WorldWideScience

Sample records for weighing devices

  1. High speed, high-resolution fiber Bragg grating sensing system for monitoring of weigh-in-motion devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, D.; Olivero, M.; Perrone, G.; Vallan, A.

    2011-05-01

    We present a fast high-resolution fiber Bragg grating sensing system for weigh-in-motion (WIM) application. The proposed system makes use of standard telecom photonics components operating at high speed and with insufficient resolution; then, using signal processing we artificially improve the accuracy of the system down to 1 μɛ. This way, the proposed architecture overcomes the state of the art of optical systems for WIM, which cannot cope with both high resolution and high frequency requirements. The developed system has been applied to a prototype weigh-in-motion device, which consists of a road speed bump. Structural deformations of the bump when perturbed by a thin-footmark load are well reproduced. Using multiple Bragg grating sensors, it is possible to unambiguously determine position and weight of a moving load on the bump with accuracy of 0.2 - 1.2 kg.

  2. Desien, ConstruThe design, fabrication and evaluation of egg weighing device using capacitive sensor and neural networksction and Evaluation of Egg Weighing Device Using Capacitive Sensor and Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khalili

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Grading agricultural products always has a particular important position for submission to domestic and overseas markets. The grading causes more profitable product ranges and customer satisfaction. Grading treatment is carried out based on various parameters such as color, ripeness level, dimensions and weight. Product weight is one of the most effective parameters in grading operation. Egg weight is directly related to the smallness and coarseness of eggs. In egg grading, the largeness value is very important in marketing. This research aimed to design, fabricate and evaluate the egg weighing system based on its dielectric properties. Materials and Methods: To perform this research, the stages of work are divided into several sections including, design and construction of the hardware section, writing code for the software section to collect data, conducting nondestructive tests and data collection, analysis of obtained data using artificial intelligence, and giving the results of analysis for device calibration of the system as the software code. The large eggs as dielectric substances cause more increase in the capacity of the capacitive sensor. Furthermore, by derivation of a relation between capacity of capacitive sensor and egg weight, one can predict the weight of the sample. A prototype unit of weighing system was designed and fabricated. The designed unit was composed of a chassis, a voltage source, a sinusoidal signal generator, a voltage measurement unit, an AVR micro controller, a COM port, a capacitive sensor, and an LCD and a keyboard. Neural network technique was used for egg weight prediction. The designed net receives 16 voltage values at different frequencies as inputs and its output is the egg weight. In order to calibrate and evaluate the weighing unit, 150 fresh egg samples were provided on egg laying day from a local poultry farm. Experiments were divided into three groups. The experiments were carried out on

  3. Eat More, Weigh Less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Eat More, Weigh ... Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español ( ...

  4. Weigh - in - motion (WIM)

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Neven B.; Subotić Marko M.

    2014-01-01

    The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and tol...

  5. Weigh - in - motion (WIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Neven B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The biggest wealth of every country lies in its transportation infrastructure so the protection of negative impacts on infrastructure must be provided. The progress of sensor technology proposes today several types of weigh-in-motion systems, which have been tested for their efficiency, accuracy and cost-effectiveness. Technologies of piezoelectric sensors, bending plates and load cells are used for a number of applications comprising weigh enforcement, traffic data collection, bridge and toll control systems and so on. Advantages of using WIM technology are various and its benefits affects all road users (transport companies, public, public transport authorities. Potential of WIM application has been recognized in the leading EU countries, so the existence of the numerous WIM projects.

  6. Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weighing rain gauge charts record the amount of precipitation that falls at a given location. The vast majority of the Weighing Rain Gauge Recording Charts...

  7. Portable pallet weighing apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R. M. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    An assembly for use with several like units in weighing the mass of a loaded cargo pallet supported by its trunnions has a bridge frame for positioning the assembly on a transportation frame carrying the pallet while straddling one trunnion of the pallet and its trunnion lock, and a cradle assembly for incrementally raising the trunnion. The mass at the trunnion is carried as a static load by a slidable bracket mounted upon the bridge frame for supporting the cradle assembly. The bracket applies the static loading to an electrical load cell symmetrically positioned between the bridge frame and the bracket. The static loading compresses the load cell, causing a slight deformation and a potential difference at load cell terminals which is proportional in amplitude to the mass of the pallet at the trunnion.

  8. Requirements of weighing in legal metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källgren, Håkan; Pendrill, Leslie

    2003-12-01

    A review is given of recent developments in the formulation of requirements of weighing where such measurements are performed in society and industry with legal implications such as safety, fair trade and environmental considerations. Traditional legal metrology in the area of weights and measures has been developed and given an expanded scope in recent years. This reflects, on the one hand, technical and scientific development (computerization of weighing devices, improved weight manufacturing and new methods of magnetism determination, for example), and on the other hand, administrative evolution (global requirements of the market and the Measurement Instrument Directive). Particularly fruitful has been the joint effort by the scientific mass metrology and legal metrology communities in the development in the last decade of international recommendations—especially OIML R111—on weighing. Consensus has been reached in the international weighing forum concerning important areas such as maximum permissible errors for weights, how to calculate measurement uncertainty and how measurement uncertainty should be accounted for in relation to conformity assessment. These international recommendations for weights as mass standards include both tolerances and extensive instructions about various influence quantities that affect the weight result, such as magnetization, surface roughness and volume of weights. Much remains to be done, however: corresponding requirements of weighing devices in particular need to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing technology. The promising collaboration between scientific and legal metrology initiated in the area of weights may act as a model and stimulate similar developments in other areas of metrology, particularly where requirements are generic (for instance uncertainty and conformity) or analogous.

  9. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  10. Menopause: Weighing Your Treatment Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Menopause Weighing Your Treatment Options Past Issues / Winter 2017 ... What led you to study older women and menopause? I started studying women's health many years ago ...

  11. The first weighing of plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1967-09-10

    The following text, transcribed from the remarks of those scientists who gathered at the University of Chicago on September 10, 1967, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the first weighing of plutonium, tells an important part of the story of this fascinating new element that is destined to play an increasingly significant role in the future of man.

  12. Let's Weigh in on "Deflategate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Terrence

    2016-09-01

    The September 2015 paper "Bouncing Back from `Deflategate'" is a very interesting article from a physics viewpoint. However, we doubt that the National Football League (NFL) officials will bounce footballs and measure the coefficient of restitution to verify that the footballs remain properly inflated. The release of a few pounds per square inch (psi) from a football seems trivial until one reads about the millions of dollars in suspensions, fines, and legal fees that were accrued. What is a possible solution that the NFL might actually use? Weigh the ball! When a small amount of air is deliberately released, causing a change in pressure, the change in mass can be calculated and measured. Note that the change in mass can be measured without making another pressure measurement. This is important because the reinsertion of the needle of the gauge to make another measurement causes a small inadvertent loss of pressure and mass from the ball.

  13. Portable weighing system with alignment features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2012-11-06

    A system for weighing a load is disclosed. The weighing system includes a pad having at least one transducer for weighing a load disposed on the pad. In some embodiments the pad has a plurality of foot members and the weighing system may include a plate that disposed underneath the pad for receiving the plurality of foot member and for aligning the foot members when the weighing system is installed. The weighing system may include a spacer disposed adjacent the pad and in some embodiments, a spacer anchor operatively secures the spacer to a support surface, such as a plate, a railway bed, or a roadway. In some embodiments the spacer anchor operatively secures both the spacer and the pad to a roadway.

  14. Online weighing of kiwifruit using impact method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Mir-ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iran is one of the main producers of kiwifruit in the world. Unfortunately, the sorting and grading of the kiwifruits are manual, which is a time consuming and labor intensive task. Due to the lack of appropriate devices for sorting and grading of kiwifruit based on the quality parameters, only 10% of total production is exported (Mohammadian & Esehaghi Teymouri, 1999. One of the main quality attribute for evaluating the kiwifruits is weight. Based on the standards, the minimum weight for an excellent kiwifruit is 90 g, while these values for the first and second classes should be 70 and 65 g, respectively (Abedini, 2003. Therefore, developing a device for fast weighing of fruits in the sorting lines can be useful in packaging, storage, exporting and distributing kiwifruit to the consumer markets. In the past, the mechanical-based systems were commonly used for online weighing of the agricultural materials, but they did not lead to the promising accuracy and speed in sorting lines. Today, electrical instruments equipped with the precise load cells are substituted for fast weighing in the sorting lines. The dropping impact method, in which a free falling fruit drops on a load cell, is one of the suitable techniques for this purpose. Different studies have addressed the application of dropping impact for fast weighing of agricultural materials (Rohrbach et al., 1982; Calpe et al., 2002; Gilman & Bailey, 2005; Stropek & Gołacki, 2007; Elbeltagi, 2011. The aim of this study reported here was to develop an on-line system for fast weighing of kiwifruit and compare the accuracy of different methods for extracting the weight predictive models. Materials and Methods: Sample selection: A total of 232 samples with the weight range of 40 to 120 g were selected. Before conducting the main experiments, the weight and dimensions of the sample were measured using a digital balance and caliper, with the precisions of 0.001 g and 0.01 mm

  15. Portable Pallet-Weighing Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    Portable apparatus intended for standard four-trunnion pallets readily adaptable to any large payload or other loads where shifting of cargo is to be avoided. Device lifts trunnion of pallet short distance above its resting place. Weight at trunnion applied to load cell. Similar units placed at all four trunnions.

  16. Contactless Bridge Weigh-in-Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Ojio, T.; Carey, Ciaran; O'Brien, Eugene J.; Doherty, C; Taylor, S E

    2016-01-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion (WIM) uses existing bridges to find the weights of vehicles that pass overhead. Contactless bridge weigh-in-motion (cBWIM) uses bridges to weigh vehicles without the need for any sensors to be attached to the bridge. A camera is mounted on the back of a telescope, which magnifies the image to the extent that submillimeter bridge deflections can be measured accurately. A second camera is used to monitor traffic and to determine axle spacings. The two cameras are synchron...

  17. Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_167159.html Weighing Portions Adds Up to Weight Loss Put an end to guesstimating calories with simple ... of calories a day. And that can slow weight loss to a snail's pace. The answer is to ...

  18. Weighing Ultra-Cool Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    the Sun. The astronomers then used the photometric data of each star obtained in several wavebands, as well as spectra obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope to study the two objects in more detail. Using the latest stellar models of the group of the Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, they found that both stars have roughly the same surface temperature, around 1500 °C (1800 K). For a star, this is ultra-cool indeed - by comparison, the surface temperature of the Sun is more than three times higher. Using theoretical models, the team also found that the two stars are rather young (in astrophysical terms) - their age is between 500 and 1,000 million years only. The more massive of the two has a mass between 7.5 and 9.5% the mass of the Sun, while its companion has a mass between 5 and 7% of the solar mass. Objects weighing less than about 7% of our Sun have been variously called "Brown Dwarfs", "Failed Stars" or "Super Planets". Indeed, since they have no sustained energy generation by thermal nuclear reactions in their interior, many of their properties are more similar to those of giant gas planets in our own solar system such as Jupiter, than to stars like the Sun. The system 2MASSW J0746425+2000321 is thus apparently made up of a brown dwarf orbiting a slightly more massive ultra-cool dwarf star. It is a true "Rosetta stone" in the new field of low-mass stellar astrophysics and further studies will surely provide more valuable information about these objects in the transitional zone between stars and planets. More information The research described in this press release is published in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics ("First determination of the dynamical mass of a binary L1.5 dwarf" by H. Bouy et al.). The paper is available in PDF format on the publisher web site.

  19. Error Reduction for Weigh-In-Motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Federal and State agencies need certifiable vehicle weights for various applications, such as highway inspections, border security, check points, and port entries. ORNL weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology was previously unable to provide certifiable weights, due to natural oscillations, such as vehicle bouncing and rocking. Recent ORNL work demonstrated a novel filter to remove these oscillations. This work shows further filtering improvements to enable certifiable weight measurements (error < 0.1%) for a higher traffic volume with less effort (elimination of redundant weighing).

  20. Weigh in Motion Based on Parameters Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhi-feng; CAI Ping; CHEN Ri-xing

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic tire forces are the main factor affecting the measurement accuracy of the axle weight of moving vehicle. This paper presents a novel method to reduce the influence of the dynamic tire forces on the weighing accuracy. On the basis of analyzing the characteristic of the dynamic tire forces, the objective optimization equation is constructed. The optimization algorithm is presented to get the optimal estimations of the objective parameters. According to the estimations of the parameters, the dynamic tire forces are separated from the axle weigh signal. The results of simulation and field experiments prove the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. Noise Reduction Methods for Weighing Lysimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanical vibration of the grass and crop weighing lysimeters, located at the University of California West Side Field Research and Extension Station at Five Points, CA generated noise in lysimeter mass measurements and reduced the quality of evapotranspiration (ET) data. Two filtering methods for ...

  2. Wood anatomical classification using iterative character weighing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweg, P.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1975-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the pattern of wood anatomical variation in some groups of Rubiaceae (i.e. Cinchoneae, Rondeletieae and Condamineae) by using a numerical pattern detection method which involves character weighing (Hogeweg 1975). In this method character weights are obtained iteratively

  3. Thermal Property Analysis of Axle Load Sensors for Weighing Vehicles in Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Burnos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Systems which permit the weighing of vehicles in motion are called dynamic Weigh-in-Motion scales. In such systems, axle load sensors are embedded in the pavement. Among the influencing factors that negatively affect weighing accuracy is the pavement temperature. This paper presents a detailed analysis of this phenomenon and describes the properties of polymer, quartz and bending plate load sensors. The studies were conducted in two ways: at roadside Weigh-in-Motion sites and at a laboratory using a climate chamber. For accuracy assessment of roadside systems, the reference vehicle method was used. The pavement temperature influence on the weighing error was experimentally investigated as well as a non-uniform temperature distribution along and across the Weigh-in-Motion site. Tests carried out in the climatic chamber allowed the influence of temperature on the sensor intrinsic error to be determined. The results presented clearly show that all kinds of sensors are temperature sensitive. This is a new finding, as up to now the quartz and bending plate sensors were considered insensitive to this factor.

  4. Thermal Property Analysis of Axle Load Sensors for Weighing Vehicles in Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Gajda, Janusz

    2016-12-15

    Systems which permit the weighing of vehicles in motion are called dynamic Weigh-in-Motion scales. In such systems, axle load sensors are embedded in the pavement. Among the influencing factors that negatively affect weighing accuracy is the pavement temperature. This paper presents a detailed analysis of this phenomenon and describes the properties of polymer, quartz and bending plate load sensors. The studies were conducted in two ways: at roadside Weigh-in-Motion sites and at a laboratory using a climate chamber. For accuracy assessment of roadside systems, the reference vehicle method was used. The pavement temperature influence on the weighing error was experimentally investigated as well as a non-uniform temperature distribution along and across the Weigh-in-Motion site. Tests carried out in the climatic chamber allowed the influence of temperature on the sensor intrinsic error to be determined. The results presented clearly show that all kinds of sensors are temperature sensitive. This is a new finding, as up to now the quartz and bending plate sensors were considered insensitive to this factor.

  5. Weigh-in-motion and smart bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Leon L.

    1997-05-01

    The bridge Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system uses bridge structures as weigh scales to measure axle and gross vehicle weights and vehicle configurations without stopping or detouring the vehicles. Because the system is mobile and is almost invisible to the truck drivers, it can be used to collect unbiased traffic data for transportation and loadometer study. The WIM + RESPONSE system, which is an expansion of the original WIM system, was developed to collect additional bridge response data and perform bridge structural evaluation. These additional bridge response data provide bridge engineers with information necessary for improving bridge design and evaluation procedures. Bridge health monitoring and damage detection may also be conducted with long term installation of the WIM + RESPONSE system. This paper discusses what has been achieved by the WIM + RESPONSE system and how the system can be further improved to enhance its functions in a smart bridge.

  6. System identification based approach to dynamic weighing revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiecki, Maciej; Meller, Michał; Pietrzak, Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic weighing, i.e., weighing of objects in motion, without stopping them on the weighing platform, allows one to increase the rate of operation of automatic weighing systems, used in industrial production processes, without compromising their accuracy. Since the classical identification-based approach to dynamic weighing, based on the second-order mass-spring-damper model of the weighing system, does not yield satisfactory results when applied to conveyor belt type checkweighers, several extensions of this technique are examined. Experiments confirm that when appropriately modified the identification-based approach becomes a reliable tool for dynamic mass measurement in checkweighers.

  7. 7 CFR 27.16 - Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. 27.16... Samples § 27.16 Inspection; weighing; samples; supervision. The inspection, weighing, and sampling of... Services Office shall be (a) under the supervision of a supervisor of cotton inspection, or (b) by or...

  8. I-65 Seymour Weigh Station - Indiana's First Mainline Weigh-in-Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Jim; Shattuck, Brian

    2017-01-01

    In 2014 INDOT selected CDM Smith to design the replacement of an abandoned truck weigh station on I-65 in Seymour. Due to site physical constraints, prescreening of trucks with weigh-in-motion (WIM) must take place on the mainline as opposed to a screening lane—the first such design in Indiana. Construction will be completed spring 2017, and the design team will participate in final testing of the entire WIM and weight enforcement system. Join us to hear more about this project.

  9. Prototype Weigh-In-Motion Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Beshears, David L [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2006-10-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed and patented methods to weigh slowly moving vehicles. We have used this technology to produce a portable weigh-in-motion system that is robust and accurate. This report documents the performance of the second-generation portable weigh-in-motion prototype (WIM Gen II). The results of three modes of weight determination are compared in this report: WIM Gen II dynamic mode, WIM Gen II stop-and-go mode, and static (parked) mode on in-ground, static scales. The WIM dynamic mode measures axle weights as the vehicle passes over the system at speeds of 3 to 7 miles per hour (1.3 to 3.1 meters/second). The WIM stop-and-go mode measures the weight of each axle of the vehicle as the axles are successively positioned on a side-by-side pair of WIM measurement pads. In both measurement modes the center of balance (CB) and the total weight are obtained by a straight-forward calculation from axle weights and axle spacings. The performance metric is measurement error (in percent), which is defined as 100 x (sample standard deviation)/(average); see Appendix A for details. We have insufficient data to show that this metric is predictive. This report details the results of weight measurements performed in May 2005 at two sites using different types of vehicles at each site. In addition to the weight measurements, the testing enabled refinements to the test methodology and facilitated an assessment of the influence of vehicle speed on the dynamic-mode measurements. The initial test at the National Transportation Research Center in Knoxville, TN, involved measurements of passenger and light-duty commercial vehicles. A subsequent test at the Arrival/Departure Airfield Control Group (A/DACG) facility in Ft. Bragg, NC, involved military vehicles with gross weights between 3,000 and 75,000 pounds (1,356 to 33,900 kilograms) with a 20,000-pound (9,040 kilograms) limit per axle. For each vehicle, four or more separate measurements were done

  10. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency.

  11. Method and system for reducing errors in vehicle weighing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Abercrombie, Robert K. (Knoxville, TN)

    2010-08-24

    A method and system (10, 23) for determining vehicle weight to a precision of <0.1%, uses a plurality of weight sensing elements (23), a computer (10) for reading in weighing data for a vehicle (25) and produces a dataset representing the total weight of a vehicle via programming (40-53) that is executable by the computer (10) for (a) providing a plurality of mode parameters that characterize each oscillatory mode in the data due to movement of the vehicle during weighing, (b) by determining the oscillatory mode at which there is a minimum error in the weighing data; (c) processing the weighing data to remove that dynamical oscillation from the weighing data; and (d) repeating steps (a)-(c) until the error in the set of weighing data is <0.1% in the vehicle weight.

  12. Self-weighing in weight management: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yaguang; Klem, Mary Lou; Sereika, Susan M; Danford, Cynthia A; Ewing, Linda J; Burke, Lora E

    2015-02-01

    Regular self-weighing, which in this article is defined as weighing oneself regularly over a period of time (e.g., daily, weekly), is recommended as a weight loss strategy. However, the published literature lacks a review of the recent evidence provided by prospective, longitudinal studies. Moreover, no paper has reviewed the psychological effects of self-weighing. Therefore, the objective is to review the literature related to longitudinal associations between self-weighing and weight change as well as the psychological outcomes. Electronic literature searches in PubMed, Ovid PsycINFO, and Ebscohost CINAHL were conducted. Keywords included overweight, obesity, self-weighing, etc. Inclusion criteria included trials that were published in the past 25 years in English; participants were adults seeking weight loss treatment; results were based on longitudinal data. The results (N=17 studies) revealed that regular self-weighing was associated with more weight loss and not with adverse psychological outcomes (e.g., depression, anxiety). Findings demonstrated that the effect sizes of association between self-weighing and weight change varied across studies and also that the reported frequency of self-weighing varied across studies. The findings from prospective, longitudinal studies provide evidence that regular self-weighing has been associated with weight loss and not with negative psychological outcomes. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  13. System and method for identifying, validating, weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, David L.; Batsell, Stephen G.; Abercrombie, Robert K.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; White, Clifford P.

    2007-12-04

    An asset identification and information infrastructure management (AI3M) device having an automated identification technology system (AIT), a Transportation Coordinators' Automated Information for Movements System II (TC-AIMS II), a weigh-in-motion system (WIM-II), and an Automated Air Load Planning system (AALPS) all in electronic communication for measuring and calculating actual asset characteristics, either statically or in-motion, and further calculating an actual load plan.

  14. Advanced weigh-in-motion system for weighing vehicles at high speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshears, D.L.; Muhs, J.D.; Scudiere, M.B. [and others

    1998-02-01

    A state-of-the-art, Advanced Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system has been designed, installed, and tested on the west bound side of Interstate I-75/I-40 near the Knox County Weigh Station. The project is a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and International Road Dynamics, Inc. (IRD) sponsored by the Office of Uranium Programs, Facility and Technology Management Division of the Department of Energy under CRADA No. ORNL95-0364. ORNL, IRD, the Federal Highway Administration, the Tennessee Department of Safety and the Tennessee Department of Transportation have developed a National High Speed WIM Test Facility for test and evaluation of high-speed WIM systems. The WIM system under evaluation includes a Single Load Cell WIM scale system supplied and installed by IRD. ORNL developed a stand-alone, custom data acquisition system, which acquires the raw signals from IRD`s in-ground single load cell transducers. Under a separate contract with the Federal Highway Administration, ORNL designed and constructed a laboratory scale house for data collection, analysis and algorithm development. An initial advanced weight-determining algorithm has been developed. The new advanced WIM system provides improved accuracy and can reduce overall system variability by up to 30% over the existing high accuracy commercial WIM system.

  15. Baxter elastomeric pumps: Weighing as an alternative to visual inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ellen L; Ali, Raafi; Sawyer, Michael B; Chambers, Carole R; Tang, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Elastomeric pumps are used to administer 46-hour infusions of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Baxter suggests patients visually monitor their pumps to ensure that infusions are proceeding correctly. This can be confusing and lead to concerns about under- or over-dosing. Baxter has not considered weighing pumps as a validated method for monitoring. This study aims to validate weighing as a more accurate method for patients and healthcare professionals, and describe real life Baxter Infusor™ variability. Methods Patients who had been started on a 46-hour 5FU infusion returned to the clinic approximately 24 h after starting treatment. The pump was weighed on a StarFrit kitchen scale, and date, time, and weights recorded. Patients were asked if they had a preference for weighing or visually inspecting their pump. Results Pumps ( n = 103) were weighed between 17.25 and 27.5 h after connection. The average weight of a pump was 189 g. Of 103 pumps weighed, 99 weighed less than expected, corresponding to average flow rates of 5.69 mL/h over the elapsed time. The expected flow rate is 5 mL/h with 10% variability. Average flow rates within the 17.25- to 27.5-hour window were 4.561 mL/h, which is 8.78% slower than expected, but within the 10% known variability. Forty-seven percent of patients didn't have a preference for either method, but for those who did have a preference, more than twice as many preferred weighing. Conclusion With proper education, weighing Baxter Infusors at home with kitchen scales can be an accepted and objective alternative to the current recommendation of visual inspection.

  16. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  17. Weigh-in-motion scale with foot alignment features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert Knox; Richardson, Gregory David; Scudiere, Matthew Bligh

    2013-03-05

    A pad is disclosed for use in a weighing system for weighing a load. The pad includes a weighing platform, load cells, and foot members. Improvements to the pad reduce or substantially eliminate rotation of one or more of the corner foot members. A flexible foot strap disposed between the corner foot members reduces rotation of the respective foot members about vertical axes through the corner foot members and couples the corner foot members such that rotation of one corner foot member results in substantially the same amount of rotation of the other corner foot member. In a strapless variant one or more fasteners prevents substantially all rotation of a foot member. In a diagonal variant, a foot strap extends between a corner foot member and the weighing platform to reduce rotation of the foot member about a vertical axis through the corner foot member.

  18. FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162849.html FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes Agency ... The Associated Press reported last month that the FDA had identified 66 instances of e-cigarette explosions ...

  19. Weighing Evidence: The Design and Comparison of Probability Thought Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    this design is attractive, but a number of experiments, beginning with Alpert and Raiffa in 1969, have reported that the Weighing Evidence 38 initial...Grant N00014-79-C-0077 to the second author. Ia Weighing Evidence 67 References Alpert , M., and Raiffa, H.: 1982, ’A progress report on the training of...C. 20360 Dr. L. Chmura Naval Research Laboratory Larry Olmstead Code 7592 Naval Surface Weapons Center Computer Sciences & Systems NSWC/DL

  20. An Integrated Dynamic Weighing System Based on SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bazydło

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prototyped dynamic weighing system has been presented which integrates together three advanced software environments: MATLAB, LabVIEW and iFIX SCADA. They were used for advanced signal processing, data acquisition, as well as visualization and process control. Dynamic weighing is a constantly developing field of metrology. Because of the highly complicated structure of any electronic weighing module, it is vulnerable to many sources of environmental disturbances. For this reason, there is a lot of research concerned with weighing signal processing, mechanical matters and functionality of the system. In the paper, some issues connected with dynamic weighing have been presented, and the necessity of implementing signal processing methods has been discussed. Implementation of this feature is impossible in the majority of SCADA systems. The integration of the three environments mentioned above is an attempt to create an industrial system with capabilities to deal with major dynamic weighing problems. It is innovative because it connects the industrial SCADA, laboratory/industrial product LabVIEW and MATLAB. In addition, the algorithms responsible for process control and data exchange are presented. The paper includes a description of the capabilities, performance tests, as well as benefits and drawbacks, of the system. The outcome of the research is a prototyped system and evaluation of its usefulness. (original abstract

  1. Bridge Influence Line Estimation for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    OpenAIRE

    Ieng, Sio Song

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that estimates the influence line (IL) of a bridge using data collected when trucks pass over the sensors installed in the bridge. The algorithm is tested with data collected from the Millau Viaduct in France using a bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM) device. The algorithm uses the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) and is compared with an old algorithm. The algorithm is more robust because it takes into account many signals for the estimation of the IL.

  2. Use of FBG sensors for weigh in motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardis, S.; Caponero, Michele A.; Felli, F.; Rocco, F.

    2005-05-01

    Techniques able to perform weighing of road vehicles not requiring any lowering of their cruise speed are of great interest for a large amount of applications. Many of such applications are traditionally related to determining custom duties, toll-way fares and cost of paying freight, but new applications often concerned with high-speed travelling vehicles are arising, as for instance the smart management of highway lorry traffic. In this paper we present preliminary results for the development of a weigh-in-motion technique based on Fibre Bragg Grating sensors. The proposed technique is intended for the production of a weigh-in-motion station suitable for high-speed road vehicle and high load resolution.

  3. Estimating passenger numbers in trains using existing weighing capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Friis; Frølich, Laura; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2013-01-01

    in estimates of total numbers of passengers propagate along train runs. Counting errors in manual and electronic counting systems are typically flow-dependent, making uncertainty a function of volume. This paper presents a new counting technique that exploits the weighing systems installed in most modern...... trains to control braking. This technique makes passenger counting cheaper and ensures a complete sample. The paper compares numbers estimated by this technique with manual counts and counts from an infrared system in trains in urban Copenhagen. It shows that the weighing system provides more accurate...

  4. Improving truck safety: Potential of weigh-in-motion technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Jacob

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Trucks exceeding the legal mass limits increase the risk of traffic accidents and damage to the infrastructure. They also result in unfair competition between transport modes and companies. It is therefore important to ensure truck compliance to weight regulation. New technologies are being developed for more efficient overload screening and enforcement. Weigh-in-Motion (WIM technologies allow trucks to be weighed in the traffic flow, without any disruption to operations. Much progress has been made recently to improve and implement WIM systems, which can contribute to safer and more efficient operation of trucks.

  5. WAVE - A European Research Project on Weigh-in-Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob, Bernard; O'Brien, Eugene J.

    1996-01-01

    WAVE (Weigh-in-motion of Axles and Vehicles for Europe) is a research project, part-funded by the European Commission, with the objective of improving the accuracy and performance of Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) technology. It has a budget of the order of $ 2 million and will run from mid 1996 to mid 1998. It has close links and a substantial overlap of membership with COST323, a pan-European group with representatives from about 20 countries which coordinates nationally funded activi...

  6. Statistics by Example, Weighing Chances, Teachers' Commentary and Solutions Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinka, Martha; Weisberg, Sanford

    Part I of the teachers' guide for "Weighing Chances" briefly describes the mathematical background necessary for the student, lists the substantive areas touched upon by the problems in the pamphlet, suggests classroom uses for the booklet, and gives background information on the individual chapters. Part II provides complete solutions for the…

  7. An Innovative Nanosensor for Weigh-In-Motion Applications

    OpenAIRE

    GHADDAB, Boutheina; Gaudefroy, Vincent; Michelis, Fulvio; Ruiz Hitzky, Eduardo; Aranda,Pilar; Ruiz-García, Cristina; Lebental, Bérengère

    2014-01-01

    International audience; This study deals with the development of an innovative weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensor. An electrically conductive nanocomposite material based on a mixture of graphene supported on sepiolite and carbon nanotubes was developed. Deposited on bituminous mix with copper electrodes, it is used as a force sensor. We detail the sensor fabrication process and study its sensitivity to a compressive force.

  8. Low-cost fiber optic weigh-in-motion sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaai-Jazi, A.; Ardekani, S. A.; Mehdikhani, M.

    1990-11-01

    A design for a fiber optic weigh in motion (WIM) sensor is proposed. A prototype of the proposed sensor is designed, manufactured, and tested in the laboratory for different load frequency combinations using a material testing system (MTS) machine. Statistical analysis of data are performed to assess the response of the sensor under varying load frequencies for comparison.

  9. A new approach to the CZ crystal growth weighing control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimkin, P. V.; Moskovskih, V. A.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Yuferev, V. S.; Vasiliev, M. G.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of a new approach was to improve the robustness of the weighing control of CZ growth especially for semiconductors, for which the “anomalous“ behavior of the apparent weight provokes instability of the servo-loop. In the described method, the periodic reciprocating measuring motion of small amplitude is superposed on the uniform pull-rod movement. The cross-sectional area is determined from the weight sensor responses that are modulated mainly by the forces of hydrostatic pressure. By the example of germanium crystal growth, it is shown that in the control system, based on such a way of the diameter measuring, a simple PI control law provides a good close loop system's stability and dynamics for the materials with the “anomalous” behavior of a weighing signal. The effect of a meniscus on the modulation measuring of a crystal diameter is also discussed.

  10. Weigh-In-Motion Data Checking and Imputation

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Ting; Fricker, Jon D.

    2003-01-01

    There are about 46 weigh-in-motion (WIM) stations in Indiana. When operating properly, they provide valuable information on traffic volumes, vehicle classifications, and axle weights. Because there are great amounts of WIM data collected everyday, the quality of these data should be monitor without further delay. The first objective of this study is to develop effective and efficient methods to identify missing or erroneous WIM data. The second objective is to develop a data imputation method...

  11. Credibility and Security of Weighing System for Large Structure Object

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The weighing system designed for large structure object is mainly composed of three parts. The part of hydraulic system is made up of hydraulic cylinders, high pressure hydraulic hoses and electric pumps; the part of computer controlling system comprises pressure sensors, displacement sensors, data acquisitions, RS 485 network and the computer controlling model; the part of loading system is composed of the fulcrum structure and the concrete girder. The measurement principle and composition of the weighing system are discussed in this paper. Credibility and security of the weighing system are fully considered during the design phase. The hydraulic system is controlled by pilot operated check valves in case of the sudden loss of system pressure. The states of all gauges and RS485 network are monitored by computer controlling system functioning in different modules. When the system is running incorrectly, it will be switched to manual mode and givealarm. The finite element method is employed to analyze fulcrum structure so that the system has enough intensity to be lifted. Hence the reliability of the whole system is enhanced.

  12. Pavement management and weigh-in-motion. Transportation research record

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cation, K.A.; Shahin, M.Y.; Scullion, T.; Lytton, R.L.; Butt, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 15 papers in the report deal with the following areas: development of a preventive maintenance algorithm for use in pavement-management systems; pavement-performance prediction model using the Markov Process; roadway modeling and data conversion for a transportation-facilities information system; development of a methodology to estimate pavement maintenance and repair costs for different ranges of pavement-condition index; new techniques for modeling pavement deterioration; pavement management at the local government level; a comprehensive ranking system for local-agency pavement management; expert system as a part of pavement management; MAPCON: a pavement-evaluation data-analysis computer system; a microcomputer procedure to analyze axle load limits and pavement damage responsibility; selected results from the first three years of the Oregon automatic monitoring demonstration project; automated acquisition of truck-tire pressure data; calibration and accuracy testing of weigh-in-motion systems; accuracy and tolerances of weigh-in-motion systems; on-site calibration of weigh-in-motion systems.

  13. System and method for weighing and characterizing moving or stationary vehicles and cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Scudiere, Matthew B [Oak Ridge, TN; White, Clifford P [Seymour, TN

    2008-05-20

    A weigh-in-motion device and method having at least one transducer pad, each transducer pad having at least one transducer group with transducers positioned essentially perpendicular to the direction of travel. At least one pad microcomputer is provided on each transducer pad having a means for calculating first output signal indicative of weight, second output signal indicative of time, and third output signal indicative of speed. At least one host microcomputer is in electronic communication with each pad microcomputer, and having a means for calculating at least one unknown selected from the group consisting of individual tire weight, individual axle weight, axle spacing, speed profile, longitudinal center of balance, and transverse center of balance.

  14. Weighing stars: the identification of an Evolved Blue Straggler Star in the globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Mucciarelli, A; Lanzoni, B; Dalessandro, E; Pallanca, C; Massari, D

    2015-01-01

    Globular clusters are known to host peculiar objects, named Blue Straggler Stars (BSSs), significantly heavier than the normal stellar population. While these stars can be easily identified during their core hydrogen-burning phase, they are photometrically indistinguishable from their low-mass sisters in advanced stages of the subsequent evolution. A clear-cut identification of these objects would require the direct measurement of the stellar mass. We used the detailed comparison between chemical abundances derived from neutral and from ionized spectral lines as a powerful stellar "weighing device" to measure stellar mass and to identify an evolved BSS in 47 Tucanae. In particular, high-resolution spectra of three bright stars located slightly above the level of the "canonical" horizontal branch sequence in the color-magnitude diagram of 47 Tucanae, have been obtained with UVES spectrograph. The measurements of iron and titanium abundances performed separately from neutral and ionized lines reveal that two ta...

  15. 9 CFR 201.108-1 - Instructions for weighing live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Instructions for weighing live poultry... STOCKYARDS ACT Poultry-Packers and Live Poultry Dealers § 201.108-1 Instructions for weighing live poultry. Live poultry dealers who operate scales on which live poultry is weighed for purposes of purchase,...

  16. 7 CFR 800.97 - Weighing grain in containers, land carriers, barges, and shiplots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weighing grain in containers, land carriers, barges... (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Weighing Provisions and Procedures § 800.97 Weighing grain in...

  17. Weighing and Body Monitoring among College Women: The Scale Number as an Emotional Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Awad, Germine H.; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Coker, Angela D.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Connelly, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated weighing and body-monitoring behaviors, as well as psychological and behavioral reactions to weighing, among female college students. Weighing and body monitoring were engaged in by the majority of participants. Participants changed food intake and exercise based on weight. About 63% reported that the scale number impacts…

  18. 40 CFR 92.110 - Weighing chamber and micro-balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Weighing chamber and micro-balance. 92... Weighing chamber and micro-balance. (a) Ambient conditions—(1) Temperature. The temperature of the chamber.... (b) Weighing balance specifications. The microbalance used to determine the weights of all...

  19. Weighing and Body Monitoring among College Women: The Scale Number as an Emotional Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Laurie B.; Awad, Germine H.; Stinson, Rebecca D.; Bledman, Rashanta A.; Coker, Angela D.; Kashubeck-West, Susan; Connelly, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated weighing and body-monitoring behaviors, as well as psychological and behavioral reactions to weighing, among female college students. Weighing and body monitoring were engaged in by the majority of participants. Participants changed food intake and exercise based on weight. About 63% reported that the scale number impacts…

  20. Pad-weighing test performed with standardized bladder volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Rosenkilde, P; Gammelgaard, J

    1988-01-01

    with a standardized bladder volume (50% of the cystometric bladder capacity). Twenty-five female patients with stress or mixed incontinence underwent two separate tests. Test-retest results were highly correlated (r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). Nonetheless, analysis of test-retest differences revealed a variation up...... to +/- 24 g between two tests. It is concluded that this setup (i.e., standardized bladder volume) of the one-hour pad-weighing test allows for a more reliable assessment of urinary incontinence for quantitative purposes....

  1. Simulator for a packing and weighing system of granulated powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto Rodrigues de Oliveira, Rafael; Garcia, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    The development of a simulator for a packing and weighing system (PWS) of granulated powder is described. It employed system identification to obtain the deterministic part of the model and stochastic processes to reproduce disturbances. It reproduces the fluctuations in carton weight observed in real packing systems. Its final use is to evaluate proposed improvements in the PWS, aiming at reducing overweight and underweight. Its performance is satisfactory, as the oscillations observed in the carton weights, due to powder density variability, are close to reality as well as the monetary losses due to overweight and underweight and the power spectral density graphs of the real and simulated weights.

  2. Bridge Damage Detection Using Weigh-In-Motion Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Cantero, Daniel; González, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new level I damage detection technique for short to medium span road bridges using weigh-in-motion (WIM) technology. The technique is based on the input provided by two different WIM systems: (a) a pavement-based WIM station located prior to the bridge (which gives vehicle weight estimates without the influence of the bridge) and (b) a bridge-based WIM system which estimates vehicle weights based on the deformation of the bridge. It is shown that the ratio of estimations...

  3. ALICE: structures weighing several tonnes are moved with millimetric precision

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE collaboration has just conducted one of its most spectacular transport operations to date in lifting the dipole of the muon spectrometer and reassembling it on the other side of the huge solenoid magnet. This incredible feat involved lifting no fewer than 900 tonnes of equipment over the red octagonal yoke inherited from the L3 experiment at a height of 18 metres. Following initial assembly and successful testing at the end of last year (see Bulletin No. 4/2005), the dipole was completely dismantled and moved to the other end of the cavern. The yoke was transported as 28 modules, each weighing 30 tonnes. The most spectacular feat of all, though, was undoubtedly the removal of the two 32-tonne coils. The first of these was moved on 18 April, as recorded in the following photos: A special lifting gantry weighing 5 tonnes had to be developed to move and install the coils. Huge clamps, which can be seen at the front, were used to rotate these enormous 32-tonne components. The whole assembly was raised ...

  4. A cost-effective weighing chamber for particulate matter filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R; Box, M; Liu, L J; Larson, T V

    2001-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a ubiquitous air pollutant that has been receiving increasing attention in recent years due in part to the association between PM and a number of adverse health outcomes, including mortality and increases in emergency room visits and respiratory symptoms, as well as exacerbation of asthma and decrements in lung function. As a result, the ability to accurately sample ambient PM has become important, both to researchers and to regulatory agencies. The federal reference method for the determination of fine PM as PM2.5 in the atmosphere recommends that particle-sampling filters be conditioned and weighed in an environment with constant temperature and relative humidity (RH). It is also recommended that vibration, electrostatic charges, and contamination of the filters from laboratory air be minimized to reduce variability in filter weight measurements. These controls have typically been maintained in small, environmentally controlled "cleanrooms." As an alternative to constructing an elaborate cleanroom, we have designed, and presented in this paper, an inexpensive weighing chamber to maintain the necessary level of humidity control.

  5. What is the psychological impact of self-weighing? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Yael; Webb, Thomas L; Chang, Betty P I; Harkin, Benjamin

    2016-06-01

    Many people self-weigh and many interventions addressing weight-related problems such as obesity promote self-weighing. However, while self-weighing has been associated with weight loss, there is mixed evidence regarding the psychological impact of this behaviour. The present review aimed to quantify the relationship between self-weighing and: (i) affect (e.g., anxiety, depression); (ii) psychological functioning (e.g., self-esteem); (iii) body-related attitudes and (iv) disordered eating. A computerized search of scientific databases in September 2014 and subsequent ancestry and citation searches identified 29 independent tests of the relationship between self-weighing on psychological outcomes. Meta-analysis was used to quantify the size of the association across the tests. Results indicated that there was no association between self-weighing and affect, body-related attitudes or disordered eating. There was, however, a small-sized negative association between self-weighing and psychological functioning. The age of participants, obesity status, the extent of weight loss, duration of self-weighing and study design (RCT versus correlational) were found to influence at least some of the psychological outcomes of self-weighing. The findings suggest that, for the most part, self-weighing is not associated with adverse psychological outcomes. However, in some cases the association between self-weighing and psychological outcomes may be more negative than in others.

  6. [Bioethics: a proposal for decision making. Towards a weighed syncretism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabala Blanco, Jaime; Seco García, Raquel

    2008-09-01

    The professional nursing business bears with it ethical problems related to scientific and technical development, the ethical-cultural plurality in our society and changes in clinical relationships. This situation has generated a crisis in classical decision-making models which has led to a point where we confront a new reality that requires an adequate adjustment not only to technical criteria but, moreover, to moral criteria. The challenge we undertake implies a search for concrete solutions to concrete problems in concrete instances, and what is most important, related to concrete persons. The procedures for decision making which have been proposed up until now should not be viewed as exclusive rather as complementary and enriching ones in the quest to find the best possible solutions; along this line we propose, from a weighed syncretism aspect, a procedure not thought of only for use in great conflicts but rather and mainly, to resolve daily problems.

  7. Weighing the black hole via quasi-local energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Yuan K.

    2017-08-01

    We set to weigh the black holes at their event horizons in various spacetimes and obtain masses which are substantially higher than their asymptotic values. In each case, the horizon mass of a Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, or Kerr black hole is found to be twice the irreducible mass observed at infinity. The irreducible mass does not contain electrostatic or rotational energy, leading to the inescapable conclusion that particles with electric charges and spins cannot exist inside a black hole. This is proposed as the External Energy Paradigm. A higher mass at the event horizon and its neighborhood is obligatory for the release of gravitational waves in binary black hole merging. We describe how these horizon mass values are obtained in the quasi-local energy approach and applied to the black holes of the first gravitational waves GW150914.

  8. Statistical analysis of vehicle loads measured with three different vehicle weighing devices

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkhize, ZQP

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available conditions. In order to better manage vehicular loads and their distribution on South Afri- can road pavements, systems of weighbridges are being utilized to monitor vehicular loads (or mass weights)1 and also for the prosecution of those offenders... and Fisher, 1999, De Beer et al 1999, 2002, 2004a, 2004b). 2. FIELD STUDIES AND APPROACH TO DATA ANALYSES Verification studies under controlled loading and inflation pressure using the South African Heavy Vehicle Simulator (HVS) indicated that the three...

  9. Use of Finite Elements Analysis for a Weigh-in-Motion Sensor Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel Goanta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles. WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between –40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness, the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA, the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  10. Use of finite elements analysis for a weigh-in-motion sensor design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Rigobert; Goanta, Viorel; Carlescu, Petru; Barsanescu, Paul-Doru; Taranu, Nicolae; Banu, Oana

    2012-01-01

    High speed weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors are utilized as components of complex traffic monitoring and measurement systems. They should be able to determine the weights on wheels, axles and vehicle gross weights, and to help the classification of vehicles (depending on the number of axles). WIM sensors must meet the following main requirements: good accuracy, high endurance, low price and easy installation in the road structure. It is not advisable to use cheap materials in constructing these devices for lower prices, since the sensors are normally working in harsh environmental conditions such as temperatures between -40 °C and +70 °C, dust, temporary water immersion, shocks and vibrations. Consequently, less expensive manufacturing technologies are recommended. Because the installation cost in the road structure is high and proportional to the WIM sensor cross section (especially with its thickness), the device needs to be made as flat as possible. The WIM sensor model presented and analyzed in this paper uses a spring element equipped with strain gages. Using Finite Element Analysis (FEA), the authors have attempted to obtain a more sensitive, reliable, lower profile and overall cheaper elastic element for a new WIM sensor.

  11. Daily Self-Weighing to Control Body Weight in Adults: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacanowski, Carly R; Bertz, Fredrik C; Levitsky, David A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to review the history of daily self-weighing for weight control, discuss the possibility that self-weighing may cause adverse psychological symptoms, and propose mechanisms that explain how self-weighing facilitates weight control. A systematic forward (citation) tracking approach has been employed in this study. In the early literature, experimental tests did not demonstrate a benefit of adding daily self-weighing to traditional behavioral modification for weight loss. More recent studies have shown that daily self-weighing combined with personalized electronic feedback can produce and sustain weight loss with and without a traditional weight loss program. Daily self-weighing appears to be effective in preventing age-related weight gain. Apart from these experimental findings, there is considerable agreement that the frequency of self-weighing correlates with success in losing weight and sustaining the weight loss. The early literature suggested frequent self-weighing may be associated with negative psychological effects. However, more recent experimental trials do not substantiate such a causal relationship. In conclusion, daily self-weighing may be a useful strategy for certain adults to prevent weight gain, lose weight, or prevent weight regain after loss. More research is needed to better understand the role of different types of feedback, who benefits most from self-weighing, and at what frequency.

  12. Static Scale Conversion Weigh-In-Motion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beshears, D.L.

    2001-05-18

    In support of the Air Mobility Battle Lab (AMBL), the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Advanced Logistics Program and the U. S. Transportation Command (USTRANSCOM), the ultimate objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a full-scale prototype static scale conversion weigh-in-motion/Profilometry (SSC-WIM/P) system to measure and record dimensional and weight information for the Department of Defense (DoD) equipment and cargo. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), along with the AMBL, and Intercomp, Inc. have developed a long-range plan for developing a dual-use system which can be used as a standard static scale or an accurate weigh-in-motion system. AMBL will work to define requirements for additional activities with U.S. Transportation Command, Air Mobility Command, and the Joint Warfighting Battle Lab for both the SSC-WIM/P and a portable Weigh-in-Motion System for individual units. The funding goal is to fully fund the development of two prototype test articles (a SSC-WIM kit, and a laser profilometer) and have at least one fully operational system by the early 2002 timeframe. The objective of this portion of the project will be to develop a SSC-WIM system, which at a later date can be fully integrated with a profilometry system; to fully characterize DOD wheeled vehicles and cargo (individual axle weights, total vehicle weight, center of balance, height, width and length measurements). The program will be completed in phases with the initial AMBL/DARPA funding being used to initiate the efforts while AMBL/USTC obtains funding to complete the first generation system effort. At the completion of an initial effort, the interface hardware and the data acquisition/analysis hardware will be developed, fabricated, and system principles and basic functionality evaluated, tested, and demonstrated. Additional funding, when made available, will allow the successful completion of a first generation prototype system. This effort will be

  13. 49 CFR 375.511 - May I use an alternative method for shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... weighing 3,000 pounds or less? 375.511 Section 375.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... alternative method for shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less? For shipments weighing 3,000 pounds or less (1,362 kilograms or less), you may weigh the shipment upon a platform or warehouse certified scale...

  14. Road Weigh Stations, Statewide weigh station point layer, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Office of Shared Solutions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Weigh Stations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. It is described as...

  15. Weighing Evidence "Steampunk" Style via the Meta-Analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jack; Jackson, Chris

    2016-10-01

    The funnel plot is a graphical visualization of summary data estimates from a meta-analysis, and is a useful tool for detecting departures from the standard modeling assumptions. Although perhaps not widely appreciated, a simple extension of the funnel plot can help to facilitate an intuitive interpretation of the mathematics underlying a meta-analysis at a more fundamental level, by equating it to determining the center of mass of a physical system. We used this analogy to explain the concepts of weighing evidence and of biased evidence to a young audience at the Cambridge Science Festival, without recourse to precise definitions or statistical formulas and with a little help from Sherlock Holmes! Following on from the science fair, we have developed an interactive web-application (named the Meta-Analyser) to bring these ideas to a wider audience. We envisage that our application will be a useful tool for researchers when interpreting their data. First, to facilitate a simple understanding of fixed and random effects modeling approaches; second, to assess the importance of outliers; and third, to show the impact of adjusting for small study bias. This final aim is realized by introducing a novel graphical interpretation of the well-known method of Egger regression.

  16. The Impact of Regular Self-weighing on Weight Management: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welsh Ericka M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular self-weighing has been a focus of attention recently in the obesity literature. It has received conflicting endorsement in that some researchers and practitioners recommend it as a key behavioral strategy for weight management, while others caution against its use due to its potential to cause negative psychological consequences associated with weight management failure. The evidence on frequent self-weighing, however, has not yet been synthesized. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the evidence regarding the use of regular self-weighing for both weight loss and weight maintenance. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted using the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO online databases. Reviewed studies were broken down by sample characteristics, predictors/conditions, dependent measures, findings, and evidence grade. Results Twelve studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria, but nearly half received low evidence grades in terms of methodological quality. Findings from 11 of the 12 reviewed studies indicated that more frequent self-weighing was associated with greater weight loss or weight gain prevention. Specifically, individuals who reported self-weighing weekly or daily, typically over a period of several months, held a 1 to 3 kg/m2 (current advantage over individuals who did not self-weigh frequently. The effects of self-weighing in experimental studies, especially those where self-weighing behaviors could be isolated, were less clear. Conclusion Based on the consistency of the evidence reviewed, frequent self-weighing, at the very least, seems to be a good predictor of moderate weight loss, less weight regain, or the avoidance of initial weight gain in adults. More targeted research is needed in this area to determine the causal role of frequent self-weighing in weight loss/weight gain prevention programs. Other open questions to be pursued include the optimal dose of self-weighing, as well as the

  17. 40 CFR 1065.190 - PM-stabilization and weighing environments for gravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... environments for gravimetric analysis. 1065.190 Section 1065.190 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... § 1065.190 PM-stabilization and weighing environments for gravimetric analysis. (a) This section describes the two environments required to stabilize and weigh PM for gravimetric analysis: the...

  18. MR diffusion-weighed imaging of rabbit liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Hong Yuan; En-Hua Xiao; Zhong He; Jun Xiang; Ke-Li Tang; Rong-Hua Yan; Ke Jin; Zi-Wen Peng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the techniques of MR diffusion-weighed imaging (DWI) for normal rabbit liver.METHODS: After 15 normal New Zealand white rabbits and one New Zealand white rabbit implanted with VX-2 tumor were anesthetized with 3% soluble pentobarbitone,DWI was performed respectively for different b values,repetition times (TR) or thicknesses, when other parameters were the same and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)was performed respectively, or with different field of views (FOV) or coil when other parameters were the same. The distinction between groups was analyzed by SPSS10.0 with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), quality index (QI) or signal-noise ratio (SNR).RESULTS: As b value increased, liver ADC, QI and SNR of DWI became smaller and simultaneously (F= 292.87,156.1, 88.23, P<0.01). QI of DWI was high, when bvalue was 10, 50 or 100 respectively, but the distinction between them was insignificant; when b value was 800, QI and SNR of DWI were low. QI and SNR of DWI had no significant difference between TR = 4 000, 6 000 and 8 000. QI of DWI with 2 mm thickness was bigger than that with 5 mm thickness (t = 3.04, P<0.01), but SNR of DWI with 2 mm thickness was significantly smaller (t = -17.86, P<0.01).SNR of MRI with knee joint coil was obviously bigger than that with cranium coil [t = -5.77 (T1WI) or -4.02 (T2WI),P<0.01], but QI of MRI was smaller on the contrary [t = 7.10 (T1WI) or 3.97 (T2WI), P<0.01]. When FOV was enlarged gradually, SNR of MRI increased [F= 85.81 (T1WI) or 221.96 (T2WI), P<0.01], but QI firstly increased, then decreased [F= 68.67 (T1WI) or 69.46 (T2WI), P<0.01] and QI of MRI was the biggest when FOV was 20 cm×15 cm.CONCLUSION: The scanning technique is very important in DWI of rabbit liver and the overall quality of DWI with b (100 s/mm2), thickness (2 mm), cranium coils and FOV (20 cm× 15 cm) was best in our study, when other parameters were the same.

  19. Retinopathy of prematurity in babies weighing <1800 g; with special reference to babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g: An experience from a tertiary care hospital in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kapoor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease related to low birth weight, prematurity, oxygen administration, and various other factors, which are yet to be identified. Aims: The aim was to find incidence of ROP and risk factors for causation in babies weighing <1800 g; and in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Design: Prospective study. Materials and Methods: Neonates weighing ≤1800 g taking birth in our institution from January 2011 to January 2012 for a span of 1 year; were included in the study. The data were analyzed to determine risk factors for ROP causation. Information was collected using the standardized performa which included the maternal risk factors as well. Infants were classified by ophthalmologic examination findings using ICROP revisited. Statistics: Qualitative data were analyzed using Pearson's Chi-square test with Yates correction or Fisher's exact test and possible risk factors were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 278 subjects was included in the study. Incidence of ROP in babies ≤1800 g was found to be 13.67% (38/278. Incidence of ROP in babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g was 11.64% (17/146. Twenty-one risk factors were significant on univariate analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and 18 risk factors in the babies weighing between 1501 and 1800 g. Multiple gestations (P < 0.01, blood transfusion (P < 0.01, antepartum hemorrhage (P < 0.01, pregnancy-induced hypertension (P < 0.01, mechanical ventilation (MV (P < 0.01, and APGAR at 1 min (P < 0.01 were found to be independently significant for ROP causation on logistic regression analysis in babies weighing ≤1800 g and MV (P < 0.01 and resuscitation (P < 0.01 were significant for babies weighing 1501-1800 g. Conclusion: It should be considered to incorporate screening of babies ≤1800 g uniformly in developing nations. It is recommended that further studies be done taking representative

  20. Density Measurement System for Weights of 1 kg to 20 kg Using Hydrostatic Weighing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jae; Lee, Woo Gab; Abdurahman, Mohammed; Kim, Kwang Pyo

    This paper presents a density measurement system to determine density of weights from 1 kg to 20 kg using hydrostatic weighing. The system works based on Archimedes principle. The density of reference liquid is determined using this setup while determining the density of the test weight. Density sphere is used as standard density ball to determine density of the reference liquid. A new immersion pan is designed for dual purpose to carry the density sphere and the cylindrical test weight for weighing in liquid. Main parts of the setup are an electronic balance, a thermostat controlled liquid bath, reference weights designed for bottom weighing, dual purpose immersion pans and stepping motors to load and unload in weighing process. The results of density measurement will be evaluated as uncertainties for weights of 1 kg to 20 kg.

  1. Probability Model of Hangzhou Bay Bridge Vehicle Loads Using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Dezhang; Wang, Xu; Chen, Bin; Sun, Baitao

    2015-01-01

    ... of weigh-in-motion data from the site. The results showed that when all the vehicle samples were included in the statistical analysis, the histogram of the vehicles exhibited a multimodal distribution, which could not be fitted...

  2. 9 CFR 201.49 - Requirements regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. 201.49 Section 201.49 Animals and Animal Products... regarding scale tickets evidencing weighing of livestock, live poultry, and feed. (a) Livestock. When... the weigher. (b) Poultry. When live poultry is weighed for the purpose of purchase, sale,...

  3. Self-weighing behaviors in young adults: tipping the scale toward unhealthy eating behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Larson, Nicole; Eisenberg, Marla E; Hannan, Peter J; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-11-01

    This study examined associations between frequency of self-weighing and healthy weight-control behaviors (WCBs), unhealthy WCBs, muscle-enhancing behaviors (e.g., steroid use, protein powders), and psychological well-being (i.e., self-esteem, depression, body satisfaction) in a community sample of young adults. Data were drawn from Project EAT-III (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults), the third wave of a population-based study. Participants included young adults (n = 2,287, mean age = 25.3 years) from the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area. Self-weighing a few times per week or more frequently was reported by 18% of young adult women and 12% of young adult men. Linear regression models, adjusted for body mass index and demographic characteristics, indicated that in both women and men, more frequent self-weighing was associated with a higher prevalence of dieting, both healthy and unhealthy WCBs, and muscle-enhancing behaviors. Additionally, young women who reported more frequent self-weighing were more likely to report binge eating. More frequent self-weighing was also associated with more depressive symptoms and lower self-esteem in women and lower body satisfaction in young men. More frequent self-weighing is associated with healthy and unhealthy weight-control practices, muscle-enhancing behaviors, and poorer psychological well-being in young adults. Young adults engaging in self-weighing behaviors should be screened for these health indicators and counseled as appropriate. Before recommending self-weighing as a weight-monitoring tool, health care providers should ensure that young adults are not at risk for an unhealthy preoccupation with body weight or shape. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  5. Lessons learned from the implementation of remote control for the interoperability standard ISO/IEEE11073-20601 in a standard weighing scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrón-González, Héctor Gilberto; Martínez-Espronceda, Miguel; Trigo, Jesús Daniel; Led, Santiago; Serrano, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The Point of Care (PoC) version of the interoperability standard ISO/IEEE11073 (X73) provided a mechanism to control remotely agents through documents X73-10201 and X73-20301. The newer version of X73 oriented to Personal Health Devices (PHD) has no mechanisms to do such a thing. The authors are working toward a common proposal with the PHD Working Group (PHD-WG) in order to adapt the remote control capabilities from X73PoC to X73PHD. However, this theoretical adaptation has to be implemented and tested to evaluate whether or not its inclusion entails an acceptable overhead and extra cost. Such proof-of-concept assessment is the main objective of this paper. For the sake of simplicity, a weighing scale with a configurable operation was chosen as use case. First, in a previous stage of the research - the model was defined. Second, the implementation methodology - both in terms of hardware and software - was defined and executed. Third, an evaluation methodology to test the remote control features was defined. Then, a thorough comparison between a weighing scale with and without remote control was performed. The results obtained indicate that, when implementing remote control in a weighing scale, the relative weight of such feature represents an overhead of as much as 53%, whereas the number of Implementation Conformance Statements (ICSs) to be satisfied by the manufacturer represent as much as 34% regarding the implementation without remote control. The new feature facilitates remote control of PHDs but, at the same time, increases overhead and costs, and, therefore, manufacturers need to weigh this trade-off. As a conclusion, this proof-of-concept helps in fostering the evolution of the remote control proposal to extend X73PHD and promotes its inclusion as part of the standard, as well as it illustrates the methodological steps for its extrapolation to other specializations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Are breaks in daily self-weighing associated with weight gain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina E Helander

    Full Text Available Regular self-weighing is linked to successful weight loss and maintenance. However, an individual's self-weighing frequency typically varies over time. This study examined temporal associations between time differences of consecutive weight measurements and the corresponding weight changes by analysing longitudinal self-weighing data, including 2,838 weight observations from 40 individuals attending a health-promoting programme. The relationship between temporal weighing frequency and corresponding weight change was studied primarily using a linear mixed effects model. Weight change between consecutive weight measurements was associated with the corresponding time difference (β = 0.021% per day, p<0.001. Weight loss took place during periods of daily self-weighing, whereas breaks longer than one month posed a risk of weight gain. The findings emphasize that missing data in weight management studies with a weight-monitoring component may be associated with non-adherence to the weight loss programme and an early sign of weight gain.

  7. Design of a Capacitive Flexible Weighing Sensor for Vehicle WIM System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Li

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available With the development of the Highway Transportation and Business Trade, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM technology has become a key technology and trend of measuring traffic loads. In this paper, a novel capacitive flexible weighing sensor which is light weight, smaller volume and easy to carry was applied in the vehicle WIM system. The dynamic behavior of the sensor is modeled using the Maxwell-Kelvin model because the materials of the sensor are rubbers which belong to viscoelasticity. A signal processing method based on the model is presented to overcome effects of rubber mechanical properties on the dynamic weight signal. The results showed that the measurement error is less than ���±10%. All the theoretic analysis and numerical results demonstrated that appliance of this system to weigh in motion is feasible and convenient for traffic inspection.

  8. Potential Utilization of Automatic Cows Weighing for Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Condition of Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight of cows affects a large number of factors. Regular weighing and data processing can detect differences that may indicate disorders requiring nursing interventions, e.g. nutritional deficiencies, incorrect fetal development and health problems. The current weighing systems operate as stationary - the animal is fixed, identified and weighed. However, the procedure is time consuming and operation, and that is way this system is used minimally. That implies the need of complete automation of all activities associated with the weighing, which enables introduction of pass – through weight. The aim of this thesis was to develop a methodology for evaluating health and nutritional status of the herd based on data from an automated system for weighing a live weight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtain weight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already drying off, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes were established after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifested only ketosis in the weight curve with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. Additionally, the completion of growth during the first 2 periodes of lactations and weight gain due to advanced pregnancy were confirmed. The maximum daily weight difference recorded in healthy animals was 7 %, equivalent to 40 - 45 kg. The results of the study will be applied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding, monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  9. Results of a portable fiber-optic weigh-in-motion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, J.D.; Jordan, J.K.; Scudiere, M.B.; Tobin, K.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental results on a portable, low speed fiber-optic weigh-in motion system are described that demonstrate the applicability of fiber-optic-based sensors in transportation, defense, and law enforcement applications where accurate weight determination of moving vehicles is necessary. Results are given on the systems' dynamic range (0.1--30 metric tons), velocity range (up to 5 km/h), accuracy error (0.5--3.0%), and repeatability. Also included in the paper is a discussion of the sources of error associated with low-speed weigh-in-motion systems and methods of minimizing these errors for practical deployment.

  10. Results of a portable fiber optic weigh-in-motion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Jordan, John K.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Tobin, Kenneth W., Jr.

    1991-12-01

    Experimental results on a portable, low-speed fiber-optic weigh-in-motion system are described that demonstrate the applicability of fiber-optic-based sensors in transportation, defense, and law enforcement applications where accurate weight determination of moving vehicles is necessary. Results are given on the systems' dynamic range (0.1 - 30 metric tons), velocity range (up to 5 km/h), accuracy error (0.5 - 3.0%), and repeatability. Also included in the paper is a discussion of the sources of error associated with low speed weigh-in-motion systems and methods of minimizing these errors for practical deployment.

  11. Results of a portable fiber-optic weigh-in-motion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, J.D.; Jordan, J.K.; Scudiere, M.B.; Tobin, K.W. Jr.

    1991-12-31

    Experimental results on a portable, low speed fiber-optic weigh-in motion system are described that demonstrate the applicability of fiber-optic-based sensors in transportation, defense, and law enforcement applications where accurate weight determination of moving vehicles is necessary. Results are given on the systems` dynamic range (0.1--30 metric tons), velocity range (up to 5 km/h), accuracy error (0.5--3.0%), and repeatability. Also included in the paper is a discussion of the sources of error associated with low-speed weigh-in-motion systems and methods of minimizing these errors for practical deployment.

  12. A bridge-style fiber-optic weigh-in-motion sensor for military vehicle monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wei, Zhanxiong; Chen, Bingquan; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2005-05-01

    This paper introduces a novel design of "bridge style" fiber-optic weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensor using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technology. Compared with other designs of fiber-optic WIM sensors, the bridge-style design is reliable, sensitive and can bear more loads. With these advantages, the bridge-style WIM sensor is specifically suitable for heavy vehicle dynamic weighing, especially for military vehicles, cargos and equipments. Experiment is conducted and the results show good repeatability and sensitivity under large loads. The minimum achieved resolvable weight is 7.1 kilograms. Finally, WIM sensor on-site installation method is suggested.

  13. 9 CFR 201.82 - Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Care and promptness in weighing and handling livestock and live poultry. 201.82 Section 201.82 Animals and Animal Products GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS ADMINISTRATION (PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS PROGRAMS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS UNDER THE PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS AC...

  14. Chronic hemodialysis in children weighing less than 10 kg.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quinlan, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    Hemodialysis (HD) in infants is usually used when peritoneal dialysis (PD) has failed. We describe our experience with HD, outlining the morbidity, complications, and outcomes for infants weighing less than 10 kg managed with HD for more than 6 months over a 10-year period.

  15. Early Development of the Low SES Infant Weighing Less Than 1001 Grams at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finello, Karen M.; And Others

    To evaluate outcomes in infants of very low birth weight born in 1982-83 to families of extremely low socioeconomic status (SES), 33 infants who weighed less than 1001 grams at birth and survived the nursery period were followed for 1 year. The sample was 79 percent Hispanic and 58 percent female. Mean birth weight was 868 grams and mean…

  16. 75 FR 76254 - Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration 7 CFR Part 802 RIN 0580-AB19 Official Performance and Procedural Requirements for Grain Weighing Equipment and Related Grain Handling Systems AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  17. 7 CFR 800.17 - Special inspection and weighing requirements for sacked export grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sacked export grain. 800.17 Section 800.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) GRAIN INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE... Requirements § 800.17 Special inspection and weighing requirements for sacked export grain. (a) General...

  18. Analysis of Crown Block Weighing System%天车称重系统解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钰捷

    2012-01-01

    The hardware architecture, working principle, transmission mode, instrument fimction, weighing sensor princi- ple, wire rope supplement and correction, signal transmission,weighing instruments of crown block weighing system are intro- duced using the example of 240t crown block weighing system of steel making and rolling plant of Hebei Tangshan Iron & Steel Co., LTD. Combing with practical operation in production, the common problems in maintenance are summarized and the solutions are given.%以河北钢铁集团唐山钢铁有限责任公司一钢轧厂240t天车称重系统为例,介绍天车称重系统的硬件结构、工作原理、传输方式、仪表功能、称重传感器原理、钢丝绳补偿、信号传输、称重仪表等,结合在生产中的实际运行状况,总结出在生产维护中的常见问题,并提出具体的解决方法。

  19. Hybrid bayesian networks for traffic load models from weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Nápoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge engineering, in infrastructure monitoring and assessment and inspection and reinforcement strategies. In the Netherlands and some other countries, the video-WIM system was implemented for pre-selection, and

  20. 78 FR 2627 - Fees for Official Inspection and Official Weighing Services Under the United States Grain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... ``Vomitoxin Qualitative'' and ``Vomitoxin Quantitative'' fees with one fee, ``All other Mycotoxins,'' in order... replace the ``Vomitoxin Qualitative'' and ``Vomitoxin Quantitative'' fees with one fee, ``All other... Services, including a comparison of the costs and revenues associated with official inspection and weighing...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.390 - PM balance verifications and weighing process verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... Successive mass determinations of each reference PM sample media (e.g., filter) must return the same value... individual test media (e.g., filter) mass readings occurring between the successive reference media (e.g., filter) mass determinations. You may reweigh these media (e.g., filter) in another weighing session. If...

  2. In situ sensors, weighing lysimeters and COSMOS under vegetated and bare conditions with subsurface drip irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long term weighing lysimeter records may have utility for assessment of climate changes occurring during the period of record. They typically enclose a depth of soil that exceeds the root zone of vegetation normally grown on them and have drainagy systems so that more or less natural hydrologic flux...

  3. POS intelligent electronic weighing system%POS智能电子秤量系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方芳

    2015-01-01

    Articleabstract:This paper introduces the POS intelligent electronic weighing system, which greatly satisfy the needs of customers of all walks of life.%本文介绍了POS智能电子秤量系统,其极大地满足了各行各业客户的需求。

  4. Hybrid bayesian networks for traffic load models from weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Nápoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge engineering, in infrastructure monitoring and assessment and inspection and reinforcement strategies. In the Netherlands and some other countries, the video-WIM system was implemented for pre-selection, and

  5. Self-weighing and weight control behaviors among adolescents with a history of overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Mary E; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary; Boutelle, Kerri N

    2009-05-01

    To assess the relationships between self-weighing frequency, weight control behaviors, and weight status among male and female adolescents who have a history of being overweight. This study compared weight control behaviors between two groups of adolescents with a history of being overweight (body mass index [BMI] >85th percentile): those who weighed themselves weekly or more (frequent self-weighers) and those who weighed themselves monthly or less (infrequent self-weighers). Participants completed a survey on weight control behaviors, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary activity. Height and weight were also measured. Logistic regression analyses were used for categorical outcomes and linear regressions for continuous outcomes. Of the 130 adolescents, 43% were frequent weighers and 57% were infrequent weighers. In comparison to infrequent self-weighers, frequent self-weighers were more likely to report using behavior change strategies, following a structured diet, and engaging in healthy weight control behaviors, especially decreasing caloric intake, high fat food intake, and "junk food" intake. Also, more frequent self-weighers reported engaging in more strenuous physical activity and spending less time playing videogames than infrequent self-weighers. Although not significant, a trend resulted indicating lower average BMI percentile among frequent self-weighers. No significant differences were found between the two groups in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These results suggest that adolescents with a history of overweight who self-weigh at least weekly are more likely to report using healthy weight control behaviors than adolescents who self-weigh monthly or less frequently. Self-monitoring of weight may be a useful component of a comprehensive weight management plan for some overweight adolescents.

  6. EFFECTS OF WRIST WEIGHING IN REDUCING UPPER LIMB TREMORS IN PATIENTS WITH CEREBELLAR LESIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Priya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: An intentional tremor is one of the most untreated causes in patients with cerebellar ataxia. Upper limb tremors decreases the performance of many activities of daily life Thus treatment of patients with tremor probably implies better functional ability. It is one of the major areas of concern to improve functional independence hence, this study proposed to know the effects of wrist weighing in reducing upper limb tremors in cerebellar injury patients. Materials and Methods: A total number of 21 patients with various abnormalities of cerebellum were selected depending on selection criteria. These patients were randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with wrist weighing by using Velcro weight cuffs for 15 minutes along with conventional physiotherapy for 5 days a week for 2 months & other group is treated with conventional physiotherapy for 5 days in a week for 2 months. The objectives were tested by using tremor rating scale and nine hole peg test. The values are collected before and after the treatment Results: In the group treated with wrist weighing the improvement in the tremor rating scale is very significant (p: 0.0001 and in nine hole peg test is extremely significant (p: 0.0001. In conventional therapy group the improvement in the tremor rating scale is not significant (p: 0.0051 and in nine hole peg test is very significant (p: 0.0002. Conclusion: Incorporation of wrist weighing along with conventional therapy reduced the intensity of upper limb tremors in patients with cerebellar injuries but both the treatments are effective in improving upper limb functions. KEY WORDS: Intentional tremor, Rehabilitation, Wrist weighing

  7. Weighing Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.

    2005-01-01

    This article talks about the Academy of the Sierras, a new private school which is billed as the US' first weight-loss school for obese teenagers. Students must be at least 30 pounds overweight for two years to attend this yearlong boarding school, which offers mandatory exercise, behavioral therapy, college-prep classes, and a healthy food…

  8. Weighing waiting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel M. Duncan

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available People have been shown to delay decision making to wait for missing noninstrumental attribute information --- information that would not have altered their decision if known at the outset --- with this delay originally attributed to uncertainty obscuring one's true preference (Bastardi and Shafir, 1998. To test this account, relative to an alternative that delay arises from low confidence in one's preference (Tykocinski and Ruffle, 2003, we manipulated information certainty and the magnitude of a penalty for delay, the latter intended to reduce the influence of easily resolved sources of delay and to magnify any influence of uncertainty. Contrary to expectations, the results were largely inconsistent with the uncertainty account in that, under a low penalty, delay did not depend on information certainty; and, under a high penalty, delay rate was actually much lower when information was uncertain. To explain the latter, we propose that people use a strategy for resolving choice under uncertainty that does not require establishing a confident preference for each value of the missing information. These findings are related to others in which choice difficulty has been found to be a major source of delay.

  9. Weighing Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William J.; Jimerson, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    The Umbridge School District's hot lunch program was hemorrhaging red ink. Each year, the school district poured more money down the sinkhole. At the same time, parents complained about the quality of the school lunches. The food services director always had excuses and nothing really changed. When no headway was evident, the superintendent said…

  10. Weighing Outsourcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathis, William J.; Jimerson, Lorna

    2009-01-01

    The Umbridge School District's hot lunch program was hemorrhaging red ink. Each year, the school district poured more money down the sinkhole. At the same time, parents complained about the quality of the school lunches. The food services director always had excuses and nothing really changed. When no headway was evident, the superintendent said…

  11. Sampling optimization for high-speed weigh-in-motion measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Huang, Ying; Bridgelall, Raj; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert

    2015-06-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) measurement has been widely used for weight enforcement, pavement design, freight management, and intelligent transportation systems to monitor traffic in real-time. However, to use such sensors effectively, vehicles must exit the traffic stream and slow down to match their current capabilities. Hence, agencies need devices with higher vehicle passing speed capabilities to enable continuous weight measurements at mainline speeds. The current practices for data acquisition at such high speeds are fragmented. Deployment configurations and settings depend mainly on the experiences of operation engineers. To assure adequate data, most practitioners use very high frequency measurements that result in redundant samples, thereby diminishing the potential for real-time processing. The larger data memory requirements from higher sample rates also increase storage and processing costs. The field lacks a sampling design or standard to guide appropriate data acquisition of high-speed WIM measurements. This study develops the appropriate sample rate requirements as a function of the vehicle speed. Simulations and field experiments validate the methods developed. The results will serve as guidelines for future high-speed WIM measurements using in-pavement strain-based sensors.

  12. Insertion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Bahrdt, J

    2006-01-01

    The interaction of an insertion device with the electron beam in a storage ring is discussed. The radiation property including brightness, ux and polarization of an ideal and real planar and helical / elliptical device is described. The magnet design of planar, helical, quasiperiodic devices and of devices with a reduced on axis power density are resumed.

  13. 滑槽式动态称量方法试验研究%ExPerimental StudY of DYnamiC Weighing method of Chute TYPe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易彪; 郝建军

    2015-01-01

    在固体散料称量所使用的秤体中,电子皮带秤的皮带容易磨损、跑偏、打滑,且溜槽式冲量秤在测量精度上很大程度依赖传感器的精度。针对以上问题,提出了一种新的滑槽式动态称量方法和装置,并进行了试验。结果表明:在满足称量的条件下,该方法和装置可以有效解决皮带秤的皮带磨损等问题和溜槽式冲量秤过分依靠高精度传感器的问题。%In the current used scales in the solid powder weighing,the existing electronic belt scale’s belt is easy to wear,be off tracking and skid and the chute type impulse scales depends a great extent on sensors in the measurement accuracy. To solve these problems,this paper put forward a new chute type dynamic weighing method and the device and tested it. The results show that the problem of belt wear and the problem that the chute type impulse scales depends a great extent on sensors in the meas-urement accuracy can be avoided,and also it can achieve the purpose of weighing at the same time.

  14. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorite, I. J.; Santos, C.; Testi, L.; Fereres, E.

    2012-11-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm “Alameda del Obispo” in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ETc). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of the construction of the weighing lysimeter is provided in detail, including considerations relative to system resolution and wind effects on the measurements. Finally, some preliminary results of the evaporation and transpiration of young almond trees are presented demonstrating that lysimetry in orchards provides accurate ETc values needed to determine irrigation water requirements. (Author) 72 refs.

  15. A novel weighed cooperative bandwidth spectrum sensing for spectrum occupancy of cognitive radio network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鑫; 陈琨奇; 闫钧华

    2016-01-01

    In cognitive radio network (CRN), a secondary user (SU) may utilize the spectrum resource of the primary user (PU) and avoid causing harmful interference to the primary network (PN) via spectrum sensing. In the traditional time spectrum sensing, the SU cannot detect the PU’s presence during its transmission, thus increasing interference to the PN. In this work, a novel weighed cooperative bandwidth spectrum sensing method is proposed, which allows multiple SUs to use part of the bandwidth to perform cooperative spectrum sensing throughout the whole frame in order to detect the PU’s reappearance in time. The SU’s spectrum efficiency is maximized by jointly optimizing sensing bandwidth proportion, number of cooperative SUs and detection probability, subject to the constraints on the SU’s interference and the false alarm probability. Simulation results show significant decrease on the interference and improvement on the spectrum efficiency using the proposed weighed cooperative bandwidth spectrum sensing method.

  16. Hospital-based home health: weighing finances and philosophy of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkony, Lisa

    2010-02-01

    As we begin a new decade, hospital-based home health agencies have been waning over the last one, and for a number of reasons. An examination of hospital-based home health since its beginnings in this country yields some answers, but also reveals the importance of many of these home health programs in the communities they serve. There are often more components to consider when weighing the value of these programs than financial statements alone can illuminate.

  17. A Weighing Algorithm for Checking Missing Components in a Pharmaceutical Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Silvestri

    2014-11-01

    image. The goal of the present work is the development of an algorithm able to optimize the production line of a pharmaceutical firm. In particular, the proposed weighing procedure allows both checking missing components in packaging and minimizing false rejects of packages by dynamic scales. The main problem is the presence at the same time, in the same package, of different components with different variable weights. The consequence is uncertainty in recognizing the absence of one or more components.

  18. The Department of Defense and the Power of Cloud Computing: Weighing Acceptable Cost Versus Acceptable Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    commercial only,” “private only,” and “hybrid” models, the strengths and weakness of each will be shown. Finally, a series of recommendations will...importantly, it should not be done at the individual program level as is the current practice. The migration should take place if it is more cost -effective...Computing Weighing Acceptable Cost versus Acceptable Risk Steven C. Dudash Major, Ohio Air National Guard Wright Flyer Paper No. 52 Air University

  19. Comparison of Two Independently Developed Bridge Weigh-In-Motion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Eugene J.; Znidaric, Ales; Dempsey, Anthony T.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment in which 2 independently developed bridge weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems are tested and compared, both for accuracy and durability. The systems, an Irish prototype still under development and a commercially available American system, were tested on a bridge in Slovenia. 11 statically pre-weighted trucks were each driven over the bridge several times at a range of typical highway speeds. Accuracies for axle and gross vehicle weights are presented within the fr...

  20. Healthy Weigh (El camino saludable) phase 1: a retrospective critical examination of program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frable, Pamela Jean; Dart, Lyn; Bradley, Patricia J

    2006-07-01

    Healthy Weigh (El camino saludable) is an obesity prevention program for low-income, predominantly Hispanic and African American families in an urban community in Tarrant County, Texas. Healthy Weigh Phase 1 was a successful community-campus partnership that took place in summer (June-August) and fall (September-November) 2003. The program met stated objectives and extensively engaged students from several health disciplines in service learning. This article describes what we learned about the evaluation of the program by examining the phase 1 evaluation process. Family environments are important intervention settings for establishing life-long dietary practices. Available in English and Spanish, Healthy Weigh Phase 1 helped families that were at risk for overweight and obesity to adopt healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management patterns. Analysis of a program logic model and formative evaluation data identified evaluation questions that could have improved the phase 1 evaluation process. Questions were categorized according to Donabedian's structure-process-outcome framework, and potential benefits of each question were identified. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health standards were used to judge the overall quality of the phase 1 evaluation process. The phase 1 evaluation process successfully assessed the program's effects and generally met evaluation standards. Our critical examination also highlighted structure and process evaluation issues with potential for strengthening future interventions, community partnerships, and program outcomes. Lessons learned influenced the phase 2 grant activities. Most importantly, we learned that involvement of program participants as full partners in program design, evaluation, and implementation is essential. Our understanding and practice of program evaluation evolved as Healthy Weigh became a true community-based participatory research endeavor.

  1. Design and construction of a large weighing lysimeter in an almond orchard

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Effective water management is essential to ensure the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. The accurate determination of crop water requirements is the first step in this task. This paper describes the building of a one-tree weighing lysimeter (3 × 3 m and 2.15 m depth) located in an almond (Prunus dulcis cv. Guara) orchard, inside the experimental farm "Alameda del Obispo" in Córdoba, Spain, to measure orchard evapotranspiration (ET c). Following a review on lysimetry, the description of...

  2. Weighing Efficiency-Robustness in Supply Chain Disruption by Multi-Objective Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Shu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates various supply chain disruptions in terms of scenario planning, including node disruption and chain disruption; namely, disruptions in distribution centers and disruptions between manufacturing centers and distribution centers. Meanwhile, it also focuses on the simultaneous disruption on one node or a number of nodes, simultaneous disruption in one chain or a number of chains and the corresponding mathematical models and exemplification in relation to numerous manufacturing centers and diverse products. Robustness of the design of the supply chain network is examined by weighing efficiency against robustness during supply chain disruptions. Efficiency is represented by operating cost; robustness is indicated by the expected disruption cost and the weighing issue is calculated by the multi-objective firefly algorithm for consistency in the results. It has been shown that the total cost achieved by the optimal target function is lower than that at the most effective time of supply chains. In other words, the decrease of expected disruption cost by improving robustness in supply chains is greater than the increase of operating cost by reducing efficiency, thus leading to cost advantage. Consequently, by approximating the Pareto Front Chart of weighing between efficiency and robustness, enterprises can choose appropriate efficiency and robustness for their longer-term development.

  3. Weighing in motion and characterization of the railroad traffic with using the B-WIM technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. DE CARVALHO NETO

    Full Text Available AbstractThe knowledge on the active moving load of a bridge is crucial for the achievement of the information on the behavior of the structure, and thus foresee maintenance, repairs and better definition of the logistics of its active vehicles. This paper presents the development of the algorithms for the application of the Bridge-Weigh In Motion (B-WIM method created by Moses for the weighing of trains during motion and also for the characterization of the rail traffic, allowing the obtainment of information like passage's train velocity and number and spacing of axles, eliminating the dynamic effect. There were implemented algorithms for the determination of the data referring to the geometry of the train and its loads, which were evaluated using a theoretical example, in which it was simulated the passage of the train over a bridge and the loads of its axles were determined with one hundred percent of precision. In addition, it was made a numerical example in finite elements of a reinforced concrete viaduct from the Carajás' Railroad, in which the developed system reached great results on the characterization and weighing of the locomotive when the constitutive equation of the Brazilian Standards was substituted by the one proposed by Collins and Mitchell.

  4. Accurate and portable weigh-in-motion system for manifesting air cargo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nodine, Robert N.; Scudiere, Matthew B.; Jordan, John K.

    1995-12-01

    An automated and portable weigh-in-motion system has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the purpose of manifesting cargo onto aircraft. The system has an accuracy range of plus or minus 3.0% to plus or minus 6.0% measuring gross vehicle weight and locating the center of balance of moving vehicles at speeds of 1 to 5 mph. This paper reviews the control/user interface system and weight determination algorithm developed to acquire, process, and interpret multiple sensor inputs. The development effort resulted in a self- zeroing, user-friendly system capable of weighing a wide range of vehicles in any random order. The control system is based on the STANDARD (STD) bus and incorporates custom- designed data acquisition and sensor fusion hardware controlled by a personal computer (PC) based single-board computer. The user interface is written in the 'C' language to display number of axles, axle weight, axle spacing, gross weight, and center of balance. The weighing algorithm developed functions with any linear weight sensor and a set of four axle switches per sensor.

  5. Accurate and portable weigh-in-motion system for manifesting air cargo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nodine, R.N.; Scudiere, M.B.; Jordan, J.K.

    1995-12-01

    An automated and portable weigh-in-motion system has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the purpose of manifesting cargo onto aircraft. The system has an accuracv range of {plus_minus} 3.0% to {plus_minus} 6.0% measuring gross vehicle weight and locating the center of balance of moving vehicles at speeds of 1 to 5 mph. This paper reviews the control/user interface system and weight determination algorithm developed to acquire, process, and interpret multiple sensor inputs. The development effort resulted in a self-zeroing, user-friendly system capable of weighing a wide range of vehicles in any random order. The control system is based on the STANDARD (STD) bus and incorporates custom-designed data acquisition and sensor fusion hardware controlled by a personal computer (PC) based single-board computer. The user interface is written in the ``C`` language to display number of axles, axle weight, axle spacing, gross weight, and center of balance. The weighing algorithm developed will function with any linear weight sensor and a set of four axle switches per sensor.

  6. Frequent Self-Weighing and Visual Feedback for Weight Loss in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly R. Pacanowski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Evidence has suggested that self-weighing may be beneficial for weight control in adults, but few studies have independently assessed the contribution of this behavior to weight loss. This study experimentally tested daily self-weighing and visual feedback (the Caloric Titration Method (CTM as a weight loss and weight loss maintenance intervention over 2 years. 162 overweight individuals were randomized to the CTM intervention or delayed treatment control group. In year 1, weight change was compared between groups, and in year 2, the control group started using the CTM while the intervention group continued using the CTM for maintenance. A significant difference in weight loss over the first year (CTM n = 70; 2.6 ± 5.9 kg versus control n = 65; 0.5 ± 4.4 kg, p = 0.019 was qualified by a group × gender × time interaction (p = 0.002 such that men lost more weight using the CTM. In year 2, the CTM group maintained their weight and the control group lost an amount similar to the intervention group in year 1. Daily self-weighing and visual feedback facilitated a minimal amount of weight loss and maintenance of this loss. Future research investigating characteristics of those who benefit from this type of self-directed intervention is warranted.

  7. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qili; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Cui, Maosheng; Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin

    2015-07-01

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10-15 kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections.

  8. Perceived distance and obesity: It's what you weigh, not what you think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugovic, Mila; Turk, Philip; Witt, Jessica K

    2016-03-01

    Action abilities are constrained by physical body size and characteristics, which, according to the action-specific account of perception, should influence perceived space. We examined whether physical body size or beliefs about body size affect distance perception by taking advantage of naturally-occurring dissociations typical in people who are obese but believe themselves to weigh less. Normal weight, overweight, and obese individuals made verbal distance estimates. We also collected measures of beliefs about body size and measures of physical body size. Individuals who weighed more than others estimated distances to be farther. Furthermore, physical body weight influenced perceived distance but beliefs about body size did not. The results illustrate that whereas perception is influenced by physical characteristics, it is not influenced by beliefs. The results also have implications for perception as a contributing factor for lifestyle choices: people who weigh more than others may choose to perform less physically demanding actions not as a result of how they perceive their bodies, but as a result of how they perceive the environment.

  9. A novel cell weighing method based on the minimum immobilization pressure for biological applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qili [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Shirinzadeh, Bijan [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Cui, Maosheng [Biotechnology Lab of Animal Reproduction, Tianjin Animal Sciences, Tianjin 300112 (China); Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin, E-mail: zhaoxin@nankai.edu.cn [Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2015-07-28

    A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10{sup −15 }kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections.

  10. Photovoltaic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Jason A; Keenihan, James R; Gaston, Ryan S; Kauffmann, Keith L; Langmaid, Joseph A; Lopez, Leonardo; Maak, Kevin D; Mills, Michael E; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R

    2017-03-21

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  11. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-06-02

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly and a body portion joined at an interface region and including an intermediate layer, at least one interconnecting structural member, relieving feature, unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  12. Concentration device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    A concentration device (2) for filter filtration concentration of particles (4) from a volume of a fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises a filter (8) configured to filter particles (4) of a predefined size in the volume of the fluid (6). The concentration device (2) comprises...

  13. Photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Jason A.; Keenihan, James R.; Gaston, Ryan S.; Kauffmann, Keith L.; Langmaid, Joseph A.; Lopez, Leonardo C.; Maak, Kevin D.; Mills, Michael E.; Ramesh, Narayan; Teli, Samar R.

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PV device"), more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device (10) with a multilayered photovoltaic cell assembly (100) and a body portion (200) joined at an interface region (410) and including an intermediate layer (500), at least one interconnecting structural member (1500), relieving feature (2500), unique component geometry, or any combination thereof.

  14. Investigation of the effects of air temperature and speed on performance of piezoelectric weigh-in-motion systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaziri, Shahram Hashemi; Haas, Carl T; Rothenburg, Leo; Haas, Ralph C; Jiang, Xiaohua

    2013-01-01

    Weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems differ in terms of sensing technology, sensing element, installation procedure, structural design, and material, which make them respond differently to equivalent loading conditions...

  15. Ground Snow Measurements: Comparisons of the Hotplate, Weighing and Manual Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettlaufer, A.; Snider, J.; Campbell, L. S.; Steenburgh, W. J.; Burkhart, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Yankee Environmental Systems (YES) Hotplate was developed to avoid some of the problems associated with weighing snowfall sensors. This work compares Hotplate, weighing sensor (ETI NOAH-II) and manual measurements of liquid-equivalent depth. The main field site was at low altitude in western New York; Hotplate and ETI comparisons were also made at two forested subalpine sites in southeastern Wyoming. The manual measurement (only conducted at the New York site) was derived by weighing snow cores sampled from a snow board. The two recording gauges (Hotplate and ETI) were located within 5 m of the snow board. Hotplate-derived accumulations were corrected using a wind-speed dependent catch efficiency and the ETI orifice was heated and alter shielded. Three important findings are evident from the comparisons: 1) The Yes-derived accumulations, recorded in a user-accessible file, were compared to accumulations derived using an in-house calibration and fundamental measurements (plate power, long and shortwave radiances, wind speed, and temperature). These accumulations are highly correlated (N=24; r2=0.99), but the YES-derived values are larger by 20%. 2) The in-house Hotplate accumulations are in good agreement with ETI-based accumulations but with larger variability (N=24; r2=0.88). 3) The comparison of in-house Hotplate accumulation versus manual accumulation, expressed as mm of liquid, exhibits a fitted linear relationship Y (in-house) versus X (manual) given by Y = -0.2 (±1.4) + 0.9 (±0.1) · X (N= 20; r2=0.89). Thus, these two methods agree within statistical uncertainty.

  16. Real-time weigh-in-motion measurement using fiber Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Palek, Leonard; Strommen, Robert; Worel, Ben; Chen, Genda

    2014-03-01

    Overloading truck loads have long been one of the key reasons for accelerating road damage, especially in rural regions where the design loads are expected to be small and in the cold regions where the wet-and-dry cycle places a significant role. To control the designed traffic loads and further guide the road design in future, periodical weight stations have been implemented for double check of the truck loads. The weight stations give chances for missing measurement of overloaded vehicles, slow down the traffic, and require additional labors. Infrastructure weight-in-motion sensors, on the other hand, keep consistent traffic flow and monitor all types of vehicles on roads. However, traditional electrical weight-in-motion sensors showed high electromagnetic interference (EMI), high dependence on environmental conditions such as moisture, and relatively short life cycle, which are unreliable for long-term weigh-inmotion measurements. Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors, with unique advantages of compactness, immune to EMI and moisture, capability of quasi-distributed sensing, and long life cycle, will be a perfect candidate for long-term weigh-in-motion measurements. However, the FBG sensors also surfer from their frangible nature of glass materials for a good survive rate during sensor installation. In this study, the FBG based weight-in-motion sensors were packaged by fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) materials and further validated at MnROAD facility, Minnesota DOT (MnDOT). The design and layout of the FRP-FBG weight-in-motion sensors, their field test setup, data acquisition, and data analysis will be presented. Upon validation, the FRP-FBG sensors can be applied weigh-in-motion measurement to assistant road managements.

  17. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations.

  18. Average Weight of Seminal Vesicles: An Adjustment Factor for Radical Prostatectomy Specimens Weighed With Seminal Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjionas, George A; Epstein, Jonathan I; Williamson, Sean R; Diaz, Mireya; Menon, Mani; Peabody, James O; Gupta, Nilesh S; Parekh, Dipen J; Cote, Richard J; Jorda, Merce; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2015-12-01

    The International Society of Urological Pathology in 2010 recommended weighing prostates without seminal vesicles (SV) to include only prostate weight in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density (PSAD) calculation, because SV do not produce PSA. Large retrospective cohorts exist with combined weight recorded that needs to be modified for retrospective analysis. Weights of prostates and SV were separately recorded in 172 consecutive prostatectomies. The average weight of SV and proportion of prostate weight from combined weight were calculated. The adjustment factors were then validated on databases of 2 other institutions. The average weight of bilateral SV was 6.4 g (range = 1-17.3 g). The prostate constituted on average 87% (range = 66% to 98%) of the total specimen weight. There was no correlation between patient age and prostate weight with SV weight. The best performing correction method was to subtract 6.4 g from total radical prostatectomy weight and to use this weight for PSAD calculation. The average weights of retrospective specimens weighed with SV were not significantly different between the 3 institutions. Using our data allowed calibration of the weights and PSAD between the cohorts weighed with and without SV. Thus, prostate weight in specimens including SV weight can be adjusted by subtracting 6.4 g, resulting in significant change of PSAD. Some institution-specific variations may exist, which could further increase the precision of retrospective analysis involving prostate weight and PSAD. However, unless institution-specific adjustment parameters are developed, we recommend that this correction factor be used for retrospective cohorts or in institutions where combined weight is still recorded.

  19. Validation of triple pass 24-hour dietary recall in Ugandan children by simultaneous weighed food assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olupot-Olupot, Peter; Engoru, Charles; Ssenyondo, Tonny; Nteziyaremye, Julius; Amorut, Denis; Nakuya, Margaret; Arimi, Margaret; Frost, Gary; Maitland, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Background Undernutrition remains highly prevalent in African children, highlighting the need for accurately assessing dietary intake. In order to do so, the assessment method must be validated in the target population. A triple pass 24 hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation has been described but not previously validated in African children. This study aimed to establish the relative validity of 24-hour dietary recalls of daily food consumption in healthy African children living in Mbale and Soroti, eastern Uganda compared to simultaneous weighed food records. Methods Quantitative assessment of daily food consumption by weighed food records followed by two independent assessments using triple pass 24-hour dietary recall on the following day. In conjunction with household measures and standard food sizes, volumes of liquid, dry rice, or play dough were used to aid portion size estimation. Inter-assessor agreement, and agreement with weighed food records was conducted primarily by Bland-Altman analysis and secondly by intraclass correlation coefficients and quartile cross-classification. Results 19 healthy children aged 6 months to 12 years were included in the study. Bland-Altman analysis showed 24-hour recall only marginally under-estimated energy (mean difference of 149kJ or 2.8%; limits of agreement -1618 to 1321kJ), protein (2.9g or 9.4%; -12.6 to 6.7g), and iron (0.43mg or 8.3%; -3.1 to 2.3mg). Quartile cross-classification was correct in 79% of cases for energy intake, and 89% for both protein and iron. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the separate dietary recalls for energy was 0.801 (95% CI, 0.429-0.933), indicating acceptable inter-observer agreement. Conclusions Dietary assessment using 24-hour dietary recall with volumetric portion size estimation resulted in similar and acceptable estimates of dietary intake compared with weighed food records and thus is considered a valid method for daily dietary intake assessment of

  20. Fiber optic weigh-in-motion sensor: correlation between modeling and practical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teral, Stephane R.; Larcher, Simon J.; Caussignac, Jean-Marie; Barbachi, Mohamed

    1996-05-01

    This paper shows the way to turn a defect inherent to single-mode fiber, namely birefringence, into a prime quality for a powerful and reliable sensor. The latter is entirely devoted to weigh- in-motion (WIM) applications extended to complete active traffic management systems. After a brief description of the sensor and its principle of operation, the theoretical model is developed. Then, a full characterization made in both static and dynamic conditions is presented. The results obtained illustrate how it is difficult to interpret a weight measured in dynamic conditions and correlate the value with the static weight.

  1. Performance of a weighing rain gauge under laboratory simulated time-varying reference rainfall rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colli, M.; Lanza, L. G.; La Barbera, P.

    2013-09-01

    The available calibration experiences about rain intensity gauges relying on the weighing measuring principle are based on laboratory tests performed under constant reference flow rate conditions. Although the Weighing Gauges (WG) do provide better performance than more traditional Tipping Bucket Rain Gauges (TBR) under constant reference flow rates, dynamic effects do impact on the accuracy of WG measurements under real-world/time-varying rainfall conditions. The most relevant biases are due to the response time of the measurement system and the derived systematic delay in assessing the exact weight of the volume of cumulated precipitation collected in the container. This delay assumes a relevant role in case high resolution rainfall intensity (RI) time series are sought from the instrument, as is the case of many hydrologic and meteo-climatic applications (the one-minute time resolution recommended by the WMO for rainfall intensity measurements is here assumed). A significant sampling error is also attributable to some kind of weighing gauge, which affects the low intensity range as well. A laboratory investigation of the accuracy and precision of a modern weighing gauge manufactured by OTT (Pluvio2) under unsteady-state reference RI conditions is here addressed. Three different laboratory test conditions are applied: single and double step variations of the reference flow rate and a simulated real-world event. The preliminary development and validation of a suitable rainfall simulator for the generation of time-variable reference intensities is presented. The generator is demonstrated to have a sufficiently short time response with respect to the expected instrument behavior in order to ensure effective comparison of the measured vs. reference intensities. The measurements obtained from the WG are compared with those derived from a traditional TBR (manufactured by Casella) under the same laboratory conditions. The TBR measurements have been corrected to account

  2. Nuclear DNA in the determination of weighing factors to estimate exergy from organisms biomass

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    The application of ecological exergy as a suitable system-oriented development indicator of ecosystems and the estimation proposals from biomass are revised. DNA contents (C-values) of several groups of organisms are figured, either determined by flow cytometry or taken from literature. The applicability of DNA contents for determination of weighing factors to estimate ecological exergy from the biomass of organisms, as proposed by [Marques, J.C., M.Â. Pardal, S.N. Neilsen, S.E. Jørgensen, 19...

  3. 论衡器检定工作中的规范化%On Standardization of Calibration of Weighing Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康峰

    2011-01-01

    This paper dissertates the definition of compulsory testing on calibration of weighing machines according to the national regulation, problems and considerations during the prosess of calibration of weighing machines.%本文论述了根据国家检定规程开展衡器检定工作中衡器强检界定,衡器检定中存在的问题及衡器检定中的注意事项。

  4. 新型智能组合秤称重系统%New lntelligent Weighing System with Combination Scales

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春友; 吴晓强

    2015-01-01

    To against the shortcomings of traditional weighing system based on combination scales, e. g. , low weighing accuracy for inhomogeneous materials, and poor timeliness, the new intelligent weighing system with combination scales is proposed. This weighing system is composed of multi-scales combination, high precision weighing sensors and high resolution A/D converter. In addition, the photoelectric detection unit and the vibrating mechanism are designed;the dynamic weighing accuracy for inhomogeneous granules is enhanced greatly, the measurement speed is improved significantly by adopting digital filtering algorithm. The simulation data and tests indicate that the design effectively adapts the weighing process of inhomogeneous materials, and increases the weighing accuracy and timeliness, to satisfy the demands for practical production.%针对传统组合秤称重系统在称重不均匀物料时存在精度较低、时效性较差的问题,提出了一款新型智能组合秤称重系统。该称重系统采用了多秤头组合、高精度的称重传感器以及高分辨率A/D转换器。设计的光电检测单元和振动机构大大提高了动态不均匀颗粒称重的精度;利用快速数字滤波算法,极大改善了测量速度。仿真数据和试验表明,该称重系统的设计有效地适应了不均匀物料的称重过程,有效地提高了称重的精度和时效性,满足生产实际的需要。

  5. Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu-Chong (Inventor); Zheng, Siyang (Inventor); Lin, Jeffrey Chun-Hui (Inventor); Kasdan, Harvey L. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are particular embodiments relating to a microfluidic device that may be utilized for cell sensing, counting, and/or sorting. Particular aspects relate to a microfabricated device that is capable of differentiating single cell types from dense cell populations. One particular embodiment relates a device and methods of using the same for sensing, counting, and/or sorting leukocytes from whole, undiluted blood samples.

  6. Titanium microgram weight low to 50 mg and measurement based on exchange weighing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoping; Dong, Lei; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xiaolei

    2017-03-01

    The microgram weights have wide applications in the mechanical testing of nano- and bio-material sensors. They are increasing the requirement of small force and mass below 1 mg among the researchers, industry and bio-pharmaceutical manufacturing. In this paper, the current research status is presented, both from the measurement method and manufacture of microgram weights. The commonly used material for micro-weights is stainless steel and aluminum. Now NIM has developed another kind of microgram weights with titanium alloy. For the reason that it has smaller size than normal material like aluminum, special designed exchange weighing pan was used in measurement, which solved the problems that the weighing hooks cannot carry up and down the wire shape microgram weight. Then this kind of microgram weights was tested in subdivision measurement on an automatic mass comparator. It showed good performance in the experiment, which extends the choice for the industrial and metrological user. The uncertainty evaluation of micro-weight values range from 0.05 mg to 0.5 mg with standard uncertainty between 0.2 g and 0.1 μg.

  7. Antenatal Weight Management: Women’s Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Swift

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy sought to examine women’s self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+ were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10–27 weeks, with 41.5% (n=80 between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n=83 between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n=97 could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m2 did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m2. The majority of women (regardless of BMI did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  8. Antenatal Weight Management: Women's Experiences, Behaviours, and Expectations of Weighing in Early Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, J A; Pearce, J; Jethwa, P H; Taylor, M A; Avery, A; Ellis, S; Langley-Evans, S C; McMullen, S

    2016-01-01

    The current emphasis on obstetric risk management helps to frame gestational weight gain as problematic and encourages intervention by healthcare professionals. However pregnant women have reported confusion, distrust, and negative effects associated with antenatal weight management interactions. The MAGIC study (MAnaging weiGht In pregnanCy) sought to examine women's self-reported experiences of usual-care antenatal weight management in early pregnancy and consider these alongside weight monitoring behaviours and future expectations. 193 women (18 yrs+) were recruited from routine antenatal clinics at the Nottingham University Hospital NHS Trust. Self-reported gestation was 10-27 weeks, with 41.5% (n = 80) between 12 and 14 and 43.0% (n = 83) between 20 and 22 weeks. At recruitment 50.3% of participants (n = 97) could be classified as overweight or obese. 69.4% of highest weight women (≥30 kg/m(2)) did not report receiving advice about weight, although they were significantly more likely compared to women with BMI < 30 kg/m(2). The majority of women (regardless of BMI) did not express any barriers to being weighed and 40.8% reported weighing themselves at home. Women across the BMI categories expressed a desire for more engagement from healthcare professionals on the issue of bodyweight. Women are clearly not being served appropriately in the current situation which simultaneously problematizes and fails to offer constructive dialogue.

  9. Algorithm for a novel fiber-optic weigh-in-motion sensor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, K.W. Jr.; Muhs, J.D.

    1991-08-01

    Over the past decade, the demand from both government and private industry for small, lightweight, vehicle weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems has grown substantially. During the 1980s several techniques for weighing vehicles in motion were developed that include piezoelectric cables, capacitive mats, and hydraulic and bending-plate load cells. These different systems have advantages and disadvantages that trade off between accuracy, physical size and system complexity. The smaller portable systems demonstrate medium to poor accuracy and repeatability while the larger more accurate systems are nonportable. A small, lightweight, and portable WIM system based on a fiber-optic pressure transducer has been developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to meet the demands of government and industry. The algorithm for extracting vehicle weight from the time-dependent sensor response is developed and presented in this report, along with data collected by the system for several classes of vehicles. These results show that the ORNL fiber-optic WIM system is a viable alternative to other commercial systems that are presently available. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  10. A fiber-optic weigh-in-motion sensor using fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wei, Zhanxiong; Chen, Bingquan; Cui, Hong-Liang

    2005-11-01

    In this weigh-in-motion (WIM) research, we introduce a novel design of WIM system based-on fiber Bragg grating (FBG) technologies. The novel design comes from the idea using in-service bridge as the weigh scale. While vehicles traveling over the bridge, the weights can be recorded by the strain gauges installed on the bridge abutments. In this system, the bridge beam is replaced by a piece of steel plate which supports the weight of the traveling vehicle. Four steel tubes are attached firmly at the corners of the plate serving as the bridge abutments. All weights will be finally transferred into the tubes where four FBGs are attached and can record the weight-induced strains by shifting their Bragg wavelengths. Compared with other designs of fiber-optic WIM systems, this design is easy and reliable. Especially it's suitable for heavy vehicles because of its large capacity, such as military vehicles, trucks and trailers. Over 40-ton load has been applied on the system and the experimental results show a good repeatability and linearity under such a large load. The system resolution has been achieved as low as 10 kg.

  11. Estimated weight on goats with a commercial weighing tape and thoracic perimeter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Chacón-Hernández

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to determine the technical viability of using a weighing tape to measure the pectoral circumference and estimate the body weight of goats. The study took place in the Alfredo Volio Mata Experimental Station in the University of Costa Rica, during the month of February 2015, by measuring the weight with a scale, a calibrated weighing tape and the thoracic diameter of sixty female goats. The data was adjusted through polynomial equations from rst to third degree. The thoracic diameter was used to determine the living weight of the goat population analyzed. Signi cant differences were found (p<0,05 when using the calibrated tape and the scale to determine the weight, with the obtained values of an average of 48,62kg y 39,99kg, respectively. There were differences (p<0,05 in the average of the weight depending on the age with results of 24,40kg in animals less than a year old, 40,39kg for the ages from one to three and 57,25kg for animals older with more than three years of age. The rst degree lineal regression, presented a good adjustment in the thoracic diameter and living weight( r2 = 0,88, with the values of ß0 and ß1 of -50,84 y 1,11, respectively.

  12. The Potential and Beneficial Use of Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Systems Integrated with Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems for Characterizing Disposal of Waste Debris to Optimize the Waste Shipping Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Buckner Jr, Dooley [ORNL; Newton, David D [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) system provides a portable and/or semi-portable means of accurately weighing vehicles and its cargo as each vehicle crosses the scales (while in motion), and determining (1) axle weights and (2) axle spacing for vehicles (for determination of Bridge Formula compliance), (3) total vehicle/cargo weight and (4) longitudinal center of gravity (for safety considerations). The WIM system can also weigh the above statically. Because of the automated nature of the WIM system, it eliminates the introduction of human errors caused by manual computations and data entry, adverse weather conditions, and stress. Individual vehicles can be weighed continuously at low speeds (approximately 3-10 mph) and at intervals of less than one minute. The ORNL WIM system operates and is integrated into the Bethel Jacobs Company Transportation Management and Information System (TMIS, a Radio-Frequency Identification [RFID] enabled information system). The integrated process is as follows: Truck Identification Number and Tare Weight are programmed into a RFID Tag. Handheld RFID devices interact with the RFID Tag, and Electronic Shipping Document is written to the RFID Tag. The RFID tag read by an RFID tower identifies the vehicle and its associated cargo, the specific manifest of radioactive debris for the uniquely identified vehicle. The weight of the cargo (in this case waste debris) is calculated from total vehicle weight information supplied from WIM to TMIS and is further processed into the Information System and kept for historical and archival purposes. The assembled data is the further process in downstream information systems where waste coordination activities at the Y-12 Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) are written to RFID Tag. All cycle time information is monitored by Transportation Operations and Security personnel.

  13. The Effect of Flexible Pavement Mechanics on the Accuracy of Axle Load Sensors in Vehicle Weigh-in-Motion Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnos, Piotr; Rys, Dawid

    2017-09-07

    Weigh-in-Motion systems are tools to prevent road pavements from the adverse phenomena of vehicle overloading. However, the effectiveness of these systems can be significantly increased by improving weighing accuracy, which is now insufficient for direct enforcement of overloaded vehicles. Field tests show that the accuracy of Weigh-in-Motion axle load sensors installed in the flexible (asphalt) pavements depends on pavement temperature and vehicle speeds. Although this is a known phenomenon, it has not been explained yet. The aim of our study is to fill this gap in the knowledge. The explanation of this phenomena which is presented in the paper is based on pavement/sensors mechanics and the application of the multilayer elastic half-space theory. We show that differences in the distribution of vertical and horizontal stresses in the pavement structure are the cause of vehicle weight measurement errors. These studies are important in terms of Weigh-in-Motion systems for direct enforcement and will help to improve the weighing results accuracy.

  14. Noise in Load Cell Signal in an Automatic Weighing System Based on a Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise in load cell signal in an automatic weighing system based on a belt conveyor has been examined experimentally in time and frequency domains to enhance signal quality. The noise frequency spectrum showed nonlinearly increasing multiple resonance peaks as speed increased. The noise reduction process using noise reduction algorithm, by sharply rejecting peak noise frequency component and afterward forming optimum pulse width ratio through filter slope control using selective switching of 6 LPF stages, was used for enhanced accuracy. The effectiveness of proposed method, controlling both cutoff frequency and slope of LPF, was evaluated by feeding 50 g test mass, and this noise reduction process showed better noise filtering with enhanced accuracy than fixed cutoff frequency control method. The ratio of top to bottom pulse width showed that LPF cutoff frequency above 5 Hz had the ratio above 50% up to 80 m/min speed range.

  15. Improving the efficiency of weigh in motion systems through optimized allocating truck checking oriented procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Mahmoudabadi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, an effective procedure is proposed to determine the best location(s for installing Weigh in Motion systems (WIM. The main objective is to determine locations for best performance, defined as the maximum number of once-checked trucks' axle loads and minimizing unnecessary actions. The aforesaid method consists of two main stages, including solving shortest path algorithm and selecting the best location for installing WIM(s. A proper mathematical model has also been developed to achieve objective function. The number of once-checked trucks, unnecessary actions and average installing costs are defined as criteria measures. The proposed procedure was applied in a road network using experimental data, while the results were compared with the usual methods of locating enforcement facilities. Finally, it is concluded that the proposed procedure seems to be more efficient than the traditional methods and local experts' points of view.

  16. Study on weigh-in-motion system based on chirped fiber gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-sheng; Guo, Dan; Li, Wei; Li, Yong-guo; Wu, An; Yao, Kai-fang; Jiang, De-sheng

    2007-11-01

    A novel weigh-in-motion (WIM) system used for high way is developed based on Chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBG) in this paper. The WIM system consists of four CFBG pressure sensors, each of which contains a couple of CFBG. The sensor can directly output optical intensity signal, so the postprocessor instrument is simple and cheap instead of expensive wavelength demodulation apparatus. Theoretical and experimental results indicate that output optical intensity of the sensor is linearly proportional to the pressure, and the linearity and the repeated error can respectively reach to 0.9997 and 0.05%FS. We have also exceeded series experiments with several kinds of automobile with different velocity, and received good results of relative error below 5%.

  17. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungkon; Lee, Jungwhee; Park, Min-Seok; Jo, Byung-Wan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM) systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  18. High-speed weigh-in motion measurement with Bragg grating sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Soo; Cho, Seong-Kyu; Bae, Byung-Woo

    2003-08-01

    In this paper, a high speed fiber optic sensor weigh-in-motion (WIM) system is proposed. Bragg gratings which have several advantages such as good reproducibility and good multiplicity compare to other optical fiber sensors are used for the system. Fabry-Perot filter for the signal process, which cannot be used in the high speed measurement because of the limitation in fast operation of PZT, is excluded. A new signal processing system which employs bandwidth filter is proposed and bridge type new sensor package design is also proposed. The proposed fiber optic WIM system is tested in the laboratory and experimented with actual trucks. The new concept of calibration coefficient "k" is introduced and calculated by the experiments. The calculated calibration coefficients show good approximations to real axial weights regardless tire widths.

  19. Vehicle Signal Analysis Using Artificial Neural Networks for a Bridge Weigh-in-Motion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Seok Park

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the procedures for development of signal analysis algorithms using artificial neural networks for Bridge Weigh-in-Motion (B-WIM systems. Through the analysis procedure, the extraction of information concerning heavy traffic vehicles such as weight, speed, and number of axles from the time domain strain data of the B-WIM system was attempted. As one of the several possible pattern recognition techniques, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN was employed since it could effectively include dynamic effects and bridge-vehicle interactions. A number of vehicle traveling experiments with sufficient load cases were executed on two different types of bridges, a simply supported pre-stressed concrete girder bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Different types of WIM systems such as high-speed WIM or low-speed WIM were also utilized during the experiments for cross-checking and to validate the performance of the developed algorithms.

  20. Weighing a single atom using a coupled plasmon–carbon nanotube system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Jin Li and Ka-Di Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an optical weighing technique with a sensitivity down to a single atom, using a surface plasmon and a doubly clamped carbon nanotube resonator. The mass of a single atom is determined via the vibrational frequency shift of the carbon nanotube while the atom attaches to the nanotube surface. Owing to the ultralight mass and high quality factor of the carbon nanotube, and the spectral enhancement by the use of surface plasmon, this method results in a narrow linewidth (kHz and high sensitivity (2.3×10−28 Hzcenterdot g−1, which is five orders of magnitude more sensitive than traditional electrical mass detection techniques.

  1. Resonance Micro-Weighing of Sub-Picogram Mass with the Use of Adaptive Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romashko Roman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mass of macroscopic object is easily measured by a suitable balance. However, this approach becomes inapplicable if mass of microscopic object is to be determined. Alternative approach for mass measurement is based on using the micromechanical resonator as an inertial balance where oscillation frequency is shifted by small quantities of adsorbed mass. In this work we present experimental results of applying an adaptive interferometry technique based on dynamic hologram recorded in photorefractive CdTe crystal for measuring picogram mass adsorbed on micromechanical resonators with dimensions 215×40×15 μm3. It is also shown that the resonance micro-weighing system based on adaptive interferometer has potential for reducing the threshold of mass detection down to 10-17 g in the case of using a resonator with sub-micron dimensions

  2. Nosocomial bacterial sepsis in babies weighing 1000-1499 g in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, D; Haque, M E; Zabidi, M H; Kamaruzzaman, A

    1999-03-01

    From January to December 1992, 92 babies weighing 1000-1499 gm here to referred as very low birth weight (VLBW) were admitted to NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Unit), Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM). Sixty babies were inborn giving a VLBW rate of 7.5 per 1000 live births. Incidence of nosocomial sepsis was 32.6% (30/92) of whom 43.3% (13/30) died. Eighty percent (24/30) of the septic babies had blood culture positive for gram negative organisms of which 40% (12/30) were sensitive only to imipenem. Ventilator support within 24 hours of life was required in 41.3% (38/94) babies of whom 42% (16/38) babies developed nosocomial sepsis. Delayed initiation of feeding was significantly associated with nosocomial sepsis. A strict asepsis policy and early feeding of the VLBW infant are essential components of any strategy to prevent of sepsis due to nosocomial infection.

  3. Dosage Calculation for Intravenous Thrombolysis of Ischemic Stroke: To Weigh or to Estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Ragoschke-Schumm

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Estimation is a widely used method of assessing the weight of patients with acute stroke. Because the dosage of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA is weight-dependent, errors in estimation lead to incorrect dosing. Methods: We installed a ground-level scale in the computed tomography (CT suite of our hospital and also integrated a scale into the CT table of our Mobile Stroke Unit in order to prospectively assess the differences between reported, estimated, and measured weights of acute stroke patients. An independent rater asked patients to report their weight. The patients’ weights were also estimated by the treating physician and measured with a scale. Differences between reported, estimated, and measured weights were analyzed statistically. Results: For 100 consecutive patients, weighing was possible without treatment delays. Weights estimated by the physician diverged from measured weights by 10% or more for 27 patients and by 20% or more for 6 patients. Weights reported by the patient diverged from measured weights by 10% or more for 12 patients. Weights reported by the patients differed significantly less from measured weights (mean, 4.1 ± 3.1 kg than did weights estimated by the physician (5.7 ± 4.4 kg; p = 0.003. Conclusion: This first prospective study of weight assessment in acute stroke shows that the use of an easily accessible scale makes it feasible to weigh patients with acute stroke without the treatment delay associated with additional patient transfers. Physicians’ estimates of patients’ weights demonstrated substantial aberrations from measured weights. Avoiding these deviations would improve the accuracy of tPA dosage.

  4. Using weigh-in-motion data to determine bridge dynamic amplification factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalin Jan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic component of bridge traffic loading is commonly taken into account with a Dynamic Amplification Factor (DAF – the ratio between the maximum dynamic and static load effects on a bridge. In the design codes, this factor is generally higher than in reality. While this is fine for new bridges that must account for various risks during their life-time, it imposes unnecessary conservativism into assessment of the existing well defined bridges. Therefore, analysis of existing bridges should apply more realistic DAF values. One way of obtaining them experimentally is by bridge weigh-in-motion (B-WIM measurements, which use an existing instrumented bridge or culvert to weigh all crossing vehicles at highway speeds. The B-WIM system had been equipped with two methods of obtaining an approximation to the static response of the. The first method uses the sum of influence lines. This method relies on accurate axle identification, the failure of which can have a large influence on the DAF value. The other method uses a pre-determined low-pass filter to remove the dynamic component of the measured signal; however an expert is needed to set the filter parameters. A new approach that tries to eliminate these two drawbacks has been developed. In this approach the parameters for the filter are determined automatically by fitting the filtered response to the sum of the influence lines. The measurement of DAF on a typical bridge site agrees with experiments performed in the ARCHES [1] project: dynamic amplification decreases as static loading increases.

  5. Ferroelectric devices

    CERN Document Server

    Uchino, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    Updating its bestselling predecessor, Ferroelectric Devices, Second Edition assesses the last decade of developments-and setbacks-in the commercialization of ferroelectricity. Field pioneer and esteemed author Uchino provides insight into why this relatively nascent and interdisciplinary process has failed so far without a systematic accumulation of fundamental knowledge regarding materials and device development.Filling the informational void, this collection of information reviews state-of-the-art research and development trends reflecting nano and optical technologies, environmental regulat

  6. Error Reduction in Portable, Low-Speed Weigh-In-Motion (Sub-0.1 Percent Error)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Hively, Lee M [ORNL; Scudiere, Matthew B [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    We present breakthrough findings based on significant modifications to the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) Gen II approach, so-called the modified Gen II. The revisions enable slow speed weight measurements at least as precise as in ground static scales, which are certified to 0.1% error. Concomitant software and hardware revisions reflect a philosophical and practical change that enables an order of magnitude improvement in low-speed weighing precision. This error reduction breakthrough is presented within the context of the complete host of commercial and governmental application rationale including the flexibility to extend information and communication technology for future needs.

  7. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Talk: Henry Cavendish, John Michell, Weighing the Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormmach, Russell

    2010-03-01

    This talk is about an interaction between two 18th-century natural philosophers (physical scientists), Henry Cavendish and John Michell, and its most important outcome, the experiment of weighing the world (their name for it) using a torsion balance (our name for it). Michell was the most inventive of the 18th century English natural philosophers, and Cavendish was the first of his countrymen to possess abilities at all comparable with Newton's. By their interests and skills, they were drawn to one another. Both were universal natural philosophers, equally adept at building scientific instruments, performing experiments, constructing theory, and using mathematics; both had a penchant for exacting, quantitative work. Both also had fitful habits of publication, which did not begin to reveal the range of their work, to the mystification of later scientists and historians. Late in life, Cavendish and Michell turned their attention to the force that Newton had examined most completely, a singular triumph of his natural philosophy, the force of universal gravitation. Over the course of the 18th century, abundant evidence of attraction had been gathered from the motions of the earth, moon, planets, and comets, phenomena which span the intermediate range of masses, sizes, and distances. But in three domains of experience, involving the extreme upper and lower limits of masses and dimensions, the universality of gravitation remained an article of faith. These were the gravity of the ``fixed'' stars, the mutual attraction of terrestrial bodies, and the gravitation of light and other special substances. Michell took on himself the task of deducing observable consequences from each of these prospective instances of universal gravitation. Cavendish encouraged Michell, and he followed up the resulting observational and experimental questions. The experiment of weighing the world was the last experiment Mitchell planned and the last experiment Cavendish published. The capstone of

  8. Ventricular assist device

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAD; RVAD; LVAD; BVAD; Right ventricular assist device; Left ventricular assist device; Biventricular assist device; Heart pump; Left ventricular assist system; LVAS; Implantable ventricular assist device

  9. Is Frequent Self-Weighing Associated with Poorer Body Satisfaction? Findings from a Phone-Based Weight Loss Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Hotop, Anne Marie; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of self-weighing frequency on weight change and body satisfaction. Design: Observational study based on findings from a 6-month randomized controlled telephone-based weight loss trial. Data collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting: Metropolitan community-based sample. Participants: Sixty-three obese adults. Mean…

  10. Large-scale hybrid Bayesian network for traffic load modeling from weigh-in-motion system data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales-Nápoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic load plays an important role not only in the design of new bridges but also in the reliability assessment of existing structures. Weigh-in-motion systems are used to collect data to determine traffic loads. In this paper, the potential of hybrid nonparametric Bayesian networks (BNs) is

  11. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  12. Is Frequent Self-Weighing Associated with Poorer Body Satisfaction? Findings from a Phone-Based Weight Loss Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, Ericka M.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; VanWormer, Jeffrey J.; Hotop, Anne Marie; Jeffery, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of self-weighing frequency on weight change and body satisfaction. Design: Observational study based on findings from a 6-month randomized controlled telephone-based weight loss trial. Data collected at baseline and 6 months. Setting: Metropolitan community-based sample. Participants: Sixty-three obese adults. Mean…

  13. Analysis of axle and vehicle load properties through Bayesian networks based on weigh-in-motion data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morales Napoles, O.; Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) systems are used, among other applications, in pavement and bridge reliability. The system measures quantities such as individual axle load, vehicular loads, vehicle speed, vehicle length and number ofaxles. Because ofthe nature ofúamc configuration, the quantities measured are

  14. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) Configuration and Data Management Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involvement in the Weigh-in-Motion (WIM) research with both government agencies and private companies dates back to 1989. The discussion here will focus on the US Army's current need for an automated WIM system to weigh and determine the center-of-balance for military wheeled vehicles and cargo and the expanded uses of WIM data. ORNL is addressing configuration and data management issues as they relate to deployments for both military and humanitarian activities. The transition from the previous WIM Gen I to the current Gen II system illustrates a configuration and data management solution that ensures data integration, integrity, coherence and cost effectiveness. Currently, Army units use portable and fixed scales, tape measures, and calculators to determine vehicle axle, total weights and center of balance for vehicles prior to being transshipped via railcar, ship, or airlifted. Manually weighing and measuring all vehicles subject to these transshipment operations is time-consuming, labor-intensive, hazardous and is prone to human errors (e.g., misreading scales and tape measures, calculating centers of balance and wheel, axle, and vehicle weights, recording data, and transferring data from manually prepared work sheets into an electronic data base and aggravated by adverse weather conditions). Additionally, in the context of the military, the timeliness, safety, success, and effectiveness of airborne heavy-drop operations can be significantly improved by the use of an automated system to weigh and determine center of balance of vehicles while they are in motion. The lack of a standardized airlift-weighing system for joint service use also creates redundant weighing requirements at the cost of scarce resources and time. This case study can be judiciously expanded into commercial operations related to safety and enforcement. The WIM program will provide a means for the Army to automatically identify/weigh and monitor

  15. Separating device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.

    2001-01-01

    A sorting device (1) suitable for sorting wire from a waste stream, comprising a body (2) that moves when in use, and provided with spikes or similar projections. The body is embodied as a rotatable roll (2), which oscillates axially during its rotation. The roll is coupled to an oscillation engine

  16. Detection device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.E.

    1981-02-27

    The present invention is directed to a detection device comprising: (1) an entrance chamber; (2) a central chamber; and (3) an exit chamber. The central chamber includes an ionizing gas, anode, and means for connecting the anode with an external power supply and pulse counter.

  17. Assistive Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a number of assistive devices. These are tools, products or types of equipment that help you perform tasks and activities. They may help you move around, see, communicate, eat, or get dressed. Some are high-tech tools, such as computers. Others are much simpler, ...

  18. Printing Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.J.; Markies, P.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    An ink jetprinting device includes a pressure chamber formed by a plurality of wall segments, a first aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink jet orifice and a second aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink supply duct. The pressure

  19. Electrochemical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Patrick G.; Einstein, Harry; Bellows, Richard J.

    1988-01-12

    A tunnel protected electrochemical device features channels fluidically communicating between manifold, tunnels and cells. The channels are designed to provide the most efficient use of auxiliary power. The channels have a greater hydraulic pressure drop and electrical resistance than the manifold. This will provide a design with the optimum auxiliary energy requirements.

  20. Printing Device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den M.J.; Markies, P.R.; Zuilhof, H.

    2014-01-01

    An ink jetprinting device includes a pressure chamber formed by a plurality of wall segments, a first aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink jet orifice and a second aperture extending through a wall segment and communicating with an ink supply duct. The pressure cha

  1. Balancing device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dorsser, W.D.; Herder, J.L.; Wisse B.M.; Barents, R.

    2007-01-01

    The invention relates to a balancing device for a mass, comprising an arm that is adjustable about a pivoting point and with which the mass is coupled, and an adjustable spring system that is coupled with the arm, which spring system comprises at least one spring, wherein the spring system comprises

  2. Probability Model of Hangzhou Bay Bridge Vehicle Loads Using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhang Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the vehicle load characteristics of bay bridges in China, especially truck loads, we performed a statistical analysis of the vehicle loads on Hangzhou Bay Bridge using more than 3 months of weigh-in-motion data from the site. The results showed that when all the vehicle samples were included in the statistical analysis, the histogram of the vehicles exhibited a multimodal distribution, which could not be fitted successfully by a familiar single probability distribution model. When the truck samples were analyzed, a characteristic multiple-peaked distribution with a main peak was obtained. The probability distribution of all vehicles was fitted using a weighting function with five normal distributions and the truck loads were modeled by a single normal distribution. The results demonstrated the good fits with the histogram. The histograms of different time periods were also analyzed. The results showed that the traffic mainly comprised two-axle small vehicles during the rush hours in the morning and the evening, and the histogram could be fitted approximately using three normal distribution functions. And the maximum value distributions of vehicles during the design life of the bay bridge were predicted by maximum value theory.

  3. Effectiveness of Vehicle Weight Estimation from Bridge Weigh-in-Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerachai Deesomsuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of vehicle weight estimations from bridge weigh-in-motion system is studied. The measured bending moments of the instrumented bridge under a passage of vehicle are numerically simulated and are used as the input for the vehicle weight estimations. Two weight estimation methods assuming constant magnitudes and time-varying magnitudes of vehicle axle loads are investigated. The appropriate number of bridge elements and sampling frequency are considered. The effectiveness in term of the estimation accuracy is evaluated and compared under various parameters of vehicle-bridge system. The effects of vehicle speed, vehicle configuration, vehicle weight and bridge surface roughness on the accuracy of the estimated vehicle weights are intensively investigated. Based on the obtained results, vehicle speed, surface roughness level and measurement error seem to have stronger effects on the weight estimation accuracy than other parameters. In general, both methods can provide quite accurate weight estimation of the vehicle. Comparing between them, although the weight estimation method assuming constant magnitudes of axle loads is faster, the method assuming time-varying magnitudes of axle loads can provide axle load histories and exhibits more accurate weight estimations of the vehicle for almost of the considered cases.

  4. Probability Based Evaluation of Vehicular Bridge Load using Weigh-in-Motion Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widi Nugraha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Load and Resistance Factored Design (LRFD method for designing bridge in Indonesia have been implemented for more than 25 years. LRFD method treating loads and strengths variables as random variables with specific safety factors for different loads and strengths variables type. The nominal loads, load factors, reduction factors, and other criteria for bridge design code can be determined to meet the reliability criteria. Statistical data of weigh-in-motion (WIM vehicular loads measurement in Northern Java highway, Cikampek - Pamanukan, West Java (2011, used in as statistical loads variable. A 25 m simple span bridge with reinforced concrete T-girder is used as a model for structural analysis due to WIM measured and nominal vehicular load based on RSNI T-02-2005, with applied bending moment of girder as the output. The distribution fitting result of applied bending moment due to WIM measured vehicular loads is lognormal. The maximum bending moment due to RSNI T-02-2005 nominal vehicular load is 842.45 kN-m and has probability of exceedance of 5x10-5. It can be concluded, for this study, that the bridge designed using RSNI T-02-2005 is safely designed, since it has reliability index, β of 5.02, higher than target reliability, β ranging from 3.50 or 3.72.

  5. FTO Biology and Obesity: Why do a billion of us weigh 3 kg more?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man-Ka Marcella Cheung

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Few would dispute that the current obesity epidemic has been driven by lifestyle and environmental changes. However, it is clear that individuals respond differently to these ‘obesigenic’ changes and this variation in response has a strong genetic element. Genome-wide association studies have revealed that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Fat mass and obesity associated transcript (FTO are robustly associated with body mass index and obesity. Although the effect of these risk alleles are modest, with heterozygous and homozygous carriers weighing approximately 1.5kg and 3kg more respectively, there are an estimated one billion homozygous carriers in the world, spanning multiple different ethnicities and populations. Yet despite its broad impact, the biological function of FTO, particularly its role in controlling energy balance, remains unknown. Although the study of severe mendelian obesity has been invaluable in illuminating critical pathways controlling food intake, the major burden of disease is carried by those of us with ‘common obesity’, which to date has resisted yielding meaningful biological insights. FTO has at last given us a handle on a huge, worldwide, common problem. In this review, we focus on the available genetic and in vivo evidence to date that implicates FTO in the control of energy balance.

  6. Weighing Evidence “Steampunk” Style via the Meta-Analyser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jack; Jackson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The funnel plot is a graphical visualization of summary data estimates from a meta-analysis, and is a useful tool for detecting departures from the standard modeling assumptions. Although perhaps not widely appreciated, a simple extension of the funnel plot can help to facilitate an intuitive interpretation of the mathematics underlying a meta-analysis at a more fundamental level, by equating it to determining the center of mass of a physical system. We used this analogy to explain the concepts of weighing evidence and of biased evidence to a young audience at the Cambridge Science Festival, without recourse to precise definitions or statistical formulas and with a little help from Sherlock Holmes! Following on from the science fair, we have developed an interactive web-application (named the Meta-Analyser) to bring these ideas to a wider audience. We envisage that our application will be a useful tool for researchers when interpreting their data. First, to facilitate a simple understanding of fixed and random effects modeling approaches; second, to assess the importance of outliers; and third, to show the impact of adjusting for small study bias. This final aim is realized by introducing a novel graphical interpretation of the well-known method of Egger regression. PMID:28003684

  7. Effect acute of resitive training with weight on hidrostatic weigh, body density and percentage of fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Luiz Zinn

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify if a session of Resistive training with Weights (TRP seeking Local Muscular Resistance (RML or Increase in Muscle Volume (AVM would cause significant alterations in Hydrostatic Weight (PH, Body Density (DC and Percentage of Body Fat (%G. Nine men between the ages of 17 and 26 years participated in the study, all with a basic level of TRP and who were adapted to water. The study was carried out during three days. On the first day, the subjects performed the 1RM test for the 10 exercises included into the training. Two days later, hydrostatic weighing (pre-trainingwas measured, immediately followed by a TRP session for AVM and by another hydrostatic weighing (post-training measurement. Two days later, the same process was applied to, however this time with a TRP session for RML. The statistical analyses by Student’s-t test showed that there were no significant differences (p>0.05 between pre and post-training results for PH, DC and %G variables. The 2x2 ANOVA interaction for type of training (AVM and RML and the moment of weighing (pre and post-training was not significant, while the results of PH, DC and %G did not depend on the type of training (AVM or RML. Pearson’s linear correlation between the values of the pre and post-training was significant (r≥0.94. It can be concluded that the TRP does not have an effect on the results of PH, DC and %G, regardless of type of training performed, therefore, hydrostatic weighing can be measured either before or after the TRP, without interfering on the results. RESUMO Este estudo teve por objetivo verificar se uma sessão de Treinamento Resistido com Pesos (TRP visando Resistência Muscular Localizada (RML ou objetivando Aumento de Volume Muscular (AVM causariam alterações significativas no Peso Hidrost��tico (PH, Densidade Corporal (DC e Percentual de Gordura (%G. Participaram da amostra nove homens com idade entre 17 e 26 anos que possuíam um n

  8. Weighing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses - a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Reina Saapke; Freidl, Gudrun Stephanie; de Bruin, Erwin; Koopmans, Marion

    2016-11-03

    Assessing influenza A virus strains circulating in animals and their potential to cross the species barrier and cause human infections is important to improve human influenza surveillance and preparedness. We reviewed studies describing serological evidence of human exposure to animal influenza viruses. Comparing serological data is difficult due to a lack of standardisation in study designs and in laboratory methods used in published reports. Therefore, we designed a scoring system to assess and weigh specificity of obtained serology results in the selected articles. Many studies report reliable evidence of antibodies to swine influenza viruses among persons occupationally exposed to pigs. Most avian influenza studies target H5, H7 and H9 subtypes and most serological evidence of human exposure to avian influenza viruses is reported for these subtypes. Avian influenza studies receiving a low grade in this review often reported higher seroprevalences in humans compared with studies with a high grade. Official surveillance systems mainly focus on avian H5 and H7 viruses. Swine influenza viruses and avian subtypes other than H5 and H7 (emphasising H9) should be additionally included in official surveillance systems. Surveillance efforts should also be directed towards understudied geographical areas, such as Africa and South America. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  9. "Distinvar" device

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1965-01-01

    The alignment of one of the accelerator magnets being checked by the AR Division survey group. A "distinvar" device, invented by the group, using calibrated invar wires stretched between the fixed survey pillar (on the left) and a fixed point on the magnet. In two days it is thus possible to measure the alignment of the 100 magnets with an accuracy better than 1/10.

  10. Magnetohydrodynamic device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlin, S.M.; Ljubimov, G.A.; Bitjurin, V.A.; Kovbasjuk, V.I.; Maximenko, V.I.; Medin, S.A.; Barshak, A.E.

    1979-12-25

    A magnetohydrodynamic device having a duct for a conducting gas to flow at an angle with the direction of the magnetic field induction vector is described. The duct is situated in the magnetic system and is provided with a plurality of electrodes adapted to interact electrically with the gas, whereas the cross-sectional shape of the duct working space is bounded by a closed contour formed by a curve inscribed into a rectangle. 1 claim.

  11. Evaporation from weighing precipitation gauges: impacts on automated gauge measurements and quality assurance methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Leeper

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of evaporation on precipitation measurements have been understood to bias total precipitation lower. For automated weighing-bucket gauges, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO suggests the use of evaporative suppressants with frequent observations. However, the use of evaporation suppressants is not always feasible due to environmental hazards and the added cost of maintenance, transport, and disposal of the gauge additive. In addition, research has suggested that evaporation prior to precipitation may affect precipitation measurements from auto-recording gauges operating at sub-hourly frequencies. For further evaluation, a field campaign was conducted to monitor evaporation and its impacts on the quality of precipitation measurements from gauges used at US Climate Reference Network (USCRN stations. Collocated Geonor gauges with (nonEvap and without (evap an evaporative suppressant were compared to evaluate evaporative losses and evaporation biases on precipitation measurements. From June to August, evaporative losses from the evap gauge exceeded accumulated precipitation, with an average loss of 0.12 mm h−1. However, the impact of evaporation on precipitation measurements was sensitive to calculation methods. In general, methods that utilized a longer time series to smooth out sensor noise were more sensitive to gauge (−4.6% bias with respect to control evaporation than methods computing depth change without smoothing (< +1% bias. These results indicate that while climate and gauge design affect gauge evaporation rates computational methods can influence the magnitude of evaporation bias on precipitation measurements. It is hoped this study will advance QA techniques that mitigate the impact of evaporation biases on precipitation measurements from other automated networks.

  12. Prospective strategies to delay the evolution of anti-malarial drug resistance: weighing the uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie F Ellis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of drug resistance in malaria parasites highlights a need to identify and evaluate strategies that could extend the useful therapeutic life of anti-malarial drugs. Such strategies are deployed to best effect before resistance has emerged, under conditions of great uncertainty. Methods Here, the emergence and spread of resistance was modelled using a hybrid framework to evaluate prospective strategies, estimate the time to drug failure, and weigh uncertainty. The waiting time to appearance was estimated as the product of low mutation rates, drug pressure, and parasite population sizes during treatment. Stochastic persistence and the waiting time to establishment were simulated as an evolving branching process. The subsequent spread of resistance was simulated in simple epidemiological models. Results Using this framework, the waiting time to the failure of artemisinin combination therapy (ACT for malaria was estimated, and a policy of multiple first-line therapies (MFTs was evaluated. The models quantify the effects of reducing drug pressure in delaying appearance, reducing the chances of establishment, and slowing spread. By using two first-line therapies in a population, it is possible to reduce drug pressure while still treating the full complement of cases. Conclusions At a global scale, because of uncertainty about the time to the emergence of ACT resistance, there was a strong case for MFTs to guard against early failure. Our study recommends developing operationally feasible strategies for implementing MFTs, such as distributing different ACTs at the clinic and for home-based care, or formulating different ACTs for children and adults.

  13. A rheology model of soft elastomeric capacitor for Weigh-In-Motion application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Venkata Dharmateja

    As a result of fast growing industry, there is an increase in traffic congestion and deterioration of transportation inventory. Real-time traffic characterisation could be used to amoliorate the efficiency of our transportation system. Weigh-In-Motion (WIM) systems offer the advantages of vehicle classification, speed measurement, in addition to weight measurement while vehicles are moving. In this thesis, state-of-the-art WIM systems are discussed and limitations of current technologies are identified. A Soft Elastomeric Capacitor (SEC) that works as a large scale surface strain gauge is introduced to address the limitations in existing techniques and investigated for its applicability as a WIM sensor. Though the novel SEC has potential advantages, the relationship axial strain-to-stress needs to be modeled to enable its utilization as a WIM sensor. A Zener model is selected and modified by the addition of a slider to characterize the polymer behavior. An overstress approach is used to study the resultant stress-strain response owing to its simplicity and computational benefits. Since the overstress approach is data-driven, an experimental testing scheme is used to identify the model parameters. The tests comprise three types of applied strain loading: multi step relaxation, simple relaxation and cyclic compression. Specimens with varying stiffness are employed for these tests. Numerical simulations for the cyclic compression loading are presented to assess the model performance. The model is found to be capable of reproducing the experimental data with an absolute maximum error value of 0.085 MPa for slow loading rate tests and 0.175 MPa for high loading rate tests. Comparative studies are completed to investigate the impact of patch stiffness on the mechanical behavior of the soft elastomeric capacitor patches. It is observed that as stiffness decreases, the nonlinearity in stress-strain response increases

  14. A continuously weighing, high frequency sand trap: Wind tunnel and field evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Yang, XingHua; Huo, Wen; Ali, Mamtimin; Zheng, XinQian; Zhou, ChengLong; He, Qing

    2017-09-01

    A new continuously weighing, high frequency sand trap (CWHF) has been designed. Its sampling efficiency is evaluated in a wind tunnel and the potential of the new trap has been demonstrated in field trials. The newly designed sand trap allows fully automated and high frequency measurement of sediment fluxes over extensive periods. We show that it can capture the variations and structures of wind-driven sand transport processes and horizontal sediment flux, and reveal the relationships between sand transport and meteorological parameters. Its maximum sampling frequency can reach 10 Hz. Wind tunnel tests indicated that the sampling efficiency of the CWHF sand trap varies between 39.2 to 64.3%, with an average of 52.5%. It achieved a maximum sampling efficiency of 64.3% at a wind speed of 10 m s- 1. This is largely achieved by the inclusion of a vent hole which leads to a higher sampling efficiency than that of a step-like sand trap at high wind speeds. In field experiments, we show a good agreement between the mass of sediment from the CWHF sand trap, the wind speed at 2 m and the number of saltating particles at 5 cm above the ground surface. According to analysis of the horizontal sediment flux at four heights from the CWHF sand trap (25, 35, 50, and 100 cm), the vertical distribution of the horizontal sediment flux up to a height of 100 cm above the sand surface follows an exponential function. Our field experiments show that the new instrument can capture more detailed information on sediment transport with much reduced labor requirement. Therefore, it has great potential for application in wind-blown sand monitoring and process studies.

  15. Variably-saturated flow in large weighing lysimeters under dry conditions: inverse and predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iden, Sascha; Reineke, Daniela; Koonce, Jeremy; Berli, Markus; Durner, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    A reliable quantification of the soil water balance in semi-arid regions requires an accurate determination of bare soil evaporation. Modeling of soil water movement in relatively dry soils and the quantitative prediction of evaporation rates and groundwater recharge pose considerable challenges in these regions. Actual evaporation from dry soil cannot be predicted without detailed knowledge of the complex interplay between liquid, vapor and heat flow and soil hydraulic properties exert a strong influence on evaporation rates during stage-two evaporation. We have analyzed data from the SEPHAS lysimeter facility in Boulder City (NV) which was installed to investigate the near-surface processes of water and energy exchange in desert environments. The scientific instrumentation consists of 152 sensors per Lysimeter which measured soil temperature, soil water content, and soil water potential. Data from three weighing lysimeters (3 m long, surface area 4 m2) were used to identifiy effective soil hydraulic properties of the disturbed soil monoliths by inverse modeling with the Richards equation assuming isothermal flow conditions. Results indicate that the observed soil water content in 8 different soil depths can be well matched for all three lysimeters and that the effective soil hydraulic properties of the three lysimeters agree well. These results could only be obtained with a flexible model of the soil hydraulic properties which guaranteed physical plausibility of water retention towards complete dryness and accounted for capillary, film and isothermal vapor flow. Conversely, flow models using traditional parameterizations of the soil hydraulic properties were not able to match the observed evaporation fluxes and water contents. After identifying the system properties by inverse modeling, we checked the possibility to forecast evaporation rates by running a fully coupled water, heat and vapor flow model which solved the energy balance of the soil surface. In these

  16. Flexible spatial perspective-taking: Conversational partners weigh multiple cues in collaborative tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexia eGalati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on spatial perspective-taking often focuses on the cognitive processes of isolated individuals as they adopt or maintain imagined perspectives. Collaborative studies of spatial perspective-taking typically examine speakers’ linguistic choices, while overlooking their underlying processes and representations. We review evidence from two collaborative experiments that examine the contribution of social and representational cues to spatial perspective choices in both language and the organization of spatial memory. Across experiments, speakers organized their memory representations according to the convergence of various cues. When layouts were randomly configured and did not afford intrinsic cues, speakers encoded their partner’s viewpoint in memory, if available, but did not use it as an organizing direction. On the other hand, when the layout afforded an intrinsic structure, speakers organized their spatial memories according to the person-centered perspective reinforced by the layout’s structure. Similarly, in descriptions, speakers considered multiple cues whether available a priori or at the interaction. They used partner-centered expressions more frequently (e.g., to your right when the partner’s viewpoint was misaligned by a small offset or coincided with the layout’s structure. Conversely, they used egocentric expressions more frequently when their own viewpoint coincided with the intrinsic structure or when the partner was misaligned by a computationally difficult, oblique offset. Based on these findings we advocate for a framework for flexible perspective-taking: people weigh multiple cues (including social ones to make attributions about the relative difficulty of perspective-taking for each partner, and adapt behavior to minimize their collective effort. This framework is not specialized for spatial reasoning but instead emerges from the same principles and memory-depended processes that govern perspective-taking in

  17. Non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle identification in bridge-weigh-in-motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalhori, Hamed; Makki Alamdari, Mehrisadat; Zhu, Xinqun; Samali, Bijan; Mustapha, Samir

    2017-02-01

    Bridge weigh-in-motion (BWIM) is an approach through which the axle and gross weight of trucks travelling at normal highway speed are identified using the response of an instrumented bridge. The vehicle speed, the number of axles, and the axle spacing are crucial parameters, and are required to be determined in the majority of BWIM algorithms. Nothing-on-the-road (NOR) strategy suggests using the strain signals measured at some particular positions underneath the deck or girders of a bridge to obtain this information. The objective of this research is to present a concise overview of the challenges of the current non-intrusive schemes for speed and axle determination through bending-strain and shear-strain based approaches. The problem associated with the global bending-strain responses measured at quarter points of span is discussed and a new sensor arrangement is proposed as an alternative. As for measurement of local responses rather than the global responses, the advantage of shear strains over bending strains is presented. However, it is illustrated that shear strains at quarter points of span can only provide accurate speed estimation but fail to detect the correct number of axles. As a remedy, it is demonstrated that, even for closely-spaced axles, the shear strain at the beginning of the bridge is capable of reliably identifying the number of axles. In order to provide a fully automated speed and axle identification system, appropriate signal processing including low-pass filtering and wavelet transforms are applied to the raw time signals. As case studies, the results of experimental testing in laboratory and on a real bridge are presented.

  18. Electrooptical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, C. E.

    1980-03-01

    This report covers work carried out with support of the Department of the Air Force during the period 1 October 1979 through 31 March 1980. A part of this support was provided by the Rome Air Development Center. CW operation at temperatures up to 55 C has been achieved for GaInAsP/InP double-heterostructure (DH) lasers emitting at 1.5 micrometers, which were grown without a GaInAsP buffer layer. These devices are of interest for use as sources in fiber-optics communications systems, since the lowest transmission loss reported for fused-silica optical fibers occurs at 1.55 micrometers. Surface passivation techniques developed for InP and GaInAsP avalanche photodiodes have resulted in reductions of dark current as large as four orders of magnitude, to values as low as .0000016 A/sq cm at 0.9 V(b) where V(b) is the breakdown voltage. Devices consisting entirely of InP have been passivated with plasma-deposited Si3N4, and those with a GaInAsP layer but with the p-n junction in InP have been passivated with polyimide. Neither of these techniques successfully reduces dark currents in devices with the p-n junction in the GaInAsP, but a film of photoresist sprayed with SF6 as the propellant has given excellent results. The electrical characteristics in InP ion implanted with Sn, Ge, Si, and C have been investigated. All of these column IV elements yielded n-type conductivity and Sn, Ge, and Si showed high electrical activation; however, implanted C was found to have a net electrical activation of only about 5 percent.

  19. A modified method for COD determination of solid waste, using a commercial COD kit and an adapted disposable weighing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, L; Pauss, A; Ribeiro, T

    2017-03-01

    The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an essential parameter in waste management, particularly when monitoring wet anaerobic digestion processes. An adapted method to determine COD was developed for solid waste (total solids >15%). This method used commercial COD tubes and did not require sample dilution. A homemade plastic weighing support was used to transfer the solid sample into COD tubes. Potassium hydrogen phthalate and glucose used as standards showed an excellent repeatability. A small underestimation of the theoretical COD value (standard values around 5% lower than theoretical values) was also observed, mainly due to the intrinsic COD of the weighing support and to measurement uncertainties. The adapted COD method was tested using various solid wastes in the range of 1-8 mgCOD, determining the COD of dried and ground cellulose, cattle manure, straw and a mixed-substrate sample. This new adapted method could be used to monitor and design dry anaerobic digestion processes.

  20. Method and appartus for converting static in-ground vehicle scales into weigh-in-motion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenior City, TN); Scudiere, Matthew B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for converting in-ground static weighing scales for vehicles to weigh-in-motion systems. The apparatus upon conversion includes the existing in-ground static scale, peripheral switches and an electronic module for automatic computation of the weight. By monitoring the velocity, tire position, axle spacing, and real time output from existing static scales as a vehicle drives over the scales, the system determines when an axle of a vehicle is on the scale at a given time, monitors the combined weight output from any given axle combination on the scale(s) at any given time, and from these measurements automatically computes the weight of each individual axle and gross vehicle weight by an integration, integration approximation, and/or signal averaging technique.

  1. Researches regarding a pressure pulse generator as a segment of model for a weighing in motion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardare, I.; Tiţa, I.; Pelin, R. I.

    2016-08-01

    There are many types of weighing in motion systems: with strain gauges, piezoelectric type, with optical fibre, capacitive etc. Although one of them proved to be reliable, many research teams all over the world are interested in finding new types or improving the existing ones. In this paper is presented a hydraulic Weigh-In-Motion sensor composed of a metal vessel filled with hydraulic oil connected to an accumulator through a pipe. Vehicle tires press on the deformable upper wall and pressure pulses generated in this way provides information about the load. In this paper are presented: a structure for an experimental model, the block diagram for numerical simulation, experimental model and some experimental results.

  2. Scalable devices

    KAUST Repository

    Krüger, Jens J.

    2014-01-01

    In computer science in general and in particular the field of high performance computing and supercomputing the term scalable plays an important role. It indicates that a piece of hardware, a concept, an algorithm, or an entire system scales with the size of the problem, i.e., it can not only be used in a very specific setting but it\\'s applicable for a wide range of problems. From small scenarios to possibly very large settings. In this spirit, there exist a number of fixed areas of research on scalability. There are works on scalable algorithms, scalable architectures but what are scalable devices? In the context of this chapter, we are interested in a whole range of display devices, ranging from small scale hardware such as tablet computers, pads, smart-phones etc. up to large tiled display walls. What interests us mostly is not so much the hardware setup but mostly the visualization algorithms behind these display systems that scale from your average smart phone up to the largest gigapixel display walls.

  3. Water table effects on measured and simulated fluxes in weighing lysimeters for differently-textured soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wegehenkel Martin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Weighing lysimeters can be used for studying the soil water balance and to analyse evapotranspiration (ET. However, not clear was the impact of the bottom boundary condition on lysimeter results and soil water movement. The objective was to analyse bottom boundary effects on the soil water balance. This analysis was carried out for lysimeters filled with fine- and coarse-textured soil monoliths by comparing simulated and measured data for lysimeters with a higher and a lower water table. The eight weighable lysimeters had a 1 m2 grass-covered surface and a depth of 1.5 m. The lysimeters contained four intact monoliths extracted from a sandy soil and four from a soil with a silty-clay texture. For two lysimeters of each soil, constant water tables were imposed at 135 cm and 210 cm depths. Evapotranspiration, change in soil water storage, and groundwater recharge were simulated for a 3-year period (1996 to 1998 using the Hydrus-1D software. Input data consisted of measured weather data and crop model-based simulated evaporation and transpiration. Snow cover and heat transport were simulated based on measured soil temperatures. Soil hydraulic parameter sets were estimated (i from soil core data and (ii based on texture data using ROSETTA pedotransfer approach. Simulated and measured outflow rates from the sandy soil matched for both parameter sets. For the sand lysimeters with the higher water table, only fast peak flow events observed on May 4, 1996 were not simulated adequately mainly because of differences between simulated and measured soil water storage caused by ET-induced soil water storage depletion. For the silty-clay soil, the simulations using the soil hydraulic parameters from retention data (i were matching the lysimeter data except for the observed peak flows on May, 4, 1996, which here probably resulted from preferential flow. The higher water table at the lysimeter bottom resulted in higher drainage in comparison with the lysimeters

  4. Estimating sap flux densities in date palm trees using the heat dissipation method and weighing lysimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Or; Shapira, Or; Cohen, Shabtai; Tripler, Effi; Schwartz, Amnon; Lazarovitch, Naftali

    2012-09-01

    In a world of diminishing water reservoirs and a rising demand for food, the practice and development of water stress indicators and sensors are in rapid progress. The heat dissipation method, originally established by Granier, is herein applied and modified to enable sap flow measurements in date palm trees in the southern Arava desert of Israel. A long and tough sensor was constructed to withstand insertion into the date palm's hard exterior stem. This stem is wide and fibrous, surrounded by an even tougher external non-conducting layer of dead leaf bases. Furthermore, being a monocot species, water flow does not necessarily occur through the outer part of the palm's stem, as in most trees. Therefore, it is highly important to investigate the variations of the sap flux densities and determine the preferable location for sap flow sensing within the stem. Once installed into fully grown date palm trees stationed on weighing lysimeters, sap flow as measured by the modified sensors was compared with the actual transpiration. Sap flow was found to be well correlated with transpiration, especially when using a recent calibration equation rather than the original Granier equation. Furthermore, inducing the axial variability of the sap flux densities was found to be highly important for accurate assessments of transpiration by sap flow measurements. The sensors indicated no transpiration at night, a high increase of transpiration from 06:00 to 09:00, maximum transpiration at 12:00, followed by a moderate reduction until 08:00; when transpiration ceased. These results were reinforced by the lysimeters' output. Reduced sap flux densities were detected at the stem's mantle when compared with its center. These results were reinforced by mechanistic measurements of the stem's specific hydraulic conductivity. Variance on the vertical axis was also observed, indicating an accelerated flow towards the upper parts of the tree and raising a hypothesis concerning dehydrating

  5. Weighing costs and losses: A decision making game using probabilistic forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Micha; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Wetterhall, Frederik; Cranston, Michael; van Andel, Schalk-Jan; Pappenberger, Florian; Verkade, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Probabilistic forecasts are increasingly recognised as an effective and reliable tool to communicate uncertainties. The economic value of probabilistic forecasts has been demonstrated by several authors, showing the benefit to using probabilistic forecasts over deterministic forecasts in several sectors, including flood and drought warning, hydropower, and agriculture. Probabilistic forecasting is also central to the emerging concept of risk-based decision making, and underlies emerging paradigms such as impact-based forecasting. Although the economic value of probabilistic forecasts is easily demonstrated in academic works, its evaluation in practice is more complex. The practical use of probabilistic forecasts requires decision makers to weigh the cost of an appropriate response to a probabilistic warning against the projected loss that would occur if the event forecast becomes reality. In this paper, we present the results of a simple game that aims to explore how decision makers are influenced by the costs required for taking a response and the potential losses they face in case the forecast flood event occurs. Participants play the role of one of three possible different shop owners. Each type of shop has losses of quite different magnitude, should a flood event occur. The shop owners are presented with several forecasts, each with a probability of a flood event occurring, which would inundate their shop and lead to those losses. In response, they have to decide if they want to do nothing, raise temporary defences, or relocate their inventory. Each action comes at a cost; and the different shop owners therefore have quite different cost/loss ratios. The game was played on four occasions. Players were attendees of the ensemble hydro-meteorological forecasting session of the 2016 EGU Assembly, professionals participating at two other conferences related to hydrometeorology, and a group of students. All audiences were familiar with the principles of forecasting

  6. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  7. Electrophoresis device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, P. H.; Snyder, R. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A device for separating cellular particles of a sample substance into fractionated streams of different cellular species includes a casing having a distribution chamber, a separation chamber, and a collection chamber. The electrode chambers are separated from the separation chamber interior by means of passages such that flow variations and membrane variations around the slotted portion of the electrode chamber do not enduce flow perturbations into the laminar buffer curtain flowing in the separation chamber. The cellular particles of the sample are separated under the influence of the electrical field and the separation chamber into streams of different cellular species. The streams of separated cells enter a partition array in the collection chamber where they are fractionated and collected.

  8. Stratification devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2008-01-01

    heating system. High temperatures in the top of the storage tank established by the energy from the solar collector reduce the use of auxiliary energy. Low temperatures in the bottom of the storage tank improve the operation conditions for the solar collector. Using thermal stratified heat storages...... results in longer operation periods and improved utilization of the solar collector. Thermal stratification can be achieved, for example by using inlet stratification devices at all inlets to the storage tank. This paper presents how thermal stratification is established and utilized by means of inlet......Thermal stratification in the storage tank is extremely important in order to achieve high thermal performance of a solar heating system. High temperatures in the top of the storage tank and low temperatures in the bottom of the storage tank lead to the best operation conditions for any solar...

  9. Integrated device architectures for electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Jonathan Mack; Berland, Brian Spencer

    2015-04-21

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for creating monolithically integrated electrochromic devices which may be a flexible electrochromic device. Monolithic integration of thin film electrochromic devices may involve the electrical interconnection of multiple individual electrochromic devices through the creation of specific structures such as conductive pathway or insulating isolation trenches.

  10. Laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  11. Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, and hypertension in children weighing more than normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Phatale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension (pre-HT, and hypertension (HT in children weighing more than normal. Materials and Methods: Three- to eighteen-year old children weighing more than normal were included. Pathological short children were excluded. According to Centre for Disease Control (CDC, children are grouped into overweight (OW and obese (OB. Indian B.P. reference tables are used for defining HT and pre-HT. [2] HbA1c by HPLC (BIO RAD method was used to define pre-diabetes and diabetes. [3] Children with HbA1c ≥6.5 were subjected for Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT. C-peptide assay was done to rule out (r/o IDDM. Observations: When we compare this with our earlier presentation at PEDICON 2011, we found that hypertension (HTN (22.9% vs. 23.07% is not significantly different but pre-HTN (28.09% vs. 33.9%, pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM (3.7% vs. 64.3%, and diabetes mellitus (DM (0.35% vs. 3.8% are significantly high in this study. Conclusion: (1 Prevalence of HT (22.90% vs. 23.07% is similar in both groups but pre-HT (33.9% vs. 28.09% is high in this study. (2 Significant rise in prevalence of diabetes (3.84% vs. 0.35% and pre-diabetes (64.33% vs. 3.7% is seen in this study. (3 This change is because of using HbA1c as screening tool in children weighing more than normal.

  12. Body composition of anorexia nervosa patients assessed by underwater weighing and skinfold-thickness measurements before and after weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, M; Goris, M; Vandereycken, W; Van Coppenolle, H

    2001-02-01

    Weight restoration is a crucial element in the treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa. Therefore, the validity of different methods for measuring body composition is important. We tested the concurrent validity of hydrodensitometry (underwater weighing) and anthropometry (12 skinfold thicknesses) and assessed body composition and subcutaneous fat before and after a refeeding program and a multifaceted program of therapy in a specialized inpatient unit for eating disorders. The body composition of a large sample of anorexia nervosa patients (97 restricting type, 33 binging-purging type) was studied by using 2 methods both before and after weight gain. We applied a behavioral contract for weight restoration with a minimum weekly gain of 700 g and a maximum of 3 kg. Bland-Altman analysis of agreement, Pearson correlation analysis, t tests, and analysis of covariance were used. There was good agreement between the results obtained by underwater weighing and by skinfold-thickness measurement (r = 0.76, P < 0.001); the results produced by the 2 methods did not differ significantly. On average, a significant weight gain (11.9 kg) was observed, composed of 6.6 kg fat and 5.3 kg fat-free mass. Body fat estimation by skinfold-thickness equation appeared to be as accurate as underwater weighing. The refeeding program led to a significant increase in body weight, of which 55.5% was body fat. The mean ratio of fat-free mass to fat mass at the end of the treatment was 3.4:1.

  13. Tiny Devices Project Sharp, Colorful Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Displaytech Inc., based in Longmont, Colorado and recently acquired by Micron Technology Inc. of Boise, Idaho, first received a Small Business Innovation Research contract in 1993 from Johnson Space Center to develop tiny, electronic, color displays, called microdisplays. Displaytech has since sold over 20 million microdisplays and was ranked one of the fastest growing technology companies by Deloitte and Touche in 2005. Customers currently incorporate the microdisplays in tiny pico-projectors, which weigh only a few ounces and attach to media players, cell phones, and other devices. The projectors can convert a digital image from the typical postage stamp size into a bright, clear, four-foot projection. The company believes sales of this type of pico-projector may exceed $1.1 billion within 5 years.

  14. Medical devices: US medical device regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarow, Jonathan P; Baxley, John H

    2015-03-01

    Medical devices are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) within the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Center for Devices and Radiological Health is responsible for protecting and promoting the public health by ensuring the safety, effectiveness, and quality of medical devices, ensuring the safety of radiation-emitting products, fostering innovation, and providing the public with accurate, science-based information about the products we oversee, throughout the total product life cycle. The FDA was granted the authority to regulate the manufacturing and marketing of medical devices in 1976. It does not regulate the practice of medicine. Devices are classified based on complexity and level of risk, and "pre-1976" devices were allowed to remain on the market after being classified without FDA review. Post-1976 devices of lower complexity and risk that are substantially equivalent to a marketed "predicate" device may be cleared through the 510(k) premarket notification process. Clinical data are typically not needed for 510(k) clearance. In contrast, higher-risk devices typically require premarket approval. Premarket approval applications must contain data demonstrating reasonable assurance of safety and efficacy, and this information typically includes clinical data. For novel devices that are not high risk, the de novo process allows FDA to simultaneously review and classify new devices. Devices that are not legally marketed are permitted to be used for clinical investigation purposes in the United States under the Investigational Device Exemptions regulation.

  15. Development of food photographs for use with children aged 18 months to 16 years: Comparison against weighed food diaries – The Young Person’s Food Atlas (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Adrian; Barton, Karen L.; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N. S.; Adamson, Ashley J.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional dietary assessment methods, used in the UK, such as weighed food diaries impose a large participant burden, often resulting in difficulty recruiting representative samples and underreporting of energy intakes. One approach to reducing the burden placed on the participant is to use portion size assessment tools to obtain an estimate of the amount of food consumed, removing the need to weigh all foods. An age range specific food atlas was developed for use in assessing children’s dietary intakes. The foods selected and portion sizes depicted were derived from intakes recorded during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of children aged 1.5 to 16 years. Estimates of food portion sizes using the food atlas were compared against 4-day weighed intakes along with in-school / nursery observations, by the research team. Interviews were conducted with parents the day after completion of the diary, and for children aged 4 to 16 years, also with the child. Mean estimates of portion size consumed were within 7% of the weight of food recorded in the weighed food diary. The limits of agreement were wide indicating high variability of estimates at the individual level but the precision increased with increasing age. For children 11 years and over, agreement with weighed food diaries, was as good as that of their parents in terms of total weight of food consumed and of intake of energy and key nutrients. The age appropriate food photographs offer an alternative to weighed intakes for dietary assessment with children. PMID:28199319

  16. Development of food photographs for use with children aged 18 months to 16 years: Comparison against weighed food diaries - The Young Person's Food Atlas (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Emma; Hawkins, Adrian; Barton, Karen L; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2017-01-01

    Traditional dietary assessment methods, used in the UK, such as weighed food diaries impose a large participant burden, often resulting in difficulty recruiting representative samples and underreporting of energy intakes. One approach to reducing the burden placed on the participant is to use portion size assessment tools to obtain an estimate of the amount of food consumed, removing the need to weigh all foods. An age range specific food atlas was developed for use in assessing children's dietary intakes. The foods selected and portion sizes depicted were derived from intakes recorded during the UK National Diet and Nutrition Surveys of children aged 1.5 to 16 years. Estimates of food portion sizes using the food atlas were compared against 4-day weighed intakes along with in-school / nursery observations, by the research team. Interviews were conducted with parents the day after completion of the diary, and for children aged 4 to 16 years, also with the child. Mean estimates of portion size consumed were within 7% of the weight of food recorded in the weighed food diary. The limits of agreement were wide indicating high variability of estimates at the individual level but the precision increased with increasing age. For children 11 years and over, agreement with weighed food diaries, was as good as that of their parents in terms of total weight of food consumed and of intake of energy and key nutrients. The age appropriate food photographs offer an alternative to weighed intakes for dietary assessment with children.

  17. Positive weighing of the other's collective narrative among Jewish and Bedouin-Palestinian teachers in Israel and its correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Alon; Braun-Lewensohn, Orna; Litvak Hirsch, Tal

    2016-06-01

    Teachers play a pivotal role in the educational discourse around collective narratives, and especially the other's narrative. The study assumed that members of groups entangled in a conflict approach the different modules of the other's narrative distinctively. Jewish and Palestinian teachers, Israeli citizens, answered questionnaires dealing with the narrative of the other, readiness for interethnic contact, negative between-group emotions and preferences for resolutions of the Israeli-Palestinian (I-P) conflict. Positive weighing of the other's narrative among Jewish teachers correlated with high levels of readiness for interethnic contact and low levels of negative between-group emotions, across the various modules of the Palestinian narrative. Preferences for a peaceful resolution of the I-P conflict and rejection of a violent one were noted in two of the modules. Among Palestinian teachers, positive weighing of the other's collective narrative was exclusively noted for the Israeli narrative of the Holocaust, and this stance negatively related to negative between-group emotions and preference for a violent solution of the I-P conflict, and positively related to readiness for interethnic contact and preference of a peaceful resolution of the conflict. Practical implications of these findings for peace education are discussed.

  18. Medical Device Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep ...

  19. Implantable electronic medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Implantable Electronic Medical Devices provides a thorough review of the application of implantable devices, illustrating the techniques currently being used together with overviews of the latest commercially available medical devices. This book provides an overview of the design of medical devices and is a reference on existing medical devices. The book groups devices with similar functionality into distinct chapters, looking at the latest design ideas and techniques in each area, including retinal implants, glucose biosensors, cochlear implants, pacemakers, electrical stimulation t

  20. Research for Corrugated Pipe Weighing in Smoke Box Article Lack Weighing Detection System%基于波纹管称重的烟箱缺条称重检测系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡涌; 袁兴; 朱云霞; 闻平

    2016-01-01

    Along with the market,to the promotion of tobacco products for tobacco enterprise the pursuit to the high level of quality products.In smoke cigarette factories reel package workshop production packing warehousing process, often happened crates lacks the process defect,traditional generally by ray or photoelectric instrument to detect, but because of factors such as error detection and radiation, causing the effect is not very ideal. This paper analyzes in detail a kind of online weighing testing to determine the principle of different brand cigarette box article deficiency, weighing testing no radiation, detection principle is simple and reliable, recognised by the tobacco industry.%随着市场对烟草产品要求的提升,烟草企业不断追求高质量的产品水平。在卷烟厂卷包车间成品烟装箱入库工艺中,时有发生成箱缺条的工艺缺陷,传统一般通过射线或者光电仪器检测,但是因检测误差和射线辐射等因素,导致效果不是很理想。该文详细分析了一种通过在线称重检测来判断不同品牌烟箱缺条的原理,称重检测无辐射,检测原理简单可靠,得到了烟草企业的认可。

  1. 井口称重式计量系统在油田的应用%The Application of Wellhead Weighing Metering System in Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艾萤; 李秋莲; 张岳峰; 李秋香

    2016-01-01

    Put forward the "car tank storage transport" converted into pipeline technology, single- well measurement will become a key technology for pipeline transporting. Wellhead weighing metering system is mainly composed of single well entry line, multichannel valve, weighing sensor, left or right position sensor, tanks, oil and gas separator, single well gas export pipeline, hopper, distributor, skip, float controller, single well pipeline, single well flow export pipeline, etc. Metering system is added a full automatic multi-channel valve on the device, can access to ≤30 single-well respectively, through the computer to realize automatic switching of single well, continuous measurement of each single well pro-duced fluid volume, skip position sensor, automatic detection, recording, printing, dis-play operation parameters of each single well production,which can realize continuous auto-matic metering oil. The metering system can well solve the high viscosity of heavy oil and low oil and gas ratio single well oil well measurement problem,also can meet the thin oil and high oil and gas than single well oil well measurement at the same time,and has wide applica-bility.%自提出将“罐储车运”的原油输送方式改造成管道输送的工艺,单井计量就成为实现管输的关键性技术。井口称重式计量系统主要由单井入口管路、多路阀、称重传感器、左位置传感器、右位置传感器、罐体、油气分离器、单井气出口管路、集料斗、分布器、翻斗、浮子调节器、单井出口管路、单井汇流出口管路等组成。计量系统设置了一个全自动多路阀,最多可以接入30口单井,通过计算机实现单井的自动切换,连续测量每个单井的产液量。位置传感器检测翻斗的状态,自动检测、记录、打印、显示各单井的生产运行参数,可实现连续自动量油。该计量系统能较好地解决高黏度稠油和低油气比油井的单井计量

  2. Ultraefficient Themoelectric Devices Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermoelectric (TE) devices already found a wide range of commercial, military and aerospace applications. However, at present commercially available TE devices...

  3. Preliminary research findings on traffic-load forecasting using weigh-in-motion data. Interim research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C.E.; Pangburn, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    In order to forecast highway pavement performance and to design adequate pavement structures, detailed traffic loading information is essential. Traffic data collected by two unique weigh-in-motion (WIM) systems located in the southbound lanes of US 50 in east Texas have been analyzed and used to develop a methodology for forecasting future traffic loading patterns. The WIM systems, which have been in service continually since late 1992, have collected such data as the date, time, speed, lateral lane position, axle spacings, and wheel loads for about 7,500 individual vehicles per day. Thermocouples in the air and embedded in the pavement have measured and recorded hourly air and pavement temperatures, respectively.

  4. Automatic Weighing System for Kitchen Waste%餐厨垃圾自动称重系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席本强; 武洪岩; 谢军波

    2012-01-01

    In the current work of food waste collection and transportation, cost can't be automatically generated according to the polluters' a-mount of food waste. So an automatic system( installed in the vehicles) is design,which work through the RFID and automatic weighing modules. The core of the system is a PIC microcontroller. Data are stored in the IC through the I2C-bus card. IC card is submitted when the job finished. Then the computer will complete the statistics of pollution amount from the polluters. Test results show that the system can accurately measure food waste,and weigh automatically.%针对目前餐厨垃圾收运工作存在无法自动计算污染者的餐厨垃圾产生量的问题,设计了一种以PIC单片机为核心的餐厨垃圾自动称重系统,通过安装在收运车辆上的RFID模块和自动称重模块,对不同污染者的垃圾产生量进行自动称重.数据通过I2C总线存储在IC卡中,作业完成提交IC卡,由计算机完成对污染者污染量的统计.测试结果证明,该系统能够对餐厨垃圾进行准确测量,达到自动称重的目的.

  5. A Mixed-Methods Evaluation of the Choose Less, Weigh Less Portion Size Health Marketing Campaign in Los Angeles County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Barragan, Noel C; Robles, Brenda; Leighs, Michael; Kuo, Tony

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of the Choose Less, Weigh Less portion size health marketing campaign. A mixed-methods, cross-sectional evaluation. A quantitative Internet panel survey was administered through an online sampling vendor and qualitative interviews were conducted by street intercept. The panel survey included 796 participants, weighted to represent Los Angeles County. Street intercept interviews were conducted with 50 other participants. The Choose Less, Weigh Less campaign included print media on transit shelters, bus and rail cars, and billboards; radio and online advertising; and Web site content and social media outreach. The panel survey measured self-reported campaign exposure and outcomes, including knowledge of recommended daily calorie limits, attitudes toward portion sizes, and intent to reduce calories and portion size. Intercept interviews assessed campaign appeal, clarity, and utility. Weighted survey data were analyzed using logistic regression to assess the association between campaign exposure and outcomes. Interview data were analyzed for themes. The campaign reached 19.7% of the Los Angeles County population. Significant differences were seen for 2 of the 10 outcomes assessed. Participants who saw the campaign were more likely than those who did not to report fast-food portion sizes as being too large (adjusted odds ratio [Adj. OR]: 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16, 3.07) and intention to choose a smaller portion (Adj. OR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.20, 3.31). Qualitative data revealed three themes about appeal, clarity, and utility. Health marketing efforts targeting portion size can have relatively broad reach and limited but positive impacts on consumer attitudes and intent to select smaller portions.

  6. Road Weigh Stations, Permanent weigh stations of North Carolina. These data were manually heads-up digitized using either ESRI Imagery Prime World 1 meter resolution imagery (http://services.arcgisonline.com/v92) and the NC OneMap Express WMS Service as reference. The visual, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Institute for Transportation Research and Education.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Road Weigh Stations dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2009. It is described as...

  7. Avaliação técnica de um sistema de pesagem no carregamento florestal Technical evaluation of a weighing system in log loader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Silva Lopes

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo avaliar tecnicamente um sistema de pesagem no carregamento de madeira. Os dados foram obtidos em 124 veículos de transporte, em áreas de colheita de madeira de Pinus taeda. A análise técnica englobou um estudo de tempos e movimentos e de produtividade do carregador florestal e determinação da eficiência do sistema de pesagem. Os resultados indicaram que houve aumento no tempo de carregamento devido à necessidade de pausas para estabilização do equipamento. Foi ainda verificado que a diferença média de pesos entre o sistema de pesagem e a balança da fábrica foi de 218 kg, correspondendo a um erro médio de 0,72%. Pelo teste "t", verificou-se que as leituras de pesos obtidos entre o sistema de pesagem e a balança da fábrica não diferiram entre si, comprovando a eficiência do equipamento.The objective of this research was to evaluate a weighing system in log loader. Data was obtained from 124 trucks in areas of Pinus taeda harvesting. The operational analysis included a log loader productivity, time and motion study and weighing efficiency evaluation. The analysis revealed that the mean difference between the weighing system and industry weighing was approximately 218 kg, corresponding to a 0.72% mean error. T-test showed no difference between the weight reading by the weighing system and the industry weighing, proving the equipment efficiency.

  8. Rhetorical Devices in English Advertisements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芃

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve persuasive and convincing effects,rhetorical devices are frequently applied in English advertisements.The paper classifies rhetorical devices into four basic categories: phonetic devices,lexical devices,syntactic devices and figures of

  9. Implantable Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Implantable Medical Devices Updated:Sep 16,2016 For Rhythm Control ... a Heart Attack Introduction Medications Surgical Procedures Implantable Medical Devices • Life After a Heart Attack • Heart Attack ...

  10. Glass fiber-reinforced polymer packaged fiber Bragg grating sensors for low-speed weigh-in-motion measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tarawneh, Mu'ath; Huang, Ying

    2016-08-01

    The weight of rolling trucks on roads is one of the critical factors for the management of road networks due to the continuous increase in truck weight. Weigh-in-motion (WIM) sensors have been widely used for weight enforcement. A three-dimensional glass fiber-reinforced polymer packaged fiber Bragg grating sensor (3-D GFRP-FBG) is introduced for in-pavement WIM measurement at low vehicle passing speed. A sensitivity study shows that the developed sensor is very sensitive to the sensor installation depth and the longitudinal and transverse locations of the wheel loading position. The developed 3-D GFRP-FBG sensor is applicable for most practical pavements with a panel length larger than 6 ft, and it also shows a very good long-term durability. For the three components in 3-D of the developed sensor, the longitudinal component has the highest sensitivity for WIM measurements, followed by the transverse and vertical components. Field testing validated the sensitivity and repeatability of the developed 3-D GFRP-FBG sensor. The developed sensor provides the transportation agency one alternative solution for WIM measurement, which could significantly improve the measurement efficiency and long-term durability.

  11. A Novel Wireless Power Transfer-Based Weighed Clustering Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Method for Cognitive Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin

    2015-10-30

    In a cognitive sensor network (CSN), the wastage of sensing time and energy is a challenge to cooperative spectrum sensing, when the number of cooperative cognitive nodes (CNs) becomes very large. In this paper, a novel wireless power transfer (WPT)-based weighed clustering cooperative spectrum sensing model is proposed, which divides all the CNs into several clusters, and then selects the most favorable CNs as the cluster heads and allows the common CNs to transfer the received radio frequency (RF) energy of the primary node (PN) to the cluster heads, in order to supply the electrical energy needed for sensing and cooperation. A joint resource optimization is formulated to maximize the spectrum access probability of the CSN, through jointly allocating sensing time and clustering number. According to the resource optimization results, a clustering algorithm is proposed. The simulation results have shown that compared to the traditional model, the cluster heads of the proposed model can achieve more transmission power and there exists optimal sensing time and clustering number to maximize the spectrum access probability.

  12. Weighing and measuring primary school children: evaluation of the TRENDS model for implementation of Department of Health guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R S; Connor, A M; Feltbower, R G; Robinson, M; Rudolf, M C J

    2009-05-01

    The UK Department of Health for England and Wales has issued guidance to all local Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), who have responsibility for school nursing services, for the annual weighing and measuring of all children on entry to primary school and in Year 6 (age 5 and 11 years respectively), known as the National Child Measurement Programme. The guidance places the responsibility for implementation and funding of this scheme onto the PCTs. This paper describes the conduct and evaluation of the 2006 monitoring exercise in a 10% sample of Leeds primary schools. The evaluation showed that the exercise can be carried out with little disruption in schools and minimal distress for children. Recommendations include: adequate staff training in measuring children, along with anticipation of the issues and problems they may encounter and best practice for dealing with them. A good working relationship must be established between the team and school before the measuring day. Schools need to ensure the availability of suitable accommodation and a screen to maintain privacy. Lightweight but robust and accurate scales conforming to the European Union standard should be used and routinely checked for accuracy. Where possible, children should not be lined up, but seen individually. This is considered essential for the older Year 6 children.

  13. Traffic weigh-in-motion (WIM measurements and validation of the Texas perpetual pavement structural design concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubinda F. Walubita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, the State of Texas has used perpetual pavement (PP structures on its heavily trafficked highways, where the expected 20-year truck-traffic estimate of 80 kN ESALs (equivalent single axle loads is in excess of 30 million. As a means to validate the Texas PP structural design concept and to make optimal future truck-traffic design recommendations, traffic Weigh In-Motion (WIM measurements were conducted and analyzed for two PP projects. The findings indicated that the initial 80 kN ESAL traffic design estimates for PP were comparable to the projections based on the actual measured WIM traffic data. However, underestimation of the hot mix asphalt layer dynamic moduli resulted in conservative designs for the PP structures. In addition, based on the successful use of the automated WIM data stations for traffic data collection, the paper highlights possible applications and advantages (as compared to conventional manual collection of traffic data of using detailed WIM traffic data information for future analyses of both highway operation and pavement structural design.

  14. Weighing worth against uncertain work: the interplay of exhaustion, ambiguity, hope and disappointment in mothers breastfeeding late preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke Demirci, Jill; Happ, Mary Beth; Bogen, Debra L; Albrecht, Susan A; Cohen, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Poor breastfeeding outcomes among late preterm infants (LPIs) have been attributed to inadequate breast milk transfer stemming from physiological immaturities. However, breastfeeding is more than a biological phenomenon, and it is unclear how mothers of LPIs manage other factors that may also impact the breastfeeding course. Using grounded theory methods and incorporating serial post-partum interviews with several novel data collection techniques, we examined breastfeeding establishment over a 6-8-week-period among 10 late preterm mother-infant dyads recruited from a maternity hospital in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA. We found that breastfeeding in the LPI population was a fluctuating, cascade-like progression of trial and error, influenced by a host of contextual factors and events and culminating with breastfeeding continuation (with or without future caveats for duration or exclusivity of breastfeeding) or cessation. The trajectory was explained by the basic psychosocial process Weighing Worth against Uncertain Work, which encompassed the tension among breastfeeding motivation, the intensity of breastfeeding work and the ambiguity surrounding infant behaviour and feeding cues. Several sub-processes were also identified: Playing the Game, Letting Him Be the Judge vs. Accommodating Both of Us and Questioning Worth vs. Holding out Hope. If valid, our theoretical model indicates a need for earlier, more extensive and more qualified breastfeeding support for mothers of LPIs that emphasizes the connection between prematurity and observed feeding behaviours.

  15. Thermography of electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Panfilova S. P.; Vlasov A. I.; Gridnev V. N.; Chervinsky A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example o...

  16. Heterostructures and quantum devices

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1994-01-01

    Heterostructure and quantum-mechanical devices promise significant improvement in the performance of electronic and optoelectronic integrated circuits (ICs). Though these devices are the subject of a vigorous research effort, the current literature is often either highly technical or narrowly focused. This book presents heterostructure and quantum devices to the nonspecialist, especially electrical engineers working with high-performance semiconductor devices. It focuses on a broad base of technical applications using semiconductor physics theory to develop the next generation of electrical en

  17. Organic photosensitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  18. Device-less interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monaci, G.; Triki, M.; Sarroukh, B.E.

    2009-01-01

    This document describes the results of a technology survey for device-less interaction. The Device-less Interaction project (2007-307) aims at providing interaction options for future home appliances without resorting to a remote control or any other dedicated control device. The target home applia

  19. Organic photosensitive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rand, Barry P; Forrest, Stephen R

    2013-11-26

    The present invention generally relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices. More specifically, it is directed to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices having a photoactive organic region containing encapsulated nanoparticles that exhibit plasmon resonances. An enhancement of the incident optical field is achieved via surface plasmon polariton resonances. This enhancement increases the absorption of incident light, leading to a more efficient device.

  20. Photovoltaic device and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleereman, Robert; Lesniak, Michael J.; Keenihan, James R.; Langmaid, Joe A.; Gaston, Ryan; Eurich, Gerald K.; Boven, Michelle L.

    2015-11-24

    The present invention is premised upon an improved photovoltaic device ("PVD") and method of use, more particularly to an improved photovoltaic device with an integral locator and electrical terminal mechanism for transferring current to or from the improved photovoltaic device and the use as a system.

  1. Weighing the Milky Way

    CERN Document Server

    Karim, M; Bokhari, A H; Karim, Munawar; Tartaglia, Angelo; Bokhari, Ashfaque H.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an experiment to measure the mass of the Milky Way galaxy. The experiment is based on calculated light travel times along orthogonal directions in the Schwarzschild metric of the Galactic center. We show that the difference is proportional to the Galactic mass. We apply the result to light travel times in a 10cm Michelson type interferometer located on Earth. The mass of the Galactic center is shown to contribute 10^-6 to the flat space component of the metric. An experiment is proposed to measure the effect.

  2. Kids Weigh to Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Mary Jane

    A description is given of a program that provides preventive measures to check obesity in children and young people. The 24-week program is divided into two parts--a nutrition component and an exercise component. At the start and end of the program, tests are given to assess the participants' height, weight, body composition, fitness level, and…

  3. Weighing SSRIs and TCAs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review was prompted by a comment on the l

  4. Weighing the Smallest Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    VLT Finds Young, Very Low Mass Objects Are Twice As Heavy As Predicted Summary Thanks to the powerful new high-contrast camera installed at the Very Large Telescope, photos have been obtained of a low-mass companion very close to a star. This has allowed astronomers to measure directly the mass of a young, very low mass object for the first time. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its host star, is still 93 times as massive as Jupiter. And it appears to be almost twice as heavy as theory predicts it to be. This discovery therefore suggests that, due to errors in the models, astronomers may have overestimated the number of young "brown dwarfs" and "free floating" extrasolar planets. PR Photo 03/05: Near-infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion (NACO SDI/VLT) A winning combination A star can be characterised by many parameters. But one is of uttermost importance: its mass. It is the mass of a star that will decide its fate. It is thus no surprise that astronomers are keen to obtain a precise measure of this parameter. This is however not an easy task, especially for the least massive ones, those at the border between stars and brown dwarf objects. Brown dwarfs, or "failed stars", are objects which are up to 75 times more massive than Jupiter, too small for major nuclear fusion processes to have ignited in its interior. To determine the mass of a star, astronomers generally look at the motion of stars in a binary system. And then apply the same method that allows determining the mass of the Earth, knowing the distance of the Moon and the time it takes for its satellite to complete one full orbit (the so-called "Kepler's Third Law"). In the same way, they have also measured the mass of the Sun by knowing the Earth-Sun distance and the time - one year - it takes our planet to make a tour around the Sun. The problem with low-mass objects is that they are very faint and will often be hidden in the glare of the brighter star they orbit, also when viewed in large telescopes. Astronomers have however found ways to overcome this difficulty. For this, they rely on a combination of a well-considered observational strategy with state-of-the-art instruments. High contrast camera First, astronomers searching for very low mass objects look at young nearby stars because low-mass companion objects will be brightest while they are young, before they contract and cool off. In this particular case, an international team of astronomers [1] led by Laird Close (Steward Observatory, University of Arizona), studied the star AB Doradus A (AB Dor A). This star is located about 48 light-years away and is "only" 50 million years old. Because the position in the sky of AB Dor A "wobbles", due to the gravitational pull of a star-like object, it was believed since the early 1990s that AB Dor A must have a low-mass companion. To photograph this companion and obtain a comprehensive set of data about it, Close and his colleagues used a novel instrument on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. This new high-contrast adaptive optics camera, the NACO Simultaneous Differential Imager, or NACO SDI [2], was specifically developed by Laird Close and Rainer Lenzen (Max-Planck-Institute for Astronomy in Heidelberg, Germany) for hunting extrasolar planets. The SDI camera enhances the ability of the VLT and its adaptive optics system to detect faint companions that would normally be lost in the glare of the primary star. A world premiere ESO PR Photo 03/05 ESO PR Photo 03/05 Infrared image of AB Doradus A and its companion [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 406 pix - 99k] [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 812 pix - 235k] Caption: ESO PR Photo 03/05 is an enhanced, false-colour near-infrared image of AB Dor A and C. The faint companion "AB Dor C" - seen as the pink dot at 8 o'clock - is 120 times fainter than its primary star. The tiny separation between A and C, only 0.156 arcsec, is smaller than a one Euro coin seen at 20 km distance. Nevertheless, the new NACO SDI camera was able to distinguish it as a "redder" dot surrounded by the "bluer" light from AB Dor A. The orbit of AB Dor C around AB Dor A is shown as a yellow ellipse. It takes 11.75 years for the 93 Jupiter-mass companion to complete this orbit. Turning this camera towards AB Dor A in February 2004, they were able for the first time to image a companion so faint - 120 times fainter than its star - and so near its star. Says Markus Hartung (ESO), member of the team: "This world premiere was only possible because of the unique capabilities of the NACO SDI instrument on the VLT. In fact, the Hubble Space Telescope tried but failed to detect the companion, as it was too faint and too close to the glare of the primary star." The tiny distance between the star and the faint companion (0.156 arcsec) is the same as the width of a one Euro coin (2.3 cm) when seen 20 km away. The companion, called AB Dor C, was seen at a distance of 2.3 times the mean distance between the Earth and the Sun. It completes a cycle around its host star in 11.75 years on a rather eccentric orbit. Using the companion's exact location, along with the star's known 'wobble', the astronomers could then accurately determine the companion's mass. The object, more than 100 times fainter than its close primary star, has one tenth of the mass of its host star, i.e., it is 93 times more massive than Jupiter. It is thus slightly above the brown dwarf limit. Using NACO on the VLT, the astronomers further observed AB Dor C at near infrared wavelengths to measure its temperature and luminosity. "We were surprised to find that the companion was 400 degrees (Celsius) cooler and 2.5 times fainter than the most recent models predict for an object of this mass," Close said. "Theory predicts that this low-mass, cool object would be about 50 Jupiter masses. But theory is incorrect: this object is indeed between 88 to 98 Jupiter masses." These new findings therefore challenge current ideas about the brown dwarf population and the possible existence of widely publicized "free-floating" extrasolar planets. Indeed, if young objects hitherto identified as brown dwarfs are twice as massive as was thought, many must rather be low-mass stars. And objects recently identified as "free-floating" planets are in turn likely to be low-mass brown dwarfs. For Close and his colleagues, "this discovery will force astronomers to rethink what masses of the smallest objects produced in nature really are."

  5. Unitary lens semiconductor device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Kevin L.

    1997-01-01

    A unitary lens semiconductor device and method. The unitary lens semiconductor device is provided with at least one semiconductor layer having a composition varying in the growth direction for unitarily forming one or more lenses in the semiconductor layer. Unitary lens semiconductor devices may be formed as light-processing devices such as microlenses, and as light-active devices such as light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, and resonant cavity photodetectors.

  6. Optical plasma microelectronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Thyler; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices was successfully replaced with an optically triggered gas plasma channel. The combination of DC and laser-induced gas ionizations controls the conductivity of the channel, enabling us to realize different electronic devices such as transistors, switches, modulators, etc. A special micro-scale metasurface was used to enhance the laser-gas interaction, as well as combining it with DC ionization properly. Optical plasma devices benefit form the advantages of plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving most of the integrablity of semiconductor based devices.

  7. FLUIDICS DEVICE FOR ASSAY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to a device for use in performing assays on standard laboratory solid supports whereon chemical entities are attached. The invention furthermore relates to the use of such a device and a kit comprising such a device. The device according to the present invention is a......, when operatively connected, one or more chambers (21) comprising the chemical entities (41), the inlet(s) (5) and outlet(s) (6) and chambers (21) being in fluid connection. The device further comprise means for providing differing chemical conditions in each chamber (21)....

  8. Solid state devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Solid State Device research program is directed toward developing innovative devices for space remote and in-situ sensing, and for data processing. Innovative devices can result from the standard structures in innovative materials such as low and high temperature superconductors, strained layer superlattices, or diamond films. Innovative devices can also result from innovative structures achieved using electron tunneling or nanolithography in standard materials. A final step is to use both innovative structures and innovative materials. A new area of emphasis is the miniaturization of sensors and instruments molded by using the techniques of electronic device fabrication to micromachine silicon into micromechanical and electromechanical sensors and actuators.

  9. Nonparametric factorial analysis of daily weigh-in-motion traffic: implications for the ozone "weekend effect" in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Oliver H.; Holmén, Britt A.; Niemeier, Debbie A.

    The Ozone Weekend Effect (OWE) has become increasingly more frequent and widespread in southern California since the mid-1970s. Although a number of hypotheses have been suggested to explain the effect, there remains uncertainty associated with the root factors contributing to elevated weekend ozone concentrations. Targeting the time window of the 1997 Southern California Ozone Study (SCOS97), this paper examines traffic activity data for 14 vehicle classes at 27 weigh-in-motion (WIM) stations in southern California. Nonparametric factorial analyses of light-duty vehicle (LDV) and heavy-duty truck (HDT) traffic volumes indicate significant differences in daily volumes by day of week and between the weekly patterns of daily LDV and HDT volumes. Across WIM stations, the daily LDV volume was highest on Friday and decreased by 10% on weekends compared to that on midweek days. In contrast, daily HDT volumes showed dramatic weekend drops of 53% on Saturday and 64% on Sunday. As a result, LDV to HDT ratios increased by 145% on weekends. Nonparametric tests also suggest that weekly traffic patterns varied significantly between WIM stations located close to (central) and far from (peripheral) the Los Angeles Metro area. Weekend increases in LDV/HDT ratios were more pronounced at central WIM sites due to greater weekend declines of HDT relative to LDV traffic. The implications of these weekly traffic patterns for the OWE in southern California were investigated by estimating daily WIM traffic on-road running exhaust emissions of total organic gas (TOG) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) using EMFAC2002 emission factors. The results support the California Air Resource Board's (CARB's) NO x reduction hypothesis that greater weekend NO x reductions relative to volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions, in combinations with the VOC-limited ozone system, contribute to the OWE observed in the region. The results from this study can be used to develop weekend on-road mobile emission

  10. Group-living herbivores weigh up food availability and dominance status when making patch-joining decisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keenan Stears

    Full Text Available Two key factors that influence the foraging behaviour of group-living herbivores are food availability and individual dominance status. Yet, how the combination of these factors influences the patch-joining decisions of individuals foraging within groups has scarcely been explored. To address this, we focused on the patch-joining decisions of group-living domestic goats (Capra hircus. When individuals were tested against the top four ranked goats of the herd, we found that at patches with low food availability they avoided these dominant patch-holders and only joined subordinates (i.e. costs outweighed benefits. However, as the amount of food increased, the avoidance of the top ranked individuals declined. Specifically, goats shifted and joined the patch of an individual one dominance rank higher than the previous dominant patch holder when the initial quantity of food in the new patch was twice that of the lower ranking individual's patch (i.e. benefits outweighed costs. In contrast, when individuals chose between patches held by dominant goats, other than the top four ranked goats, and subordinate individuals, we found that they equally joined the dominant and subordinate patch-holders. This joining was irrespective of the dominance gap, absolute rank of the dominant patch-holder, sex or food availability (i.e. benefits outweighed costs. Ultimately, our results highlight that herbivores weigh up the costs and benefits of both food availability and patch-holder dominance status when making patch-joining decisions. Furthermore, as the initial quantity of food increases, food availability becomes more important than dominance with regard to influencing patch-joining decisions.

  11. Weighing Scale-Based Pulse Transit Time is a Superior Marker of Blood Pressure than Conventional Pulse Arrival Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L.-O.; Carek, Andrew M.; Kim, Chang-Sei; Ashouri, Hazar; Inan, Omer T.; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-12-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is being widely pursued for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring. Most efforts have employed the time delay between ECG and finger photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms as a convenient surrogate of PTT. However, these conventional pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements include the pre-ejection period (PEP) and the time delay through small, muscular arteries and may thus be an unreliable marker of BP. We assessed a bathroom weighing scale-like system for convenient measurement of ballistocardiography and foot PPG waveforms – and thus PTT through larger, more elastic arteries – in terms of its ability to improve tracking of BP in individual subjects. We measured “scale PTT”, conventional PAT, and cuff BP in humans during interventions that increased BP but changed PEP and smooth muscle contraction differently. Scale PTT tracked the diastolic BP changes well, with correlation coefficient of ‑0.80 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) and root-mean-squared-error of 7.6 ± 0.5 mmHg after a best-case calibration. Conventional PAT was significantly inferior in tracking these changes, with correlation coefficient of ‑0.60 ± 0.04 and root-mean-squared-error of 14.6 ± 1.5 mmHg (p < 0.05). Scale PTT also tracked the systolic BP changes better than conventional PAT but not to an acceptable level. With further development, scale PTT may permit reliable, convenient measurement of BP.

  12. Abstract Storage Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Koenig, Robert; Tessaro, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    A quantum storage device differs radically from a conventional physical storage device. Its state can be set to any value in a certain (infinite) state space, but in general every possible read operation yields only partial information about the stored state. The purpose of this paper is to initiate the study of a combinatorial abstraction, called abstract storage device (ASD), which models deterministic storage devices with the property that only partial information about the state can be read, but that there is a degree of freedom as to which partial information should be retrieved. This concept leads to a number of interesting problems which we address, like the reduction of one device to another device, the equivalence of devices, direct products of devices, as well as the factorization of a device into primitive devices. We prove that every ASD has an equivalent ASD with minimal number of states and of possible read operations. Also, we prove that the reducibility problem for ASD's is NP-complete, that t...

  13. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  14. Smart portable rehabilitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Danaher, Gil; Jensen, Katherine; Pelletier, Philip; Prugnarola, Jennifer; Stuart, Ryan; Arango, Roberto; Leahey, Matt; Pavone, Robert; Provo, Andrew; Yasevac, Dan

    2005-07-12

    The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s). In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Laboratory tests of the devices demonstrated that they were able to meet their design

  15. Stretchable Organic Semiconductor Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yan; Zhang, Xinwen; Xie, Linghai; Qi, Dianpeng; Chandran, Bevita K; Chen, Xiaodong; Huang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Stretchable electronics are essential for the development of intensely packed collapsible and portable electronics, wearable electronics, epidermal and bioimplanted electronics, 3D surface compliable devices, bionics, prosthesis, and robotics. However, most stretchable devices are currently based on inorganic electronics, whose high cost of fabrication and limited processing area make it difficult to produce inexpensive, large-area devices. Therefore, organic stretchable electronics are highly attractive due to many advantages over their inorganic counterparts, such as their light weight, flexibility, low cost and large-area solution-processing, the reproducible semiconductor resources, and the easy tuning of their properties via molecular tailoring. Among them, stretchable organic semiconductor devices have become a hot and fast-growing research field, in which great advances have been made in recent years. These fantastic advances are summarized here, focusing on stretchable organic field-effect transistors, light-emitting devices, solar cells, and memory devices.

  16. Controlling Smart Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Milanič, Matjaž

    2016-01-01

    Smart devices make our lives easier. However, by delegating more and more tasks to smart devices our wellbeing becomes dependent on their correct functioning. This creates a need for monitoring home devices in a similar way as businesses already do. The thesis describes the steps required for building a monitoring system suited for smart home monitoring, from the initial design to the final implementation of the solution. The goal was to create a user friendly monitoring system, designed as m...

  17. Sensor sentinel computing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, Joseph P.

    2016-08-02

    Technologies pertaining to authenticating data output by sensors in an industrial environment are described herein. A sensor sentinel computing device receives time-series data from a sensor by way of a wireline connection. The sensor sentinel computing device generates a validation signal that is a function of the time-series signal. The sensor sentinel computing device then transmits the validation signal to a programmable logic controller in the industrial environment.

  18. 基于PLC控制的铝粉自动过筛和称量系统%The Aluminium Powder Automatically Sifting and Weighing System Based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾庆林; 邹庆勇

    2011-01-01

    本文闸述了一套基于PLC控制的铝粉自动过筛和称量系统,该系统基于西门子PLC和工业控制计算机控制,采用现场总线技术,实现了铝粉过筛和称量的远程隔离操作,提高了工作效率,保障了操作人员的身体健康和生命安全.%The article describes an aluminium powder automatically sifting and weighing system based on PLC control. The system is based on Siemens PLC and industrial control computer control, and uses field-bus technology. In the system, the aluminum powder is sifted and weighed in distance. It improves working efficiency, protects the operator's health and safety.

  19. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  20. Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This searchable database contains establishments (engaged in the manufacture, preparation, propagation, compounding, assembly, or processing of medical devices...

  1. Simple piezoelectric translation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermann, Ph.; Emch, R.; Descouts, P.

    1988-02-01

    We describe a piezoelectric device which allows continuous movement and high-resolution micropositioning, without distance limitation. Both mechanical construction and the electronics for the device are very simple. The movement is obtained via a stick-slip mechanism, and steps as small as 10 nm are obtained. A displacement speed of 0.4 mm/s has been attained, and the device was capable of carrying several times its own weight, exerting a horizontal force, or climbing a plane inclined by 7°. Due to its compact construction, the device shows prospects for miniaturization.

  2. Virtual Training Devices Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Virtual Training Devices (VTD) Laboratory at the Life Cycle Software Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal, provides a software testing and support environment...

  3. A MultiFactorial Risk Score to weigh toxicities and co-morbidities relative to costs of antiretrovirals in a cohort of HIV-infected patients

    OpenAIRE

    Tontodonati, M.; Sozio, F; F Vadini; Polilli, E.; Ursini, T; G. Calella; Di Stefano, P.; Mazzotta, E.; Costantini, A.; C D'Amario; Parruti, G

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the study: Considering costs of antiretrovirals (ARVs) for HIV patients is increasingly needed. A simple and comprehensive tool weighing comorbidities and ARV-related toxicities could be useful to judge the appropriateness of use of more expensive drugs. We conceived a MultiFactorial Risk Score (MFRS) to evaluate the appropriateness of ARVs prescription relative to their costs. Methods: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled in 2010-2011. We considered socio-demographic character...

  4. Effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement in a developing country using weigh-in-motion sorting system considering vehicle by-pass and enforcement capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Rehan Karim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle overloading has been identified as one of the major contributors to road pavement damage in Malaysia. In this study, the weigh-in-motion (WIM system has been used to function as a vehicle weight sorting tool to complement the exsiting static weigh bridge enforcement station. Data collected from the developed system is used to explore the effectiveness of using WIM system in terms of generating more accurate data for enforcement purposes and at the same time improving safety and reducing the number of vehicle weight violations on the roads. This study specifically focus on the effect of vehicle by-pass and static weigh station enforcement capability on the overall effectiveness of vehicle weight enforcement system in a developing country. Results from this study suggest that the WIM system will significantly enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the current vehicle weight enforcement, thus generating substantial revenue that would greatly off-set the current road maintenance budget that comes from tax payers money. If there is substantial reduction in overloaded vehicles, the public will still gain through reduction in road maintenance budget, less accident risks involving heavy trucks, and lesser greenhouse gases (GHGs emissions.

  5. Validity of hydration non-invasive indices during the weightcutting and official weigh-in for Olympic combat sports.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentín E Fernández-Elías

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Olympic combat sports, weight cutting is a common practice aimed to take advantage of competing in weight divisions below the athlete's normal weight. Fluid and food restriction in combination with dehydration (sauna and/or exercise induced profuse sweating are common weight cut methods. However, the resultant hypohydration could adversely affect health and performance outcomes. PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to determine which of the routinely used non-invasive measures of dehydration best track urine osmolality, the gold standard non-invasive test. METHOD: Immediately prior to the official weigh-in of three National Championships, the hydration status of 345 athletes of Olympic combat sports (i.e., taekwondo, boxing and wrestling was determined using five separate techniques: i urine osmolality (UOSM, ii urine specific gravity (USG, iii urine color (UCOL, iv bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, and v thirst perception scale (TPS. All techniques were correlated with UOSM divided into three groups: euhydrated (G1; UOSM 250-700 mOsm · kg H2O(-1, dehydrated (G2; UOSM 701-1080 mOsm · kg H2O(-1, and severely dehydrated (G3; UOSM 1081-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1. RESULTS: We found a positive high correlation between the UOSM and USG (r = 0.89: p = 0.000, although this relationship lost strength as dehydration increased (G1 r = 0.92; G2 r = 0.73; and G3 r = 0.65; p = 0.000. UCOL showed a moderate although significant correlation when considering the whole sample (r = 0.743: p = 0.000 and G1 (r = 0.702: p = 0.000 but low correlation for the two dehydrated groups (r = 0.498-0.398. TPS and BIA showed very low correlation sizes for all groups assessed. CONCLUSION: In a wide range of pre-competitive hydration status (UOSM 250-1500 mOsm · kg H2O(-1, USG is highly associated with UOSM while being a more affordable and easy to use technique. UCOL is a suitable tool when USG is not available. However, BIA or TPS are not sensitive enough to

  6. Laparoscopic Versus Open Hysterectomy for Benign Disease in Uteri Weighing >1 kg: A Retrospective Analysis on 258 Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccella, Stefano; Morosi, Chiara; Marconi, Nicola; Arrigo, Anna; Gisone, Baldo; Casarin, Jvan; Pinelli, Ciro; Borghi, Camilla; Ghezzi, Fabio

    2017-07-12

    To present a large single-center series of hysterectomies for uteri ≥1 kg and to compare the laparoscopic and open abdominal approach in terms of perioperative outcomes and complications. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). An academic research center. Consecutive women who underwent hysterectomy for uteri ≥1 kg between January 2000 and December 2016. Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of uterine malignancy or suspected uterine malignancy were excluded. The subjects were divided according to the intended initial surgical approach (i.e., open or laparoscopic). The 2 groups were compared in terms of intraoperative data and postoperative outcomes. Multivariable analysis was performed to identify possible independent predictors of overall complications. A subanalysis including only obese women was accomplished. Total laparoscopic versus abdominal hysterectomy (±bilateral adnexectomy). Intra- and postoperative surgical outcomes. A total of 258 patients were included; 55 (21.3%) women were initially approached by open surgery and 203 (78.7%) by laparoscopy. Nine (4.4%) conversions from laparoscopic to open surgery were registered. The median operative time was longer in the laparoscopic group (120 [range, 50-360] vs 85 [range, 35-240] minutes, p = .014). The estimated blood loss (150 [range, 0-1700] vs 200 [50-3000] mL, p = .04), postoperative hemoglobin drop, and hospital stay (1 [range, 1-8] vs 3 [range, 1-8] days, p laparoscopic approach was found to be the only independent predictor of a lower incidence of overall complications (odds ratio = 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.9). The overall morbidity of minimally invasive hysterectomy was lower also in the subanalysis concerning only obese patients. In experienced hands and in dedicated centers, laparoscopic hysterectomy for uteri weighing ≥1 kg is feasible and safe. Minimally invasive surgery retains its well

  7. Smart devices are different

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stisen, Allan; Blunck, Henrik; Bhattacharya, Sourav

    2015-01-01

    The widespread presence of motion sensors on users' personal mobile devices has spawned a growing research interest in human activity recognition (HAR). However, when deployed at a large-scale, e.g., on multiple devices, the performance of a HAR system is often significantly lower than in reporte...

  8. Inverted organic photosensitive devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Bailey-Salzman, Rhonda F.

    2016-12-06

    The present disclosure relates to organic photosensitive optoelectronic devices grown in an inverted manner. An inverted organic photosensitive optoelectronic device of the present disclosure comprises a reflective electrode, an organic donor-acceptor heterojunction over the reflective electrode, and a transparent electrode on top of the donor-acceptor heterojunction.

  9. Active devices for electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Sowa, Walter A

    1971-01-01

    An introduction to semiconductors ; the p-n junction ; the junction transistor ; electrical characteristics and ratings ; basic transistor amplifiers ; the field-effect transistor ; the unijunction transistor (UJT) ; the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) ; the DIAC and TRIAC ; light operated devices ; integrated circuits (ICs) ; other solid-state devices of interest ; electron tubes.

  10. Metallic spintronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Metallic Spintronic Devices provides a balanced view of the present state of the art of metallic spintronic devices, addressing both mainstream and emerging applications from magnetic tunneling junction sensors and spin torque oscillators to spin torque memory and logic. Featuring contributions from well-known and respected industrial and academic experts, this cutting-edge work not only presents the latest research and developments but also: Describes spintronic applications in current and future magnetic recording devicesDiscusses spin-transfer torque magnetoresistive random-access memory (STT-MRAM) device architectures and modelingExplores prospects of STT-MRAM scaling, such as detailed multilevel cell structure analysisInvestigates spintronic device write and read optimization in light of spintronic memristive effectsConsiders spintronic research directions based on yttrium iron garnet thin films, including spin pumping, magnetic proximity, spin hall, and spin Seebeck effectsProposes unique solutions for ...

  11. Fluidic nanotubes and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong; He, Rongrui; Goldberger, Joshua; Fan, Rong; Wu, Yiying; Li, Deyu; Majumdar, Arun

    2008-04-08

    Fluidic nanotube devices are described in which a hydrophilic, non-carbon nanotube, has its ends fluidly coupled to reservoirs. Source and drain contacts are connected to opposing ends of the nanotube, or within each reservoir near the opening of the nanotube. The passage of molecular species can be sensed by measuring current flow (source-drain, ionic, or combination). The tube interior can be functionalized by joining binding molecules so that different molecular species can be sensed by detecting current changes. The nanotube may be a semiconductor, wherein a tubular transistor is formed. A gate electrode can be attached between source and drain to control current flow and ionic flow. By way of example an electrophoretic array embodiment is described, integrating MEMs switches. A variety of applications are described, such as: nanopores, nanocapillary devices, nanoelectrophoretic, DNA sequence detectors, immunosensors, thermoelectric devices, photonic devices, nanoscale fluidic bioseparators, imaging devices, and so forth.

  12. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M.

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  13. Planar electrochemical device assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2007-06-19

    A pre-fabricated electrochemical device having a dense electrolyte disposed between an anode and a cathode preferably deposited as thin films is bonded to a porous electrically conductive support. A second porous electrically conductive support may be bonded to a counter electrode of the electrochemical device. Multiple electrochemical devices may be bonded in parallel to a single porous support, such as a perforated sheet to provide a planar array. Planar arrays may be arranged in a stacked interconnected array. A method of making a supported electrochemical device is disclosed wherein the method includes a step of bonding a pre-fabricated electrochemical device layer to an existing porous metal or porous metal alloy layer.

  14. Compound semiconductor device modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor devices form the foundation of solid-state microwave and optoelectronic technologies used in many modern communication systems. In common with their low frequency counterparts, these devices are often represented using equivalent circuit models, but it is often necessary to resort to physical models in order to gain insight into the detailed operation of compound semiconductor devices. Many of the earliest physical models were indeed developed to understand the 'unusual' phenomena which occur at high frequencies. Such was the case with the Gunn and IMPATI diodes, which led to an increased interest in using numerical simulation methods. Contemporary devices often have feature sizes so small that they no longer operate within the familiar traditional framework, and hot electron or even quantum­ mechanical models are required. The need for accurate and efficient models suitable for computer aided design has increased with the demand for a wider range of integrated devices for operation at...

  15. Digital communication device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The invention concerns a digital communication device like a hearing aid or a headset. The hearing aid or headset has a power supply, a signal processing device, means for receiving a wireless signal and a receiver or loudspeaker, which produces an audio signal based on a modulated pulsed signal...... point is provided which is in electrical contact with the metal of the metal box and whereby this third connection point is connected to the electric circuitry of the communication device at a point having a stable and well defined electrical potential. In this way the electro-and magnetic radiation...

  16. Output hardcopy devices

    CERN Document Server

    Durbeck, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Output Hardcopy Devices provides a technical summary of computer output hardcopy devices such as plotters, computer output printers, and CRT generated hardcopy. Important related technical areas such as papers, ribbons and inks, color techniques, controllers, and character fonts are also covered. Emphasis is on techniques primarily associated with printing, as well as the plotting capabilities of printing devices that can be effectively used for computer graphics in addition to their various printing functions. Comprised of 19 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to vector and ras

  17. Emission rate measuring device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckat, S.

    1980-09-01

    The development and application of an emission rate measuring device for gaseous components is explored. The device contains absorption fluid from a supply container that moistens a cylindrical paper sleeve. A newer model is provided with a direct current motor requiring less electricity than an older model. The hose pump is modified to avoid changing it and the filter sleeve is fastened more securely to the distributor head. Application of the measuring devices is discussed, particularly at the Cologne Cathedral, where damage to the stone is observed.

  18. Nanoelectronic device applications handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, James E

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectronic Device Applications Handbook gives a comprehensive snapshot of the state of the art in nanodevices for nanoelectronics applications. Combining breadth and depth, the book includes 68 chapters on topics that range from nano-scaled complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) devices through recent developments in nano capacitors and AlGaAs/GaAs devices. The contributors are world-renowned experts from academia and industry from around the globe. The handbook explores current research into potentially disruptive technologies for a post-CMOS world.These include: Nanoscale advance

  19. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  20. Powering biomedical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Edwar

    2013-01-01

    From exoskeletons to neural implants, biomedical devices are no less than life-changing. Compact and constant power sources are necessary to keep these devices running efficiently. Edwar Romero's Powering Biomedical Devices reviews the background, current technologies, and possible future developments of these power sources, examining not only the types of biomedical power sources available (macro, mini, MEMS, and nano), but also what they power (such as prostheses, insulin pumps, and muscular and neural stimulators), and how they work (covering batteries, biofluids, kinetic and ther

  1. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  2. Physics of photonic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Shun Lien

    2009-01-01

    The most up-to-date book available on the physics of photonic devices This new edition of Physics of Photonic Devices incorporates significant advancements in the field of photonics that have occurred since publication of the first edition (Physics of Optoelectronic Devices). New topics covered include a brief history of the invention of semiconductor lasers, the Lorentz dipole method and metal plasmas, matrix optics, surface plasma waveguides, optical ring resonators, integrated electroabsorption modulator-lasers, and solar cells. It also introduces exciting new fields of research such as:

  3. Marine Sanitation Devices (MSDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine sanitation devices treat or retain sewage from vessels, and have performance standards set by the EPA. This page provides information on MSDs, including who must use an MSD, states' roles, types of MSDs and standards.

  4. MDR (Medical Device Reporting)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database allows you to search the CDRH's database information on medical devices which may have malfunctioned or caused a death or serious injury during the...

  5. Devices for hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000359.htm Devices for hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you are living with hearing loss , you know that it takes extra effort to ...

  6. Water-walking devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, David L.; Prakash, Manu; Chan, Brian; Bush, John W. M.

    We report recent efforts in the design and construction of water-walking machines inspired by insects and spiders. The fundamental physical constraints on the size, proportion and dynamics of natural water-walkers are enumerated and used as design criteria for analogous mechanical devices. We report devices capable of rowing along the surface, leaping off the surface and climbing menisci by deforming the free surface. The most critical design constraint is that the devices be lightweight and non-wetting. Microscale manufacturing techniques and new man-made materials such as hydrophobic coatings and thermally actuated wires are implemented. Using highspeed cinematography and flow visualization, we compare the functionality and dynamics of our devices with those of their natural counterparts.

  7. Development of electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicka, A

    2009-01-01

    Electrochromic devices (ECD) are systems of considerable commercial interest due to their controllable transmission, absorption and/or reflectance. For instance, these devices are mainly applied to glare attenuation in automobile rearview mirrors and also in some smart windows that can regulate the solar gains of buildings. Other possible applications of ECDs include solar cells, small- and large-area flat panel displays, and frozen food monitoring and document authentication also are of great interest. Over the past 20 years almost 1000 patents and 1500 papers in journals and proceedings have been published with the key words "electrochromic windows". Most of these documents report on materials for electrochromic devices and only some of them about complete electrochromic devices. This paper describes the first patents and some of the recent ones on ECDs, whose development is possible due to the advances in nanotechnology.

  8. "Centripede"-measuring device

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    "Centripede"-measuring device for the geometrical pole shape of the quadrupoles, developed by the electronics and mechanics section of the Survey Group. The black box contains a precision clinometer, which gives the transversal tilt of the reference plane.

  9. Thermoelectric materials and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, James R. (Inventor); Talcott, Noel A. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    New thermoelectric materials comprise highly [111]-oriented twinned group IV alloys on the basal plane of trigonal substrates, which exhibit a high thermoelectric figure of merit and good material performance, and devices made with these materials.

  10. Authenticated sensor interface device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Jody Rustyn; Poland, Richard W.

    2016-10-18

    A system and method for the secure storage and transmission of data is provided. A data aggregate device can be configured to receive secure data from a data source, such as a sensor, and encrypt the secure data using a suitable encryption technique, such as a shared private key technique, a public key encryption technique, a Diffie-Hellman key exchange technique, or other suitable encryption technique. The encrypted secure data can be provided from the data aggregate device to different remote devices over a plurality of segregated or isolated data paths. Each of the isolated data paths can include an optoisolator that is configured to provide one-way transmission of the encrypted secure data from the data aggregate device over the isolated data path. External data can be received through a secure data filter which, by validating the external data, allows for key exchange and other various adjustments from an external source.

  11. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  12. Commercialization of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpatti, Lisa R; Yetisen, Ali K

    2014-07-01

    Microfluidic devices offer automation and high-throughput screening, and operate at low volumes of consumables. Although microfluidics has the potential to reduce turnaround times and costs for analytical devices, particularly in medical, veterinary, and environmental sciences, this enabling technology has had limited diffusion into consumer products. This article analyzes the microfluidics market, identifies issues, and highlights successful commercialization strategies. Addressing niche markets and establishing compatibility with existing workflows will accelerate market penetration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Technology of Quantum Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Razeghi, Manijeh

    2010-01-01

    Technology of Quantum Devices offers a multi-disciplinary overview of solid state physics, photonics and semiconductor growth and fabrication. Readers will find up-to-date coverage of compound semiconductors, crystal growth techniques, silicon and compound semiconductor device technology, in addition to intersubband and semiconductor lasers. Recent findings in quantum tunneling transport, quantum well intersubband photodetectors (QWIP) and quantum dot photodetectors (QWDIP) are described, along with a thorough set of sample problems.

  14. Bipolar intimal tacking device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C E; Williams, G

    1984-09-01

    A bipolar electrocoagulating device has been designed to thermally tack arterial intimal flaps to the artery wall. The device was tested on intimal flaps created in the rabbit descending aorta. The vascular segments were tested for patency and the thermal tack points were examined on a scanning electron microscope. The tack points were shown to be of sufficient tensile strength and to have minimal thrombogenicity.

  15. Nanoplasmonics advanced device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chon, James W M

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on control and manipulation of plasmons at nanometer dimensions, nanoplasmonics combines the strength of electronics and photonics, and is predicted to replace existing integrated circuits and photonic devices. It is one of the fastest growing fields of science, with applications in telecommunication, consumer electronics, data storage, medical diagnostics, and energy.Nanoplasmonics: Advanced Device Applications provides a scientific and technological background of a particular nanoplasmonic application and outlines the progress and challenges of the application. It reviews the latest

  16. Communications for Wearable Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Tabibu, Shivram

    2017-01-01

    Wearable devices are transforming computing and the human-computer interaction and they are a primary means for motion recognition of reflexive systems. We review basic wearable deployments and their open wireless communications. An algorithm that uses accelerometer data to provide a control and communication signal is described. Challenges in the further deployment of wearable device in the field of body area network and biometric verification are discussed.

  17. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    OpenAIRE

    Leahey Matt; Arango Roberto; Stuart Ryan; Prugnarola Jennifer; Pelletier Philip; Jensen Katherine; Danaher Gil; Weinberg Brian; Nikitczuk Jason; Mavroidis Constantinos; Pavone Robert; Provo Andrew; Yasevac Dan

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. Thes...

  18. Nitinol Temperature Monitoring Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-09

    AD-A021 578 NITINOL TEMPERATURE MONITORING DEVICES William J. Buehler, et al Naval Surface Weapons Center Silver Spring, Maryland 9 January 1976...LABORATORY S NITINOL TEMPERATURE MONITORING DEVICES 9 JANUARY 1976 NAVAL SURFACE WEAPONS CENTER WHITE OAK LABORATORY SILVER SPRING, MARYLAND 20910 * Approved...GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER NSWC/WOL/TR 75-140 ____ ______ 4 TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPCRT & PERIOD COVERED Nitinol

  19. Intrauterine devices containing progesterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, F

    1977-05-01

    Characteristics of progesterone-releasing IUDs are reported. At present, the only progesterone-containing IUD on the market is Progestasert, a T-shaped ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer device containing 38 mg progesterone in silicone. The device releases approximately 65 mcg/day into the uterine cavity over the course of 1-year. The device does not alter pituitary function or ovulation, nor does it depend on a local mechanical effect. Rather, it may exert its effect by inhibiting sperm capacitation or survival, or it may prevent nidation by alterning the endometrium. The reported pregnancy rate for Progestasert is 1.9% in parous women and 2.5% in nulliparous women. This efficacy rate is similar to that for other IUDs and low-dose progestin-only oral contraceptives. Breakthrough bleeding is the most common side effect, and perhaps 10-15% of the acceptors will have the device removed for either bleeding, pain, or infection. The rate of spontaneous expulsion of the device is about 3-8%. It is recommended that the device be inserted during or shortly after the menstrual period.

  20. Application of RBF neural network algorithm in dynamic weighing%RBF神经网络算法在动态称重中的应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈超波; 杨楠

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,focus on the complexity of weighing data in the dynamic detection system of the highway,the different weighing data processing methods to make a comparison,and proposed the use of RBF neural network to deal with the dynamic weighing data.Firstly review introduced the whole vehicle dynamic system,after the radial basis function network topology and the centers of the radial basis function selection are introduced.Finally the test-bed to build a testing platform,through experiments with a two axle vehicle with different speed through the test stand,the dynamic parameters acquisition.Finally,using the data collected,using MATLAB to simulate,verify the radial basis function network to the dynamic weighing data processing show good speed and accuracy.%针对高速公路动态检测系统中称重数据的复杂性,将不同的称重数据处理办法做出对比,并提出利用 RBF神经网络对动态称重数据进行处理。文章首先综述性的介绍了车辆动态系统整体构成,之后对径向基函数网络的拓扑结构以及径向基函数中心的选取进行了介绍,最后利以试验台搭建检测平台,通过实验用两轴小车进行以不同的速度通过试验台,采集其动态参数。最后利用采集到的数据,用 MATLAB 进行仿真,验证了径向基函数网络对动态称重数据的处理表现出良好的速度与精度。

  1. Ventricular Assist Device Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasseas, Panayotis; Kutalek, Steven P.; Samuels, Fania L.; Holmes, Elena C.; Samuels, Louis E.

    2002-01-01

    We describe herein the cases of 2 patients who had ventricular arrhythmias. In one, a short-term biventricular assist device, the ABIOMED BVS 5000, was placed because the patient had sustained ventricular tachycardia and could not be weaned from cardiopulmonary bypass. Excellent hemodynamic support was maintained for several days while the antiarrhythmic therapy was maximized. Sinus rhythm was restored, and the patient was successfully weaned from the ventricular assist device. However, the substrate for the arrhythmia persisted, and a recurrence, 1 week later, resulted in the patient's death. In the 2nd patient, the use of an implantable left ventricular assist device was successful in temporarily alleviating the ventricular tachycardia associated with ischemic cardiomyopathy. However, after 2 days of device assistance, the patient experienced a recurrence of the tachycardia, which degenerated into ventricular fibrillation with a marked deterioration in the patient's hemodynamics. The arrhythmia persisted despite multiple attempts at external cardioversion, and internal cardioversion and placement of an automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator were necessary. This treatment, along with repeated boluses of amiodarone, led to successful suppression of the arrhythmias, and the patient eventually underwent transplantation. The mechanical hemodynamic support of the circulation by ventricular assist devices was effective in supporting these 2 patients who had sustained ventricular arrhythmias. (Tex Heart Inst J 2002;29:33–6) PMID:11995847

  2. Physics of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rudan, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the basic physics of semiconductors, including the hierarchy of transport models, and connects the theory with the functioning of actual semiconductor devices.  Details are worked out carefully and derived from the basic physics, while keeping the internal coherence of the concepts and explaining various levels of approximation. Examples are based on silicon due to its industrial importance. Several chapters are included that provide the reader with the quantum-mechanical concepts necessary for understanding the transport properties of crystals. The behavior of crystals incorporating a position-dependent impurity distribution is described, and the different hierarchical transport models for semiconductor devices are derived (from the Boltzmann transport equation to the hydrodynamic and drift-diffusion models). The transport models are then applied to a detailed description of the main semiconductor-device architectures (bipolar, MOS). The final chapters are devoted to the description of s...

  3. Foreign Body Extraction Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lavy

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract are common. Mostly they are swallowed accidentally by children but also by adults. When round and slippery, foreign bodies cause a technical problem for removal. After several days in the stomach they are covered with mucus and extraction becomes even harder. There are various devices designed for use through the flexible endoscope for grasping foreign bodies but due to the great variety of objects, one may face a real problem while trying to remove them. We faced a challenge in a woman who underwent vertical band gastroplasty and was obstructed by a round and slippery hazelnut. We managed to remove the nut using a simple homemade device. This device is easy to make, cheap, and simple to use and maybe useful for various foreign bodies.

  4. Biochip scanner device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perov, Alexander (Troitsk, RU); Belgovskiy, Alexander I. (Mayfield Heights, OH); Mirzabekov, Andrei D. (Darien, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips or biochips and method of use are provided. The biochip scanner device includes a laser for emitting a laser beam. A modulator, such as an optical chopper modulates the laser beam. A scanning head receives the modulated laser beam and a scanning mechanics coupled to the scanning head moves the scanning head relative to the biochip. An optical fiber delivers the modulated laser beam to the scanning head. The scanning head collects the fluorescence light from the biochip, launches it into the same optical fiber, which delivers the fluorescence into a photodetector, such as a photodiode. The biochip scanner device is used in a row scanning method to scan selected rows of the biochip with the laser beam size matching the size of the immobilization site.

  5. Estimativa da gordura corporal através de equipamentos de bioimpedância, dobras cutâneas e pesagem hidrostática Comparison of body fat estimation by bioelectric impedance, skinfold thickness, and underwater weighing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Nunes Rodrigues

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa do percentual de gordura (%G pela bioimpedância (BIA tem como vantagem a simplicidade da medida. Contudo, a confiabilidade da BIA tem sofrido críticas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a estimativa do %G através das técnicas de bioimpedância (RJL-101; Byodinamics A-310, Maltron BF-900 e BF-906, de dobras cutâneas (DC e da pesagem hidrostática (PH. Observaram-se 25 indivíduos, homogeneizados segundo raça (branca, gênero (masculino e idade (18 a 36 anos. Para a medida de BIA foi utilizada a padronização proposta por Lukaski et al. (1985, 1986. Para as DC foram utilizadas as equações de å 3 DC e å 7 DC (Jackson, Pollock, 1978. Os valores de %G e de volume residual para PH foram preditos, respectivamente, pelas equações de Siri (1961 e Goldman e Becklake (1959. A análise estatística compreendeu: a comparação entre os métodos através da ANOVA com medidas repetidas seguida de testes post-hoc de Tukey; b correlação de Pearson (r; e c cálculo do erro padrão de estimativa (SEE das técnicas em relação à PH. Os resultados indicaram que: a as medidas de BIA não diferiram significativamente, entre si, para o %G estimado; b As medidas dos aparelhos A-310 e BF-906 não coincidiram com a PH (p The main advantage of the bioelectric impedance method (BIA in the determination of body fat (%BF is the simplicity of the procedure. However, its accuracy and reliability have been criticized. The purpose of this study was to compare the %BF obtained by BIA (RJL-101; Biodynamics A-310, Maltron BF-900 e BF-906, by skinfold thickness (ST, and by underwater weighing (UW. Twenty-five subjects, divided in homogenous groups according to age (18 to 36 years, sex (men, and race (white participated in the study. BIA measures were taken using the Lukaski et al. standardization (1985,1986. ST was taken by using the equation of 3 and 7 skinfolds (Jackson, Pollock, 1978. The values of %BF and residual volume for the UW were estimated

  6. Retinopathy of prematurity in Asian Indian babies weighing greater than 1250 grams at birth: Ten year data from a tertiary care center in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinekar Anand

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an important cause of childhood blindness in developing countries. Aim: To report the spectrum of ROP and associated risk factors in babies weighing > 1250 g at birth in a developing country. Setting and Design: Institutional, retrospective, non-randomized, observational clinical case series. Materials and Methods : Retrospective analysis (10 years of 275 eyes (138 babies with ROP. Statistical Analysis: Qualitative data with the Chi-square test. Quantitative data using the unpaired t test or the ANOVA and further tested using multivariate logistic regression. Results: The mean birth weight was 1533.9 g (range 1251 to 2750 g and the mean period of gestation was 30.9 weeks (range 26 to 35. One hundred and twenty-four of 275 eyes (45.1% had threshold or worse ROP. Risk factors for threshold or worse disease were, ′outborn babies′ ( P < 0.001, respiratory distress syndrome ( P = 0.007 and exchange transfusion ( P = 0.003. The sensitivity of the American and British screening guidelines to pick up threshold or worse ROP in our study group was 82.4% and 77.4% respectively. Conclusions : Severe ROP is often encountered in babies weighing greater than 1250 g at birth in developing countries. Western screening guidelines may require modifications before application in developing countries.

  7. Electronic devices and circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Pridham, Gordon John

    1968-01-01

    Electronic Devices and Circuits, Volume 1 deals with the design and applications of electronic devices and circuits such as passive components, diodes, triodes and transistors, rectification and power supplies, amplifying circuits, electronic instruments, and oscillators. These topics are supported with introductory network theory and physics. This volume is comprised of nine chapters and begins by explaining the operation of resistive, inductive, and capacitive elements in direct and alternating current circuits. The theory for some of the expressions quoted in later chapters is presented. Th

  8. Phononic crystal devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kady, Ihab F.; Olsson, Roy H.

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  9. Preventing medical device recalls

    CERN Document Server

    Raheja, Dev

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Medical Device RequirementsIntroductionThe ChallengesSources of ErrorsUnderstanding the Science of Safety     Overview of FDA Quality System Regulation     Overview of Risk Management Standard ISO 14971     Overview of FDA Device Approval Process     Overview of Regulatory Requirements for Clinical TrialsSummaryReferencesPreventing Recalls during Specification WritingIntroductionConduct Requirements Analysis to Identify Missing RequirementsSpecifications for Safety, Durability, and

  10. INLET STRATIFICATION DEVICE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    An inlet stratification device (5) for a circuit circulating a fluid through a tank (1 ) and for providing and maintaining stratification of the fluid in the tank (1 ). The stratification de- vice (5) is arranged vertically in the tank (1) and comprises an inlet pipe (6) being at least partially...... formed of a flexible porous material and having an inlet (19) and outlets formed of the pores of the porous material. The stratification device (5) further comprises at least one outer pipe (7) surrounding the inlet pipe (6) in spaced relationship thereto and being at least partially formed of a porous...

  11. Microfluidic Cell Culture Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shuichi (Inventor); Cabrera, Lourdes Marcella (Inventor); Heo, Yun Seok (Inventor); Smith, Gary Daniel (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Microfluidic devices for cell culturing and methods for using the same are disclosed. One device includes a substrate and membrane. The substrate includes a reservoir in fluid communication with a passage. A bio-compatible fluid may be added to the reservoir and passage. The reservoir is configured to receive and retain at least a portion of a cell mass. The membrane acts as a barrier to evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid from the passage. A cover fluid may be added to cover the bio-compatible fluid to prevent evaporation of the bio-compatible fluid.

  12. Asphaltene based photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chianelli, Russell R.; Castillo, Karina; Gupta, Vipin; Qudah, Ali M.; Torres, Brenda; Abujnah, Rajib E.

    2016-03-22

    Photovoltaic devices and methods of making the same, are disclosed herein. The cell comprises a photovoltaic device that comprises a first electrically conductive layer comprising a photo-sensitized electrode; at least one photoelectrochemical layer comprising metal-oxide particles, an electrolyte solution comprising at least one asphaltene fraction, wherein the metal-oxide particles are optionally dispersed in a surfactant; and a second electrically conductive layer comprising a counter-electrode, wherein the second electrically conductive layer comprises one or more conductive elements comprising carbon, graphite, soot, carbon allotropes or any combinations thereof.

  13. Nano devices and sensors

    CERN Document Server

    Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Chung, Yung-Hui

    2016-01-01

    This volume on semiconductor devices focuses on such topics as nano-imprinting, lithography, nanowire charge-trapping, thermo-stability in nanowires, nano-electrodes, and voltage and materials used for fabricating and improving electrical characteristics of nano-materials.

  14. Optical switching device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, F.J.A. den; Hanzen, R.M.N.; Duine, P.A.; Jungblut, R.M.; Draijer, C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sluis, P. van der

    2000-01-01

    A description is given of an optical switching device (1) comprising a transparent substrate (3), a switching film (5) of a hydride compound of a trivalent transition or rare earth metal having a thickness of 300 nm, and a palladium capping layer (7) having a thickness of 30 nm. The capping layer is

  15. Color identification testing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  16. Air Stable Photovoltaic Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A method of forming a conducting polymer based photovoltaic device comprising the steps of : (a) providing a transparent first electrode; (b) providing the transparent first electrode with a layer of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein the metal oxide is selected from the group consisting of : TiO...

  17. Device Oriented Project Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalesio, Leo; Kraimer, Martin

    2013-11-20

    This proposal is directed at the issue of developing control systems for very large HEP projects. A de-facto standard in accelerator control is the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), which has been applied successfully to many physics projects. EPICS is a channel based system that requires that each channel of each device be configured and controlled. In Phase I, the feasibility of a device oriented extension to the distributed channel database was demonstrated by prototyping a device aware version of an EPICS I/O controller that functions with the current version of the channel access communication protocol. Extensions have been made to the grammar to define the database. Only a multi-stage position controller with limit switches was developed in the demonstration, but the grammar should support a full range of functional record types. In phase II, a full set of record types will be developed to support all existing record types, a set of process control functions for closed loop control, and support for experimental beam line control. A tool to configure these records will be developed. A communication protocol will be developed or extensions will be made to Channel Access to support introspection of components of a device. Performance bench marks will be made on both communication protocol and the database. After these records and performance tests are under way, a second of the grammar will be undertaken.

  18. Container Monitoring Device (case)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, A.; Ruijsbroek, W.G.J.

    2015-01-01

    Stage Gate 11 is een bedrijf dat technologische innovaties naar de markt brengt. De drie ondernemers hebben een nieuw product ontwikkeld, de Container Monitoring Device, een product dat stalen containers ‘smart’ maakt door er allerlei sensoren aan te koppelen. Maar waar ligt precies de toegevoegde w

  19. The missing intrauterine device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Devassy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Intrauterine Contraceptive Device (IUD is an acceptable and common form of contraception worldwide. The objective of this study was to report the case of an asymptomatic missing intrauterine contraceptive (IUD inserted to prevent intrauterine adhesions after synechiolysis. A patient presented with missing IUD threads. Ultrasound of the pelvis showed an empty uterine cavity with the missing IUD probably anterior to the uterus. We present a stepwise approach in the management of the and ldquo;lost IUD and rdquo;, where the strings of the device are not visible at the time of speculum examination. We suggest first determining sonographically whether the IUD is within the cavity. If it is in situ, options for retrieval are including hysteroscopic retrieval. If the IUD is not within the cavity, X-rays are recommended. The device will not be present on X-ray if expulsion has occurred. If the device is present on the X-ray, cystoscopic or laparoscopic retrieval is required. IUD-providers should not only screen potential users and insert IUD correctly, but also ensure adequate follow-up with localization. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(10.000: 3587-3589

  20. A Medical Delivery Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a medical delivery device comprising at least two membrane electrode assembly units each of which comprises three layers: an upper and a lower electrode and a selective ionic conductive membrane provided there-between. At least one of the three layers are shared...

  1. Alerts and Notices (Devices)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Communication 01/13/17 Safety Concerns with Implantable Infusion Pumps in the Magnetic Resonance (MR) Environment: FDA Safety Communication 01/11/17 Cybersecurity Vulnerabilities Identified in St. Jude Medical's Implantable Cardiac Devices and Merlin@home Transmitter: FDA Safety ...

  2. XY displacement device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerens, W.C.; Laham, C.D.; Holman, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    An XY-displacement device (1) with a four-fold symmetry comprises a reference frame (10); an object mount (20) for holding an object (22) to be displaced; an X-manipulator (100) coupled between the reference frame (10) and the object mount (20), which provides a rigid coupling between the object mou

  3. Complex Materials and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    Disruptive Basic Research Areas” – Metamaterials and Plasmonics – Quantum Information Science – Cognitive Neuroscience – Nanoscience and...Sayir, Fuller) Bio-Sensing of Magnetic Fields (Larkin, Bradshaw, Curcic, DeLong 2D Materials & Devices Beyond Graphene (Hwang, Pomrenke, Harrison

  4. A Medical Delivery Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a medical delivery device comprising at least two membrane electrode assembly units each of which comprises three layers: an upper and a lower electrode and a selective ionic conductive membrane provided there-between. At least one of the three layers are shared...

  5. Discourse Devices in Telugu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, A. Usha

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss some of the productive discourse devices and markers noted in 50 spoken narratives elicited from Telugu native speakers. Since most of them are college students and residents of Hyderabad, they are also exposed to English as well as Hindi-Urdu (Dakkhini). After presenting certain salient features of Telugu…

  6. Projection and registration device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinden, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    A projection and recording device, provided with a processing and control unit, a memory for recording images and other data, an input/output interface, a controllable camera, a touch screen for the input and display of data and images, a position determining system for determining the position of a

  7. Solid-State Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutliff, Ronald D.; And Others

    This self-study course is designed to familiarize Marine Corps enlisted personnel with the principles of solid-state devices and their functions. The course contains four study units. Each study unit begins with a general objective, which is a statement of what the student should learn from the unit. The study units are divided into numbered work…

  8. Electronics Devices and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-17

    should be immae that nobw0sthtandirV any other projieion of law, no person shell be su*ect tD any penalty for faling to cornply with a oolk rd -in 0...a Lehighton instrument. I The 8 wafers with GaN devices were sawn and are ready for annealing. Additional training at NSI was performed on thermal

  9. Hair copper in intrauterine copper device users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiery, M; Heyndrickx, A; Uyttersprot, C

    1984-03-01

    The antifertility effect of copper-bearing IUDs is based on continuous release of copper, which is a result of the reaction between the metal and the uterine secretions. Released cupric ions collect in the endometrium and in the uterine fluid but significant accumulation has not been found in the bloodstream or elsewhere. Following Laker's suggestion that hair be used for monitoring essential trace elements, e.g., copper, we checked the copper content of the hair of women wearing copper-bearing IUDs. Samples of untreated pubic hair removed by clipping before diagnostic curettage were obtained from 10 young (24-34 years old), white caucasian females who until then had been wearing an MLCu250 IUD for more than 1 year. Pubes from 10 comparable (sex, age, race) subjects who had never used a Cu-containing device served as controls. The unwashed material was submitted to the toxicology laboratory, where the copper content was assessed by flameless atomic absorption, a technique whose lower limit of measurement lies at a concentration of 0.05 mcg Cu/ml fluid (50 ppb). Hair samples were washed to remove extraneous traces of metal according to the prescriptions of the International Atomic Energy Agency, weighed, and mineralized, after which a small volume (10 mcl) of the diluted fluid was fed into the graphite furnace. Each sample (75-150 mg) was analyzed 4 times, both before and after washing. Since the cleaning procedure reduces the weight of the sample (mainly by the removal of fat, dust, etc.) this explains why the percentage copper content of washed hair is higher than that of unwashed hair belonging to the same subject. The results indicate that there was no significant difference (Mann-Whitney U test) between the mean copper levels of both unwashed and washed pubes from women who were using or had never used an MLCu250 IUD. We therefore conclude that the use of this copper-containing device is not associated with significant accumulation of copper in (pubic) hair.

  10. Medical device regulation for manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, P; Jeswiet, J

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturers of medical devices are held to a higher standard than manufacturers of many other products due to the potential severity of the consequences of introducing inferior or unsafe products to the market-place. In Canada, the medical device industry is regulated by Health Canada under the Medical Device Regulations of the Food and Drug Act. The Medical Device Regulations define requirements of medical device design, development and manufacture to ensure that products reaching the public are safe and effective. Health Canada also requires that medical device manufacturers maintain distribution records to ensure that devices can be traced to the source and consumers can be contacted successfully in the event that a device is recalled. Medical devices exported from Canada must be compliant with the regulations of the country of import. The Canadian Medical Device Regulations were based on the Medical Device Directives of the European Union thus facilitating approval of Canadian devices for the European market. The United States Food and Drug Administration has separate and distinct requirements for safety and quality of medical devices. While effort has been made to facilitate approval and trade of Canadian medical devices in the United States and the European Union, obtaining approval from multiple regulatory bodies can result in increased device development time and cost. The Global Harmonization Task Force is an organization composed of members from Japanese, Australian, European, Canadian and American medical device regulatory bodies. This organization was formed with the objective of harmonizing medical device regulations in an effort to facilitate international trade and standardize the quality of medical devices available to all countries. This paper discusses the requirements that must be met by manufacturers when designing and manufacturing medical devices.

  11. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, M. A. A.; Kosuru, L.; Younis, M. I.

    2016-03-01

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  12. Thin film device applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kaur, Inderjeet

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional materials created ab initio by the process of condensation of atoms, molecules, or ions, called thin films, have unique properties significantly different from the corresponding bulk materials as a result of their physical dimensions, geometry, nonequilibrium microstructure, and metallurgy. Further, these characteristic features of thin films can be drasti­ cally modified and tailored to obtain the desired and required physical characteristics. These features form the basis of development of a host of extraordinary active and passive thin film device applications in the last two decades. On the one extreme, these applications are in the submicron dimensions in such areas as very large scale integration (VLSI), Josephson junction quantum interference devices, magnetic bubbles, and integrated optics. On the other extreme, large-area thin films are being used as selective coatings for solar thermal conversion, solar cells for photovoltaic conver­ sion, and protection and passivating layers. Ind...

  13. Inlet stratification device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    ) with an inlet passage way (16). The upper end of the inlet pipe (6) is connected with a top cap (9). The top cap (9) and the bottom cap (10) are mutually connected by means of a wire (8) and the top cap (9) is configured as a floating device providing a buoyancy force larger than the downwardly directed force......An inlet stratification (5) is adapted to be arranged vertically in a tank (1) during operation. The stratification device (5) comprises an inlet pipe (6) formed of a flexible porous material and having a lower and upper end. The lower end of the inlet pipe (6) is connected to a bottom cap (10...

  14. Microwave Magnetoelectric Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Tatarenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Tunable microwave magnetoelectric devices based on layered ferrite-ferroelectric structures are described. The theory and experiment for attenuator, band-pass filter and phase shifter are presented. Tunability of the ME devices characteristics can be executed by application of an electric field. This electric tuning is relatively fast and is not power-consuming. The attenuator insertion losses vary from 26 dB to 2 dB at frequency 7251 MHz. The tuning range of 25 MHz of band-pass filter at frequency 7360 MHz was obtained. A maximum phase shift of 30–40 degree at the frequency region 6–9 GHz was obtained.

  15. Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard

    of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI). This is an optical device consisting if one waveguide that is split into two waveguide arms which are assembled again later on. By applying the mechanical field from a SAW the light in the two arms can be modulated and interfere constructively and destructively......The work of this project is concerned with the simulation of surface acoustic waves (SAW) and topology optimization of SAW devices. SAWs are elastic vibrations that propagate along a material surface and are extensively used in electromechanical filters and resonators in telecommunication. A new...... application is modulation of optical waves in waveguides. This presentation elaborates on how a SAW is generated by interdigital transducers using a 2D model of a piezoelectric, inhomogeneous material implemented in the high-level programming language Comsol Multiphysics. The SAW is send through a model...

  16. Plastic photovoltaic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The development of organic, polymer-based photovoltaic elements has introduced the possibility of obtaining cheap and easy-to-produce energy from light. Photoinduced electron transfer from donor-type semiconducting polymers onto acceptor-type polymers or molecules, such as C60, is the basic phenomenon utilized in these photovoltaic devices. This process mimics the early photo-effects in natural photosynthesis. The polymeric semiconductors combine the photoelectrical properties of inorganic semiconductors with the large-scale, low-cost technology of polymeric ‘plastic’ materials. To date, devices with power conversion efficiencies of ∼5% have been reported. Several companies and research institutions are focusing on this field now, making power conversion efficiencies up to 8-10% highly likely in the near future.

  17. Localized environment characterization device

    KAUST Repository

    Alzain, Hashim

    2016-07-21

    Various apparatuses and methods are provided for measuring the likely environmental impact of a particular geographic location on power generation properties of potential solar installations at the particular location. In an example embodiment of one such apparatus, a measurement device is provided. The measurement device includes a base portion comprising a base frame element disposed on a plurality of supporting legs, and a top panel comprising a series of connected members and one or more measurement modules whose planar dimensions are defined by the series of connected members. The top panel is connected to the base portion by a joint such that the top panel can rotate about the joint, and a panel support element is configured to fasten the top panel immovably at a desired degree of rotation in relation to the base portion.

  18. Dielectrokinetic chromatography devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirica, Gabriela S; Fiechtner, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K

    2014-12-16

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for dielectrokinetic chromatography. As disclosed, the devices comprise microchannels having at least one perturber which produces a non-uniformity in a field spanning the width of the microchannel. The interaction of the field non-uniformity with a perturber produces a secondary flow which competes with a primary flow. By decreasing the size of the perturber the secondary flow becomes significant for particles/analytes in the nanometer-size range. Depending on the nature of a particle/analyte present in the fluid and its interaction with the primary flow and the secondary flow, the analyte may be retained or redirected. The composition of the primary flow can be varied to affect the magnitude of primary and/or secondary flows on the particles/analytes and thereby separate and concentrate it from other particles/analytes.

  19. Portable biochip scanner device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perov, Alexander (Troitsk, RU); Sharonov, Alexei (Moscow, RU); Mirzabekov, Andrei D. (Darien, IL)

    2002-01-01

    A portable biochip scanner device used to detect and acquire fluorescence signal data from biological microchips (biochips) is provided. The portable biochip scanner device employs a laser for emitting an excitation beam. An optical fiber delivers the laser beam to a portable biochip scanner. A lens collimates the laser beam, the collimated laser beam is deflected by a dichroic mirror and focused by an objective lens onto a biochip. The fluorescence light from the biochip is collected and collimated by the objective lens. The fluorescence light is delivered to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) via an emission filter and a focusing lens. The focusing lens focuses the fluorescence light into a pinhole. A signal output of the PMT is processed and displayed.

  20. Device for crushing rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanygin, A.S.; Bulavtsev, V.A.; Zhidkov, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to simplify the design. The device includes a hydrocylinder with main piston and rod, additional piston with rod placed in the cavity of the main piston rod, wedge attached to the additional piston rod, extension jaws attached to the hydrocylinder housing, and attachment for supply of the working fluid into the above-piston cavity of the rod in the main piston. The latter is made in the form of a channel with reverse valve which connects the rod cavity of the hydrocylinder to the above-piston cavity of the main piston rod. The reverse valve is in the main piston and is made with push rod which goes beyond the limits of the piston on the side of the hydrocylinder rod cavity. The device is designed to separate blocks from the massif on the borehole line.

  1. Organic photosensitive devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peumans, Peter; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2013-01-22

    A photoactive device is provided. The device includes a first electrode, a second electrode, and a photoactive region disposed between and electrically connected to the first and second electrodes. The photoactive region further includes an organic donor layer and an organic acceptor layer that form a donor-acceptor heterojunction. The mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region are different by a factor of at least 100, and more preferably a factor of at least 1000. At least one of the mobility of holes in the organic donor region and the mobility of electrons in the organic acceptor region is greater than 0.001 cm.sup.2/V-sec, and more preferably greater than 1 cm.sup.2/V-sec. The heterojunction may be of various types, including a planar heterojunction, a bulk heterojunction, a mixed heterojunction, and a hybrid planar-mixed heterojunction.

  2. Integrated elastic microscope device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W. M.; Wright, D.; Watkins, R.; Cen, Zi

    2015-03-01

    The growing power of imaging and computing power of smartphones is creating the possibility of converting your smartphone into a high power pocket microscopy system. High quality miniature microscopy lenses attached to smartphone are typically made with glass or plastics that can only be produce at low cost with high volume. To revise the paradigm of microscope lenses, we devised a simple droplet lens fabrication technique that which produces low cost and high performance lens. Each lens is integrated into thin 3-D printed holder with complimentary light emitted diode (LEDs) that clips onto majority of smartphones. The integrated device converts a smartphone into a high power optical microscope/dermatoscope at around $2. This low cost device has wide application in a multitude of practical uses such as material inspection, dermascope and educational microscope.

  3. Fractional-order devices

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Karabi; Caponetto, Riccardo; Mendes Lopes, António; Tenreiro Machado, José António

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on two specific areas related to fractional order systems – the realization of physical devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, usually called fractional-order elements (FOEs); and the characterization of vegetable tissues via electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) – and provides readers with new tools for designing new types of integrated circuits. The majority of the book addresses FOEs. The interest in these topics is related to the need to produce “analogue” electronic devices characterized by non-integer order impedance, and to the characterization of natural phenomena, which are systems with memory or aftereffects and for which the fractional-order calculus tool is the ideal choice for analysis. FOEs represent the building blocks for designing and realizing analogue integrated electronic circuits, which the authors believe hold the potential for a wealth of mass-market applications. The freedom to choose either an integer- or non-integer-order analogue integrator...

  4. Microelectromechanical reprogrammable logic device

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, M. A. A.

    2016-03-29

    In modern computing, the Boolean logic operations are set by interconnect schemes between the transistors. As the miniaturization in the component level to enhance the computational power is rapidly approaching physical limits, alternative computing methods are vigorously pursued. One of the desired aspects in the future computing approaches is the provision for hardware reconfigurability at run time to allow enhanced functionality. Here we demonstrate a reprogrammable logic device based on the electrothermal frequency modulation scheme of a single microelectromechanical resonator, capable of performing all the fundamental 2-bit logic functions as well as n-bit logic operations. Logic functions are performed by actively tuning the linear resonance frequency of the resonator operated at room temperature and under modest vacuum conditions, reprogrammable by the a.c.-driving frequency. The device is fabricated using complementary metal oxide semiconductor compatible mass fabrication process, suitable for on-chip integration, and promises an alternative electromechanical computing scheme.

  5. Plastic photovoltaic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci

    2004-01-01

    The development of organic, polymer-based photovoltaic elements has introduced the possibility of obtaining cheap and easy-to-produce energy from light. Photoinduced electron transfer from donor-type semiconducting polymers onto acceptor-type polymers or molecules, such as C60, is the basic phenomenon utilized in these photovoltaic devices. This process mimics the early photo-effects in natural photosynthesis. The polymeric semiconductors combine the photoelectrical properties of inorganic se...

  6. Memristor: the illusive device

    KAUST Repository

    Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-05-03

    The memristor (M) is considered to be the fourth two-terminal passive element in electronics, alongside the resistor (R), the capacitor (C), and the inductor (L). Its existence was postulated in 1971 but its first implementation was reported in 2008. Where was it hiding all that time and what can we do with it? Come and learn how the memristor completes the roster of electronic devices much like a missing particle that physicists seek to complete their tableaus.

  7. Fluctuations in quantum devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Haken

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Logical gates can be formalized by Boolean algebra whose elementary operations can be realized by devices that employ the interactions of macroscopic numbers of elementary excitations such as electrons, holes, photons etc. With increasing miniaturization to the nano scale and below, quantum fluctuations become important and can no longer be ignored. Based on Heisenberg equations of motion for the creation and annihilation operators of elementary excitations, I determine the noise sources of composite quantum systems.

  8. Rooting an Android Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    tools that grant root privileges for both Windows and Linux . For the Linux system, open a shell window and use “cd” command to change the directory...defined as a process of gaining administrative commands and functions of an operating system (OS). In order to monitor live network traffic on any... Linux -based or, in this case, Android system, it is necessary to have administrative rights to gain access to any of the hardware devices, such as the

  9. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  10. Spintronics in nanoscale devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hedin, Eric R

    2013-01-01

    By exploiting the novel properties of quantum dots and nanoscale Aharonov-Bohm rings together with the electronic and magnetic properties of various semiconductor materials and graphene, researchers have conducted numerous theoretical and computational modeling studies and experimental tests that show promising behavior for spintronics applications. Spin polarization and spin-filtering capabilities and the ability to manipulate the electron spin state through external magnetic or electric fields have demonstrated the promise of workable nanoscale devices for computing and memory applications.

  11. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  12. An automatic weighting system for wild animals based in an artificial neural network: how to weigh wild animals without causing stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Diego Francisco; Rodríguez, Carlos; Barbancho, Julio; Baena, Manuel; Angel, Miguel Leal; Marín, Jesús; León, Carlos; Bustamante, Javier

    2013-02-28

    This paper proposes a novel and autonomous weighing system for wild animals. It allows evaluating changes in the body weight of animals in their natural environment without causing stress. The proposed system comprises a smart scale designed to estimate individual body weights and their temporal evolution in a bird colony. The system is based on computational intelligence, and offers valuable large amount of data to evaluate the relationship between long-term changes in the behavior of individuals and global change. The real deployment of this system has been for monitoring a breeding colony of lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) in southern Spain. The results show that it is possible to monitor individual weight changes during the breeding season and to compare the weight evolution in males and females.

  13. Estimation of caffeine intake in Japanese adults using 16 d weighed diet records based on a food composition database newly developed for Japanese populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mai; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko; Okubo, Hitomi; Hirota, Naoko; Notsu, Akiko; Todoriki, Hidemi; Miura, Ayako; Fukui, Mitsuru; Date, Chigusa

    2010-05-01

    Previous studies in Western populations have linked caffeine intake with health status. While detailed dietary assessment studies in these populations have shown that the main contributors to caffeine intake are coffee and tea, the wide consumption of Japanese and Chinese teas in Japan suggests that sources of intake in Japan may differ from those in Western populations. Among these teas, moreover, caffeine content varies widely among the different forms consumed (brewed, canned or bottled), suggesting the need for detailed dietary assessment in estimating intake in Japanese populations. Here, because a caffeine composition database or data obtained from detailed dietary assessment have not been available, we developed a database for caffeine content in Japanese foods and beverages, and then used it to estimate intake in a Japanese population. The caffeine food composition database was developed using analytic values from the literature, 16 d weighed diet records were collected, and caffeine intake was estimated from the 16 d weighed diet records. Four areas in Japan, Osaka (Osaka City), Okinawa (Ginowan City), Nagano (Matsumoto City) and Tottori (Kurayoshi City), between November 2002 and September 2003. Two hundred and thirty Japanese adults aged 30-69 years. Mean caffeine intake was 256.2 mg/d for women and 268.3 mg/d for men. The major contributors to intake were Japanese and Chinese teas and coffee (47 % each). Caffeine intake above 400 mg/d, suggested in reviews to possibly have negative health effects, was seen in 11 % of women and 15 % of men. In this Japanese population, caffeine intake was comparable to the estimated values reported in Western populations.

  14. Bilingual children weigh speaker's referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker's intent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W Q

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker's point at the familiar object, e.g., "Can you give me the blicket?" Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker's point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers' referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting environment.

  15. Bilingual children weigh speaker’s referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker’s intent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Yu eHung

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar or unknown (unfamiliar to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-year-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch, English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch, English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch, or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch. They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker’s point at the familiar object, e.g., Can you give me the blicket? Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker’s point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers’ referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting

  16. Measuring Post-Partum Haemorrhage in Low-Resource Settings: The Diagnostic Validity of Weighed Blood Loss versus Quantitative Changes in Hemoglobin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Cathyln Atukunda

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of blood loss is central to prompt diagnosis and management of post-partum hemorrhage (PPH, which remains a leading cause of maternal mortality in low-resource countries. In such settings, blood loss is often estimated visually and subjectively by attending health workers, due to inconsistent availability of laboratory infrastructure. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of weighed blood loss (WBL versus changes in peri-partum hemoglobin to detect PPH.Data from this analysis were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial comparing oxytocin with misoprostol for PPH (NCT01866241. Blood samples for complete blood count were drawn on admission and again prior to hospital discharge or before blood transfusion. During delivery, women were placed on drapes and had pre-weighed sanitary towels placed around their perineum. Blood was then drained into a calibrated container and the sanitary towels were added to estimate WBL, where each gram of blood was estimated as a milliliter. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values (PPVs were calculated at various blood volume loss and time combinations, and we fit receiver-operator curves using blood loss at 1, 2, and 24 hours compared to a reference standard of haemoglobin decrease of >10%.A total of 1,140 women were enrolled in the study, of whom 258 (22.6% developed PPH, defined as a haemoglobin drop >10%, and 262 (23.0% had WBL ≥500mL. WBL generally had a poor sensitivity for detection of PPH (85% in high prevalence settings when WBL exceeds 750mL.WBL has poor sensitivity but high specificity compared to laboratory-based methods of PPH diagnosis. These characteristics correspond to a high PPV in areas with high PPH prevalence. Although WBL is not useful for excluding PPH, this low-cost, simple and reproducible method is promising as a reasonable method to identify significant PPH in such settings where quantifiable red cell indices are unavailable.

  17. [International progress of unique device identification for medical devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanjuan; Li, Jun; Li, Jingli

    2014-09-01

    Unique Device Identification (UDI) is a hot spot research area in the medical device administration. It comes a breakthrough from International Medical Device Regulators Forum (IMDRF) and government implementation recently. The article reviewed the advancement of IMDRF UDI program, discussed the framework for UDI system, analyzed the implementation of UDI in other countries, put forward some suggestions on the development of medical device coding system in our country.

  18. DeviceNet-based device-level control in SSRF

    CERN Document Server

    Leng Yong Bin; Lu Cheng Meng; Miao Hai Feng; Liu Song Qiang; Shen Guo Bao

    2002-01-01

    The control system of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility is an EPICS-based distributed system. One of the key techniques to construct the system is the device-level control. The author describes the design and implementation of the DeviceNet-based device controller. A prototype of the device controller was tested in the experiments of magnet power supply and the result showed a precision of 3 x 10 sup - sup 5

  19. Nanoscale Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Xiaoye

    Continuous downscaling in microelectronics has pushed conventional CMOS technology to its physical limits, while Moore's Law has correctly predicted the trend for decades, each step forward is accompanied with unprecedented technological difficulties and near-exponential increase in cost. At the same time, however, demands for low-power, low-cost and high-speed devices have never diminished, instead, even more stringent requirements have been imposed on device performances. It is therefore crucial to explore alternative materials and device architectures in order to alleviate the pressure caused by downscaling. To this end, we investigated two different approaches: (1) InSb nanowire based field effect transistors (NWFETs) and (2) single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) -- peptide nucleic acid (PNA) --SWCNT conjugate. Two types of InSb nanowires were synthesized by template-assisted electrochemistry and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) respectively. In both cases, NWFETs were fabricated by electron beam lithography (EBL) and crystallinity was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area diffraction (SAD) patterns. For electrochemistry nanowire, ambipolar conduction was observed with strong p-type conduction, the effect of thermal annealing on the conductivity was analyzed, a NWFET model that took into consideration the underlapped region in top-gated NWFET was proposed. Hole mobility in the channel was calculated to be 292.84 cm2V-1s -1 with a density of 1.5x1017/cm3. For CVD nanowire, the diameter was below 40nm with an average of 20nm. Vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process was speculated to be the mechanism responsible for nanowire growth. The efficient gate control was manifested by high ION/I OFF ratio which was on the order of 106 and a small inverse subthreshold slope (<200 mV/decade). Scale analysis was used to successfully account for disparities observed among a number of sample devices. N-type conduction was found in all NWFETs with

  20. Advanced Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Michael S.; Maki, Paul A.; Kolodzey, James

    2007-06-01

    I. Wide band gap devices. Wide-Bandgap Semiconductor devices for automotive applications / M. Sugimoto ... [et al.]. A GaN on SiC HFET device technology for wireless infrastructure applications / B. Green ... [et al.]. Drift velocity limitation in GaN HEMT channels / A. Matulionis. Simulations of field-plated and recessed gate gallium nitride-based heterojunction field-effect transistors / V. O. Turin, M. S. Shur and D. B. Veksler. Low temperature electroluminescence of green and deep green GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / Y. Li ... [et al.]. Spatial spectral analysis in high brightness GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes / T. Detchprohm ... [et al.]. Self-induced surface texturing of Al2O3 by means of inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching in Cl2 chemistry / P. Batoni ... [et al.]. Field and termionic field transport in aluminium gallium arsenide heterojunction barriers / D. V. Morgan and A. Porch. Electrical characteristics and carrier lifetime measurements in high voltage 4H-SiC PiN diodes / P. A. Losee ... [et al.]. Geometry and short channel effects on enhancement-mode n-Channel GaN MOSFETs on p and n- GaN/sapphire substrates / W. Huang, T. Khan and T. P. Chow. 4H-SiC Vertical RESURF Schottky Rectifiers and MOSFETs / Y. Wang, P. A. Losee and T. P. Chow. Present status and future Directions of SiGe HBT technology / M. H. Khater ... [et al.]Optical properties of GaInN/GaN multi-quantum Wells structure and light emitting diode grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy / J. Senawiratne ... [et al.]. Electrical comparison of Ta/Ti/Al/Mo/Au and Ti/Al/Mo/Au Ohmic contacts on undoped GaN HEMTs structure with AlN interlayer / Y. Sun and L. F. Eastman. Above 2 A/mm drain current density of GaN HEMTs grown on sapphire / F. Medjdoub ... [et al.]. Focused thermal beam direct patterning on InGaN during molecular beam epitaxy / X. Chen, W. J. Schaff and L. F. Eastman -- II. Terahertz and millimeter wave devices. Temperature-dependent microwave performance of

  1. 77 FR 69488 - Medical Devices; Custom Devices; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Devices; Custom Devices; Request for Comments AGENCY... of developing an implementation strategy and policy for the custom device exemption criteria in the FD&C Act amended by FDASIA. FDA is seeking information on appropriate uses of the custom...

  2. Intrauterine device developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Results of recent IUD research are presented. The largest study of postpartum IUD insertion to date, a multicenter comparative trail involving 3791 women at 15 sites in 13 countries, has shown that the practice is safe and effective if the IUD is correctly placed. Modifications in design of the device are unnecessary to reduce expulsions. In 1977, Family Health International (FHI) began developing IUDs that would have clinically acceptable expulsion rates following postpartum insertion. By adding chromic catgut suture material to the upper arms of the TCu andLippes Loop, FHI developed the Delta T and Delta Loop. Many of the centers involved in studies of postpartum IUD insertion were large urban maternity hospitals in developing countries with heavy caseloads of 10,000-30,000 deliveries/year. Results of the trials and of a 19-center evaluation of the timing of postpartum insertion support several conclusions: 1) insertion should take place within 10 minutes of placental expulsion; 2) if insertion is done within 10 minutes of delivery, there is no increased risk of infection or uterine perforation; 3) the type of device inserted is less important than the method of insertion; expulsion rates at different clinics ranged from 6-37/1000 women at 6 monts, and the fundal placement of the device is crucial; and 4) expulsions are higher for postpartum than interval insertions but not so high as to make the offer of an IUD immediately postpartum unacceptable. Since the incidence of pain or bleeding associated with IUD use is related to their size, attempts to decrease the side effects have centered on development of smaller copper devices. 1 such device, the copper i, consists of a straight stem with small crossarms in an 'x' configuration disigned to anchor the IUD in place. A copper wire around the stem of the device exposes 200 sq millimeters of cooper. A study of 98 women who used the Copper i showed an accidental pregnancy rate of 3.2 at 6 months and 9.0 at 12 months

  3. Photoemission-based microelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Tyler J.; Tao, Andrea R.; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2016-11-01

    The vast majority of modern microelectronic devices rely on carriers within semiconductors due to their integrability. Therefore, the performance of these devices is limited due to natural semiconductor properties such as band gap and electron velocity. Replacing the semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices with a gas or vacuum channel may scale their speed, wavelength and power beyond what is available today. However, liberating electrons into gas/vacuum in a practical microelectronic device is quite challenging. It often requires heating, applying high voltages, or using lasers with short wavelengths or high powers. Here, we show that the interaction between an engineered resonant surface and a low-power infrared laser can cause enough photoemission via electron tunnelling to implement feasible microelectronic devices such as transistors, switches and modulators. The proposed photoemission-based devices benefit from the advantages of gas-plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving the integrability of semiconductor-based devices.

  4. How Does Medical Device Regulation Perform in the United States and the European Union? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Daniel B.; Xu, Shuai; Kesselheim, Aaron S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings. Methods and Findings We performed a systematic review to find empirical studies evaluating medical device regulation in the US or EU. We searched Medline using two nested categories that included medical devices and glossary terms attributable to the US Food and Drug Administration and the EU, following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. We supplemented this search with a review of the US Government Accountability Office online database for reports on US Food and Drug Administration device regulation, consultations with local experts in the field, manual reference mining of selected articles, and Google searches using the same key terms used in the Medline search. We found studies of premarket evaluation and timing (n = 9), studies of device recalls (n = 8), and surveys of device manufacturers (n = 3). These studies provide evidence of quality problems in pre-market submissions in the US, provide conflicting views of device safety based largely on recall data, and relay perceptions of some industry leaders from self-surveys. Conclusions Few studies have quantitatively assessed medical device regulation in either the US or EU. Existing studies of US and EU device approval and post-market evaluation performance suggest that policy reforms are necessary for both systems, including improving classification of devices in the US and promoting transparency and post-market oversight in the EU. Assessment of regulatory performance in both settings is limited by lack of data on post-approval safety outcomes. Changes to these device approval and post-marketing systems must be accompanied by ongoing research to ensure that there is better assessment of

  5. How does medical device regulation perform in the United States and the European union? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Kramer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Policymakers and regulators in the United States (US and the European Union (EU are weighing reforms to their medical device approval and post-market surveillance systems. Data may be available that identify strengths and weakness of the approaches to medical device regulation in these settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review to find empirical studies evaluating medical device regulation in the US or EU. We searched Medline using two nested categories that included medical devices and glossary terms attributable to the US Food and Drug Administration and the EU, following PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews. We supplemented this search with a review of the US Government Accountability Office online database for reports on US Food and Drug Administration device regulation, consultations with local experts in the field, manual reference mining of selected articles, and Google searches using the same key terms used in the Medline search. We found studies of premarket evaluation and timing (n = 9, studies of device recalls (n = 8, and surveys of device manufacturers (n = 3. These studies provide evidence of quality problems in pre-market submissions in the US, provide conflicting views of device safety based largely on recall data, and relay perceptions of some industry leaders from self-surveys. CONCLUSIONS: Few studies have quantitatively assessed medical device regulation in either the US or EU. Existing studies of US and EU device approval and post-market evaluation performance suggest that policy reforms are necessary for both systems, including improving classification of devices in the US and promoting transparency and post-market oversight in the EU. Assessment of regulatory performance in both settings is limited by lack of data on post-approval safety outcomes. Changes to these device approval and post-marketing systems must be accompanied by ongoing research to ensure that there is

  6. Pointing Devices for Wearable Computers

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés A. Calvo; Saverio Perugini

    2014-01-01

    We present a survey of pointing devices for wearable computers, which are body-mounted devices that users can access at any time. Since traditional pointing devices (i.e., mouse, touchpad, and trackpoint) were designed to be used on a steady and flat surface they are inappropriate for wearable computers. Just as the advent of laptops resulted in the development of the touchpad and trackpoint, the emergence of wearable computers is leading to the development of pointing devices designed for th...

  7. An introduction to electrooptic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan P

    1974-01-01

    An Introduction to Electrooptic Devices aims to present an introduction to the electrooptic effect and to summarize work on devices employing the electrooptic effect. The book provides the necessary background in classical crystal optics. The text then discusses topics including crystal symmetry, the tensor description of linear dielectric properties, propagation in anisotropic media, and passive crystal optic devices. The book also describes the phenomenological description of tensor nonlinear dielectric properties of crystals, with emphasis on the electrooptic effect; device design and appli

  8. Gastrotomy closure with a new tissue anchoring device: A porcine survival study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlos Guarner-Argente; Henry Córdova; Graciela Martínez-Pallí; Ricard Navarro-Ripoll; Antonio Rodríguez-d'Jesús; Cristina Rodríguez de Miguel; Mireia Beltrán; Gloria Fernández-Esparrach

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility, reproducibility and efficacy of a new tissue anchoring device in a porcine survival model.METHODS: Gastrotomies were performed using a needle-knife and balloon dilator in 10 female Yorkshire pigs weighing 30-35 kg. Gastric closure was attempted usinga new tissue anchoring device. The tightness of the closure was confirmed by means of air insufflation and the ability to maintain gastric distension with stability in peritoneal pressure measured with a Veress needle. All animals were monitored daily for signs of peritonitis and sepsis over 14 d. During necropsy, the peritoneal cavity and the gastric access site were examined.RESULTS: Transgastric access, closure and 14 d survival was achieved in all pigs. The mean closure timewas 18.1 ± 19.2 min and a mean of 2.1 ± 1 devices were used. Supplementary clips were necessary in 2 cases. The closure time was progressively reduced(24.8 ± 13.9 min in the first 5 pigs vs 11.4 ± 5.9 min in the last 5, P = NS). At necropsy, the gastric access site was correctly closed in all cases with all brace-bars present. One device was misplaced in the mesocolon.Minimal adhesions were observed in 3 pigs and signs of mild peritonitis and adhesions in one.CONCLUSIONS: The use of this new tissue anchoring device in porcine stomachs is feasible, reproducible and effective and requires a short learning curve.

  9. Descriptions of relationship between the weighing sensor number of divisions and the truck scale number of divisions%简述称重传感器和汽车衡的分度值关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高学民

    2014-01-01

    The weighing accuracy of truck scale is affected by many factors in the course of using the truck scale, which include the relationship between truck scale precision and weighing sensor precision, as well as the relationship between the truck scale maximum number of divisions and the weighing sensor number of divisions in particular. In order to determine the relationship between the weighing sensor maximum number of divisions and the truck scale maximum number of divisions, the relationship between the weighing sensor maximum number of divisions and the truck scale minimum number of divisions is analyzed based on General Verification Regulation for Non-automatic Weighing Instrument (JJG555-1996) and Verification Regulation of Load Cell (JJG699-2003).%在汽车衡的使用中,常常涉及到汽车衡的秤量精度与汽车衡选取的称重传感器的精度的关系,特别是汽车衡的最大分度数和称重传感器的分度数的关系,影响了汽车衡秤量精度的确定。本文从JJG 555-1996非自动秤通用检定规程和JJG 699-2003称重传感器检定规程等规范文件的定义方面,来推论传感器的最大分度数与其组成汽车衡的最小分度值的关系,进而寻找传感器的最大分度数与其组成汽车衡的最大分度数的关系。

  10. Webshop Optimization for Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Mei, Long

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the programming technology which can be used to optimize the webshop design for mobile devices. The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate several possible solutions when doing implementation of webshop applications for mobile devices. web application developers and companies who wants to optimize their products for mobile devices could also benefit from this study.

  11. [Design of SCM inoculation device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Mingli; Xie, Haiyuan

    2014-01-01

    The first step of bacilli culture is inoculation bacteria on culture medium. Designing a device to increase efficiency of inoculation is significative. The new device is controlled by SCM. The stepper motor can drive the culture medium rotating, accelerating, decelerating, overturn and suspending. The device is high practicability and efficient, let inoculation easy for operator.

  12. Medical devices and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Elizabeth

    2012-08-01

    Errors related to health care devices are not well understood. Nurses in intensive care and progressive care environments can benefit from understanding manufacturer-related error and device-use error, the principles of human factors engineering, and the steps that can be taken to reduce risk of errors related to health care devices.

  13. Mechanical device for tissue regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herder, J.L.; Maij, E.

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a mechanical device for tissue- regeneration inside a patient, comprising means (2, 3) to place a scaffold for the tissue under mechanical stress. Said means comprise a first device-part (2) and a second device-part (3) which parts are arranged to be movable with respect to

  14. Silicon active photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitrios

    Active photonic devices utilizing the optical nonlinearities of silicon have emerged in the last 5 years and the effort for commercial photonic devices in the material that has been the workhorse of electronics has been building up since. This dissertation presents the theory for some of these devices. We are concerned herein with CW lasers, amplifiers and wavelength converters that are based on the Raman effect. There have already been cursory experimental demonstrations of these devices and some of their limitations are already apparent. Most of the limitations observed are because of the appearance of effects that are competing with stimulated Raman scattering. Under the high optical powers that are necessary for the Raman effect (tens to hundrends of mW's) the process of optical two-photon (TPA) absorption occurs. The absorption of optical power that it causes itself is weak but in the process electrons and holes are generated which can further absorb light through the free-carrier absorption effect (FCA). The effective "lifetime" that these carriers have determines the magnitude of the FCA loss. We present a model for the carrier lifetime in Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) waveguides and numerical simulations to understand how this critical parameter varies and how it can be controlled. A p-i-n junction built along SOI waveguides can help achieve lifetime of the order of 20--100 ps but the price one has to pay is on-chip electrical power consumption on the order of 100's of mWs. We model CW Raman lasers and we find that the carrier lifetime reduces the output power. If the carrier lifetime exceeds a certain "critical" value optical losses become overwhelming and lasing is impossible. As we show, in amplifiers, the nonlinear loss does not only result in diminished gain, but also in a higher noise figure. Finally the effect of Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is examined. The effect is important because with a pump frequency at 1434nm coherent power

  15. Nanoimprinted photonic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jayan; Gangopadhyay, Palash; Munoz, Ramon; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-08-01

    We introduce a simple yet efficient approach for nanoimprinting sub-50 nm dimensions starting from a low molecular weight plasticized polymer melt. This technique enabled us to successfully imprint versatile large area nanopatterns with high degrees of fidelity and rational control over the residual layers. The key advantage is its reliability in printing versatile nanostructures and nanophotonic devices doped with organic dyes owing to its low processing temperature. Since nanopatterns can be fabricated easily at low costs, this approach offers an easy pathway for achieving excellent nanoimprinted structures for a variety of photonic, electronic and biological research and applications.

  16. Data mining mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Mena, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    With today's consumers spending more time on their mobiles than on their PCs, new methods of empirical stochastic modeling have emerged that can provide marketers with detailed information about the products, content, and services their customers desire.Data Mining Mobile Devices defines the collection of machine-sensed environmental data pertaining to human social behavior. It explains how the integration of data mining and machine learning can enable the modeling of conversation context, proximity sensing, and geospatial location throughout large communities of mobile users

  17. Microneedle Device Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Device Prototype Final Report iv | List of Figures List of Figures Figure 3-1. Print screen of the STL file of a hollow microneedle design in Alibre...created in the e-Shell 300 substrates to create a fluidic path between the hollow microneedles and the microfluidic chip. The bores were prepared by...100 mW. The laser’s beam was focused onto the sample with a 4× objective to increase the photon density and obtain two-photon polymerization of the

  18. Forensics mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milorad S. Markagić

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of possibilities of digitized mobile(portable devices, and methods of research data with them.Emphasis is placed on the forensic investigation of mobilephones, but are covered by other media and research for digitalprocessing, transmission and storage of information.A special emphasis was made on the software tools in carrying out the acquisition of digital data, with the aim of sending the reader on ways and methods to protect data but also knowledgewhich is the same all be found and how they can be misused for criminal purposes

  19. Nanotube resonator devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kenneth J; Zettl, Alexander K; Weldon, Jeffrey A

    2014-05-06

    A fully-functional radio receiver fabricated from a single nanotube is being disclosed. Simultaneously, a single nanotube can perform the functions of all major components of a radio: antenna, tunable band-pass filter, amplifier, and demodulator. A DC voltage source, as supplied by a battery, can power the radio. Using carrier waves in the commercially relevant 40-400 MHz range and both frequency and amplitude modulation techniques, successful music and voice reception has been demonstrated. Also disclosed are a radio transmitter and a mass sensor using a nanotube resonator device.

  20. Anisotropic metamaterial devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xiang Jiang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years, a rapid development has been achieved in a subject area, so called optical transformation, which is based on the property of metric invariance in Maxwell's equations. Optical transformation, also known as transformation optics, allows metamaterials to be tailor-made according to practical needs. In this paper, we have reviewed the recent progress on the parametric design of transformation devices, such as invisibility cloaks, electromagnetic (EM concentrator, EM-wave converter, etc. The technique of optical transformation can also be applied when the sources are included in the transformed space.

  1. Pneumatically actuated micropipetting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szita, Nicolas; Buser, Rudolf A.

    1998-03-01

    We have realized a valveless micropipetting device with an integrated sensor which can aspirate and dispense liquid volumes without any valves, hence without any reflow or dead volume. With an external pneumatic actuation, we have demonstrated aspirating and dispensing from 190nl of 6 (mu) l of water. Measurements showed a standard deviation of down to 1 percent. An integrated capacitive sensor will allow monitoring of the pressure throughout the pipetting process and detect malfunctions, e.g. clotting of the pipetting tip. It is our intention to use this demonstrated precise aspiration mechanism in combination with a micromachined reaction chamber and a miniaturized optical analysis system.

  2. Stiffness of compression devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Mosti

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This issue of Veins and Lymphatics collects papers coming from the International Compression Club (ICC Meeting on Stiffness of Compression Devices, which took place in Vienna on May 2012. Several studies have demonstrated that the stiffness of compression products plays a major role for their hemodynamic efficacy. According to the European Committee for Standardization (CEN, stiffness is defined as the pressure increase produced by medical compression hosiery (MCH per 1 cm of increase in leg circumference.1 In other words stiffness could be defined as the ability of the bandage/stockings to oppose the muscle expansion during contraction.

  3. Hybrid silicon evanescent devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander W. Fang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Si photonics as an integration platform has recently been a focus of optoelectronics research because of the promise of low-cost manufacturing based on the ubiquitous electronics fabrication infrastructure. The key challenge for Si photonic systems is the realization of compact, electrically driven optical gain elements. We review our recent developments in hybrid Si evanescent devices. We have demonstrated electrically pumped lasers, amplifiers, and photodetectors that can provide a low-cost, scalable solution for hybrid integration on a Si platform by using a novel hybrid waveguide architecture, consisting of III-V quantum wells bonded to Si waveguides.

  4. COMMUNICATION - ORGANIZATIONS’ WORK DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAVINIA HULEA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Communication represents a complex process of transmitting messages, owing to which the emitter encodes the information transmitted through a specific channel towards a receiver that will decode it. Owing to communication, organizations transmit to their customers the fact that they are capable of meeting one of their needs, of settling a problem or of offering a profit. Non-verbal and para-verbal communications usually accompany verbal communication. The importance of assimilating the forms of communication is, at an organizational level, a complex device that determines the mastering of certain techniques, procedures, and algorithms of encoding and decoding intricate messages transmitted through various channels.

  5. Electromechanical motion devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krause, Paul C; Pekarek, Steven D

    2012-01-01

    This text provides a basic treatment of modern electric machine analysis that gives readers the necessary background for comprehending the traditional applications and operating characteristics of electric machines-as well as their emerging applications in modern power systems and electric drives, such as those used in hybrid and electric vehicles. Through the appropriate use of reference frame theory, Electromagnetic Motion Devices, Second Edition introduces readers to field-oriented control of induction machines, constant-torque, and constant-power control of dc, permanent-magnet ac

  6. Graphene device and method of using graphene device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchiat, Vincent; Girit, Caglar; Kessler, Brian; Zettl, Alexander K.

    2015-08-11

    An embodiment of a graphene device includes a layered structure, first and second electrodes, and a dopant island. The layered structure includes a conductive layer, an insulating layer, and a graphene layer. The electrodes are coupled to the graphene layer. The dopant island is coupled to an exposed surface of the graphene layer between the electrodes. An embodiment of a method of using a graphene device includes providing the graphene device. A voltage is applied to the conductive layer of the graphene device. Another embodiment of a method of using a graphene device includes providing the graphene device without the dopant island. A dopant island is placed on an exposed surface of the graphene layer between the electrodes. A voltage is applied to the conductive layer of the graphene device. A response of the dopant island to the voltage is observed.

  7. Emissivity modulating electrochromic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya; Shannon, Kenneth C., III; Sheets, Judd

    2009-05-01

    The IR-ECDTM (Infra-Red ElectroChromic Device) variable emitance device (VED) is an all-solid-state monolithic vacuum deposited thin film system with a unique metamaterial IR transparent-electrode system which functions as an electrically controlled dimmable mirror in the IR region. The maximum reflectance corresponding to the bleached condition of the system is around 90% (low-e condition, e=0.1). The minimum reflectance reaches nearly zero in the colored condition of the system (high emittance, e=1). The average emissivity modulation of the IRECDTM is 0.7 in the 8-12 micron region, and at 9.7 micron (room temperature) it reaches a value of 0.9. Half and full emissivity modulations occur within 2 and10 minutes respectively. Because of its light weight (5g/m2), low voltage requirement (+/- 1 Volts), extremely good emissivity control properties (from 0 to 0.9 at 300K) and highly repeatable deposition process, the IR-ECDTM technology is very attractive for satellite thermal control applications. The IR-ECDTM has been under evaluation in a real space environment since March 8, 2007. This paper presents recent achievements of the IR-ECDTM including space test results.

  8. Micro-Organ Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonda, Steve R. (Inventor); Chang, Robert C. (Inventor); Starly, Binil (Inventor); Culbertson, Christopher (Inventor); Holtorf, Heidi L. (Inventor); Sun, Wei (Inventor); Leslie, Julia (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for fabricating a micro-organ device comprises providing a microscale support having one or more microfluidic channels and one or more micro-chambers for housing a micro-organ and printing a micro-organ on the microscale support using a cell suspension in a syringe controlled by a computer-aided tissue engineering system, wherein the cell suspension comprises cells suspended in a solution containing a material that functions as a three-dimensional scaffold. The printing is performed with the computer-aided tissue engineering system according to a particular pattern. The micro-organ device comprises at least one micro-chamber each housing a micro-organ; and at least one microfluidic channel connected to the micro-chamber, wherein the micro-organ comprises cells arranged in a configuration that includes microscale spacing between portions of the cells to facilitate diffusion exchange between the cells and a medium supplied from the at least one microfluidic channel.

  9. Next generation toroidal devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Shoichi [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1998-10-01

    A general survey of the possible approach for the next generation toroidal devices was made. Either surprisingly or obviously (depending on one`s view), the technical constraints along with the scientific considerations lead to a fairly limited set of systems for the most favorable approach for the next generation devices. Specifically if the magnetic field strength of 5 T or above is to be created by superconducting coils, it imposes minimum in the aspect ratio for the tokamak which is slightly higher than contemplated now for ITER design. The similar technical constraints make the minimum linear size of a stellarator large. Scientifically, it is indicated that a tokamak of 1.5 times in the linear dimension should be able to produce economically, especially if a hybrid reactor is allowed. For the next stellarator, it is strongly suggested that some kind of helical axis is necessary both for the (almost) absolute confinement of high energy particles and high stability and equilibrium beta limits. The author still favors a heliac most. Although it may not have been clearly stated in the main text, the stability afforded by the shearless layer may be exploited fully in a stellarator. (author)

  10. Thermoplastic tape compaction device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, V.W.

    1994-12-27

    A device is disclosed for bonding a thermoplastic tape to a substrate to form a fully consolidated composite. This device has an endless chain associated with a frame so as to rotate in a plane that is perpendicular to a long dimension of the tape, the chain having pivotally connected chain links with each of the links carrying a flexible foot member that extends outwardly from the chain. A selected number of the foot members contact the tape, after the heating thereof, to cause the heated tape to bond to the substrate. The foot members are each a thin band of metal oriented transversely to the chain, with a flexibility and width and length to contact the tape so as to cause the tape to conform to the substrate to achieve consolidation of the tape and the substrate. A biased leaf-type spring within the frame bears against an inner surface of the chain to provide the compliant pressure necessary to bond the tape to the substrate. The chain is supported by sprockets on shafts rotatably supported in the frame and, in one embodiment, one of the shafts has a drive unit to produce rotation such that the foot members in contact with the tape move at the same speed as the tape. Cooling jets are positioned along the frame to cool the resultant consolidated composite. 5 figures.

  11. Carbon for sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Tagliaferro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    This book reveals why carbon is playing such an increasingly prominent role as a sensing material. The various steps that transform a raw material in a sensing device are thoroughly presented and critically discussed.  The authors deal with all aspects of carbon-based sensors, starting from the various hybridization and allotropes of carbon, with specific focus on micro and nanosized carbons (e.g., carbon nanotubes, graphene) and their growth processes. The discussion then moves to the role of functionalization and the different routes to achieve it. Finally, a number of sensing applications in various fields are presented, highlighting the connection with the basic properties of the various carbon allotropes.  Readers will benefit from this book’s bottom-up approach, which starts from the local bonding in carbon solids and ends with sensing applications, linking the local hybridization of carbon atoms and its modification by functionalization to specific device performance. This book is a must-have in th...

  12. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  13. Heterostructure terahertz devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, Victor

    2008-08-19

    The terahertz (THz) range of frequencies is borderline between microwave electronics and photonics. It corresponds to the frequency bands of molecular and lattice vibrations in gases, fluids, and solids. The importance of the THz range is in part due to numerous potential and emerging applications which include imaging and characterization, detection of hazardous substances, environmental monitoring, radio astronomy, covert inter-satellite communications, as well as biological and medical applications. During the last decades marked progress has been achieved in the development, fabrication, and practical implementation of THz devices and systems. This is primarily owing to the utilization of gaseous and free electron lasers and frequency converters using nonlinear optical phenomena as sources of THz radiation. However, such devices and hence the systems based on them are fairly cumbersome. This continuously stimulates an extensive search for new compact and efficient THz sources based on semiconductor heterostructures. Despite tremendous efforts lasting several decades, the so-called THz gap unbridged by semiconductor heterostructure electron and optoelectron devices still exists providing appropriate levels of power of the generated THz radiation. The invention and realization of quantum cascade lasers made of multiple quantum-well heterostructures already resulted in the partial solution of the problem in question, namely, in the successful coverage of the high-frequency portion of the THz gap (2-3 THz and higher). Further advancement to lower frequencies meets, perhaps, fundamental difficulties. All this necessitates further extensive theoretical and experimental studies of more or less traditional and novel semiconductor heterostructures as a basis for sources of THz radiation. This special issue includes 11 excellent original papers submitted by several research teams representing 14 institutions in Europe, America, and Asia. Several device concepts which

  14. Preface: Heterostructure terahertz devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhii, Victor

    2008-08-01

    The terahertz (THz) range of frequencies is borderline between microwave electronics and photonics. It corresponds to the frequency bands of molecular and lattice vibrations in gases, fluids, and solids. The importance of the THz range is in part due to numerous potential and emerging applications which include imaging and characterization, detection of hazardous substances, environmental monitoring, radio astronomy, covert inter-satellite communications, as well as biological and medical applications. During the last decades marked progress has been achieved in the development, fabrication, and practical implementation of THz devices and systems. This is primarily owing to the utilization of gaseous and free electron lasers and frequency converters using nonlinear optical phenomena as sources of THz radiation. However, such devices and hence the systems based on them are fairly cumbersome. This continuously stimulates an extensive search for new compact and efficient THz sources based on semiconductor heterostructures. Despite tremendous efforts lasting several decades, the so-called THz gap unbridged by semiconductor heterostructure electron and optoelectron devices still exists providing appropriate levels of power of the generated THz radiation. The invention and realization of quantum cascade lasers made of multiple quantum-well heterostructures already resulted in the partial solution of the problem in question, namely, in the successful coverage of the high-frequency portion of the THz gap (2-3 THz and higher). Further advancement to lower frequencies meets, perhaps, fundamental difficulties. All this necessitates further extensive theoretical and experimental studies of more or less traditional and novel semiconductor heterostructures as a basis for sources of THz radiation. This special issue includes 11 excellent original papers submitted by several research teams representing 14 institutions in Europe, America, and Asia. Several device concepts which

  15. Stretchable and wearable electrochromic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Kang, Wenbin; Wang, Jiangxin; Cui, Mengqi; Wang, Xu; Foo, Ce Yao; Chee, Kenji Jianzhi; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-01-28

    Stretchable and wearable WO3 electrochromic devices on silver nanowire (AgNW) elastic conductors are reported. The stretchable devices are mechanically robust and can be stretched, twisted, folded, and crumpled without performance failure. Fast coloration (1 s) and bleaching (4 s) time and good cyclic stability (81% retention after 100 cycles) were achieved at relaxed state. Proper functioning at stretched state (50% strain) was also demonstrated. The electrochromic devices were successfully implanted onto textile substrates for potential wearable applications. As most existing electrochromic devices are based on rigid technologies, the innovative devices in their soft form hold the promise for next-generation electronics such as stretchable, wearable, and implantable display applications.

  16. Deformable paper origami optoelectronic devices

    KAUST Repository

    He, Jr-Hau

    2017-01-19

    Deformable optoelectronic devices are provided, including photodetectors, photodiodes, and photovoltaic cells. The devices can be made on a variety of paper substrates, and can include a plurality of fold segments in the paper substrate creating a deformable pattern. Thin electrode layers and semiconductor nanowire layers can be attached to the substrate, creating the optoelectronic device. The devices can be highly deformable, e.g. capable of undergoing strains of 500% or more, bending angles of 25° or more, and/or twist angles of 270° or more. Methods of making the deformable optoelectronic devices and methods of using, e.g. as a photodetector, are also provided.

  17. Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-02-16

    Plasma devices for hydrocarbon reformation are provided. Methods of using the devices for hydrocarbon reformation are also provided. The devices can include a liquid container to receive a hydrocarbon source, and a plasma torch configured to be submerged in the liquid. The plasma plume from the plasma torch can cause reformation of the hydrocarbon. The device can use a variety of plasma torches that can be arranged in a variety of positions in the liquid container. The devices can be used for the reformation of gaseous hydrocarbons and/or liquid hydrocarbons. The reformation can produce methane, lower hydrocarbons, higher hydrocarbons, hydrogen gas, water, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, or a combination thereof.

  18. Organic photoresponse materials and devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huanli; Zhu, Hongfei; Meng, Qing; Gong, Xiong; Hu, Wenping

    2012-03-07

    Organic photoresponse materials and devices are critically important to organic optoelectronics and energy crises. The activities of photoresponse in organic materials can be summarized in three effects, photoconductive, photovoltaic and optical memory effects. Correspondingly, devices based on the three effects can be divided into (i) photoconductive devices such as photodetectors, photoreceptors, photoswitches and phototransistors, (ii) photovoltaic devices such as organic solar cells, and (iii) optical data storage devices. It is expected that this systematic analysis of photoresponse materials and devices could be a guide for the better understanding of structure-property relationships of organic materials and provide key clues for the fabrication of high performance organic optoelectronic devices, the integration of them in circuits and the application of them in renewable green energy strategies (critical review, 452 references).

  19. Graphene-based conformal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Ju; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Hyunmin; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2014-08-26

    Despite recent progress in bendable and stretchable thin-film transistors using novel designs and materials, the development of conformal devices remains limited by the insufficient flexibility of devices. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of graphene-based conformal and stretchable devices such as transistor and tactile sensor on a substrate with a convoluted surface by scaling down the device thickness. The 70 nm thick graphene-based conformal devices displayed a much lower bending stiffness than reported previously. The demonstrated devices provided excellent conformal coverage over an uneven animal hide surface without the need for an adhesive. In addition, the ultrathin graphene devices formed on the three-dimensionally curved animal hide exhibited stable electrical characteristics, even under repetitive bending and twisting. The advanced performance and flexibility demonstrated here show promise for the development and adoption of wearable electronics in a wide range of future applications.

  20. Cybersecurity for Connected Diabetes Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonoff, David C

    2015-04-16

    Diabetes devices are increasingly connected wirelessly to each other and to data-displaying reader devices. Threats to the accurate flow of information and commands may compromise the function of these devices and put their users at risk of health complications. Sound cybersecurity of connected diabetes devices is necessary to maintain confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the data and commands. Diabetes devices can be hacked by unauthorized agents and also by patients themselves to extract data that are not automatically provided by product software. Unauthorized access to connected diabetes devices has been simulated and could happen in reality. A cybersecurity standard designed specifically for connected diabetes devices will improve the safety of these products and increase confidence of users that the products will be secure. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  1. Design of Fruit Sorting Machine of Weighing Type Based on SolidWorks%基于SolidWorks的称重式水果分选机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛纪帅; 黄文倩; 张弛; 密雅荣

    2012-01-01

    称重式水果分选机在水果分级市场应用最为广泛,对其传统的研究方法是以二维平面图来设计其结构,抽象且很难修改.因此利用SolidWorks软件设计了一种新型称重式水果分选机,通过SolidWorks实现了对托盘称重式水果分选机支架、托盘、传动系统和链轮轴的设计,建立了电动机减速器和轴承座的三维模型,最终实现了称重式水果分选机的整体装配,系统的对分选机零件进行三维建模、虚拟装配、干涉分析和初步的有限元分析.结果表明,SolidWorks有助于新型农业机械的设计,缩短了其开发周期,提高其设计的质量.%Fruit sorting machine of weighing type was used most widely in fruit grading market, which study on its structure adopting traditional 2D plan method is too abstract to modify hardly.The re fore a new weighing type of fruit sorting machine was designed using SolidWorks, through which the design for stents,tray institutions ,transmission system and sprocket shaft of the sorting machine was realized,and 3D model for the motor reducer and bearing socket was built so that the overall assembly for the fruit sorting machine was achieved-Afterwards ,3D modeling,virtual assembly as well as compute clash and primary FEM analysis were carried out for parts of machine. The application results show that Solidworks is beneficial to new agricultural machinery design,which shall shorten the development cycle and improve the design quality

  2. QoE-Aware Device-to-Device Multimedia Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang ZHOU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multimedia services over mobile device-to-device (D2D networks has recently received considerable attention. In this scenario, each device is equipped with a cellular communication interface, as well as a D2D interface over a shared medium. In this work, we study the performance properties of the mobile D2D communications in the framework of user satisfaction, and develop a fully distributed QoE-aware multimedia communication scheme (QAMCS. Specifically, we translate the opportunistic multimedia communications issue into a stochastic optimization problem, which opens up a new degree of performance to exploit. Moreover, QAMCS is designed for a heterogeneous and dynamic environment, in which user demand, device mobility, and transmission fashion may vary across different devices and applications. Importantly, QAMCS is able to maximize the user satisfaction and only needs each device to implement its own scheme individually in the absence of a central controller.

  3. Materials for optoelectronic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Smigelski, Jr., Paul Michael

    2015-01-27

    Energy efficient optoelectronic devices include an electroluminescent layer containing a polymer made up of structural units of formula I and II; ##STR00001## wherein R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are independently C.sub.22-44 hydrocarbyl, C.sub.22-44 hydrocarbyl containing one or more S, N, O, P, or Si atoms, oxaalkylaryl, or a combination thereof; R.sup.3 and R.sup.4 are independently H, C.sub.1-44 hydrocarbyl or C.sub.1-44 hydrocarbyl containing one or more S, N, O, P, or Si atoms, or R.sup.3 and R.sup.4, taken together, form a C.sub.2-10 monocyclic or bicyclic ring containing up to three S, N, O, P, or Si heteroatoms; and X is S, Se, or a combination thereof.

  4. Personal annunciation device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelo, Peter; Younkin, James; DeMint, Paul

    2011-01-25

    A personal annunciation device (PAD) providing, in an area of interest, compensatory annunciation of the presence of an abnormal condition in a hazardous area and accountability of the user of the PAD. Compensatory annunciation supplements primary annunciation provided by an emergency notification system (ENS). A detection system detects an abnormal condition, and a wireless transmission system transmits a wireless transmission to the PAD. The PAD has a housing enclosing the components of the PAD including a communication module for receiving the wireless transmission, a power supply, processor, memory, annunciation system, and RFID module. The RFID module has an RFID receiver that listens for an RFID transmission from an RFID reader disposed in a portal of an area of interest. The PAD identifies the transmission and changes its operating state based on the transmission. The RFID readers recognize, record, and transmit the state of the PAD to a base station providing accountability of the wearer.

  5. Efficient thermoelectric device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ila, Daryush (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high efficiency thermo electric device comprising a multi nanolayer structure of alternating insulator and insulator/metal material that is irradiated across the plane of the layer structure with ionizing radiation. The ionizing radiation produces nanocrystals in the layered structure that increase the electrical conductivity and decrease the thermal conductivity thereby increasing the thermoelectric figure of merit. Figures of merit as high as 2.5 have been achieved using layers of co-deposited gold and silicon dioxide interspersed with layers of silicon dioxide. The gold to silicon dioxide ratio was 0.04. 5 MeV silicon ions were used to irradiate the structure. Other metals and insulators may be substituted. Other ionizing radiation sources may be used. The structure tolerates a wide range of metal to insulator ratio.

  6. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2015-07-02

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  7. Optically Reconfigurable Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Gholipour, Behrad; Wang, Chih-Ming; Yuan, Guanghui; Teng, Jinghua; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    Optoelectronic components with adjustable parameters, from variable-focal-length lenses to spectral filters that can change functionality upon stimulation, have enormous technological importance. Tuning of such components is conventionally achieved by either micro- or nano-mechanical actuation of their consitutive parts, stretching or application of thermal stimuli. Here we report a new dielectric metasurface platform for reconfigurable optical components that are created with light in a non-volatile and reversible fashion. Such components are written, erased and re-written as two-dimensional binary or grey-scale patterns into a nanoscale film of phase change material by inducing a refractive-index-changing phase-transition with tailored trains of femtosecond pulses. We combine germanium-antimony-tellurium-based films optimized for high-optical-contrast ovonic switching with a sub-wavelength-resolution optical writing process to demonstrate technologically relevant devices: visible-range reconfigurable bi-chr...

  8. False color viewing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-10-20

    A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

  9. Asteroseismology for "\\`{a} la carte" stellar age-dating and weighing: Age and mass of the CoRoT exoplanet host HD 52265

    CERN Document Server

    Lebreton, Yveline

    2014-01-01

    In the context of CoRoT, Kepler, Gaia, TESS, and PLATO, precise and accurate stellar ages, masses and radii are of paramount importance. They are crucial to constrain scenarii of planetary formation and evolution.We aim at quantifying how detailed stellar modeling improves the accuracy and precision on age and mass of individual stars. We adopt a multifaceted approach where we examine how the number of observational constraints as well as the uncertainties on observations and on model input physics impact the age-dating and weighing. We modelled the exoplanet host-star HD52265, a MS, solar-like oscillator observed by CoRoT. We considered different sets of observational constraints (HR data, metallicity, seismic constraints). For each case, we determined the age, mass, and properties of HD52265 inferred from models, and quantified the impact of the models inputs. Our seismic analysis provides an age A=2.10-2.54 Gyr, a mass M=1.14-1.32 Msun, and a radius R=1.30-1.34 Rsun, which corresponds to uncertainties of 1...

  10. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C M; Carson, Henry S; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J; Borerro, Jose C; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  11. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Eriksen

    Full Text Available Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007-2013 across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680 and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891. Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.

  12. Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Marcus; Lebreton, Laurent C. M.; Carson, Henry S.; Thiel, Martin; Moore, Charles J.; Borerro, Jose C.; Galgani, Francois; Ryan, Peter G.; Reisser, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic 4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove ocean surface. PMID:25494041

  13. Weighing up the costs of seeking health care for dengue symptoms: a grounded theory study of backpackers' decision-making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajta, Bálint; Holberg, Mette; Mills, Jane; McBride, William J H

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever, a mosquito-borne virus, is an ongoing public health issue in North Queensland. Importation of dengue fever by travellers visiting or returning to Australia can lead to epidemics. The mosquito can acquire the virus in the symptomatic viraemic phase, so timely recognition of cases is important to prevent epidemics. There is a gap in the literature about backpackers' knowledge of dengue fever and the decision-making process they use when considering utilising the Australian health-care system. This study uses grounded theory methods to construct a theory that explains the process backpackers use when seeking health care. Fifty semi-structured interviews with backpackers, hostel receptionists, travel agents and pharmacists were analysed, resulting in identification of a core category: 'weighing up the costs of seeking health care'. This core category has three subcategories: 'self-assessment of health status', 'wait-and-see' and 'seek direction'. Findings from this study identified key areas where health promotion material and increased access to health-care professionals could reduce the risk of backpackers spreading dengue fever.

  14. Integrated Ultrasonic-Photonic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barretto, Elaine Cristina Saraiva

    This thesis deals with the modeling, design, fabrication and characterization of integrated ultrasonic-photonic devices, with particular focus on the use of standard semiconductor materials such as GaAs and silicon. The devices are based on the use of guided acoustic waves to modulate the light...... systems, all in search for paths to improve acousto-optic interaction. Some of the solutions proposed lead to enhancements of up to two orders of magnitude in the eciency of the device. The main aspects related to the design of the devices are discussed, including single-mode guidance, optical coupling......, integration and cost. The design proves to be robust towards fabrication and design tolerances. Several uses for this device are proposed, opening up a whole new group of applications for this class of integrated ultrasonic-photonic devices....

  15. Building Evacuation with Mobile Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Merkel, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    The rapidly growing world population and increasingly dense settlements demand ever-larger and more complex buildings from today's engineers. In comparison to this technological progress, a building's equipment for emergency evacuation has been hardly developed further. This work presents a concept for a building evacuation system based on mobile devices. Furthermore, various algorithms for route planning with mobile devices and for indoor localization of mobile devices are addressed.

  16. Barriers to medical device innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergsl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Jacob Bergsland, Ole Jakob Elle, Erik Fosse The Intervention Centre, Oslo University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA has defined a medical device as a health care product that does not achieve it's purpose by chemical action or by being metabolized. This means that a vast number of products are considered medical devices. Such devices play an essential role in the practice of medicine. The FDA classifies medical devices in three classes, depending on the risk of the device. Since Class I and II devices have relatively simple requirements for getting to the market, this review will focus on “implantable devices”, which, in general, belong to Class III. The European Union and Canada use a slightly different classification system. While early generations of medical devices were introduced without much testing, either technical or clinical, the process of introducing a Class III medical device from concept to clinical practice has become strongly regulated and requires extensive technological and clinical testing. The modern era of implantable medical devices may be considered to have started in the 1920s with development of artificial hips. The implantable pacemaker was another milestone and pacemakers and cardioverters/defibrillators have since saved millions of lives and created commercial giants in the medical device industry. This review will include some examples of cardiovascular devices. Similar considerations apply to the total implantable device market, although clinical and technological applications obviously vary considerably. Keyword: implantable, FDA, regulation, CE-mark, innovation

  17. Barriers to medical device innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsl; J.van*; Elle OJ; Fosse E

    2014-01-01

    Jacob Bergsland, Ole Jakob Elle, Erik Fosse The Intervention Centre, Oslo University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has defined a medical device as a health care product that does not achieve it's purpose by chemical action or by being metabolized. This means that a vast number of products are considered medical devices. Such devices play an essential role in the practice of medicine. The FDA ...

  18. Barriers to medical device innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Bergsland, Jacob; Elle,Ole Jacob; Fosse, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Jacob Bergsland, Ole Jakob Elle, Erik Fosse The Intervention Centre, Oslo University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway Abstract: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has defined a medical device as a health care product that does not achieve it's purpose by chemical action or by being metabolized. This means that a vast number of products are considered medical devices. Such devices play an essential role in the practice of medicine. The ...

  19. Stabilizing Semiconductor Devices With Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overhauser, Albert W.; Maserjian, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Damage by radiation healed rapidly. Feature provides continuous, rapid recovery of devices from degradation caused by hot electrons, photons, and ionizing radiation. Several candidate sites for palladium film catalysts, inserted during manufacture as integral parts of devices. Paladium films made by evaporation, sputtering, or chemical-vapor deposition. If additional storage required, thick layer of palladium plated on inside of package surrounding device. Hydrogen stored by exposing palladium to hydrogen gas just before package sealed hermetically.

  20. Let's Weigh in on "Deflategate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    The September 2015 paper "Bouncing Back from 'Deflategate'" is a very interesting article from a physics viewpoint. However, we doubt that the National Football League (NFL) officials will bounce footballs and measure the coefficient of restitution to verify that the footballs remain properly inflated. The release of a few pounds per…

  1. Weighing in on the Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Assuming the validity of the Standard Model, or more generally that possible physics beyond it would have only small effects on production cross sections, branching ratios and electroweak radiative corrections, I determine the mass of the Higgs boson to 124.5 +- 0.8 GeV at the 68% CL. This is arrived at by combining electroweak precision data with the results of Higgs boson searches at LEP 2, the Tevatron, and the LHC. The statistical interpretation of the method does not require a look-elsewhere effect correction.

  2. Let's Weigh in on "Deflategate"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toepker, Terrence

    2016-01-01

    The September 2015 paper "Bouncing Back from 'Deflategate'" is a very interesting article from a physics viewpoint. However, we doubt that the National Football League (NFL) officials will bounce footballs and measure the coefficient of restitution to verify that the footballs remain properly inflated. The release of a few pounds per…

  3. Chubby children; weighing the risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, M. van

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis aimed to describe the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors, (which are predictive for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease) among overweight/obese children with or without type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Also, we aimed to assess the prevalence of the

  4. A Project Course Sequence in Innovation and Commercialization of Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Alan W; Tillman, Shea; Kirkland, Brandon; Sherrod, Brandon

    2017-07-01

    There exists a need for educational processes in which students gain experience with design and commercialization of medical devices. This manuscript describes the implementation of, and assessment results from, the first year offering of a project course sequence in Master of Engineering (MEng) in Design and Commercialization at our institution. The three-semester course sequence focused on developing and applying hands-on skills that contribute to product development to address medical device needs found within our university hospital and local community. The first semester integrated computer-aided drawing (CAD) as preparation for manufacturing of device-related components (hand machining, computer numeric control (CNC), three-dimensional (3D) printing, and plastics molding), followed by an introduction to microcontrollers (MCUs) and printed circuit boards (PCBs) for associated electronics and control systems. In the second semester, the students applied these skills on a unified project, working together to construct and test multiple weighing scales for wheelchair users. In the final semester, the students applied industrial design concepts to four distinct device designs, including user and context reassessment, human factors (functional and aesthetic) design refinement, and advanced visualization for commercialization. The assessment results are described, along with lessons learned and plans for enhancement of the course sequence.

  5. Mobile device security for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Campagna, Rich; Krishnan, Ashwin

    2011-01-01

    The information you need to avoid security threats on corporate mobile devices Mobile devices have essentially replaced computers for corporate users who are on the go and there are millions of networks that have little to no security. This essential guide walks you through the steps for securing a network and building a bulletproof framework that will protect and support mobile devices in the enterprise. Featuring real-world case scenarios, this straightforward guide shares invaluable advice for protecting mobile devices from the loss of sensitive and confidential corporate informati

  6. Fibre Optic Communication Key Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Grote, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The book gives an in-depth description of the key devices of current and next generation fibre optic communication networks. In particular, the book covers devices such as semiconductor lasers, optical amplifiers, modulators, wavelength filters, and detectors but the relevant properties of optical fibres as well. The presentations include the physical principles underlying the various devices, the technologies used for the realization of the different devices, typical performance characteristics and limitations, and development trends towards more advanced components are also illustrated. Thus the scope of the book spans relevant principles, state-of-the-art implementations, the status of current research and expected future components.

  7. Silicon nanowires as intracellular devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, John F.

    Semiconductor nanowire devices are an exciting class of materials for biomedical and electrophysiology applications, with current studies primarily delivering substrate bound devices through mechanical abrasion or electroporation. However, the ability to distribute these devices in a drug-like fashion is an important step in developing next-generation active therapeutic devices. In this work, we will discuss the interaction of label free Silicon nanowires (SiNWs) with cellular systems, showing that they can be internalized in multiple cell lines, and undergo an active 'burst-like' transport process. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  8. Plasma detachment in linear devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, N.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma detachment research in linear devices, sometimes called divertor plasma simulators, is reviewed. Pioneering works exploring the concept of plasma detachment were conducted in linear devices. Linear devices have contributed greatly to the basic understanding of plasma detachment such as volume plasma recombination processes, detached plasma structure associated with particle and energy transport, and other related issues including enhancement of convective plasma transport, dynamic response of plasma detachment, plasma flow reversal, and magnetic field effect. The importance of plasma detachment research using linear devices will be highlighted aimed at the design of future DEMO.

  9. Extraglottic airway devices: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma B

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Bimla Sharma, Chand Sahai, Jayashree Sood Department of Anaesthesiology, Pain and Perioperative Medicine, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi, India Abstract: Extraglottic airway devices (EADs have revolutionized the field of airway management. The invention of the laryngeal mask airway was a game changer, and since then, there have been several innovations to improve the EADs in design, functionality, safety and construction material. These have ranged from changes in the shape of the mask, number of cuffs and material used, like rubber, polyvinylchloride and latex. Phthalates, which were added to the construction material in order to increase device flexibility, were later omitted when this chemical was found to have serious adverse reproductive outcomes. The various designs brought out by numerous companies manufacturing EADs resulted in the addition of several devices to the airway market. These airway devices were put to use, many of them with inadequate or no evidence base regarding their efficacy and safety. To reduce the possibility of compromising the safety of the patient, the Difficult Airway Society (DAS formed the Airway Device Evaluation Project Team (ADEPT to strengthen the evidence base for airway equipment and vet the new extraglottic devices. A preuse careful analysis of the design and structure may help in better understanding of the functionality of a particular device. In the meantime, the search for the ideal EAD continues. Keywords: extraglottic airway devices, laryngeal mask airway, other extraglottic airway devices, safety, technology update

  10. Digital forensics for handheld devices

    CERN Document Server

    Doherty, Eamon P

    2012-01-01

    Approximately 80 percent of the world's population now owns a cell phone, which can hold evidence or contain logs about communications concerning a crime. Cameras, PDAs, and GPS devices can also contain information related to corporate policy infractions and crimes. Aimed to prepare investigators in the public and private sectors, Digital Forensics for Handheld Devices examines both the theoretical and practical aspects of investigating handheld digital devices. This book touches on all areas of mobile device forensics, including topics from the legal, technical, academic, and social aspects o

  11. Microbiopsy/precision cutting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krulevitch, Peter A.; Lee, Abraham P.; Northrup, M. Allen; Benett, William J.

    1999-01-01

    Devices for performing tissue biopsy on a small scale (microbiopsy). By reducing the size of the biopsy tool and removing only a small amount of tissue or other material in a minimally invasive manner, the risks, costs, injury and patient discomfort associated with traditional biopsy procedures can be reduced. By using micromachining and precision machining capabilities, it is possible to fabricate small biopsy/cutting devices from silicon. These devices can be used in one of four ways 1) intravascularly, 2) extravascularly, 3) by vessel puncture, and 4) externally. Additionally, the devices may be used in precision surgical cutting.

  12. Cooling Devices in Laser therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anupam; Sarda, Aarti; De, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Cooling devices and methods are now integrated into most laser systems, with a view to protecting the epidermis, reducing pain and erythema and improving the efficacy of laser. On the basis of method employed, it can be divided into contact cooling and non-contact cooling. With respect to timing of irradiation of laser, the nomenclatures include pre-cooling, parallel cooling and post-cooling. The choice of the cooling device is dictated by the laser device, the physician's personal choice with respect to user-friendliness, comfort of the patient, the price and maintenance costs of the device. We hereby briefly review the various techniques of cooling, employed in laser practice.

  13. 78 FR 1247 - Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices, Including Wireless Communication Devices, Tablet Computers, Media... importation of certain electronic devices, including wireless communication devices, tablet computers, media... United States after importation of certain electronic devices, including wireless communication...

  14. 77 FR 58576 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers, and... importation of certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers... after importation of certain wireless communication devices, portable music and data processing...

  15. 77 FR 51571 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers, and... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers, and components thereof. The.... International Trade Commission has received a complaint entitled Wireless Communication Devices, Portable...

  16. 78 FR 12785 - Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Certain Wireless Communication Devices, Portable Music and Data Processing Devices, Computers and... communication devices, portable music and data processing devices, computers and components thereof by reason of... evidence demonstrates that the existence of portable communication devices using ``touch sensitive...

  17. Device Closure of Small Ventricular Septal Defects: When and Why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IB Vijayalakshmi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ventricular septal defect (VSD accounts for approximately 20-30 % of all forms of congenital heart disease (CHD. They were traditionally closed surgically in the past. The surgery though safe carries the risk of morbidity, complete heart block, wound infection and thoracotomy scar on the chest. On weighing the risk and benefit, the small VSDs were not submitted to surgery in the past. So for many years it has been taught that the small VSDs are to be left alone and surgery is not recommended. Many clinicians believed in spontaneous closure of VSDs. Hence they advised the parents to wait for spontaneous closure till the child is 9 years old. But what if the VSD does not close by 10 years is the question. Are they normal as grown up congenital heart (GUCH. The Jane Somerville GUCH unit showed that spontaneous closure occurred only in 10% between the age of 17 and 45 (mean - 27 years in small VSDs in adults. What is worth noting is about 25% had serious complications: infective endocarditis (11%, progressive aortic regurgitation (5%, age-related symptomatic arrhythmias (8.5% like atrial fibrillation. This means that asymptomatic small VSDs in childhood is not necessarily benign during adult life. This raises the question, when we have a safe non-surgical device closure available to close the small VSDs, should we put the future lives of the young in danger by not giving the benefit of technology to them?

  18. 21 CFR 882.5050 - Biofeedback device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biofeedback device. 882.5050 Section 882.5050 Food... DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5050 Biofeedback device. (a) Identification. A biofeedback device is an instrument that provides a visual or auditory signal corresponding...

  19. 21 CFR 890.5525 - Iontophoresis device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iontophoresis device. 890.5525 Section 890.5525...) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Therapeutic Devices § 890.5525 Iontophoresis device. (a) Iontophoresis device intended for certain specified uses—(1) Identification. An...

  20. Medical device alarms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Matthias; Görges, Matthias; Fried, Roland; Such, Olaf; Wrede, Christian; Imhoff, Michael

    2011-04-01

    The high number of false positive alarms has long been known to be a serious problem in critical care medicine - yet it remains unresolved. At the same time, threats to patient safety due to missing or suppressed alarms are being reported. The purpose of this paper is to present results from a workshop titled "Too many alarms? Too few alarms?" organized by the Section Patient Monitoring and the Workgroup Alarms of the German Association of Biomedical Engineering of the Association for Electrical, Electronic and Information Technologies. The current situation regarding alarms and their problems in intensive care, such as lack of clinical relevance, alarm fatigue, workload increases due to clinically irrelevant alarms, usability problems in alarm systems, problems with manuals and training, and missing alarms due to operator error are outlined, followed by a discussion of solutions and strategies to improve the current situation. Finally, the need for more research and development, focusing on signal quality considerations, networking of medical devices at the bedside, diagnostic alarms and predictive warnings, usability of alarm systems, education of healthcare providers, creation of annotated clinical databases for testing, standardization efforts, and patient monitoring in the regular ward, are called for.

  1. Simulation of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Oriato, D

    2001-01-01

    cathode, made using an AIGaAs heterostructure step. Simulations show the importance of the insertion of a thin highly-doped layer between the transit region and the electron launcher in order to improve device operation. Chapter 5 is an introduction to Ill-nitrides, in particular GaN and its alloy ln-GaN. We outline the discrepancy in the elastic and piezoelectric parameters found in the literature. Strain, dislocations and piezoelectricity are presented as the main features of a InGaN/GaN system. In chapter 6 an extensive simulation of the dependence of the optical band gap of a single InGaN quantum well on the piezoelectric and spontaneous polarization is reported. Quantum Confined Stark Effect and screening mechanisms are found to play a major role. The simulation of a novel InGaN/GaN double quantum well LED is presented. A wide well is used to capture electrons that tunnels in a narrow well where they recombine with holes. Resonant asymmetric tunneling of electron and holes is used to increase the efficie...

  2. Virtual MIMO Beamforming and Device Pairing Enabled by Device-to-Device Communications for Multidevice Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeonjin Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a multidevice network with asymmetric antenna configurations which supports not only communications between an access point and devices but also device-to-device (D2D communications for the Internet of things. For the network, we propose the transmit and receive beamforming with the channel state information (CSI for virtual multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO enabled by D2D receive cooperation. We analyze the sum rate achieved by a device pair in the proposed method and identify the strategies to improve the sum rate of the device pair. We next present a distributed algorithm and its equivalent algorithm for device pairing to maximize the throughput of the multidevice network. Simulation results confirm the advantages of the transmit CSI and D2D cooperation as well as the validity of the distributive algorithm.

  3. 微量药品单元动态称重系统的设计与实现%Design and realization of micro scale capsule dynamic weighing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄育锋; 翟宇

    2013-01-01

    The design method for a micro scale capsule dynamic weighing system is proposed, which can transport and classify capsules in turn and acquire the quality of the capsules. A kind of kinetic model for the dynamic weighing of capsule is established. The model is based on energy conservation principle and considers the influences of sliding chute parameters, sensor parameters and other factors. The movement process of the capsules with different weights is analyzed. MATLAB is adopted to simulate the analysis results. During the process of transporting and classifying the capsules,the weighing transducer is used to measure the weight of the capsule. The A/D converter, which is linked to the weighing transducer, sends the capsule weight data to the subsequent ARM processor. The ARM processor sends data to MCU that controls the movement of the electric motor through serial communication and the observing and controlling process is completed. Meanwhile, a graphic user interface is developed based on miniGUI, with which the ARM processor can display the capsule weight information in real time. The simulation and experiment results indicate that when the threshold of the sensor signal is 0. 195 V and the time interval of the weighing process is 1.46 s, the dynamic capsule weighing process can be realized successfully. The design for capsule weighing unit has completed the process of capsules weighing effectively and improves the reliability and high efficiency of capsule dynamic condition weighing.%提出了一种微量药品单元动态称重系统的设计方法,可依次完成药品单元的传送和分拨,并统计药品单元的质量情况.建立了药品单元动态称重的动力学模型,模型以能量守恒原理为基础,考虑了滑槽截面参数、传感器参数等因素,对不同质量药品单元的运动过程进行了分析,并利用MATLAB对分析结果进行了仿真.系统对药品单元的传送、分拨控制过程是利用称重传感

  4. Selection of Air Terminal Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,......This paper discusses the selection of the air terminal device for the experiments and numerical prediction in the International Energy Agency Annex 20 work: Air Flow Pattern within Buildings,...

  5. Satellite and acoustic tracking device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2014-02-20

    The present invention relates a method and device for tracking movements of marine animals or objects in large bodies of water and across significant distances. The method and device can track an acoustic transmitter attached to an animal or object beneath the ocean surface by employing an unmanned surface vessel equipped with a hydrophone array and GPS receiver.

  6. Nanoscale wicking methods and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jijie (Inventor); Bronikowski, Michael (Inventor); Noca, Flavio (Inventor); Sansom, Elijah B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A fluid transport method and fluid transport device are disclosed. Nanoscale fibers disposed in a patterned configuration allow transport of a fluid in absence of an external power source. The device may include two or more fluid transport components having different fluid transport efficiencies. The components may be separated by additional fluid transport components, to control fluid flow.

  7. Wireless Power for Mobile Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless power transfer allows a convenient, easy to use battery charging of mobile phones and other mobile devices. No hassle with cables and plugs, just place the device on a pad and that’s it. Such asystem even has the potential to become a standard charging solution. Where are the limits for

  8. Wound Healing Devices Brief Vignettes

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Caesar A.; Hare, Marc A.; Perdrizet, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Significance: The demand for wound care therapies is increasing. New wound care products and devices are marketed at a dizzying rate. Practitioners must make informed decisions about the use of medical devices for wound healing therapy. This paper provides updated evidence and recommendations based on a review of recent publications.

  9. Electrical nanogap devices for biosensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available For detecting substances that are invisible to the human eye or nose, and particularly those biomolecules, the devices must have very small feature sizes, be compact and provide a sufficient level of sensitivity, often to a small number of biomolecules that are just a few nanometres in size. Electrical nanogap devices for biosensing have emerged as a powerful technique for detecting very small quantities of biomolecules. The most charming feature of the devices is to directly transduce events of biomolecules specific binding into useful electrical signals such as resistance/impedance, capacitance/dielectric, or field-effect. Nanogap devices in electrical biosensing have become a busy area of research which is continually expanding. A wealth of research is available discussing planar and vertical nanogap devices for biosensing. Planar nanogap devices including label-free, gold nanoparticle-labeled, nanoparticles-enhanced, nanogapped gold particle film, and carbon nanotube nanogap devices as well as vertical nanogap devices with two and three terminals for biosensing are carefully reviewed. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated overview of the work in this field. In each part, we discuss the principles of operation of electrical biosensing and consider major strategies for enhancing their performance and/or key challenges and opportunities in current stages, and in their further development.

  10. Mixing in a Microfluid Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Deryabin, Mikhail

    Mixing of fluids in microchannels cannot rely on turbulence since the flow takes place at extremly low Reynolds numbers. Various active and passive devices have been developed to induce mixing in microfluid flow devices. We describe here a model of an active mixer where a transverse periodic flow...

  11. Documentation of Appliances & Interaction Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The interaction devices and appliances explored in the WorkSPACE project, address spatial computing in the context of work. We have developed and explored a range of appliances and interaction devices. The scope has been to develop tools for support of collaboration by mixing digital and physical...

  12. Documentation of Appliances & Interaction Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The interaction devices and appliances explored in the WorkSPACE project, address spatial computing in the context of work. We have developed and explored a range of appliances and interaction devices. The scope has been to develop tools for support of collaboration by mixing digital and physical...

  13. Wireless Power for Mobile Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waffenschmidt, E.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless power transfer allows a convenient, easy to use battery charging of mobile phones and other mobile devices. No hassle with cables and plugs, just place the device on a pad and that’s it. Such asystem even has the potential to become a standard charging solution. Where are the limits for suc

  14. Glass for Solid State Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    Glass film has low intrinsic compressive stress for isolating active layers of magnetic-bubble and other solid-state devices. Solid-state device structure incorporates low-stress glasses as barrier and spacer layers. Glass layers mechanically isolate substrate, conductor, and nickel/iron layers.

  15. Epicardial deployment of right ventricular disk during perventricular device closure in a child with apical muscular ventricular septal defect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageswara Rao Koneti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a successful perventricular closure of an apical muscular ventricular septal defect (mVSD by a modified technique. An eight-month-old infant, weighing 6.5 kilograms, presented with refractory heart failure. The transthoracic echocardiogram showed multiple apical mVSDs with the largest one measuring 10 mm. perventricular device closure using a 12 mm Amplatzer mVSD occluder was planned. The left ventricular disk was positioned approximating the interventricular septum; however, the right ventricular (RV disk was deployed on the free wall of the RV due to an absent apical muscular septum and a small cavity at the apex. The RV disk of the device was covered using an autologous pericardium. His heart failure improved during follow-up.

  16. Pressurized waterproof case electronic device

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2013-01-31

    A pressurized waterproof case for an electronic device is particularly adapted for fluid-tight containment and operation of a touch-screen electronic device or the like therein at some appreciable water depth. In one example, the case may be formed as an enclosure having an open top panel or face covered by a flexible, transparent membrane or the like for the operation of the touchscreen device within the case. A pressurizing system is provided for the case to pressurize the case and the electronic device therein to slightly greater than ambient in order to prevent the external water pressure from bearing against the transparent membrane and pressing it against the touch screen, thereby precluding operation of the touch screen device within the case. The pressurizing system may include a small gas cartridge or may be provided from an external source.

  17. Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Baglio, Salvatore

    2006-01-01

    This edited book is devoted specifically to the applications of complex nonlinear dynamic phenomena to real systems and device applications. While in the past decades there has been significant progress in the theory of nonlinear phenomena under an assortment of system boundary conditions and preparations, there exist comparatively few devices that actually take this rich behavior into account. "Device Applications of Nonlinear Dynamics" applies and exploits this knowledge to make devices which operate more efficiently and cheaply, while affording the promise of much better performance. Given the current explosion of ideas in areas as diverse as molecular motors, nonlinear filtering theory, noise-enhanced propagation, stochastic resonance and networked systems, the time is right to integrate the progress of complex systems research into real devices.

  18. Surgical tools and medical devices

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents information and knowledge on the field of biomedical devices and surgical tools. The authors look at the interactions between nanotechnology, nanomaterials, design, modeling, and tools for surgical and dental applications, as well as how nanostructured surfaces can be created for the purposes of improving cell adhesion between medical devices and the human body. Each original chapter is revised in this second edition and describes developments in coatings for heart valves, stents, hip and knee joints, cardiovascular devices, orthodontic applications, and regenerative materials such as bone substitutes. There are also 8 new chapters that address: Microvascular anastomoses Inhaler devices used for pulmonary delivery of medical aerosols Surface modification of interference screws Biomechanics of the mandible (a detailed case study) Safety and medical devices The synthesis of nanostructured material Delivery of anticancer molecules using carbon nanotubes Nano and micro coatings for medic...

  19. Content Sharing for Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Rudi

    2008-01-01

    The miniaturisation of computing devices has seen computing devices become increasingly pervasive in society. With this increased pervasiveness, the technologies of small computing devices have also improved. Mobile devices are now capable of capturing various forms of multimedia and able to communicate wirelessly using increasing numbers of communication techniques. The owners and creators of local content are motivated to share this content in ever increasing volume; the conclusion has been that social networks sites are seeing a revolution in the sharing of information between communities of people. As load on centralised systems increases, we present a novel decentralised peer-to-peer approach dubbed the Market Contact Protocol (MCP) to achieve cost effective, scalable and efficient content sharing using opportunistic networking (pocket switched networking), incentive, context-awareness, social contact and mobile devices. Within the report we describe how the MCP is simulated with a superimposed geographi...

  20. High voltage semiconductor devices and methods of making the devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matocha, Kevin; Chatty, Kiran; Banerjee, Sujit

    2017-02-28

    A multi-cell MOSFET device including a MOSFET cell with an integrated Schottky diode is provided. The MOSFET includes n-type source regions formed in p-type well regions which are formed in an n-type drift layer. A p-type body contact region is formed on the periphery of the MOSFET. The source metallization of the device forms a Schottky contact with an n-type semiconductor region adjacent the p-type body contact region of the device. Vias can be formed through a dielectric material covering the source ohmic contacts and/or Schottky region of the device and the source metallization can be formed in the vias. The n-type semiconductor region forming the Schottky contact and/or the n-type source regions can be a single continuous region or a plurality of discontinuous regions alternating with discontinuous p-type body contact regions. The device can be a SiC device. Methods of making the device are also provided.

  1. Class 1 devices case studies in medical devices design

    CERN Document Server

    Ogrodnik, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    The Case Studies in Medical Devices Design series consists of practical, applied case studies relating to medical device design in industry. These titles complement Ogrodnik's Medical Device Design and will assist engineers with applying the theory in practice. The case studies presented directly relate to Class I, Class IIa, Class IIb and Class III medical devices. Designers and companies who wish to extend their knowledge in a specific discipline related to their respective class of operation will find any or all of these titles a great addition to their library. Class 1 Devices is a companion text to Medical Devices Design: Innovation from Concept to Market. The intention of this book, and its sister books in the series, is to support the concepts presented in Medical Devices Design through case studies. In the context of this book the case studies consider Class I (EU) and 510(k) exempt (FDA) . This book covers classifications, the conceptual and embodiment phase, plus design from idea to PDS. These title...

  2. Policy implications of using a household consumption and expenditures survey versus an observed-weighed food record survey to design a food fortification program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lividini, Keith; Fiedler, John L; Bermudez, Odilia I

    2013-12-01

    Observed-Weighed Food Record Surveys (OWFR) are regarded as the most precise dietary assessment methodology, despite their recognized shortcomings, which include limited availability, high cost, small samples with uncertain external validity that rarely include all household members, Hawthorne effects, and using only 1 or 2 days to identify "usual intake." Although Household Consumption and Expenditures Surveys (HCES) also have significant limitations, they are increasingly being used to inform nutrition policy To investigate differences in fortification simulations based on OWFR and HCES from Bangladesh. The pre- and postfortification nutrient intake levels from the two surveys were compared. The total population-based rank orderings of oil, wheat flour, and sugar coverage were identical for the two surveys. OWFR found differences in women's and children's coverage rates and average quantities consumed for all three foods that were not detected by HCES. Guided by the Food Fortification Formulator, we found that these differences did not result in differences in recommended fortification levels. Differences were found, however, in estimated impacts: although both surveys found that oil would be effective in reducing the prevalence of inadequate vitamin A intake among both subpopulations, only OWFR also found that sugar and wheat flour fortification would significantly reduce inadequate vitamin A intake among children. Despite the less precise measure of food consumption from HCES, the two surveys provide similar guidance for designing a fortification program. The external validity of these findings is limited. With relatively minor modifications, the precision of HCES in dietary assessment and the use ofHCES in fortification programming could be strengthened.

  3. 液体注肥器定量控制系统的设计%Design of Weighing Control System of Liquid Fertilizer Injector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹伟; 王秀; 张睿; 郝强

    2013-01-01

      针对目前液体施肥机的不足,设计了可以定量控制施肥量的注肥控制系统。系统采用电机带动离心泵输送液态肥料,通过计算注肥器管道中流量传感器的脉冲信号,获取系统实际排出的液体体积,根据实际施肥量与设定值的差值控制电机运转,从而实现根据实际需要精确控制施肥量。实际运行结果表明,该系统运行可靠,系统对施肥控制量误差相对比较小,可以在一定程度上实现精准注肥,减少肥料浪费。%Because of deficiency of the liquid fertilizer applicator , the weighing control system of liquid fertilizer injector was designed .The liquid fertilizer is delivered by a centrifugal pump which adopts the motor drive .Through the calcula-tion of the flow sensor pulse signal in the pipe , the controller gains the actual discharged liquid volume .The difference between the actual value and the set value determines whether the motor running .The fertilizer control error of the system is relatively small , the crops can be fertilization accurately and the fertilizer waste can be reduced in a sense .

  4. Ontology-Based Device Descriptions and Device Repository for Building Automation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dibowski Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Device descriptions play an important role in the design and commissioning of modern building automation systems and help reducing the design time and costs. However, all established device descriptions are specialized for certain purposes and suffer from several weaknesses. This hinders a further design automation, which is strongly needed for the more and more complex building automation systems. To overcome these problems, this paper presents novel Ontology-based Device Descriptions (ODDs along with a layered ontology architecture, a specific ontology view approach with virtual properties, a generic access interface, a triple store-based database backend, and a generic search mask GUI with underlying query generation algorithm. It enables a formal, unified, and extensible specification of building automation devices, ensures their comparability, and facilitates a computer-enabled retrieval, selection, and interoperability evaluation, which is essential for an automated design. The scalability of the approach to several ten thousand devices is demonstrated.

  5. Probing a Device's Active Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studniarek, Michał; Halisdemir, Ufuk; Schleicher, Filip; Taudul, Beata; Urbain, Etienne; Boukari, Samy; Hervé, Marie; Lambert, Charles-Henri; Hamadeh, Abbass; Petit-Watelot, Sebastien; Zill, Olivia; Lacour, Daniel; Joly, Loïc; Scheurer, Fabrice; Schmerber, Guy; Da Costa, Victor; Dixit, Anant; Guitard, Pierre André; Acosta, Manuel; Leduc, Florian; Choueikani, Fadi; Otero, Edwige; Wulfhekel, Wulf; Montaigne, François; Monteblanco, Elmer Nahuel; Arabski, Jacek; Ohresser, Philippe; Beaurepaire, Eric; Weber, Wolfgang; Alouani, Mébarek; Hehn, Michel; Bowen, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Materials science and device studies have, when implemented jointly as "operando" studies, better revealed the causal link between the properties of the device's materials and its operation, with applications ranging from gas sensing to information and energy technologies. Here, as a further step that maximizes this causal link, the paper focuses on the electronic properties of those atoms that drive a device's operation by using it to read out the materials property. It is demonstrated how this method can reveal insight into the operation of a macroscale, industrial-grade microelectronic device on the atomic level. A magnetic tunnel junction's (MTJ's) current, which involves charge transport across different atomic species and interfaces, is measured while these atoms absorb soft X-rays with synchrotron-grade brilliance. X-ray absorption is found to affect magnetotransport when the photon energy and linear polarization are tuned to excite FeO bonds parallel to the MTJ's interfaces. This explicit link between the device's spintronic performance and these FeO bonds, although predicted, challenges conventional wisdom on their detrimental spintronic impact. The technique opens interdisciplinary possibilities to directly probe the role of different atomic species on device operation, and shall considerably simplify the materials science iterations within device research. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. High voltage MOSFET devices and methods of making the devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Sujit; Matocha, Kevin; Chatty, Kiran

    2015-12-15

    A SiC MOSFET device having low specific on resistance is described. The device has N+, P-well and JFET regions extended in one direction (Y-direction) and P+ and source contacts extended in an orthogonal direction (X-direction). The polysilicon gate of the device covers the JFET region and is terminated over the P-well region to minimize electric field at the polysilicon gate edge. In use, current flows vertically from the drain contact at the bottom of the structure into the JFET region and then laterally in the X direction through the accumulation region and through the MOSFET channels into the adjacent N+ region. The current flowing out of the channel then flows along the N+ region in the Y-direction and is collected by the source contacts and the final metal. Methods of making the device are also described.

  7. Mobile device-to-device distributed computing using data sets

    OpenAIRE

    Remédios, Diogo; Teófilo, António; Paulino, Hervé; Lourenço, João

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly increasing computing power, available storage and communication capabilities of mobile devices makes it possible to start processing and storing data locally, rather than offloading it to remote servers; allowing scenarios of mobile clouds without infrastructure dependency. We can now aim at connecting neighboring mobile devices, creating a local mobile cloud that provides storage and computing services on local generated data. In this paper, we describe an early overview of a dis...

  8. Giant magneto-resistance devices

    CERN Document Server

    Hirota, Eiichi; Inomata, Koichiro

    2002-01-01

    This book deals with the application of giant magneto-resistance (GMR) effects to electronic devices. It will appeal to engineers and graduate students in the fields of electronic devices and materials. The main subjects are magnetic sensors with high resolution and magnetic read heads with high sensitivity, required for hard-disk drives with recording densities of several gigabytes. Another important subject is novel magnetic random-access memories (MRAM) with non-volatile non-destructive and radiation-resistant characteristics. Other topics include future GMR devices based on bipolar spin transistors, spin field-effect transistors (FETs) and double-tunnel junctions.

  9. Life cycle of mobile devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Rohal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted features of life cycle of mobile devices. The article highlighted a number of disadvantages associated with managing the life cycle of the product. Disadvantages include the orientation is not on the quality of mobile devices and their design, the obsolescence of digital products. The article drew attention to the need for process improvement life cycle management of mobile devices. For since this type of product is now the most popular among the population, consumers are interested, first of all, quality, and only then, look good.

  10. Portable Heat Pump Testing Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kłosowiak R.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the design and working principle of a portable testing device for heat pumps in the energy recirculation system. The presented test stand can be used for any refrigerating/reverse flow cycle device to calculate the device energy balance. The equipment is made of two portable containers of the capacity of 250 liters to simulate the air heat source and ground heat source with a system of temperature stabilization, compressor heat pump of the coefficient of performance (COP of = 4.3, a failsafe system and a control and measurement system.

  11. Skin-inspired electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Chortos

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic devices that mimic the properties of skin have potential important applications in advanced robotics, prosthetics, and health monitoring technologies. Methods for measuring tactile and temperature signals have progressed rapidly due to innovations in materials and processing methods. Imparting skin-like stretchability to electronic devices can be accomplished by patterning traditional electronic materials or developing new materials that are intrinsically stretchable. The incorporation of sensing methods with transistors facilitates large-area sensor arrays. While sensor arrays have surpassed the properties of human skin in terms of sensitivity, time response, and device density, many opportunities remain for future development.

  12. Arrhythmia management after device removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiro Nishii, MD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arrhythmic management is needed after removal of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs. Patients completely dependent on CIEDs need temporary device back-up until new CIEDs are implanted. Various methods are available for device back-up, and the appropriate management varies among patients. The duration from CIED removal to implantation of a new CIED also differs among patients. Temporary pacing is needed for patients with bradycardia, a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD or catheter ablation is needed for patients with tachyarrhythmia, and sequential pacing is needed for patients dependent on cardiac resynchronization therapy. The present review focuses on arrhythmic management after CIED removal.

  13. 对于JJG564-2002《重力式自动装料衡器》几个问题的认识%Recognizing of several questions about JJG564-2002 "automatic gravimetric filling weighing instrument"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈立人

    2012-01-01

    JJG564-2002《重力式自动装料衡器》检定规程,是一个比较复杂的文件,它不同与非自动衡器的检定规程。它的适用范围、准确度等级和控制衡器的选择方法存在一些容易让人混淆的因素,在此交流一下个人的认识。%JJG564-2002 "automatic gravimetric filling weighing instrument" test rules, is a complex document, it is different from non-automatic weighing instrument test rules. Choosing method of scope, the level of accuracy and control instrument exists some confusing things, to exchange personal understanding in this article.

  14. 高速动态称重系统在公路车辆荷载调查中的应用%The application of highway dynamic weighing system in highway vehicle load survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少幸; 王强

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduced the principle using highway dynamic weighing system to detect the traffic flow and axial load situation,through the data collection,analyzed the section traffic flow,traffic flow circadian distribution and axle load distribution,pointed out the highway dynam-ic weighing system played an important role in accurately design of pavement structure and pavement management.%对采用高速动态称重系统检测道路交通流量及轴载情况的原理作了介绍,通过数据采集,分析了断面交通量、交通量昼夜分布情况及轴载情况,指出高速动态称重系统对准确设计路面结构与路面管理具有重要作用。

  15. 21 CFR 801.109 - Prescription devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prescription devices. 801.109 Section 801.109 Food... DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.109 Prescription devices. A device... direct the use of such device, and hence for which “adequate directions for use” cannot be...

  16. 16 CFR 1507.8 - Wheel devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheel devices. 1507.8 Section 1507.8... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.8 Wheel devices. Drivers in fireworks devices commonly known as “wheels” shall be securely attached to the device so that they will not come loose in transportation, handling, and...

  17. Developing Linux kernel space device driver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Wei; Wang Qinruo; Wu Naiyou

    2003-01-01

    This thesis introduces how to develop kernel level device drivers on Linux platform in detail. On the basis of comparing proc file system with dev file system, we choose PCI devices and USB devices as instances to introduce the method of writing device drivers for character devices by using these two file systems.

  18. Low incidence of complications after cephalic vein cutdown for pacemaker lead implantation in children weighing less than 10 kilograms: A single-center experience with long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircanski, Bratislav; Vasic, Dragan; Savic, Dragutin; Stojanov, Petar

    2015-08-01

    Only a few studies on the cephalic vein cutdown technique for pacemaker lead implantation in children weighing ≤10 kg have been reported even though the procedure is widely accepted in adults. The purpose of this study was to prove that cephalic vein cutdown for pacemaker lead implantation is a reliable technique with a low incidence of complications in children weighing ≤10 kg. The study included 44 children weighing ≤10 kg with an endocardial pacemaker. Cephalic, subclavian, and axillary vein diameters were measured by ultrasound before implantation. The measured diameters were used to select either an endocardial or epicardial surgical technique. Regular 6-month follow-up visits included pacemaker interrogation and clinical and ultrasound examinations. Two dual-chamber and 42 single-chamber pacemakers were implanted. Mean weight at implantation was 6.24 kg (range 2.25-10.40 kg), and mean age was 11.4 months (range 1 day-47 months). In 40 children (90.1%), the ventricular leads were implanted using the cephalic vein cutdown technique, and implantation was accomplished via the prepared right external jugular vein in 4 of the children (9.9%). The atrial leads were implanted using axillary vein puncture and external jugular vein preparations. Mean follow-up was 8.9 years (range 0-20.9 years). Only 1 pacemaker-related complication was detected (a lead fracture near the connector that was successfully resolved using a lead repair kit). The cephalic vein cutdown technique is feasible and reliable in children weighing ≤10 kg, which justifies the application of additional surgical effort in the treatment of these small patients. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Polymer electronic devices and materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, William Kent; Baca, Paul Martin; Dirk, Shawn M.; Anderson, G. Ronald; Wheeler, David Roger

    2006-01-01

    Polymer electronic devices and materials have vast potential for future microsystems and could have many advantages over conventional inorganic semiconductor based systems, including ease of manufacturing, cost, weight, flexibility, and the ability to integrate a wide variety of functions on a single platform. Starting materials and substrates are relatively inexpensive and amenable to mass manufacturing methods. This project attempted to plant the seeds for a new core competency in polymer electronics at Sandia National Laboratories. As part of this effort a wide variety of polymer components and devices, ranging from simple resistors to infrared sensitive devices, were fabricated and characterized. Ink jet printing capabilities were established. In addition to promising results on prototype devices the project highlighted the directions where future investments must be made to establish a viable polymer electronics competency.

  20. #DDOD: Establishment Registration & Device Listing

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — SUMMARY DDOD use case to request means on consolidating multiple data sources (MDR, PMA, 510(k), R&L) in order to build a list of all marketed medical devices....

  1. Silicon photonics fundamentals and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Deen, M Jamal

    2012-01-01

    The creation of affordable high speed optical communications using standard semiconductor manufacturing technology is a principal aim of silicon photonics research. This would involve replacing copper connections with optical fibres or waveguides, and electrons with photons. With applications such as telecommunications and information processing, light detection, spectroscopy, holography and robotics, silicon photonics has the potential to revolutionise electronic-only systems. Providing an overview of the physics, technology and device operation of photonic devices using exclusively silicon and related alloys, the book includes: * Basic Properties of Silicon * Quantum Wells, Wires, Dots and Superlattices * Absorption Processes in Semiconductors * Light Emitters in Silicon * Photodetectors , Photodiodes and Phototransistors * Raman Lasers including Raman Scattering * Guided Lightwaves * Planar Waveguide Devices * Fabrication Techniques and Material Systems Silicon Photonics: Fundamentals and Devices outlines ...

  2. Mechatronic Device for Locomotor Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Sławomir

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mechatronic device to support a gait reeducation process. The conceptual works were done by the interdisciplinary design team. This collaboration allowed to perform a device that would connect the current findings in the fields of biomechanics and mechatronics. In the first part of the article shown a construction of the device which is based on the structure of an overhead travelling crane. The rest of the article contains the issues related to machine control system. In the prototype, the control of drive system is conducted by means of two RT-DAC4/PCI real time cards connected with a signal conditioning interface. Authors present the developed control algorithms and optimization process of the controller settings values. The summary contains a comparison of some numerical simulation results and experimental data from the sensors mounted on the device. The measurement data were obtained during the gait of a healthy person.

  3. Nanomechanical Water Purification Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Laboratories, LLC, proposes a lightweight, low-pressure water filtration device that harnesses the unique properties of nanoparticles to destroy or remove...

  4. Heart failure - surgeries and devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is weakened, gets too large, and does not pump blood very well, you are at high risk for abnormal heartbeats that can lead to sudden cardiac death. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a device that detects ...

  5. Nanomechanical Water Purification Device Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Seldon Laboratories, LLC, proposes a lightweight, low-pressure water purification device that harnesses the unique properties of carbon nanotubes and will operate...

  6. Thermoelectric Devices Advance Thermal Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) devices heat, cool, and generate electricity when a temperature differential is provided between the two module faces. In cooperation with NASA, Chico, California-based United States Thermoelectric Consortium Inc. (USTC) built a gas emissions analyzer (GEA) for combustion research. The GEA precipitated hydrocarbon particles, preventing contamination that would hinder precise rocket fuel analysis. The USTC research and design team uses patent-pending dimple, pin-fin, microchannel and microjet structures to develop and design heat dissipation devices on the mini-scale level, which not only guarantee high performance of products, but also scale device size from 1 centimeter to 10 centimeters. USTC continues to integrate the benefits of TE devices in its current line of thermal management solutions and has found the accessibility of NASA technical research to be a valuable, sustainable resource that has continued to positively influence its product design and manufacturing

  7. Prototype of sun projector device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihsan; Dermawan, B.

    2016-11-01

    One way to introduce astronomy to public, including students, can be handled by solar observation. The widely held device for this purpose is coelostat and heliostat. Besides using filter attached to a device such as telescope, it is safest to use indirect way for observing the Sun. The main principle of the indirect way is deflecting the sun light and projecting image of the sun on a screen. We design and build a simple and low-cost astronomical device, serving as a supplement to increase public service, especially for solar observation. Without using any digital and intricate supporting equipment, people can watch and relish image of the Sun in comfortable condition, i.e. in a sheltered or shady place. Here we describe a design and features of our prototype of the device, which still, of course, has some limitations. In the future, this prototype can be improved for more efficient and useful applications.

  8. OLED devices with internal outcoupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jr., Jie Jerry; Sista, Srinivas Prasad; Shi, Xiaolei; Zhao, Ri-An; Chichak, Kelly Scott; Youmans, Jeffrey Michael; Janora, Kevin Henry; Turner, Larry Gene

    2016-12-06

    Optoelectronic devices with enhanced internal outcoupling include a substrate, an anode, a cathode, an electroluminescent layer, and an electron transporting layer comprising inorganic nanoparticles dispersed in an organic matrix.

  9. Marine Thermoelectric Devices and Installations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    thermoelectric devices and units as marine sources of electric power, Prospects for the use of thermoelectric generators in main ship propulsion plants, Electric propulsion complexes for marine thermoelectric plants).

  10. Cooling devices in laser therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooling devices and methods are now integrated into most laser systems, with a view to protecting the epidermis, reducing pain and erythema and improving the efficacy of laser. On the basis of method employed, it can be divided into contact cooling and non-contact cooling. With respect to timing of irradiation of laser, the nomenclatures include pre-cooling, parallel cooling and post-cooling. The choice of the cooling device is dictated by the laser device, the physician′s personal choice with respect to user-friendliness, comfort of the patient, the price and maintenance costs of the device. We hereby briefly review the various techniques of cooling, employed in laser practice.

  11. Metal semiconductor contacts and devices

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Simon S; Einspruch, Norman G

    1986-01-01

    VLSI Electronics Microstructure Science, Volume 13: Metal-Semiconductor Contacts and Devices presents the physics, technology, and applications of metal-semiconductor barriers in digital integrated circuits. The emphasis is placed on the interplay among the theory, processing, and characterization techniques in the development of practical metal-semiconductor contacts and devices.This volume contains chapters that are devoted to the discussion of the physics of metal-semiconductor interfaces and its basic phenomena; fabrication procedures; and interface characterization techniques, particularl

  12. A coke preparedness monitoring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazanov, V.F.; Bannikov, L.S.; Chepurnykh, S.F.; Dobromobov, Yu.I.; Pankrat' ev, O.N.; Pinchuk, S.I.; Shifrin, S.I.

    1982-01-01

    A coke preparedness monitoring device for a door extractor contains sounding electrodes, a stabilized voltage source and a meter to record the electrical resistance of the coke. In order to provide monitoring capacity of the preparedness of the coke in the flow and to increase measuring accuracy the device contains sounding electrodes in the coke-treating door extractor; these are connected together with the recorder via an additional stabilized power supply to a stabilized voltage source.

  13. Trustworthy execution on mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Vasudevan, Amit; Newsome, James

    2013-01-01

    This brief considers the various stakeholders in today's mobile device ecosystem, and analyzes why widely-deployed hardware security primitives on mobile device platforms are inaccessible to application developers and end-users. Existing proposals are also evaluated for leveraging such primitives, and proves that they can indeed strengthen the security properties available to applications and users, without reducing the properties currently enjoyed by OEMs and network carriers. Finally, this brief makes recommendations for future research that may yield practical and deployable results.

  14. Biomedical devices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    This volume introduces readers to the basic concepts and recent advances in the field of biomedical devices. The text gives a detailed account of novel developments in drug delivery, protein electrophoresis, estrogen mimicking methods and medical devices. It also provides the necessary theoretical background as well as describing a wide range of practical applications. The level and style make this book accessible not only to scientific and medical researchers but also to graduate students.

  15. Ultraviolet-visible nanophotonic devices

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and the Institute of Engineering and Sciences of Bilkent University, 2010. Thesis (Ph. D.) -- Bilkent University, 2010. Includes bibliographical references leaves 130-141. Recently in semiconductor market, III-Nitride materials and devices are of much interest due to their mechanical strength, radiation resistance, working in the spectrum from visible down to the deep ultraviolet region and solar-blind device ...

  16. Piezo-phototronic effect devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong L.; Yang, Qing

    2013-09-10

    A semiconducting device includes a piezoelectric structure that has a first end and an opposite second end. A first conductor is in electrical communication with the first end and a second conductor is in electrical communication with the second end so as to form an interface therebetween. A force applying structure is configured to maintain an amount of strain in the piezoelectric member sufficient to generate a desired electrical characteristic in the semiconducting device.

  17. Instalação, calibração e funcionamento de um lisímetro de pesagem Instalation, calibration and operation of a weighing lysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. Carvalho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo construir, instalar, calibrar e avaliar a sensibilidade de um lisímetro de pesagem com célula de carga, instalado em Seropédica - RJ, a fim de determinar a evapotranspiração de referência (ETo. O lisímetro, com dimensões de 1,0 m x 1,0 m e 0,7 m de profundidade, foi construído com chapas de aço galvanizado e instalado sobre estrutura metálica montada sobre barras transversais, a fim de concentrar toda a massa do conjunto sobre uma célula de carga localizada no centro do sistema. Após o preenchimento do lisímetro com solo, foi realizada a calibração do mesmo por meio de análise de regressão linear, e toda a área foi plantada com grama-batatais. O conjunto lisimétrico instalado mostrou-se adequado para a estimativa da ETo, apresentando erro-padrão de estimativa da regressão de 0,278 kg ou 0,278 mm, além de responder às variações dos principais elementos meteorológicos que influenciam na ETo.The objective of this work was to construct, install, calibrate and evaluate a weighing lysimeter with load cell, in order to estimate reference evapotranspiration (ETo for the Seropédica region - RJ. The lysimeter, which has the dimensions of 1.0 m x 1.0 m and 0.7 m in depth, was built with galvanized steel and installed over a metallic structure mounted over transversal bars, in order to concentrate all the assembly mass over a load cell localized in the center of the system. The lysimeter was filled with the same soil layers of the local soil. Then a calibration was carried out by means of a linear regression analysis and the whole lysimeter area was planted with Bahia grass. The lysimeter system demonstrated to be suitable for estimating ETo, yielding a standard error of the linear regression of 0.278 kg or 0.278 mm. In addition, it displayed satisfactorily the variation of the main meteorological elements that influence in ETo.

  18. Liquid Water and Vapor Flow in Arid Soil: Comparison of Weighing Lysimeter Data with Simulations from a Process-Based Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berli, M.; Dijkema, J.; Koonce, J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; van der Ploeg, M. J.; Van Genuchten, M.

    2015-12-01

    Desert soils account for about a third of the Earth's land surface and are believed to be important players in terrestrial energy balance. However, the mechanisms that govern energy and mass fluxes across the land-atmosphere interface of hot deserts remain poorly understood. This knowledge gap also spills over to our insufficient understanding of the ecology and hydrology of deserts. A recently constructed weighing lysimeter (3 m deep and 2.26 m in diameter) located in Boulder City, NV, provides data of water and energy fluxes across the soil-atmosphere boundary of the Mojave Desert. The lysimeter has been filled with homogenized desert soil from nearby Eldorado Valley, instrumented with a suite of more than 150 sensors at multiple depth between 2.5 and 250 cm and under continuous operation since July 2008. In this study, we report on water content, water potential, and temperature data from one hydrologic year at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data was used to develop, calibrate and validate a coupled, process-based water flow and storage model using Hydrus-1D. The model simulates liquid water flow, heat flow, and non-isothermal vapor flow along the soil profile. Detailed soil bulk density and porosity profiles are known based on soil mass and volume determined during lysimeter soil installation. Water retention property was determined from concurrent volumetric water content and matric potential measurements. A density-dependent scaling relation was developed to adjust water retention properties to the different soil bulk densities in the profile. The water flux across the soil-atmosphere boundary was determined from high-resolution lysimeter scale data. The saturated hydraulic conductivity was estimated via inverse modeling, using a subset of the soil moisture data. The calibrated model was validated using the remainder of the data set. The model accurately captures the soil temperature dynamics through the year and across the profile. The water

  19. A MultiFactorial Risk Score to weigh toxicities and co-morbidities relative to costs of antiretrovirals in a cohort of HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Tontodonati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study: Considering costs of antiretrovirals (ARVs for HIV patients is increasingly needed. A simple and comprehensive tool weighing comorbidities and ARV-related toxicities could be useful to judge the appropriateness of use of more expensive drugs. We conceived a MultiFactorial Risk Score (MFRS to evaluate the appropriateness of ARVs prescription relative to their costs. Methods: HIV patients were consecutively enrolled in 2010-2011. We considered socio-demographic characteristics, HIV history, cardiovascular risk factors, low energy fractures, bone density. Psychological factors were assessed by BDI, DS14 and TAS-20. The MFRS was calculated as the sum of the following: age (<30y 1 point; 1 point increase every 5y, 10 for≥70; AIDS diagnosis (5; CD4 nadir (5 if <100; 1 point less every 100 CD4 increase; ART line (0 first, up to 5 for≥6 lines; lipodistrophy (5; HCV coinfection (7; education (1 degree, 2 secondary, 3 primary; alcohol (3 and drug abuse (5; working activity (3 if unemployed; hypertension (3; cholesterol≥200 mg/dl (3; diabetes (3; Framingham score (7 if>7%; creatinine (0 if <1 mg/dl, 1 if<1.2; 2 if<1.5>1.2, 5 if<2> 1.5, 7 if≥2; bone fractures (7; bone status at DEXA (0 normal, 3 osteopenic, 5 osteoporotic; cancer (5; depression (3 if BDI>17; other psychiatric illness (5. Annual costs of individual ART regimens were calculated. MFRS was correlated in univariate and multivariate models with all variables. All statistical analyses were carried out using Stata 10.1. Summary of results: We enrolled 241 HIV patients, 74.3% males, aged 44.5±9.9y; 19 patients (7.8% were untreated, 74.8% of treated had undetectable HIV RNA. Mean Nadir CD4 counts were 218±168, 38.5% of patients had an AIDS diagnosis. Mean individual ARV annual cost was 10,976±5,360. Mean MFRS was 28.5±13.9 (4–64. MFRS was significantly higher (p<0.001 in patients with older age, longer duration of HIV infection, lower CD4 nadirs, AIDS diagnosis

  20. Nanofabrication of Hybrid Optoelectronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibos, Alan Michael

    The material requirements for optoelectronic devices can vary dramatically depending on the application. Often disparate material systems need to be combined to allow for full device functionality. At the nanometer scale, this can often be challenging because of the inherent chemical and structural incompatibilities of nanofabrication. This dissertation concerns the integration of seemingly dissimilar materials into hybrid optoelectronic devices for photovoltaic, plasmonic, and photonic applications. First, we show that combining a single strip of conjugated polymer and inorganic nanowire can yield a nanoscale solar cell, and modeling of optical absorption and exciton diffusion in this device can provide insight into the efficiency of charge separation. Second, we use an on-chip nanowire light emitting diode to pump a colloidal quantum dot coupled to a silver waveguide. The resulting device is an electro-optic single plasmon source. Finally, we transfer diamond waveguides onto near-field avalanche photodiodes fabricated from GaAs. Embedded in the diamond waveguides are nitrogen vacancy color centers, and the mapping of emission from these single-photon sources is demonstrated using our on-chip detectors, eliminating the need for external photodetectors on an optical table. These studies show the promise of hybrid optoelectronic devices at the nanoscale with applications in alternative energy, optical communication, and quantum optics.