take the form of a 3-lobed structure rotating at an angular rate equal to the mean motion of the moon Cressida. The amplitude of these radial oscillations is 0.667 ± 0.113 km, which is consistent with the expected shape due to the perturbations from Cressida. The magnitude of these variations provides the first measurement of the mass and density of the moon Cressida (m=(2.5+/- 0.4)× {10}17 kg and ρ =0.86+/- 0.16 g cm‑3) or, indeed, any of Uranus’ small inner moons. A better grasp of inner Uranian satellite masses will provide another clue to the composition, dynamical stability, and history of Uranus’ tightly packed system of small moons.

  19. Weighing the Giants V: Galaxy Cluster Scaling Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Mantz, Adam B; Morris, R Glenn; von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E; Kelly, Patrick L; Burke, David L; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. However, the data are beginning to reveal new features that have implications for cluster astrophysics and provide new tests for hydrodynamical simulations. We find a positive correlation in the intrinsic scatters of luminosity and temperature at fixed mass, which is related to the dynamical state of the clusters. While the evolution of the nominal scali...

  20. Radiation crosslinking of ultra high molecular weigh polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Phil Hyun; Nho, Young Chang [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-05-01

    The effect of {gamma}-irradiation on the thermal and mechanical properties of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) used in orthopedic implants was investigated. UHMWPE was recrystallized with different cooling conditions for the purpose of enhancing the crosslinking extent of the polymer after {gamma}-irradiation. UHMWPE was irradiated with gamma ray to a dosage of 10 kGy to 500 kGy in air and nitrogen atmosphere. Differential scanning calorimetry, tensile characterization, creep deformity and wear were examined to determine the mechanical properties of the irradiated UHMWPE specimens. The crystallinity of the irradiated samples was increased with irradiation dose. The irradiated UHMWPE after recrystallization in a quenching condition had a higher crosslinking extent compared with the irradiated UHMWPE after slowly cooling. The irradiated UHMWPE after quenching had a lower wear rate than the irradiated UHMWPE after recrystallization in a slowly cooling condition, and the wear rate of UHMWPE decreased with irradiation dose up to 250kGy, which showed about 40% of the wear rate of nonirradiated UHMWPE.

  1. 9 CFR 201.73-1 - Instructions for weighing livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indicate by an appropriate signal. (4) Weighbeam scales shall be balanced by first seating each poise... obtained. A scale equipped with a balance indicator is correctly balanced when the pointer comes to rest at zero. A scale not equipped with a balance indicator is correctly balanced if the weighbeam, when...

  2. Statin Side Effects: Weigh the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interact with statins and increase your risk of side effects include: Amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), a medication for irregular heart rhythms Gemfibrozil (Lopid), another variety of cholesterol drug ...

  3. "Almost Like Weighing Someone's Soul": Chemistry in Contemporary Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Donald J.

    2001-04-01

    Students approaching a chemistry course for the first time do have previous experience with the discipline, at the very least from images in popular media. This paper discusses examples of images from films that can be used to start discussions in general chemistry classes. The examples include scenes from realistic films (i.e., not science fiction) where chemical substances are an important element in a scene or where chemistry is presented as a topic of discussion. The scenes illustrate some of the ways in which people, including students, may think about science.

  4. Antibiotic Therapy for Very Low Birth Weigh Newborns in NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed-Abolfazl Afjeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Prolonged empiric antibiotics therapy in neonates results in several adverse consequences including widespread antibiotic resistance, late onset sepsis (LOS, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, prolonged hospital course (HC and increase in mortality rates. Objectives To assess the risk factors and the outcome of prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy in very low birth weight (VLBW newborns. Materials and Methods Prospective study in VLBW neonates admitted to NICU and survived > 2 W, from July 2011 - June 2012. All relevant perinatal and postnatal data including duration of antibiotics therapy (Group I 2W and outcome up to the time of discharge or death were documented and compared. Results Out of 145 newborns included in the study, 62 were in group I, and 83 in Group II. Average duration of antibiotic therapy was 14 days (range 3 - 62 days; duration in Group I and Group II was 10 ± 2.3 vs 25.5 ± 10.5 days. Hospital stay was 22.3 ± 11.5 vs 44.3 ± 14.7 days, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed following risk factors as significant for prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy: VLBW especially stage II, 12 (8.3% newborns died. Infant mortality alone and with LOS/NEC was higher in group II as compared to group I (P < 0.002 and < 0.001 respectively. Conclusions Prolonged empiric antibiotic therapy caused increasing rates of LOS, NEC, HC and infant mortality.

  5. Weighing of trapped ion crystals and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sheridan, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a novel scheme to measure the secular motion of trapped ions. Employing pulsed excitation and analysis of the fluorescence of laser cooled ions, the COM-mode frequency of single as well as entire ion crystals can be measured to an accuracy of better than 100 Hz within an interrogation on the order of seconds, limited only by the fluorescence collection efficiency and the background noise. We have used this method to measure the mass of ions and observed charge exchange collisions between trapped calcium isotopes.

  6. Resection of a giant hepatocellular carcinoma weighing over ten kilograms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a giant hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC)with a diameter over 30 cm and weight over 10 kg that was resected completely.A 62-year-old man was admitted because of continuous abdominal uplift.A computed tomography scan demonstrated that the entire abdomen was filled with a giant tumor containing both cystic and solid components with a size of 29 cm×22 cm.The huge tumor was successfully resected without any complication,such as massive hemorrhage or visceral injuries.The size and weight of the tu...

  7. Fiber optic weigh in motion: looking back and ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teral, Stephane R.

    1998-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the fiber optic weight- in-motion (WIM) smart sensor situation. Based on the interrelationship between technology and needs, the analysis is divided into three parts. The first part reflects WIM equipment development, such as piezo-electric sensors, and some of the pitfalls encountered in WIM measurements that led to fiber optic sensor utilization. With a chronological approach, the second part reviews the various optical principles that have been developed to measure dynamic weight. Since 1986, three techniques have been fully tested on actual highways. On the one hand, the simplest one based on light attenuation in multimode fibers as suitable for counting. On the other hand, speckle analysis at the end of a multimode fiber allowed a better strain and deformation determination. Finally, the sophisticated polarimetric configuration seemed to be more powerful and led to impressive findings such as dynamic phenomenon observation. The third and last part of this paper reviews some of the future needs for WIM systems, and the ongoing developments in the intelligent transportation system (ITS) field. Then, the factual report derived from this analysis shows that despite their tremendous potential, fiber optic sensors are almost nonexistent in current ITS worldwide developments.

  8. Traffic load model based on weigh in motion measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Morales Napoles, O.

    2012-01-01

    The assessment of the structural safety of existing bridges and viaducts becomes increasingly important in many countries. Within the actions applied to the bridges, the traffic load is, in general, the most significant variable action to be considered when the ultimate limit states are under

  9. Weigh-in-Motion: Recent Developments in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Bernard; O'Brien, Eugene J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper provides a review of recent European developments in WIM. Pan-European and national projects are reported plus developments in sensor technologies and system design. Recent developments in multiple-sensor WIM systems are given particular attention. The coming of prototype fully-automatic overload systems is discussed and the technologies and legal framework necessary for their success. The commercialisation of Bridge WIM in Europe since the ICWIM3 is considered and the continued d...

  10. Hidden Markov Modeling for Weigh-In-Motion Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Boone, Shane [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a hidden Markov model to assist in the weight measurement error that arises from complex vehicle oscillations of a system of discrete masses. Present reduction of oscillations is by a smooth, flat, level approach and constant, slow speed in a straight line. The model uses this inherent variability to assist in determining the true total weight and individual axle weights of a vehicle. The weight distribution dynamics of a generic moving vehicle were simulated. The model estimation converged to within 1% of the true mass for simulated data. The computational demands of this method, while much greater than simple averages, took only seconds to run on a desktop computer.

  11. How to weigh coastal hazard against economic consequence (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wainwright, D.; Callaghan, D.; Jongejan, R.B.; Ranasinghe, R.; Cowell, P.

    2012-01-01

    It is well recognised that sea level change over the coming century will have an extraordinary economic impact on coastal communities. To overcome the uncertainty that still surrounds the mechanics of shoreline recession and stochastic forcing, landuse planning and management decisions will require

  12. Kids of Depressed Morns Watch More TV, Weigh More

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JoeneHendry; 浦清香

    2001-01-01

    母抑郁:子女必为喜看电视之胖墩。这似乎难以令人想象。但是,读完本文,便觉得这个结论并非主观臆测。文中一句发人深省:…mothers who are depressed or stressed may not encourage their children to go outside and be active.为人父母者,当引以为戒。

  13. Weighing both sides: morality, mortality, and framing contests over obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguy, Abigail C; Riley, Kevin W

    2005-10-01

    Despite recent and growing media attention surrounding obesity in the United States, the so-called obesity epidemic remains a highly contested scientific and social fact. This article examines the contemporary obesity debate through systematic examination of the claims and claimants involved in the controversy. We argue that four primary groups-antiobesity researchers, antiobesity activists, fat acceptance researchers, and fat acceptance activists-are at the forefront of this controversy and that these groups are fundamentally engaged in framing contests over the nature and consequences of excess body weight. While members of the fat acceptance groups embrace a body diversity frame, presenting fatness as a natural and largely inevitable form of diversity, members of the antiobesity camp frame higher weights as risky behavior akin to smoking, implying that body weight is under personal control and that people have a moral and medical responsibility to manage their weight. Both groups sometimes frame obesity as an illness, which limits blame by suggesting that weight is biologically or genetically determined but simultaneously stigmatizes fat bodies as diseased. While the antiobesity camp frames obesity as an epidemic to increase public attention, fat acceptance activists argue that concern over obesity is distracting attention from a host of more important health issues for fat Americans. We examine the strategies claimants use to establish their own credibility or discredit their opponents, and explain how the fat acceptance movement has exploited structural opportunities and cultural resources created by AIDS activism and feminism to wield some influence over U.S. public health approaches. We conclude that notions of morality play a central role in the controversy over obesity, as in many medical disputes, and illustrate how medical arguments about body weight can be used to stymie rights claims and justify morality-based fears.

  14. Oregon Sustainability Center: Weighing Approaches to Net Zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Settlemyre, Kevin [Sustainable IQ, Inc., Arlington, MA (United States); Bosnic, Zorana [HOK, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The Oregon Sustainability Center (OSC) was to represent a unique public/private partnership between the city of Portland, Oregon, state government, higher education, non-profit organizations, and the business community. A unique group of stakeholders partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical expert team (TET) to collaboratively identify, analyze, and evaluate solutions to enable the OSC to become a high-performance sustainability landmark in downtown Portland. The goal was to build a new, low-energy mixed-use urban high-rise that consumes at least 50 percent less energy than requirements set by Energy Standard 90.1-2007 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE), the American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and the Illuminating Engineering Society of America (IESNA) as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) program.1 In addition, the building design was to incorporate renewable energy sources that would account for the remaining energy consumption, resulting in a net zero building. The challenge for the CBP DOE technical team was to evaluate factors of risk and components of resiliency in the current net zero energy design and analyze that design to see if the same high performance could be achieved by alternative measures at lower costs. In addition, the team was to use a “lens of scalability” to assess whether or not the strategies could be applied to more projects. However, a key component of the required project funding did not pass, and therefore this innovative building design was discontinued while it was in the design development stage.

  15. Unknown Particles to Weigh in at Higher Mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Leonsch Hartwig, Codie

    2007-01-01

    "Sophisticated new analysis at Jefferson Lab. has revealed that the next frontier in particle physics will involve larger particles than physicists previously thought to be the case, according to a newly published study." (1 page)

  16. Weighing the dark : cosmological applications of gravitational lensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köhlinger, F.

    2016-01-01

    According to Einstein's theory of general relativity the light of an object is deflected by a mass in its foreground. The deflections can be very weak or so strong that they are visible by eye yielding strangely distorted arcs or even multiple images of the same source. Measurements of strong or wea

  17. Young Children and Sports--Weighing the Risks and Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkind, David

    2000-01-01

    Examines the contemporary rationales of parents placing their preschool children in organized sports, including: (1) earlier is better; (2) parent peer pressure; (3) contemporary dangers; and (4) learning of self confidence, self esteem, cooperation and competition. Finds little value and much risk in engaging children at an early age in organized…

  18. Query Expansion Using SNOMED-CT and Weighing Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    recommend using the full capacity of the different Ontology that they used such as MeSH. Martinez et al. [2] from University of Melbourne, Australia and...for the first query. Query #1 58-year-old woman with hypertension and obesity presents with exercise-related episodic chest pain radiating to the...were then included with the original query as following. Query#1.0 <Summary>58-year-old woman with hypertension and obesity presents with exercise

  19. Modern obesity pharmacotherapy: weighing cardiovascular risk and benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jonathan W; Wiviott, Stephen D

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is a major correlate of cardiovascular disease. Weight loss improves cardiovascular risk factors and has the potential to improve outcomes. Two drugs, phentermine plus topiramate and lorcaserin, have recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the indication of obesity; a third, bupropion plus naltrexone, is under consideration for approval. In clinical trials, these drugs cause weight loss and improve glucose tolerance, lipid profile, and, with the exception of bupropion plus naltrexone, blood pressure. However, their effect on cardiovascular outcomes is unknown. In defining appropriate roles for these drugs in preventive cardiology, it is important to remember the checkered history of drugs for obesity. New weight-loss drugs share the serotonergic and sympathomimetic mechanisms that proved harmful in the cases of Fen-Phen and sibutramine, respectively, albeit with significant differences. Given these risks, randomized cardiovascular outcomes trials are needed to establish the safety, and potential benefit, of these drugs. This review will discuss the history of pharmacotherapy for obesity, existing efficacy and safety data for the novel weight-loss drugs, and issues in the design of postapproval clinical trials.

  20. Weighing the Giants V: Galaxy Cluster Scaling Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Burke, David L.; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald

    2016-09-01

    We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. However, the data are beginning to reveal new features that have implications for cluster astrophysics and provide new tests for hydrodynamical simulations. We find a positive correlation in the intrinsic scatters of luminosity and temperature at fixed mass, which is related to the dynamical state of the clusters. While the evolution of the nominal scaling relations over the redshift range 0.0 luminosity and temperature scatters respectively decrease and increase with redshift. Physically, this likely related to the development of cool cores and the rate of major mergers. We also examine the scaling relations of redMaPPer richness and Compton Y from Planck. While the richness-mass relation is in excellent agreement with recent work, the measured Y-mass relation departs strongly from that assumed in the Planck cluster cosmology analysis. The latter result is consistent with earlier comparisons of lensing and Planck scaling-relation-derived masses.

  1. Countdown to Cairo: U.S. consumption weighs in.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Population pressures in the industrialized world affect long-term sustainability. The United States' population comprises only 5% of the world's total, yet it consumes 25% of the world's commercial energy, 27% of the world's aluminum, and over 20% of its tin, copper, and lead. Americans produce twice as much waste per person as most Europeans, and many times more than people in the developing world. Sustainable development is a central theme of the delegates to the UN's Cairo conference on population and development, and efforts to mitigate excessive resource use will undoubtedly be a topic. Delegates are searching for programs to help eradicate poverty; empower and advance women in education, employment, and health; and stabilize population growth. The adoption of policies to alter unsustainable and environmentally damaging patterns of consumption will be equally important. In April, 1994, President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development set up a special task force to explore US population and consumption issues. US population pressures are becoming ever more visible: increasing traffic congestion, mounting garbage, air pollution, and severe water shortages. The US population, currently at 260 million, is the third highest in the world. The nation adds about 3 million to its population every year. The Census Bureau projects that by the year 2000, the population will reach 275 million. The national total fertility rate has risen to 2.1. In the industrialized world, only Iceland and Ireland, both at 2.2, are higher. The average American's energy use is equivalent to the consumption of 3 Japanese, 6 Mexicans, 12 Chinese, 33 Indians, 147 Bangladeshis, 281 Tanzanians, or 422 Ethiopians. It is uncertain whether metropolitan areas can meet the housing, health, education, and employment needs of millions more Americans. Policies in industrialized nations that reduce pollution and excessive resource use and slow population growth are needed to ensure a quality future for generations to come.

  2. Minister Savisaar appoints advisor, weighs ferry link, sell-offs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi nõunikuks saanud ärimees Oleg Harlamov tekitab probleeme, kuna omab aktsiaid suhtekorraldusfirmas, mis konsulteerib raudtee-ettevõtet Spacecom. Majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniminister Edgar Savisaare sõnul võib riik müüa oma Esonian Airways'i aktsiad.

  3. Weighing the impact (factor) of publishing in veterinary journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M

    2015-06-01

    The journal in which you publish your research can have a major influence on the perceived value of your work and on your ability to reach certain audiences. The impact factor, a widely used metric of journal quality and prestige, has evolved into a benchmark of quality for institutions and graduate programs and, inappropriately, as a proxy for the quality of individual authors and articles, affecting tenure, promotion, and funding decisions. As a result, despite its many limitations, publishing decisions by authors often are based solely on a journal's impact factor. This can disadvantage journals in small disciplines, such as veterinary medicine, and limit the ability of authors to reach key audiences. In this article, factors that can influence the impact factor of a journal and its applicability, including precision, citation practices, article type, editorial policies, and size of the research community will be reviewed. The value and importance of veterinary journals such as the Journal of Veterinary Cardiology for reaching relevant audiences and for helping shape disciplinary specialties and influence clinical practice will also be discussed. Lastly, the efforts underway to develop alternative measures to assess the scientific quality of individual authors and articles, such as article-level metrics, as well as institutional measures of the economic and social impact of biomedical research will be considered. Judicious use of the impact factor and the implementation of new metrics for assessing the quality and societal relevance of veterinary research articles will benefit both authors and journals.

  4. Weighing the giants- V. Galaxy cluster scaling relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantz, Adam B.; Allen, Steven W.; Morris, R. Glenn; von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E.; Kelly, Patrick L.; Burke, David L.; Donovan, David; Ebeling, Harald

    2016-12-01

    We present constraints on the scaling relations of galaxy cluster X-ray luminosity, temperature and gas mass (and derived quantities) with mass and redshift, employing masses from robust weak gravitational lensing measurements. These are the first such results obtained from an analysis that simultaneously accounts for selection effects and the underlying mass function, and directly incorporates lensing data to constrain total masses. Our constraints on the scaling relations and their intrinsic scatters are in good agreement with previous studies, and reinforce a picture in which departures from self-similar scaling laws are primarily limited to cluster cores. However, the data are beginning to reveal new features that have implications for cluster astrophysics and provide new tests for hydrodynamical simulations. We find a positive correlation in the intrinsic scatters of luminosity and temperature at fixed mass, which is related to the dynamical state of the clusters. While the evolution of the nominal scaling relations over the redshift range 0.0 examine the scaling relations of redMaPPer richness and Compton Y from Planck. While the richness-mass relation is in excellent agreement with recent work, the measured Y-mass relation departs strongly from that assumed in the Planck cluster cosmology analysis. The latter result is consistent with earlier comparisons of lensing and Planck scaling relation-derived masses.

  5. Weighing obligations to home care workers and Medicaid recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treacy, Paul C; MacKay, Douglas

    2017-01-01

    In June 2016, a US Department of Labor rule extending minimum wage and overtime pay protections to home care workers such as certified nursing assistants and home health aides survived its final legal challenge and became effective. However, Medicaid officials in certain states reported that during the intervening decades when these protections were not in place, their states had developed a range of innovative services and programs providing home care to people with disabilities-services and programs that would be at risk if workers were newly owed minimum wage and overtime pay. In this article, we examine whether the Department of Labor was right to extend these wage protections to home care workers even at the risk of a reduction in these home care services to people with disabilities. We argue that it was right to do so. Home care workers are entitled to these protections, and, although it is permissible under certain conditions for government to infringe workers' occupational rights and entitlements, these conditions are not satisfied in this case.

  6. Dynamic weighing for accurate fertilizer application and monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergeijk, van J.; Goense, D.; Willigenburg, van L.G.; Speelman, L.

    2001-01-01

    The mass flow of fertilizer spreaders must be calibrated for the different types of fertilizers used. To obtain accurate fertilizer application manual calibration of actual mass flow must be repeated frequently. Automatic calibration is possible by measurement of the actual mass flow, based on

  7. Plant phenotyping: from bean weighing to image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Achim; Liebisch, Frank; Hund, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Plant phenotyping refers to a quantitative description of the plant's anatomical, ontogenetical, physiological and biochemical properties. Today, rapid developments are taking place in the field of non-destructive, image-analysis -based phenotyping that allow for a characterization of plant traits in high-throughput. During the last decade, 'the field of image-based phenotyping has broadened its focus from the initial characterization of single-plant traits in controlled conditions towards 'real-life' applications of robust field techniques in plant plots and canopies. An important component of successful phenotyping approaches is the holistic characterization of plant performance that can be achieved with several methodologies, ranging from multispectral image analyses via thermographical analyses to growth measurements, also taking root phenotypes into account.

  8. Weighing the evidence of common beliefs in obesity research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casazza, Krista; Brown, Andrew; Astrup, Arne

    2015-01-01

    eating (versus skipping) breakfast; eating close to bedtime; eating more fruits and vegetables; weight cycling (i.e. yo-yo dieting); snacking; built environment; reducing screen time in childhood obesity; portion size; participation in family mealtime; and drinking water as a means of weight...

  9. A Healthier Weigh: Nutrition and Health Education on the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Luann K.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, Colorado had the lowest rate of obesity and overweight in the United States with less than 20% of the adult population considered obese or overweight. The health implications are serious because being overweight and/or obese increases the risks for chronic diseases. As a consequence, the incidence of Type II diabetes in adults has tripled…

  10. Discussion about sanitation vehicles equipment technology and digital sanitation scheme based on vehicle-mounted weighing system%基于车载称重系统的环卫车辆装备技术及数字环卫方案探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余朝晖; 王希; 谷尚局

    2012-01-01

    物联网标志着世界信息产业发展的第三次浪潮,是我们国家战略性新兴产业之一。物联网关键技术研发和产业示范应用创新是推进行业抓住物联网机遇的核心内容。提升环卫在经济发展和环境建设中的承载力和促进力,体现在实现城乡环卫一体化、生活垃圾资源化、垃圾收运规范化和城市环卫精细化等诸多方面。尤其与市民生活息息相关的垃圾分类收集是提升环卫水平的基础。采用基于物联网技术与计量技术相结合的车载称重系统,实时掌握管辖区内所有的垃圾收运车辆装运垃圾的重量及收集原始数据,并与垃圾处理厂计重设备联网监管、协同运营。因此,车载称重系统在环卫车辆的成功应用将对规范城市垃圾运输车辆、提升环卫管理水平等方面具有极高的推广价值。%Interuet of things which is one of strategic new industries in our country, marks the third wave of the world development of information industry. Internet of things technology researching and industry demonstration application innovation are the coal of promoting profession to hold internet of things. Improve the environmental sanitation in economic development and environment construction of the bearing capacity and promote force, reflected in the realization of urban and rural integration, life sanitation refuse resources, the garbage collector standardization, the fine city sanitation, and other aspects. Especially the life of citizens is closely linked with the garbage collection is to enhance the level of basic sanitation. Based on network technology and measuring technology that the combination of the weighing system, real time control of the jurisdiction in all the garbage collector shipment of the weight of the vehicle and collect garbage raw data, and with waste plant account heavy equipment supervision, and the network operation. Therefore, successful application of vehicle

  11. Avaliação de dois esquemas de manejo da hiperbilirrubinemia em recém-nascidos com peso menor que 2.000 g Evaluation of two guidelines for the management of hyperbilirubinemia in newborn babies weighing less than 2,000 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria das Graças C. Leite

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o uso de dois esquemas de fototerapia na hiperbilirrubinemia de recém-nascidos com peso menor que 2.000 g. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 81 recém-nascidos com peso de nascimento menor que 2.000 g, divididos em dois grupos: "precoce", que iniciou fototerapia com 12 horas de vida e foi tratado por pelo menos 96 horas, e "tardio", que recebeu fototerapia quando a bilirrubina transcutânea atingia 8 mg/dl, sendo retirada quando caísse para 5 mg/dl. Foi analisada a manutenção dos níveis de bilirrubina transcutânea abaixo de 10 mg/dl, o valor médio de bilirrubina transcutânea diária, o valor do pico de bilirrubina transcutânea e época do seu aparecimento e a duração do tratamento. RESULTADOS: No grupo precoce, 20% dos pacientes ultrapassaram 10 mg/dl de bilirrubina transcutânea, contra 60% no tardio. A maior média diária de bilirrubina transcutânea no grupo precoce foi de 6,6 mg/dl, no sétimo dia; no grupo tardio, foi de 8,6 mg/dl no segundo dia de vida. A mediana das horas de fototerapia usadas no grupo precoce foi de 96 (mínimo de 96 e máximo de 156 horas, e no tardio, de 51 horas (mínimo de 0 e máximo de 120 horas. Nenhum paciente necessitou de mudança de tratamento (fototerapia dupla ou exsangüineotransfusão. CONCLUSÃO: O uso da fototerapia precoce para neonatos com peso abaixo de 2.000 g é mais seguro que o tratamento tardio se considerada a manutenção de níveis abaixo de 10 mg/dl como satisfatórios.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of two phototherapy guidelines for the treatment of hyperbilirubinemia in newborn babies weighing less than 2,000 g. METHODS: Eighty-one newborn infants with birth weight less than 2,000 g were studied. They were divided in two groups: the "early" group, which started phototherapy 12 hours after birth, undergoing treatment for at least 96 hours; and the "late" group, which received phototherapy whenever the transcutaneous bilirubin reached 8 mg/dl and phototherapy suspended

  12. Dietary survey in a unit of armed police forces:a comparison between food weighing and chemical analysis%称重法和化学分析法在武警某部膳食调查中的应用与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲玲玲; 韦京豫; 高蔚娜; 唐振闯; 胡南; 李凌燕; 陈明; 郭长江

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the differences in nutrient composition by chemical analysis method and weighing method,A corps of armed police forces daily dietary nutrient intakes were investigated in Tianjin,to understand the status of the actual intakes of dietary nutrient.Methods A dietary survey was performed using the weighing method and with ref-erence to China food composition database in 2002.The intake of each nutrient was calculated through chemical analysis;Nutritional analysis was used in the collection of duplicate food portions during the dietary survey.Results For most of the main dietary nutrients(protein,fat and carbohydrates),minerals (Na,K,Mg,Ca,Zn,Cu and Se)and vitamins (β-car-otene,vitamin E,thiamine,riboflavin,vitamin C,niacin,and vitamin A),the calculated values of intakes were found to exceed those obtained via chemical analysis.Conclusion Differences of the two methods of dietary survey were ultimately due to the analysed values were below the calculated ones.So it is necessary to improve methods of food storage and trans-portation in order to obtain adequate nutrition and to improve the health of troops.%目的:对天津某武警部队每日膳食摄入量进行调查,并通过两种方法对食物的营养成分进行分析比较,了解实际膳食营养素摄入状况。方法膳食调查采用称重法并参照《中国食物成分表2002》计算各食物营养素摄入量;营养成分分析采用双份饭法收集食物样品,应用化学分析法测定食物中各种营养素含量。结果分析测定的膳食中主要营养素(蛋白质、脂肪及碳水化合物)、矿物质(Na、K、Mg、Ca、Zn、Cu 及 Se)和维生素(β-胡萝卜素、维生素 E、硫胺素、核黄素、维生素 C、烟酸、维生素 B6及维生素 A)的摄入量与膳食调查计算值相比较均偏低。结论两种方法的差异性最终表现为食物的实际测定值小于膳食调查计算值,有必要改善食物的储运加工方

  13. Weighing and Choice of Value Orientation in Public Policy Choice --- A Case Study of PX Program in Xiamen%公共政策选择中价值取向的权衡与取舍——以厦门市PX项目为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡其图

    2012-01-01

    In the transformation period, the change of social structure in China aggravates the separation of interests and the awakening of subjective consciousness and people's idea about value becomes pluralized. With the promotion of speech right, each social subject expresses its own interest and value in the making of policies, trying to exert influence on government poliey making, confronted with the conflicting value orientations and requirements, we should discuss how our government should weigh and choose in order to guarantee the public interests. This article makes an analysis about it by making a ease study about the PX program of Xiamen city.%转型时期的中国,社会结构的演变加剧了利益的分化和主体意识的觉醒,价值观念呈现多元化的特征。伴随着话语权的提升,社会各主体争相把自己的利益诉求和价值偏好投入政策制定系统中,力求影响政府决策。面对相互冲突的价值取向和需求,政府如何进行权衡与取舍,以保证公共利益的实现,就成了我们需要探讨的问题。本文将结合厦门市PX项目的实例,来进行浅显分析与说明。

  14. 论利益衡量方法在我国行政诉讼非法证据排除规则中的运用%On the Application of the Method of Interest-weighing in the Rule of Eliminating Illegal Evidence in Administrative Proceedings of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明正

    2013-01-01

    The rule of eliminating illegal evidence in administrative proceedings refers to the methods and standards which should be applied and followed when we identify the ability and probative force of the illegal evidence. The core issue is that the method,standard and the rule of eliminating should be followed in those areas of the lack of legal provisions or the provisions of the law are open and ambiguous when we apply the rule of eliminating illegal evidence to administrative proceedings. It is an effective way to apply the method of interest-weighing,define the applicable field and the basic philosophy of this method,and follow the standard and procedure to construct the rule of eliminating illegal evidence in administrative proceedings of China.%行政诉讼非法证据排除规则,是指在行政诉讼、行政审判过程中,对那些非法证据的证据能力、证明力等进行筛选识别、认定适用时应遵循的一套方法、标准。适用行政诉讼非法证据排除规则的核心问题是在那些缺少法律条文规定的领域,法律条文规定具有开放性、多义性,存在裁量余地的地方,应采用什么排除规则,应遵循什么样的非法证据排除方法、标准。应用利益衡量方法,明确该方法适用的场域、基本理念,遵循的标准和过程,是建构我国行政诉讼非法证据排除规则的有效方法。

  15. 早期喂养干预预防极低出生体重儿喂养不耐受临床探讨%Clinical study of prevention of feeding intolerance for very low birth weigh infants by the early feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 谢晓曼; 汤薇薇; 许琼

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨早期微量喂养与非营养性吸允预防极低出生体重儿(very low birth weigh infants,VLBWI)喂养不耐受的效果及其临床意义.方法:将69例VLBWI随机分为对照组39例,按照传统方法喂养;治疗组30例,给予早期微量喂养与非营养性吸允,记录恢复至出生体重时间,达到全肠道喂养时间,胎粪排空时间和发生喂养不耐受的例数.结果:治疗组在恢复至出生体重时间、达到全肠道喂养时间和胎粪排空时间均较对照组缩短(P<0.01),喂养不耐受的发生率降低(P<0.05).结论:早期喂养干预可促进VLBWI肠道发育成熟,减低可能发生的喂养问题,改善患儿营养状况.%Objective: To investigate the effects and clinical significance of early minimal feeding and non-nutritive sucking for very low birth weight infants ( VLBWI) to prevent. feeding intolerance. Methods: Sixty-nine cases of VLBWI were randomly divided into treatment group(30 cases) ,who were given early minimal feeding and non-nutritive sucking,and control group(39 cases) ,who were given the traditional method to feed. The time of recovering to birth weight,reaching whole enteral feeding and meconium emptying,and the number of cases of feeding intolerance were recorded. Results: In treatment group, the time of recovering birth weight, reaching whole enteral feeding and meconium emptying were shorter and the rates of feeding intolerance were lower than control group (P <0. 05 to P < 0. 01 ). Conclusions: Early feeding intervention can promote intestinal mature, reduce the feeding problems, and improve the nutritional status of very low birth weight infants.

  16. Nuclear Power’s Global Expansion: Weighing Its Costs and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    usable fuels, such as mixed oxide ( MOX ) and other plutonium-based fuels. Currently, states can satisfy their demand for fresh fuel without having...in the UP2 and UP3 plants at La Hague. Small batches of breeder reactor and LWR mixed uranium-plutonium oxide ( MOX ) fuel also have been...being used in MOX fuel in 20 900-MWe LWRs that are operating with up to 30 percent MOX fuel in their cores. While there was no plutonium stock when

  17. Weighing the Future: An Ethnographic Examination of Epigenetics and Prenatal Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Natali

    2016-01-01

    The ethnography examines the different roles of epigenetics in both new scientific thinking and within clinical trials that test nutritional interventions on pregnant women deemed obese. Contrary to commonly held assumptions that underlie genetic determinism, epigenetics represents a paradigmatic shift through the study of how environmental conditions affect gene regulation. Research and prevention efforts around the growing public concern for childhood and adult obesity have recently shift...

  18. Optimum standardized ileal digestible tryptophan to lysine ratio for pigs weighing 7–14 kg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Pedersen, Trine Friis; Assadi Soumeh, Elham

    2015-01-01

    /treatment. The diets contained similar crude protein (154 g/kg), NE (10.5 MJ/kg), and SID Lys (10.9 g/kg). Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and gain to feed ratio (G:F) were determined for a 21-d period. Blood and urine samples were collected on d 8 and 15. Urea concentration in plasma...

  19. Relative contributions of sampling effort, measuring, and weighing to precision of larval sea lamprey biomass estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Jeffrey W.; Adams, Jean V.; Cuddy, Douglas W.; Neave, Fraser B.; Sullivan, W. Paul; Young, Robert J.; Fodale, Michael F.; Jones, Michael L.

    2003-01-01

    We developed two weight-length models from 231 populations of larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) collected from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Lake Ontario (21), Lake Erie (6), Lake Huron (67), Lake Michigan (76), and Lake Superior (61). Both models were mixed models, which used population as a random effect and additional environmental factors as fixed effects. We resampled weights and lengths 1,000 times from data collected in each of 14 other populations not used to develop the models, obtaining a weight and length distribution from reach resampling. To test model performance, we applied the two weight-length models to the resampled length distributions and calculated the predicted mean weights. We also calculated the observed mean weight for each resampling and for each of the original 14 data sets. When the average of predicted means was compared to means from the original data in each stream, inclusion of environmental factors did not consistently improve the performance of the weight-length model. We estimated the variance associated with measures of abundance and mean weight for each of the 14 selected populations and determined that a conservative estimate of the proportional contribution to variance associated with estimating abundance accounted for 32% to 95% of the variance (mean = 66%). Variability in the biomass estimate appears more affected by variability in estimating abundance than in converting length to weight. Hence, efforts to improve the precision of biomass estimates would be aided most by reducing the variability associated with estimating abundance.

  20. View from the UN Balts weigh in at general debate / Ann Charles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Charles, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese, Läti presidendi Valdis Zatlersi, Leedu presidendi Valdas Adamkuse, Ukraina presidendi Viktor Juštšenko ja Prantsusmaa presidendi Nicolas Sarkozy sõnavõttudest ÜRO peaassambleel. Vabariigi President töövisiidil New Yorgis 23.-27.09.2008

  1. Weighing the balance: how analgesics used in chronic pain influence sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohra, Miqdad H; Kaushik, Chhavi; Temple, Daniel; Chung, Sharon A; Shapiro, Colin M

    2014-08-01

    Pain and sleep share a bidirectional relationship, with each influencing the other. Several excellent reviews have explored this relationship. In this article, we revisit the evidence and explore existing research on this complex inter-relationship. The primary focus of the article is on the pharmacological treatment of chronic non-malignant pain and the main purpose is to review the effect of various pharmacological agents used in the management of chronic pain on sleep. This has not been comprehensively done before. We explore the clinical use of these agents, their impact on sleep architecture and sleep physiology, the mechanism of action on sleep parameters and sleep disorders associated with these agents. Pharmacological classes reviewed include antidepressants, opioid analgesics, anti-epileptics, cannabinoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, drugs most commonly used to manage chronic pain. The objective is to help health professionals gain better insight into the complex effect that commonly used analgesics have on an individual's sleep and how this could impact on the effectiveness of the drug as an analgesic. We conclude that antidepressants have both positive and negative effects on sleep, so do opioids, but in the latter case the evidence shifts towards the counterproductive side. Some anticonvulsants are sleep sparing and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are sleep neutral. Cannabinoids remain an underexplored and researched group.

  2. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits.

  3. 76 FR 42067 - Inspection and Weighing of Grain in Combined and Single Lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... order, and meet customers' expectations. GIPSA believes that establishing regulations for grain exported... technologies to provide increased opportunities for citizen access to Government information and services, and... the past 5 years to levels that GIPSA believes have far exceeded grain industry expectations...

  4. Weighing the Balance of Science Literacy in Education and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxner, S.; Impey, C.; Johnson, B.

    2015-11-01

    Science literacy is a concern of educators and policy makers in the United States and all over the world. Science literacy is defined by society and includes important knowledge for individuals that varies with culture and local knowledge systems. The technological societies of the western world have delegated the knowledge that underpins their everyday world to mechanics who know how their cars work, technicians who know how their computers work, and policy wonks who know how their individual choices and actions will affect the environment and their health. The scientific principles that frame and sculpt the technological world are invisible and mysterious to most people. A question for debate is whether or not this is a healthy situation or not, and if not, what to do about it. The panelists shared their prospects and challenges of building science literacy with individuals in the United States and with Tibetan monks. As they discussed their efforts working with these different populations, they shared lessons based on common issues and unique solutions based on local knowledge systems and communities of learners.

  5. Weighed scalar averaging in LTB dust models: part II. A formalism of exact perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Roberto A.

    2013-03-01

    We examine the exact perturbations that arise from the q-average formalism that was applied in the preceding article (part I) to Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. By introducing an initial value parametrization, we show that all LTB scalars that take an FLRW ‘look-alike’ form (frequently used in the literature dealing with LTB models) follow as q-averages of covariant scalars that are common to FLRW models. These q-scalars determine for every averaging domain a unique FLRW background state through Darmois matching conditions at the domain boundary, though the definition of this background does not require an actual matching with an FLRW region (Swiss cheese-type models). Local perturbations describe the deviation from the FLRW background state through the local gradients of covariant scalars at the boundary of every comoving domain, while non-local perturbations do so in terms of the intuitive notion of a ‘contrast’ of local scalars with respect to FLRW reference values that emerge from q-averages assigned to the whole domain or the whole time slice in the asymptotic limit. We derive fluid flow evolution equations that completely determine the dynamics of the models in terms of the q-scalars and both types of perturbations. A rigorous formalism of exact spherical nonlinear perturbations is defined over the FLRW background state associated with the q-scalars, recovering the standard results of linear perturbation theory in the appropriate limit. We examine the notion of the amplitude and illustrate the differences between local and non-local perturbations by qualitative diagrams and through an example of a cosmic density void that follows from the numeric solution of the evolution equations.

  6. Weighed scalar averaging in LTB dust models, part II: a formalism of exact perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Sussman, Roberto A

    2013-01-01

    We examine the exact perturbations that arise from the q-average formalism that was applied in the preceding article (part I) to Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models. By introducing an initial value parametrization, we show that all LTB scalars that take a FLRW "look alike" form (frequently used in the literature dealing with LTB models) follow as q-averages of covariant scalars that are common to FLRW models. These q--scalars determine for every averaging domain a unique FLRW background state through Darmois matching conditions at the domain boundary, though the definition of this background does not require an actual matching with a FLRW region (Swiss cheese type models). Local perturbations describe the deviation from the FLRW background state through the local gradients of covariant scalars at the boundary of every comoving domain, while non-local perturbations do so in terms of the intuitive notion of a "contrast" of local scalars with respect to FLRW reference values that emerge from q-averages assigned t...

  7. 78 FR 43753 - Inspection and Weighing of Grain in Combined and Single Lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-22

    ... the marketing of U.S. grain shipped for export. DATES: Effective September 20, 2013. FOR FURTHER... inspection system that facilitates the marketing of grain in domestic and international markets. The... comments requesting that a maximum single lot size of 1,500 metric tons be adopted. Commenters also...

  8. Foraging Bumble Bees Weigh the Reliability of Personal and Social Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Aimee S; Nielsen, Matthew E; Dornhaus, Anna; Papaj, Daniel R

    2016-05-09

    Many animals, including insects, make decisions using both personally gathered information and social information derived from the behavior of other, usually conspecific, individuals [1]. Moreover, animals adjust use of social versus personal information appropriately under a variety of experimental conditions [2-5]. An important factor in how information is used is the information's reliability, that is, how consistently the information is correlated with something of relevance in the environment [6]. The reliability of information determines which signals should be attended to during communication [6-9], which types of stimuli animals should learn about, and even whether learning should evolve [10, 11]. Here, we show that bumble bees (Bombus impatiens) account for the reliability of personally acquired information (which flower color was previously associated with reward) and social information (which flowers are chosen by other bees) in making foraging decisions; however, the two types of information are not treated equally. Bees prefer to use social information if it predicts a reward at all, but if social information becomes entirely unreliable, flower color will be used instead. This greater sensitivity to the reliability of social information, and avoidance of conspecifics in some cases, may reflect the specific ecological circumstances of bee foraging. Overall, the bees' ability to make decisions based on both personally acquired and socially derived information, and the relative reliability of both, demonstrates a new level of sophistication and flexibility in animal, particularly insect, decision-making.

  9. A semi-quantitative model for risk appreciation and risk weighing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Peter M.J.; Boon, Polly E.; van der Voet, Hilko

    2009-01-01

    Risk managers need detailed information on (1) the type of effect, (2) the size (severity) of the expected effect(s) and (3) the fraction of the population at risk to decide on well-balanced risk reduction measures. A previously developed integrated probabilistic risk assessment (IPRA) model...... provides quantitative information on these three parameters. A semi-quantitative tool is presented that combines information on these parameters into easy-readable charts that will facilitate risk evaluations of exposure situations and decisions on risk reduction measures. This tool is based on a concept...... of health impact categorization that has been successfully in force for several years within several emergency planning programs. Four health impact categories are distinguished: No-Health Impact, Low-Health Impact, Moderate-Health Impact and Severe-Health Impact. Two different charts are presented...

  10. Weighing the costs: Implementing the SLMTA programme in Zimbabwe using internal versus external facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Shumba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (MoHCW adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme as a tool for laboratory quality systems strengthening.Objectives: To evaluate the financial costs of SLMTA implementation using two models (external facilitators; and internal local or MoHCW facilitators from the perspective of the implementing partner and to estimate resources needed to scale up the programme nationally in all 10 provinces.Methods: The average expenditure per laboratory was calculated based on accounting records; calculations included implementing partner expenses but excluded in-kind contributions and salaries of local facilitators and trainees. We also estimated theoretical financial costs, keeping all contextual variables constant across the two models. Resource needs for future national expansion were estimated based on a two-phase implementation plan, in which 12 laboratories in each of five provinces would implement SLMTA per phase; for the internal facilitator model, 20 facilitators would be trained at the beginning of each phase.Results: The average expenditure to implement SLMTA in 11 laboratories using external facilitators was approximately US$5800 per laboratory; expenditure in 19 laboratories using internal facilitators was approximately $6000 per laboratory. The theoretical financial cost of implementing a 12-laboratory SLMTA cohort keeping all contextual variables constant would be approximately $58 000 using external facilitators; or $15 000 using internal facilitators, plus $86 000 to train 20 facilitators. The financial cost for subsequent SLMTA cohorts using the previously-trained internal facilitators would be approximately $15 000, yielding a break-even point of 2 cohorts, at $116 000 for either model. Estimated resources required for national implementation in 120 laboratories would therefore be $580 000 using external facilitators ($58 000 per province and $322 000 using internal facilitators ($86 000 for facilitator training in each of two phases plus $15 000 for SLMTA implementation in each province.Conclusion: Investing in training of internal facilitators will result in substantial savings over the scale-up of the programme. Our study provides information to assist policy makers to develop strategic plans for investing in laboratory strengthening.

  11. Weighing the evidence: risks and benefits of participatory documentary in corporatized clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helena

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the effects of one U.S.-based public psychiatry clinic's shift to a centralized, corporate style of management, in response to pressures to cut expenditures by focusing on "evidence based" treatments. Participant observation research conducted between 2008 and 2012 for a larger study involving 127 interviews with policy makers, clinic managers, clinical practitioners and patients revealed that the shift heralded the decline of arts based therapies in the clinic, and of the social networks that had developed around them. It also inspired a participatory video self-documentary project among art group members, to portray the importance of arts-based therapies and garner public support for such therapies. Group members found a way to take action in the face of unilateral decision making, but experienced subsequent restrictions on clinic activities and discharge of core members from the clinic. The paper ends with a discussion of biopolitics, central legibility through corporate standardization, and the potential and risks of participatory documentaries to resist these trends.

  12. Weighing Opposing Positions: Examining the Effects of Intratextual Persuasive Messages on Students' Knowledge and Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andiliou, Andria; Ramsay, Crystal M.; Murphy, P. Karen; Fast, Jerel

    2012-01-01

    The proliferation of new forms of media has given way to a multitude of new text structures, particularly texts designed to alter the receiver's perspectives. Yet, little is known about the ways in which these novel text structures alter the characteristics of the receiver including one's knowledge and beliefs. As such, the purpose of this…

  13. Obesity Weighs down Memory through a Mechanism Involving the Neuroepigenetic Dysregulation of Sirt1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Frankie D; Gilliam, Daniel; Coleman, Mark A; Gavin, Cristin F; Wang, Jing; Kaas, Garrett; Trieu, Richard; Lewis, John; Moulden, Jerome; Sweatt, J David

    2016-01-27

    Aberrant gene expression within the hippocampus has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced memory impairment. Whether a dysregulation of epigenetic modifications mediates this disruption in gene transcription has yet to be established. Here we report evidence of obesity-induced alterations in DNA methylation of memory-associated genes, including Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), within the hippocampus, and thus offer a novel mechanism by which SIRT1 expression within the hippocampus is suppressed during obesity. Forebrain neuron-specific Sirt1 knock-out closely recapitulated the memory deficits exhibited by obese mice, consistent with the hypothesis that the high-fat diet-mediated reduction of hippocampal SIRT1 could be responsible for obesity-linked memory impairment. Obese mice fed a diet supplemented with the SIRT1-activating molecule resveratrol exhibited increased hippocampal SIRT1 activity and preserved hippocampus-dependent memory, further strengthening this conclusion. Thus, our findings suggest that the memory-impairing effects of diet-induced obesity may potentially be mediated by neuroepigenetic dysregulation of SIRT1 within the hippocampus. Previous studies have implicated transcriptional dysregulation within the hippocampus as being a relevant pathological concomitant of obesity-induced memory impairment, yet a deeper understanding of the basis for, and etiological significance of, transcriptional dysregulation in this context is lacking. Here we present the first evidence of epigenetic dysregulation (i.e., altered DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation) of memory-related genes, including Sirt1, within the hippocampus of obese mice. Furthermore, experiments using transgenic and pharmacological approaches strongly implicate reduced hippocampal SIRT1 as being a principal pathogenic mediator of obesity-induced memory impairment. This paper offers a novel working model that may serve as a conceptual basis for the development of therapeutic interventions for obesity-induced memory impairment. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361324-12$15.00/0.

  14. Weighing the evidence: obesity, metabolic syndrome, and the risk of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Ezra; Slotki, Itzchak; Shavit, Linda

    2015-08-07

    Evaluating effect of obesity per se and the metabolic syndrome as a whole on the risk of developing chronic kidney disease (CKD) is key factor in developing a comprehensive public health approach to reduce morbidity and healthcare resource consumption. While there is considerable evidence to support increased risk of CKD in obese individuals and those with the metabolic syndrome, this relationship may be influenced by several factors. These include confounding variables, anthropometric measures, the end-point studied (e.g. development of early stage CKD, progression to end-stage renal disease or mortality), and the complex interrelationship between the various components of the metabolic syndrome. The study by Cao et al. in the current issue of BMC nephrology examines the impact of obesity on CKD risk in people with and without co-existing metabolic syndrome. The findings of this large, prospective study illustrate a clear correlation between increased body mass index (BMI) and risk of CKD regardless of whether or not there is co-existing metabolic syndrome. While the presence of the metabolic syndrome confers some additional risk of CKD in overweight and obese individuals, its effect is relatively modest and accounts for only 26 % of the risk associated with increased BMI. We discuss the complex epidemiological and methodological context in which these important findings should be understood, and their implications for public health and for individual patients and healthcare practitioners.

  15. Increased risk for the development of preeclampsia in obese pregnancies: weighing in on the mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradley, Frank T.; Palei, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a pregnancy-specific disorder typically presenting as new-onset hypertension and proteinuria. While numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated that obesity increases the risk of PE, the mechanisms have yet to be fully elucidated. Growing evidence from animal and human studies implicate placental ischemia in the etiology of this maternal syndrome. It is thought that placental ischemia is brought about by dysfunctional cytotrophoblast migration and invasion into the uterus and subsequent lack of spiral arteriole widening and placental perfusion. Placental ischemia/hypoxia stimulates the release of soluble placental factors into the maternal circulation where they cause endothelial dysfunction, particularly in the kidney, to elicit the clinical manifestations of PE. The most recognized of these factors are the anti-angiogenic sFlt-1 and pro-inflammatory TNF-α and AT1-AA, which promote endothelial dysfunction by reducing levels of the provasodilator nitric oxide and stimulating production of the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 and reactive oxygen species. We hypothesize that obesity-related metabolic factors increase the risk for developing PE by impacting various stages in the pathogenesis of PE, namely, 1) cytotrophoblast migration and placental ischemia; 2) release of soluble placental factors into the maternal circulation; and 3) maternal endothelial and vascular dysfunction. This review will summarize the current experimental evidence supporting the concept that obesity and metabolic factors like lipids, insulin, glucose, and leptin affect placental function and increase the risk for developing hypertension in pregnancy by reducing placental perfusion; enhancing placental release of soluble factors; and by increasing the sensitivity of the maternal vasculature to placental ischemia-induced soluble factors. PMID:26447211

  16. 76 FR 45397 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grain Transported in Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ..._homepage/serv_sstd_tablepdf.pdf . The growing market for high quality specialty grain exported in... permanent waiver is consistent with the intent of the USGSA and will allow this market to continue to grow... Sec. 800.18(b) of the USGSA regulations. As the high quality specialty grain market has expanded,...

  17. 75 FR 41693 - Export Inspection and Weighing Waiver for High Quality Specialty Grains Transported in Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... small businesses and on whether this waiver should be made permanent. The growing market for high... this market to continue to grow, GIPSA is issuing this interim final rule to (1) extend by 2 years the... specialty market has expanded, the volume of this specialty product has begun to exceed the 15,000...

  18. Using Protoplanetary Disks to Weigh the Youngest Stars and Constrain The Earliest Stages of Stellar Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czekala, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Mass is the fundamental property that determines the evolutionary path of a star. In particular, the masses of young stars are of great relevance to many astrophysical problems, including star and planet formation. We have developed a novel approach that combines spatially resolved sub-millimeter spectral line imaging and optical/near-infrared high resolution spectroscopy to derive the fundamental properties of a young star: mass, temperature, and radius. By applying our technique to a sample of pre-main sequence stars, we are mapping out a dynamically-calibrated Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for the express purpose of evaluating pre-main sequence evolutionary models. Looking forward, ALMA is poised to deliver precise stellar masses in statistically large quantities, enabling a meaningful survey of the fundamental properties of young stars.

  19. Weighed down by development: Reflections on early childhood care and education in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dachyshyn Darcey M.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is based on qualitative research undertaken in West Nile Uganda and Coastal Kenya as part of a broader development project. A wide range of stakeholders, including government officials, parents, and early childhood practitioners were involved in sharing their perspectives of what life is like for young children (birth to age 8 in their homes, communities, and institutions. Data gathered were then brought back to community members to solicit action plans. The author brings to the data her reflections and lived experience as a mzungu (white person brought to the region under the guise of development work and the ethical issues that ensued. It was clear that minority world discourses and conceptions of what constitutes a good life for children had permeated the value systems and goals of many adults in this majority world context. However, when challenged to think deeply about the systemic issues affecting their children, participants began to see the importance of finding ways to meld indigenous values, beliefs, and practices with the globalization agenda.

  20. Innovative weighing and detecting system%创新的称量与检测系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅特勒-托利多(中国)公司

    2009-01-01

    @@ 第四代光学界面AgX光纤探头DS系列全新上市 梅特勒-托利多近期推出第四代光学界面全新设计的Agx光纤探头DS系列.DS系列性能优异,使用方便,能灵活与ReactIR和MonARC系统连接,在化学反应体系中进行原位测量,提供有价值的信息帮助化学家进行定量和定性分析.

  1. Weighing brain activity with the balance: Angelo Mosso's original manuscripts come to light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrone, Stefano; Bacigaluppi, Marco; Galloni, Marco R; Cappa, Stefano F; Moro, Andrea; Catani, Marco; Filippi, Massimo; Monti, Martin M; Perani, Daniela; Martino, Gianvito

    2014-02-01

    Neuroimaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging are essential tools for the analysis of organized neural systems in working and resting states, both in physiological and pathological conditions. They provide evidence of coupled metabolic and cerebral local blood flow changes that strictly depend upon cellular activity. In 1890, Charles Smart Roy and Charles Scott Sherrington suggested a link between brain circulation and metabolism. In the same year William James, in his introduction of the concept of brain blood flow variations during mental activities, briefly reported the studies of the Italian physiologist Angelo Mosso, a multifaceted researcher interested in the human circulatory system. James focused on Mosso's recordings of brain pulsations in patients with skull breaches, and in the process only briefly referred to another invention of Mosso's, the 'human circulation balance', which could non-invasively measure the redistribution of blood during emotional and intellectual activity. However, the details and precise workings of this instrument and the experiments Mosso performed with it have remained largely unknown. Having found Mosso's original manuscripts in the archives, we remind the scientific community of his experiments with the 'human circulation balance' and of his establishment of the conceptual basis of non-invasive functional neuroimaging techniques. Mosso unearthed and investigated several critical variables that are still relevant in modern neuroimaging such as the 'signal-to-noise ratio', the appropriate choice of the experimental paradigm and the need for the simultaneous recording of differing physiological parameters.

  2. Weighing weight : effect of below-knee prosthetic inertial properties on gait

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Selles (Ruud)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis, the influence of prosthetic inertial properties (mass, mass distribution and moment of inertia) on the gait of transtibial amputation (TTA) subjects is studied. Chapter 1 introduces the present ideas on prosthetic mass. It describes that the general design effort has alwa

  3. Weighing the Evidence for Psychotherapy Equivalence: Implications for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmacott, Robin; Hunsley, John

    2007-01-01

    In the past two decades, numerous meta-analyses have been published that examine the question of psychotherapy equivalence. Hunsley and Di Giulio (2002) critically reviewed this literature and concluded that there was abundant evidence that the Dodo bird verdict of equivalence across psychotherapies is false. In this article, we summarize and…

  4. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  5. Archimedes: a feasibility study of an experiment to weigh the electromagnetic vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Calloni, Enrico; De Laurentis, Martina; Esposito, Giampiero; Grilli, M; Majorana, E; Pepe, G P; Petrarca, S; Puppo, Paola; Rapagnani, P; Ricci, Fulvio; Rosa, Luigi; Rovelli, Carlo; Ruggi, P; Saini, N L; Stornaiolo, Cosimo; Tafuri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Archimedes is a feasibility study of a future experiment to ascertain the interaction of vacuum fluctuations with gravity. The experiment should measure the force that the earth's gravitational field exerts on a Casimir cavity by using a small force detector. Here we analyse the main parameters of the experiment and we present its conceptual scheme, which overcomes in principle the most critical problems.

  6. The Archimedes project: a feasibility study for weighing the vacuum energy

    CERN Document Server

    Calloni, Enrico; De Laurentis, Martina; Esposito, Giampiero; Grilli, M; Majorana, Ettore; Pepe, G P; Petrarca, S; Puppo, P; Ricci, F; Rosa, Luigi; Rovelli, Carlo; Ruggi, P; Saini, N L; Stornaiolo, Cosimo; Tafuri, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Archimedes is a feasibility study to a future experiment to ascertain the interaction of vacuum fluctuations with gravity. The future experiment should measure the force that the Earth's gravitational field exerts on a Casimir cavity by using a balance as the small force detector. The Archimedes experiment analyses the important parameters in view of the final measurement and experimentally explores solutions to the most critical problems.

  7. Tool Weighs Benefits, Risks of Raloxifene or Tamoxifen to Prevent Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have developed a benefit-risk index to help guide decisions on whether postmenopausal women at increased risk of developing breast cancer should take raloxifene or tamoxifen to reduce that risk.

  8. Social Networks in Later Life: Weighing Positive and Negative Effects on Health and Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Rook, Karen S.

    2015-01-01

    Social networks provide a mix of positive and negative experiences. Network members can provide help in times of need and day-to-day companionship, but they can also behave in ways that are inconsiderate, hurtful, or intrusive. Researchers must grapple with these dualities in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how social network ties affect health and well-being. This article provides an overview of research that has examined the health-related effects of positive and negative ...

  9. Nuclear versus fossil - weighing up the safety issues (lists accidents for each energy option)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J. (British Nuclear Forum, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-01-01

    In the public mind a large question mark still hangs over the safety of nuclear power. But compared with the fossil alternatives, nuclear power can be shown to provide the cleaner, safer option. (author).

  10. Peri-intraventricular hemorrhage in newborns weighing less than 1500 grams: comparative analysis between 2 institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponte Marinice Duarte da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aims to characterize the peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in the neonatal period in very low birth weight newborns in 2 institutions that provide neonatal tertiary assistance. METHOD: This was a comparative and observational study in 2 neonatal intensive care units, the Maternity Hospital of Campinas and the "Centro de Atenção Integrada à Saúde da Mulher" of the State University of Campinas, from December 01, 1998 to November 30, 1999. We examined 187 newborns for peri-intraventricular hemorrhages, using transfontanel ultrasound (76 and 11 respectively at the first and second unit, and classified them into 4 grades. We observed their gender, intrauterine growth, weight, and gestational age at birth. RESULTS: We diagnosed 34 cases of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages (13 and 21, respectively, and both groups differed as to the birth weight and the adequacy of weight to the gestational age at birth. There was no difference in the prevalence or extent of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages among cases. There was a statistically significant occurrence of lower birth weight at gestational ages of less than 30 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in our study was compared to that reported in the world literature. Although the cases of the second institution had a smaller mean birth weight, the prevalence of peri-intraventricular hemorrhages was similar to that at the first institution, probably because in the first one, 69% of the gestational ages of the neonates with hemorrhage were less than 30 weeks as compared to 48% in the second one. We stress the importance of the ultrasonographic method for diagnosing peri-intraventricular hemorrhages in very low birth weight newborns.

  11. The good, the bad, and the ugly: weighing the risks and benefits of seafood consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Michael T

    2006-01-01

    The health benefits that long chain omega-3 fatty acids contribute in the reduction of coronary heart disease are well established through a number of scientific publications. A number of studies are also examining their potential role in mitigating other diseases and health conditions such as Alzheimer's and mental disorders. Some of the latest research have shown the importance of omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid in cognitive development in infants. Extensive scientific research and recommendations to consume fish regularly from professional societies, health organizations, and government agencies consistently support dietary guidance to consume fish regularly. Nevertheless, increasingly consumers are being warned to eliminate or minimize their consumption of certain species. The warnings, which have been issued due to risks associated with chemical contaminates such as mercury, PCB, and dioxin in fish, have received extensive coverage in news articles and stories in popular magazines. There have been a series of mixed messages to the consumer about the benefits or risks in eating seafood. In some cases, the warnings have been issued by government agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration and Environmental Protection Agency's Joint Fish Advisory on methylmercury. In other cases, the warnings have come from advocacy groups and others. Unfortunately, the advice is often miscommunicated and misunderstood by consumers. The emerging news about the benefits and risks of fish consumption will be discussed in the context of their impacts on consumer's health and well-being.

  12. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  13. Towards weighing individual atoms by high-angle scattering of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argentero, G.; Mangler, C.; Kotakoski, J.; Eder, F.R.; Meyer, J.C., E-mail: Jannik.Meyer@univie.ac.at

    2015-04-15

    We consider theoretically the energy loss of electrons scattered to high angles when assuming that the primary beam can be limited to a single atom. We discuss the possibility of identifying the isotopes of light elements and of extracting information about phonons in this signal. The energy loss is related to the mass of the much heavier nucleus, and is spread out due to atomic vibrations. Importantly, while the width of the broadening is much larger than the energy separation of isotopes, only the shift in the peak positions must be detected if the beam is limited to a single atom. We conclude that the experimental case will be challenging but is not excluded by the physical principles as far as considered here. Moreover, the initial experiments demonstrate that the separation of gold and carbon based on a signal that is related to their mass, rather than their atomic number. - Highlights: • We explore how energy loss spectroscopy could be used to obtain information about the mass, rather than the charge, of atoms. • The dose and precision that would be needed to distinguish between the two isotopes of carbon, C12 and C13, is estimated. • Signal broadening due to phonons is included in the calculation. • Initial experiments show the separation between gold and carbon based on their mass rather than charge.

  14. The Leaky Pipe: Lead Pipers Weigh in on WikiLeaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Board

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Let’s start off with a little background and context, just in case you haven’t been glued to the news to catch every nuance of the WikiLeaks story. The Guardian has a helpful timeline of the saga to get you (at least partially up to speed, and if you don’t like theirs, there are plenty [...

  15. Application of adaptive inverse filtering approach in weigh-in-motion of vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jinsong; Wu, Jie; Wan, Jiuqing; Li, Xingshan

    2006-11-01

    In this paper an adaptive inverse filter is employed which suppress noise within the bandwidth of the desired signal with the particular aim to improve the accuracy of WIM systems. Within the framework of the FIR filter, the inverse system of WIM system is constructed by using LMS adaptive algorithm as an innovative filter. Moreover, an additional filter, a noise filter, is adopted as well, in order to best improvement the measurement accuracy. The final results processed by cascaded filter combination show a significant improvement in estimation of static weight of moving vehicles.

  16. Practical on-board weigh-in-motion system for commercial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1997-01-01

    Many commercial carriers are currently operating vehicles which are overweight, creating an unsafe and illegal situation. However, the cost to law enforcement agencies to stop vehicles for roadside weight checks is prohibitive, while the cost to the nation in lost travel time adds shipping costs which are reflected in the price of every product transported by truck. Overweight trucks also become a threat to public safety when, on public highways, solid cargo breaks loose or liquid cargo leaks. The solution is an on-board monitoring system. With such a system, trucks under their legal weight limit would be allowed to travel past state borders and checkpoints without being stopped. THis would save money both in law enforcement and shipping costs to the nation as a whole. A properly designed system would also have the capability to warn both the driver and local safety and enforcement personnel when the truck is loaded beyond capacity or any other unsafe condition. This paper will detail a system that would even in early limited production be cost effective for both the law enforcement agencies and the operators of trucking fleets. In full production the systems would be cost effective even for smaller or owner/operator trucks. This is a safety system that could become standard equipment similar to seat belts, ABS, and airbags. The initial testing of sub-assemblies and sub-systems which could be deployed now for beta test has been completed.

  17. Native- and Non-Native Speaking English Teachers in Vietnam: Weighing the Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkinshaw, Ian; Duong, Oanh Thi Hoang

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines a common belief that learners of English as a foreign language prefer to learn English from native-speaker teachers rather than non-native speakers of English. 50 Vietnamese learners of English evaluated the importance of native-speakerness compared with seven qualities valued in an English language teacher: teaching…

  18. Macrophage Polarization in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: Weighing Down our Understanding of Macrophage Function?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael James Kraakman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and type 2 diabetes are now recognized as chronic pro-inflammatory diseases. In the last decade, the role of the macrophage in particular has become increasingly implicated in their pathogenesis. Abundant literature now establishes that monocytes get recruited to peripheral tissues (ie pancreas, liver and adipose tissue to become resident macrophages and contribute to local inflammation, development of insulin resistance or even pancreatic dysfunction. Furthermore, an accumulation of evidence has established an important role for macrophage polarisation in the development of metabolic diseases. The general view in obesity is that there is an imbalance in the ratio of M1/M2 macrophages, with M1 pro-inflammatory macrophages being enhanced compared with M2 anti-inflammatory macrophages being down-regulated, leading to chronic inflammation and the propagation of metabolic dysfunction. However, there is emerging evidence revealing a more complex scenario with the spectrum of macrophage states exceeding well beyond the M1/M2 binary classification and confused further by human and animal models exhibiting different macrophage profiles. In this review we will discuss the recent findings regarding macrophage polarization in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  19. Promoting emergency medical care systems in the developing world: weighing the costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, David R

    2011-01-01

    Despite the global health community's historical focus on providing basic, cost-effective primary health care delivered at the community level, recent trends in the developing world show increasing demand for the implementation of emergency care infrastructures, such as prehospital care systems and emergency departments, as well as specialised training programmes. However, the question remains whether, in a setting of limited global health care resources, it is logical to divert these already-sparse resources into the development of emergency care frameworks. The existing literature overwhelmingly supports the idea that emergency care systems, both community-based and within medical institutions, improve important outcomes, including significant morbidity and mortality. Crucial to the success of any public health or policy intervention, emergency care systems also seem to be strongly desired at the community and governmental levels. Integrating emergency care into existing health care systems will ideally rely on modest, low-cost steps to augment current models of primary health care delivery, focusing on adapting the lessons learned in the developed world to the unique needs and local variability of the rest of the globe.

  20. Weighing in on Surveillance: Perception of the Impact of Surveillance on Female Ballet Dancers' Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryburgh, Anne; Fortin, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate professional ballet dancers' perceptions of the impact of surveillance on their psychological and physical health. The theoretical framework was inspired by Foucault's writing, particularly his concepts of surveillance, power, discipline and docile bodies. Fifteen professional ballet dancers…

  1. Towards weighing individual atoms by high-angle scattering of electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Argentero, G; Kotakoski, J; Eder, F R; Meyer, J C

    2015-01-01

    We consider theoretically the energy loss of electrons scattered to high angles when assuming that the primary beam can be limited to a single atom. We discuss the possibility of identifying the isotopes of light elements and of extracting information about phonons in this signal. The energy loss is related to the mass of the much heavier nucleus, and is spread out due to atomic vibrations. Importantly, while the width of the broadening is much larger than the energy separation of isotopes, only the shift in the peak positions must be detected if the beam is limited to a single atom. We conclude that the experimental case will be challenging but is not excluded by the physical principles as far as considered here. Moreover, the initial experiments demonstrate the separation of gold and carbon based on a signal that is related to their mass, rather than their atomic number.

  2. Weighing in: the taste-engineering frame in obesity expert discourse

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ortiz, Selena E; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Gilliam, Jr, Franklin D

    2015-01-01

    We sought expert opinion on the problems with 2 dominant obesity-prevention discourse frames-personal responsibility and the environment-and examined alternative frames for understanding and addressing obesity...

  3. Weighing in on Genetic Engineering and Morality: Students Reveal Their Ideas, Expectations, and Reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Troy D.; Zeidler, Dana L.

    The ability to negotiate and resolve socioscientific issues has been posited as integral components of scientific literacy. Although philosophers and science educators have argued that socioscientific issues inherently involve moral and ethical considerations, the ultimate arbiters of morality are individual decision-makers. This study explored…

  4. Steam of phenols and diethylamine by means of piezoelectric micro weighing research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ju. Kochetova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sorption balance in gas-sorption layer system at various temperatures and ratio of mass components has been investigated. Sorption conditions have been optimized, sorption isotherms at wide range of sorption content (phenol, nitrophenol, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6-dinitrophenol, diethylamine on sorption layers with various polarity have been constructed.

  5. View from the UN Balts weigh in at general debate / Ann Charles

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Charles, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Eesti presidendi Toomas Hendrik Ilvese, Läti presidendi Valdis Zatlersi, Leedu presidendi Valdas Adamkuse, Ukraina presidendi Viktor Juštšenko ja Prantsusmaa presidendi Nicolas Sarkozy sõnavõttudest ÜRO peaassambleel. Vabariigi President töövisiidil New Yorgis 23.-27.09.2008

  6. Seeing into Suspicion: Weighing the Probabilities of Contending Narratives, Developing as a Narrative Inquirer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Nona

    2010-01-01

    The author investigates the recent, surprising discovery of the invention of suspicion in the development of 16th century English drama to consider how this discovery might contribute to a new elaboration of narrative inquiry, specifically, to new ways of becoming a narrative inquirer. In her book, "The Invention of Suspicion," scholar…

  7. Time scales of representation in the human brain: weighing past information to predict future events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee eHarrison

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The estimates that humans make of statistical dependencies in the environment and therefore their representation of uncertainty crucially depend on the integration of data over time. As such, the extent to which past events are used to represent uncertainty has been postulated to vary over the cortex. For example, primary visual cortex responds to rapid perturbations in the environment, while frontal cortices involved in executive control encode the longer term contexts within which these perturbations occur. Here we tested whether primary and executive regions can be distinguished by the number of past observations they represent. This was based on a decay-dependent model that weights past observations from a Markov process and Bayesian Model Selection (BMS to test the prediction that neuronal responses are characterised by different decay half-lives depending on location in the brain. We show distributions of brain responses for short and long term decay functions in primary and secondary visual and frontal cortices, respectively. We found that visual and parietal responses are released from the burden of the past, enabling an agile response to fluctuations in events as they unfold. In contrast, frontal regions are more concerned with average trends over longer time scales within which local variations are embedded. Specifically, we provide evidence for a temporal gradient for representing context within the prefrontal cortex and possibly beyond to include primary sensory and association areas.

  8. Weighing the evidence: energy determinations across the spectrum of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byham-Gray, Laura D

    2006-01-01

    Evidence based guidelines for medical nutrition therapy (MNT) in chronic kidney disease (CKD) recommend a range of caloric levels, dependent on age and level of kidney function. Recent literature has explored whether current research findings still support these earlier conclusions, and if new energy determinations for CKD are warranted. This review will take a brief look at the history of the controversy, examine the research evidence at the time of practice guideline development, investigate emerging research, and discuss implications for additional scientific inquiry.

  9. Weighing risk factors associated with bee colony collapse disorder by classification and regression tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanEngelsdorp, Dennis; Speybroeck, Niko; Evans, Jay D; Nguyen, Bach Kim; Mullin, Chris; Frazier, Maryann; Frazier, Jim; Cox-Foster, Diana; Chen, Yanping; Tarpy, David R; Haubruge, Eric; Pettis, Jeffrey S; Saegerman, Claude

    2010-10-01

    Colony collapse disorder (CCD), a syndrome whose defining trait is the rapid loss of adult worker honey bees, Apis mellifera L., is thought to be responsible for a minority of the large overwintering losses experienced by U.S. beekeepers since the winter 2006-2007. Using the same data set developed to perform a monofactorial analysis (PloS ONE 4: e6481, 2009), we conducted a classification and regression tree (CART) analysis in an attempt to better understand the relative importance and interrelations among different risk variables in explaining CCD. Fifty-five exploratory variables were used to construct two CART models: one model with and one model without a cost of misclassifying a CCD-diagnosed colony as a non-CCD colony. The resulting model tree that permitted for misclassification had a sensitivity and specificity of 85 and 74%, respectively. Although factors measuring colony stress (e.g., adult bee physiological measures, such as fluctuating asymmetry or mass of head) were important discriminating values, six of the 19 variables having the greatest discriminatory value were pesticide levels in different hive matrices. Notably, coumaphos levels in brood (a miticide commonly used by beekeepers) had the highest discriminatory value and were highest in control (healthy) colonies. Our CART analysis provides evidence that CCD is probably the result of several factors acting in concert, making afflicted colonies more susceptible to disease. This analysis highlights several areas that warrant further attention, including the effect of sublethal pesticide exposure on pathogen prevalence and the role of variability in bee tolerance to pesticides on colony survivorship.

  10. Weighing the cost and benefit of transcranial direct current stimulation on different reading subskills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Wise Younger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adults struggling with low reading skills are underserved by limited available treatments. While brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has the potential to improve a variety of cognitive functions, little work has been done examining its potential to treat reading disabilities. Research on the effects of tDCS on reading abilities has been somewhat inconsistent perhaps in part due to discrepancies between studies in the nature of the tasks. In the current study, we examined the effect of tDCS to the left inferior parietal lobe (L IPL on two reading tasks in low-to-average readers. We compared performance on a sight word efficiency task and a rhyme judgment task before and after either stimulation to the L IPL, right superior parietal lobe (R SPL, or sham stimulation. Readers who received stimulation to the L IPL showed greater improvements on the sight word efficiency task, but less improvement on the rhyme judgment task compared to the R SPL and sham groups. This study demonstrates for the first time both a positive and negative effect of stimulation under the same stimulation parameters within the same participants. The results highlight the need to consider multiple tasks when assessing the potential of using tDCS as a treatment.

  11. 75 FR 9157 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Alaska Region Scale and Catch Weighing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ... requirements address performance standards designed to ensure that all catch delivered to the processor is... series of design criteria. Because of the wide variations in factory layout for inshore processors, NMFS... Community Development Quota Program (CDQ) catcher/processors, American Fisheries Act (AFA)...

  12. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature sup...

  13. Multipolar moments of weak lensing signal around clusters. Weighing filaments in harmonic space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouin, C.; Gavazzi, R.; Codis, S.; Pichon, C.; Peirani, S.; Dubois, Y.

    2017-09-01

    Context. Upcoming weak lensing surveys such as Euclid will provide an unprecedented opportunity to quantify the geometry and topology of the cosmic web, in particular in the vicinity of lensing clusters. Aims: Understanding the connectivity of the cosmic web with unbiased mass tracers, such as weak lensing, is of prime importance to probe the underlying cosmology, seek dynamical signatures of dark matter, and quantify environmental effects on galaxy formation. Methods: Mock catalogues of galaxy clusters are extracted from the N-body PLUS simulation. For each cluster, the aperture multipolar moments of the convergence are calculated in two annuli (inside and outside the virial radius). By stacking their modulus, a statistical estimator is built to characterise the angular mass distribution around clusters. The moments are compared to predictions from perturbation theory and spherical collapse. Results: The main weakly chromatic excess of multipolar power on large scales is understood as arising from the contraction of the primordial cosmic web driven by the growing potential well of the cluster. Besides this boost, the quadrupole prevails in the cluster (ellipsoidal) core, while at the outskirts, harmonic distortions are spread on small angular modes, and trace the non-linear sharpening of the filamentary structures. Predictions for the signal amplitude as a function of the cluster-centric distance, mass, and redshift are presented. The prospects of measuring this signal are estimated for current and future lensing data sets. Conclusions: The Euclid mission should provide all the necessary information for studying the cosmic evolution of the connectivity of the cosmic web around lensing clusters using multipolar moments and probing unique signatures of, for example, baryons and warm dark matter.

  14. Settling Indigenous Claims to Protected Areas: Weighing Māori Aspirations Against Australian Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil O′B. Lyver

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to resolve indigenous peoples′ grievances about the negative impacts of protected areas established on their customary estates by governments are driving the development of shared governance and management. The Tϋhoe people have sought that the settlement of their grievances against the New Zealand government include unencumbered rights to manage Te Urewera, guided by scientific and traditional knowledge and practices, for conservation and social benefits for the Tϋhoe people and the broader public. We led a study tour to allow Tϋhoe and other Mβori representatives to gain first-hand experience of long-standing jointly managed protected areas in Australia that the New Zealand government had drawn on in proposing mechanisms to resolve the Tϋhoe claim. We found that these areas were a poor fit to the study tour participants′ aspirations that indigenous world views would underpin governance and that indigenous people would be empowered. Our findings highlight that settlement must be transformational in terms of attitudes and relationships. Collaborative problem-solving processes that build trust can contribute. In areas like Te Urewera, where tenure boundaries fragment a landscape that is a coherent whole in indigenous world views, settlement processes can offer the prospect of landscape-scale outcomes for social justice and conservation.

  15. Weighing in on NBC's The Biggest Loser: governmentality and self-concept on the scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readdy, Tucker; Ebbeck, Vicki

    2012-12-01

    Previous analyses (i.e., Bernstein & St. John, 2006; Sender & Sullivan, 2008) of the television show The Biggest Loser have detailed its negative presentation of the obese body, potential consequences for viewers, and its role as a technology of governmentality. However there has been little exploration of how audience members conceptualize and enact the messages communicated in the show within these intricate frameworks. The current research used information from semistructured interviews with 40 dedicated viewers to capture the salient meanings they ascribed to The Biggest Loser within the themes of governmentality and self-concept. Overall, the group experienced the program as a transformative, entertaining, and inspirational event that produced little change in their exercise behavior. Thus, the role of reality television in creating healthy behavior change is potentially limited.

  16. Weighing in on NBC's "The Biggest Loser": Governmentality and Self-Concept on the Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Readdy, Tucker; Ebbeck, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Previous analyses (i.e., Bernstein & St. John, 2006; Sender & Sullivan, 2008) of the television show "The Biggest Loser" have detailed its negative presentation of the obese body, potential consequences for viewers, and its role as a technology of governmentality. However, there has been little exploration of how audience members…

  17. Introduction of Weighing Transfer Car%称量运输车介绍

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝晓静

    2011-01-01

    @@ 称量运输车是一种配套了称量装置的运输车,可用于转炉下运送热态铁水或钢水、废钢等,并能将所接受运送原料的重量反馈至控制室以便控制钢水成分和计量产量.

  18. Weighed in the balance? The corporation of apothecaries in Bordeaux, 1690-1790.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Angie

    2003-04-01

    Based on a collective biography of apothecaries, surgeons, and physicians in Bordeaux between 1690 and 1790, this article offers a counterbalance to the prevailing view of apothecaries. It suggests that, although numbers may have been falling and corporations failing elsewhere in France, the favourable situation of Bordeaux aided the survival of the corporation of apothecaries in that city. It suggests that apothecaries were important in providing a wide range of goods and services to patients, and traces their involvement in retail, wholesale, and international trade. Control of numbers is shown to be linked to a desire to exploit their monopoly of the market, which led to increases in wealth for individual practitioners. A change in traditional inheritance strategies is linked to a new emphasis on merit, and to knowledge obtained through training outside the confines of the apprenticeship system. The 'secrets of the craft' are seen to be undermined by the public nature of the emerging science of chemistry. The corporation of apothecaries in Bordeaux was transformed through its absorption of three new types of practitioner-entrepreneurs, pharmacists, and scientists-yet it survived due to the substantial and continuing presence of traditional, locally born, and locally trained apothecaries.

  19. Weighing the risk": Obesity and outcomes following livertransplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is on the rise worldwide. As a result, unprece-dented rates of patients are presenting with end stageliver disease in the setting of non-alcoholic fatty liverdisease (NAFLD) and are requiring liver transplantation.There are significant concerns that the risk factorsassociated with obesity and the metabolic syndromemight have a detrimental effect on the long term outcomesfollowing liver transplantation. In general, shortterm patient and graft outcomes for both obese andmorbidly obese patients are comparable with that ofnon-obese patients, however, several studies report anincrease in peri-operative morbidity and increased lengthof stay. Continued studies documenting the long-termoutcomes from liver transplantation are needed to furtherexamine the risk of recurrent disease (NAFLD) and alsofurther define the role risk factors such cardiovasculardisease might play long term. Effective weight reductionin the post liver transplant setting may mitigate the risksassociated with the metabolic syndrome long-term.

  20. Weighing It up: Thinking about the Implications of School Based Obesity Prevention Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Deana; Harrison, Lyn

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we explore the tensions that exist between two health promotion discourses prevalent in school based Health Education. We use one example from a widely used curriculum resource and one classroom episode to explore discourses related to obesity prevention, often described as an obesity epidemic by media and health professionals alike.…

  1. Statistical analysis of vehicle loads measured with three different vehicle weighing devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhize, ZQP

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available conditions. In order to better manage vehicular loads and their distribution on South Afri- can road pavements, systems of weighbridges are being utilized to monitor vehicular loads (or mass weights)1 and also for the prosecution of those offenders... and Fisher, 1999, De Beer et al 1999, 2002, 2004a, 2004b). 2. FIELD STUDIES AND APPROACH TO DATA ANALYSES Verification studies under controlled loading and inflation pressure using the South African Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) indicated that the three...

  2. Stellar atmospheres, atmospheric extension and fundamental parameters: weighing stars using the stellar mass index

    CERN Document Server

    Neilson, Hilding R; Norris, Ryan; Kloppenborg, Brian; Lester, John B

    2016-01-01

    One of the great challenges in understanding stars is measuring their masses. The best methods for measuring stellar masses include binary interaction, asteroseismology and stellar evolution models, but these methods are not ideal for red giant and supergiant stars. In this work, we propose a novel method for inferring stellar masses of evolved red giant and supergiant stars using interferometric and spectrophotometric observations combined with spherical model stellar atmospheres to measure what we call the stellar mass index, defined as the ratio between the stellar radius and mass. The method is based on the correlation between different measurements of angular diameter, used as a proxy for atmospheric extension, and fundamental stellar parameters. For a given star, spectrophotometry measures the Rosseland angular diameter while interferometric observations generally probe a larger limb-darkened angular diameter. The ratio of these two angular diameters is proportional to the relative extension of the stel...

  3. Agreement Between Doppler and Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring in Anesthetized Dogs Weighing <5 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Martin J; Barletta, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if Doppler (DOP) blood pressure measurements more closely estimate either invasive systolic or invasive mean arterial blood pressures (ISAP or IMAP, respectively) in small dogs under general anesthesia and to assess the ability of DOP to detect anesthesia-related hypotension in small dogs. Blood pressure measurements (n = 203) were obtained from 10 client-owned dogs. DOP, ISAP, and IMAP were recorded simultaneously, and the data were categorized into two groups: hypotensive (ISAP dogs, suggesting that DOP measures systolic arterial blood pressure in dogs dogs with hypotension, DOP met all of the performance criteria for noninvasive blood pressure monitors recommended by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. DOP is an acceptably accurate and highly specific means of detecting hypotension in small dogs under general anesthesia.

  4. Weighing of risk factors for penetrating keratoplasty graft failure: application of Risk Score System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Karim Tourkmani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the relationship between the score obtained in the Risk Score System (RSS proposed by Hicks et al with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP graft failure at 1y postoperatively and among each factor in the RSS with the risk of PKP graft failure using univariate and multivariate analysis. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study had 152 PKPs from 152 patients. Eighteen cases were excluded from our study due to primary failure (10 cases, incomplete medical notes (5 cases and follow-up less than 1y (3 cases. We included 134 PKPs from 134 patients stratified by preoperative risk score. Spearman coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the score obtained and risk of failure at 1y. Univariate and multivariate analysis were calculated for the impact of every single risk factor included in the RSS over graft failure at 1y. RESULTS: Spearman coefficient showed statistically significant correlation between the score in the RSS and graft failure (P0.05 between diagnosis and lens status with graft failure. The relationship between the other risk factors studied and graft failure was significant (P<0.05, although the results for previous grafts and graft failure was unreliable. None of our patients had previous blood transfusion, thus, it had no impact. CONCLUSION: After the application of multivariate analysis techniques, some risk factors do not show the expected impact over graft failure at 1y.

  5. Scientific research in school psychology: Leading researchers weigh in on its past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Kent; Martinez, Rebecca S; Ty, Sophie V; McClain, Maryellen B

    2013-06-01

    A survey of established researchers in school psychology was conducted to reflect on the state of the science of school psychology research. A total of 54 members of the Society for the Study of School Psychology shared their perceptions of (a) the most significant findings of the past 25years that have influenced research and practice in school psychology, (b) current, exciting research topics, and (c) topics that are likely to guide the future of research in school psychology. Qualitative analyses revealed 6 major categories and 17 minor categories within the major categories. Four major categories were present across each of the three time periods: (a) Data-Informed Practices and their Implementation, (b) Theory Development, (c) Changing Role and Function, and (d) Biological Bases of Behavior. Additional major categories included Advances in Research Methodology and Psychometrics (found across past and present time periods) and There is Not One Single Most Important Idea (found during only the past time period). Quotations are provided to illustrate these categories and share the respondents' ideas in their own words. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Piezoelectric ceramic-polymer composites for weigh-in-motion sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Rajesh K.; Szary, Patrick J.; Maher, Ali; Safari, Ahmad

    1998-07-01

    Piezoelectric materials produce a voltage proportional to an applied pressure. Using this phenomenon, piezoelectric polymer sensors are already being used for collecting traffic data including weight-in-motion, measuring speeds and counting axles. The polymer sensors are usually in the form of a long tape or cable embedded within long blocks of elastomeric material. These sensor assemblies are then installed into grooves, which are cut into roads perpendicular to the traffic flow. The biggest disadvantage of these sensors is that the piezoelectric output is not uniform with temperature, thus leading to large uncertainty in the data collected. Piezoelectric ceramics have a much more stable response over a large temperature range. However, until now they have not been used for traffic data sensors because of their inherent brittleness. In this research project flexible ceramic/polymer composite strips have been fabricated for use as piezoelectric sensors for measuring large vehicle loads. Here, the ceramic is the active piezoelectric material that is embedded in a flexible non-piezoelectric polymer. After encapsulating these sensors in elastomeric blocks in aluminum channels, the voltage output of the composite for different loads have been determined. Also, these composite sensor assemblies are being installed on a test road in order to perform actual measurements.

  7. Weighing the Galactic disk using the Jeans equation: lessons from simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Candlish, G N; Bidin, C Moni; Gibson, B K

    2015-01-01

    Using three-dimensional stellar kinematic data from simulated galaxies, we examine the efficacy of a Jeans equation analysis in reconstructing the total disk surface density, including the dark matter, at the "Solar" radius. Our simulation dataset includes galaxies formed in a cosmological context using state-of-the-art high resolution cosmological zoom simulations, and other idealised models. The cosmologically formed galaxies have been demonstrated to lie on many of the observed scaling relations for late-type spirals, and thus offer an interesting surrogate for real galaxies with the obvious advantage that all the kinematical data are known perfectly. We show that the vertical velocity dispersion is typically the dominant kinematic quantity in the analysis, and that the traditional method of using only the vertical force is reasonably effective at low heights above the disk plane. At higher heights the inclusion of the radial force becomes increasingly important. We also show that the method is sensitive t...

  8. A case for government ownership of primary care services in New Zealand: weighing the arguments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampton, Peter; Starfield, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Primary care services provide continuing and coordinating care, cater to most health care needs, and serve as a point of first contact with the health system. This article addresses the issue of government ownership of primary care. Ownership confers governance responsibility (ultimate control) for an organization, and accountability for its actions. Primary care organizations can be classed as government owned and operated or privately owned and operated, the latter with or without community governance. The authors address two policy questions: Does the ownership form of a primary care organization matter? What ownership frameworks should be used to guide policymaking? Arguments for and against government ownership are examined from political and economic perspectives, informed by a governance framework. Government ownership of primary care may solve problems associated with private for-profit ownership that are related to lack of control of strategic assets, lack of direct political accountability, contracting, and market failure, but it may raise potential problems of lack of responsiveness to minority and local needs and capture by interest groups. In response to the problems associated with government ownership, community-governed private nonprofits have an essential role as a vehicle for indigenous self-determination, catering for minority populations, experimenting with policy options, and providing public goods particularly for minority populations. The authors argue that private organizations that lack community governance have a lesser role.

  9. On the nature of implicit soul beliefs: when the past weighs more than the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Stephanie M

    2015-06-01

    Intuitive childhood beliefs in dualism may lay the foundation for implicit soul and afterlife beliefs, which may diverge from explicit beliefs formed later in adulthood. Brief Implicit Association Tests were developed to investigate the relation of implicit soul and afterlife beliefs to childhood and current beliefs. Early but not current beliefs covaried with implicit beliefs. Results demonstrated greater discrepancies in current than in childhood soul and afterlife beliefs among religious groups, and no differences in implicit beliefs. These findings suggest that implicit soul and afterlife beliefs diverge from current self-reported beliefs, stemming instead from childhood beliefs.

  10. "Platooning" Instruction: Districts Weigh Pros and Cons of Departmentalizing Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    To platoon or not to platoon? That's the question facing Irving Hamer, Deputy Superintendent of Academic Operations, Technology and lnnovation for the Memphis City Schools. This year for the first time, the state's achievement test, Tennessee Comprehensive Assessment Program (TCAP), will include algebraic concepts on the 5th-grade test. Of the…

  11. COSMOS soil water sensor compared with EM sensor network & weighing lysimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil water sensing methods are widely used to characterize the root zone and below, but only a few are capable of delivering water content data with accuracy for the entire soil profile such that evapotranspiration (ET) can be determined by soil water balance and irrigations can be scheduled with mi...

  12. Simpler and More Accurate: Weighing the Mercury in Electrolytic Cells by Radiotracer Dilution Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiharto

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Weight of mercury in electrolytic cell of soda industry is usually measured gravimetrically, which is typical labor work in character. Error sources of the gravimetric method might have come from the fact that some mercury’s are usually trapped in the cell due to complicated structure of electrolytic cell. This cause unknown errors. In addition, formation of amalgam at the cathode may cause a further uncertainty in the measurement. Total error from gravimetric method is 4% on average. Radiotracer dilution method provides advantages either for simplification of procedure and reduction of measurement error. In this experiment radioisotope mercury 203Hg, which was prepared in nuclear reactor was used to examine 13 of 14 electrolytic cells of soda plant. Each electrolytic cell was designed containing approximately 700 kg inactive mercury. Before injection, the radioisotope mercury was mixed with non radioisotope mercury in a bath to obtain a suitable injection aliquots and standard references. Calibration curve, which was derived from two stage dilution processes taken from standard references, was used to examine degree of mixing between radioisotope and non radioisotope mercury and it was also used in weight calculation of non radioisotope mercury in electrolytic cell. Injection was carried out simply by pouring the injection aliquots into the flowing mercury at the inlet side of the cell. Mercury samples from the cells were extracted at regular time intervals and filled into vials for counting. This was done for the primary conformation of the completeness of mixing of the tracer with the non radioisotope mercury in each cell. When complete mixing is achieved, the unknown quantity of mercury in each cell was calculated based on mass balance principle. From the calculation the weight of mercury in each electrolytic cell was not the same and maximum error of measurement obtained from this method is 2.48 %. Compared to gravimetrically error mentioned above, it was clear that radiotracer dilution method gives better result in terms of higher accuracy and simpler procedure in measurement of the weight of mercury in electrolytic cells. Above all, this method is very suitable to be implemented in soda industry.

  13. Weighing the views of a university hospital and medical school regarding an HMO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, T J; Matthews, C W; Segadelli, L J

    1983-09-01

    After 14 years of study, the University of Michigan decided to terminate development of a health maintenance organization (HMO). The process was long and difficult because of the university's need to consider the HMO from the university's perspective of both an employer and a provider. As an employer, the university's early view was favorable and then declined when employee interest was found to be weak and the HMO's impact on the rapidly rising cost of the university's health insurance benefit was determined to be modest. As a provider, the university's view was mixed. In regard to its hospitals, the university's judgment was positive largely because it hoped that HMO incentives might help the hospitals remain viable in the health care delivery environment that was becoming increasingly competitive. From the Medical School's point of view, an HMO was felt not to be desirable because it could put in jeopardy the professional fee revenue used by the school to help underwrite its academic programs, which are the primary source of faculty pride and recognition.

  14. AN ADVISER IN RESOURCE-MANAGEMENT SITUATIONS - CONFIGURAL WEIGHING OF RECOMMENDATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEVRIES, S; WILKE, HAM

    1995-01-01

    The major aim of the present study is to investigate how an adviser's recommendations affect the behavior of actors in resource management situations. Some real-life examples of resource management situations are: fishing the seas and water consumption in a period of draught. In previous research (s

  15. The App Squad: SLJ's Advisors Weigh in on Kids' Book Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, "School Library Journal's" ("SLJ") advisors talk about book apps for kids. They discuss what they like, what one should look for in discerning the best for kids and teens, and where this all might be headed.

  16. The Bullet cluster at its best: weighing stars, gas, and dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraficz, D.; Kneib, J.-P.; Richard, J.; Morandi, A.; Limousin, M.; Jullo, E.; Martinez, J.

    2016-10-01

    Aims: We present a new strong lensing mass reconstruction of the Bullet cluster (1E 0657-56) at z = 0.296, based on WFC3 and ACS HST imaging and VLT/FORS2 spectroscopy. The strong lensing constraints underwent substantial revision compared to previously published analysis, there are now 14 (six new and eight previously known) multiply-imaged systems, of which three have spectroscopically confirmed redshifts (including one newly measured from this work). Methods: The reconstructed mass distribution explicitly included the combination of three mass components: (i) the intra-cluster gas mass derived from X-ray observation; (ii) the cluster galaxies modeled by their fundamental plane scaling relations and (iii) dark matter. Results: The model that includes the intra-cluster gas is the one with the best Bayesian evidence. This model has a total rms value of 0.158″ between the predicted and measured image positions for the 14 multiple images considered. The proximity of the total rms to resolution of HST/WFC3 and ACS (0.07-0.15''FWHM) demonstrates the excellent precision of our mass model. The derived mass model confirms the spatial offset between the X-ray gas and dark matter peaks. The fraction of the galaxy halos mass to total mass is found to be fs = 11 ± 5% for a total mass of 2.5 ± 0.1 × 1014M⊙ within a 250 kpc radial aperture.

  17. Implicit theories of body weight: entity beliefs can weigh you down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnette, Jeni L

    2010-03-01

    The current research extended the implicit theory approach to a weight management context and merged it with value expectancy theory. Three studies investigated the hypothesis that individuals are especially unlikely to self-regulate effectively after dieting setbacks when they believe body weight to be fixed (entity theory) rather than malleable (incremental theory). Study 1 examined avoidant coping after a hypothetical dieting setback. Study 2 examined the implicit theory-avoidant coping relation after naturally occurring challenges to participants' weight-loss goals. Across both studies, entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported more avoidant coping after setbacks. In Study 2, avoidant coping, in turn, predicted difficulty achieving weight-loss success. Study 3 manipulated implicit theories of weight to test the causal effects of implicit theories on effortful regulation. Entity theorists, relative to incremental theorists, reported less persistence following setbacks. Across the three studies, expectations about the potential for future dieting success mediated the link between implicit theory and self-regulation.

  18. Symposium report: Effective and safe micronutrient interventions, weighing the risks against the benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micronutrient fortification of staple foods can be an effective strategy to combat micronutrient malnutrition. When planning on fortification, challenges faced include the collection of essential information on population food and nutrient intake patterns, as well as the use of this information in a...

  19. Towards climate justice: how do the most vulnerable weigh environment-economy trade-offs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Katrina

    2015-03-01

    The world's poor are especially vulnerable to environmental disasters, including the adverse consequences of climate change. This creates a challenge for climate justice advocates who seek to ensure that those least responsible for causing climate change do not bear unwanted burdens of mitigation. One way to promote climate justice could be to pay particular attention to the environmental policy preferences of citizens from poorer, lower-emitting countries. This paper examines opinions on environment-economy trade-offs and willingness to make personal financial contributions to protect the environment among residents of 42 developed and developing countries using data from the 2005-2008 World Values Survey, the 2010 Climate Risk Index, and World Bank development indicators. Results reveal that individuals in developing countries are less likely to support policies to prioritize environmental protection over economic growth but are more willing to donate personal income for pro-environmental efforts compared to citizens of more developed nations.

  20. 78 FR 22151 - Fees for Official Inspection and Official Weighing Services Under the United States Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... goal is to maintain a minimum of three months of retained earnings as opposed to a maximum level. GIPSA believes proper business acumen suggests that modifying fees when the retained earnings reach a 3-month... supports the suggestion to the extent that when retained earnings reach a 3-month level and future exports...

  1. Weighing in on whole grains: A review of evidence linking whole grains to body weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. dietary guidelines support the consumption of whole grains in lieu of refined grains. On January 31, 2011, the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) were released and the recommendations with respect to grains were for individuals to “Consume at least half of all grains as whole grains” a...

  2. Weighing the Giants - II. Improved calibration of photometry from stellar colours and accurate photometric redshifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patrick L.; von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E.; Allen, Mark T.; Allen, Steven W.; Burchat, Patricia R.; Burke, David L.; Ebeling, Harald; Capak, Peter; Czoske, Oliver; Donovan, David; Mantz, Adam; Morris, R. Glenn

    2014-03-01

    We present improved methods for using stars found in astronomical exposures to calibrate both star and galaxy colours as well as to adjust the instrument flat-field. By developing a spectroscopic model for the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) stellar locus in colour-colour space, synthesizing an expected stellar locus, and simultaneously solving for all unknown zero-points when fitting to the instrumental locus, we increase the calibration accuracy of stellar locus matching. We also use a new combined technique to estimate improved flat-field models for the Subaru SuprimeCam camera, forming `star flats' based on the magnitudes of stars observed in multiple positions or through comparison with available measurements in the SDSS catalogue. These techniques yield galaxy magnitudes with reliable colour calibration (≲0.01-0.02 mag accuracy) that enable us to estimate photometric redshift probability distributions without spectroscopic training samples. We test the accuracy of our photometric redshifts using spectroscopic redshifts zs for ˜5000 galaxies in 27cluster fields with at least five bands of photometry, as well as galaxies in the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) field, finding σ((zp - zs)/(1 + zs)) ≈ 0.03 for the most probable redshift zp. We show that the full posterior probability distributions for the redshifts of galaxies with five-band photometry exhibit good agreement with redshifts estimated from thirty-band photometry in the COSMOS field. The growth of shear with increasing distance behind each galaxy cluster shows the expected redshift-distance relation for a flat Λ cold dark matter (Λ-CDM) cosmology. Photometric redshifts and calibrated colours are used in subsequent papers to measure the masses of 51 galaxy clusters from their weak gravitational shear and determine improved cosmological constraints. We make our PYTHON code for stellar locus matching publicly available at http://big-macs-calibrate.googlecode.com; the code requires only input catalogues and filter transmission functions.

  3. Weighing the Giants II: Improved Calibration of Photometry from Stellar Colors and Accurate Photometric Redshifts

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Patrick L; Applegate, Douglas E; Allen, Mark T; Allen, Steven W; Burchat, Patricia R; Burke, David L; Ebeling, Harald; Capak, Peter; Czoske, Oliver; Donovan, David; Mantz, Adam; Morris, R Glenn

    2012-01-01

    We present improved methods for using stars found in astronomical exposures to calibrate both star and galaxy colors as well as to adjust the instrument flat field. By developing a spectroscopic model for the SDSS stellar locus in color-color space, synthesizing an expected stellar locus, and simultaneously solving for all unknown zeropoints when fitting to the instrumental locus, we increase the calibration accuracy of stellar locus matching. We also use a new combined technique to estimate improved flat-field models for the Subaru SuprimeCam camera, forming `star flats' based on the magnitudes of stars observed in multiple positions or through comparison with available SDSS magnitudes. These techniques yield galaxy magnitudes with reliable color calibration (< 0.01 - 0.02 mag accuracy) that enable us to estimate photometric redshift probability distributions without spectroscopic training samples. We test the accuracy of our photometric redshifts using spectroscopic redshifts z_s for ~5000 galaxies in 27...

  4. Instructional Coach Weighs 3 Types of Data to Get Triple-Strength Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehle, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This article describes three types of data that can impact how instructional coaches face the challenges in measuring the impact of their work with teachers on student learning. Descriptions of the three types of data--"shifts in teacher reflective tendencies," "the use of student performance as an indicator of success," and…

  5. Children in hospital in Ireland - what do they eat and what do they weigh: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flinn Aisling

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity is a growing problem in Ireland. Many parents are unaware when their child is overweight or obese. Our objectives were to examine parents’ perceptions of a healthy diet and their children’s BMI; and to evaluate the food offered to children in our paediatric in-patient unit. Findings A retrospective questionnaire was distributed to 95 patients and their families admitted over one month. Seventy-eight had BMI values calculated (42 males, 36 females. Twenty-one children (26.9% were overweight/obese: 14/21 parents (66.7% thought their child had a normal weight. Sixty percent of children served dinner in the hospital were given fried potatoes. Four had fruit/vegetables. Forty-six parents brought food into hospital, of these 14 brought purchased food. Conclusions This study highlights the problem of child obesity in Ireland and parental underestimation of this problem. The nutritional value of food served to children in hospital needs to be improved and hospital admissions used as opportunities to promote healthy eating habits.

  6. Weighing the Evidence: Likability and Trait Attributions of a Peer as a Function of Behavioral Characteristics, Body Weight, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Used vignettes to investigate children's integration of information on behavior, body weight, and sex when forming peer impressions. Found that positively behaving peers were liked more and attributed more positive traits than negatively behaving peers. Also found that boys, but not girls, believed that peers would evaluate average weight,…

  7. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes

    2008-01-01

    -off was investigated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and based on a literature review of advanced treatment performance. The LCA evaluation comprised sand filtration, ozonation and MBRs and assessed the effect of extending existing tertiary treatment with these technologies on a variety of micro......; life cycle assessment; MBR; micro-pollutants; ozonation; sand filtration....

  8. Researchers Weigh Benefits of One Computer per Lap: Studies Aim to Determine the Impact the Technology Has on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2006-01-01

    Almost one-quarter of school districts nationwide and nine states have invested millions of dollars in "one-to-one" laptop programs, hoping the availability of a computer for every student will improve achievement and other skills. They made those investments despite the fact that research on the impact of such technology on student achievement is…

  9. The Last Battle: With "Mockingjay" on Its Way, Suzanne Collins Weighs in on Katniss and the Capitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Ever since Katniss Everdeen, the arrow-slinging heroine of Suzanne Collins's "Hunger Games" trilogy, was snatched from the cruel clutches of a ruthless government, one can't stop thinking about the feisty 16-year-old from District 12. What sort of flesh-devouring, mutant killing machine awaits her next? How can she possibly lead a successful…

  10. Is sociality required for the evolution of communicative complexity? Evidence weighed against alternative hypotheses in diverse taxonomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Terry J; Garcia-Porta, Joan

    2012-07-05

    Complex social communication is expected to evolve whenever animals engage in many and varied social interactions; that is, sociality should promote communicative complexity. Yet, informal comparisons among phylogenetically independent taxonomic groups seem to cast doubt on the putative role of social factors in the evolution of complex communication. Here, we provide a formal test of the sociality hypothesis alongside alternative explanations for the evolution of communicative complexity. We compiled data documenting variations in signal complexity among closely related species for several case study groups--ants, frogs, lizards and birds--and used new phylogenetic methods to investigate the factors underlying communication evolution. Social factors were only implicated in the evolution of complex visual signals in lizards. Ecology, and to some degree allometry, were most likely explanations for complexity in the vocal signals of frogs (ecology) and birds (ecology and allometry). There was some evidence for adaptive evolution in the pheromone complexity of ants, although no compelling selection pressure was identified. For most taxa, phylogenetic null models were consistently ranked above adaptive models and, for some taxa, signal complexity seems to have accumulated in species via incremental or random changes over long periods of evolutionary time. Becoming social presumably leads to the origin of social communication in animals, but its subsequent influence on the trajectory of signal evolution has been neither clear-cut nor general among taxonomic groups.

  11. Weighing the relative potential impacts of climate change and land-use change on an endangered bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Betsy A; Lawler, Joshua J; Schumaker, Nathan H

    2016-07-01

    Climate change and land-use change are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. Land-use change has resulted in extensive habitat loss for many species. Likewise, climate change has affected many species resulting in range shifts, changes in phenology, and altered interactions. We used a spatially explicit, individual-based model to explore the effects of land-use change and climate change on a population of the endangered Red-cockaded Woodpecker (RCW; Picoides borealis). We modeled the effects of land-use change using multiple scenarios representing different spatial arrangements of new training areas for troops across Fort Benning. We used projected climate-driven changes in habitat and changes in reproductive output to explore the potential effects of climate change. We summarized potential changes in habitat based on the output of the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS, run for multiple climate change scenarios through the year 2100. We projected potential changes in reproduction based on an empirical relationship between spring precipitation and the mean number of successful fledglings produced per nest attempt. As modeled in our study, climate change had virtually no effect on the RCW population. Conversely, simulated effects of land-use change resulted in the loss of up to 28 breeding pairs by 2100. However, the simulated impacts of development depended on where the development occurred and could be completely avoided if the new training areas were placed in poor-quality habitat. Our results demonstrate the flexibility inherent in many systems that allows seemingly incompatible human land uses, such as development, and conservation actions to exist side by side.

  12. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes

    2008-01-01

    -pollutants being: heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni), endocrine disruptors (E2 and EE2), PAH, DEHP, and detergents (LAS & NPE). It was found, in some of the studied scenarios, that more environmental impact may be induced than removed by the advanced treatment. The study showed that for the 3 technologies, sand filtration...

  13. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes

    2007-01-01

    -pollutants being: heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni), endocrine disruptors (E2 and EE2), PAH, DEHP, and detergents (LAS & NPE). It was found, in some of the studied scenarios, that more environmental impact may be induced than removed by the advanced treatment. The study showed that for the 3 technologies, sand filtration...

  14. Weighing women down: messages on weight loss and body shaping in editorial content in popular women's health and fitness magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Laura E; Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to idealized body images has been shown to lower women's body satisfaction. Yet some studies found the opposite, possibly because real-life media (as opposed to image-only stimuli) often embed such imagery in messages that suggest thinness is attainable. Drawing on social cognitive theory, the current content analysis investigated editorial body-shaping and weight-loss messages in popular women's health and fitness magazines. About five thousand magazine pages published in top-selling U.S. women's health and fitness magazines in 2010 were examined. The findings suggest that body shaping and weight loss are a major topic in these magazines, contributing to roughly one-fifth of all editorial content. Assessing standards of motivation and conduct, as well as behaviors promoted by the messages, the findings reflect overemphasis on appearance over health and on exercise-related behaviors over caloric reduction behaviors and the combination of both behaviors. These accentuations are at odds with public health recommendations.

  15. Fixed-asset investment in textile industry slows in Q1-Q3 as cubs weigh on economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Fixed asset investment growth in China’s textile industry slowed in the first three quarters this year, mainly resulting from the yuan appreciation, the rising material and labor costs, as well as dismal overseas market hit by the subprime lending crisis. From January to September, the total fixed-assets investment in the textile industry was up 10.15% to RMB 202.269 billion year-on-year,

  16. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.; Heilmeier, H.; Bringezu, S.

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewabl

  17. Children in hospital in Ireland - what do they eat and what do they weigh: a cross-sectional study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Flinn, Aisling

    2012-09-06

    AbstractBackgroundOverweight and obesity is a growing problem in Ireland. Many parents are unaware when their child is overweight or obese. Our objectives were to examine parents’ perceptions of a healthy diet and their children’s BMI; and to evaluate the food offered to children in our paediatric in-patient unit.FindingsA retrospective questionnaire was distributed to 95 patients and their families admitted over one month. Seventy-eight had BMI values calculated (42 males, 36 females). Twenty-one children (26.9%) were overweight\\/obese: 14\\/21 parents (66.7%) thought their child had a normal weight. Sixty percent of children served dinner in the hospital were given fried potatoes. Four had fruit\\/vegetables. Forty-six parents brought food into hospital, of these 14 brought purchased food.ConclusionsThis study highlights the problem of child obesity in Ireland and parental underestimation of this problem. The nutritional value of food served to children in hospital needs to be improved and hospital admissions used as opportunities to promote healthy eating habits.

  18. Big game hunting in the andromeda galaxy: identifying And weighing black holes in low mass x-ray binaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barnard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemos desarrollado una nueva t ecnica para identi car masas de agujeros negros en binarias de rayos X de baja masa y lo aplicamos a observaciones XMM-Newton de dos fuentes de rayos X en M31. En particular buscamos espectros de potencia de baja tasa de acreci on que son muy similares para todas LXMB, siendo la primaria un agujero negro o una estrella de neutrones. Las estrellas neutr onicas gal acticas, LXMB, presentan estos PDS distintivos a muy bajas luminosidades ( 1036 erg s1; mientras que los LMXB de agujeros negros los pueden presentar a luminosidades > 1038 erg s1. Siguiendo el trabajo de van der Klis (1994 asumimos la m axima tasa de acreci on (como una fracci on del l mite de Eddington para los PDS de baja tasa de acreci on que es constante para todas las LXMB, obteniendo un valor emp rico de 10% de Eddington. Hasta ahora descubrimos dos candidatos a binarias de agujero negro en M31 que presentan PDS de baja tasa de acreci on de hasta 3 1038 y 5 1037 erg s1. Si asumimos que el l mite es 5 1037 erg s1 probablemente tendr a un agujero negro como su primaria.

  19. Life-threatening allergic vasculitis after clipping an unruptured aneurysm: Case report, weighing the risk of nickel allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Grande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This case report represents one of the estimated 17,000 aneurysms clipped annually in the United States, often with nickel-containing clips. The authors highlight the development of life-threatening allergic vasculitis in a 33-year-old woman after aneurysm clipping. Case Description: After suffering subarachnoid hemorrhage, the patient had coil embolization at another facility for rupture of a right internal carotid artery (ICA aneurysm. An incidental finding, an unruptured left posterior communicating artery aneurysm unamenable to coiling, was then successfully clipped via a left pterional craniotomy. Arriving in our emergency department 11 days later, she progressively declined during the next weeks, facing deteriorating clinical status (i.e. seizures and additional infarctions in the left frontal lobe, midline shift, and new infarctions in the bilateral frontal lobe, right sylvian, right insular regions, and posterior cerebral artery distribution. During decompressive surgery, biopsy findings raised the possibility of lymphocytic vasculitis; consultations with rheumatology, allergy, and immunology specialists identified that our patient had a nickel allergy. After reoperation to replace the nickel-containing clip with one of a titanium alloy, the patient had an uncomplicated postoperative course and was discharged 6 days later to a rehabilitation facility. Conclusions: Nickel-related allergies are more common than appreciated, affecting up to 10% of patients. Fortunately, severe reactions are rare; nevertheless, vascular neurosurgeons should be aware of this potential complication when using cobalt alloy aneurysms clips. The use of titanium alloy clips eliminates this risk.

  20. Weighing the stigma of weight: An fMRI study of neural reactivity to the pain of obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, R T; Macaluso, E; Viola, V; Sani, G; Aglioti, S M

    2014-05-01

    Explicit negative attitudes and blameful beliefs (e.g. poor diet, laziness) towards obese individuals are well documented and are pervasive even among health professionals. Here we sought to determine whether obesity stigma is reflected in a fundamental feature of intersubjectivity namely the automatic neural resonance with others' affective experiences. During fMRI, normal-weight female participants observed short clips depicting normal-weight (NW) and obese (Ob) models experiencing pain. Importantly, participants believed that half of the Ob were overweight due to a hormonal disorder (HormOb) and ignored the cause of obesity of the remaining models (Unknown obese models; UnkOb). Analyses of hemodynamic responses showed reduced activity to the pain of Ob compared to that of NW in areas associated with pain processing and early visual processing. The comparison between the two Ob conditions revealed a further decrease of activity to HormOb's pain compared to UnkOb's (and NW) pain in the right inferior frontal gyrus, an area associated with emotional resonance. Our study demonstrates that stigma for obese individuals can be observed at implicit levels, and that it is modulated by knowledge concerning the etiology of obesity, with the seemingly surprising result that obesity due to disease may result in greater stigmatization. Moreover, the perceived similarity with the models and the ambivalent emotion of pity may index biased brain responses to obese individuals' pain. The study highlights a possibly important neural link between resonance with the pain of others and obesity stigma.

  1. Impact of the Body Mass on Complications and Outcome in Multiple Trauma Patients: What Does the Weight Weigh?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagen Andruszkow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is known as an independent risk factor for various morbidities. The influence of an increased body mass index (BMI on morbidity and mortality in critically injured patients has been investigated with conflicting results. To verify the impact of weight disorders in multiple traumatized patients, 586 patients with an injury severity score >16 points treated at a level I trauma center between 2005 and 2011 were differentiated according to the BMI and analyzed regarding morbidity and outcome. Plasma levels of interleukin- (IL- 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured during clinical course to evaluate the inflammatory response to the “double hit” of weight disorders and multiple trauma. In brief, obesity was the highest risk factor for development of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS (OR 4.209, 95%-CI 1.515–11.692 besides injury severity (OR 1.054, 95%-CI 1.020–1.089 and APACHE II score (OR 1.059, 95%-CI 1.001–1.121. In obese patients as compared to those with overweight, normal weight, and underweight, the highest levels of CRP were continuously present while increased systemic IL-6 levels were found until day 4. In conclusion, an altered posttraumatic inflammatory response in obese patients seems to determine the risk for multiple organ failure after severe trauma.

  2. Impact of the Body Mass on Complications and Outcome in Multiple Trauma Patients: What Does the Weight Weigh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andruszkow, Hagen; Mommsen, Philipp; Zeckey, Christian; Frink, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is known as an independent risk factor for various morbidities. The influence of an increased body mass index (BMI) on morbidity and mortality in critically injured patients has been investigated with conflicting results. To verify the impact of weight disorders in multiple traumatized patients, 586 patients with an injury severity score >16 points treated at a level I trauma center between 2005 and 2011 were differentiated according to the BMI and analyzed regarding morbidity and outcome. Plasma levels of interleukin- (IL-) 6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured during clinical course to evaluate the inflammatory response to the “double hit” of weight disorders and multiple trauma. In brief, obesity was the highest risk factor for development of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (OR 4.209, 95%-CI 1.515–11.692) besides injury severity (OR 1.054, 95%-CI 1.020–1.089) and APACHE II score (OR 1.059, 95%-CI 1.001–1.121). In obese patients as compared to those with overweight, normal weight, and underweight, the highest levels of CRP were continuously present while increased systemic IL-6 levels were found until day 4. In conclusion, an altered posttraumatic inflammatory response in obese patients seems to determine the risk for multiple organ failure after severe trauma. PMID:24023413

  3. Soil fertility dynamics in a semiarid basin: impact of scale level in weighing the effect of the landscape variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Navarro, A.; Barbera, G. G.; Albaladejo, J.

    2009-07-01

    Arid and semi-arid Mediterranean soils are particularly sensitive to degradation processes, and soil fertility could play important role in restoration/conservation practices. Our objective was to study the relationships between soil and landscape at different scales in order to understand the main drivers of soil fertility on a semiarid catchment. A stratified sampling plan was carried out to take soil and landscape representative variability. Multivariate statistic techniques were used to elucidate the relationship between both. The results showed that soil fertility are positively related with density of vegetation and topographical conditions favourable to soil moisture at small scale, while negatively with topographical factors that contributed erosion dynamic on ero debility lithologies at medium and large scale. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Hyperglycaemia Among Nigerian Infants Weighing Less Than 1,500 Grammes at Birth: A Retrospective Assessment of the Clinical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onyiriuka Alphonsus N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In very low birthweight (VLBW infants, birthweight < 1,500g, hyperglycaemia is associated with increased rates of mortality and morbidity. Our study aimed at determining the prevalence of hyperglycaemia among VLBW infants and describing their clinical characteristics. Methods: A retrospective chart review of all inborn VLBW infants was performed. Information obtained included birthweight, gestational age (best obstetric record, gender, and history of chorioamnionitis/maternal medical disorders, type and rates of intravenous fluid administration. Blood glucose level ≥ 7 mmol/L on at least two occasions defined hyperglycaemia. Results: Of the 279 blood glucose values, obtained from 93 infants, 91 (32.6%; 95% CI = 27.1% -38.1% were in the hyperglycaemic range, with the majority (61.5% occurring in the first 48 hours of life. The frequency of hyperglycaemia was significantly associated with a rate of infusion greater than 0.4g/kg/hour (Odds Ratio, OR = 3.76; 95% CI=1.58-8.94 and a positive history of maternal chorioamnionitis (OR = 3.04; 95%CI= 1.15-8.01. Conclusion: In the first 48 hours of life, hyperglycaemia co-existing with or complicating primary illnesses was common in VLBW infants who had dextrose infusion and a positive history of maternal chorioamnionitis

  5. Weighing the relative potential impacts of climate change and land-use change on an endangered bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and land-use change are projected to be two of the greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. Land-use change, particularly the conversion of more natural lands to agriculture or residential or commercial development has resulted in extensive h...

  6. Extending Foster Care to Age 21: Weighing the Costs to Government against the Benefits to Youth. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Clark M.; Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark E.; Pollack, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The Fostering Connections to Success and Increasing Adoptions Act of 2008 allows states to claim federal reimbursement for the costs of caring for and supervising Title IV-E eligible foster youth until their 21st birthday. This issue brief provides preliminary estimates of what the potential costs to government and the benefits to young people…

  7. System for monitoring of green roof performance: use of weighing roof segment and non-invasive visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Vladmira; Dohnal, Michal; Picek, Tomas; Sacha, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the performance of technogenic substrates for green roofs is a significant task in the framework of sustainable urban planning and water/energy management. The potential retention and detention of the anthropogenic, light weight soil systems and their temporal soil structure changes are of major importance. A green roof test segment was built to investigate the benefits of such anthropogenic systems. Adaptable low-cost system allows long-term monitoring of preferred characteristics. Temperature and water balance measurements complemented with meteorological observations and knowledge of physical properties of the substrates provide basis for detailed analysis of thermal and hydrological regime in green roof systems. The first results confirmed the benefits of green roof systems. The reduction of temperature fluctuations as well as rainfall runoff was significant. Depending on numerous factors such substrate material or vegetation cover the test green roof suppressed the roof temperature amplitude for the period analyzed. The ability to completely prevent (light rainfall events) or reduce and delay (medium and heavy rainfall events) the peak runoff was also analyzed. Special attention is being paid to the assessment of soil structural properties related to possible aggregation/disaggregation, root growth, weather conditions and associated structural changes using non-invasive imaging method. X-ray computed microtomography of undisturbed soil samples (taken from experimental segments) is used for description of pore space geometry, evaluation of surface to volume ratio, additionally for description of cracks and macropores as a product of soil flora and fauna activity. The information from computed tomography imaging will be used for numerical modeling of water flow in variable saturated porous media. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  8. Urban Pre-Service K-6 Teachers' Conceptions of Citizenship and Civic Education: Weighing the Risks and Rewards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Michael-Luna, Sara; Cormier, Maria Scott; Keegan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    To effectively help urban pre-service teachers to provide civic education opportunities in their future classrooms, teacher educators should know how urban pre-service teachers themselves conceptualize citizenship and civic engagement. Through the research question--how do urban K-6 pre-service teachers currently enrolled in an urban education…

  9. New approaches in the management of insomnia: weighing the advantages of prolonged-release melatonin and synthetic melatoninergic agonists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Hardeland

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rüdiger HardelandJohann Friedrich Blumenbach Institute of Zoology and Anthropology, University of Göttingen, GermanyAbstract: Hypnotic effects of melatonin and melatoninergic drugs are mediated via MT1 and MT2 receptors, especially those in the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts on the hypothalamic sleep switch. Therefore, they differ fundamentally from GABAergic hypnotics. Melatoninergic agonists primarily favor sleep initiation and reset the circadian clock to phases allowing persistent sleep, as required in circadian rhythm sleep disorders. A major obstacle for the use of melatonin to support sleep maintenance in primary insomnia results from its short half-life in the circulation. Solutions to this problem have been sought by developing prolonged-release formulations of the natural hormone, or melatoninergic drugs of longer half-life, such as ramelteon, tasimelteon and agomelatine. With all these drugs, improvements of sleep are statistically demonstrable, but remain limited, especially in primary chronic insomnia, so that GABAergic drugs may be indicated. Melatoninergic agonists do not cause next-day hangover and withdrawal effects, or dependence. They do not induce behavioral changes, as sometimes observed with z-drugs. Despite otherwise good tolerability, the use of melatoninergic drugs in children, adolescents, and during pregnancy has been a matter of concern, and should be avoided in autoimmune diseases and Parkinsonism. Problems and limits of melatoninergic hypnotics are compared.Keywords: agomelatine, hypnotics, melatonin, prolonged-release, ramelteon, tasimelteon

  10. Constantly Weighing the Pig Will Not Make It Grow: Do Teachers Teach Assessment Tests or the Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Cordeur, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For a number of years now, South Africa, like many other countries, has been debating a major paradigm shift in education, a shift from learning and teaching, which focused primarily on content to learning and teaching focused on outcomes. One of the most dramatic trends in education over the past decade has been the shift towards the use of…

  11. How the past weighs on the present: social representations of history and their role in identity politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James H; Hilton, Denis J

    2005-12-01

    Socially shared representations of history have been important in creating, maintaining and changing a people's identity. Their management and negotiation are central to interethnic and international relations. We present a narrative framework to represent how collectively significant events become (selectively) incorporated in social representations that enable positioning of ethnic, national and supranational identities. This perspective creates diachronic (temporal) links between the functional (e.g. realistic conflict theory), social identity, and cognitive perspectives on intergroup relations. The charters embedded in these representations condition nations with similar interests to adopt different political stances in dealing with current events, and can influence the perceived stability and legitimacy of social orders. They are also instrumental in determining social identity strategies for reacting to negative social comparisons, and can influence the relationships between national and ethnic identities.

  12. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/156419912; Patel, M.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/18988097X; Heilmeier, H.; Bringezu, S.

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of

  13. A mother's heart is weighed down with stones: a phenomenological approach to the experience of transnational motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Sarah

    2009-03-01

    Although recent scholarship on transnational mothers has rigorously examined the effect of migration on gender constructs and ideologies, it neglects analysis of the lived experience of separated mothers and children. In privileging the exploration of transnational separations through the single analytical lens of gender, such research reduces the embodied distress of mothers and children to mere "gender false consciousness." This paper calls upon anthropologists to redress this oversight by undertaking a phenomenological analysis of the lived experience of transnational motherhood. Eschewing an analysis of mothers and children as isolated social roles, I show that the suffering of mothers and children is profoundly relational. Through analysis of the narratives of undocumented Salvadoran mothers residing in the U.S., I show how the strain of such mothers' undocumented status is lived and shouldered within the intersubjective space of the family.

  14. Meta-Accuracy and Relationship Quality: Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Knowing What People Really Think About You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Erika N.

    2016-01-01

    People use metaperceptions, or their beliefs about how other people perceive them, to initiate and maintain social bonds. Are accurate metaperceptions associated with higher quality relationships? In four studies, the current research answers this question but considers the possibility that the self might not experience the same relational benefits of accurate metaperceptions, or meta-accuracy, as the people who form judgments about the self. For example, people tend to like individuals who have accurate self-perceptions, yet individuals tend to enjoy their own relationships more with people they believe see them in desirable ways. To test whether meta-accuracy is linked to relationship quality and whether this link differs for the self and others, meta-accuracy for personality traits as well as metaperceiver- and judge-reported relationship quality were assessed among new acquaintances (N = 184), peers (N = 228), friends (N = 273), and romantic partners (N = 401). Results suggested that judges enjoyed relationships more with metaperceivers who knew the impression they made, regardless of whether judges’ impressions were desirable (i.e., positive or self-verifying). Initial meta-accuracy also predicted greater relationship quality over time, suggesting that accurate metaperceptions have positive effects on relationships. In contrast, rather than enjoying relationships more when they were accurate, metaperceivers enjoyed relationships more when they believed judges perceived them in positive or self-verifying ways. Thus, meta-accuracy seems to be a virtue in the eyes of judges, but metaperceivers do not seem to reap the same benefits of knowing what others really think. Implications for improving meta-accuracy are discussed. PMID:27337137

  15. 75 FR 18134 - Function and Reliability Flight Testing for Turbine-Powered Airplanes Weighing 6,000 Pounds or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    .... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Victor Powell, Aircraft Certification Service, Aircraft Engineering... carbon build-up on the static vanes; brake problems; and tire problems) while two of the cited problems... period between November 2007 and November 2008. In any case, the pitot/ angle of attack (AOA) issue...

  16. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of Dideco's paediatric cardiopulmonary circuit for neonates weighing less than five kilograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiara, A S; Eggereide, V; Pedersen, T; Lindberg, H; Fiane, A E

    2010-07-01

    The neonate cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit, including a KIDS D100 oxygenator (The Sorin Group, Mirandola, Italy) and a D130 arterial filter (The Sorin Group), was evaluated in vitro with respect to the removal of free micro gas bubbles. No gas bubbles > 40microm were measured after the arterial filter D130 upon manual introduction of 10 ml of air into the venous line or during the use of vacuum-assisted venous drainage (VAVD). The D130 arterial filter removed 88 % of gas bubbles D100 circuit required significantly less priming volume than the D901 circuit. Postoperative haemoglobin was significantly higher, artificial ventilation time was significantly shorter and postoperative bleeding was significantly less in the D100 group. This neonate CPB circuit effectively removed the gas bubbles and required up to 37% less priming volume and, thus, decreased the need for blood transfusion.

  17. A Recovery-Oriented Care Approach: Weighing the Pros and Cons of a Newly Built Mental Health Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahern, Catherine Clark; Bieling, Peter; McKinnon, Margaret C; McNeely, Heather E; Langstaff, Karen

    2016-02-01

    The current study adopted a recovery-oriented care approach by emphasizing patients' perspectives and experiences regarding changes to a newly built mental health facility. The inpatient entrance, or "portal," intended to balance the aims of recovery-oriented care with minimizing risk. A mixed-methods study of the portal's pros and cons was conducted, according to four themes: (a) autonomy versus inconvenience; (b) safety and security versus stigma; (c) unit door versus portal operating costs; and (d) privacy versus community integration. Focus groups engaging with patients (N = 39) indicated that the design effectively supported recovery-oriented care. Patients did not find the portal to be stigmatizing or triggering and valued the safety and privacy it created, and visitors also generally had a positive experience. Survey responses (N = 101) from portal users were also positive about the new design. The study findings suggest that the pros outweighed the cons of the new design. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 39-48.].

  18. "Weighing" the effects of exercise and intrinsic aerobic capacity: are there beneficial effects independent of changes in weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyfault, John P; Wright, David C

    2016-09-01

    It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance. One of the difficult questions to address is if the effects of exercise are direct or occur secondary to exercise-induced weight loss. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work that has attempted to tease out the protective effects of exercise, or intrinsic aerobic capacity, against metabolic and inflammatory challenges as it relates to the treatment and prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies reporting improvements in liver and adipose tissue insulin action following a single bout of exercise will also be discussed. The research highlighted in this review sheds new insight into protective, anti-inflammatory effects of exercise that occur largely independent of changes in adiposity and body weight.

  19. VLT Diffraction Limited Imaging and Spectroscopy in the NIR: Weighing the black hole in Centaurus A with NACO

    CERN Document Server

    Haering-Neumayer, N; Rix, H W; Hartung, M; Prieto, M A; Meisenheimer, K; Lenzen, R

    2005-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution near-infrared spectra and images of the nucleus of Centaurus A (NGC 5128) obtained with NAOS-CONICA at the VLT. The adaptive optics corrected data have a spatial resolution of 0.06" (FWHM) in K- and 0.11" in H-band. The mean velocities and velocity dispersions of the ionized gas ([FeII]) are mapped along four slit positions. The observed gas motions suggest a kinematically hot disk which is orbiting a central object and is oriented nearly perpendicular to the nuclear jet. We model the central rotation and velocity dispersion curves of the [FeII] gas orbiting in the combined potential of the stellar mass and the (dominant) black hole. Our physically most plausible model, a dynamically hot and geometrically thin gas disk, yields a black hole mass of M_bh = (8.6 +/- 0.3) x 10^7 M_sun. As the physical state of the gas is not well understood, we also consider two limiting cases: first a cold disk model, which completely neglects the velocity dispersion, but is in line with many e...

  20. Weighing the relative potential impacts of climate change and land-use change on an endangered bird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change and land-use change are projected to be two of the greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. Land-use change, particularly the conversion of more natural lands to agriculture or residential or commercial development has resulted in extensive h...

  1. Historical retrospect on electromagnetic weighing equipment for cupola furnace%冲天炉电磁配铁秤钩沉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明

    2016-01-01

    回顾了自1960年代至今中国冲天炉电磁配铁秤的发展历史.中国最早的相对规范的电磁配铁秤或出现于1969到1970年之间,济南铸造锻压机械研究所和济南第二机床厂等单位对该技术的发展和进步做出了主要的贡献.

  2. Estimating preseason irrigation losses by characterizing evaporation of effective precipitation under bare soil conditions using large weighing lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation scheduling is one of the most cost effective means of conserving limited groundwater resources, particularly in semi-arid regions. Effective precipitation, or the net amount of water from precipitation that can be used in field water balance equations, is essential to accurate and effecti...

  3. Weighing the Consequences: Self-Disclosure of HIV-Positive Status among African American Injection Drug Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Maribel; Levy, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Theorists posit that personal decisions to disclose being HIV positive are made based on the perceived consequences of that disclosure. This study examines the perceived costs and benefits of self-disclosure among African American injection drug users (IDUs). A total of 80 African American IDUs were interviewed in-depth subsequent to testing HIV…

  4. Weighing environmental advantages and disadvantages of advanced wastewater treatment of micro-pollutants using environmental life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik; Larsen, Henrik Fred; Clauson-Kaas, Jes;

    2007-01-01

    -off was investigated using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology and based on a literature review of advanced treatment performance. The LCA evaluation comprised sand filtration, ozonation and MBRs and assessed the effect of extending existing tertiary treatment with these technologies on a variety of micro...

  5. Sensing water from subsurface drip irrigation laterals: In situ sensors, weighing lysimeters and COSMOS under vegetated and bare conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of soil water dynamics in the root zone under subsurface drip irrigated (SDI) is complicated by the three dimensional nature of water fluxes from drip emitters plus the fluxes, if any, of water from precipitation. In addition, soil water sensing systems may differ in their operating...

  6. 76 FR 64229 - Function and Reliability Flight Testing for Turbine-Powered Airplanes Weighing 6,000 Pounds or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Organization (ICAO) Standards and Recommended Practices to the maximum extent practicable. The FAA has reviewed the corresponding ICAO Standards and Recommended Practices and has identified no differences...

  7. Applying distance-to-target weighing methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of bio-based energy, fuels, and materials

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, M.; Patel, M.K.; H. Heilmeier; Bringezu, S.

    2007-01-01

    The enhanced use of biomass for the production of energy, fuels, and materials is one of the key strategies towards sustainable production and consumption. Various life cycle assessment (LCA) studies demonstrate the great potential of bio-based products to reduce both the consumption of non-renewable energy resources and greenhouse gas emissions. However, the production of biomass requires agricultural land and is often associated with adverse environmental effects such as eutrophication of s...

  8. Using the EUV to Weigh a Sun-Grazing Comet as it Disappears in the Solar Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, William Dean; Schrijiver, Carolus J.; Brown, John C.; Battams, Karl; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Hudson Hugh S.; Lui, Wei

    2012-01-01

    On July 6,2011, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AlA) on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) observed a comet in most of its EUY passbands. The comet disappeared while moving through the solar corona. The comet penetrated to 0.146 solar radii ($\\simapprox.100,000 km) above the photosphere before its EUY faded. Before then, the comet's coma and a tail were observed in absorption and emission, respectively. The material in the variable tail quickly fell behind the nucleus. An estimate of the comet's mass based on this effect, one derived from insolation, and one using the tail's EUY brightness, all yield $\\sim 50$ giga-grams some 10 minutes prior to the end of its visibility. These unique first observations herald a new era in the study of Sun-grazing comets close to their perihelia and of the conditions in the solar corona and solar wind. We will discuss the observations and interpretation of the comet by SDO as well as the coronagraph observations from SOHO and STEREO. A search of the SOHO comet archive for other comets that could be observed in the SDO; AlA EUY channels will be described

  9. Weighing the Giants I: Weak Lensing Masses for 51 Massive Galaxy Clusters - Project Overview, Data Analysis Methods, and Cluster Images

    CERN Document Server

    von der Linden, Anja; Applegate, Douglas E; Kelly, Patrick L; Allen, Steven W; Ebeling, Harald; Burchat, Patricia R; Burke, David L; Donovan, David; Morris, R Glenn; Blandford, Roger; Erben, Thomas; Mantz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers in which we measure accurate weak-lensing masses for 51 of the most X-ray luminous galaxy clusters known at redshifts 0.15

  10. Weighing the Costs and Benefits of Renewables Portfolio Standards:A Comparative Analysis of State-Level Policy Impact Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Cliff; Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2007-01-16

    State renewables portfolio standards (RPS) have emerged as one of the most important policy drivers of renewable energy capacity expansion in the U.S. Collectively, these policies now apply to roughly 40% of U.S. electricity load, and may have substantial impacts on electricity markets, ratepayers, and local economies. As RPS policies have been proposed or adopted in an increasing number of states, a growing number of studies have attempted to quantify the potential impacts of these policies, focusing primarily on projecting cost impacts, but sometimes also estimating macroeconomic and environmental effects. This report synthesizes and analyzes the results and methodologies of 28 distinct state or utility-level RPS cost impact analyses completed since 1998. Together, these studies model proposed or adopted RPS policies in 18 different states. We highlight the key findings of these studies on the costs and benefits of RPS policies, examine the sensitivity of projected costs to model assumptions, assess the attributes of different modeling approaches, and suggest possible areas of improvement for future RPS analysis.

  11. 78 FR 39576 - Adoption of Statutory Prohibition on the Operation of Jets Weighing 75,000 Pounds or Less That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... the public interest.'' Under this section, an agency, upon finding good cause, may issue a final rule... 22 Malaysia 2 0.5 23 Morocco 2 0.5 24 Nigeria 2 0.5 25 Sudan 2 0.5 26 Syria 2 0.5 27 Turkey 2 0.5 28... number of aircraft Present value in 2016 at 7% Action Number of Millions of discount rate-- aircraft...

  12. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers' purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J J; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products - even when presented product information contradicts the label's image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels' potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers' motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers' ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants' pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information.

  13. 一种二线制无极性数字称重传感器%A two-wire non-polarized digital weighing load cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭旗

    2015-01-01

    The present digital load cell is composed of 4 lines at least, which has 2 data lines and 2 power lines. The strict specialization and polarity make a wrong connection or a short circuit very dangerous. Once it happens, the equipment is prone to be damaged, and the installation and maintenance will become difficult for you; the data transmission encryption methods are not only limited, but also easy to be cracked. Our company's inventive patent"the two-wire data/ power collinear transmission device and technique with intelligent terminals and for complete machine power supply"(Patent No. 201510078098.7) can decrease the wires of digital loadcells to two Non-polarized wires. If a short circuit happens, it will not damage the equipment. Our patent product simplifies the system connection and improves the system reliability, thus making the installation and maintenance very simple. The special encryption method adopted by the data transmission is very hard to be cracked.%现有的数字传感器至少由2根数据线和2根电源线共4根线组成, 每根线均有明确的分工和极性, 不能接错和短路, 否则易损坏设备, 需专业人员才能安装和维护; 数据传输加密方式有限, 易破解. 利用本公司研发的"智能终端整机供电用二线制数据/电源共线传输装置及方法", 将数字传感器的连线减至2根, 且无极性、 可短路, 简化了系统的连接, 提高系统的可靠性, 使安装和维护变得极为简便. 数据传输采用特殊的加密方式, 极难破解.

  14. Development of weigh training programs for children Elaboração de programas de treinamento de força para crianças

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiclei Risso

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A hypokinetic lifestyle has increased among children and adolescents in the past few years, leading to risk factors which favor the chronic-degenerative diseases in the early childhood. Thus, the development of physical activity programs for this age group becomes necessary. The purpose of this study was to review the literature about the factors that can be related to the development of weight training programs with extra load for children. Aspects related to the physical activity in the childhood, caloric damage, physical fitness related to health, reasons that make children and adolescents practise or give up physical activity, physical fitness stability during childhood, physiological aspects and growth factors, are discussed. The factors that can interfere in the motor capacity strength, the myths related to weight training with children, possible benefits obtained from this practice, factors that should be taken into consideration regarding specific weight training for children, weight training supervision during childhood, general guidelines for weight training in children, developing weight training programs for children and discussion about strength testing, are dealt with more specifically. When supervised properly by specialists, the specific and individualized training for children and adolescents can generate a significant muscular strength gain, and contribute favorably for health promotion and life quality in this age group.   Um estilo de vida hipocinético tem aumentado entre crianças e adolescentes nos últimos anos, e isso faz com que os fatores de risco se apresentem mais facilmente, favorecendo o surgimento de doenças crônico-degenerativas já na infância. Logo, torna-se necessário a criação de programas de atividade física para essa faixa etária. O objetivo desse estudo é realizar uma revisão de literatura acerca dos fatores que se relacionam à montagem de um programa de treinamento com sobrecarga para crianças. Discutemse aspectos relacionados à atividade física na infância, gasto calórico, aptidão física relacionada à saúde, motivos que levam as crianças à praticar, ou desistir da atividade física, estabilidade da aptidão física na infância, aspectos fisiológicos e fatores de crescimento. Mais específicamente, são tratados os fatores que interferem na capacidade motora força, os mitos relacionados ao treinamento de força muscular em crianças, possíveis benefícios advindos dessa prática, fatores que devem ser levados em consideração no treinamento de força específico para crianças, supervisão do treinamento de força muscular em crianças, orientações para progressão do treinamento de força muscular em crianças, elaboração dos programas de treinamento de força muscular para crianças e adolescentes e discussão acerca dos testes de força. Quando devidamente supervisionado por especialistas, o treinamento específico e individualizado para crianças e adolescentes pode propiciar um ganho considerável de força muscular, e  contribuir favoravelmente para a promoção da saúde e qualidade de vida nessa faixa etária.  

  15. A comparison of surfactant administration through i-gel and ET-tube in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in newborns weighing more than 2000 grams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadeghnia

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the surfactant administration using i-gel was more successful in oxygenation improvement than the INSURE method, and the i-gel method could even be promoted to the standard care position. However, more research is needed in this area.

  16. [Corporal image and pregnancy: A look at psychometric properties of the French translation of the Pregnancy and Weigh Gain Attitude Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, A; Bouillon, A; Lefebvre, L; Séjourné, N; Denis, A

    2016-08-01

    Body dissatisfaction among pregnant women can provoke behaviors to control weight gain and make them more vulnerable to eating disorders. Body dissatisfaction and strategies to control weight during pregnancy can have many consequences for both the mother and baby. Excessive weight gain may cause complications during childbirth and, reciprocally, a too weak weight gain could be associated with the risk of having a baby with a very low birth weight. Thus, it appears important to have a tool to detect these body image disorders in this population. As far as we know, no French-speaking tool exists, and the objective of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the French translation of the Pregnancy and Weight Gain Attitude Scale (PWGAS), which assesses the attitudes about weight gain during pregnancy. The sample consisted of 553 women (29.32±4.82 years) in their third trimester of pregnancy. Participants were volunteer women recruited in hospitals during obstetric consultation. All participants completed an anamnestic questionnaire, the PWGAS and a questionnaire assessing body dissatisfaction (Body Shape Questionnaire [BSQ]). The PWGAS, in its original version, includes 18 items and consists of four subscales: Positive Pregnancy Body Image; Negative Pregnancy Body Image; Indifference toward Weight Gain and Weight Gain Restrictive Behaviors. The instrument was translated and verified by expert translators. Confirmatory factor analysis of the original version showed fit indices below recommended limits. An exploratory factor analysis on the PWGAS revealed the existence of five factors: "Fear about weight gain" (4 items); "Absence of weight gain preoccupation" (2 items); "Positive attitudes about weight gain" (4 items); "Feeling overwhelmed by weight gain" (3 items); and "Control over weight gain" (3 items). The goodness-of-fit of the five-factor model was satisfactory. The PWGAS (total and factors) is negatively correlated with the BSQ demonstrating its concurrent validity. The PWGAS has satisfactory psychometric properties. This questionnaire could certainly be integrated in the monitoring of pregnant women in order to detect and guide those who show negative attitudes about the weight gain so that they can benefit from adequate care and prevent the development of eating disorders. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of 3D printing technology for weighing instrument product development%3D打印技术对衡器产品开发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴秋燕

    2014-01-01

    3D打印技术是一种快速成型技术,以电脑设计的模型文件为基础,运用粉末状金属或塑料等可粘合材料,通过逐层打印的方式来构造物体的技术.从而缩短产品的研制周期,提高生产率和降低生产成本.本文介绍了3D打印技术及3D打印技术对衡器产品开发中的影响.

  18. The power of putting a label on it: Green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf J. J. Hahnel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels, this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e. product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1-3. Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2. We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3. Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information.

  19. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Eriksen; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Henry S. Carson; Martin Thiel; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Francois Galgani; Ryan, Peter G.; Julia Reisser

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) ...

  20. The ALICE collaboration has just conducted one of its most spectacular transport operations to date: structures weighing several tonnes are moved with millimetric precision

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration has just lifted the dipole of the muon spectrometer and reassembled it on the other side of the huge solenoid magnet. This incredible feat involved lifting no fewer than 900 tonnes of equipment over the red octagonal yoke inherited from the L3 experiment at a height of 18 metres. The work resumed on 19 April, the following day. The coil was turned over into an upright position and lifted over the blue yoke of the muon spectrometer's dipole magnet. Remarkable precision was required yet again. The space between the red magnet inherited from the L3 experiment and the descending coil was no more than a few centimetres and this tiny gap had to be maintained throughout the operation to bring the 6-metre high coil down into position.

  1. The power of putting a label on it: green labels weigh heavier than contradicting product information for consumers’ purchase decisions and post-purchase behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahnel, Ulf J. J.; Arnold, Oliver; Waschto, Michael; Korcaj, Liridon; Hillmann, Karen; Roser, Damaris; Spada, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Green products are appealing. Thus, labeling products as environmentally friendly is an effective strategy to increase sales. However, the labels often promise more than the products can actually deliver. In the present research, we examined the expectation that consumers with high ecological motivation have strong preferences for green-labeled products – even when presented product information contradicts the label’s image. This unsettling hypothesis is grounded in the labels’ potential to create a cognitive match between the labeled product and consumers’ motives. For labels indicating environmental friendliness (green product labels), this link should be strongest when consumers’ ecological motivation is high. Findings in a series of three experiments support our assumption, showing that consumers with high ecological motivation had strong preferences (i.e., product evaluations, purchase intentions, and simulated purchase decisions) for green-labeled products as compared to consumers with low ecological motivation (Studies 1–3). Crucially, these preferences were robust, despite contradicting environmental product information (Studies 1 and 2). We extended our findings by additionally examining the impact of product labels and motivation on moral self-regulation processes. This was established by assessing participants’ pro-social behavior after the purchase task: participants with high ecological motivation acted, consistent with their motives, more pro-socially in post-decision occasions. In accordance with moral cleansing effects, pro-social behavior was intensified after purchasing conventional products (Studies 2 and 3). Green labels protected participants with high ecological motivation from moral threats due to the purchase, thus making pro-social behavior less likely. Findings suggest that highly ecologically motivated consumers are most susceptible to green labels, which may override detailed product information. PMID:26441767

  2. Particle collider magnet failure blamed on faulty engineering Experts are still weighing whether the hitch will delay the start-up of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Researchers have identified the cause of a hiccup in the construction of the world's next top particle smasher, the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). During stress tests last week at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), a support structure tore loose from the housing of a keay ultracold magnet."(1 page)

  3. Kansas Primary Care Weighs In: A Pilot Randomized Trial of a Chronic Care Model Program for Obesity in 3 Rural Kansas Primary Care Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Andrea C.; Banitt, Angela; Befort, Christie; Hou, Qing; Rhode, Paula C.; Grund, Chrysanne; Greiner, Allen; Jeffries, Shawn; Ellerbeck, Edward

    2008-01-01

    Context: Obesity is a chronic disease of epidemic proportions in the United States. Primary care providers are critical to timely diagnosis and treatment of obesity, and need better tools to deliver effective obesity care. Purpose: To conduct a pilot randomized trial of a chronic care model (CCM) program for obesity care in rural Kansas primary…

  4. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; de Kok, Inge M C M; Bulten, Johan; van Rosmalen, Joost; Vedder, Judith E M; Arbyn, Marc; Klinkhamer, Paul J J M; Siebers, Albertus G; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2012-08-01

    Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiveness threshold analyses to investigate under what circumstances manually screened ThinPrep LBC is cost-effective for screening. The MISCAN-Cervix microsimulation model and data from the Dutch NETHCON trial (including 89,784 women) were used to estimate the costs and (quality-adjusted) life years ((QA)LYs) gained for EU screening schedules, varying cost-effectiveness threshold values. Screening strategies were primary cytological screening with LBC or CP, and triage with human papillomavirus (HPV) testing. Threshold analyses showed that screening with LBC as a primary test can be cost-effective if LBC is less than 3.2 more costly per test than CP, if the sensitivity of LBC is at least 3-5 % points higher than CP, if the quality of life for women in triage follow-up is only 0.39, or if the rate of inadequate CP smears is at least 16.2 %. Regarding test characteristics and costs of LBC and CP, only under certain conditions will a change from CP to manually screened ThinPrep LBC be cost-effective. If none of these conditions are met, implementation of manually screened ThinPrep LBC seems warranted only if there are advantages other than cost-effectiveness. Further research is needed to establish whether other LBC systems will be more favorable with regard to cost-effectiveness.

  5. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker-Grob, E.W. de; Kok, I.M. de; Bulten, J.; Rosmalen, J. van; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Siebers, A.G.; Ballegooijen, M. van

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiven

  6. The Pennsylvania Anatomy Act of 1883: Weighing the Roles of Professor William Smith Forbes and Senator William James McKnight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, James R

    2016-10-01

    Effective Anatomical Acts transformed medical education and curtailed grave-robbing. William S. Forbes, Demonstrator of Anatomy at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, authored the Pennsylvania Anatomy Act of 1867, but it was ineffective. In December of 1882, Forbes and accomplices were charged with grave-robbing. Forbes was acquitted in early 1883, but his accomplices were all convicted; nevertheless, these events precipitated a strengthened Anatomy Act in 1883. Forbes was crowned the Father of the Pennsylvania Anatomy Act and was revered by the Philadelphia medical community for his personal sacrifices for medical education; they even paid his legal fees. Over the remainder of his life, Forbes received many honors. However, there was a second major player, rural doctor William J. McKnight, a convicted grave-robber and State Senator. The evidence shows that Forbes precipitated the crisis, which was a racial powder keg, and then primarily focused on his trial, while McKnight, creatively working behind the scenes in collaboration with Jefferson, Anatomy Professor William H. Pancoast, used the crisis to draft and pass transformative legislation enabling anatomical dissection at Pennsylvania medical schools. While not minimizing Forbes suffering throughout these events, McKnight should be appropriately recognized for his initiative and contributions, which far exceeded those of Forbes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Weighing in on the masses of retired A stars with asteroseismology: K2 observations of the exoplanet-host star HD 212771

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campante, Tiago L.; Veras, Dimitri; North, Thomas S. H.; Miglio, Andrea; Morel, Thierry; Johnson, John A.; Chaplin, William J.; Davies, Guy R.; Huber, Daniel; Kuszlewicz, James S.; Lund, Mikkel N.; Cooke, Benjamin F.; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Rodrigues, Thaíse S.; Vanderburg, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Doppler-based planet surveys point to an increasing occurrence rate of giant planets with stellar mass. Such surveys rely on evolved stars for a sample of intermediate-mass stars (so-called retired A stars), which are more amenable to Doppler observations than their main-sequence progenitors. However, it has been hypothesized that the masses of subgiant and low-luminosity red-giant stars targeted by these surveys - typically derived from a combination of spectroscopy and isochrone fitting - may be systematically overestimated. Here, we test this hypothesis for the particular case of the exoplanet-host star HD 212771 using K2 asteroseismology. The benchmark asteroseismic mass (1.45^{+0.10}_{-0.09} M_{⊙) is significantly higher than the value reported in the discovery paper (1.15 ± 0.08 M⊙), which has been used to inform the stellar mass-planet occurrence relation. This result, therefore, does not lend support to the above hypothesis. Implications for the fates of planetary systems are sensitively dependent on stellar mass. Based on the derived asteroseismic mass, we predict the post-main-sequence evolution of the Jovian planet orbiting HD 212771 under the effects of tidal forces and stellar mass-loss.

  8. PROPIEDADES REOLÓGICAS DE EMULSIONES DE PETRÓLEO PESADO EN AGUA REOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF EMULSIONS OF PETROLEUM WEIGHED IN WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Laurencio Alfonso

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El propósito de esta investigación fue determinar la influencia que ejerce la variación de temperatura de 15, 25 y 35 0C sobe las propiedades reológicas de las emulsiones de petróleo pesado en agua. Se estudio una mezcla formada por 70 % de petróleo de 15 º API, 29 % de agua y 1 % de tensoactivo. A partir del estudio reológico se da el comportamiento de la viscosidad aparente con relación al gradiente de velocidad para diferentes temperaturas. Se observa que la emulsión presenta propiedades seudoplásticas; la presencia de la variación de temperatura no provoco variaciones en el índice de flujo, no siendo así con la viscosidad aparente y el índice de consistencia, que disminuyen con el aumento de la temperatura, lo que se corrobora con estudios de otros autores.The purpose of this investigation was to determine the influence of temperature variations on the reological properties of the emulsions of heavy oil in water. It was studied a mixture formed by 70% of petroleum of 15 or API, 29% of water and 1 tensoactivo%. Starting from the reologic study the behavior of the apparent viscosity is given with relationship to the shear rate for different temperatures. It is observed that the emulsion presents properties seudoplastic; not being i this variation of temperature doesn't cause variations in the index of flow, way with the apparent viscosity and the index of consistency that diminish with the increase of the temperature, what is corroborated with other authors studies.

  9. NuSTARand Swift observations of the very high state in GX 339-4: Weighing the black hole with X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, M. L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kennea, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0.95(-0.08)(+0.02) and ......We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0...

  10. A high speed, portable, multi-function, weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensing system and a high performance optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) demodulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongtao; Wei, Zhanxiong; Fan, Lingling; Yang, Shangming; Wang, Pengfei; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2010-04-01

    A high speed, portable, multi-function WIM sensing system based on Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) technology is reported in this paper. This system is developed to measure the total weight, the distribution of weight of vehicle in motion, the distance of wheel axles and the distance between left and right wheels. In this system, a temperature control system and a real-time compensation system are employed to eliminate the drifts of optical fiber Fabry-Pérot tunable filter. Carbon Fiber Laminated Composites are used in the sensor heads to obtain high reliability and sensitivity. The speed of tested vehicles is up to 20 mph, the full scope of measurement is 4000 lbs, and the static resolution of sensor head is 20 lbs. The demodulator has high speed (500 Hz) data collection, and high stability. The demodulator and the light source are packed into a 17'' rack style enclosure. The prototype has been tested respectively at Stevens' campus and Army base. Some experiences of avoiding the pitfalls in developing this system are also presented in this paper.

  11. NuSTARand Swift observations of the very high state in GX 339-4: Weighing the black hole with X-rays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parker, M. L.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kennea, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0.95(-0.08)(+0.02) and ......We present results from spectral fitting of the very high state of GX 339-4 with Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and Swift. We use relativistic reflection modeling to measure the spin of the black hole and inclination of the inner disk and find a spin of a = 0...

  12. How lay third parties weigh legitimacy and sanctions in a side-taking dilemma: A study among Chinese and Dutch employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.; van de Vliert, Evert; Shi, Kan

    2009-01-01

    Lay third parties sometimes react to an interpersonal dispute by taking sides. In this paper, we investigate the interaction effects of lay third parties' moral and expedient orientations on the relationship between perceived legitimacy (or expected negative sanctions) and their intention of

  13. How Lay Third Parties Weigh Legitimacy and Sanctions in a Side-Taking Dilemma : A Study among Chinese and Dutch Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.; Van de Vliert, E.; Shi, K

    Lay third parties sometimes react to an interpersonal dispute by taking sides. In this paper, we investigate the interaction effects of lay third parties' moral and expedient orientations on the relationship between perceived legitimacy (or expected negative sanctions) and their intention of

  14. How much should we weigh for a long and healthy life span?The need to reconcile caloric restriction versus longevity with body mass index versus mortality data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello eLorenzini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Total caloric restriction (CR without malnutrition is a well-established experimental approach to extend life span in laboratory animals. Although CR in humans is capable of shifting several endocrinological parameters it is not clear where the minimum inflection point of the U shaped curve linking body mass index (BMI with all-cause mortality lies. The exact trend of this curve, when used for planning preventive strategies for public health is of extreme importance. Normal BMI ranges from 18.5 to 24.9; many epidemiological studies show an inverse relationship between mortality and BMI inside the normal BMI range. Other studies show that the lowest mortality in the entire range of BMI is obtained in the overweight range (25 to 29.9. Reconciling the extension of life span in laboratory animals by experimental CR with the BMI-mortality curve of human epidemiology is not trivial. In fact, one interpretation is that the CR data are identifying a known: excess fat is deleterious for health; although a second interpretation may be that: additional leanness from a normal body weight may add health and life span delaying the process of aging. This short review hope to start a discussion aimed at finding the widest consensus on which weight range should be consider the healthiest for our species, contributing in this way to the picture of what is the correct life style for a long and healthy life span.

  15. Reform à la carte. CBO weighs the costs, savings of more than 100 reform proposals, giving lawmakers a foundation tto work from.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DoBias, Matthew; Lubell, Jennifer

    Lawmakers have a wealth of options for reform laid out in two new CBO reports. "This was vintage CBO, a thorough, thoughtful compendium that illustrates the complexities and challenges facing policymakers," said Steven Spell, of the FAH, left.

  16. Weighing in on the Issue: A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of Selected Individual Factors and the Sports Context on the Developmental Trajectories of Eating Pathology among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Kristen; Lerner, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Eating disorders, and related issues (e.g., body dissatisfaction, weight control behaviors), represent pressing and prevalent health problems that affect American adolescents with alarming frequency and potentially chronic consequences. However, more longitudinal research is needed to elucidate the developmental processes that increase or maintain…

  17. [Intermediate neurological development of 60 neonates weighing 1500 grams or less at birth. Predictive value of initial findings (clinical aspects, electroencephalograms and brain imaging)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannot, E; Fessard, C; Parain, D; Ensel, P; Le Dosseur, P; Brossard, V; Pierre, G; Devaux, A M; Thiebot, J

    1986-06-01

    60 low birthweight (less than or equal to 1,500 g) are distributed according to existence or not, and intensity of brain disturbances, during the neonatal period; appreciated by neurological examinations, early EEG and brain imaging during the second month of life. At 18 months, at least, neurological outcome is normal for 46 children (but 6 had transient neuromotor anomalies), 14 have sequelae (7 mild, 7 major). All children with clinical neurological examination carried out during the neonatal period are normal at follow up. It is true also for the children without EEG anomaly and normal brain imaging. The early prediction of neurological outcome can be made easily with consideration of these three data. Standardised test are proposed, during the neonatal period, for these low birth weight infants.

  18. Analysis of new type bogie structure and weighing spring adjusting process%新型转向架结构与称重调簧工艺浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张立鹏

    2016-01-01

    随着机车车辆运行速度的提高,对机车车辆的动力学性能、粘着牵引性能,提出了越来越高的要求。其中,机车轮(轴)重是机车的一个重要技术参数,机车各轮对重量分配是否均匀,直接影响到整台机车粘着牵引力的发挥和牵引运动性能的优劣。着重分析机车轮(轴)重偏差过大对机车的影响以及产生原因,并提出减少轮(轴)重偏差的改进工艺。因此,机车车辆的整车称重调簧是机车制造过程中至关重要的一个环节。%As the operating speed of rolling stock are getting improved, it sets higher requirement to the vehicle dynamic perform-ance and adhesion traction performance. As axis heavy locomotive is an important technical parameters of the locomotive wheel, whether weight distribution is uniform directly impacts on the entire adhesive locomotive traction play and traction performance of the campaign. This paper focuses on the effect of the locomotive wheel ( axes) weight deviation to the locomotive as well as the reasons, and put forward the process improvement to reduce the wheel weight deviation. Therefore, the whole vehicle weight and spring adjustment is one of the most important step in the process of locomotive manufacturing.

  19. Liquid-based cervical cytology using ThinPrep technology: weighing the pros and cons in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker-Grob, E.W. de; Kok, I.M. de; Bulten, J.; Rosmalen, J. van; Vedder, J.E.M.; Arbyn, M.; Klinkhamer, P.J.; Siebers, A.G.; Ballegooijen, M. van

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cervical cancer screening with liquid-based cytology (LBC) has been developed as an alternative to the conventional Papanicolaou (CP) smear. Cost-effectiveness is one of the issues when evaluating LBC. Based on the results of a Dutch randomised controlled trial, we conducted cost-effectiven

  20. 新时期网络反腐的辩证考量%Dialectica l Examination and Weighing of Network Anti-corruption in the New Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵平

    2013-01-01

    Network anti-corruption is a novelty that attracts people ’ s much attention .It has a power of making a noticeable effect in a short period of time ,which is of great significance in anti -corruption and should be full-y affirmed.Meanwhile, the obvious inadequacies in the network corruption are causing people s'reflection.This paper discusses the importance and the disadvantages of network anti -corruption in detail , focuses on how to bring the network anti -corruption to normalization, standardization and institutionalization ,which further pro-motes China's anti -corruption work to a new level.%网络反腐关注度高,传播效应大,成本低,风险小,但是,网络反腐也具有自发性、盲目性、信息泛滥、容易损伤的缺陷。必须加快网络反腐法制化建设,规范网络监督体制,多管齐下,形成合力。通过探讨网络反腐的重要性、弊端及如何让网络反腐常态化、规范化和制度化,以进一步推动我国反腐倡廉工作步上一个新台阶。