Sample records for weibel-like instability growth

  1. Simulations of electrothermal instability growth in solid aluminum rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kyle J.; Yu, Edmund P.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Nakhleh, Charles; Herrmann, Mark C. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1186 (United States); Koning, Joseph M.; Marinak, Michael M. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)


    A recent publication [K. J. Peterson et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 092701 (2012)] describes simulations and experiments of electrothermal instability growth on well characterized initially solid aluminum and copper rods driven with a 20 MA, 100 ns rise time current pulse on Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator. Quantitative analysis of the high precision radiography data obtained in the experiments showed excellent agreement with simulations and demonstrated levels of instability growth in dense matter that could not be explained by magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities alone. This paper extends the previous one by examining the nature of the instability growth in 2D simulations in much greater detail. The initial instability growth in the simulations is shown via several considerations to be predominantly electrothermal in nature and provides a seed for subsequent magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor growth.

  2. Impact of Export Instability on Economic Growth in Tanzania | Kweka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is consistent with the findings in most commodity-dependent developing countries that export instability is detrimental to economic growth. Reducing export instability is possible through diversification of the export basket and destination markets, with policy attention on resolving constraints to domestic production for ...

  3. Magnetically-Driven Convergent Instability Growth platform on Z.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mattsson, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Benage, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jenkins, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Albright, Brian James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Hydrodynamic instability growth is a fundamentally limiting process in many applications. In High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) systems such as inertial confinement fusion implosions and stellar explosions, hydro instabilities can dominate the evolution of the object and largely determine the final state achievable. Of particular interest is the process by which instabilities cause perturbations at a density or material interface to grow nonlinearly, introducing vorticity and eventually causing the two species to mix across the interface. Although quantifying instabilities has been the subject of many investigations in planar geometry, few have been done in converging geometry. During FY17, the team executed six convergent geometry instability experiments. Based on earlier results, the platform was redesigned and improved with respect to load centering at installation making the installation reproducible and development of a new 7.2 keV, Co He-a backlighter system to better penetrate the liner. Together, the improvements yielded significantly improved experimental results. The results in FY17 demonstrate the viability of using experiments on Z to quantify instability growth in cylindrically convergent geometry. Going forward, we will continue the partnership with staff and management at LANL to analyze the past experiments, compare to hydrodynamics growth models, and design future experiments.

  4. Axial Instability Growth in Tungsten Wire Array Z-Pinches (United States)

    Cahill, Adam; Knapp, Patrick; Greenly, John; Pikuz, Sergei; Shelkovenko, Tania; Hammer, David


    The individual exploding wires in wire array z-pinches have been shown to suffer from axially non-uniformity beginning from the moment of plasma formation. This non-uniformity grows in amplitude and wavelength until it reaches what appears to be a material dependent wavelength at the time array implosion begins. Previous work by Knapp et al. [1] studied the temporal evolution of this instability in aluminum wire arrays. We have extended that work to include the evolution of tungsten wire array instabilities. Time gated laser shadowgraphy is used to track wavelength and amplitude over a series of shots to develop a record of the instability's growth. We attempt to identify array parameters which significantly contribute to the growth of this instability. [4pt] [1] Knapp, P. F., J. B. Greenly, P. A. Gourdain, C. L. Hoyt, M. R. Martin, S. A. Pikuz, C. E. Seyler, T. A. Shelkovenko, and D. A. Hammer. ``Growth and Saturation of the Axial Instability in Low Wire Number Wire Array Z Pinches.'' Physics of Plasmas 17 (2010). Web.

  5. Non-linear growth of the line-driving instability (United States)

    Feldmeier, Achim; Thomas, Timon


    Winds from hot massive stars are driven by scattering of continuum radiation in bound-bound transitions. This radiative driving is subject to a strong instability, leading to shocks and X-ray emission. Time-dependent simulations of the instability encounter problems both for absorption and scattering lines, and it is necessary to introduce an artificially low opacity cut-off κm. The non-linear growth of the instability in the inner steeply accelerating wind is, so far, badly resolved. We present simulations with time-dependent Euler and Lagrange codes for pure line absorption at maximum growth rates of the instability in winds with a linear velocity law. This allows us to study the onset of non-linear growth in detail, and to follow unstable growth over orders of magnitude in velocity perturbations and length-scales. We find that distance-stretching in the accelerating wind causes unstable growth to proceed beyond the limit of a few thermal speeds that applies for short-scale perturbations. We increase the opacity cut-off to realistic values and find that the rarefied intershell gas is more strongly accelerated at larger κm, as is expected.

  6. Parametric analytical study of instability-related delamination growth (United States)

    Whitcomb, J. D.


    The effect of various parameters on instability-related delamination growth was studied analytially. The configuration studied consisted of a thick composite laminate with a single through-width delamination located near one surface. Both mechanical and thermal loads were considered. All conclusions were based on the assumption that GI and GII govern delamination growth. An approximate superposition stress analysis was developed which gives closed form expressions for GI and GII. The simplicity of the analysis permitted examination of numerous configurations. Both GI and GII were found to be very sensitive to delamination length and location through the thickness. The magnitude of GI was also very sensitive to initial imperfections, which might be the results of an inclusion of finite thickness in the delamination. Critical loads for delamination growth were calculated based on three growth criteria. Large differences in the predictions highlight the need for a verified mixed-mode delamination growth criterion.

  7. Impact of nucleation on step-meandering instabilities during step-flow growth on vicinal surfaces. (United States)

    Beausoleil, A; Desjardins, P; Rochefort, A


    Step-meandering instabilities can manifest during step-flow growth on vicinal surfaces [Bales and Zangwill, Phys. Rev. B 41, 5500 (1990); Pierre-Louis, D'Orsogna, and Einstein, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3661 (1999)]. A phase diagram based on the various growth regimes of a vicinal surface allows us to study the impact of nucleation on these meanders and to predict a meandering instability caused by the nucleation and the coalescence of both islands and steps. Using an accelerated kinetic Monte Carlo method, we find that the coalescence of islands with steps produces large protrusions and deep ripples and that the resulting meandering instability is reinforced by the growth of the islands at almost the same positions from one monolayer to the other. A coarsening phenomenon occurs for the instability wavelength until mounds appear, favored by a large Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier. Such a meandering instability could be exploited for periodic self-assembly.

  8. Slow growth of the Rayleigh-Plateau instability in aqueous two phase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, S.D.; Ziemecka, I.; Van Steijn, V.; Koper, G.J.M.; Van Esch, J.H.; Kreutzer, M.T.


    This paper studies the Rayleigh-Plateau instability for co-flowing immiscible aqueous polymer solutions in a microfluidic channel. Careful vibration-free experiments with controlled actuation of the flow allowed direct measurement of the growth rate of this instability. Experiments for the

  9. Morphological Instability of Steps During Crystal Growth from Solution Flow


    Potapenko, Serge Yu.


    It is shown that step moving to meet solution flow can be unstable against lateral perturbations. The instability of long-wavelength perturbations occurs at values of the solution flow intensity less than some critical value depending on the step velocity. At given intensity of the solution flow, the instability comes at the step velocity exceeding a critical velocity. Decay of short-wavelength fluctuations is conditioned by the line tension of the step. The step moving along the solution flo...

  10. Linear growth of streaming instability in pressure bumps (United States)

    Auffinger, Jérémy; Laibe, Guillaume


    Streaming instability is a powerful mechanism which concentrates dust grains in protoplanetary discs, eventually up to the stage where they collapse gravitationally and form planetesimals. Previous studies inferred that it should be ineffective in viscous discs, too efficient in inviscid discs and may not operate in local pressure maxima where solids accumulate. From a linear analysis of stability, we show that streaming instability behaves differently inside local pressure maxima. Under the action of the strong differential advection imposed by the bump, a novel unstable mode develops and grows even when gas viscosity is large. Hence, pressure bumps are found to be the only places where streaming instability occurs in viscous discs. This offers a promising way to conciliate models of planet formation with recent observations of young discs.

  11. Mars’ Growth Stunted by an Early Giant Planet Instability (United States)

    Clement, Matthew; Kaib, Nathan A.; Raymond, Sean N.; Walsh, Kevin J.


    Many dynamical aspects of the solar system can be explained by the outer planets experiencing a period of orbital instability. Though often correlated with a perceived delayed spike in the lunar cratering record known as the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), recent work suggests that this event may have occurred during the epoch of terrestrial planet formation. Though current simulations of terrestrial accretion can reproduce many observed qualities of the solar system, replicating the small mass of Mars requires modification to standard planet formation models. Here we use direct numerical simulations to show that an early instability in the outer solar system regularly yields properly sized Mars analogues. In 80% of simulations, we produce a Mars of the appropriate mass. Our most successful outcomes occur when the terrestrial planets evolve 10 million years (Myr), and accrete several Mars sized embryos in the Mars forming region before the instability takes place. Mars is left behind as a stranded embryo, while the remainder of these bodies are either ejected from the system or scattered towards the inner solar system where they deliver water to Earth. An early giant planet instability can thus replicate both the inner and outer solar system in a single model.

  12. Global instabilities and transient growth in Blasius boundary-layer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop a hybrid of computational and theoretical approaches suited to study the fluid–structure interaction (FSI) of a compliant panel, flush between rigid upstream and downstream wall sections, with a Blasius boundary-layer flow. The ensuing linear-stability analysis is focused upon global instability and transient ...

  13. The impact of political instability on economic growth (Case of Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerta Xhaferi (Gorjani


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to define the impact of political instability on economic growth. Considering the multidimensionality of a factor like political instability, the study employs only four variables to measure it. The variables used to measure political instability are civil liberties, political rights, number of women in parliament and the government changes during years. Regarding the economic growth this study employs the variable of real GDP growth rate as the best factor indicating economic growth. The data are obtained from national and international sources like “INSTAT”, “Bank of Albania” and “The Global Economy”, and takes into consideration the period from 1990-2015. According to the literature it was expected to have a significant negative impact of political instability on economic growth. Through the results obtained from the econometric model the expectation holds. What is interesting is the insignificance of all explanatory variables beside the variable of civil liberty, which is found to be highly significant. The analysis reveals that an increase in civil liberties would have a positive impact on GDP growth rate. The study also concluded that the importance of civil liberties as a transmission channel of political instability can be justified with the weakness of the judicial system and the classification of Albania as a partly-free country.

  14. Is the Oort A-value a universal growth rate limit for accretion disk shear instabilities? (United States)

    Balbus, Steven A.; Hawley, John F.


    A weak-field local MHD instability that is of importance to accretion disks is examined. The maximum growth rate of the instability is found to be not only independent of the magnetic field strength but independent of field geometry as well. In particular, all Keplerian disks are unstable in the presence of any weak poloidal field, with the ratio of the maximum growth rate to disk angular velocity given by 3/4. The maximum growth rate of any weak field configuration that is not purely toroidal is given by the local Oort A-value of the disk. The behavior is studied by using a form of the dynamical Hill equations. It is conjectured that the Oort A-value is an upper bound to the growth rate of any instability feeding upon the free energy of differential rotation.

  15. Impact of political instability on foreign direct investment and Economic Growth: Evidence from Malaysia


    Nazeer, Abdul Malik; Masih, Mansur


    Based on many studies, economic theories and real life experiences, we can understand that political instability has been a harmful factor that would hinder the flow of FDI and the growth of an economy. In our study, we would like to focus on Malaysia, which had its fair share of political instability issues due to the differences and existence of various races. But based on recent studies, it is considered a politically stable economy. Despite everything, Malaysia has been able to achieve co...

  16. A strategy for reducing stagnation phase hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D. S.; Robey, H. F.; Smalyuk, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)


    Encouraging progress is being made in demonstrating control of ablation front hydrodynamic instability growth in inertial confinement fusion implosion experiments on the National Ignition Facility [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. Even once ablation front stabilities are controlled, however, instability during the stagnation phase of the implosion can still quench ignition. A scheme is proposed to reduce the growth of stagnation phase instabilities through the reverse of the “adiabat shaping” mechanism proposed to control ablation front growth. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamics simulations confirm that improved stagnation phase stability should be possible without compromising fuel compression.

  17. Growth rates of new parametric instabilities occurring in a plasma with streaming He(2+) (United States)

    Jayanti, V.; Hollweg, Joseph V.


    We consider parametic instabilities of a circularly polarized pump Alfven wave, which propagates parallel to the ambient magnetic field; the daughter waves are also parallel-propagating. We follow Hollweg et al. (1993) and consider several new instabilites that owe their existence to the presence of streaming alpha particles. One of the new instabilites is similar to the famililar decay instability, but the daughter waves are a forward going alpha sound wave and a backward going Alfven wave. The growth rate of this instability is usually small if the alpha abundance is small. The other three new instabilities occur at high frequencies and small wavelengths. We find that the new instability which involves the proton cyclotron wave and alpha sound (i.e., the +f, - alpha) instability, which involves both the proton and alpha cycltron resonances, but if the pump wave must have low frequency and large amplitude. These instabilities may be a means of heating and accelerating alpha particles in the solar wind, but this claim is unproven until a fully kinetic study is carried out.

  18. Instability-related delamination growth in thermoset and thermoplastic composites (United States)

    Gillespie, John W., Jr.; Carlsson, Leif A.; Rothschilds, Robert J.


    Mixed-mode crack propagation in compressively loaded thermoset and thermoplastic composite columns with an imbedded through-width delamination is investigated. Beam theory is used to analyze the geometrically nonlinear load-deformation relationship of the delaminated subregion. The elastic restraint model (ERM), combined with existing FSM modeling of the crack-tip region, yields expressions for the Mode I and Mode II components of the strain energy release rate G(I) and G(II) to predict the critical load at the onset of delamination growth. Experimental data were generated for geometries yielding a wide range of G(I)/G(II) ratios at the onset of crack growth. A linear mixed-mode crack growth criterion in conjunctuion with the ERM provides good agreement between predicted and measured critical loads for both materials studied.

  19. Orbit width scaling of TAE instability growth rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, H.V.; Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.


    The growth rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) driven unstable by resonant coupling of energetic charged particles is evaluated in the ballooning limit over a wide range of parameters. All damping effects are ignored. Variations in orbit width, aspect ratio, and the ratio of alfven velocity to energetic particle birth velocity, are explored. The relative contribution of passing and trapped particles, and finite Larmor radius effects, are also examined. The phase space location of resonant particles with interact strongly with the modes is described. The accuracy of the analytic results with respect to growth rate magnitude and parametric dependence is investigated by comparison with numerical results.

  20. Aid instability as a measure of uncertainty and the positive impact of aid on growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R; Morrissey, O

    This article contributes to the literature on aid and economic growth. We posit that uncertainty, measured as the instability of aid receipts, will influence the relationship between aid and investment, how recipient governments respond to aid, and will capture the fact that some countries are

  1. Finite element analysis of instability-related delamination growth (United States)

    Whitcomb, J. D.


    A parametric study of postbuckled through-width delaminations in laminated coupons was performed. A finite element analysis was developed to analyze the coupons as a combination of linear and geometrically nonlinear components. Because most of the coupon configuration studied behaves linearly, the mixed linear and nonlinear analysis greatly reduced computational costs. The analysis was verified by comparing numerical with exact solutions for simple hypothetical problems. In addition, measured lateral deflections of postbuckled through-width delaminations in laminated coupons were compared with predicted deflections. In the parametric study, stress distributions and strain-energy release rates were calculated for various delamination lengths, delamination depths, applied loads, and lateral deflections. Also, a small number of coupons with through-width delaminations were fatigue tested to obtain delamination growth data. Calculated strain-energy release rates were compared with the observed growth rates to determine the relative importance of the Mode 1 and Mode 2 components of energy release. Growth process was dominated by G sub I.

  2. Parametric instabilities of a large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave - Linear growth in two-dimensional geometries (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Vinas, A. F.; Goldstein, M. L.


    The growth of parametric instabilities, which may lead to the development of a turbulent cascade, is studied using an MHD code that permits nonlinear couplings in the parallel direction to the ambient magnetic field and one perpendicular direction. Compressibility is included in the form of a polytropic equation of state. Parametric instabilities associated with a parallel-propagating decay instability are found to dominate the low-beta case. An obliquely propagating filamentationlike instability dominates the high-beta case. The nonlinear growth of the nth harmonic of a daughter wave growing as a factor of n times the fundamental's growth rate is found in both cases. Nonlinear saturation is caused by the parallel decay instability in the low-beta case and by the oblique filamentationlike instability in the high-beta case.

  3. Parametric instabilities of a large-amplitude circularly polarized Alfven wave: Linear growth in two-dimensional geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S.; Vinas, A.F.; Goldstein, M.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)


    The growth of parametric instabilities, which may lead to the development of a turbulent cascade, is studied using a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code that permits nonlinear couplings in the parallel direction to the ambient magnetic field and one perpendicular direction. Compressibility is included in the form of a polytropic equation of state. Parametric instabilities associated with a parallel-propagating decay instability are found to dominate the low-beta case. An obliquely propagating filamentationlike instability dominates the high-beta case. The nonlinear growth of the nth harmonic of a daughter wave growing as a factor of n times the fundamental`s growth rate is found in both cases. Nonlinear saturation is caused by the parallel decay instability in the low-beta case and by the oblique filamentationlike instability in the high-beta case. 31 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Effects of Exports Instability on Economic Growth in SAARC Region Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat Rashid


    Full Text Available This study analyzed the hypothesis that export instability affects the economic growth for SAARC region countries (Pakistan, India, Sri-Lanka and Nepal by using neoclassical aggregate production with export and export instability as the additional variables. TheAugmented Dickey Fuller (ADF and Johansson Cointegration tests are used to test stationarity for all variables and cointegration respectively. The results of these tests demonstrate that all variables are non-stationary at levels but stationary at their firstdifference and co integrated of order I(1. Export instability has deleterious effects for these four countries on economic growth and its magnitude is higher for Sri Lanka economy. The exports and investment has positive and significant effects on economicgrowth for all countries except the Nepalese economy where export has negative but insignificant effect on its economic growth. The most important policy implications for these countries are that they should diversify their exports horizontally and liberalize their foreign exchange markets and capital accounts to control the instability in exports.

  5. Theory of semiconductor nanoplatelet growth: How an intrinsic growth instability leads to highly anisotropic, quasi-two-dimensional platelets (United States)

    Erwin, Steve; Riedinger, Andreas; Ott, Florian; Mule, Aniket; Mazzotti, Sergio; Knuesel, Philippe; Kress, Stephan; Prins, Ferry; Norris, David

    Colloidal nanoplatelets are atomically flat, quasi-two-dimensional sheets of semiconductor that can exhibit efficient, spectrally pure fluorescence. Despite intense interest in their properties, the mechanism behind their highly anisotropic shape and precise atomic-scale thickness remains unclear, and even counterintuitive for commonly studied nanoplatelets that arise from isotropic crystal structures (e.g. zincblende CdSe and lead-halide perovskites). We show theoretically that an intrinsic instability in growth kinetics leads to such highly anisotropic shapes. By combining experimental results on the synthesis of CdSe nanoplatelets with theory predicting enhanced growth on narrow surface facets, we develop a model that explains nanoplatelet formation as well as observed dependencies on time and temperature. Based on standard concepts of volume, surface, and edge energies, the resulting growth instability criterion can be directly applied to other crystalline materials.

  6. Interface coupling and growth rate measurements in multilayer Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities (United States)

    Adkins, Raymond; Shelton, Emily M.; Renoult, Marie-Charlotte; Carles, Pierre; Rosenblatt, Charles


    Magnetic levitation was used to measure the growth rate Σ vs wave vector k of a Rayleigh-Taylor instability in a three-layer fluid system, a crucial step in the elucidation of interface coupling in finite-layer instabilities. For a three-layer (low-high-low density) system, the unstable mode growth rate decreases as both the height h of the middle layer and k are reduced, consistent with an interface coupling ∝e-k h . The ratios of the three-layer to the established two-layer growth rates are in good agreement with those of classic linear stability theory, which has long resisted verification in that configuration.

  7. Dynamic instabilities in the kinetics of growth and disassembly of microtubules


    Katrukha, Eugene


    Dynamic instability of microtubules is considered using frameworks of non-linear thermodynamics and non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion systems. Stochastic assembly/disassembly phases in the polymerization dynamics of microtubules are treated as a result of collective clusterization of microdefects (holes in structure). The model explains experimentally observed power law dependence of catastrophe frequency from the microtubule growth rate. Additional reaction-diffusion-precipitation model is ...

  8. On the measurement of political instability and its impact on economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-A-Pin, R.

    We examine the multidimensionality of political instability using 25 political instability indicators in an Exploratory Factor Analysis. We find that political instability has four dimensions: politically motivated violence, mass civil protest. instability within the political regime. and

  9. Analysis of instability-related growth of a through-width delamination (United States)

    Whitcomb, J. D.


    The effect of various parameters on instability related delamination growth was studied. The configuration studied consisted of a thick composite laminate with a single through width delamination located near one surface. Both mechanical and thermal loads were considered. It is assumed that GI and GII govern delamination growth. An approximate superposition stress analysis was developed which gives closed form expressions for GI and GII. It is found that both GI and GII are very sensitive to delamination length and location through the thickness and that the magnitude of GI is also sensitive to initial imperfection. Critical loads for delamination growth are calculated based on three growth criteria. Large differences in the predictions highlight the need for a verified mixed mode delamination growth criterion.

  10. Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Growth of Gravitational Interfacial Instability Generated by Two Viscous Fluids of Different Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehamoy Majumder


    Full Text Available In the geophysical context, there are a wide variety of mechanisms which may lead to the formation of unstable density stratification, leading in turn to the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and, more generally, interfacial gravity-driven instabilities, which involves moving boundaries and interfaces. The purpose of this work is to study the level set method and to apply the process to study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability experimentally and numerically. With the help of a simple, inexpensive experimental arrangement, the R-T instability has been visualized with moderate accuracy for real fluids. The same physical phenomenon has been investigated numerically to track the interface of two fluids of different densities to observe the gravitational instability with the application of level set method coupled with volume of fraction replacing the Heaviside function. Good agreement between theory and experimental results was found and growth of instability for both of the methods has been plotted.

  11. Computational investigation of reshock strength in hydrodynamic instability growth at the National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Bender, Jason; Raman, Kumar; Huntington, Channing; Nagel, Sabrina; Morgan, Brandon; Prisbrey, Shon; MacLaren, Stephan


    Experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are studying Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instabilities in multiply-shocked plasmas. Targets feature two different-density fluids with a multimode initial perturbation at the interface, which is struck by two X-ray-driven shock waves. Here we discuss computational hydrodynamics simulations investigating the effect of second-shock (``reshock'') strength on instability growth, and how these simulations are informing target design for the ongoing experimental campaign. A Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) model was used to predict motion of the spike and bubble fronts and the mixing-layer width. In addition to reshock strength, the reshock ablator thickness and the total length of the target were varied; all three parameters were found to be important for target design, particularly for ameliorating undesirable reflected shocks. The RANS data are compared to theoretical models that predict multimode instability growth proportional to the shock-induced change in interface velocity, and to currently-available data from the NIF experiments. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.O.E. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734611.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falceta-Gonçalves, D. [SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews, Fife KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Kowal, G. [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000, São Paulo, SP 03828-000 (Brazil)


    In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.

  13. Observation of Rayleigh-Taylor-instability growth in a plasma regime with magnetic and viscous stabilization (United States)

    Adams, Colin


    Rayleigh-Taylor-instability (RTI) growth during the interaction between a high-Mach-number, unmagnetized plasma jet and a stagnated, magnetized plasma is observed in a regime where the growth of short-wavelength modes is influenced by plasma viscosity and magnetic fields. The time evolution of mode growth at the mostly planar interface is captured by a multi-frame fast camera. Interferometry, spectroscopy, photodiode, and magnetic probe diagnostics are employed to experimentally infer ni, Te, Z , acceleration, B -->, and ion viscosity in the vicinity of the evolving interface. As the instability grows, an evolution from mode wavelengths of ~ 1 . 7 cm to ~ 2 . 8 cm is observed. The growth time (~ 10 μs) and wavelength (~ 1 cm) of the observed modes agree with theoretical predictions computed from the experimentally inferred density (~1014 cm-3), deceleration (~109 m /s2), and magnetic field (~ 15 G in direction of wavevector). Furthermore, comparisons of experimental data with idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations (which include a physical viscosity model) suggest that both magnetic and viscous stabilization contribute to the observed mode evolution. These data are relevant for benchmarking astrophysical and magneto-inertial-fusion-relevant computations of RTI. Supported by the LANL LDRD Program; PLX facility construction supported by OFES.

  14. Maximum initial growth-rate of strong-shock-driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Bhowmich, Aklant K.; Dell, Zachary R.; Pandian, Arun; Stanic, Milos; Stellingwerf, Robert F.; Swisher, Nora C.


    We focus on classical problem of dependence on the initial conditions of the initial growth-rate of strong shocks driven Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) by developing a novel empirical model and by employing rigorous theories and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations to describe the simulations data with statistical confidence in a broad parameter regime. For given values of the shock strength, fluids' density ratio, and wavelength of the initial perturbation of the fluid interface, we find the maximum value of RMI initial growth-rate, the corresponding amplitude scale of the initial perturbation, and the maximum fraction of interfacial energy. This amplitude scale is independent of the shock strength and density ratio, and is characteristic quantity of RMI dynamics. We discover the exponential decay of the ratio of the initial and linear growth-rates of RMI with the initial perturbation amplitude that excellently agrees with available data. National Science Foundation, USA.

  15. Reduced instability growth with high-adiabat high-foot implosions at the National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Casey, D. T.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Raman, K. S.; Peterson, J. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Callahan, D. A.; Clark, D. S.; Dewald, E. L.; Dittrich, T. R.; Haan, S. W.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hoover, D.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kroll, J. J.; Landen, O. L.; Moore, A. S.; Nikroo, A.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Rygg, J. R.; Salmonson, J. D.; Tommasini, R.; Widmann, K.


    Hydrodynamic instabilities are a major obstacle in the quest to achieve ignition as they cause preexisting capsule defects to grow and ultimately quench the fusion burn in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Unstable growth at the ablation front has been dramatically reduced in implosions with "high-foot" drives as measured using x-ray radiography of modulations at the most dangerous wavelengths (Legendre mode numbers of 30-90). These growth reductions have helped to improve the performance of layered DT implosions reported by O. A. Hurricane et al. [Nature (London) 506, 343 (2014), 10.1038/nature13008], when compared to previous "low-foot" experiments, demonstrating the value of stabilizing ablation-front growth and providing directions for future ignition designs.

  16. An intrinsic growth instability in isotropic materials leads to quasi-two-dimensional nanoplatelets (United States)

    Riedinger, Andreas; Ott, Florian D.; Mule, Aniket; Mazzotti, Sergio; Knüsel, Philippe N.; Kress, Stephan J. P.; Prins, Ferry; Erwin, Steven C.; Norris, David J.


    Colloidal nanoplatelets are atomically flat, quasi-two-dimensional sheets of semiconductor that can exhibit efficient, spectrally pure fluorescence. Despite intense interest in their properties, the mechanism behind their highly anisotropic shape and precise atomic-scale thickness remains unclear, and even counter-intuitive for commonly studied nanoplatelets that arise from isotropic crystal structures (such as zincblende CdSe and lead halide perovskites). Here we show that an intrinsic instability in growth kinetics can lead to such highly anisotropic shapes. By combining experimental results on the synthesis of CdSe nanoplatelets with theory predicting enhanced growth on narrow surface facets, we develop a model that explains nanoplatelet formation as well as observed dependencies on time and temperature. Based on standard concepts of volume, surface and edge energies, the resulting growth instability criterion can be directly applied to other crystalline materials. Thus, knowledge of this previously unknown mechanism for controlling shape at the nanoscale can lead to broader libraries of quasi-two-dimensional materials.

  17. An intrinsic growth instability in isotropic materials leads to quasi-two-dimensional nanoplatelets (United States)

    Mule, Aniket; Mazzotti, Sergio; Knüsel, Philippe N.; Kress, Stephan J. P.; Prins, Ferry; Erwin, Steven C.; Norris, David J.


    Colloidal nanoplatelets are atomically flat, quasi-two-dimensional sheets of semiconductor that can exhibit efficient, spectrally pure fluorescence. Despite intense interest in their properties, the mechanism behind their highly anisotropic shape and precise atomic-scale thickness remains unclear, and even counterintuitive for commonly studied nanoplatelets that arise from isotropic crystal structures (such as zincblende CdSe and lead-halide perovskites). Here we show that an intrinsic instability in growth kinetics can lead to such highly anisotropic shapes. By combining experimental results on the synthesis of CdSe nanoplatelets with theory predicting enhanced growth on narrow surface facets, we develop a model that explains nanoplatelet formation as well as observed dependencies on time and temperature. Based on standard concepts of volume, surface, and edge energies, the resulting growth instability criterion can be directly applied to other crystalline materials. Thus, knowledge of this previously unknown mechanism for controlling shape at the nanoscale can lead to broader libraries of quasi-two-dimensional materials. PMID:28369052

  18. [Relationship between microsatellite instability and hepatocyte growth factor expression and their prognostic significance in colorectal cancer]. (United States)

    Yang, G; Zheng, H X; Wu, L N; Wan, H L; Li, N; Yang, G C; Liang, J F


    To investigate the expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its relationship with microsatellite instability (MSI) and their influence on survival in patients with colorectal cancer. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect the expression of HGF and MSI in 98 specimens of colorectal cancer. Tumors lacking protein expression of any of the four mismatch repair genes (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 or MSH6) were labelled as MSI, and the rest were considered as microsatellite stable (MSS). The associations between expression and clinicopathological factors were assessed using Chi-square tests. Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank test, and Cox regression were used to analyze the association between biomarker expressions and overall survival. The incidence rate of MSI in 98 colorectal specimens was 32.7%, and was statistically significantly correlated with the location of tumor and differentiation degree (Pcolorectal cancer (Pcolorectal cancer patients with microsatellite instability. Both microsatellite instability and HGF are independent factors affecting the prognosis in patient with colorectal cancer.

  19. Bales-Zangwill meandering instability observed in homoepitaxial step-flow growth (United States)

    Schwenger, Ludwig; Folkerts, Robert L.; Ernst, Hans-Joachim


    The growth of Cu on vicinal Cu templates has been investigated with helium-atom beam scattering. Step flow on Cu (1,1,17) below room temperature forces steps to strongly meander collectively in phase, leading to the appearance of facets parallel to the average step direction. We identify this ``fingering'' with the meandering instability predicted by Bales and Zangwill, resulting from the presence of an adatom uphill current. In contrast to Cu (1,1,17), step flow above room temperature on Cu (1,1,5) leads to a destabilization of the step train perpendicular to the step direction. Conceivable origins of this type of faceting are discussed.

  20. Magnetorotational Instability: Nonmodal Growth and the Relationship of Global Modes to the Shearing Box

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Squire, A Bhattacharjee [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)


    We study the magnetorotational instability (MRI) (Balbus & Hawley 1998) using non-modal stability techniques.Despite the spectral instability of many forms of the MRI, this proves to be a natural method of analysis that is well-suited to deal with the non-self-adjoint nature of the linear MRI equations. We find that the fastest growing linear MRI structures on both local and global domains can look very diff erent to the eigenmodes, invariably resembling waves shearing with the background flow (shear waves). In addition, such structures can grow many times faster than the least stable eigenmode over long time periods, and be localized in a completely di fferent region of space. These ideas lead – for both axisymmetric and non-axisymmetric modes – to a natural connection between the global MRI and the local shearing box approximation. By illustrating that the fastest growing global structure is well described by the ordinary diff erential equations (ODEs) governing a single shear wave, we find that the shearing box is a very sensible approximation for the linear MRI, contrary to many previous claims. Since the shear wave ODEs are most naturally understood using non-modal analysis techniques, we conclude by analyzing local MRI growth over finite time-scales using these methods. The strong growth over a wide range of wave-numbers suggests that non-modal linear physics could be of fundamental importance in MRI turbulence (Squire & Bhattacharjee 2014).

  1. Growth and instability of charged dislocation loops under irradiation in ceramic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Ryazanov, A I; Kinoshita, C; Klaptsov, A V


    We have investigated the physical mechanisms of the growth and stability of charged dislocation loops in ceramic materials with very strong different mass of atoms (stabilized cubic zirconia) under different energies and types of irradiation conditions: 100-1000 keV electrons, 100 keV He sup + and 300 keV O sup + ions. The anomalous formation of extended defect clusters (charged dislocation loops) has been observed by TEM under electron irradiation subsequent to ion irradiation. It is demonstrated that very strong strain field (contrast) near charged dislocation loops is formed. The dislocation loops grow up to a critical size and after then become unstable. The instability of the charged dislocation loop leads to the multiplication of dislocation loops and the formation of dislocation network near the charged dislocation loops. A theoretical model is suggested for the explanation of the growth and stability of the charged dislocation loop, taking the charge state of point defects. The calculated distribution...

  2. First Measurements of Fuel-Ablator Interface Instability Growth in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions on the National Ignition Facility. (United States)

    Weber, C R; Döppner, T; Casey, D T; Bunn, T L; Carlson, L C; Dylla-Spears, R J; Kozioziemski, B J; MacPhee, A G; Nikroo, A; Robey, H F; Sater, J D; Smalyuk, V A


    Direct measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth at the fuel-ablator interface in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions are reported for the first time. These experiments investigate one of the degradation mechanisms behind the lower-than-expected performance of early ICF implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Face-on x-ray radiography is used to measure instability growth occurring between the deuterium-tritium fuel and the plastic ablator from well-characterized perturbations. This growth starts in two ways through separate experiments-either from a preimposed interface modulation or from ablation front feedthrough. These experiments are consistent with analytic modeling and radiation-hydrodynamic simulations, which say that a moderately unstable Atwood number and convergence effects are causing in-flight perturbation growth at the interface. The analysis suggests that feedthrough from outersurface perturbations dominates the interface perturbation growth at mode 60.

  3. Coupled Hydrodynamic Instability Growth on Oblique Interfaces with a Reflected Rarefaction (United States)

    Rasmus, A. M.; Flippo, K. A.; di Stefano, C. A.; Doss, F. W.; Hager, J. D.; Merritt, E. C.; Cardenas, T.; Schmidt, D. W.; Kline, J. L.; Kuranz, C. C.


    Hydrodynamic instabilities play an important role in the evolution of inertial confinement fusion and astrophysical phenomena. Three of the Omega-EP long pulse beams (10 ns square pulse, 14 kJ total energy, 1.1 mm spot size) drive a supported shock across a heavy-to-light, oblique, interface. Single- and double-mode initial conditions seed coupled Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM), Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) growth. At early times, growth is dominated by RM and KH, whereas at late times a rarefaction from laser turn-off reaches the interface, leading to decompression and RT growth. The addition of a thirty degree tilt does not alter mix width to within experimental error bars, even while significantly altering spike and bubble morphology. The results of single and double-mode experiments along with simulations using the multi-physics hydro-code RAGE will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, Grant Number DE-NA0002956. This material is partially supported by DOE Office of Science Graduate Student Research (SCGSR) program.

  4. Performance of a quantitative study of instability-related delamination growth (United States)

    Ramkumar, R. L.


    An experimental program was conducted to quantify instability-induced imbedded delamination growth. Static tests on double cantilever beam (DCB) specimens yielded the critical mode 1 strain energy release rate (G sub 1 C) for T300/5208 graphite/epoxy. Static tests on mixed mode cracked lap shear (CLS) specimens, and a nonlinear finite element analysis (NFEA) of the CLS specimen to separate mode 1 and mode 2 effects, yielded the critical mode 2 strain energy release rate (G sub 2 C) for T300/5208. Constant amplitude fatigue tests on DCB and CLS specimens, along with the NFEA results on CLS specimens, quantified mode 1 and mode 2 contributions to delamination growth rate. Fatigue tests were conducted at a frequency (omega) of 10 Hertz, maintaining the minimum to maximum cyclic load ratio (R) at 0.05. Static compression and constant amplitude compression fatigue tests were also conducted on specimens with imbedded through the width (ITTW) delaminations. Kapton imbeddments were located below 3, 4 or 6 plies in a 64-ply laminate, during layup, to simulate ITTW delaminations.

  5. Triangular step instability and 2D/3D transition during the growth of strained Ge films on Si(100)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, K.M.; Jesson, D.E.; Pennycook, S.J.; Mostoller, M.; Kaplan, T.; Thundat, T.; Warmack, R.J.


    We show that an activation energy barrier exists to the formation of wavy step edges due to stress-driven 2D instability. The barrier height and the barrier width depend sensitively on the surface stress anisotropy and step free energy. The large misfit strain of Ge films significantly reduces the barrier by lowering the S{sub B} step energy, inducing S{sub A} steps to undergo a triangular instability even during low temperature growth of Ge on Si(100). The step instability results in a novel arrangement of stress domains, and the interaction between the domains causes a spatial variation of surface strain with a surprisingly large influence on the energy barrier for island nucleation. Calculations indicate a dramatic enhancement in the nucleation of 3D islands at the apex regions of triangular steps, in good agreement with our experimental measurements.

  6. Maternal Stress Affects Fetal Growth but Not Developmental Instability in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bots


    Full Text Available Developmental instability (DI, often measured by fluctuating asymmetry (FA or the frequency of phenodeviants (fPD, is thought to increase with stress. However, specifically for stressors of maternal origin, evidence of such negative associations with DI is scarce. Whereas effects of maternal stress on DI have predominately been examined retroactively in humans, very little is known from experiments with well-defined stress levels in animal model systems. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of maternal exposure to three doses (plus a control of a toxic compound affecting maternal condition on DI of their offspring in rabbits. Presence of maternal stress induced by the treatment was confirmed by a decrease in food consumption and weight gain of gravid females in the medium and high dose. Major abnormalities and mortality were unaffected by dose, suggesting the lack of toxic effects of the compound on the offspring. In spite of string maternal stress, offspring FA did not increase with dose. The treatment did lead to elevated fPD, but most were transient, reflecting growth retardation. Furthermore, a consistent association between fPD and FA was absent. These findings indicate that DI is not increased by maternal stress in this animal model.

  7. Absolute/convective instabilities and spatial growth in a vortex pair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabre, D.; Cossu, C.; Jacquin, L. [ONERA, Chatillon (France)


    Airplane trailing vortices have a destabilizing effect on ensuing aircrafts. Security spacings, related to the trailing vortices ''lifetime'' are actually enforced between take-offs and landings. This spacing limits the maximum take-off and landing frequency in saturated airports. A number of studies have been devoted to the understanding of vortex wake dynamics, usually modeled by a pair of counter-rotating vortices. Two types of vortex pair three-dimensional instabilities have been identified in the past: a long-wave instability (of the order of the spacing b between the two vortices) and a short-wave instability have been first considered respectively by Crow and by Moore and Saffman and Tsai and Widnall. These two mechanisms, which are thought to participate in the vortex wake dissipation, have been observed in recent experiments. One possible technique to accelerate the dissipation of aircraft wakes is to force these instabilities by on-board control devices. Until now only temporal vortex pair instability analyses are available. If one wants to force these instabilities, however, it would be more appropriate to analyze their spatial stability in the airplane reference frame. As the spatial analysis makes sense only when the instabilities are convective, an absolute/convective stability analysis is required. The results presented consist of the absolute/convective and spatial stability analyses of both long- and short-wave instabilities. (orig.)

  8. Simulation study of electron cloud induced instabilities and emittance growth for the CERN Large Hadron Collider proton beam

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetto, Elena; Schulte, Daniel; Rumolo, Giovanni


    The electron cloud may cause transverse single-bunch instabilities of proton beams such as those in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). We simulate these instabilities and the consequent emittance growth with the code HEADTAIL, which models the turn-by-turn interaction between the cloud and the beam. Recently some new features were added to the code, in particular, electric conducting boundary conditions at the chamber wall, transverse feedback, and variable beta functions. The sensitivity to several numerical parameters has been studied by varying the number of interaction points between the bunch and the cloud, the phase advance between them, and the number of macroparticles used to represent the protons and the electrons. We present simulation results for both LHC at injection and SPS with LHC-type beam, for different electron-cloud density levels, chromaticities, and bunch intensities. Two regimes with qualitatively different emittance growth are observed: above th...

  9. The Question of Instability, Uncompetitiveness and Growth Slowdown of Small Middle –Income Countries in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Senjur


    Full Text Available The thesis of this article is that a small country with a below-average per capita income is in a disadvantaged macroeconomic position inside the euro area. Small middle-income countries expected an acceleration of growth by joining the EMU. They were hoping to catch up in the convergence process within the euro area. Yet things turned out differently. The crisis in 2009–2012 has led to excessive instability due to exogenous macroeconomic prices and the lack of a lender of last resort for sovereign debtors. Small MICs are more vulnerable to asymmetric shocks from abroad due to the ‘one-size-fits-all’ economic policy at the EMU level. This is reflected in the excessive volatility of real economic variables (such as GDP and unemployment, and excessive financial instability (such as indebtedness and sovereign debt. The crisis also revealed weak price competitiveness of exports due to overvalued exchange rate of the euro and overall under-average productivity of the MICs. MICs had to respond with deflationary internal (surrogate devaluations and depressed aggregate demand. Measures of internal surrogate devaluations may partially improve situation in the medium term, yet they may worsen the competitive growth situation in the long run. A macroeconomic environment of macroeconomic instability and weak competitiveness may trigger a slowdown in growth.

  10. Finite-element analysis of initiation, stable crack growth and instability using a crack-tip-opening displacement criterion (United States)

    Newman, J. C., Jr.


    An elastic-plastic (incremental and small strain) finite element analysis was used with a crack growth criterion to study crack initiation, stable crack growth, and instability under monotonic loading to failure of metallic materials. The crack growth criterion was a critical crack-tip-opening displacement (CTOD) at a specified distance from the crack tip, or equivalently, a critical crack-tip-opening angle (CTOA). Whenever the CTOD (or CTOA) equaled or exceeded a critical value, the crack was assumed to grow. Single values of critical CTOD were used in the analysis to model crack initiation, stable crack growth, and instability for 7075-T651 and 2024-T351 aluminum alloy compact specimens. Calculated and experimentally measured CTOD values at initiation agreed well for both aluminum alloys. These critical CTOD values were also used to predict failure loads on center-crack tension specimens and a specially-designed three-hole-crack tension specimen made of the two aluminum alloys and of 304 stainless steel. All specimens were 12.7 mm thick. Predicted failure loads for 7075-T651 aluminum alloy and 304 stainless steel specimens were generally within + or - 15 percent of experimental failure loads, whereas the predicted failure loads for 2024-T351 aluminum alloy specimens were generally within + or - 5 percent of the experimental loads.

  11. Macroparticle model for longitudinal emittance growth caused by negative mass instability in a proton synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    MacLachlan, J A


    Both theoretical models and beam observations of negative mass instability fall short of a full description of the dynamics and the dynamical effects. Clarification by numerical modeling is now practicable because of the recent proliferation of so-called computing farms. The results of modeling reported in this paper disagree with some predictions based on a long-standing linear perturbation calculation. Validity checks on the macroparticle model are described.

  12. Observation of Edge Instability Limiting the Pedestal Growth in Tokamak Plasmas (United States)

    Diallo, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Greenwald, M.; LaBombard, B.; Davis, E.; Baek, S.-G.; Theiler, C.; Snyder, P.; Canik, J.; Walk, J.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Terry, J.; Churchill, M.; Hubbard, A.; Porkolab, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Reinke, M. L.; White, A.; Alcator C-Mod Team


    With fusion device performance hinging on the edge pedestal pressure, it is imperative to experimentally understand the physical mechanism dictating the pedestal characteristics and to validate and improve pedestal predictive models. This Letter reports direct evidence of density and magnetic fluctuations showing the stiff onset of an edge instability leading to the saturation of the pedestal on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Edge stability analyses indicate that the pedestal is unstable to both ballooning mode and kinetic ballooning mode in agreement with observations.

  13. Ionization and reflux dependence of magnetic instability generation and probing inside laser-irradiated solid thin foils (United States)

    Huang, L. G.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Takabe, H.; Cowan, T. E.


    When an intense laser accelerated electron beam, with large current density on the order of 1012 A/cm2, enters a solid density plasma, it is well-known to be subject to a number of different types of instabilities that cause it to filament. In this work, we investigate the transport instability of a fast electron beam that is imprinted on the self-generated magnetic filaments inside the solid density plasmas using particle-in-cell simulations. By varying collisional ionization models, our simulations show that the atomic ionization process is crucial to determine the structure of the magnetic filaments. We further attribute the generation of bulk magnetic filaments to Weibel-like instability mechanism caused by counter-propagating hot forward-bulk return current streams and counter-propagating hot forward-reflux current streams. It is found that the magnetic fields in the filament channels near the rear surface are around one order of magnitude higher than those near the front surface of the thin solid target. This asymmetry is likely induced by the very different properties of bulk electron stream and hot reflux electron stream in terms of density and velocity distribution. Finally, we propose to probe the magnetic fields inside the solid density plasmas by X-Ray polarimetry via Faraday rotation using X-Ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The synthetic simulations show that XFELs are capable to detect the magnetic fields from relativistic laser-solid interactions.

  14. Targeting homologous recombination and telomerase in Barrett’s adenocarcinoma: Impact on telomere maintenance, genomic instability, and tumor growth (United States)

    Lu, Renquan; Pal, Jagannath; Buon, Leutz; Nanjappa, Puru; Shi, Jialan; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Guo, Lin; Yu, Min; Gryaznov, Sergei; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Shammas, Masood A.


    Homologous recombination (HR), a mechanism to accurately repair DNA in normal cells, is deregulated in cancer. Elevated/deregulated HR is implicated in genomic instability and telomere maintenance, which are critical lifelines of cancer cells. We have previously shown that HR activity is elevated and significantly contributes to genomic instability in BAC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate therapeutic potential of HR inhibition, alone and in combination with telomerase inhibition, in BAC. We demonstrate that telomerase inhibition in BAC cells increases HR activity, RAD51 expression, and association of RAD51 to telomeres. Suppression of HR leads to shorter telomeres as well as markedly reduced genomic instability in BAC cells over time. Combination of HR suppression (whether transgenic or chemical) with telomerase inhibition, causes a significant increase in telomere attrition and apoptotic death in all BAC cell lines tested, relative to either treatment alone. A subset of treated cells also stain positive for β-galactosidase, indicating senescence. The combined treatment is also associated with decline in S-phase and a strong G2/M arrest, indicating massive telomere attrition. In a subcutaneous tumor model, the combined treatment resulted in the smallest tumors, which were even smaller (P=0.001) than those resulted from either treatment alone. Even the tumors removed from these mice had significantly reduced telomeres and evidence of apoptosis. We therefore conclude that although telomeres are elongated by telomerase, elevated RAD51/HR assist in their maintenance/stabilization in BAC cells. Telomerase inhibitor prevents telomere elongation but induces RAD51/HR, which contribute to telomere maintenance/stabilization and prevention of apoptosis, reducing the efficacy of treatment. Combining HR inhibition with telomerase, makes telomeres more vulnerable to degradation and significantly increases/expedites their attrition, leading to apoptosis. We therefore

  15. Targeting homologous recombination and telomerase in Barrett's adenocarcinoma: impact on telomere maintenance, genomic instability and tumor growth. (United States)

    Lu, R; Pal, J; Buon, L; Nanjappa, P; Shi, J; Fulciniti, M; Tai, Y-T; Guo, L; Yu, M; Gryaznov, S; Munshi, N C; Shammas, M A


    Homologous recombination (HR), a mechanism to accurately repair DNA in normal cells, is deregulated in cancer. Elevated/deregulated HR is implicated in genomic instability and telomere maintenance, which are critical lifelines of cancer cells. We have previously shown that HR activity is elevated and significantly contributes to genomic instability in Barrett's esophageal adenocarcinoma (BAC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate therapeutic potential of HR inhibition, alone and in combination with telomerase inhibition, in BAC. We demonstrate that telomerase inhibition in BAC cells increases HR activity, RAD51 expression, and association of RAD51 to telomeres. Suppression of HR leads to shorter telomeres as well as markedly reduced genomic instability in BAC cells over time. Combination of HR suppression (whether transgenic or chemical) with telomerase inhibition, causes a significant increase in telomere attrition and apoptotic death in all BAC cell lines tested, relative to either treatment alone. A subset of treated cells also stain positive for β-galactosidase, indicating senescence. The combined treatment is also associated with decline in S-phase and a strong G2/M arrest, indicating massive telomere attrition. In a subcutaneous tumor model, the combined treatment resulted in the smallest tumors, which were even smaller (P=0.001) than those that resulted from either treatment alone. Even the tumors removed from these mice had significantly reduced telomeres and evidence of apoptosis. We therefore conclude that although telomeres are elongated by telomerase, elevated RAD51/HR assist in their maintenance/stabilization in BAC cells. Telomerase inhibitor prevents telomere elongation but induces RAD51/HR, which contributes to telomere maintenance/stabilization and prevention of apoptosis, reducing the efficacy of treatment. Combining HR inhibition with telomerase renders telomeres more vulnerable to degradation and significantly increases/expedites their

  16. Endocytic proteins drive vesicle growth via instability in high membrane tension environment

    CERN Document Server

    Walani, Nikhil; Agrawal, Ashutosh


    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is a key pathway for transporting cargo into cells via membrane vesicles. It plays an integral role in nutrient import, signal transduction, neurotransmission and cellular entry of pathogens and drug-carrying nanoparticles. As CME entails substantial local remodeling of the plasma membrane, the presence of membrane tension offers resistance to bending and hence, vesicle formation. Experiments show that in such high tension conditions, actin dynamics is required to carry out CME successfully. In this study, we build upon these pioneering experimental studies to provide fundamental mechanistic insights into the roles of two key endocytic proteins, namely, actin and BAR proteins in driving vesicle formation in high membrane tension environment. Our study reveals a new actin force induced `snap-through instability' that triggers a rapid shape transition from a shallow invagination to a highly invaginated tubular structure. We show that the association of BAR proteins stabilizes...

  17. Investigation of the instability and low water kefir grain growth during an industrial water kefir fermentation process. (United States)

    Laureys, David; Van Jean, Amandine; Dumont, Jean; De Vuyst, Luc


    A poorly performing industrial water kefir production process consisting of a first fermentation process, a rest period at low temperature, and a second fermentation process was characterized to elucidate the causes of its low water kefir grain growth and instability. The frozen-stored water kefir grain inoculum was thawed and reactivated during three consecutive prefermentations before the water kefir production process was started. Freezing and thawing damaged the water kefir grains irreversibly, as their structure did not restore during the prefermentations nor the production process. The viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts on the water kefir grains and in the liquors were as expected, whereas those of the acetic acid bacteria were high, due to the aerobic fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, the fermentations progressed slowly, which was caused by excessive substrate concentrations resulting in a high osmotic stress. Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bifidobacterium aquikefiri, Gluconobacter roseus/oxydans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zygotorulaspora florentina were the most prevalent microorganisms. Lb. hilgardii, the microorganism thought to be responsible for water kefir grain growth, was not found culture-dependently, which could explain the low water kefir grain growth of this industrial process.

  18. A new data processing technique for Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongteng Yuan


    Full Text Available Typical face-on experiments for Rayleigh-Taylor instability study involve the time-resolved radiography of an accelerated foil with line-of-sight of the radiography along the direction of motion. The usual method which derives perturbation amplitudes from the face-on images reverses the actual image transmission procedure, so the obtained results will have a large error in the case of large optical depth. In order to improve the accuracy of data processing, a new data processing technique has been developed to process the face-on images. This technique based on convolution theorem, refined solutions of optical depth can be achieved by solving equations. Furthermore, we discuss both techniques for image processing, including the influence of modulation transfer function of imaging system and the backlighter spatial profile. Besides, we use the two methods to the process the experimental results in Shenguang-II laser facility and the comparison shows that the new method effectively improve the accuracy of data processing.

  19. Growth factors for Marangoni instability in a spherical liquid layer under zero-gravity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefsloot, H.C.J.; Hoogstraten, H.W.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.; Knobbe, J.W.

    The neutral-stability analysis presented earlier is completed by computing the growth factors β for the normal modes and by showing that the neutral states (Re(β)=0) are stationary (Im(β)=0) rather than oscillatory (Im(β)≠0).

  20. Financial innovation: Economic growth versus instability in bank-based versus financial market driven economies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.


    A fundamental feature of recent financial innovations is their focus on augmenting marketability. We point at the potential dark side of marketability. The paper casts its analysis of the pros and cons of financial innovation within the financial development and economic growth debate. The

  1. Instability growth seeded by ablator material inhomogeneity in indirect drive implosions on the National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Haan, Steven; Ali, S. J.; Baxamusa, S. H.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Nikroo, A.; Stadermann, M.; Biener, J.; Wallace, R.; Smalyuk, V.; Robey, H.; Weber, C. R.; Huang, H.; Reynolds, H.; Carlson, L.; Rice, N.; Kline, J. L.; Simakov, A. N.; Yi, S. A.


    NIF indirect drive ablators (CH, Be, and high density carbon HDC) show hydrodynamic irregularity beyond that expected from surface features. Characterizing these seeds and estimating their growth is important in projecting performance. The resulting modulations can be measured in x-ray backlit implosions on NIF called Hydro Growth Radiography, and on Omega with 2D velocimetry. This presentation summarizes the experiments for the three ablators, along with simulations thereof and projections of the significance for NIF. For CH, dominant seeds are photo-induced oxidation, which might be mitigated with alumina coating. For Be, perturbations result from Ar and O contamination. For HDC, perturbations are seeded by shock propagation around melt, depend on shock strength, and may constrain the adiabat of future HDC implosions. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. D.O.E. by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Global Instability and Transient Growth in a Model Fusifom Aneurysm with Steady Inflow (United States)

    Sheard, Gregory; Blackburn, Hugh


    The stability of the flow through a model aneurysm is computed using a global linear stability analysis and a direct transient growth analysis. The geometry consists of sinusoidal expansion in a circular pipe. Dimensions are chosen to represent a human abdominal aortic aneurysm near to the critical bulge size requiring surgical intervention. The bulge length and maximum width are 2.9 and 1.9 times the pipe diameter, respectively. Subject to a steady inflow, the flow is found to be weakly unstable to quasi-periodic global eigenmodes with azimuthal wavenumbers of 4 and 5 at a Reynolds number (based on area-averaged velocity and pipe diameter) of Re 3900. Perturbation structures in these eigenmodes are concentrated in the outer part of the bulge towards its downstream end. A transient growth analysis reveals that the flow is sensitive to transient disturbances beyond Re=33, well below the time-averaged Reynolds numbers of blood flow in the human abdominal aorta.

  3. A Note on the (In)stability of Diamond's Growth Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomgren-Hansen, Niels


    Diamond's two-period OLG growth model is based on the assumption that the stock of capital in any period is equal to the wealth accumulated in the previous period by the generation of pensioners. This stock equlibrium condition may appear an innocuous paraphrase of the ordinary macro-economic flow......-run equilibrium level will cause saving to fall by more than investment and, hence, result in excess demand for loanable funds and an upward pressure on the rate of interest. However, substituting the ordinary S = I flow equilibrium condition for Diamonds stock equilibrium condition reveals that the model has...... supply of loanable funds will drive down the rate of interest. If the rate of interest is equal to the rate of growth an increase in the time preference has no effect on the supply of loanable funds and, consequently, neither on the rate of interest or the stock of capital. Whether people prefer...

  4. Growth and instability of a phospholipid vesicle in a bath of fatty acids (United States)

    Dervaux, J.; Noireaux, V.; Libchaber, A. J.


    Using a microfluidic trap, we study the behavior of individual phospholipid vesicles in contact with fatty acids. We show that spontaneous fatty acids insertion inside the bilayer is controlled by the vesicle size, osmotic pressure difference across the membrane and fatty acids concentration in the external bath. Depending on these parameters, vesicles can grow spherically or become unstable and fragment into several daughter vesicles. We establish the phase diagram for vesicle growth and we derive a simple thermodynamic model that reproduces the time evolution of the vesicle volume. Finally, we show that stable growth can be achieved on an artificial cell expressing a simple set of bacterial cytoskeletal proteins, paving the way toward artificial cell reproduction.

  5. Mechanism of Ice Crystal Growth Habit and Shape Instability Development Below Water Saturation. (United States)


    of food he consumes is dependent upon water. For this basic reason, the obtainment of water has been the cardinal objective of the human race...and human error make an accurate determination of the ice crystal growth history difficult. For this reason, researchers 14 have attempted to...the emmissivity of ice, and Ti and Tj are the average temperatures in degrees Kelvin of the top and bottom plates. The last is the heat conductio

  6. Shock-Driven Hydrodynamic Instability Growth Near Phase Boundaries and Material Property Transitions: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, Pedro [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Fortin, Elizabeth [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Opie, Saul [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gautam, Sudrishti [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gopalakrishnan, Ashish [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lynch, Jenna [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Chen, Yan [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Loomis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    (or decreasing the initial wavelength) delays the perturbation decay. Conversely our experimental data, analysis and simulations show that for materials with elastic yield strength Y the normalized shock perturbation amplitude evolves with Yλ/A0, which shows wavelength increases have the opposite effect as in viscous materials and perturbation decay is also dependent on initial amplitude A0 (viscous materials are independent of this parameter). Materials where strength had clear strain rate dependence, e.g., such as a PTW material law, behaved similarly to materials with only an effective yield stress (elastic-perfectly plastic) in the shock front perturbation studies obeying a YeffλA0 relationship where Yeff was a constant (near ~400 MPa for Cu for strain rates around 106 s-1). Magnitude changes in strain rate would increase Yeff as would be expected from the PTW behavior, but small perturbations (typical of regions behind the shock front) near a mean had little effect. Additional work based on simulations showed that phase transformation kinetics can affect the behavior of the perturbed shock front as well as the evolution of the RM-like instability that develops due to the imprint of the perturbed shock front on the initially flat surface as the shock breaks out.

  7. T cell therapy targeting a public neoantigen in microsatellite instable colon cancer reduces in vivo tumor growth. (United States)

    Inderberg, Else M; Wälchli, Sébastien; Myhre, Marit R; Trachsel, Sissel; Almåsbak, Hilde; Kvalheim, Gunnar; Gaudernack, Gustav


    T-cell receptor (TCR) transfer is an attractive strategy to increase the number of cancer-specific T cells in adoptive cell therapy. However, recent clinical and pre-clinical findings indicate that careful consideration of the target antigen is required to limit the risk of off-target toxicity. Directing T cells against mutated proteins such as frequently occurring frameshift mutations may thus be a safer alternative to tumor-associated self-antigens. Furthermore, such frameshift mutations result in novel polypeptides allowing selection of TCRs from the non-tolerant T-cell repertoire circumventing the problem of low affinity TCRs due to central tolerance. The transforming growth factor β Receptor II frameshift mutation (TGFβRIImut) is found in Lynch syndrome cancer patients and in approximately 15% of sporadic colorectal and gastric cancers displaying microsatellite instability (MSI). The -1A mutation within a stretch of 10 adenine bases (nucleotides 709-718) of the TGFβRII gene gives rise to immunogenic peptides previously used for vaccination of MSI+ colorectal cancer patients in a Phase I clinical trial. From a clinically responding patient, we isolated a cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) clone showing a restriction for HLA-A2 in complex with TGFβRIImut peptide. Its TCR was identified and shown to redirect T cells against colon carcinoma cell lines harboring the frameshift mutation. Finally, T cells transduced with the HLA-A2-restricted TGFβRIImut-specific TCR were demonstrated to significantly reduce the growth of colorectal cancer and enhance survival in a NOD/SCID xenograft mouse model.

  8. Hydrodynamic instability growth of three-dimensional modulations in radiation-driven implosions with "low-foot" and "high-foot" drives at the National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, C. R.; Robey, H. F.; Casey, D. T.; Chen, K.-C.; Clark, D. S.; Farrell, M.; Felker, S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Hoover, D.; Kroll, J. J.; Landen, O. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Martinez, D.; Nikroo, A.; Rice, N.


    Hydrodynamic instability growth has been studied using three-dimensional (3-D) broadband modulations by comparing "high-foot" and "low-foot" spherical plastic (CH) capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. M. Campbell et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. The initial perturbations included capsule outer-surface roughness and capsule-mounting membranes ("tents") that were similar to those used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The tents with thicknesses of 31-nm, 46-nm, and 109-nm were used in the experiments. The outer-surface roughness in the "low-foot" experiment was similar to the standard specification, while it was increased by ˜4 times in the "high-foot" experiment to compensate for the reduced growth. The ablation-front instability growth was measured using a Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography platform at a convergence ratio of ˜3. The dominant capsule perturbations, generated by the tent mountings, had measured perturbation amplitudes comparable to the capsule thickness with the "low-foot" drive. These tent perturbations were reduced by ˜3 to 10 times in implosions with the "high-foot" drive. Unexpectedly, the measured perturbations with initially thinner tents were either larger or similar to the measured perturbations with thicker tents for both "high-foot" and "low-foot" drives. While the measured instability growth of 3-D broadband perturbations was also significantly reduced by ˜5 to 10 times with the "high-foot" drive, compared to the "low-foot" drive, the growth mitigation was stronger than expected based on previous "growth-factor" results measured with two-dimensional modulations [D. T. Casey et al., Phys. Rev. E 90, 011102 (2014)]. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the 3-D modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule having a stronger effect on the overall growth of capsule perturbations than the outer-surface capsule roughness.

  9. Lecture on beam instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.


    These lectures treat some of the common collective beam instability effects encountered in accelerators. In choosing the material for these lectures, it is attempted to introduce this subject with a more practical approach, instead of a more theoretical approach starting with first principles. After introducing the terminologies, emphasis will be placed on how to apply the lecture material to perform calculations and to make estimates of various instability effects. In the first half of the lectures, after briefly introducing the concepts of impedance and wake field, the authors will discuss a selected list of formulas for the impedances of various accelerator components. Detailed derivations are omitted, allowing time for the students to think through the process of how to apply the knowledge learned. The list of impedances to be covered include: space charge, resistive wall, resonator, wall roughness, and small perturbation on the vacuum chamber wall. Assuming impedances are known, the second half of the lectures addresses the question of how to calculate the power of beam heating, the growth rates, and the thresholds for a list of selected beam instability effects. Again with minimal detailed derivations, the aim is to introduce a collection of formulas, and apply them to linear as well as circular accelerators. The list of beam instability effects to be covered include: loss factor, beam break-up, BNS damping, bunch lengthening, resistive wall instability, head-tail instability, longitudinal head-tail instability, Landau damping, microwave instability, and mode coupling instability.

  10. Growth and saturation of convective modes of the two-plasmon decay instability in inertial confinement fusion. (United States)

    Yan, R; Maximov, A V; Ren, C; Tsung, F S


    Particle-in-cell (PIC) and fluid simulations of two-plasmon decay (TPD) instability under conditions relevant to inertial confinement fusion show the importance of convective modes. Growing at the lower density region, the convective modes can cause pump depletion and are energetically dominant in the nonlinear stage. The PIC simulations show that TPD saturates due to ion density fluctuations, which can turn off TPD by raising the instability threshold through mode coupling.

  11. Hydro-instability growth of perturbation seeds from alternate capsule-support strategies in indirect-drive implosions on National Ignition Facility (United States)

    Martinez, D. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; MacPhee, A. G.; Milovich, J.; Casey, D. T.; Weber, C. R.; Robey, H. F.; Chen, K.-C.; Clark, D. S.; Crippen, J.; Farrell, M.; Felker, S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Stadermann, M.; Hsing, W. W.; Kroll, J. J.; Landen, O. L.; Nikroo, A.; Pickworth, L.; Rice, N.


    Hydrodynamic instability growth of the capsule support membranes (or "tents") and fill tubes has been studied in spherical, glow discharge polymer plastic capsule implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Campbell et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. In NIF implosions, the capsules are supported by tents because the nominal 10-μm thick fill tubes are not strong enough to support capsules by themselves. After it was recognized that the tents had a significant impact of implosion stability, new support methods were investigated, including thicker, 30-μm diameter fill tubes and cantilevered fill tubes, as described in this article. A new "sub-scale" version of the existing x-ray radiography platform was developed for measuring growing capsule perturbations in the acceleration phase of implosions. It was calibrated using hydrodynamic growth measurements of pre-imposed capsule modulations with Legendre modes of 60, 90, 110, and 140 at convergence ratios up to ˜2.4. Subsequent experiments with 3-D perturbations have studied instability growth of 10-μm and 30-μm thick fill tubes to compare them with 30-nm thick tent perturbations at convergence ratios up to ˜3. In other experiments, the perturbations from cantilevered fill tubes were measured and compared to the tent perturbations. The cantilevered fill tubes were supported by 12-μm thick SiC rods, offset by 100 μm, 200 μm, and 300 μm from the capsule surfaces. Based on these experiments, 30-μm thick fill tubes and 300-μm offset cantilevered fill tubes were recommended for further tests using layered deuterium-tritium implosions. The effects of x-ray shadowing during the drive and oxygen-induced perturbations during target assembly produced additional seeds for instabilities and were also measured in these experiments.

  12. LAD Early Career Prize Talk:Laboratory astrophysics experiments investigating the effects of high energy fluxes on Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth relevant to young supernova remnants (United States)

    Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Drake, R. Paul; Park, Hye Sook; Huntington, Channing; Miles, Aaron R.; Remington, Bruce A.; Plewa, Tomek; Trantham, Matt; Shvarts, Dov; Raman, Kumar; MacLaren, Steven; Wan, Wesley; Doss, Forrest; Kline, John; Flippos, Kirk; Malamud, Guy; Handy, Timothy; Prisbey, Shon; Grosskopf, Michael; Krauland, Christine; Klein, Sallee; Harding, Eric; Wallace, Russell; Marion, Donna; Kalantar, Dan


    Energy-transport effects can alter the structure that develops as a supernova evolves into a supernova remnant. The Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability is thought to produce structure at the interface between the stellar ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM), based on simple models and hydrodynamic simulations. When a blast wave emerges from an exploding star, it drives a forward shock into the CSM and a reverse shock forms in the expanding stellar ejecta, creating a young supernova remnant (SNR). As mass accumulates in the shocked layers, the interface between these two shocks decelerates, becoming unstable to the RT instability. Simulations predict that RT produces structures at this interface, having a range of spatial scales. When the CSM is dense enough, as in the case of SN 1993J, the hot shocked matter can produce significant radiative fluxes that affect the emission from the SNR. Here we report experimental results from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to explore how large energy fluxes, which are present in supernovae such as SN 1993J, might affect this structure. The experiment used NIF to create a RT unstable interface subject to a high energy flux by the emergence of a blast wave into lower-density matter, in analogy to the SNR. We also preformed and with a low energy flux to compare the affect of the energy flux on the instability growth. We found that the RT growth was reduced in the experiments with a high energy flux. In analyzing the comparison with SN 1993J, we discovered that the energy fluxes produced by heat conduction appear to be larger than the radiative energy fluxes, and large enough to have dramatic consequences. No reported astrophysical simulations have included radiation and heat conduction self-consistently in modeling SNRs.

  13. Shoulder Instability (United States)

    ... Causes & Risk FactorsIs shoulder instability the same as shoulder dislocation?No. The signs of dislocation and instability might ... the same to you–weakness and pain. However, dislocation occurs when your shoulder goes completely out of place. The shoulder ligaments ...

  14. Late-time growth rate, mixing, and anisotropy in the multimode narrowband Richtmyer-Meshkov instability: The θ-group collaboration (United States)

    Thornber, B.; Griffond, J.; Poujade, O.; Attal, N.; Varshochi, H.; Bigdelou, P.; Ramaprabhu, P.; Olson, B.; Greenough, J.; Zhou, Y.; Schilling, O.; Garside, K. A.; Williams, R. J. R.; Batha, C. A.; Kuchugov, P. A.; Ladonkina, M. E.; Tishkin, V. F.; Zmitrenko, N. V.; Rozanov, V. B.; Youngs, D. L.


    Turbulent Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) is investigated through a series of high resolution three-dimensional simulations of two initial conditions with eight independent codes. The simulations are initialised with a narrowband perturbation such that instability growth is due to non-linear coupling/backscatter from the energetic modes, thus generating the lowest expected growth rate from a pure RMI. By independently assessing the results from each algorithm and computing ensemble averages of multiple algorithms, the results allow a quantification of key flow properties as well as the uncertainty due to differing numerical approaches. A new analytical model predicting the initial layer growth for a multimode narrowband perturbation is presented, along with two models for the linear and non-linear regimes combined. Overall, the growth rate exponent is determined as θ =0.292 ±0.009 , in good agreement with prior studies; however, the exponent is decaying slowly in time. Also, θ is shown to be relatively insensitive to the choice of mixing layer width measurements. The asymptotic integral molecular mixing measures Θ =0.792 ±0.014 , Ξ =0.800 ±0.014 , and Ψ =0.782 ±0.013 are lower than some experimental measurements but within the range of prior numerical studies. The flow field is shown to be persistently anisotropic for all algorithms, at the latest time having between 49% and 66% higher kinetic energy in the shock parallel direction compared to perpendicular and does not show any return to isotropy. The plane averaged volume fraction profiles at different time instants collapse reasonably well when scaled by the integral width, implying that the layer can be described by a single length scale and thus a single θ. Quantitative data given for both ensemble averages and individual algorithms provide useful benchmark results for future research.

  15. Size effects on cavitation instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo


    In metal-ceramic systems the constraint on plastic flow leads to so high stress triaxialities that cavitation instabilities may occur. If the void radius is on the order of magnitude of a characteristic length for the metal, the rate of void growth is reduced, and the possibility of unstable cavity...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...

  16. Material Failure and the Growth of Instabilities in Hollow Cylindrical Samples of Aluminum Shocked to 14Gpa and 50Gpa (U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, J.; Fulton, R.D.; Morgan, D.V.; Obst, A.W.; Oro, D.M.; Oona, H.; Anderson, W.E.


    Understanding the surface stability of metals undergoing dynamic fracture at shock breakout is important to several applications in metals processing. The advantages of using the Pegasus II facility to investigate the phenomena occurring at shock break out are described. As an example of the data collected, we concentrate on brief descriptions of two experiments that compared the tensile failure, i.e. ''spall'', patterns in the presence of sinusoidal perturbations seeded on the free inner surface of cylindrical samples made of structural grade Al 6061.T6. These samples were subjected to ramped waves with shock pressures of 14 GPa and 50 GPa to observe the effect of pressure on the production of a type of volumetric failure that is mentioned here ''microspall.'' This failed region behind the exiting surface of the shock wave is comprised of a significant volume of low-density, probably granular, material. The failure mechanism, combined with the forces that cause inertial instability, leads to rapid pattern growth in the failed material, observable as density variations, as well as to pattern growth on the surface. Pattern growth was observed to vary with perturbation amplitude, wavelength, and shock pressure. Both increased pressure and increased amplitude were shown to destabilize a stable perturbation. Increasing the wavelength by a factor of 3 was shown to result in significantly slower growth of the pattern within the failed volume. The mechanisms leading to the formation of the spall volume and to the patterns are discussed briefly.

  17. TC Mps1 12, a novel Mps1 inhibitor, suppresses the growth of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via the accumulation of chromosomal instability. (United States)

    Choi, Minji; Min, Yoo Hong; Pyo, Jaehyuk; Lee, Chang-Woo; Jang, Chang-Young; Kim, Ja-Eun


    Chromosomal instability is not only a hallmark of cancer but also an attractive therapeutic target. A diverse set of mitotic kinases maintains chromosomal stability. One of these is monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1, also known as TTK), which is essential for chromosome alignment and for the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Pharmacological inhibition of Mps1 has been suggested as a cancer therapeutic; however, despite the existence of a novel Mps1 inhibitor, TC Mps1 12, no such studies have been performed. The effects of TC Mps1 12 on cell viability, chromosome alignment, centrosome number, mitotic duration, apoptosis and SAC were determined in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. In addition, the association of Mps1 expression with the overall survival of HCC patients was analysed. Treatment of human HCC cells with TC Mps1 12 led to chromosome misalignment and missegregation, and disorganization of centrosomes. Even in the presence of these errors, TC Mps1 12-treated cells overrode the SAC, resulting in a shortened mitotic duration and mitotic slippage. This mitotic catastrophe triggered apoptosis and, finally, inhibited the growth of HCC cells. In addition, the expression of the Mps1-encoding TTK gene was associated with poor overall survival of HCC patients. TC Mps1 12 results in the accumulation of chromosomal instabilities and mitotic catastrophe in HCC cells. Overall, these data demonstrate that the inhibition of Mps1 kinase using TC Mps1 12 is a promising therapeutic approach for liver cancer. © 2017 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Interactions between long and synoptic-scale waves. I - Instability of a nonzonal flow. II - Growth rate of long waves (United States)

    Ebisuzaki, Wesley


    The interactions between synoptic-scale and long waves were investigated analytically. First, the influence of the long wave on the synoptic-scale wave is examined. The structure of a synoptic-scale wave growing on a wavy basic scale was analyzed under an assumption that the synoptic-scale waves have the structure of the most unstable normal modes. The derived analytical solution, which is simple and is amenable to physical interpretation, can be understood in terms of eddies and their local growth rate. The analytical solution is then used to examine growth of a long wave in the presence of parameterized synoptic-scale waves. Two possibly unstable solutions were found; one is a modification of the linear long wave, and the other a strongly nonlinear solution. In both cases, the synoptic-scale wave increases the growth rate of the long wave.

  19. Shoulder instability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 2, 2011 ... Honorary Consultant, Shoulder and Elbow Unit, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Cape Town. Basil Vrettos is a shoulder ... Head, Shoulder and Elbow Unit, Princess Alice Orthopaedic Unit, Groote Schuur Hospital. Steve Roche heads ..... tidirectional instability is physiotherapy. • Surgery for ...

  20. Asymptotic Behavior of the Electron Cloud Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, Samuel; /SLAC


    The fast beam-ion instability and the single bunch electron-cloud instability are substantially nonlinear phenomena and can be analyzed in a similar way. The initial exponential growth of the amplitudes known for both instabilities takes place only in the linear approximation. Later, in the nonlinear regime, amplitudes grow according to a power law or even decrease. We analyze the nonlinear regime describing the growth of amplitudes in time and along the train of bunches. Analytic analysis is compared with simulations.

  1. Simulations of Astrophysical fluid instabilities (United States)

    Calder, A. C.; Fryxell, B.; Rosner, R.; Dursi, L. J.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P. M.; Timmes, F. X.; Zingale, M.; MacNeice, P.; Tufo, H. M.


    We present direct numerical simulations of mixing at Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interfaces performed with the FLASH code, developed at the ASCI/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. We present initial results of single-mode studies in two and three dimensions. Our results indicate that three-dimensional instabilities grow significantly faster than two-dimensional instabilities and that grid resolution can have a significant effect on instability growth rates. We also find that unphysical diffusive mixing occurs at the fluid interface, particularly in poorly resolved simulations. .

  2. Two-Beam Instability in Electron Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, Alexey V.; /Fermilab


    The drift motion of cooling electrons makes them able to respond to transverse perturbations of a cooled ion beam. This response may lead to dipole or quadrupole transverse instabilities at specific longitudinal wave numbers. While the dipole instabilities can be suppressed by a combination of the Landau damping, machine impedance, and the active damper, the quadrupole and higher order modes can lead to either emittance growth, or a lifetime degradation, or both. The growth rates of these instabilities are strongly determined by the machine x-y coupling. Thus, tuning out of the coupling resonance and/or reduction of the machine coupling can be an efficient remedy for these instabilities.

  3. Instability of warped discs (United States)

    Doǧan, S.; Nixon, C. J.; King, A. R.; Pringle, J. E.


    Accretion discs are generally warped. If a warp in a disc is too large, the disc can `break' apart into two or more distinct planes, with only tenuous connections between them. Further if an initially planar disc is subject to a strong differential precession, then it can be torn apart into discrete annuli that precess effectively independently. In previous investigations, torque-balance formulae have been used to predict where and when the disc breaks into distinct parts. In this work, focusing on discs with Keplerian rotation and where the shearing motions driving the radial communication of the warp are damped locally by turbulence (the `diffusive' regime), we investigate the stability of warped discs to determine the precise criterion for an isolated warped disc to break. We find and solve the dispersion relation, which in general yields three roots. We provide a comprehensive analysis of this viscous-warp instability and the emergent growth rates and their dependence on disc parameters. The physics of the instability can be understood as a combination of (1) a term which would generally encapsulate the classical Lightman-Eardley instability in planar discs (given by ∂(νΣ)/∂Σ condition acting on the diffusion of the warp amplitude given in simplified form by ∂(ν2|ψ|)/∂|ψ| < 0. We discuss our findings in the context of discs with an imposed precession, and comment on the implications for different astrophysical systems.

  4. Size-effects on cavitation instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo


    In metal-ceramic systems the constraint on plastic flow leads to so high stress triaxialities that cavitation instabilities may occur. If the void radius is on the order of magnitude of a characteristic length for the metal, the rate of void growth is reduced, and the possibility of unstable cavity...... triaxiality, where cavitation instabilities are predicted by conventional plasticity theory, such instabilities are also found for the nonlocal theory, but the effects of gradient hardening delay the onset of the instability. Furthermore, in some cases the cavitation stress reaches a maximum and then decays...

  5. Instability Prediction and Disruption Avoidance (United States)

    Turnbull, A. D.; Liu, Y. Q.; Hanson, J. M.; Turco, F.; Ferraro, N. M.


    Disruption avoidance requires both a prediction of the instability proximity and an estimate of the `disruptability' - the likelihood that the instability will ultimately result in a disruptive event. MHD spectroscopy is a promising option for obtaining information on the proximity of instabilities. Both the direct response and the antenna impedance provide valuable information on the low frequency global normal modes corresponding to stabilized kink modes. Data from DIII-D experiments and available nonlinear simulations are used to define quantitative criteria that signify when instabilities ultimately disrupt and when they saturate or dissipate. The key distinction in this approach is the use of physical characteristics of the modes rather than more accessible operation parameters. Simple characteristics of the linear instability for example include the linear growth or damping rate and the mode spatial extent. Criteria can also involve identifying sources of free energy in the nonlinear evolution. Work supported in part by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 & DE-FG02-95ER54309.

  6. Electron heat flux instability (United States)

    Saeed, Sundas; Sarfraz, M.; Yoon, P. H.; Lazar, M.; Qureshi, M. N. S.


    The heat flux instability is an electromagnetic mode excited by a relative drift between the protons and two-component core-halo electrons. The most prominent application may be in association with the solar wind where drifting electron velocity distributions are observed. The heat flux instability is somewhat analogous to the electrostatic Buneman or ion-acoustic instability driven by the net drift between the protons and bulk electrons, except that the heat flux instability operates in magnetized plasmas and possesses transverse electromagnetic polarization. The heat flux instability is also distinct from the electrostatic counterpart in that it requires two electron species with relative drifts with each other. In the literature, the heat flux instability is often called the 'whistler' heat flux instability, but it is actually polarized in the opposite sense to the whistler wave. This paper elucidates all of these fundamental plasma physical properties associated with the heat flux instability starting from a simple model, and gradually building up more complexity towards a solar wind-like distribution functions. It is found that the essential properties of the instability are already present in the cold counter-streaming electron model, and that the instability is absent if the protons are ignored. These instability characteristics are highly reminiscent of the electron firehose instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, propagating in parallel direction with respect to the ambient magnetic field, except that the free energy source for the heat flux instability resides in the effective parallel pressure provided by the counter-streaming electrons.

  7. Evaluating shoulder instability treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, J.A.


    Shoulder instability common occurs. When treated nonoperatively, the resulting societal costs based on health care utilization and productivity losses are significant. Shoulder function can be evaluated using patient reported outcome measurements (PROMs). For shoulder instability, these include the

  8. Role of microsatellite instability in colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yu. Fedyanin


    Full Text Available Coloncancer is among leading causes of cancer morbidity and mortality both inRussiaand worldwide. Development of molecular biology lead to decoding of carcinogenesis and tumor progression mechanisms. These processes require accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in a tumor cell.Coloncancer carcinogenesis is characterized by mutations cumulation in genes controlling growth and differentiation of epithelial cells, which leads to their genetic instability. Microsatellite instability is a type of genetic instability characterized by deterioration of mismatch DNA repair. This leads to faster accumulation of mutations in DNA. Loss of mismatch repair mechanism can easily be diagnosed by length of DNA microsatellites. These alterations are termed microsatellite instability. They can be found both in hereditary and sporadic colon cancers. This review covers the questions of microsatellite instability, its prognostic and predictive value in colon cancer.

  9. Plasma electron hole oscillatory velocity instability (United States)

    Zhou, Chuteng; Hutchinson, Ian H.


    In this paper, we report a new type of instability of electron holes (EHs) interacting with passing ions. The nonlinear interaction of EHs and ions is investigated using a new theory of hole kinematics. It is shown that the oscillation in the velocity of the EH parallel to the magnetic field direction becomes unstable when the hole velocity in the ion frame is slower than a few times the cold ion sound speed. This instability leads to the emission of ion-acoustic waves from the solitary hole and decay in its magnitude. The instability mechanism can drive significant perturbations in the ion density. The instability threshold, oscillation frequency and instability growth rate derived from the theory yield quantitative agreement with the observations from a novel high-fidelity hole-tracking particle-in-cell code.

  10. Morphological instabilities of lamellar eutectics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karma, A.; Sarkissian, A. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Physics Dept.


    The authors present the results of a numerical study based on the boundary integral technique of interfacial pattern formation in directional solidification of thin-film lamellar eutectics at low velocity. Microstructure selection maps that identify the stability domains of various steady-state and nonsteady-state growth morphologies in the spacing-composition ({lambda} {minus} C{sub 0}) plane are constructed for the transparent organic alloy CBr{sub 4}-C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6} and for a model eutectic alloy with two solid phases of identical physical properties. In CBr{sub 4}-C{sub 2}Cl{sub 6}, the basic set of instabilities that limit steady-state growth is richer than expected. It consists of three primary instabilities, two of which are oscillatory, which bound the domain of the commonly observed axisymmetric lamellar morphology, and two secondary oscillatory instabilities, which bound the domain of the nonaxisymmetric (tilted) lamellar morphology. Four stable oscillatory microstructures, at least three of which have been seen experimentally, are predicted to occur in unstable regimes. In the model alloy, the structure is qualitatively similar, except that a stable domain of tilted steady-state growth is not found, in agreement with previous random-walk simulations. Furthermore, the composition range of stability of the axisymmetric morphology decreases sharply with increasing spacing away from minimum undercooling but extends further off-eutectic than predicted by the competitive growth criterion. In addition, oscillations with a wavelength equal to two {lambda} lead to lamella termination at a small distance above the onset of instability. The implications of these two features for the eutectic to dendrite transition are examined with the conclusion that in the absence of heterogeneous nucleation, this transition should be histeritic at small velocity and temperature gradient.

  11. Two-beam instability in electron cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Burov


    Full Text Available The drift motion of cooling electrons makes them able to respond to transverse perturbations of a cooled ion beam. This response may lead to dipole or quadrupole transverse instabilities at specific longitudinal wave numbers. While the dipole instabilities can be suppressed by a combination of the Landau damping, machine impedance, and the active damper, the quadrupole and higher order modes can lead to either emittance growth, or a lifetime degradation, or both. The growth rates of these instabilities are strongly determined by the machine x-y coupling. Thus, tuning out of the coupling resonance and/or reduction of the machine coupling can be an efficient remedy for these instabilities.

  12. Shoulder instability; Schulterinstabilitaeten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitner, Karl-Friedrich [Mainiz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie


    In the shoulder, the advantages of range of motion are traded for the disadvantages of vulnerability to injury and the development of instability. Shoulder instability and the lesion it produces represent one of the main causes of shoulder discomfort and pain. Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to their causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options: instabilities are classified in traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome, and in microtraumatic instabilities. Plain radiographs ('trauma series') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful reposition. Direct MR arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation the different injury patterns on the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast CT-arthrography with use of multidetector CT scanners may be an alternative imaging modality, however, regarding the younger patient age, MR imaging should be preferred in the diagnostic work-up of shoulder instabilities. (orig.)

  13. Elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole


    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...... of the specimens was recorded. The reproducibility of the instability pattern suggests that this model is suitable for evaluating stabilizing procedures aimed at correction of elbow joint instability before these procedures are introduced into patient care....

  14. Imaging of shoulder instability (United States)

    Martínez Martínez, Alberto; Tomás Muñoz, Pablo; Pozo Sánchez, José; Zarza Pérez, Antonio


    This extended review tries to cover the imaging findings of the wide range of shoulder injuries secondary to shoulder joint instability. Usefulness of the different imaging methods is stressed, including radiography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance. The main topics to be covered include traumatic, atraumatic and minor instability syndromes. Radiography may show bone abnormalities associated to instability, including developmental and post-traumatic changes. CT is the best technique depicting and quantifying skeletal changes. MR-arthrography is the main tool in diagnosing the shoulder instability injuries. PMID:28932699

  15. Surface instability and associated roughness during conventional and pendeo-epitaxial growth of GaN(0 0 0 1) films via MOVPE (United States)

    Roskowski, A. M.; Miraglia, P. Q.; Preble, E. A.; Einfeldt, S.; Davis, R. F.


    Investigations of the origins of surface roughening in GaN(0 0 0 1) have resulted in the development of a growth process route having an optimum temperature of 1020°C and a film thickness beyond 2.5 μm which results in films with the smoothest surface morphology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed uncoalesced GaN islands and hillocks for non-optimum temperatures below and above 1020°C, respectively. Uncoalesced islands were a result of insufficient lateral growth. Hillocks were a result of the rotation of heterogeneous steps formed at pure screw or mixed dislocations which terminated on the (0 0 0 1) surface. Growth of the latter features was controlled kinetically by temperature through adatom diffusion. The 10 6 cm -2 density of hillocks was reduced through growth on thick GaN templates and regions of pendeo-epitaxy (PE) overgrowth with lower pure screw or mixed dislocations. Smooth PE surfaces were obtained at temperatures that reduced the lateral to vertical growth rate but also retarded hillock growth that originated in the stripe regions. The (1 1 2¯ 0) PE sidewall surface was atomically smooth, with a root mean square roughness value of 0.17 nm, which was the noise limited resolution of the AFM measurements.

  16. White-light parametric instabilities in plasmas. (United States)

    Santos, J E; Silva, L O; Bingham, R


    Parametric instabilities driven by partially coherent radiation in plasmas are described by a generalized statistical Wigner-Moyal set of equations, formally equivalent to the full wave equation, coupled to the plasma fluid equations. A generalized dispersion relation for stimulated Raman scattering driven by a partially coherent pump field is derived, revealing a growth rate dependence, with the coherence width sigma of the radiation field, scaling with 1/sigma for backscattering (three-wave process), and with 1/sigma1/2 for direct forward scattering (four-wave process). Our results demonstrate the possibility to control the growth rates of these instabilities by properly using broadband pump radiation fields.

  17. Single-mode coherent synchrotron radiation instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Heifets


    Full Text Available The microwave instability driven by the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR has been previously studied [S. Heifets and G. V. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 054402 (2002] neglecting effect of the shielding caused by the finite beam pipe aperture. In practice, the unstable mode can be close to the shielding threshold where the spectrum of the radiation in a toroidal beam pipe is discrete. In this paper, the CSR instability is studied in the case when it is driven by a single synchronous mode. A system of equations for the beam-wave interaction is derived and its similarity to the 1D free-electron laser theory is demonstrated. In the linear regime, the growth rate of the instability is obtained and a transition to the case of continuous spectrum is discussed. The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode instability, both with and without synchrotron damping and quantum diffusion, is also studied.

  18. Anisotropic instability of a stretching film (United States)

    Xu, Bingrui; Li, Minhao; Deng, Daosheng


    Instability of a thin liquid film, such as dewetting arising from Van der Waals force, has been well studied, and is typically characterized by formation of many droplets. Interestingly, a thin liquid film subjected to an applied stretching during a process of thermal drawing is evolved into an array of filaments, i.e., continuity is preserved along the direction of stretching while breakup occurs exclusively in the plane of cross section. Here, to understand this anisotropic instability, we build a physical model by considering both Van der Waals force and the effect of stretching. By using the linear instability analysis method and then performing a numerical calculation, we find that the growth rate of perturbations at the cross section is larger than that along the direction of stretching, resulting in the anisotropic instability of the stretching film. These results may provide theoretical guidance to achieve more diverse structures for nanotechnology.

  19. Small-amplitude magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth in cylindrical liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Clark, R. W.; Mikitchuk, D.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.; Fisher, A.; Schmit, P. F.


    Recent progress in developing the MagLIF approach to pulsed-power driven inertial confinement fusion has stimulated the interest in observation and mitigation of the magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRTI) of liners and Z-pinches imploded in an axial magnetic field. Theoretical analysis of these issues is particularly important because direct numerical simulation of the MRTI development is challenging due to intrinsically 3D helical structure of the fastest-growing modes. We review the analytical small-amplitude theory of the MRTI perturbation development and the weakly nonlinear theory of MRTI mode interaction, emphasizing basic physics, opportunity for 3D code verification against exact analytical solutions, and stabilization criteria. The theory is compared to the experimental results obtained at Weizmann Institute with gas-puff Z pinches and on the Z facility at Sandia with solid liners imploded in an axial magnetic field. Work supported by the US DOE/NNSA, and by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Magnetic field generation via parametric instabilities in collisional plasmas (United States)

    Katoh, K.


    A formalism for the parametric instability with low-frequency magnetic field generation in a collisional plasma is developed. The spontaneous low-frequency magnetic field results from a resonant decay instability of an intense pump wave into a magneto-static wave which appears only in a collisional plasma. The growth rate for a resonant decay instability of an intense electromagnetic wave into a Langmuir wave and a magneto-static wave is obtained.

  1. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dispersion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming instability.

  2. Mix and hydrodynamic instabilities on NIF (United States)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Döppner, T.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; MacPhee, A. G.; Martinez, D.; Milovich, J. L.; Peterson, J. L.; Pickworth, L.; Pino, J. E.; Raman, K.; Tipton, R.; Weber, C. R.; Baker, K. L.; Bachmann, B.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Dixit, S. N.; Edwards, M. J.; Felker, S.; Field, J. E.; Fittinghoff, D. N.; Gharibyan, N.; Grim, G. P.; Hamza, A. V.; Hatarik, R.; Hohenberger, M.; Hsing, W. W.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Jones, O. S.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; Landen, O. L.; Ma, T.; MacGowan, B. J.; Masse, L.; Moore, A. S.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Pak, A.; Patel, P. K.; Remington, B. A.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Stadermann, M.; Tommasini, R.; Widmayer, C. C.; Yeamans, C. B.; Crippen, J.; Farrell, M.; Giraldez, E.; Rice, N.; Wilde, C. H.; Volegov, P. L.; Gatu Johnson, M.


    Several new platforms have been developed to experimentally measure hydrodynamic instabilities in all phases of indirect-drive, inertial confinement fusion implosions on National Ignition Facility. At the ablation front, instability growth of pre-imposed modulations was measured with a face-on, x-ray radiography platform in the linear regime using the Hydrodynamic Growth Radiography (HGR) platform. Modulation growth of "native roughness" modulations and engineering features (fill tubes and capsule support membranes) were measured in conditions relevant to layered DT implosions. A new experimental platform was developed to measure instability growth at the ablator-ice interface. In the deceleration phase of implosions, several experimental platforms were developed to measure both low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations near peak compression with x-ray and nuclear techniques. In one innovative technique, the self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to "self-backlight" the shell in-flight. To stabilize instability growth, new "adiabat-shaping" techniques were developed using the HGR platform and applied in layered DT implosions.

  3. Posterior Shoulder Instability. (United States)

    Antosh, Ivan J; Tokish, John M; Owens, Brett D

    Posterior shoulder instability has become more frequently recognized and treated as a unique subset of shoulder instability, especially in the military. Posterior shoulder pathology may be more difficult to accurately diagnose than its anterior counterpart, and commonly, patients present with complaints of pain rather than instability. "Posterior instability" may encompass both dislocation and subluxation, and the most common presentation is recurrent posterior subluxation. Arthroscopic and open treatment techniques have improved as understanding of posterior shoulder instability has evolved. Electronic databases including PubMed and MEDLINE were queried for articles relating to posterior shoulder instability. Clinical review. Level 4. In low-demand patients, nonoperative treatment of posterior shoulder instability should be considered a first line of treatment and is typically successful. Conservative treatment, however, is commonly unsuccessful in active patients, such as military members. Those patients with persistent shoulder pain, instability, or functional limitations after a trial of conservative treatment may be considered surgical candidates. Arthroscopic posterior shoulder stabilization has demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes, high patient satisfaction, and low complication rates. Advanced techniques may be required in select cases to address bone loss, glenoid dysplasia, or revision. Posterior instability represents about 10% of shoulder instability and has become increasingly recognized and treated in military members. Nonoperative treatment is commonly unsuccessful in active patients, and surgical stabilization can be considered in patients who do not respond. Isolated posterior labral repairs constitute up to 24% of operatively treated labral repairs in a military population. Arthroscopic posterior stabilization is typically considered as first-line surgical treatment, while open techniques may be required in complex or revision settings.

  4. Hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids (United States)

    Truzzolillo, Domenico; Cipelletti, Luca


    Hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids are ubiquitous, from natural phenomena up to geological scales, to industrial and technological applications, where they represent the only way to control and promote mixing at low Reynolds numbers, well below the transition from laminar to turbulent flow. As for immiscible fluids, the onset of hydrodynamic instabilities in miscible fluids is directly related to the physics of their interfaces. The focus of this review is therefore on the general mechanisms driving the growth of disturbances at the boundary between miscible fluids, under a variety of forcing conditions. In the absence of a regularizing mechanism, these disturbances would grow indefinitely. For immiscible fluids, interfacial tension provides such a regularizing mechanism, because of the energy cost associated to the creation of new interface by a growing disturbance. For miscible fluids, however, the very existence of interfacial stresses that mimic an effective surface tension is debated. Other mechanisms, however, may also be relevant, such as viscous dissipation. We shall review the stabilizing mechanisms that control the most common hydrodynamic instabilities, highlighting those cases for which the lack of an effective interfacial tension poses deep conceptual problems in the mathematical formulation of a linear stability analysis. Finally, we provide a short overview on the ongoing research on the effective, out of equilibrium interfacial tension between miscible fluids.

  5. 3D Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Current-Driven Instability. 1; Instability of a Static Column (United States)

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Lyubarsky, Yuri; ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, Philip E.


    We have investigated the development of current-driven (CD) kink instability through three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations. A static force-free equilibrium helical magnetic configuration is considered in order to study the influence of the initial configuration on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability. We found that the initial configuration is strongly distorted but not disrupted by the kink instability. The instability develops as predicted by linear theory. In the non-linear regime the kink amplitude continues to increase up to the terminal simulation time, albeit at different rates, for all but one simulation. The growth rate and nonlinear evolution of the CD kink instability depends moderately on the density profile and strongly on the magnetic pitch profile. The growth rate of the kink mode is reduced in the linear regime by an increase in the magnetic pitch with radius and the non-linear regime is reached at a later time than for constant helical pitch. On the other hand, the growth rate of the kink mode is increased in the linear regime by a decrease in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the non-linear regime sooner than the case with constant magnetic pitch. Kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime for decreasing magnetic pitch leads to a slender helically twisted column wrapped by magnetic field. On the other hand, kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime nearly ceases for increasing magnetic pitch.

  6. Inertioelastic Flow Instability at a Stagnation Point (United States)

    Burshtein, Noa; Zografos, Konstantinos; Shen, Amy Q.; Poole, Robert J.; Haward, Simon J.


    A number of important industrial applications exploit the ability of small quantities of high molecular weight polymer to suppress instabilities that arise in the equivalent flow of Newtonian fluids, a particular example being turbulent drag reduction. However, it can be extremely difficult to probe exactly how the polymer acts to, e.g., modify the streamwise near-wall eddies in a fully turbulent flow. Using a novel cross-slot flow configuration, we exploit a flow instability in order to create and study a single steady-state streamwise vortex. By quantitative experiment, we show how the addition of small quantities (parts per million) of a flexible polymer to a Newtonian solvent dramatically affects both the onset conditions for this instability and the subsequent growth of the axial vorticity. Complementary numerical simulations with a finitely extensible nonlinear elastic dumbbell model show that these modifications are due to the growth of polymeric stress within specific regions of the flow domain. Our data fill a significant gap in the literature between the previously reported purely inertial and purely elastic flow regimes and provide a link between the two by showing how the instability mode is transformed as the fluid elasticity is varied. Our results and novel methods are relevant to understanding the mechanisms underlying industrial uses of weakly elastic fluids and also to understanding inertioelastic instabilities in more confined flows through channels with intersections and stagnation points.

  7. Inertioelastic Flow Instability at a Stagnation Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noa Burshtein


    Full Text Available A number of important industrial applications exploit the ability of small quantities of high molecular weight polymer to suppress instabilities that arise in the equivalent flow of Newtonian fluids, a particular example being turbulent drag reduction. However, it can be extremely difficult to probe exactly how the polymer acts to, e.g., modify the streamwise near-wall eddies in a fully turbulent flow. Using a novel cross-slot flow configuration, we exploit a flow instability in order to create and study a single steady-state streamwise vortex. By quantitative experiment, we show how the addition of small quantities (parts per million of a flexible polymer to a Newtonian solvent dramatically affects both the onset conditions for this instability and the subsequent growth of the axial vorticity. Complementary numerical simulations with a finitely extensible nonlinear elastic dumbbell model show that these modifications are due to the growth of polymeric stress within specific regions of the flow domain. Our data fill a significant gap in the literature between the previously reported purely inertial and purely elastic flow regimes and provide a link between the two by showing how the instability mode is transformed as the fluid elasticity is varied. Our results and novel methods are relevant to understanding the mechanisms underlying industrial uses of weakly elastic fluids and also to understanding inertioelastic instabilities in more confined flows through channels with intersections and stagnation points.

  8. Flow-induced morphological instabilities due to temporally-modulated stagnation-point flow. [in single crystals growth by directionally-solidifying interface (United States)

    Merchant, G. J.; Davis, S. H.


    The influence of periodically-modulated planar stagnation-point flow on the morphological stability of a directionally-solidifying interface is presently considered with a view to the effect of unsteady nonparallel flows on single-crystal growth. The modeling of the system assumes that the viscous boundary layer thickness is much greater than that of the solute boundary layer, and that the modulation frequency is much smaller than the strength of plane stagnation-point flow. The solidifying interface is either stabilized or destabilized depending on the ratio of the period of modulation to the solute-diffusion time.

  9. Bacterial Genome Instability (United States)

    Darmon, Elise


    SUMMARY Bacterial genomes are remarkably stable from one generation to the next but are plastic on an evolutionary time scale, substantially shaped by horizontal gene transfer, genome rearrangement, and the activities of mobile DNA elements. This implies the existence of a delicate balance between the maintenance of genome stability and the tolerance of genome instability. In this review, we describe the specialized genetic elements and the endogenous processes that contribute to genome instability. We then discuss the consequences of genome instability at the physiological level, where cells have harnessed instability to mediate phase and antigenic variation, and at the evolutionary level, where horizontal gene transfer has played an important role. Indeed, this ability to share DNA sequences has played a major part in the evolution of life on Earth. The evolutionary plasticity of bacterial genomes, coupled with the vast numbers of bacteria on the planet, substantially limits our ability to control disease. PMID:24600039

  10. Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D. (Privatpraxis fuer Upright MRT, Koeln (Germany)); Simons, P.; Kuchta, J. (Media Park Klinik, Koeln (Germany))


    We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey A. [Chicago U.; Burov, A. [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, S. [Fermilab


    An electron cloud instability might limit the intensity in the Fermilab Recycler after the PIP-II upgrade. A multibunch instability typically develops in the horizontal plane within a hundred turns and, in certain conditions, leads to beam loss. Recent studies have indicated that the instability is caused by an electron cloud, trapped in the Recycler index dipole magnets. We developed an analytical model of an electron cloud driven instability with the electrons trapped in combined function dipoles. The resulting instability growth rate of about 30 revolutions is consistent with experimental observations and qualitatively agrees with the simulation in the PEI code. The model allows an estimation of the instability rate for the future intensity upgrades.

  12. Experimental study on modulational instability and evolution of crescent waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-long Zhou


    Full Text Available A series of experiments on the instability of steep water wave trains in water with finite water depths and infinite water depths in a wide wave basin were performed. It was found that under the coupled development of modulational instability and class-II instability, the initial two-dimensional steep wave trains evolved into three-dimensional crescent waves, followed by the occurrence of disordered water surfaces, and that the wave energy transferred to sidebands in the amplitude spectrum of the water surface elevation. The results also show that water depth has a significant effect on the growth of modulational instability and the evolution of crescent waves. The larger the water depth, the more quickly the modulational instability suppresses class-II instability.

  13. Combustion instability mitigation by magnetic fields (United States)

    Jocher, Agnes; Pitsch, Heinz; Gomez, Thomas; Bonnety, Jérôme; Legros, Guillaume


    The present interdisciplinary study combines electromagnetics and combustion to unveil an original and basic experiment displaying a spontaneous flame instability that is mitigated as the non-premixed sooting flame experiences a magnetic perturbation. This magnetic instability mitigation is reproduced by direct numerical simulations to be further elucidated by a flow stability analysis. A key role in the stabilization process is attributed to the momentum and thermochemistry coupling that the magnetic force, acting mainly on paramagnetic oxygen, contributes to sustain. The spatial local stability analysis based on the numerical simulations shows that the magnetic field tends to reduce the growth rates of small flame perturbations.

  14. A fast beam-ion instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stupakov, G.V. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    The ionization of residual gas by an electron beam in an accelerator generates ions that can resonantly couple to the beam through a wave propagating in the beam-ion system. Results of the study of a beam-ion instability are presented for a multi-bunch train taking into account the decoherence of ion oscillations due to the ion frequency spread and spatial variation of the ion frequency. It is shown that the combination of both effects can substantially reduce the growth rate of the instability. (author)

  15. On cavitation instabilities with interacting voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    When a single void grows in an elastic–plastic material a cavitation instability may occur, if the stress triaxiality is sufficiently high. The effect of neighbouring voids on such unstable cavity growth is studied here by comparing two different models. The first model considers a periodic array...... voids so far apart that the radius of the plastic zone around each void is less than 1% of the current spacing between the voids, can still affect each others at the occurrence of a cavitation instability such that one void stops growing while the other grows in an unstable manner. On the other hand...

  16. The Rossby wave instability in protoplanetary disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meheut H.


    Full Text Available The Rossby wave instability has been proposed as a mechanism to transport angular momentum in the dead zone of protoplanetary disks and to form vortices. These vortices are of particular interest to concentrate solids in their centres and eventually to form planetesimals. Here we summarize some recent results concerning the growth and structure of this instability in radially and vertically stratified disks, its saturation and non-linear evolution. We also discuss the concentration of solids in the Rossby vortices including vertical settling.

  17. Plasma wave instabilities in nonequilibrium graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aryal, Chinta M.; Hu, Ben Yu-Kuang; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    We study two-stream instabilities in a nonequilibrium system in which a stream of electrons is injected into doped graphene. As with equivalent nonequilibrium parabolic band systems, we find that the graphene systems can support unstable charge-density waves whose amplitudes grow with time. We...... determine the range of wave vectors q that are unstable, and their growth rates. We find no instability for waves with wave vectors parallel or perpendicular to the direction of the injected carriers. We find that, within the small-wave-vector approximation, the angle between q and the direction...

  18. Propagating Instabilities in Solids (United States)

    Kyriakides, Stelios


    Instability is one of the factors which limit the extent to which solids can be loaded or deformed and plays a pivotal role in the design of many structures. Such instabilities often result in localized deformation which precipitates catastrophic failure. Some materials have the capacity to recover their stiffness following a certain amount of localized deformation. This local recovery in stiffness arrests further local deformation and spreading of the instability to neighboring material becomes preferred. Under displacement controlled loading the propagation of the transition fronts can be achieved in a steady-state manner at a constant stress level known as the propagation stress. The stresses in the transition fronts joining the highly deformed zone to the intact material overcome the instability nucleation stresses and, as a result, the propagation stress is usually much lower than the stress required to nucleate the instability. The classical example of this class of material instabilities is L/"uders bands which tend to affect mild steels and other metals. Recent work has demonstrated that propagating instabilities occur in several other materials. Experimental and analytical results from four examples will be used to illustrate this point: First the evolution of L=FCders bands in mild steel strips will be revisited. The second example involves the evolution of stress induced phase transformations (austenite to martensite phases and the reverse) in a shape memory alloy under displacement controlled stretching. The third example is the crushing behavior of cellular materials such as honeycombs and foams made from metals and polymers. The fourth example involves the axial broadening/propagation of kink bands in aligned fiber/matrix composites under compression. The microstructure and, as a result, the micromechanisms governing the onset, localization, local arrest and propagation of instabilities in each of the four materials are vastly different. Despite this

  19. Two Stream Instability in an Inhomogeneous Magnetized Plasma (United States)

    Jyoti, Jyoti; Malik, Hitendra


    A plasma can support several kinds of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves depending upon what the external perturbations are and how the plasma is generated or under what conditions the waves are excited. In the presence of magnetic field, more new kinds of the waves can evolve in the plasma. Moreover, if the free energy is available in the system, then these waves can grow at the cost of this free energy and hence instabilities can take place. In the present investigation, we make an analytical study of a two stream instability in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma having drifting ions and electrons. We consider a general situation by taking an oblique propagation of the wave from the magnetic field and a constant ionization. Using normal mode analysis, we derive dispersion relation which is solved numerically for the growth rate of the instability. The behavior of growth rate with magnetic field and the propagation angle along with ionization constant has been studied for two different wavelengths of the oscillations. We observe two type of the instabilities out of which one grows at a faster rate and hence is named as fast growing instability. The growth rate of the other slowly growing instability is also examined. We find that the growth rates of both the instabilities attain higher magnitudes at smaller wavelength of the oscillations.

  20. Effect of polarization force on the Jeans instability in collisional dusty plasmas (United States)



    The Jeans instability in collisional dusty plasmas has been analytically investigated by considering the polarization force effect. Instabilities due to dust-neutral and ion-neutral drags can occur in electrostatic waves of collisional dusty plasmas with self-gravitating particles. In this study, the effect of gravitational force on heavy dust particles is considered in tandem with both the polarization and electrostatic forces. The theoretical framework has been developed and the dispersion relation and instability growth rate have been derived, assuming the plane wave approximation. The derived instability growth rate shows that, in collisional dusty plasmas, the Jeans instability strongly depends on the magnitude of the polarization force.

  1. Nucleation versus instability race in strained films (United States)

    Liu, Kailang; Berbezier, Isabelle; David, Thomas; Favre, Luc; Ronda, Antoine; Abbarchi, Marco; Voorhees, Peter; Aqua, Jean-Noël


    Under the generic term "Stranski-Krastanov" are grouped two different growth mechanisms of SiGe quantum dots. They result from the self-organized Asaro-Tiller-Grinfel'd (ATG) instability at low strain, while at high strain, from a stochastic nucleation. While these regimes are well known, we elucidate here the origin of the transition between these two pathways thanks to a joint theoretical and experimental work. Nucleation is described within the master equation framework. By comparing the time scales for ATG instability development and three-dimensional (3D) nucleation onset, we demonstrate that the transition between these two regimes is simply explained by the crossover between their divergent evolutions. Nucleation exhibits a strong exponential deviation at low strain while ATG behaves only algebraically. The associated time scale varies with exp(1 /x4) for nucleation, while it only behaves as 1 /x8 for the ATG instability. Consequently, at high (low) strain, nucleation (instability) occurs faster and inhibits the alternate evolution. It is then this different kinetic evolution which explains the transition from one regime to the other. Such a kinetic view of the transition between these two 3D growth regimes was not provided before. The crossover between nucleation and ATG instability is found to occur both experimentally and theoretically at a Ge composition around 50% in the experimental conditions used here. Varying the experimental conditions and/or the system parameters does not allow us to suppress the transition. This means that the SiGe quantum dots always grow via ATG instability at low strain and nucleation at high strain. This result is important for the self-organization of quantum dots.

  2. Tidal instability in exoplanetary systems evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Gal P.


    Full Text Available A new element is proposed to play a role in the evolution of extrasolar planetary systems: the tidal (or elliptical instability. It comes from a parametric resonance and takes place in any rotating fluid whose streamlines are (even slightly elliptically deformed. Based on theoretical, experimental and numerical works, we estimate the growth rate of the instability for hot-jupiter systems, when the rotation period of the star is known. We present the physical process, its application to stars, and preliminary results obtained on a few dozen systems, summarized in the form of a stability diagram. Most of the systems are trapped in the so-called "forbidden zone", where the instability cannot grow. In some systems, the tidal instability is able to grow, at short timescales compared to the system evolution. Implications are discussed in the framework of misaligned transiting systems, as the rotational axis of the star would be unstable in systems where this elliptical instability grows.

  3. Hydrodynamic instability of meandering channels (United States)

    Ali, Sk Zeeshan; Dey, Subhasish


    In this paper, we explore the hydrodynamic instability of meandering channels driven by the turbulent flow. The governing equations of channel dynamics with suitable boundary conditions are closed with the fluid and granular constitutive relationships. A regular expansion of the fundamental variables is employed to linearize the parent equations by superimposing the perturbations on the basic unperturbed flow. The channel dynamics reveal a resonance phenomenon which occurs when the key variables fall in the vicinity of the distinct critical values. The resonance phenomenon preserves its distinctive signature in different flow regimes which are guided by the characteristic values of the shear Reynolds number. The hydrodynamic analysis indicates that the fluid friction and the volumetric sediment flux play a decisive role to characterize the channel instability in different flow regimes. The growths of azimuthal velocity perturbation in phase with curvature, bed topography perturbation, bend amplification rate, and meander propagation speed in different flow regimes are investigated by varying the meander wavenumber, Shields number, channel aspect ratio, and relative roughness number. The analysis is capable to capture the effects of grain size on azimuthal velocity perturbation, bed topography perturbation, bend amplification rate, and meandering propagation speed over a wide range of shear Reynolds numbers. The variations of resonant wavenumbers in different flow regimes with the Shields number, channel aspect ratio, and relative roughness number are addressed. For a specific flow regime, the upstream and downstream migrations of meandering channels are typically governed by the Shields number, channel aspect ratio, and relative roughness number.

  4. Handbook on plasma instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Cap, Ferdinand F


    Handbook on Plasma Instabilities, Volume 3, is primarily intended to serve as a sourcebook for obtaining quick information and literature references pertaining to a specific topic. Such a handbook has to be formulated in a way that enables understanding of any one section without requiring full understanding of any other section. Volume 1 (Chapters 1-13) presents the fundamental concepts of plasma physics with applications, and has more the nature of a textbook treating basic plasma physics, containment, waves, and macroscopic instabilities. Volume 2 (Chapters 14-17) covers various aspects of

  5. A Thermal Oscillating Two-Stream Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dysthe, K. B.; Mjølhus, E.; Pécseli, H. L.


    A theory for the oscillating two‐stream instability, in which the Ohmic heating of the electrons constitutes the nonlinearity, is developed for an inhomogeneous and magnetized plasma. Its possible role in explaining short‐scale, field‐aligned irregularities observed in ionospheric heating...... experiments is emphasized. The theory predicts that the initial growth of such irregularities is centered around the level of upper hybrid resonance. Furthermore, plane disturbances nearly parallel to the magnetic meridian plane have the largest growth rates. Expressions for threshold, growth rate...

  6. Plasmoid Instability in Forming Current Sheets (United States)

    Comisso, L.; Lingam, M.; Huang, Y.-M.; Bhattacharjee, A.


    The plasmoid instability has revolutionized our understanding of magnetic reconnection in astrophysical environments. By preventing the formation of highly elongated reconnection layers, it is crucial in enabling the rapid energy conversion rates that are characteristic of many astrophysical phenomena. Most previous studies have focused on Sweet-Parker current sheets, which are unattainable in typical astrophysical systems. Here we derive a general set of scaling laws for the plasmoid instability in resistive and visco-resistive current sheets that evolve over time. Our method relies on a principle of least time that enables us to determine the properties of the reconnecting current sheet (aspect ratio and elapsed time) and the plasmoid instability (growth rate, wavenumber, inner layer width) at the end of the linear phase. After this phase the reconnecting current sheet is disrupted and fast reconnection can occur. The scaling laws of the plasmoid instability are not simple power laws, and they depend on the Lundquist number (S), the magnetic Prandtl number (P m ), the noise of the system ({\\psi }0), the characteristic rate of current sheet evolution (1/τ ), and the thinning process. We also demonstrate that previous scalings are inapplicable to the vast majority of astrophysical systems. We explore the implications of the new scaling relations in astrophysical systems such as the solar corona and the interstellar medium. In both of these systems, we show that our scaling laws yield values for the growth rate, wavenumber, and aspect ratio that are much smaller than the Sweet-Parker-based scalings.

  7. Parametric instabilities in picosecond time scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldis, H.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rozmus, W. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Labaune, C.; Mounaix, Ph.; Pesme, D.; Baton, S. [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Tikhonchuk, V.T. [P.N. Lebedev Physics Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The coupling of intense laser light with plasmas is a rich field of plasma physics, with many applications. Among these are inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray lasers, particle acceleration, and x-ray sources. Parametric instabilities have been studied for many years because of their importance to ICF; with laser pulses with duration of approximately a nanosecond, and laser intensities in the range 10{sup 14}--10{sup 15}W/cm{sup 2} these instabilities are of crucial concern because of a number of detrimental effects. Although the laser pulse duration of interest for these studies are relatively long, it has been evident in the past years that to reach an understanding of these instabilities requires their characterization and analysis in picosecond time scales. At the laser intensities of interest, the growth rate for stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is of the order of picoseconds, and of an order of magnitude shorter for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). In this paper the authors discuss SBS and SRS in the context of their evolution in picosecond time scales. They describe the fundamental concepts associated with their growth and saturation, and recent work on the nonlinear treatment required for the modeling of these instabilities at high laser intensities.

  8. Planetesimals Born Big by Clustering Instability? (United States)

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Hartlep, Thomas; Simon, Justin I.; Estrada, Paul R.


    Roughly 100km diameter primitive bodies (today's asteroids and TNOs; [1]) are thought to be the end product of so-called "primary accretion". They dominated the initial mass function of planetesimals, and precipitated the onset of a subsequent stage, characterized by runaway gravitational effects, which proceeded onwards to planetary mass objects, some of which accreted massive gas envelopes. Asteroids are the parents of primitive meteorites; meteorite data suggest that asteroids initially formed directly from freelyfloating nebula particles in the mm-size range. Unfortunately, the process by which these primary 100km diameter planetesimals formed remains problematic. We review the most diagnostic primitive parent body observations, highlight critical aspects of the nebula context, and describe the issues facing various primary accretion models. We suggest a path forward that combines current scenarios of "turbulent concentration" (TC) and "streaming instabilities" (SI) into a triggered formation process we call clustering instability (CI). Under expected conditions of nebula turbulence, the success of these processes at forming terrestrial region (mostly silicate) planetesimals requires growth by sticking into aggregates in the several cm size range, at least, which is orders of magnitude more massive than allowed by current growth-by-sticking models using current experimental sticking parameters [2-4]. The situation is not as dire in the ice-rich outer solar system; however, growth outside of the snowline has important effects on growth inside of it [4] and at least one aspect of outer solar system planetesimals (high binary fraction) supports some kind of clustering instability

  9. Causes of genome instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel


    Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus,...

  10. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We derive relativistic fluid set of equations for neutrinos and electrons from relativistic. Vlasov equations with Fermi weak interaction force. Using these fluid equations, we obtain a dis- persion relation describing neutrino beam plasma instability, which is little different from normal dispersion relation of streaming ...

  11. Chronic Ankle Instability (United States)

    ... was not rehabilitated completely. When you sprain your ankle, the connective tissues (ligaments) are stretched or torn. The ability to balance ... Repeated ankle sprains often cause—and perpetuate—chronic ankle ... of the ligaments, resulting in greater instability and the likelihood of ...

  12. Posterolateral elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Nielsen, K K


    Thirty-five osteoligamentous elbows were included in a study on the kinematics of posterolateral elbow joint instability during the pivot shift test (PST) before and after separate ligament cuttings in the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC). Division of the annular ligament or the lateral...

  13. Active Suppression of Instabilities in Engine Combustors (United States)

    Kopasakis, George


    A method of feedback control has been proposed as a means of suppressing thermo-acoustic instabilities in a liquid- fueled combustor of a type used in an aircraft engine. The basic principle of the method is one of (1) sensing combustor pressure oscillations associated with instabilities and (2) modulating the rate of flow of fuel to the combustor with a control phase that is chosen adaptively so that the pressure oscillations caused by the modulation oppose the sensed pressure oscillations. The need for this method arises because of the planned introduction of advanced, lean-burning aircraft gas turbine engines, which promise to operate with higher efficiencies and to emit smaller quantities of nitrogen oxides, relative to those of present aircraft engines. Unfortunately, the advanced engines are more susceptible to thermoacoustic instabilities. These instabilities are hard to control because they include large dead-time phase shifts, wide-band noise characterized by amplitudes that are large relative to those of the instabilities, exponential growth of the instabilities, random net phase walks, and amplitude fluctuations. In this method (see figure), the output of a combustion-pressure sensor would be wide-band-pass filtered and then further processed to generate a control signal that would be applied to a fast-actuation valve to modulate the flow of fuel. Initially, the controller would rapidly take large phase steps in order to home in, within a fraction of a second, to a favorable phase region within which the instability would be reduced. Then the controller would restrict itself to operate within this phase region and would further restrict itself to operate within a region of stability, as long as the power in the instability signal was decreasing. In the phase-shifting scheme of this method, the phase of the control vector would be made to continuously bounce back and forth from one boundary of an effective stability region to the other. Computationally

  14. Electromagnetic ion/ion cyclotron instability - Theory and simulations (United States)

    Winske, D.; Omidi, N.


    Linear theory and 1D and 2D hybrid simulations are employed to study electromagnetic ion/ion cyclotron (EMIIC) instability driven by the relative streaming of two field-aligned ion beams. The characteristics of the instability are studied as a function of beam density, propagation angle, electron-ion temperature ratios, and ion beta. When the propagation angle is near 90 deg the EMIIC instability has the characteristics of an electrostatic instability, while at smaller angles electromagnetic effects play a significant role as does strong beam coupling. The 2D simulations point to a narrowing of the wave spectrum and accompanying coherent effects during the linear growth stage of development. The EMIIC instability is an important effect where ion beta is low such as in the plasma-sheet boundary layer and upstream of slow shocks in the magnetotail.

  15. A Local Model for Angular Momentum Transport in Accretion Disks Driven by the Magnetorotational Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios


    We develop a local model for the exponential growth and saturation of the Reynolds and Maxwell stresses in turbulent flows driven by the magnetorotational instability. We first derive equations that describe the effects of the instability on the growth and pumping of the stresses. We highlight th...

  16. Faraday instability of crystallization waves in 4He (United States)

    Abe, H.; Ueda, T.; Morikawa, M.; Saitoh, Y.; Nomura, R.; Okuda, Y.


    Periodic modulation of the gravity acceleration makes a flat surface of a fluid unstable and standing waves are parametrically excited on the surface. This phenomenon is called Faraday instability. Since a crystal-superfluid interface of 4He at low temperatures is very mobile and behaves like a fluid surface, Saarloos and Weeks predicted that Faraday instability of the crystallization waves exists in 4He and that the threshold excitation for the instability depends on the crystal growth coefficient. We successfully observed the Faraday instability of the crystal-liquid interface at 160 mK. Faraday waves were parametrically generated at one half of the driving frequency 90 Hz. Amplitude of the Faraday wave becomes smaller at higher temperature due to decrease of the crystal growth coefficient and disappears above 200 mK.

  17. Nonlinear Development and Secondary Instability of Traveling Crossflow Vortices (United States)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Duan, Lian; Chang, Chau-Lyan


    Transition research under NASA's Aeronautical Sciences Project seeks to develop a validated set of variable fidelity prediction tools with known strengths and limitations, so as to enable "sufficiently" accurate transition prediction and practical transition control for future vehicle concepts. This paper builds upon prior effort targeting the laminar breakdown mechanisms associated with stationary crossflow instability over a swept-wing configuration relevant to subsonic aircraft with laminar flow technology. Specifically, transition via secondary instability of traveling crossflow modes is investigated as an alternate scenario for transition. Results show that, for the parameter range investigated herein, secondary instability of traveling crossflow modes becomes insignificant in relation to the secondary instability of the stationary modes when the relative initial amplitudes of the traveling crossflow instability are lower than those of the stationary modes by approximately two orders of magnitudes or more. Linear growth predictions based on the secondary instability theory are found to agree well with those based on PSE and DNS, with the most significant discrepancies being limited to spatial regions of relatively weak secondary growth, i.e., regions where the primary disturbance amplitudes are smaller in comparison to its peak amplitude. Nonlinear effects on secondary instability evolution is also investigated and found to be initially stabilizing, prior to breakdown.

  18. Neutrino-driven electrostatic instabilities in a magnetized plasma (United States)

    Haas, Fernando; Pascoal, Kellen Alves; Mendonça, José Tito


    The destabilizing role of neutrino beams on the Trivelpiece-Gould modes is considered, assuming electrostatic perturbations in a magnetized plasma composed by electrons in a neutralizing ionic background, coupled to a neutrino species by means of an effective neutrino force arising from the electroweak interaction. The magnetic field is found to significantly improve the linear instability growth rate, as calculated for supernova type II environments. On the formal level, for wave vectors parallel or perpendicular to the magnetic field, the instability growth rate is found from the unmagnetized case replacing the plasma frequency by the appropriated Trivelpiece-Gould frequency. The growth rate associated with oblique propagation is also obtained.

  19. Instability and internet design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Braman


    Full Text Available Instability - unpredictable but constant change in one’s environment and the means with which one deals with it - has replaced convergence as the focal problem for telecommunications policy in general and internet policy in particular. Those who designed what we now call the internet during the first decade of the effort (1969-1979, who in essence served simultaneously as its policy-makers, developed techniques for coping with instability of value for network designers today and for those involved with any kind of large-scale sociotechnical infrastructure. Analysis of the technical document series that was medium for and record of that design process reveals coping techniques that began with defining the problem and went on to include conceptual labour, social practices, and technical approaches.

  20. Beam-beam instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.


    The subject of beam-beam instability has been studied since the invention of the colliding beam storage rings. Today, with several colliding beam storage rings in operation, it is not yet fully understood and remains an outstanding problem for the storage ring designers. No doubt that good progress has been made over the years, but what we have at present is still rather primitive. It is perhaps possible to divide the beam-beam subject into two areas: one on luminosity optimization and another on the dynamics of the beam-beam interaction. The former area concerns mostly the design and operational features of a colliding beam storage ring, while the later concentrates on the experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam-beam interaction. Although both areas are of interest, our emphasis is on the second area only. In particular, we are most interested in the various possible mechanisms that cause the beam-beam instability.

  1. Evaporation and Antievaporation instabilities


    Addazi, Andrea; Marciano, Antonino


    We review (anti)evaporation phenomena within the context of quantum gravity and extended theories of gravity. The (anti)evaporation effect is an instability of the black hole horizon discovered in many different scenarios: quantum dilaton-gravity, $f(R)$-gravity, $f(T)$-gravity, string inspired black holes and brane-world cosmology. Evaporating and antievaporating black holes seem to have completely different thermodynamical features compared to standard semiclassical black holes. The purpose...

  2. Influence of flavor oscillations on neutrino beam instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo SP (Brazil); Haas, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre RS (Brazil); Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)


    We consider the collective neutrino plasma interactions and study the electron plasma instabilities produced by a nearly mono-energetic neutrino beam in a plasma. We describe the mutual interaction between neutrino flavor oscillations and electron plasma waves. We show that the neutrino flavor oscillations are not only perturbed by electron plasmas waves but also contribute to the dispersion relation and the growth rates of neutrino beam instabilities.

  3. Instability Analysis of Vortex Systems in Lifting-Body Wakes


    Tendero Ventanas, Juan Ángel


    The present work deals with vortical flow instabilities, in particular with those that appear in the wake left by aircraft, wind turbines or any other body surrounded by fluid, generating a force perpendicular to the flow, namely lift. The case of the aircraft wake destruction caused by the growth of vortex instabilities is of great importance, as the selection of safe distances between aircraft is in most of the cases very conservative due to the lack of knowledge of the phenomena involved i...

  4. Langmuir Wave Instability And Photoelectron Emission In Irradiated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have investigated dust charged fluctuation due to the combined effect of Langmuir Wave and Photoelectron Emission in Irradiated Dusty Plasma. The dispersion relation and growth of the Langmuir wave instability is also presented. The applicability of the developed dispersion relation and growth rate of the Langmuir ...

  5. On Hydrodynamic Instabilities in Cylindrical Geometry (United States)

    Proano, Erik; Rollin, Bertrand


    Recent research has suggested that hydrodynamic instabilities induced mixing is one of the last major hurdles toward achieving optimum conditions for ignition in confined fusion approaches for energy production. We leave aside the complexities of multiple interacting physics that lead to a fusion target ignition to be able to focus on understanding the development of these hydrodynamic instabilities, namely Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor, in the context of a converging geometry. The problem is reformulated into the cleaner case of a cylindrical shock wave imploding onto a pocket of Sulfur Hexafluoride immersed in air. This numerical experiment aims at characterizing qualitatively and quantitatively the relation between the instabilities initial conditions and their development until late time. Starting from carefully designed single- and multimode disturbances at the initial density interface, our simulations track the evolution of the mixing layer through successive occurrences of the Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. Evolution of the mixing zone width and growth rate are presented for selected initial conditions, along with a quantification of mixing. Also, the effect of the converging shock strength is discussed.

  6. Geometric parameters determination of a single vapor bubble growth and heat transfer associated: non condensable influence on the onset of convective instabilities; Determination des caracteristiques geometriques de la croissance d'une bulle de vapeur et des transferts de chaleur associes: influence des incondensables sur le declenchement d'instabilites convectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthes, M.; Reynard, Ch.; Santini, R.; Tadrist, L. [Laboratoire Institut Universitaire des Systemes Thermiques Industriels (IUSTI), CNRS UMR 6595, DME, 13 - Marseille (France)


    We present here an experimental work of a single vapor bubble growth in a subcooled liquid bulk (FC-72) at atmospheric pressure. The vapor bubble grows on a downward facing heating element (at constant heating power) on an artificial nucleation site located in the centre of the heated surface. Bubble dynamics are studied thanks to image proceeding. The temporal evolution of geometric parameters, such as diameter, height, volume and shape, are measured. The analysis of some parameters enables us to determine the influence of the heating power on the heat and mass transfers. Moreover an observation, using a shadowgraphy method, of the different modes of convective instabilities is presented. The non condensable gas influence on the occurrence of the instability is discussed. (authors)

  7. Baroclinic instability in the solar tachocline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilman, Peter; Dikpati, Mausumi, E-mail:, E-mail: [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)


    The solar tachocline is likely to be close to a geostrophic 'thermal wind', for which the Coriolis force associated with differential rotation is closely balanced by a latitudinal pressure gradient, leading to a tight relation between the vertical gradient of rotation and the latitudinal entropy gradient. Using a hydrostatic but nongeostrophic spherical shell model, we examine baroclinic instability of the tachocline thermal wind. We find that both the overshoot and radiative parts of the tachocline should be baroclinicly unstable at most latitudes. Growth rates are roughly five times higher in middle and high latitudes compared to low latitudes, and much higher in the overshoot than in the radiative tachocline. They range in e-folding amplification from 10 days in the high latitude overshoot tachocline, down to 20 yr for the low latitude radiative tachocline. In the radiative tachocline only, longitudinal wavenumbers m = 1, 2 are unstable, while in the overshoot tachocline a much broader range of m are unstable. At all latitudes and with all stratifications, the longitudinal scale of the most unstable mode is comparable to the Rossby deformation radius, while the growth rate is set by the local latitudinal entropy gradient. Baroclinic instability in the tachocline competing with instability of the latitude rotation gradient established in earlier studies should be important for the workings of the solar dynamo and should be expected to be found in most stars that contain an interface between radiative and convective domains.

  8. Radiation Induced Genomic Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, William F.


    Radiation induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells multiple generations after irradiation of parental cells. The phenotype is well established both in vivo (Morgan 2003) and in vitro (Morgan 2003), and may be critical in radiation carcinogenesis (Little 2000, Huang et al. 2003). Instability can be induced by both the deposition of energy in irradiated cells as well as by signals transmitted by irradiated (targeted) cells to non-irradiated (non-targeted) cells (Kadhim et al. 1992, Lorimore et al. 1998). Thus both targeted and non-targeted cells can pass on the legacy of radiation to their progeny. However the radiation induced events and cellular processes that respond to both targeted and non-targeted radiation effects that lead to the unstable phenotype remain elusive. The cell system we have used to study radiation induced genomic instability utilizes human hamster GM10115 cells. These cells have a single copy of human chromosome 4 in a background of hamster chromosomes. Instability is evaluated in the clonal progeny of irradiated cells and a clone is considered unstable if it contains three or more metaphase sub-populations involving unique rearrangements of the human chromosome (Marder and Morgan 1993). Many of these unstable clones have been maintained in culture for many years and have been extensively characterized. As initially described by Clutton et al., (Clutton et al. 1996) many of our unstable clones exhibit persistently elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (Limoli et al. 2003), which appear to be due dysfunctional mitochondria (Kim et al. 2006, Kim et al. 2006). Interestingly, but perhaps not surprisingly, our unstable clones do not demonstrate a “mutator phenotype” (Limoli et al. 1997), but they do continue to rearrange their genomes for many years. The limiting factor with this system is the target – the human chromosome. While some clones demonstrate amplification of this chromosome and thus lend

  9. Transverse modes and instabilities of a bunched beam with space charge and resistive wall impedance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V.; /Fermilab


    Transverse instability of a bunch in a ring accelerator is considered with space charge and wakefield taken into account. It is assumed that space charge tune shift significantly exceeds the synchrotron tune. Bunch spectrum, instability growth rate, and effects of chromaticity are studied with different bunch and wake forms. Fast instability caused by coupling of transverse modes is studied in detail. It is shown that, for monotonic wakes, the transverse mode coupling instability is possible only with a certain sign of the wake. Its threshold and growth rate are calculated precisely over a wide range of parameters.

  10. Evaporation and Antievaporation Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Addazi


    Full Text Available We review (antievaporation phenomena within the context of quantum gravity and extended theories of gravity. The (antievaporation effect is an instability of the black hole horizon discovered in many different scenarios: quantum dilaton-gravity, f ( R -gravity, f ( T -gravity, string-inspired black holes, and brane-world cosmology. Evaporating and antievaporating black holes seem to have completely different thermodynamical features compared to standard semiclassical black holes. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to conceptual and technical aspects of (antievaporation effects, while discussing problems that are still open.

  11. On the shear instability in relativistic neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corvino, Giovanni; Rezzolla, Luciano; Giacomazzo, Bruno [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut, Golm (Germany); Bernuzzi, Sebastiano [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Jena, 07743 Jena (Germany); De Pietri, Roberto, E-mail: Giovanni.Corvino@roma1.infn.i [Physics Department, Parma University and INFN, Parma (Italy)


    We present new results on instabilities in rapidly and differentially rotating neutron stars. We model the stars in full general relativity and describe the stellar matter adopting a cold realistic equation of state based on the unified SLy prescription (Douchin and Haensel 2001 Astron. Astrophys. 380 151-67). We provide evidence that rapidly and differentially rotating stars that are below the expected threshold for the dynamical bar-mode instability, {beta}{sub c} {identical_to} T/|W| {approx_equal} 0.25, do nevertheless develop a shear instability on a dynamical timescale and for a wide range of values of {beta}. This class of instability, which has so far been found only for small values of {beta} and with very small growth rates, is therefore more generic than previously found and potentially more effective in producing strong sources of gravitational waves. Overall, our findings support the phenomenological predictions made by Watts et al (2005 Astrophys. J. 618 L37) on the nature of the low-T/|W| instability as the manifestation of a shear instability in a region where the latter is possible only for small values of {beta}. Furthermore, our results provide additional insight on shear instabilities and on the necessary conditions for their development.

  12. Envelope instability and the fourth order resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Li


    Full Text Available The well-known envelope instability or the second order even collective mode [I. Hofmann, Phys. Rev. E 57, 4 (1998] and the fourth order resonance 4σ=360° due to the nonlinear space charge effect in high intensity beams have been studied previously. A wide stop band around 15° is found in a pure periodic focusing channel. In addition, it is illustrated that the fourth order resonance dominates over the envelope instability and practically replaces it in the stop band [D. Jeon et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 054204 (2009]. In this paper, for a continuous beam with remarkable space charge, our 2D self-consistent particle-in-cell simulation work with the code topopic shows these two kinds of effects respectively in a periodic focusing defocusing (FD channel. For a fixed tune depression η=0.8, a stop band with a width of almost 15° is also demonstrated. Moreover, it is confirmed that analytical results of the rms envelope instability diagram are a valid tool to interpret the width of the stop band. Emittance growth rates in stop band are also well explained. It is found that, for a nearly rms matched beam, the emittance growth in the stop band is almost proportional to the saturation time of the nonlinear instability of the envelope, which happens in a quick manner and takes only a few FD cells. In contrast, the fourth order resonance is independent of rms matching and will be accompanied by beam evolution as “a long term effect” once the related mechanism is excited.

  13. Instability of enclosed horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Bernard S


    We study the classical massless scalar wave equation on the region of 1+1-dimensional Minkowski space between the two branches of the hyperbola $x^2-t^2=1$ with vanishing boundary conditions on it. We point out that there are initially finite-energy initially, say, right-going waves for which the stress-energy tensor becomes singular on the null-line $t+x=0$. We also construct the quantum theory of this system and show that, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state, there are coherent states built on this for which there is a similar singularity in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in 1+3-dimensional situations with 'enclosed horizons' such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a stationary box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be a similar singularity at the horizon and that would signal an instability when matter perturbations and/or gravity are switched on. Such an instability ...

  14. MHD instabilities developing in a conductor exploding in the skin effect mode (United States)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovsky, S. A.; Datsko, I. M.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Mesyats, G. A.; Oreshkin, E. V.; Ratakhin, N. A.; Rybka, D. V.


    The results of experiments with exploding copper conductors, performed on the MIG facility (providing currents of amplitude of about 2.5 MA and rise time of 100 ns), are analyzed. With an frame optical camera, large-scale instabilities of wavelength 0.2-0.5 mm were detected on the conductor surface. The instabilities show up as plasma "tongues" expanding with a sound velocity in the opposite direction to the magnetic field gradient. Analysis performed using a two-dimensional MHD code has shown that the structures observed in the experiments were formed most probably due to flute instabilities. The growth of flute instabilities is predetermined by the development of thermal instabilities near the conductor surface. The thermal instabilities arise behind the front of the nonlinear magnetic diffusion wave propagating through the conductor. The wavefront on its own is not subject to thermal instabilities.

  15. Cavitation instabilities between fibres in a metal matrix composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    Short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites (MMC) are studied here to investigate the possibility that a cavitation instability can develop in the metal matrix. The high stress levels needed for a cavitation instability may occur in metal–ceramic systems due to the constraint on plastic flow...... of transversely staggered fibres is here modelled by using an axisymmetric cell model analysis. First the critical stress level is determined for a cavitation instability in an infinite solid made of the Al matrix material. By studying composites with different distributions and aspect ratios of the fibres...... it is shown that regions between fibre ends may develop hydrostatic tensile stresses high enough to exceed the critical level for a cavitation instability. For cases where a void is located in such regions it is shown that unstable cavity growth develops when the void is initially much smaller than the highly...

  16. Unstable colloidal rollers: a new kind of fingering instability (United States)

    Driscoll, Michelle; Delmotte, Blaise; Youssef, Mena; Sacanna, Stefano; Donev, Aleksandar; Chaikin, Paul

    When colloidal particles are rotated adjacent to nearby floor, strong advective flows are generated around them, even quite far away. When a group of these microrollers is driven, the strong hydrodynamic coupling between particles leads to formation of new structures: an initially uniform front of microrollers evolves first into a shock-like structure, which then quickly becomes unstable, emitting fingers of a well-defined wavelength. Our experiments and simulations confirm that this instability is quite different than typical fingering instabilities, where size scale selection is a consequence of competing stresses. Here, this instability arises only due to hydrodynamic interactions, and it is controlled by a single geometric parameter, the particle-floor height. Our measurements of the growth rate in both experiments and simulations agree with results from our continuum model. This instability is a direct consequence of the inward flows created by the interactions between the particles and the nearby solid surface.

  17. Transverse electron-scale instability in relativistic shear flows

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, E P; Fonseca, R A; Silva, L O


    Electron-scale surface waves are shown to be unstable in the transverse plane of a shear flow in an initially unmagnetized plasma, unlike in the (magneto)hydrodynamics case. It is found that these unstable modes have a higher growth rate than the closely related electron-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in relativistic shears. Multidimensional particle-in-cell simulations verify the analytic results and further reveal the emergence of mushroom-like electron density structures in the nonlinear phase of the instability, similar to those observed in the Rayleigh Taylor instability despite the great disparity in scales and different underlying physics. Macroscopic ($\\gg c/\\omega_{pe}$) fields are shown to be generated by these microscopic shear instabilities, which are relevant for particle acceleration, radiation emission and to seed MHD processes at long time-scales.

  18. Careers in conditions of instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohlova Valentina Vasil'evna


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is the research of the social-economic phenomenon of a career as a result of conscious human position and behaviour in the field of employment, which is connected with job and professional growth, as a chain of events which are components of life, the sequence of professional activities and other biographical roles, which all together express the commitment of a person’s activity according to his generalized model of self-development. On the basis of the theoretical analysis the dependence of making a career in the condition of instability and indefiniteness on job market flexibility, erosion and even the destruction of the usual way of life and labor relations. The career concepts under the conditions of flexible capitalism and of career policy as the typology of empiric differences of job biographic models are considered. The peculiarity of the proposed career policy concept is that its individual alternatives of career making oppose to organization management and personal demands: the difference between a professional’s wishes and a specific strategy of the development phases are quite noticeable. According to the results of empiric research carried out through the methods of interview, polling, expert assessment, the analysis of the received results, the mathematical data processing the basic types of the career policy and its connection with the organization’s personal development are revealed.

  19. Instability of repeated DNAs during transformation in Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Hashem, Vera I; Klysik, Elzbieta A; Rosche, William A; Sinden, Richard R


    Escherichia coli has provided an important model system for understanding the molecular basis for genetic instabilities associated with repeated DNA. Changes in triplet repeat length during growth following transformation in E. coli have been used as a measure of repeat instability. However, very little is known about the molecular and biological changes that may occur on transformation. Since only a small proportion of viable cells become competent, uncertainty exists regarding the nature of these transformed cells. To establish whether the process of transformation can be inherently mutagenic for certain DNA sequences, we used a genetic assay in E. coli to compare the frequency of genetic instabilities associated with transformation with those occurring in plasmid maintained in E. coli. Our results indicate that, for certain DNA sequences, bacterial transformation can be highly mutagenic. The deletion frequency of a 106 bp perfect inverted repeat is increased by as much as a factor of 2 x 10(5) following transformation. The high frequency of instability was not observed when cells stably harboring plasmid were rendered competent. Thus, the process of transformation was required to observe the instability. Instabilities of (CAG).(CTG) repeats are also dramatically elevated upon transformation. The magnitude of the instability is dependent on the nature and length of the repeat. Differences in the methylation status of plasmid used for transformation and the methylation and restriction/modification systems present in the bacterial strain used must also be considered in repeat instability measurements. Moreover, different E. coli genetic backgrounds show different levels of instability during transformation.

  20. Instability and Information

    CERN Document Server

    Patzelt, Felix


    Many complex systems exhibit extreme events far more often than expected for a normal distribution. This work examines how self-similar bursts of activity across several orders of magnitude can emerge from first principles in systems that adapt to information. Surprising connections are found between two apparently unrelated research topics: hand-eye coordination in balancing tasks and speculative trading in financial markets. Seemingly paradoxically, locally minimising fluctuations can increase a dynamical system's sensitivity to unpredictable perturbations and thereby facilitate global catastrophes. This general principle is studied in several domain-specific models and in behavioural experiments. It explains many findings in both fields and resolves an apparent antinomy: the coexistence of stabilising control or market efficiency and perpetual instabilities resembling critical phenomena in physical systems.

  1. Saturation of equatorial inertial instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterziel, R.C.; Orlandi, P.; Carnevale, G.F.


    Inertial instability in parallel shear flows and circular vortices in a uniformly rotating system ( $f$f-plane) redistributes absolute linear momentum or absolute angular momentum in such a way as to neutralize the instability. In previous studies we showed that, in the absence of other

  2. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K


    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X chr...

  3. Liquid propellant rocket combustion instability (United States)

    Harrje, D. T.


    The solution of problems of combustion instability for more effective communication between the various workers in this field is considered. The extent of combustion instability problems in liquid propellant rocket engines and recommendations for their solution are discussed. The most significant developments, both theoretical and experimental, are presented, with emphasis on fundamental principles and relationships between alternative approaches.

  4. Beam instability Workshop - plenary sessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The purpose of this workshop was to provide a review of the mechanisms of limiting beam instabilities, their cures, including feedback, and beam measurement for synchrotron radiation light sources. 12 plenary sessions took place whose titles are: 1) challenging brilliance and lifetime issues with increasing currents; 2) limiting instabilities in multibunch; 3) experience from high currents in B factories; 4) longitudinal dynamics in high intensity/bunch; 5) Transverse instabilities for high intensity/bunch; 6) working group introduction from ESRF experience; 7) impedance modelling: simulations, minimization; 8) report on the broadband impedance measurements and modelling workshop; 9) feedback systems for synchrotron light sources; 10) beam instabilities diagnostics; 11) harmonic cavities: the pros and cons; and 12) experimental study of fast beam-ion instabilities at PLS. This document gathers the 12 articles that were presented during these sessions.

  5. Developmental instability and fitness in Periploca laevigata experiencing grazing disturbance (United States)

    Alados, C.L.; Giner, M.L.; Dehesa, L.; Escos, J.; Barroso, F.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.


    We investigated the sensitivity of developmental instability measurements (leaf fluctuating asymmetry, floral radial asymmetry, and shoot translational asymmetry) to a long‐standing natural stress (grazing) in a palatable tannin‐producing shrub (Periploca laevigata Aiton). We also assessed the relationship between these measures of developmental instability and fitness components (growth and floral production). Developmental instability, measured by translational asymmetry, was the most accurate estimator of a plant’s condition and, consequently, environmental stress. Plants with less translational asymmetry grew more and produced more flowers. Plants from the medium‐grazed population were developmentally more stable, as estimated by translational and floral asymmetry, than either more heavily or more lightly grazed populations. Leaf fluctuating asymmetry was positively correlated with tannin concentration. The pattern of internode growth also responded to grazing impact. Plants under medium to heavy grazing pressure accelerated early growth and consequently escaped herbivory later in the season, i.e., at the beginning of the spring, when grazing activity was concentrated in herbaceous plants. Periploca laevigata accelerated growth and finished growing sooner than in the other grazing treatment. Thus, its annual growth was more mature and less palatable later in the season when grazers typically concentrate on shrubs. The reduction of developmental instability under medium grazing is interpreted as a direct effect of grazing and not as the release from competition.

  6. Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities with sheared magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruderman, M. S. [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre (SP2RC), University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Terradas, J.; Ballester, J. L. [Departament de Física, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)


    Magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities may play a relevant role in many astrophysical problems. In this work the effect of magnetic shear on the growth rate of the MRT instability is investigated. The eigenmodes of an interface and a slab model under the presence of gravity are analytically calculated assuming that the orientation of the magnetic field changes in the equilibrium, i.e., there is magnetic shear. We solve the linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations in the incompressible regime. We find that the growth rate is bounded under the presence of magnetic shear. We have derived simple analytical expressions for the maximum growth rate, corresponding to the most unstable mode of the system. These expressions provide the explicit dependence of the growth rate on the various equilibrium parameters. For small angles the growth time is linearly proportional to the shear angle, and in this regime the single interface problem and the slab problem tend to the same result. On the contrary, in the limit of large angles and for the interface problem the growth time is essentially independent of the shear angle. In this regime we have also been able to calculate an approximate expression for the growth time for the slab configuration. Magnetic shear can have a strong effect on the growth rates of the instability. As an application of the results found in this paper we have indirectly determined the shear angle in solar prominence threads using their lifetimes and the estimation of the Alfvén speed of the structure.

  7. The effect of growth architecture on the induction and decay of bleomycin and X-ray-induced bystander response and genomic instability in lung adenocarcinoma cells and blood lymphocytes. (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Mani; Paul, Solomon F D; Venkatachalam, Perumal


    Cancer patients treated with radiomimetic drug bleomycin (BLM) have shown incidence of 7% second malignancy. Studies regarding BLM-induced genomic instability in bystander cells are scarce, and experiments with cells grown on three-dimensional (3D) cultures to mimic the in-vivo condition have never been attempted. A549 and NCI-H23 (human lung adenocarcinoma) cells were grown as 3D cultures using Cytomatrix(™), exposed to BLM or X-radiation and co-cultured with their respective unexposed cells. The DNA damage in direct and bystander cells were assessed by the induction of micronuclei (MN) or phosphorylated serine-15 residue in protein 53 (p53(ser-15)), a reflection of DNA damage, and by up-regulation of protein 21 (p21Waf1). The persistence of DNA damage was measured using MN assay and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in cancer cells and human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) respectively. BLM or X-irradiation induced DNA damage in both A549 and NCI-H23 cells and their respective bystander cells grown in 2D or 3D cultures. Further persistence of these damages in bystander PBL at delayed times indicated genomic instability in these cells. BLM-induced genomic instability in the progeny of bystander cells and their significance in therapy-induced second malignancy may not be eliminated completely.

  8. Nonconservative higher-order hydrodynamic modulation instability (United States)

    Kimmoun, O.; Hsu, H. C.; Kibler, B.; Chabchoub, A.


    The modulation instability (MI) is a universal mechanism that is responsible for the disintegration of weakly nonlinear narrow-banded wave fields and the emergence of localized extreme events in dispersive media. The instability dynamics is naturally triggered, when unstable energy sidebands located around the main energy peak are excited and then follow an exponential growth law. As a consequence of four wave mixing effect, these primary sidebands generate an infinite number of additional sidebands, forming a triangular sideband cascade. After saturation, it is expected that the system experiences a return to initial conditions followed by a spectral recurrence dynamics. Much complex nonlinear wave field motion is expected, when the secondary or successive sideband pair that is created is also located in the finite instability gain range around the main carrier frequency peak. This latter process is referred to as higher-order MI. We report a numerical and experimental study that confirms observation of higher-order MI dynamics in water waves. Furthermore, we show that the presence of weak dissipation may counterintuitively enhance wave focusing in the second recurrent cycle of wave amplification. The interdisciplinary weakly nonlinear approach in addressing the evolution of unstable nonlinear waves dynamics may find significant resonance in other nonlinear dispersive media in physics, such as optics, solids, superfluids, and plasma.

  9. Magnetohydrodynamic thermal instabilities in cool inhomogeneous atmospheres (United States)

    Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.


    The stability of magnetic loops to current-driven filamentation instabilities is investigated. The unperturbed atmosphere is assumed to be composed of an (upper) isothermal optically thin low-density portion and a (lower) higher-density portion which is in radiative equilibrium; in both cases, the atmosphere is in hydrostatic equilibrium, so that gravitational stratification is taken into account. In order to provide specific equilibrium conditions for evaluation of the dispersion relation, conditions appropriate for the surface of a solar-type star are adopted; i.e., a fairly low temperature (T = 5000 K) appropriate for a 'precoronal' state associated, for example, with magnetic flux emerging from photospheric levels under the action of magnetic buoyancy. A linear stability analysis is performed, and numerical results show that physically plausible current densities, which would be generated by typical loop-footpoint motions, are effective in driving MHD instabilities in such a plasma. The instability growth rates are strongly dependent on the assumed current density distribution and on the density scale height.

  10. Astrophysically Relevant Instabilities at a Decelerating Interface. (United States)

    Calder, A. C.; Fryxell, B.; Rosner, R.; Kane, J.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H.; Keiter, P.; Drake, R. P.; Knauer, J.; Dursi, L. J.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P. M.; Timmes, F. X.; Zingale, M.; Tufo, H.; MacNeice, P.


    Hydrodynamic instabilities play an important role in many astrophysical phenomena, and modern intense lasers offer the chance to experimentally investigate these instabilities in similar environments in a laboratory. In this poster, we report on experimental and theoretical progress in ongoing research in laser astrophysics. We presents results of simulations of experiments performed using the University of Rochester's Omega laser facility. These experiments involve shock propagation through multi-layer targets, and are designed to replicate the complex hydrodynamic instabilities thought to arise during supernovae explosions. The simulations were performed with the FLASH code, developed by the ASCI/ASAP Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago, and we are planning on a study making use of a realistic equation of state. We present results of an experimental study of 2-D vs. 3-D perturbation growth rates also performed at the Omega laser facility. Data from experiments with nominally identical two-layer targets, but 2-D or 3-D perturbations, show clear differences between the evolution of 2-D vs. 3-D perturbations. We also present simulations showing qualitatively similar features for comparison. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy.

  11. New diagnostics and cures for coupled-bunch instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, S.


    Electromagnetic interaction between a charged particle beam and its surroundings causes collective instabilities, which must be controlled if the new light sources and colliders are to meet their design goals. Control requires a combination of passive damping and fast active feedback on an unprecedented technological scale. Efficient instability diagnosis techniques are also needed for machines with large numbers of bunches. This thesis describes new methods of measuring and analyzing coupled-bunch instabilities in circular accelerators, and demonstrates the existence of a new cure. A new technique is demonstrated for simultaneous measurement of growth rates, damping rates and coherent tune shifts of all unstable coupled-bunch eigenmodes from a single 10-25-ms transient snapshot of beam motion. The technique has been used to locate and quantify beam impedance resonances at PEP-II, ALS and SPEAR. This method is faster than existing spectral scan methods by at least an order of magnitude, and has the added advantage of revealing coupled-bunch dynamics in the linear small-signal regime. A method is also presented for estimating beam impedance from multi-bunch fill shape and synchronous phase measurements. Phase space tracking of multi-bunch instabilities is introduced as a ``complete instability diagnostic.'' Digitized multi-bunch data is analyzed offline, to estimate the phase space trajectories of bunches and modes. Availability of phase space trajectories is shown to open up a variety of possibilities, including measurement of reactive impedance, and diagnosis of the fast beam-ion instability. Knowledge gained from longitudinal measurements (all made using a digital longitudinal feedback system) has been used to optimize cavity temperatures, tuner positions and feedback parameters, and also to identify sources of beam noise at the three machines. A matrix-based method is presented for analyzing the beneficial effect of bunch-to-bunch tune variation on

  12. Azimuthal magnetorotational instabilities to non-axisymmetric perturbations (United States)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Zou, Rong


    Short-wavelength stability analysis is made of axisymmetric rotating flows of a perfectly conducting fluid subjected to external azimuthal magnetic field, to non-axisymmetric as well as axisymmetric perturbations. The instability caused by the azimuthal magnetic field is referred to as the azimuthal magnetorotational instability (AMRI). We determine the range of unstable angular-velocity distribution and the overall maximum growth rate for the AMRI. Non-axisymmetric perturbations, when coupled to azimuthal magnetic field, widen the instability range of angular-velocity profiles of rotating flows. For strong external field, the maximum growth rate increases, beyond the Oort A-value, without bound in proportion to the strength of the external field. The effect of the electric resistivity is also considered in the limit of very low magnetic Prandtl number. Y.F. was supported in part by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (Grant No. 24540407).

  13. Direct-Drive Hydrodynamic Instability Experiments (United States)

    Azechi, Hiroshi


    As is well known, hydrodynamic instabilities play an important role in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions. Target surface perturbations are imposed, in addition to the original surface roughness, by imprint of laser irradiation nonuniformity. These perturbations may be amplified by rippled shock propagation before the shock transit through the pusher; and will grow due to the Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability after the shock transit. Subsequent feed-through seeds the perturbations in the fuel-pusher interface. These together with the initial inner surface perturbations will grow again due to the R-T instability during the deceleration phase, resulting in fuel-pusher mixing which may degrade the implosion performance significantly. Good understandings of the instabilities are therefore necessary to tolerate the mixing. At the GEKKO XII laser facility, we have conducted an extensive series of direct-drive experiments on the imprint^1 and its reduction in pre-formed pl! asmas, rippled shock propagation^2, and R-T instability in linear regime^3. The partially-coherent-light^4 for the target drive performs the state-of-art uniformity and allows well controlled experiments. For the imprint experiments, we introduced a single-mode perturbation only on the foot pulse for the imprint followed by uniform main pulse for R-T amplification. We have also initiated investigation of the imprint by moving single-mode non-uniformity, which is generated by interference of two different laser wavelengths. The time for the interference fringe to move one perturbation wavelength is equivalent to the smoothing time of laser irradiation. The experimental R-T growth rate was significantly reduced from the classical growth rate. This and recently accumulated database of laser intensity, and target thickness dependences support the conclusion that non-local energy transport play an important role in these experiments. Experimental results and compari! sons with theory and simulations

  14. Cervical instability in Sotos syndrome: a case report. (United States)

    Carlo, Waldemar; Dormans, John P


    A case report on cervical instability detected in a patient with Sotos syndrome, along with a review of the literature on Sotos syndrome and associated spinal findings. To present the case of a patient with a C3-C4 anterolisthesis occurring in the setting of Sotos syndrome and explore a possible association between the two. Sotos syndrome, a rare overgrowth syndrome with slightly more than 300 cases reported in the English literature to date, is characterized by a unique constellation of symptoms and signs including musculoskeletal findings such as scoliosis, pes planus, generalized ligamentous laxity, and increased growth rates. Cervical instability as part of this syndrome is unreported and rarely presents as a C3-C4 anterolisthesis. A case report detailing the evaluation and treatment of a cervical instability in a 3-year-old with Sotos syndrome. A previously unreported cervical spine instability in Sotos syndrome is described. The patient underwent a posterior spinal fusion of C3 and C4 to avoid complications from the instability. The surgery achieved good results. We outline a possible connection between Sotos syndrome and cervical instability, which may be associated with the unique features of this syndrome including ligamentous laxity or macrosomia and/or with unrecognized injury. Awareness of this occurrence is important for enhancing early detection and correction of this condition.

  15. instability and reversal of genetic correlations during selection on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Instability, disappearance and reversal of patterns of genetic covariation often occur over short evolutionary time frames and as the ... Keywords. evolution; life history; genetic correlation; experimental evolution; growth rate; Drosophila melanogaster. .... factors such as inbreeding depression or G × E interac- tion and isolate ...

  16. Ion acoustic instability of HPT particles, FAC density, anomalous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnetic field perturbations interpretable as field aligned current (FAC) layers and the electrostatic turbulence possibly due to electrostatic ion acoustic instability driven by these currents are shown. The critical drift velocity of Hot Plasma Torus (HPT) electrons and the growth rate of ion acoustic wave as a function of ...

  17. Coupled-Beam and Coupled-Bunch Instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, Alexey [Fermilab


    A problem of coupled-beam instability is solved for two multibunch beams with slightly different revolution frequencies, as in the Fermilab Recycler Ring (RR). Sharing of the inter-bunch growth rates between the intra-bunch modes is described. The general analysis is applied to the RR; possibilities to stabilize the beams by means of chromaticity, feedback and Landau damping are considered.

  18. Simulation of Instability at Transition Energy with a New Impedance Model for CERN PS

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Na; Biancacci, Nicolo; Migliorati, Mauro; Persichelli, Serena; Sterbini, Guido


    Instabilities driven by the transverse impedance are proven to be one of the limitations for the high intensity reach of the CERN PS. Since several years, fast single bunch vertical instability at transition energy has been observed with the high intensity bunch serving the neu-tron Time-of-Flight facility (n-ToF). In order to better understand the instability mechanism, a dedicated meas-urement campaign took place. The results were compared with macro-particle simulations with PyHEADTAIL based on the new impedance model developed for the PS. Instability threshold and growth rate for different longitu-dinal emittances and beam intensities were studied.

  19. Internal Gravity Wave Interactions with Double-Diffusive Instabilities (United States)

    Brown, Justin; Radko, Timour


    In this study, we focus on the phenomenon of oscillatory double-diffusive convection, which occurs when cool fresh water is stratified above warm salty water, as commonly observed in the Arctic Ocean. In the Arctic, these regions are generally stable to the development of oscillatory double-diffusive instabilities; despite this, observations show the presence of staircases, i.e., the well-defined structures consisting of a series of homogeneous layers separated by thin high-gradient interfaces. Recent studies have shown that an instability can develop in such circumstances if weak static shear is present even when the shear and double-diffusion are themselves individually stable. However, the impact of oscillating shear, associated with the ubiquitous presence of internal gravity waves, has not yet been addressed for the diffusive case. Through two-dimensional simulations of diffusive convection, we have investigated the impact of magnitude and frequency of externally forced internal waves on the double-diffusive shear instability. The analysis is focused on the parameter regime in which the flow is individually stable with respect to double-diffusion and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, but could be susceptible to the combined thermohaline-shear instability. We have illustrated that rapid oscillation inhibits the development of this instability if the dominant period is shorter than four hours for the oceanographically relevant parameters; otherwise, models with static shear adequately reproduce our results. If the dominant period is shorter than four hours but still significantly exceeds the buoyancy period, the instability range is much reduced to the low Richardson number regime. Some of these simulations show the saturated system developing into structures reminiscent of double-diffusive staircases whose thickness is given by the wavelength of the forced shear. Finally, preliminary three-dimensional simulations show no major differences in the growth rate of

  20. Fast Transverse Instability and Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffery; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Eddy, Nathan; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton; Thangaraj, Jayakar; Yang, Ming-Jen; Zwaska, Robert; Ji, Yichen


    A new transverse instability is observed that may limit the proton intensity in the Fermilab Recycler. The instability is fast, leading to a beam-abort loss within two hundred turns. The instability primarily affects the first high-intensity batch from the Fermilab Booster in each Recycler cycle. This paper analyzes the dynamical features of the destabilized beam. The instability excites a horizontal betatron oscillation which couples into the vertical motion and also causes transverse emittance growth. This paper describes the feasibility of electron cloud as the mechanism for this instability and presents the first measurements of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Recycler. Direct measurements of the electron cloud are made using a retarding field analyzer (RFA) newly installed in the Fermilab Recycler. Indirect measurements of the electron cloud are made by propagating a microwave carrier signal through the beampipe and analyzing the phase modulation of the signal. The maximum betatron amplitude growth and the maximum electron cloud signal occur during minimums of the bunch length oscillation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borivoje Pašić


    Full Text Available Wellbore instability is one of the main problems that engineers meet during drilling. The causes of wellbore instability are often classified into either mechanical (for example, failure of the rock around the hole because of high stresses, low rock strength, or inappropriate drilling practice or chemical effects which arise from damaging interaction between the rock, generally shale, and the drilling fluid. Often, field instances of instability are a result of a combination of both chemical and mechanical. This problem might cause serious complication in well and in some case can lead to expensive operational problems. The increasing demand for wellbore stability analyses during the planning stage of a field arise from economic considerations and the increasing use of deviated, extended reach and horizontal wells. This paper presents causes, indicators and diagnosing of wellbore instability as well as the wellbore stresses model.

  2. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, Johannes S. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany); Assaad, Fakher F. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Schnyder, Andreas P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)


    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground state degeneracy and a diverging density of states. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. Here, we employ Monte Carlo simulations combined with mean-field considerations to examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of d{sub xy}-wave superconductors. We find that attractive interactions induce a complex s-wave pairing instability together with a density wave instability. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism mixed with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. We discuss the implications of our findings for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  3. Suppression of wake's instabilities by optimal streaks (United States)

    Del Guercio, Gerardo; Cossu, Carlo; Pujals, Gregory


    Wakes can sustain large transient energy growth. Optimal perturbations are computed for the cases of parallel, weakly non-parallel and the circular cylinder wakes. Streaks are found to be the optimal amplified structures produced by the non normal energy amplification. The level of energy increases with the spanwise wavelength of the perturbations except in the circular cylinder wake where the optimal is reached for λz ~ 6 D . In parallel wakes these streaks are shown to suppress the absolute instability. Furthermore the global instability of the weakly non-parallel and the circular cylinder wakes can be completely annihilate with moderate streaks amplitudes. The comparison of these spanwise periodic (3D) optimal perturbations with the spanwise uniform (2D) control showed that the energy required to stabilize the wake is always smaller for the 3D control. Moreover the sensitivity of the global mode growth rate is discovered to be quadratic for 3D perturbations while being linear for 2D ones meaning that usual first order sensitivity analysis is unable to predict their larger efficiency.

  4. Order and instabilities in dense bacterial colonies (United States)

    Tsimring, Lev


    The structure of cell colonies is governed by the interplay of many physical and biological factors, ranging from properties of surrounding media to cell-cell communication and gene expression in individual cells. The biomechanical interactions arising from the growth and division of individual cells in confined environments are ubiquitous, yet little work has focused on this fundamental aspect of colony formation. By combining experimental observations of growing monolayers of non-motile strain of bacteria Escherichia coli in a shallow microfluidic chemostat with discrete-element simulations and continuous theory, we demonstrate that expansion of a dense colony leads to rapid orientational alignment of rod-like cells. However, in larger colonies, anisotropic compression may lead to buckling instability which breaks perfect nematic order. Furthermore, we found that in shallow cavities feedback between cell growth and mobility in a confined environment leads to a novel cell streaming instability. Joint work with W. Mather, D. Volfson, O. Mondrag'on-Palomino, T. Danino, S. Cookson, and J. Hasty (UCSD) and D. Boyer, S. Orozco-Fuentes (UNAM, Mexico).

  5. Beam Instabilities in Hadron Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Métral, E; Bartosik, H; Biancacci, N; Buffat, X; Esteban Muller, J F; Herr, W; Iadarola, G; Lasheen, A; Li, K; Oeftiger, A; Pieloni, T; Quartullo, D; Rumolo, G; Salvant, B; Schenk, M; Shaposhnikova, E; Tambasco, C; Timko, H; Zannini, C; Burov, A; Banfi, D; Barranco, J; Mounet, N; Boine-Frankenheim, O; Niedermayer, U; Kornilov, V; White, S


    Beam instabilities cover a wide range of effects in particle accelerators and they have been the subjects of intense research for several decades. As the machines performance was pushed new mechanisms were revealed and nowadays the challenge consists in studying the interplays between all these intricate phenomena, as it is very often not possible to treat the different effects separately. The aim of this paper is to review the main mechanisms, discussing in particular the recent developments of beam instability theories and simulations.

  6. Microsatellite instability in bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez-Zulueta, M; Ruppert, J M; Tokino, K


    Somatic instability at microsatellite repeats was detected in 6 of 200 transitional cell carcinomas of the bladder. Instabilities were apparent as changes in (GT)n repeat lengths on human chromosome 9 for four tumors and as alterations in a (CAG)n repeat in the androgen receptor gene on the X...... or larger (> 2 base pairs) alterations in repeat length. All six tumors were low stage (Ta-T1), suggesting that these alterations can occur early in bladder tumorigenesis....

  7. Material Instabilities in Particulate Systems (United States)

    Goddard, J. D.


    Following is a brief summary of a theoretical investigation of material (or constitutive) instability associated with shear induced particle migration in dense particulate suspensions or granular media. It is shown that one can obtain a fairly general linear-stability analysis, including the effects of shear-induced anisotropy in the base flow as well as Reynolds dilatancy. A criterion is presented here for simple shearing instability in the absence of inertia and dilatancy.

  8. Tertiary instability of zonal flows within the Wigner-Moyal formulation of drift turbulence (United States)

    Zhu, Hongxuan; Ruiz, D. E.; Dodin, I. Y.


    The stability of zonal flows (ZFs) is analyzed within the generalized-Hasegawa-Mima model. The necessary and sufficient condition for a ZF instability, which is also known as the tertiary instability, is identified. The qualitative physics behind the tertiary instability is explained using the recently developed Wigner-Moyal formulation and the corresponding wave kinetic equation (WKE) in the geometrical-optics (GO) limit. By analyzing the drifton phase space trajectories, we find that the corrections proposed in Ref. to the WKE are critical for capturing the spatial scales characteristic for the tertiary instability. That said, we also find that this instability itself cannot be adequately described within a GO formulation in principle. Using the Wigner-Moyal equations, which capture diffraction, we analytically derive the tertiary-instability growth rate and compare it with numerical simulations. The research was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  9. Estimation of collective instabilities in RHIC (United States)

    Mackay, W. W.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Deng, D.; Mane, V.; Peggs, S.; Ratti, A.; Rose, J.; Shea, T. J.; Wei, J.


    The authors have estimated the broadband impedance in RHIC to be absolute value of(Z/n) less than 1.2 Omega for frequencies above 100 MHz. The Z/n threshold is set for Au(79+) ions at transition with an estimated 10% growth in emittance for Z/n = 1.5 Omega. They summarize the sources of broad and narrow band impedances in RHIC and investigate the multibunch instability limits throughout the machine cycle. The largest contribution to the broadband impedance comes from the abort and injection kickers. Since RHIC is designed to accelerate fully stripped ions from H(+) up to Au(79+) they give results for both protons and gold ions; other ions should give results somewhere between these two extremes. All ion species are expected to be stable during storage. At lower energies damping systems and chromaticity corrections will limit any growth to acceptable levels during the short time it takes to inject and accelerate the beams.

  10. History of shoulder instability surgery. (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Cucchi, Davide; Butt, Usman


    The surgical management of shoulder instability is an expanding and increasingly complex area of study within orthopaedics. This article describes the history and evolution of shoulder instability surgery, examining the development of its key principles, the currently accepted concepts and available surgical interventions. A comprehensive review of the available literature was performed using PubMed. The reference lists of reviewed articles were also scrutinised to ensure relevant information was included. The various types of shoulder instability including anterior, posterior and multidirectional instability are discussed, focussing on the history of surgical management of these topics, the current concepts and the results of available surgical interventions. The last century has seen important advancements in the understanding and treatment of shoulder instability. The transition from open to arthroscopic surgery has allowed the discovery of previously unrecognised pathologic entities and facilitated techniques to treat these. Nevertheless, open surgery still produces comparable results in the treatment of many instability-related conditions and is often required in complex or revision cases, particularly in the presence of bone loss. More high-quality research is required to better understand and characterise this spectrum of conditions so that successful evidence-based management algorithms can be developed. IV.

  11. Characteristics of magnetic island formation due to resistive interchange instability in helical plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, R.; Matsumoto, Y.; Itagaki, M.; Oikawa, S. [Graduate School of Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Watanabe, K. Y.; Sato, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)


    Focusing attention on the magnetic island formation, we investigate the characteristics of the resistive interchange magnetohydrodynamics instabilities, which would limit a high beta operational regime in helical type fusion reactors. An introduction of a new index, i.e., the ratio of the magnetic fluctuation level to the radial displacement, enables us to make a systematic analysis on the magnetic island formation in the large helical device-like plasmas during the linear growth phase; (i) the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate makes the magnetic island larger than that with the largest growth rate when the amplitude of the radial displacement in both cases is almost the same as each other; (ii) applied to a typical tearing instability, the index is smaller than that for the interchange instability with the second largest growth rate.

  12. The dispersion equation of the induced Smith-Purcell instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klochkov, Dmitry N [Ap.49, Mesentsev St. 44-2, 300026 Tula (Russian Federation); Artemyev, Alexander I [General Physics Institute RAS, Vavilova 38, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Oganesyan, Koryun B [Yerevan Physics Institute, 2 Alikhanian Brothers Street, Yerevan 375036 (Armenia); Rostovtsev, Yuri V; Scully, Marlan O [Department of Physics and Institute for Quantum Studies, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Hu, Chin-Kun, E-mail: bsk@yerphi.a [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan 1152 (China)


    The simplest model of a magnetized infinitely thin electron beam is considered. For the grating, where the depth of grooves is a small parameter, the dispersion equation of the induced Smith-Purcell instability was obtained. It was found that the condition of the Thompson or the Raman regimes of excitation does not depend on beam current but depends on the height of the beam above the grating surface. The growth rate of instability in both cases is proportional to the square root of the electron beam current.

  13. Filamentation instability of counter-streaming laser-driven plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, W; Bhattacharjee, A; Chang, P -Y; Germaschewski, K; Hu, S X; Nilson, P M


    Filamentation due to the growth of a Weibel-type instability was observed in the interaction of a pair of counter-streaming, ablatively-driven plasma flows, in a supersonic, collisionless regime relevant to astrophysical collisionless shocks. The flows were created by irradiating a pair of opposing plastic (CH) foils with 1.8 kJ, 2-ns laser pulses on the OMEGA EP laser system. Ultrafast laser-driven proton radiography was used to image the Weibel-generated electromagnetic fields. The experimental observations are in good agreement with the analytical theory of the Weibel instability and with particle-in-cell simulations.

  14. Dynamic stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ablation fronts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriz A.R.


    Full Text Available Dynamic stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an ablation front is studied by considering the simplest possible modulations in the acceleration. Explicit analytical expressions for the instability growth rate and for the boundaries of the stability region are obtained by considering a sequence of Dirac deltas. Besides, general square waves allow for studying the effect of the driving asymmetries on the stability region as well as the optimization process. The essential role of compressibility is phenomenologically addressed in order to find the constraints it imposes on the stability region.

  15. Morphological instability of lamellar structures in directionally solidified Ni-Ni3Si alloys (United States)

    Wei, Lufeng; Zhao, Zhilong; Gao, Jianjun; Cui, Kai; Guo, Jingying; Chen, Sen; Liu, Lin


    The morphological instability of lamellar structures in Ni-Ni3Si eutectic and hypereutectic alloys directionally solidified at low growth rates was investigated. The first instability in large lamellar structures was zigzag instability, which formed curved lamellae. A zigzag pattern was first displayed in three dimensions. The diffusion-limited growth of the Ni3Si phase decreased phase width and spacing, consequently causing zigzag instability. The reduced spacing was observed at λ/λave = 0.9. After zigzag instability, the microstructure of the eutectic alloy turned into a labyrinth structure and lamellar fragmentation. However, in hypereutectic alloys, shape transition from lamellae to rods occurred, in turn, by the broken lamellae or elongated rods to dumbbell-shaped rods, peanut-shaped rods, and circular rods.

  16. On spatial instability of a swirling jet - Theory and experiment (United States)

    Wu, C.; Farokhi, S.; Taghavi, R.


    The spatial instability of a swirling jet is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. A hydrodynamic stability analysis is applied to an inviscid incompressible top-hat jet, with a swirl distribution of solid-body rotation and free vortex in and outside the vortex core, respectively. Both plane and helical instability modes are examined. It is found that the top-hat jet with swirl distribution of Rankine vortex type is unstable in all the modes studied. The higher the positive helicity, the less spatially unstable the jet behavior; the higher the negative helicity, the more spatially unstable this behavior becomes. A comparison is made between theoretical results and experimental data on a low-intensity swirling jet. The trend of the initial growth of the instability waves in the near field is captured.

  17. f-Mode instability in relativistic neutron stars. (United States)

    Gaertig, E; Glampedakis, K; Kokkotas, K D; Zink, B


    We present the first calculation of the basic properties of the f-mode instability in rapidly rotating relativistic neutron stars, adopting the Cowling approximation. By accounting for dissipation in neutron star matter, i.e., shear or bulk viscosity and superfluid mutual friction, we calculate the associated instability window. For our specific stellar model, a relativistic polytrope, we obtain a minimum gravitational growth time scale (for the dominant ℓ=m=4 mode) of the order of 10(3)-10(4)  s near the Kepler frequency Ω(K) while the instability is active above ∼0.92  Ω(K) and for temperatures ∼(10(9)-2×10(10))  K, characteristic of newborn neutron stars.

  18. Triadic instability of a non-resonant precessing fluid cylinder

    CERN Document Server

    Lagrange, R; Eloy, C


    Flows forced by a precessional motion can exhibit instabilities of crucial importance, whether they concern the fuel of a flying object or the liquid core of a telluric planet. So far, stability analyses of these flows have focused on the special case of a resonant forcing. Here, we address the instability of the flow inside a precessing cylinder in the general case. We first show that the base flow forced by the cylinder precession is a superposition of a vertical or horizontal shear flow and an infinite sum of forced modes. We then perform a linear stability analysis of this base flow by considering its triadic resonance with two free Kelvin modes. Finally, we derive the amplitude equations of the free Kelvin modes and obtain an expression of the instability threshold and growth rate.

  19. Radiation-induced chromosomal instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, S. [GSI, Biophysics, Darmstadt (Germany)


    Recent studies on radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the progeny of exposed mammalian cells were briefly described as well as other related studies. For the analysis of chromosomal damage in clones, cells were seeded directly after exposure in cell well-dish to form single cell clones and post-irradiation chromosome aberrations were scored. Both exposure to isoeffective doses of X-ray or 270 MeV/u C-ions (13 keV/{mu}m) increased the number of clones with abnormal karyotype and the increase was similar for X-ray and for C-ions. Meanwhile, in the progeny of cells for mass cultures, there was no indication of a delayed expression of chromosomal damage up to 40 population doublings after the exposure. A high number of aberrant cells were only observed directly after exposure to 10.7 MeV/u O-ions, i.e. in the first cycle cells and decreased with subsequent cell divisions. The reason for these differences in the radiation-induced chromosomal instability between clonal isolates and mass culture has not been clarified. Recent studies indicated that genomic instability occurs at a high frequency in the progeny of cells irradiated with both sparsely and densely ionizing radiation. Such genomic instability is thought likely to increase the risk of carcinogenesis, but more data are required for a well understanding of the health risks resulting from radiation-induced delayed instability. (M.N.)

  20. The Hydrodynamics of Blast-Wave-Driven Instabilities (United States)

    Miles, Aaron R.


    Supernova explosions are among the most dramatic in the universe. Type II supernovae follow core collapse of a massive star, while Type Ia supernovae are typically believed to be thermonuclear explosions of carbon-oxygen white dwarfs that have accreted enough material to initiate carbon burning. In both cases, the explosion dynamics are complicated by hydrodynamic instabilities that make spherical symmetry impossible. Non-planar interactions of shocks with steep density gradients result in vorticity deposition that drives Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability growth. Deceleration of those same shock-accelerated interfaces drives the ubiquitous Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. These processes yield highly nonlinear structures that are further modified by shear-driven Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities, and provide elemental mixing on a wide range of scales. A broad spectrum of approaches can be applied to study the role of hydrodynamic mixing in SNe. These range from analytic treatments of the fundamental instability problems of classical RT and steady-shock RM, to complex (often multiphysics) computational and experimental systems, including numerical simulations of supernovae and laser-driven laboratory. Between these two extremes lies a third fundamental instability problem that is more relevant than either RT or RM in isolation and somewhat less complex than the full system. Namely, an idealized blast-wave-driven problem in which a localized source drives a divergent Taylor-Sedov blast wave that in turn drives a perturbed interface between heavier and lighter gamma-law fluids. Within this context, we use numerical simulations and simplified analytic models to consider the effect of the initial perturbation spectrum in determining the late-time asymptotic state of the mixing zone, the interaction of multiple unstable interfaces relevant to core-collapse supernovae, and the proximity of the forward shock to the developing instability. This work performed under the

  1. Effects of magnetic fields on magnetohydrodynamic cylindrical and spherical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.


    The effects of seed magnetic fields on the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability driven by converging cylindrical and spherical implosions in ideal magnetohydrodynamics are investigated. Two different seed field configurations at various strengths are applied over a cylindrical or spherical density interface which has a single-dominant-mode perturbation. The shocks that excite the instability are generated with appropriate Riemann problems in a numerical formulation and the effect of the seed field on the growth rate and symmetry of the perturbations on the density interface is examined. We find reduced perturbation growth for both field configurations and all tested strengths. The extent of growth suppression increases with seed field strength but varies with the angle of the field to interface. The seed field configuration does not significantly affect extent of suppression of the instability, allowing it to be chosen to minimize its effect on implosion distortion. However, stronger seed fields are required in three dimensions to suppress the instability effectively.

  2. Telomere dysfunction and chromosome instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murnane, John P., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, 2340 Sutter Street, San Francisco, CA 94143-1331 (United States)


    The ends of chromosomes are composed of a short repeat sequence and associated proteins that together form a cap, called a telomere, that keeps the ends from appearing as double-strand breaks (DSBs) and prevents chromosome fusion. The loss of telomeric repeat sequences or deficiencies in telomeric proteins can result in chromosome fusion and lead to chromosome instability. The similarity between chromosome rearrangements resulting from telomere loss and those found in cancer cells implicates telomere loss as an important mechanism for the chromosome instability contributing to human cancer. Telomere loss in cancer cells can occur through gradual shortening due to insufficient telomerase, the protein that maintains telomeres. However, cancer cells often have a high rate of spontaneous telomere loss despite the expression of telomerase, which has been proposed to result from a combination of oncogene-mediated replication stress and a deficiency in DSB repair in telomeric regions. Chromosome fusion in mammalian cells primarily involves nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ), which is the major form of DSB repair. Chromosome fusion initiates chromosome instability involving breakage-fusion-bridge (B/F/B) cycles, in which dicentric chromosomes form bridges and break as the cell attempts to divide, repeating the process in subsequent cell cycles. Fusion between sister chromatids results in large inverted repeats on the end of the chromosome, which amplify further following additional B/F/B cycles. B/F/B cycles continue until the chromosome acquires a new telomere, most often by translocation of the end of another chromosome. The instability is not confined to a chromosome that loses its telomere, because the instability is transferred to the chromosome donating a translocation. Moreover, the amplified regions are unstable and form extrachromosomal DNA that can reintegrate at new locations. Knowledge concerning the factors promoting telomere loss and its consequences is

  3. Mixing in Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities (United States)

    Calder, A. C.; Fryxell, B.; Rosner, R.; Dursi, L. J.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P. M.; Timmes, F. X.; Zingale, M.; Tufo, H. M.; MacNeice, P.


    Fluid instabilities and subsequent mixing can play a fundamental role in many astrophysical processes, including the shock of a core-collapse supernova propagating through the outer layers of a massive star and the propagation of a burning front through a white dwarf in a thermonuclear runaway supernova. We present direct numerical simulations of mixing at Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interfaces performed with the Flash code, developed at the ASCI/Alliances Center for Astrophysical Thermonuclear Flashes at the University of Chicago. We present results of both single- and multi-mode studies in 2- and 3-dimensions. Our results indicate that 3-d perturbations grow significantly faster than 2-d perturbations and that grid resolution can have a significant effect on instability growth rates. We also find that unphysical diffusive mixing occurs at the fluid interface, particularly in poorly resolved simulations, making it difficult to maintain the purity of our fluids. This work was supported by the U.S Department of Energy under grant No. B341495.

  4. Political instability and illegal immigration. (United States)

    Campos, J E; Lien, D


    "Economic theory suggests that transnational migration results from the push-pull effect of wage differentials between host and source countries. In this paper, we argue that political instability exacerbates the migration flow, with greater instability leading to relatively larger flows. We conclude then that an optimal solution to the illegal immigration problem requires proper coordination of immigration and foreign policies by the host country. A narrow preoccupation with tougher immigration laws is wasteful and may be marginally effective." Emphasis is on the United States as a host country. excerpt

  5. Stringy bounces and gradient instabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo


    Bouncing solutions are obtained from a generally covariant action characterized by a potential which is a nonlocal functional of the dilaton field at two separated space-time points. Gradient instabilities are shown to arise in this context but they are argued to be nongeneric. After performing a gauge-invariant and frame-invariant derivation of the evolution equations of the fluctuations, a heuristic criterium for the avoidance of pathological instabilities is proposed and corroborated by a number of explicit examples that turn out to be compatible with a quasi-flat spectrum of curvature inhomogeneities for typical wavelengths larger than the Hubble radius.

  6. Helical instability in film blowing process: Analogy to buckling instability (United States)

    Lee, Joo Sung; Kwon, Ilyoung; Jung, Hyun Wook; Hyun, Jae Chun


    The film blowing process is one of the most important polymer processing operations, widely used for producing bi-axially oriented film products in a single-step process. Among the instabilities observed in this film blowing process, i.e., draw resonance and helical motion occurring on the inflated film bubble, the helical instability is a unique phenomenon portraying the snake-like undulation motion of the bubble, having the period on the order of few seconds. This helical instability in the film blowing process is commonly found at the process conditions of a high blow-up ratio with too low a freezeline position and/or too high extrusion temperature. In this study, employing an analogy to the buckling instability for falling viscous threads, the compressive force caused by the pressure difference between inside and outside of the film bubble is introduced into the simulation model along with the scaling law derived from the force balance between viscous force and centripetal force of the film bubble. The simulation using this model reveals a close agreement with the experimental results of the film blowing process of polyethylene polymers such as low density polyethylene and linear low density polyethylene.

  7. The Role of Kinetic Instabilities in the Collisionless Turbulent Dynamo (United States)

    St-Onge, D. A.; Kunz, M. W.


    Conservation of the first adiabatic invariant μ in a magnetized, collisionless plasma precludes turbulent amplification of the magnetic field. This is because any increase in magnetic-field strength would adiabatically increase the perpendicular pressure, whose growth is stringently limited by the finite free energy in the system. A mechanism is then needed to break μ conservation in order to enable the amplification of a weak, primordial seed magnetic field to dynamically important strengths. Conveniently, amplification of the magnetic field in a high-beta plasma leads to pressure anisotropies large enough to trigger kinetic instabilities at ion-Larmor scales (e.g., firehose, mirror). These instabilities saturate by causing anomalous scattering of particles, breaking μ conservation. This interplay between magnetic-field growth and kinetic instabilities adds a new layer of complexity to the more conventional (and much better understood) magnetohydrodynamic turbulent dynamo. Using self-consistent hybrid-kinetic, particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the impact of these kinetic instabilities on the turbulent dynamo in a collisionless plasma, with a particular focus on how kinetic effects enable the amplification of magnetic fields and modify their structure. This work was supported by U.S. DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Explosive magnetorotational instability in Keplerian disks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtemler, Yu., E-mail:; Liverts, E., E-mail:; Mond, M., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)


    Differentially rotating disks under the effect of axial magnetic field are prone to a nonlinear explosive magnetorotational instability (EMRI). The dynamic equations that govern the temporal evolution of the amplitudes of three weakly detuned resonantly interacting modes are derived. As distinct from exponential growth in the strict resonance triads, EMRI occurs due to the resonant interactions of an MRI mode with stable Alfvén–Coriolis and magnetosonic modes. Numerical solutions of the dynamic equations for amplitudes of a triad indicate that two types of perturbations behavior can be excited for resonance conditions: (i) EMRI which leads to infinite values of the three amplitudes within a finite time, and (ii) bounded irregular oscillations of all three amplitudes. Asymptotic explicit solutions of the dynamic equations are obtained for EMRI regimes and are shown to match the numerical solutions near the explosion time.

  9. Modulational instability of nematic phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 8, 2014 ... Abstract. We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulation- ally stable case of polar phase in F = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that ...

  10. Modulational instability of nematic phase

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Feb 8, 2014 ... We numerically observe the effect of homogeneous magnetic field on the modulationally stable case of polar phase in = 2 spinor Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs). Also we investigate the modulational instability of uniaxial and biaxial (BN) states of polar phase. Our observations show that the magnetic ...

  11. The Chemistry of Beer Instability (United States)

    Stewart, Graham G.


    Brewing of beer, one of the oldest biotechnology industries was one of the earliest processes to be undertaken on commercial basis. Biological instability involves contamination of bacteria, yeast, or mycelia fungi and there is always a risk in brewing that beer can become contaminated by micro-organisms.

  12. Edge instabilities of topological superconductors (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes S.; Assaad, Fakher F.; Schnyder, Andreas P.


    Nodal topological superconductors display zero-energy Majorana flat bands at generic edges. The flatness of these edge bands, which is protected by time-reversal and translation symmetry, gives rise to an extensive ground-state degeneracy. Therefore, even arbitrarily weak interactions lead to an instability of the flat-band edge states towards time-reversal and translation-symmetry-broken phases, which lift the ground-state degeneracy. We examine the instabilities of the flat-band edge states of dx y-wave superconductors by performing a mean-field analysis in the Majorana basis of the edge states. The leading instabilities are Majorana mass terms, which correspond to coherent superpositions of particle-particle and particle-hole channels in the fermionic language. We find that attractive interactions induce three different mass terms. One is a coherent superposition of imaginary s -wave pairing and current order, and another combines a charge-density-wave and finite-momentum singlet pairing. Repulsive interactions, on the other hand, lead to ferromagnetism together with spin-triplet pairing at the edge. Our quantum Monte Carlo simulations confirm these findings and demonstrate that these instabilities occur even in the presence of strong quantum fluctuations. We discuss the implications of our results for experiments on cuprate high-temperature superconductors.

  13. Lending sociodynamics and economic instability (United States)

    Hawkins, Raymond J.


    We show how the dynamics of economic instability and financial crises articulated by Keynes in the General Theory and developed by Minsky as the Financial Instability Hypothesis can be formalized using Weidlich’s sociodynamics of opinion formation. The model addresses both the lending sentiment of a lender in isolation as well as the impact on that lending sentiment of the behavior of other lenders. The risk associated with lending is incorporated through a stochastic treatment of loan dynamics that treats prepayment and default as competing risks. With this model we are able to generate endogenously the rapid changes in lending opinion that attend slow changes in lending profitability and find these dynamics to be consistent with the rise and collapse of the non-Agency mortgage-backed securities market in 2007/2008. As the parameters of this model correspond to well-known phenomena in cognitive and social psychology, we can both explain why economic instability has proved robust to advances in risk measurement and suggest how policy for reducing economic instability might be formulated in an experimentally sound manner.

  14. Arthroscopic Management of Scapholunate Instability (United States)

    Geissler, William B.


    Wrist arthroscopy plays a valuable role in the management of scapholunate instability. A spectrum of injuries can occur to the scapholunate interosseous ligament, which may be difficult to detect with imaging studies. Wrist arthroscopy enables detection and management of injury to the scapholunate ligament under bright light and magnified conditions, in both acute and chronic situations. PMID:24436805

  15. Instability of a spatially developing liquid sheet (United States)

    de Luca, Luigi; Costa, Michela


    The linear stability of an inviscid two-dimensional liquid sheet falling under gravity in a still gas is studied by analysing the asymptotic behaviour of a localized perturbation (wave-packet solution to the initial value problem). Unlike previous papers the effect of gravity is fully taken into account by introducing a slow length scale which allows the flow to be considered slightly non-parallel. A multiple-scale approach is developed and the dispersion relations for both the sinuous and varicose disturbances are obtained to the zeroth-order approximation. These exhibit a local character as they involve a local Weber number We[eta]. For sinuous disturbances a critical We[eta] equal to unity is found below which the sheet is locally absolutely unstable (with algebraic growth of disturbances) and above which it is locally convectively unstable. The transition from absolute to convective instability occurs at a critical location along the vertical direction where the flow Weber number equals the dimensionless sheet thickness. This critical distance, as measured from the nozzle exit section, increases with decreasing the flow Weber number, and hence, for instance, the liquid flow rate per unit length. If the region of absolute instability is relatively small it may be argued that the system behaves as a globally stable one. Beyond a critical size the flow receptivity is enhanced and self-sustained unstable global modes should arise. This agrees with the experimental evidence that the sheet breaks up as the flow rate is reduced. It is conjectured that liquid viscosity may act to remove the algebraic growth, but the time after which this occurs could be not sufficient to avoid possible nonlinear phenomena appearing and breaking up the sheet.

  16. Singlet and triplet instability theorems (United States)

    Yamada, Tomonori; Hirata, So


    A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree-Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree-Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree-Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund's rule, a singlet instability in Jahn-Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions.

  17. Singlet and triplet instability theorems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Tomonori; Hirata, So, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 South Mathews Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 4-1-8 Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)


    A useful definition of orbital degeneracy—form-degeneracy—is introduced, which is distinct from the usual energy-degeneracy: Two canonical spatial orbitals are form-degenerate when the energy expectation value in the restricted Hartree–Fock (RHF) wave function is unaltered upon a two-electron excitation from one of these orbitals to the other. Form-degenerate orbitals tend to have isomorphic electron densities and occur in the highest-occupied and lowest-unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs and LUMOs) of strongly correlated systems. Here, we present a mathematical proof of the existence of a triplet instability in a real or complex RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of real or complex unrestricted Hartree–Fock wave functions when HOMO and LUMO are energy- or form-degenerate. We also show that a singlet instability always exists in a real RHF wave function of a finite system in the space of complex RHF wave functions, when HOMO and LUMO are form-degenerate, but have nonidentical electron densities, or are energy-degenerate. These theorems provide Hartree–Fock-theory-based explanations of Hund’s rule, a singlet instability in Jahn–Teller systems, biradicaloid electronic structures, and a triplet instability during some covalent bond breaking. They also suggest (but not guarantee) the spontaneous formation of a spin density wave (SDW) in a metallic solid. The stability theory underlying these theorems extended to a continuous orbital-energy spectrum proves the existence of an oscillating (nonspiral) SDW instability in one- and three-dimensional homogeneous electron gases, but only at low densities or for strong interactions.

  18. Noise-sustained convective instability in a magnetized Taylor-Couette flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  19. Noise-Sustained Convective Instability in a Magnetized Taylor-Couette Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Liu


    The helical magnetorotational instability of the magnetized Taylor-Couette flow is studied numerically in a finite cylinder. A distant upstream insulating boundary is shown to stabilize the convective instability entirely while reducing the growth rate of the absolute instability. The reduction is less severe with larger height. After modeling the boundary conditions properly, the wave patterns observed in the experiment turn out to be a noise-sustained convective instability. After the source of the noise resulted from unstable Ekman and Stewartson layers is switched off, a slowly-decaying inertial oscillation is observed in the simulation. We reach the conclusion that the experiments completed to date have not yet reached the regime of absolute instability.

  20. MD on Head-Tail Instability in the PS Booster

    CERN Document Server

    Kornilov, V; Mikulec, B; Aumon, S; Rumolo, G


    Machine study experiments on the coherent instabilities appearing along the magnetic ramp have been performed at the CERN PS Booster synchrotron in the week of June 11-15, 2012. The space- and time structure of the head-tail instabilities was recorded by the triggered pick-up signals due to reproducibility of the occurrence time in the shot-by-shot sense. The intensity thresholds, the absolute growth rates and the mode structure have been compared for the bunches in the single-rf and in three types of the double-rf operation. The growth rates are compared to the instantaneous synchrotron frequencies, in the cases of the large corresponding ratio the head-tail mode structure is deformed by the driving impedance. Bunch parameters measurements indicate that the PSB bunches are in the regime of very strong transverse space-charge all along the magnetic ramp.

  1. Circumferential buckling instability of a growing cylindrical tube

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.


    A cylindrical elastic tube under uniform radial external pressure will buckle circumferentially to a non-circular cross-section at a critical pressure. The buckling represents an instability of the inner or outer edge of the tube. This is a common phenomenon in biological tissues, where it is referred to as mucosal folding. Here, we investigate this buckling instability in a growing elastic tube. A change in thickness due to growth can have a dramatic impact on circumferential buckling, both in the critical pressure and the buckling pattern. We consider both single- and bi-layer tubes and multiple boundary conditions. We highlight the competition between geometric effects, i.e. the change in tube dimensions, and mechanical effects, i.e. the effect of residual stress, due to differential growth. This competition can lead to non-intuitive results, such as a tube growing to be thinner and yet buckle at a higher pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of glenohumeral instability in rugby players


    Funk, Lennard


    Rugby is a high-impact collision sport, with impact forces. Shoulder injuries are common and result in the longest time off sport for any joint injury in rugby. The most common injuries are to the glenohumeral joint with varying degrees of instability. The degree of instability can guide management. The three main types of instability presentations are: (1) frank dislocation, (2) subluxations and (3) subclinical instability with pain and clicking. Understanding the exact mechanism of injury c...

  3. The radiation-wavefront instability in pulsed CO2 amplifiers (United States)

    Fedorov, S. V.; Iur'ev, M. S.


    The space-time evolution of a small-scale perturbation against a background of a smooth input beam which is incident on a pulsed CO2 amplifier is studied theoretically. Ranges of transverse frequency, longitudinal coordinate, and time values are found in which the perturbation growth is exponential in nature. It is shown that the wavefront instability is stabilized by the amplification of the main beam and sound damping.

  4. Interface instability modes in freezing colloidal suspensions: revealed from onset of planar instability (United States)

    Wang, Lilin; You, Jiaxue; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Jincheng; Lin, Xin


    Freezing colloidal suspensions widely exists in nature and industry. Interface instability has attracted much attention for the understandings of the pattern formation in freezing colloidal suspensions. However, the interface instability modes, the origin of the ice banding or ice lamellae, are still unclear. In-situ experimental observation of the onset of interface instability remains absent up to now. Here, by directly imaging the initial transient stage of planar interface instability in directional freezing colloidal suspensions, we proposed three interface instability modes, Mullins-Sekerka instability, global split instability and local split instability. The intrinsic mechanism of the instability modes comes from the competition of the solute boundary layer and the particle boundary layer, which only can be revealed from the initial transient stage of planar instability in directional freezing.

  5. Potential Flow Model for Compressible Stratified Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (United States)

    Rydquist, Grant; Reckinger, Scott; Owkes, Mark; Wieland, Scott


    The Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (RTI) is an instability that occurs when a heavy fluid lies on top of a lighter fluid in a gravitational field, or a gravity-like acceleration. It occurs in many fluid flows of a highly compressive nature. In this study potential flow analysis (PFA) is used to model the early stages of RTI growth for compressible fluids. In the localized region near the bubble tip, the effects of vorticity are negligible, so PFA is applicable, as opposed to later stages where the induced velocity due to vortices generated from the growth of the instability dominate the flow. The incompressible PFA is extended for compressibility effects by applying the growth rate and the associated perturbation spatial decay from compressible linear stability theory. The PFA model predicts theoretical values for a bubble terminal velocity for single-mode compressible RTI, dependent upon the Atwood (A) and Mach (M) numbers, which is a parameter that measures both the strength of the stratification and intrinsic compressibility. The theoretical bubble terminal velocities are compared against numerical simulations. The PFA model correctly predicts the M dependence at high A, but the model must be further extended to include additional physics to capture the behavior at low A. Undergraduate Scholars Program - Montana State University.

  6. Instability of a Thin Conducting Foil Accelerated by a Finite Wavelength Intense Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Eliasson, Bengt


    We derive a theoretical model for the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT)-like instability for a thin foil accelerated by an intense laser, taking into account finite wavelength effects in the laser wave field. The latter leads to the diffraction of the electromagnetic wave off the periodic structures arising from the instability of the foil, which significantly modifies the growth rate of the RT-like instability when the perturbations on the foil have wavenumbers comparable to or larger than the laser wavenumber. In particular, the growth rate has a local maximum at a perturbation wavenumber approximately equal to the laser wavenumber. The standard RT instability, arising from a pressure difference between the two sides of a foil, is approximately recovered for perturbation wavenumbers smaller than the laser wavenumber. Differences in the results for circular and linear polarization of the laser light are pointed out. The model has significance to radiation pressure acceleration of thin foils and to laser-driven inertial c...

  7. A linear MHD instability analysis of solar mass ejections with gravitation (United States)

    Song, M. T.; Wu, S. T.; Dryer, M.


    The linear MHD instability of a cylindrical plasma is used to investigate the origin of solar mass ejections, and the dispersion relation is solved numerically. The initial plasma-flow velocity is found to have a significant effect on the instability criteria and growth rate, and the instability growth-rate is shown to be larger in cases where plasma flow exists, relative to the static case. Results suggest that the plasma column may break into small pieces. Assuming a thin-tube approximation, gravity is found to have little effect on the instability of quasi-horizontal ejection, but to have considerable effect on the vertical ejection. In considering the gravitational force, an exact analytical solution is found for the vertical case, while asymptotic solutions are given for the horizontal and oblique cases.

  8. Dynamic Stabilization of the Ablative Rayleigh-Taylor Instability for Heavy Ion Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Hong; Davidson, Ronald C.; Logan, B. Grant


    Dynamic stabilization of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability of a heavy ion fusion target induced by a beam wobbling system is studied. Using a sharp-boundary model and Courant-Synder theory, it is shown, with an appropriately chosen modulation waveform, that the instability can be sta- bilized in certain parameter regimes. It is found that the stabilization e ect has a strong dependence on the modulation frequency and the waveform. Modulation with frequency comparable to the instability growth rate is the most e ective in terms of stabilizing the instability. A modulation with two frequency components can result in a reduction of the growth rate larger than the sum of that due to the two components when applied separately.

  9. Rayleigh Taylor instability in dusty magnetized fluids with surface tension flowing through porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Praveen K.


    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate the effect of surface tension on hydromagnetic Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T instability of two incompressible superimposed fluids in a porous medium with suspended dust particles immersed in a uniform horizontal magnetic field. The relevant linearized perturbation equations have been solved using normal mode technique and the dispersion relation is derived analytically for the considered system. The dispersion relation is influenced by the simultaneous presence of medium porosity, suspended dust particles, permeability, magnetic field and surface tension. The onset criteria of R-T stability and instability are obtained and discussed. The growth rate of R-T instability is calculated numerically and is affected by the simultaneous presence of surface tension and magnetic field. The effects of various parameters on the growth rate of the R-T instability are discussed.

  10. Navier-Stokes Entropy Controlled Combustion Instability Analysis for Liquid Propellants (United States)

    Chung, T. J.; Yoon, W. S.


    Navier-Stokes solutions are used to calculate oscillatory components of pressure, velocity, and density, which in turn provide necessary data to compute energy growth factors to determine combustion instability. It is shown that wave instabilities are associated with changes in entropy and the space and time averages of oscillatory components of pressure, velocity and density, together with the mean flow field in the energy equation. Compressible laminar and turbulent flows and reacting flows with hydrogen/oxygen combustion are considered. The SSME combustion/thrust chamber is used for illustration of the theory. The analysis shows that the increase of mean pressure and disturbances consistently results in the increase of instability. It is shown that adequate combustion instability analysis requires at least third order nonlinearity in energy growth or decay.

  11. Morphological Instabilities in a Growing Yeast Colony: Experiment and Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sams, Thomas; Sneppen, Kim; Jensen, Mogens


    We study the growth of colonies of the yeast Pichia membranaefaciens on agarose film. The growth conditions are controlled in a setup where nutrients are supplied through an agarose film suspended over a solution of nutrients. As the thickness of the agarose film is varied, the morphology of the ...... of the front of the colony changes. The growth of the front is modeled by coupling it to a diffusive field of inhibitory metabolites. Qualitative agreement with experiments suggests that such a coupling is responsible for the observed instability of the front.......We study the growth of colonies of the yeast Pichia membranaefaciens on agarose film. The growth conditions are controlled in a setup where nutrients are supplied through an agarose film suspended over a solution of nutrients. As the thickness of the agarose film is varied, the morphology...

  12. The instability of water-mud interface in viscous two-layer flow with large viscosity contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiebin Liu


    Full Text Available The temporal instability of parallel viscous two-phase mixing layers is extended to current-fluid mud by considering a composite error function velocity profile. The influence of viscosity ratio, Reynolds number, and Froude number on the instability of the system are discussed and a new phenomenon never discussed is investigated based on our numerical results. It is shown that viscosity can enlarge the unstable wave number range, cause new instability modes, and certainly reduce the growth rate of Kelvin—Helmholtz (K—H instability.

  13. Fluctuations and Instability in Sedimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Guazzelli, Élisabeth


    This review concentrates on the fluctuations of the velocities of sedimenting spheres, and on the structural instability of a suspension of settling fibers. For many years, theoretical estimates and numerical simulations predicted the fluctuations of the velocities of spheres to increase with the size of the container, whereas experiments found no such variation. Two ideas have increased our understanding. First, the correlation length of the velocity fluctuations was found experimentally to be 20 interparticle separations. Second, in dilute suspensions, a vertical variation in the concentration due to the spreading of the front with the clear fluid can inhibit the velocity fluctuations. In a very dilute regime, a homogeneous suspension of fibers suffers a spontaneous instability in which fast descending fiber-rich columns are separated by rising fiber-sparse columns. In a semidilute regime, the settling is hindered, more so than for spheres. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  14. Quad-Bike Operational Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross H. Macmillan


    Full Text Available The stake-holders in the quad-bike (QB industry in Australia have failed to reach a satisfactory resolution of the present impasse that exists with respect to the causes and mitigation of the trauma suffered by riders due to QB instability. In an effort to provide purchasers with data enabling them to discriminate between safer and less safe machines, static longitudinal and lateral tests have been conducted by various interested parties; quasi-static lateral tests have also been conducted under some operational conditions. It is argued that while these static tests are valid, under many operating conditions QBs will not reach such unstable slopes due to poor traction. Further, these tests do not include the quasi-static and dynamic factors which also influence the processes associated with operational instability. For these reasons, the static tests do not provide an adequate basis for discrimination between safer and less safe machines.

  15. Instability of ties in compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Thomas Cornelius


    Masonry cavity walls are loaded by wind pressure and vertical load from upper floors. These loads results in bending moments and compression forces in the ties connecting the outer and the inner wall in a cavity wall. Large cavity walls are furthermore loaded by differential movements from...... the temperature gradient between the outer and the inner wall, which results in critical increase of the bending moments in the ties. Since the ties are loaded by combined compression and moment forces, the loadbearing capacity is derived from instability equilibrium equations. Most of them are iterative, since......-connectors in cavity walls was developed. The method takes into account constraint conditions limiting the free length of the wall tie, and the instability in case of pure compression which gives an optimal load bearing capacity. The model is illustrated with examples from praxis....

  16. Placing Marangoni instabilities under arrest

    CERN Document Server

    Bhamla, M Saad


    Soap bubbles occupy the rare position of delighting and fascinating both young children and scientific minds alike. Sir Isaac Newton, Joseph Plateau, Carlo Marangoni, and Pierre-Gilles de Gennes, not to mention countless others, have discovered remarkable results in optics, molecular forces and fluid dynamics from investigating this seemingly simple system. We present here a compilation of curiosity-driven experiments that systematically investigate the surface flows on a rising soap bubble. From childhood experience, we are familiar with the vibrant colors and mesmerizing display of chaotic flows on the surface of a soap bubble. These flows arise due to surface tension gradients, also known as Marangoni flows or instabilities. In Figure 1, we show the surprising effect of layering multiple instabilities on top of each other, highlighting that unexpected new phenomena are still waiting to be discovered, even in the simple soap bubble.

  17. Jeans instability of magnetized quantum plasma: Effect of viscosity, rotation and finite Larmor radius corrections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Shweta, E-mail:; Sharma, Prerana [Department of Physics, Ujjain Engineering College, Ujjain, M.P.456010 (India); Chhajlani, R. K. [School of Studies in Physics, Vikram University Ujjain, M. P. - 456010 (India)


    The Jeans instability of self-gravitating quantum plasma is examined considering the effects of viscosity, finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections and rotation. The analysis is done by normal mode analysis theory with the help of relevant linearized perturbation equations of the problem. The general dispersion relation is obtained using the quantum magneto hydrodynamic model. The modified condition of Jeans instability is obtained and the numerical calculations have been performed to show the effects of various parameters on the growth rate of Jeans instability.

  18. Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability and shear-flow in equatorial Spread-F plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chakrabarti


    Full Text Available Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (RT instability is considered in the bottom side of the equatorial F-region. By a novel nonmodal calculation it is shown that for an applied shear flow in equilibrium, the growth of the instability is considerably reduced. Finite but small amounts of diffusion enhances the stabilization process. The results may be relevant to the observations of long-lived irregularities at the bottom-side of the F-layer.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, equatorial ionosphere, plasma waves and instabilities

  19. Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability and shear-flow in equatorial Spread-F plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chakrabarti

    Full Text Available Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (RT instability is considered in the bottom side of the equatorial F-region. By a novel nonmodal calculation it is shown that for an applied shear flow in equilibrium, the growth of the instability is considerably reduced. Finite but small amounts of diffusion enhances the stabilization process. The results may be relevant to the observations of long-lived irregularities at the bottom-side of the F-layer.

    Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, equatorial ionosphere, plasma waves and instabilities

  20. Instability of colliding metastable strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Eto, Minoru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research


    We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.

  1. Atlantoaxial instability in Down's synarome


    Kafadar, Ali; Hanci, Murat; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Sarioglu, Ali Cetin; Erginel, Ayten; Cenani, Asim


    9-31 % of children with Down syndrome have atlantoaxial instability. These children might have the risk of atlantoaxial dislocation and spinal cord compression if they play sport or take part actively in daily Iife. The purpose of our study was to assess the presumed risk. We examined and followed up one year Iong 35 children with Down syndrome through a series of Iateral cervical spine x-ray and neurological examination. Those children with an atlantoaxial distance => 5mm were considered uns...

  2. Atlantoaxial instability in Down's synarome


    Kafadar, Ali; Hanci, Murat; Tuysuz, Beyhan; Sarioglu, Ali; Erginel, Ayten; Cenani, Asim


    9-31 % of children with Down syndrome have atlantoaxial instability. These children might have the risk of atlantoaxial dislocation and spinal cord compression if they play sport or take part actively in daily Iife. The purpose of our study was to assess the presumed risk. We examined and followed up one year Iong 35 children with Down syndrome through a series of Iateral cervical spine x-ray and neurological examination. Those children with an atlantoaxial distance => 5mm were considered ...

  3. Transverse coupled-bunch instabilities for non-symmetric bunch fillings

    CERN Document Server

    Meincke, O


    A program has been written in order to investigate transverse coupled-bunch instabilities for non-symmetric bunch fillings in the case of a large number of bunches. After a short description of the method used to find the instability growth rates, first results of the program are discussed for the SPS and LHC. In particular, a systematic study of the effect of fluctuations in the bunch populations is presented.

  4. political instability in a country and health state in another country

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Growth in Post-Independence Mexico‖, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, and. Secretaria de Desarrollo Economico. Porteous C. J. (2003), ―L'évolution des conflits en Afrique subsaharienne”,Politique étrangère N°2, pp. 307-320. Prasad B. C. (2002), ―Structural Reforms, Political Instability and Economic Growth ...

  5. Assessing Spontaneous Combustion Instability with Nonlinear Time Series Analysis (United States)

    Eberhart, C. J.; Casiano, M. J.


    Considerable interest lies in the ability to characterize the onset of spontaneous instabilities within liquid propellant rocket engine (LPRE) combustion devices. Linear techniques, such as fast Fourier transforms, various correlation parameters, and critical damping parameters, have been used at great length for over fifty years. Recently, nonlinear time series methods have been applied to deduce information pertaining to instability incipiency hidden in seemingly stochastic combustion noise. A technique commonly used in biological sciences known as the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis has been extended to the combustion dynamics field, and is introduced here as a data analysis approach complementary to linear ones. Advancing, a modified technique is leveraged to extract artifacts of impending combustion instability that present themselves a priori growth to limit cycle amplitudes. Analysis is demonstrated on data from J-2X gas generator testing during which a distinct spontaneous instability was observed. Comparisons are made to previous work wherein the data were characterized using linear approaches. Verification of the technique is performed by examining idealized signals and comparing two separate, independently developed tools.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRANCOIS, MARIANNE M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; DENDY, EDWARD D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LOWRIE, ROBERT B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; LIVESCU, DANIEL [Los Alamos National Laboratory; STEINKAMP, MICHAEL J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The authors compare the effects of different numerical schemes for the advection and material interface treatments on the single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability, using the RAGE hydro-code. The interface growth and its surface density (interfacial area) versus time are investigated. The surface density metric shows to be better suited to characterize the difference in the flow, than the conventional interface growth metric. They have found that Van Leer's limiter combined to no interface treatment leads to the largest surface area. Finally, to quantify the difference between the numerical methods they have estimated the numerical viscosity in the linear-regime at different scales.

  7. Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution in colliding-plasma-jet experiments with magnetic and viscous stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, Colin Stuart [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability causes mixing in plasmas throughout the universe, from micron-scale plasmas in inertial confinement fusion implosions to parsec-scale supernova remnants. The evolution of this interchange instability in a plasma is influenced by the presence of viscosity and magnetic fields, both of which have the potential to stabilize short-wavelength modes. Very few experimental observations of Rayleigh-Taylor growth in plasmas with stabilizing mechanisms are reported in the literature, and those that are reported are in sub-millimeter scale plasmas that are difficult to diagnose. Experimental observations in well-characterized plasmas are important for validation of computational models used to make design predictions for inertial confinement fusion efforts. This dissertation presents observations of instability growth during the interaction between a high Mach-number, initially un-magnetized plasma jet and a stagnated, magnetized plasma. A multi-frame fast camera captures Rayleigh-Taylor-instability growth while interferometry, spectroscopy, photodiode, and magnetic probe diagnostics are employed to estimate plasma parameters in the vicinity of the collision. As the instability grows, an evolution to longer mode wavelength is observed. Comparisons of experimental data with idealized magnetohydrodynamic simulations including a physical viscosity model suggest that the observed instability evolution is consistent with both magnetic and viscous stabilization. These data provide the opportunity to benchmark computational models used in astrophysics and fusion research.

  8. instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Czubaszek


    Full Text Available The basic method for analyzing the degree of DNA fragmentation caused by genotoxic factors is gel electrophoresis of single cells (single cell gel electrophoresis, also called the comet assay. The comet assay enables the analysis of the level of several different DNA modifications. The basic testing procedure has been only slightly modified. This method helps identify single-strand and double-strand DNA cracks, as well as any chemical and enzymatic modifications that can potentially turn into cracks in DNA or chromatids. The comet assay makes it possible to detect DNA damage at the level of single cells. It can be employed in analyses of any tissues which provide cellular suspensions. Analysed cells are submerged in agarose on a microscope slide. DNA is what is left after proteins have been broken down. The slide is then subjected to electrophoresis and stained with a fluorescent dye. A “comet-like” image is obtained. The “head” is the cell fixation site prior to lysis; the “tail” represents damaged DNA fragments. The extent of DNA damage is reflected in the length of the tail and the amount of DNA contained in it. The assay finds research applications in the following fields: genetic toxicology, monitoring of DNA repair following chemotherapy and radiotherapy, ecotoxicology, animal and human nourishment, biomonitoring of genotoxicity, epidemiology and assessment of material deposited in sperm and blood banks.

  9. Modes of storage ring coherent instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.M.


    Longitudinal impedance in a beam and various modes of longitudinal coherent instabilities are discussed. The coasting beam coherent instability, microwave instability, and single-bunch longitudinal coherent instabilities are considered. The Vlasov equation is formulated, and a method of solving it is developed. The synchrotron modes are treated, which take the possible bunch shape distortion fully into consideration. A method of treating the synchrotron mode coupling in the case of a small bunch is discussed which takes advantage of the fact that only a few of the synchrotron modes can contribute in such a case. The effect of many bunches on the coherent motion of the beam and the longitudinal symmetric coupled bunch modes are discussed. The transverse impedance is then introduced, and the transverse coasting beam instability is discussed. Various bunched beam instabilities are discussed, including both single bunch instabilities and coupled bunch instabilities. The Vlasov equation for transverse as well as longitudinal motion of particles is introduced as well as a method of solving it within a linear approximation. Head-tail modes and short bunch instabilities and strong coupling instabilities in the long bunch case are covered. (LEW)

  10. On the interface instability during rapid evaporation in microgravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juric, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Theoretical Div.


    The rapid evaporation of a superheated liquid (vapor explosion) under microgravity conditions is studied by direct numerical simulation. The time-dependent Navier-Stokes and energy equations coupled to the interface dynamics are solved using a two-dimensional finite-difference/front-tracking method. Large interface deformations, topology change, latent heat, surface tension and unequal material properties between the liquid and vapor phases are included in the simulations. A comparison of numerical results to the exact solution of a one-dimensional test problem shows excellent agreement. For the two-dimensional rapid evaporation problem, the vapor volume growth rate and unstable interface dynamics are studied for increasing levels of initial liquid superheat. As the superheat is increased the liquid-vapor interface experiences increasingly unstable energetic growth. These results indicate that heat transfer plays a very important role in the instability mechanism leading to vapor explosions. It is suggested that the Mullins-Sekerka instability could play a role in the instability initiation mechanism.

  11. Sources of Economic Instability in Turkey (1990-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Main reflections of instability in an economy can be followed through the rate of economic growth, inflation, interest rate, and foreign debt stock, etc. The policies aiming to struggle against inflation have established the basis of the stability programs. This paper investigates the relationship between inflation, interest rate, foreign debt stock and economic growth by analysing the data of Turkish economy for the period of 1990-2008. Specifically, in this study, the time series properties of inflation, interest rate, foreign debt stock, and economic growth were ascertained with the help of augmented Dickey-Fuller Unit Root procedure. Then, the relationship between inflation, interest rate, foreign debt stock, and economic growth was examined at the context of a regression analysis

  12. Microsatellite instability in prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shan, A.L.; Wick, M.J.; Persons, D.L. [Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States)] [and others


    Microsatellite instability (MIN) has been documented in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) as well as in sporadic forms of human cancers. Two of the genes which appear to be responsible for this particular tumor phenotype, hMSH2 and hMLH1, have now been identified. To determine the potential role of these mutator genes in prostate cancer, we have examined 95 prostate adenocarcinomas (40 paraffin embedded and 55 fresh frozen) for the presence of genetic instability at four microsatellite markers. The markers are localized to chromosome arms 5q(APC-CA1), 8p(Mfd 210Z), 15q(635/636), and 17q(p53-CA). Patients from whom paraffin embedded material was obtained were divided into short term (<3 years, n=18), and long term (>3 years, n=22) survivors. Of the 95 tumors examined, only four tumors (4%) demonstrated MIN: two tumors demonstrated MIN at 3 loci (p53-CA, APC-CA1, 635/636), one tumor demonstrated MIN at 2 loci (APC-CA1 and 635/636), and one tumor demonstrated instability at 635/636 only. All tumors exhibiting MIN had Gleason scores of {ge} 4+4. A correlation between MIN and survival was not observed. Information on family history was limited. However, of the two patients demonstrating MIN at three loci, one patient was diagnosed with a second malignancy (TCC of the ureter), but otherwise had a negative family history, while the second patient had one first degree relative with esophageal cancer. The patient demonstrating MIN at two loci had a negative family history, while the remaining patient had two first degree relatives with cancer (prostate and stomach). These results suggest that hMSH2 and hMLH1 (as reflected by the small percentage of tumors displaying MIN) do not play a prominent role in the process of prostate tumorigenesis.

  13. Transverse Instabilities in the Fermilab Recycler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, L.R.; Burov, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Bhat, C.M.; Crisp, J.; Eddy, N.; /Fermilab


    Transverse instabilities of the antiproton beam have been observed in the Recycler ring soon after its commissioning. After installation of transverse dampers, the threshold for the instability limit increased significantly but the instability is still found to limit the brightness of the antiprotons extracted from the Recycler for Tevatron shots. In this paper, we describe observations of the instabilities during the extraction process as well as during dedicated studies. The measured instability threshold phase density agrees with the prediction of the rigid beam model within a factor of 2. Also, we conclude that the instability threshold can be significantly lowered for a bunch contained in a narrow and shallow potential well due to effective exclusion of the longitudinal tails from Landau damping.

  14. Mode-locking via dissipative Faraday instability. (United States)

    Tarasov, Nikita; Perego, Auro M; Churkin, Dmitry V; Staliunas, Kestutis; Turitsyn, Sergei K


    Emergence of coherent structures and patterns at the nonlinear stage of modulation instability of a uniform state is an inherent feature of many biological, physical and engineering systems. There are several well-studied classical modulation instabilities, such as Benjamin-Feir, Turing and Faraday instability, which play a critical role in the self-organization of energy and matter in non-equilibrium physical, chemical and biological systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate the dissipative Faraday instability induced by spatially periodic zig-zag modulation of a dissipative parameter of the system-spectrally dependent losses-achieving generation of temporal patterns and high-harmonic mode-locking in a fibre laser. We demonstrate features of this instability that distinguish it from both the Benjamin-Feir and the purely dispersive Faraday instability. Our results open the possibilities for new designs of mode-locked lasers and can be extended to other fields of physics and engineering.

  15. Compressibility effects on Rayleigh–Taylor instability in a vertical inhomogeneous rotating plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Hoshoudy


    Full Text Available Compressibility effects on Rayleigh–Taylor instability in inhomogeneous plasma rotating uniformly in an external vertical magnetic field have been investigated. Using the exponential density distribution and in the presence of a fixed boundary condition, the linear growth rate is obtained for a finite compressible plasma layer. As well as the linear growth rate of a heavy compressible plasma layer supported by a lighter one is obtained. It is shown that, in the case of a finite compressible plasma layer and in the absence of an external magnetic field the system is always instable, while in the presence of an external magnetic field the system capitulates to the stability role that plays it. In the case of two compressible plasma layers, the compressibility (the ratio of specific heat values has a stabilizing role that increases with the presence of an external vertical magnetic field. While the equilibrium pressure at the interface has an instability effect on the growth rates.

  16. Jeans instability of a rotating partially ionized and strongly coupled plasma with Hall current (United States)

    Jain, Shweta; Sharma, Prerana


    > A generalized hydrodynamic model is used to analyse the growth rate of the Jeans instability of a partially ionized strongly coupled plasma incorporating the effects of rotation and Hall current. The general dispersion relation is determined for the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic waves using the normal mode analysis theory. The general dispersion relation is further discussed in four different combinations of rotation and propagation of the system to signify the importance of rotation and neutral particles on the growth rates and conditions of Jeans instability in hydrodynamic and kinetic regimes. The different types of waves are also described in these cases. The influence of rotation and neutral particles on growth rate of the Jeans instability is analysed numerically and shown graphically. The possible applications of the present work are found in ultracold neutral plasmas, white dwarfs, neutron stars etc.

  17. Theory and calculations of synchrotron instabilities and feedback-mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijssen, T.E.M.


    The properties of the phenomenon synchrotron radiation are given with general theory on the basic processes and betatron and synchrotron oscillations. A more extended theoretical view at transverse instabilities and the influence of a damping feedback system are discussed. The longitudinal case is covered. For the calculations on the longitudinal case with M equally spaced pointbunches, with N electrons each, in the storage ring, the parasitic modes of the radio-frequency cavity were measured. A description of this is given. The values of damping rates of the longitudinal feedback system found, are as expected, but too low to damp the longitudinal instabilities calculated. This might be caused by the input data. The calculated growth rates are very sensitive to changes in frequency and width of the parasitic modes, which were measured under conditions differing slightly from the operating conditions.

  18. Ion-dust streaming instability with non-Maxwellian ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kählert, Hanno, E-mail: [Institut für Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstr. 15, 24098 Kiel (Germany)


    The influence of non-Maxwellian ions on the ion-dust streaming instability in a complex plasma is investigated. The ion susceptibility employed for the calculations self-consistently accounts for the acceleration of the ions by a homogeneous background electric field and their collisions with neutral gas particles via a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision term [e.g., A. V. Ivlev et al., Phys. Rev. E 71, 016405 (2005)], leading to significant deviations from a shifted Maxwellian distribution. The dispersion relation and the properties of the most unstable mode are studied in detail and compared with the Maxwellian case. The largest deviations occur at low to intermediate ion-neutral damping. In particular, the growth rate of the instability for ion streaming below the Bohm speed is found to be lower than in the case of Maxwellian ions, yet remains on a significant level even for fast ion flows above the Bohm speed.

  19. Nonlinear Effects at the Fermilab Recycler e-Cloud Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbekov, V. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    Theoretical analysis of e-cloud instability in the Fermilab Recycler is represented in the paper. The e-cloud in strong magnetic field is treated as a set of immovable snakes each being initiated by some proton bunch. It is shown that the instability arises because of injection errors of the bunches which increase in time and from bunch to bunch along the batch being amplified by the e-cloud electric field. The particular attention is given to nonlinear additions to the cloud field. It is shown that the nonlinearity is the main factor which restricts growth of the bunch amplitude. Possible role of the field free parts of the Recycler id discussed as well. Results of calculations are compared with experimental data demonstrating good correlation.

  20. Evaluation and Management of Posterior Shoulder Instability (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Eric; Sekiya, Jon K.


    Context: Posterior shoulder instability is a commonly misdiagnosed disorder in many competitive athletes. Type of Study: Clinical review. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies on posterior shoulder instability from 1950 to 2010 in PubMed and Cochrane databases were reviewed. Results: A total of 107 studies were reviewed. Conclusion: Patients who have undergone at least 6 months of physical therapy and still experience instability symptoms should be considered for surgical stabilization directed at their underlying pathology. PMID:23016015

  1. Kinetic-MHD simulations of gyroresonance instability driven by CR pressure anisotropy (United States)

    Lebiga, O.; Santos-Lima, R.; Yan, H.


    The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) is crucial for the understanding of almost all high-energy phenomena. Both pre-existing large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and locally generated turbulence through plasma instabilities are important for the CR propagation in astrophysical media. The potential role of the resonant instability triggered by CR pressure anisotropy to regulate the parallel spatial diffusion of low-energy CRs (≲ 100 GeV) in the interstellar and intracluster medium of galaxies (ISM and ICM) has been showed in previous theoretical works. This work aims to study the gyroresonance instability via direct numerical simulations, in order to access quantitatively the wave-particle scattering rates. For this we employ a 1D PIC-MHD code to follow the growth and saturation of the gyroresonance instability. We extract from the simulations the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient Dμμ produced by the instability during the linear and saturation phases, and a very good agreement (within a factor of 3) is found with the values predicted by the quasilinear theory (QLT). Our results support the applicability of the QLT for modeling the scattering of low-energy CRs by the gyroresonance instability in the complex interplay between this instability and the large-scale MHD turbulence.

  2. Spatially Developing Secondary Instabilities in Compressible Swept Airfoil Boundary Layers (United States)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.


    Two-dimensional eigenvalue analysis is used on a massive scale to study spatial instabilities of compressible shear flows with two inhomogeneous directions. The main focus of the study is crossflow dominated swept-wing boundary layers although the methodology can also be applied to study other type of flows, such as the attachment-line flow. Certain unique aspects of formulating a spatial, two-dimensional eigenvalue problem for the secondary instability of finite amplitude crossflow vortices are discussed, namely, fixing the spatial growth direction unambiguously through a non-orthogonal formulation of the linearized disturbance equations. A primary test case used for parameter study corresponds to the low-speed, NLF-0415(b) airfoil configuration as tested in the ASU Unsteady Wind Tunnel, wherein a spanwise periodic array of roughness elements was placed near the leading edge in order to excite stationary crossflow modes with a specified fundamental wavelength. The two classes of flow conditions selected for this analysis include those for which the roughness array spacing corresponds to either the naturally dominant crossflow wavelength, or a subcritical wavelength that serves to reduce the growth of the naturally excited dominant crossflow modes. Numerical predictions are compared with the measured database, both as indirect validation for the spatial instability analysis and to provide a basis for comparison with a higher Reynolds number, supersonic swept-wing configuration. Application of the eigenvalue analysis to the supersonic configuration reveals that a broad spectrum of stationary crossflow modes can sustain sufficiently strong secondary instabilities as to potentially cause transition over this configuration. Implications of this finding for transition control in swept wing boundary layers are examined.

  3. Instabilities of flows and transition to turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Sengupta, Tapan K


    Introduction to Instability and TransitionIntroductionWhat Is Instability?Temporal and Spatial InstabilitySome Instability MechanismsComputing Transitional and Turbulent FlowsFluid Dynamical EquationsSome Equilibrium Solutions of the Basic EquationBoundary Layer TheoryControl Volume Analysis of Boundary LayersNumerical Solution of the Thin Shear Layer (TSL) EquationLaminar Mixing LayerPlane Laminar JetIssues of Computing Space-Time Dependent FlowsWave Interaction: Group Velocity and Energy FluxIssues of Space-Time Scale Resolution of FlowsTemporal Scales in Turbulent FlowsComputing Time-Averag

  4. Review of two-phase instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Ok; Seo, Han Ok; Kang, Hyung Suk; Cho, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jeong


    KAERI is carrying out a development of the design for a new type of integral reactors. The once-through helical steam generator is important design features. The study on designs and operating conditions which prevent flow instability should precede the introduction of one-through steam generator. Experiments are currently scheduled to understand two-phase instability, evaluate the effect of each design parameter on the critical point, and determine proper inlet throttling for the prevention of instability. This report covers general two-phase instability with review of existing studies on this topics. The general classification of two phase flow instability and the characteristics of each type of instability are first described. Special attention is paid to BWR core flow instability and once-through steam generator instability. The reactivity feedback and the effect of system parameters are treated mainly for BWR. With relation to once-through steam generators, the characteristics of convective heating and dryout point oscillation are first investigated and then the existing experimental studies are summarized. Finally chapter summarized the proposed correlations for instability boundary conditions. (author). 231 refs., 5 tabs., 47 figs

  5. Systems and methods for controlling flame instability

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk


    A system (62) for controlling flame instability comprising: a nozzle (66) coupled to a fuel supply line (70), an insulation housing (74) coupled to the nozzle, a combustor (78) coupled to the nozzle via the insulation housing, where the combustor is grounded (80), a pressure sensor (82) coupled to the combustor and configured to detect pressure in the combustor, and an instability controlling assembly coupled to the pressure sensor and to an alternating current power supply (86), where, the instability controlling assembly can control flame instability of a flame in the system based on pressure detected by the pressure sensor.

  6. Combustion instability modeling and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)] [and others


    It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. Clearly, the key to successful gas turbine development is based on understanding the effects of geometry and operating conditions on combustion instability, emissions (including UHC, CO and NO{sub x}) and performance. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors.

  7. Option price and market instability (United States)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Yu, Miao


    An option pricing formula, for which the price of an option depends on both the value of the underlying security as well as the velocity of the security, has been proposed in Baaquie and Yang (2014). The FX (foreign exchange) options price was empirically studied in Baaquie et al., (2014), and it was found that the model in general provides an excellent fit for all strike prices with a fixed model parameters-unlike the Black-Scholes option price Hull and White (1987) that requires the empirically determined implied volatility surface to fit the option data. The option price proposed in Baaquie and Cao Yang (2014) did not fit the data during the crisis of 2007-2008. We make a hypothesis that the failure of the option price to fit data is an indication of the market's large deviation from its near equilibrium behavior due to the market's instability. Furthermore, our indicator of market's instability is shown to be more accurate than the option's observed volatility. The market prices of the FX option for various currencies are studied in the light of our hypothesis.

  8. Manual testing for ankle instability. (United States)

    Wilkin, Emily Jane; Hunt, Adrienne; Nightingale, Elizabeth Jean; Munn, Joanne; Kilbreath, Sharon Lynne; Refshauge, Kathryn Margaret


    To assess inter-rater reliability of ankle manual tests. We also correlated the manual tests with the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT). One ankle from each of 60 participants was assessed using four different manual tests (anterior drawer in supine and crook lying, talar tilt, inversion tilt). Three different raters, varying in experience, tested each participant. The CAIT questionnaire was also administered. The study received ethics approval from the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of the mean (SEM) and percent close agreement (PCA) were used to determine reliability of the four tests. Pearson's correlation coefficients were used to determine relationships between the manual tests and CAIT scores. Inter-rater reliability for the four manual tests was poor regardless of therapist's experience (ICC([1,1]) -0.12 to 0.33; SEM 0.93-1.69). Correlations between the CAIT and manual tests were also low varying between r = -0.12 and -0.42. Inter-rater reliability was poor for manual tests of ankle stability. Reliability may be improved by using a grading scale with fewer intervals. The CAIT scores and manual tests correlated poorly, potentially reflecting the variety of conditions leading to ankle instability. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adhesional instabilities and gecko locomotion (United States)

    Williams, John A.


    Geckos possess a remarkable ability to run rapidly on both walls and ceilings and in recent years the mechanisms that underlie this facility have come under close scrutiny. It is now generally agreed that one of the principal mechanisms of adhesion relies on the action of van der Waal forces acting between the final extremely fine structure of the gecko toe and the underlying substrate. High speed video analysis shows that adhesive contact is both made and broken in intervals of less than 20 ms and this suggests that the mechanism of detachment is one of adhesive instability rather than steady-state peeling. By considering the gecko seta/spatula as a Euler-Bernoulli cantilever it is possible to model this instability in non-dimensional terms and thus to test the analysis at a much larger scale with more conventional engineering materials. When applied to the scale and material combination appropriate to a gecko spatula, the predicted critical load, of around 10 nN, is close to values that have been observed using and AFM cantilever and a single detached spatula.

  10. Suppression of Beam-Ion Instability in Electron Rings with Multi-Bunch Train Beam Fillings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L.; Cai, Y.; Raubenheimer, T.O.; /SLAC; Fukuma, H.; /KEK, Tsukuba


    The ion-caused beam instability in the future light sources and electron damping rings can be serious due to the high beam current and ultra-small emittance of picometer level. One simple and effective mitigation of the instability is a multi-bunch train beam filling pattern which can significantly reduce the ion density near the beam, and therefore reduce the instability growth rate up to two orders of magnitude. The suppression is more effective for high intensity beams with low emittance. The distribution and the field of trapped ions are benchmarked to validate the model used in the paper. The wake field of ion-cloud and the beam-ion instability is investigated both analytically and numerically. We derived a simple formula for the build-up of ion-cloud and instability growth rate with the multi-bunch-train filling pattern. The ion instabilities in ILC damping ring, SuperKEKB and SPEAR3 are used to compare with our analyses. The analyses in this paper agree well with simulations.

  11. Interface instability modes in freezing colloidal suspensions - revealed from onset of planar instability


    Lilin Wang; Jiaxue You; Zhijun Wang; Jincheng Wang; Xin Lin


    Freezing colloidal suspensions widely exists in nature and industry. Interface instability has attracted much attention for the understandings of the pattern formation in freezing colloidal suspensions. However, the interface instability modes, the origin of the ice banding or ice lamellae, are still unclear. In-situ experimental observation of the onset of interface instability remains absent up to now. Here, by directly imaging the initial transient stage of planar interface instability in ...

  12. The double-gradient model of flapping instability with oblique wave vector (United States)

    Korovinskiy, Daniil; Kiehas, Stefan


    The double-gradient model of magnetotail flapping oscillations/instability is generalized for the case of oblique propagation in the equatorial plane. The transversal direction Y (in GSM reference system) of the wave vector is found to be preferable, showing the highest growth rates of kink and sausage double-gradient unstable modes. Growth rates decrease with the wave vector rotating toward the X direction. It is found that neither waves nor instability with a wave vector pointing toward the Earth/magnetotail can develop.

  13. Fate of non-Abelian plasma instabilities in 3+1 dimensions (United States)

    Arnold, Peter; Moore, Guy D.; Yaffe, Laurence G.


    Plasma instabilities can play a fundamental role in plasma equilibration. There are similarities and differences between plasma instabilities in Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories. In particular, it has been an open question whether non-Abelian self-interactions are the limiting factor in the growth of non-Abelian plasma instabilities. We study this problem with 3+1 dimensional numerical simulations. We find that non-Abelian plasma instabilities behave very differently from Abelian ones once they grow to be nonperturbatively large, in contrast with earlier results of 1+1 dimensional simulations. In particular, they grow more slowly at late times, with linear rather than exponential dependence of magnetic energy on time.

  14. Richtmyer–Meshkov instability of a thermal interface in a two-fluid plasma

    KAUST Repository

    Bond, D.


    We computationally investigate the Richtmyer–Meshkov instability of a density interface with a single-mode perturbation in a two-fluid, ion–electron plasma with no initial magnetic field. Self-generated magnetic fields arise subsequently. We study the case where the density jump across the initial interface is due to a thermal discontinuity, and select plasma parameters for which two-fluid plasma effects are expected to be significant in order to elucidate how they alter the instability. The instability is driven via a Riemann problem generated precursor electron shock that impacts the density interface ahead of the ion shock. The resultant charge separation and motion generates electromagnetic fields that cause the electron shock to degenerate and periodically accelerate the electron and ion interfaces, driving Rayleigh–Taylor instability. This generates small-scale structures and substantially increases interfacial growth over the hydrodynamic case.

  15. MHD Ballooning Instability in the Plasma Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.Z. Cheng; S. Zaharia


    Based on the ideal-MHD model the stability of ballooning modes is investigated by employing realistic 3D magnetospheric equilibria, in particular for the substorm growth phase. Previous MHD ballooning stability calculations making use of approximations on the plasma compressibility can give rise to erroneous conclusions. Our results show that without making approximations on the plasma compressibility the MHD ballooning modes are unstable for the entire plasma sheet where beta (sub)eq is greater than or equal to 1, and the most unstable modes are located in the strong cross-tail current sheet region in the near-Earth plasma sheet, which maps to the initial brightening location of the breakup arc in the ionosphere. However, the MHD beq threshold is too low in comparison with observations by AMPTE/CCE at X = -(8 - 9)R(sub)E, which show that a low-frequency instability is excited only when beq increases over 50. The difficulty is mitigated by considering the kinetic effects of ion gyrorad ii and trapped electron dynamics, which can greatly increase the stabilizing effects of field line tension and thus enhance the beta(sub)eq threshold [Cheng and Lui, 1998]. The consequence is to reduce the equatorial region of the unstable ballooning modes to the strong cross-tail current sheet region where the free energy associated with the plasma pressure gradient and magnetic field curvature is maximum.

  16. Theoretical and simulation research of hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial-confinement fusion implosions (United States)

    Wang, LiFeng; Ye, WenHua; He, XianTu; Wu, JunFeng; Fan, ZhengFeng; Xue, Chuang; Guo, HongYu; Miao, WenYong; Yuan, YongTeng; Dong, JiaQin; Jia, Guo; Zhang, Jing; Li, YingJun; Liu, Jie; Wang, Min; Ding, YongKun; Zhang, WeiYan


    Inertial fusion energy (IFE) has been considered a promising, nearly inexhaustible source of sustainable carbon-free power for the world's energy future. It has long been recognized that the control of hydrodynamic instabilities is of critical importance for ignition and high-gain in the inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) hot-spot ignition scheme. In this mini-review, we summarize the progress of theoretical and simulation research of hydrodynamic instabilities in the ICF central hot-spot implosion in our group over the past decade. In order to obtain sufficient understanding of the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities in ICF, we first decompose the problem into different stages according to the implosion physics processes. The decomposed essential physics pro- cesses that are associated with ICF implosions, such as Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI), Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI), Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI), convergent geometry effects, as well as perturbation feed-through are reviewed. Analyti- cal models in planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries have been established to study different physical aspects, including density-gradient, interface-coupling, geometry, and convergent effects. The influence of ablation in the presence of preheating on the RTI has been extensively studied by numerical simulations. The KHI considering the ablation effect has been discussed in detail for the first time. A series of single-mode ablative RTI experiments has been performed on the Shenguang-II laser facility. The theoretical and simulation research provides us the physical insights of linear and weakly nonlinear growths, and nonlinear evolutions of the hydrodynamic instabilities in ICF implosions, which has directly supported the research of ICF ignition target design. The ICF hot-spot ignition implosion design that uses several controlling features, based on our current understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities, to address shell implosion stability, has

  17. Proton beam emittance growth in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Zhang


    Full Text Available With the significant beam intensity improvement in RHIC polarized proton run 2005 and run 2006, the emittance growth becomes a luminosity limiting factor. The beam emittance growth has a dependence on the dynamic pressure rise, which in RHIC proton runs is mainly caused by the electron cloud. The dependence of the emittance growth on other electron cloud related parameters is also identified. The beam instability is usually absent, and the emittance growth rate is much slower than the ones typically caused by the head-tail instability. It is suspected that the emittance growth is caused by the electron cloud below the instability threshold. A discussion follows.

  18. Instability of vortex pair leapfrogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tophøj, Laust; Aref, Hassan


    Leapfrogging is a periodic solution of the four-vortex problem with two positive and two negative point vortices all of the same absolute circulation arranged as co-axial vortex pairs. The set of co-axial motions can be parameterized by the ratio 0 vortex pair sizes at the time when one...... pair passes through the other. Leapfrogging occurs for α > σ2, where is the silver ratio. The motion is known in full analytical detail since the 1877 thesis of Gröbli and a well known 1894 paper by Love. Acheson ["Instability of vortex leapfrogging," Eur. J. Phys.21, 269-273 (2000...... pairs fly off to infinity, and a "walkabout" mode, where the vortices depart from leapfrogging but still remain within a finite distance of one another. We show numerically that this transition is more gradual, a result that we relate to earlier investigations of chaotic scattering of vortex pairs [L...

  19. Instability Threshold “Hysteresis”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Muszynska


    Full Text Available The transient process which starts at the instability threshold of a rotor rotating in a fluid environment, and ends up in the limit cycle of self-excited vibrations known as fluid whirl or fluid whip, is discussed in this paper. A one-lateral-mode, isotropic, nonlinear model of the rotor with fluid interaction allows for exact particular solutions and an estimation of the transient process. The fluid interacting with the rotor is contained in a small radial clearance area, such as in bearings, seals, or rotor-to-stator clearances, and its effects are represented by fluid film radial stiffness, damping, and fluid inertia rotating at a different angular velocities.

  20. Instabilities in coaxial rotating jets (United States)

    Ivanic, Tanja; Foucault, Eric; Pecheux, Jean; Gilard, Virginie


    The aim of this study is the characterization of the cylindrical mixing layer resulting from the interaction of two coaxial swirling jets. The experimental part of this study was performed in a cylindrical water tunnel, permitting an independent rotation of two coaxial jets. The rotations are generated by means of 2×36 blades localized in two swirling chambers. As expected, the evolution of the main instability modes presents certain differences compared to the plane-mixing-layer case. Experimental results obtained by tomography showed the existence of vortex rings and streamwise vortex pairs in the near field region. This method also permitted the observation of the evolution and interaction of different modes. PIV velocity measurements realized in the meridian plans and the plans perpendicular to the jet axis show that rotation distorts the typical top-hat axial velocity profile. The transition of the axial velocity profile from jet-like into wake-like is also observed.

  1. Plasma instabilities in high electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawetz, K.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka


    expression is derived for the nonequilibrium dielectric function epsilon(K, omega). For certain values of momenta K and frequency omega, Imepsilon(K, omega) becomes negative, implying a plasma instability. This new instability exists only for strong electric fields, underlining its nonequilibrium origin....

  2. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability. (United States)

    Nettle, Daniel; Grace, James B; Choisy, Marc; Cornell, Howard V; Guégan, Jean-François; Hochberg, Michael E


    Social scientists have suggested that cultural diversity in a nation leads to societal instability. However, societal instability may be affected not only by within-nation or alpha diversity, but also diversity between a nation and its neighbours or beta diversity. It is also necessary to distinguish different domains of diversity, namely linguistic, ethnic and religious, and to distinguish between the direct effects of diversity on societal instability, and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the direct and indirect effects of cultural diversity on economics and societal stability. Results show that different types and domains of diversity have interacting effects. As previously documented, linguistic alpha diversity has a negative effect on economic performance, and we show that it is largely through this economic mechanism that it affects societal instability. For beta diversity, the higher the linguistic diversity among nations in a region, the less stable the nation. But, religious beta diversity has the opposite effect, reducing instability, particularly in the presence of high linguistic diversity. Within-nation linguistic diversity is associated with reduced economic performance, which, in turn, increases societal instability. Nations which differ linguistically from their neighbors are also less stable. However, religious diversity between neighboring nations has the opposite effect, decreasing societal instability.

  3. Recurrent Shoulder Instability After Primary Bankart Repair. (United States)

    Donohue, Michael A; Mauntel, Timothy C; Dickens, Jonathan F


    The glenohumeral joint is one of the most frequently dislocated joints and occurs with increasing frequency in collision and contact athletes, especially those in sports that repeatedly place the glenohumeral joint in a position of vulnerability. Nonoperative management of shoulder instability especially in young contact athletes results in unacceptably high recurrence rates; thus, early surgical stabilization has become commonplace. Surgical stabilization typically yields acceptable outcomes. However, recurrent anterior instability may occur following a previous stabilization procedure at rates of 7% to 12%. Recurrent glenohumeral instability represents a treatment challenge for orthopedic surgeons as it not only has the potential to result in subsequent surgery, therapy, and missed activity time, but also has been associated with long-term degenerative joint changes. Thus, recurrent instability requires close examination to determine underlying pathology leading to failure. Evaluation of underlying pathology requires consideration of patient activity-related factors, hyperlaxity and multidirectional instability, glenoid bone loss, glenoid track lesions, and other pathologic lesions. Revision surgical stabilization approaches include arthroscopic and open stabilization, as well as glenoid osseous augmentation procedures. Postoperative rehabilitation and release to sports and activity must be tailored to protect the shoulder from continued instability. Understanding that risk of recurrent glenohumeral instability and the risk factors associated with it are essential so that these factors may be mitigated and recurrent instability prevented.

  4. Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharapov, S. E.; Alper, B.; Berk, H. L.; Borba, D. N.; Breizman, B. N.; Challis, C. D.; Classen, I.G.J.; Edlund, E. M.; Eriksson, J.; Fasoli, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; M. García-Muñoz,; Gassner, T.; Ghantous, K.; Goloborodko, V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Hacquin, S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hellesen, C.; Kiptily, V. G.; Kramer, G. J.; Lauber, P.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisak, M.; Nabais, F.; Nazikian, R.; Nyqvist, R.; Osakabe, M.; C. Perez von Thun,; Pinches, S. D.; Podesta, M.; Porkolab, M.; Shinohara, K.; Schoepf, K.; Todo, Y.; Toi, K.; VanZeeland, M. A.; Voitsekhovich, I.; White, R. B.; Yavorskij, V.; ITPA EP TG Contributors,; JET-EFDA Contributors,


    Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfvén instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and

  5. The short circuit instability in protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubbard, A.; McNally, C.P.; Mac Low, M.M.


    We introduce a magneto-hydrodynamic instability which occurs, among other locations, in the inner, hot regions of protoplanetary disks, and which alters the way in which resistive dissipation of magnetic energy into heat proceeds. This instability can be likened to both an electrical short circui...

  6. Instabilities and transition in boundary layers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Some recent developments in boundary layer instabilities and transition are reviewed. Background disturbance levels determine the instability mechanism that ulti- mately leads to turbulence. At low noise levels, the traditional Tollmien–Schlichting route is followed, while at high levels, a 'by-pass' route is more ...

  7. Gravitational Instability of Cylindrical Viscoelastic Medium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    field on the gravitational instability of strongly coupled plasma and observed that instability criterion gets modified due to the presence of non uniform magnetic field in transverse mode of wave propagation under both the kinetic and hydrodynamic limits, when the viscoelastic medium is infinitely electrically conducting.

  8. Two Stream Instability in Magnetized Warm Plasma under the Ionization Effect (United States)

    Jyoti, -; Malik, Hitendra K.


    Two - stream instability is considered in the presence of magnetic field in inhomogeneous plasma. The continuity and the momentum equation which take into account the ionization constant are formulated for ions and the electrons including the effect of finite temperature of ions along with the ionization effect. Using normal mode analysis along with linear approximation, potential is found from Poisson's equation neglecting higher order perturbed terms. The behavior of growth rate with magnetic field and the propagation angle along with ionization constant has been studied with different plasma oscillation wavelength to Debye length ratio for both the laboratory as well as the space plasma parameters. We observe two types of instability in both the cases. In case of laboratory plasma one of the instability is growing at larger plasma oscillation wavelength and another one at lower wavelength while in the case of space plasma both the instabilities grow only at smaller plasma oscillation wavelength but with different growth rates. All the instabilities has higher growth rate at smaller wave length of oscillations. Effect of finite ion temperature is studied with respect to different electron temperature both in the laboratory as well as in space plasma.

  9. Unique features of parallel whistler instability in a plasma with anisotropic Cairns distribution (United States)

    Usman Malik, M.; Masood, W.; Mirza, Arshad M.


    In this paper, whistler waves propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field with electron temperature anisotropy are investigated by employing the kinetic theory of plasmas. The electron distribution function is considered to follow the Cairns distribution. The dispersion relation for the whistler waves with Cairns distribution is derived, and the condition for the onset of instability is also obtained. It is found that the Cairns distribution significantly modifies the instability condition for the growth of whistler instability. The comparison of the dispersion characteristics and the growth rate with Maxwellian distribution is also made, and it is observed that Cairns distributed electrons yield a higher growth rate in comparison to their Maxwellian counterparts. It is also shown that unlike the kappa distribution where parallel electron beta was found to play the key role, whistler instability with Cairns distributed electrons shows a greater sensitivity towards electron temperature anisotropy. It is shown that the real frequency of the whistler waves shows a greater dependence on the choice of parallel electron beta. Interestingly, it is found that a particular combination of parallel electron beta and electron temperature anisotropy is deleterious for the whistler instability.

  10. Genetically determined chromosome instability syndromes. (United States)

    Schroeder, T M


    Spontaneously increased chromosomal instability is well documented in the three autosomal recessive diseases, Fanconi's anemia (FA), Bloom's syndrome (BS), and ataxia telangiectasia (AT). Other conditions have been reported to be associated with chromosomal breakage. Some are still single observations: in Werner's syndrome only fibroblasts are affected, and systemic sclerosis may not be an inherited disease. Various aspects of FA, BS, and AT are discussed which have emerged since recent reviews have been published. The differential diagnosis in FA has become more important than it was in the past. Proven heterogeneity in FA demands definition of what to name FA and FA variants. The analysis of cancer frequencies and types in FA and AT lacks important clues. This should stimulate all of us to mutual exchange of data and creation of registries not only of patients and follow-ups, but also of characterized cell strains. A synopsis of results from cell and cytogenetic studies demonstrates similarities and differences in detail of the general phenomenon of chromosomal instability which FA, BS, and AT share. Results from biochemical studies at the DNA level together with cytogenetic findings indicate different but still undefined failures in DNA metabolism or DNA repair mechanisms due to the different genes. A new approach to analyzing the impairment of DNA repair in FA is briefly described. DNA related enzymes are produced in the cytoplasm and have to be transported to the nucleus. The subcellular distribution of topoisomerase activity was found to be unusual in three placentas of FA patients. Other DNA enzymes were distributed normally. Thus, a specific mechanism for movement of the enzyme through the nuclear membrane seems to be defective.

  11. Linear Analysis of Converging Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in the Presence of an Azimuthal Magnetic Field

    KAUST Repository

    Bakhsh, Abeer


    We investigate the linear stability of both positive and negative Atwood ratio interfaces accelerated either by a fast magnetosonic or hydrodynamic shock in cylindrical geometry. For the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) case, we examine the role of an initial seed azimuthal magnetic field on the growth rate of the perturbation. In the absence of a magnetic field, the Richtmyer-Meshkov growth is followed by an exponentially increasing growth associated with the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. In the MHD case, the growth rate of the instability reduces in proportion to the strength of the applied magnetic field. The suppression mechanism is associated with the interference of two waves running parallel and anti-parallel to the interface that transport of vorticity and cause the growth rate to oscillate in time with nearly a zero mean value.

  12. Surface instabilities during straining of anisotropic materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Richelsen, Ann Bettina


    The development of instabilities in traction-free surfaces is investigated numerically using a unit cell model. Full finite strain analyses are conducted using isotropic as well as anisotropic yield criteria and both plane strain tension and compression are considered. In the load range of tension...... of principal overall strain. For other orientations surface instabilities are seen when non-associated plastic flow is taken into account. Compared to tension, smaller compressive deformations are needed in order to initiate a surface instability....... investigated, it is found that isotropic plasticity can only predict surface instabilities if non-associated plastic flow is accounted for. However, for anisotropic plasticity a surface instability is observed for associated plastic flow if the principal axes of anisotropy coincide with the directions...

  13. Taming contact line instability for pattern formation (United States)

    Deblais, A.; Harich, R.; Colin, A.; Kellay, H.


    Coating surfaces with different fluids is prone to instability producing inhomogeneous films and patterns. The contact line between the coating fluid and the surface to be coated is host to different instabilities, limiting the use of a variety of coating techniques. Here we take advantage of the instability of a receding contact line towards cusp and droplet formation to produce linear patterns of variable spacings. We stabilize the instability of the cusps towards droplet formation by using polymer solutions that inhibit this secondary instability and give rise to long slender cylindrical filaments. We vary the speed of deposition to change the spacing between these filaments. The combination of the two gives rise to linear patterns into which different colloidal particles can be embedded, long DNA molecules can be stretched and particles filtered by size. The technique is therefore suitable to prepare anisotropic structures with variable properties.

  14. Tensile Instability in a Thick Elastic Body (United States)

    Overvelde, Johannes; Dykstra, David; de Rooij, Rijk; Bertoldi, Katia

    A range of instabilities can occur in soft bodies that undergo large deformation. While most of them arise under compressive forces, it has previously been shown analytically that a tensile instability can occur in an elastic block subjected to equitriaxial tension. Guided by this result, we conducted centimeter-scale experiments on thick elastomeric samples under generalized plane strain conditions and observed for the first time this elastic tensile instability. We found that equibiaxial stretching leads to the formation of a wavy pattern, as regions of the sample alternatively flatten and extend in the out-of-plane direction. Our work uncovers a new type of instability that can be triggered in elastic bodies, enlarging the design space for smart structures that harness instabilities to enhance their functionality.

  15. Feathering instability of spiral arms. II. Parameter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wing-Kit, E-mail: [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424, USAAND (United States); Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan (China)


    We report the results of a parameter study of the feathering stability in the galactic spiral arms. A two-dimensional, razor-thin magnetized self-gravitating gas disk with an imposed two-armed stellar spiral structure is considered. Using the formulation developed previously by Lee and Shu, a linear stability analysis of the spiral shock is performed in a localized Cartesian geometry. Results of the parameter study of the base state with a spiral shock are also presented. The single-mode feathering instability that leads to growing perturbations may explain the feathering phenomenon found in nearby spiral galaxies. The self-gravity of the gas, characterized by its average surface density, is an important parameter that (1) shifts the spiral shock farther downstream and (2) increases the growth rate and decreases the characteristic spacing of the feathering structure due to the instability. On the other hand, while the magnetic field suppresses the velocity fluctuation associated with the feathers, it does not strongly affect their growth rate. Using a set of typical parameters of the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 at 2 kpc from the center, the spacing of the feathers with the maximum growth rate is found to be 530 pc, which agrees with the previous observational studies.

  16. Feathering Instability of Spiral Arms. II. Parameter Study (United States)

    Lee, Wing-Kit


    We report the results of a parameter study of the feathering stability in the galactic spiral arms. A two-dimensional, razor-thin magnetized self-gravitating gas disk with an imposed two-armed stellar spiral structure is considered. Using the formulation developed previously by Lee & Shu, a linear stability analysis of the spiral shock is performed in a localized Cartesian geometry. Results of the parameter study of the base state with a spiral shock are also presented. The single-mode feathering instability that leads to growing perturbations may explain the feathering phenomenon found in nearby spiral galaxies. The self-gravity of the gas, characterized by its average surface density, is an important parameter that (1) shifts the spiral shock farther downstream and (2) increases the growth rate and decreases the characteristic spacing of the feathering structure due to the instability. On the other hand, while the magnetic field suppresses the velocity fluctuation associated with the feathers, it does not strongly affect their growth rate. Using a set of typical parameters of the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 at 2 kpc from the center, the spacing of the feathers with the maximum growth rate is found to be 530 pc, which agrees with the previous observational studies.

  17. Linear and nonlinear theory of trapped-particle instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, W.M.; Adam, J.C.; Cohen, B.I.


    This paper analyzes several important features of trapped-particle instabilities. For trapped-electron modes, the complete two-dimensional (2D) spatial structure, including the effects of magnetic shear, is numerically calculated within the framework of a differential formulation for long radial wavelength modes. Growth rates obtained for representative cases correlate reasonably well with the usual one-dimensional (1D) estimates of shear stabilization. However, the spatial structure of the mode differs markedly; e.g., it typically extends over several mode-rational surfaces. At the shorter wavelengths, where the maximum growth rates of the modes typically occur, it is necessary to introduce an integral equation formulation for calculating the radial dependence. Growth rates from this 2D analysis are significantly smaller than 1D estimates, and the poloidal mode structure exhibits a pronounced localization at the magnetic field minimum. Specific collisional mechanisms affecting the linear stability of these modes are also studied. Collisional scattering of low energy electrons can reduce the nonadiabatic trapped-electron response, and collisional broadening can strongly modify the resonant response of the untrapped electrons. The saturation of the usual form of the dissipative trapped-ion instability by mode coupling is studied analytically and numerically.

  18. Microphysical Effects on the Instabilities of Astrophysical Flames (United States)

    Dursi, L. J.; Rosner, R.; Zingale, M.; Calder, A. C.; Fryxell, B.; Timmes, F. X.; Vladimirova, N.; Caceres, A.; Lamb, D. Q.; Olson, K.; Ricker, P. M.; Riley, K.; Siegel, A.; Truran, J. W.


    Large-scale simulations of supernovae of Type Ia, which are essential for the ultimate understanding of the supernovae mechanism, need flame physics input at three stages: Ignition and early flame propagation, Large scale burning in a turbulent medium, and a transition to detonation, should one occur. One aspect of our investigation of flame physics has been to examine the behavior of well-known flame instabilities such as Landau-Darrieus in the context of astrophysical flames and degenerate matter. These instabilities can distort and wrinkle the flame surface, increasing the amount of burning and thus the rate of energy input. We have examined both the effects of magnetic fields, and flame curvature and strain in degenerate material, on the growth rate of these instabilities. LJD was supported by the Department of Energy Computational Science Graduate Fellowship Program of the Office of Scientific Computing and Office of Defense Programs in the Department of Energy under contract DE-FG02-97ER25308.

  19. Temporal instability analysis of inviscid compound jets falling under gravity (United States)

    Mohsin, Muhammad; Uddin, Jamal; Decent, Stephen P.; Afzaal, Muhammad F.


    Compound liquid jets can be used in a variety of industrial applications ranging from capsule production in pharmaceutics to enhance printing methods in ink-jet printing. An appreciation of how instability along compound jets can lead to breakup and droplet formation is thus critical in many fields in science and engineering. In this paper, we perform a theoretical analysis to examine the instability of an axisymmetric inviscid compound liquid jet which falls vertically under the influence of gravity. We use a long-wavelength, slender-jet asymptotic expansion to reduce the governing equations of the problem into a set of one-dimensional partial differential equations, which describe the evolution of the leading-order axial velocity of the jet as well as the radii of both the inner and the outer interfaces. We first determine the steady-state solutions of the one-dimensional model equations and then we perform a linear temporal instability analysis to obtain a dispersion relation, which gives us useful information about the maximum growth rate and the maximum wavenumber of the imposed wave-like disturbance. We use our results to estimate the location and qualitative nature of breakup and then compare our results with numerical simulations.

  20. Morphological instability of core-shell metallic nanoparticles (United States)

    Bochicchio, Davide; Ferrando, Riccardo


    Bimetallic nanoparticles (often known as nanoalloys) with core-shell arrangement are of special interest in several applications, such as in optics, catalysis, magnetism, and biomedicine. Despite wide interest in applications, the physical factors stabilizing the structures of these nanoparticles are still unclear to a great extent, especially for what concerns the relationship between geometric structure and chemical ordering patterns. Here global-optimization searches are performed in order to single out the most stable chemical ordering patterns corresponding to the most important geometric structures, for a series of weakly miscible systems, including AgCu, AgNi, AgCo, and AuCo. The calculations show that (i) the overall geometric structure of the nanoalloy and the shape and placement of its inner core are strictly correlated; (ii) centered cores can be obtained in icosahedral nanoparticles but not in crystalline or decahedral ones, in which asymmetric quasi-Janus morphologies form; (iii) in icosahedral nanoparticles, when the core exceeds a critical size, a new type of morphological instability develops, making the core asymmetric and extending it towards the nanoparticle surface; (iv) multicenter patterns can be obtained in polyicosahedral nanoalloys. Analogies and differences between the instability of the core in icosahedral nanoalloys and the Stranski-Krastanov instability occurring in thin-film growth are discussed. All these issues are crucial for designing strategies to achieve effective coatings of the cores.

  1. Analysis of thermodiffusive cellular instabilities in continuum combustion fronts (United States)

    Azizi, Hossein; Gurevich, Sebastian; Provatas, Nikolas


    We explore numerically the morphological patterns of thermodiffusive instabilities in combustion fronts with a continuum fuel source, within a range of Lewis numbers and ignition temperatures, focusing on the cellular regime. For this purpose, we generalize the recent model of Brailovsky et al. to include distinct process kinetics and reactant heterogeneity. The generalized model is derived analytically and validated with other established models in the limit of infinite Lewis number for zero-order and first-order kinetics. Cellular and dendritic instabilities are found at low Lewis numbers. These are studied using a dynamic adaptive mesh refinement technique that allows very large computational domains, thus allowing us to reduce finite-size effects that can affect or even preclude the emergence of these patterns. Our numerical linear stability analysis is consistent with the analytical results of Brailovsky et al. The distinct types of dynamics found in the vicinity of the critical Lewis number, ranging from steady-state cells to continued tip splitting and cell merging, are well described within the framework of thermodiffusive instabilities and are consistent with previous numerical studies. These types of dynamics are classified as "quasilinear" and characterized by low-amplitude cells that may be strongly affected by the mode selection mechanism and growth prescribed by the linear theory. Below this range of Lewis number, highly nonlinear effects become prominent and large-amplitude, complex cellular and seaweed dendritic morphologies emerge.

  2. The asymptotic behavior of Buneman instability in dissipative plasma (United States)

    Rostomyan, Eduard V.


    The problem of time evolution of initial perturbation excited at the development of the Buneman instability (BI) in plasma with dissipation is solved. Developing fields are presented in the form of a wave train with slowly varying amplitude. It is shown that the evolution of the initial pulse in space and time is given by the differential equation of third order. The equation is solved and the expression for the asymptotic pulse shape is obtained. The expression gives the most complete information on the instability: the space-time distribution of the fields, growth rates, velocities of unstable perturbations, the influence of the collisions/dissipation on the instability, its character, (absolute/convective), etc. All these characteristics of the BI are carried out by analyzing the expression for the shape. The obtained results may be applied to any system in which the red-shifted electron stream oscillations resonantly interact with ions. Asymptotic shapes of the BI are presented for various levels of dissipation.

  3. Hall effect on tearing mode instabilities in tokamak (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Ma, Z. W.; Wang, S.


    The tearing mode instability is one of the most important dynamic processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Hall effects, resulting from the decoupling of electron and ion motions, can cause fast development and rotation of the perturbation structure of the tearing mode. A high-accuracy nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics code is developed to study Hall effects on the evolution of tearing modes in the Tokamak geometry. It is found that the linear growth rate increases with the increase in the ion skin depth and the self-consistently generated rotation can greatly alter the dynamic behavior of the double tearing mode.

  4. Numerical study of two-dimensional moist symmetric instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fantini


    Full Text Available The 2-D version of the non-hydrostatic fully compressible model MOLOCH developed at ISAC-CNR was used in idealized set-up to study the start-up and finite amplitude evolution of symmetric instability. The unstable basic state was designed by numerical integration of the equation which defines saturated equivalent potential vorticity qe*. We present the structure and growth rates of the linear modes both for a supersaturated initial state ("super"-linear mode and for a saturated one ("pseudo"-linear mode and the modifications induced on the base state by their finite amplitude evolution.

  5. Study of an instability of the PEP-II positron beam (Ohmi effect and Multipactoring)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heifets, S.A. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    The processes defining the density distribution of the photoelectrons are quite complicated. In this study, a simplified model of the instability was used to get a quick estimate of the growth rate of the instability and the relative importance of the parameters, as has been done in Ohmi`s paper. The production rate and dynamics of the photoelectrons are studied for the PEP-II parameters. The growth rate of the transverse instability driven by the primary photoelectrons is of the order of 0.7 msec for the PEP-II parameters. The multipactoring at resonance currents cannot produce large electron density due to the final energy spread caused by the finite bunch length and the intrinsic energy spread of the secondary electrons. Production of the secondary electrons may lead to large average densities. The ion can be produced in electron collisions with the residual gas with density of the order of the electron density. (G.K.)

  6. Linear Simulations of the Cylindrical Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability in Hydrodynamics and MHD

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Song


    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability occurs when density-stratified interfaces are impulsively accelerated, typically by a shock wave. We present a numerical method to simulate the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in cylindrical geometry. The ideal MHD equations are linearized about a time-dependent base state to yield linear partial differential equations governing the perturbed quantities. Convergence tests demonstrate that second order accuracy is achieved for smooth flows, and the order of accuracy is between first and second order for flows with discontinuities. Numerical results are presented for cases of interfaces with positive Atwood number and purely azimuthal perturbations. In hydrodynamics, the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability growth of perturbations is followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor growth phase. In MHD, numerical results indicate that the perturbations can be suppressed for sufficiently large perturbation wavenumbers and magnetic fields.

  7. Measurements of Transverse Coupled-Bunch Instabilities in PEP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teytelman, D.


    At the design currents the PEP-II High and Low Energy Rings operate above the coupled-bunch instability thresholds in horizontal and vertical planes. Both machines have used analog bunch-by-bunch feedback systems to stabilize the beams since commissioning. Here we present a measurement technique that uses the capabilities of the PEP-II programmable digital longitudinal feedback system to provide transient diagnostics in X or Y directions. This technique allows one to measure instability growth or damping rates as well as oscillation frequencies in both open-loop and closed-loop conditions. Based on these measurements the configuration of the relevant transverse feedback channel can be optimized. The technique will be illustrated with instability measurements and feedback optimization examples. Comparisons of the measured modal patterns and growth rates to the theoretical predictions will be presented.

  8. Pressure-anisotropy-induced nonlinearities in the kinetic magnetorotational instability (United States)

    Squire, J.; Quataert, E.; Kunz, M. W.


    In collisionless and weakly collisional plasmas, such as hot accretion flows onto compact objects, the magnetorotational instability (MRI) can differ significantly from the standard (collisional) MRI. In particular, pressure anisotropy with respect to the local magnetic-field direction can both change the linear MRI dispersion relation and cause nonlinear modifications to the mode structure and growth rate, even when the field and flow perturbations are very small. This work studies these pressure-anisotropy-induced nonlinearities in the weakly nonlinear, high-ion-beta regime, before the MRI saturates into strong turbulence. Our goal is to better understand how the saturation of the MRI in a low-collisionality plasma might differ from that in the collisional regime. We focus on two key effects: (i) the direct impact of self-induced pressure-anisotropy nonlinearities on the evolution of an MRI mode, and (ii) the influence of pressure anisotropy on the `parasitic instabilities' that are suspected to cause the mode to break up into turbulence. Our main conclusions are: (i) The mirror instability regulates the pressure anisotropy in such a way that the linear MRI in a collisionless plasma is an approximate nonlinear solution once the mode amplitude becomes larger than the background field (just as in magnetohyrodynamics). This implies that differences between the collisionless and collisional MRI become unimportant at large amplitudes. (ii) The break up of large-amplitude MRI modes into turbulence via parasitic instabilities is similar in collisionless and collisional plasmas. Together, these conclusions suggest that the route to magnetorotational turbulence in a collisionless plasma may well be similar to that in a collisional plasma, as suggested by recent kinetic simulations. As a supplement to these findings, we offer guidance for the design of future kinetic simulations of magnetorotational turbulence.

  9. Local study of helical magnetorotational instability in viscous Keplerian disks (United States)

    MahdaviGharavi, M.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehidan, H.


    In this paper, regarding the recent detection of significant azimuthal magnetic field in some accretion disks such as protostellar (Donati et al. in Nature 438:466, 2005), the multi-fluid model has been employed to analysis the stability of Keplerian rotational viscous dusty plasma system in a current-free helical magnetic field structure. Using the fluid-Maxwell equations, the general dispersion relation of the excited modes in the system has been obtained by applying the local approximation method in the linear perturbation theory. The typical numerical analysis of the obtained dispersion relation in the high-frequency regime shows that the presence of azimuthal magnetic field component in Keplerian flow has a considerable role in the stability conditions of the system. It also shows that the magnetic field helicity has a stabilization role against the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the system due to contraction of the unstable wavelength region and decreasing the maximum growth rate of the instability. In this sense, the stabilization role of the viscosity term is more considerable for HMRI (instability in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field component) than the corresponding MRI (instability in the absence of azimuthal magnetic field component). Moreover, considering the discovered azimuthal magnetic field in these systems, the MRI can be arisen in the over-all range of dust grains construction values in contract with traditional MRI. This investigation can greatly contribute to better understanding the physics of some astrophysical phenomena, such as the main source of turbulence and angular momentum transport in protostellar and the other sufficiently ionized astrophysical disks, where the azimuthal magnetic field component in these systems can play a significant role.

  10. Anterior Shoulder Instability in the Military Athlete. (United States)

    Waterman, Brian; Owens, Brett D; Tokish, John M

    Given its young, predominately male demographics and intense physical demands, the US military remains an ideal cohort for the study of anterior shoulder instability. A literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Database was performed to identify all peer-reviewed publications from 1950 to 2016 from US military orthopaedic surgeons focusing on the management of anterior shoulder instability. Clinical review. Level 4. The incidence of anterior shoulder instability events in the military occurs at an order of magnitude greater than in civilian populations, with rates as high as 3% per year among high-risk groups. With more than 90% risk of a Bankart lesion and high risk for instability recurrence, the military has advocated for early intervention of first-time shoulder instability while documenting up to 76% relative risk reduction versus nonoperative treatment. Preoperative evaluation with advanced radiographic imaging should be used to evaluate for attritional bone loss or "off-track" engaging defects to guide comprehensive surgical management. With complex recurrent shoulder instability and/or cases of clinically significant osseous lesions, potential options such as remplissage, anterior open capsular procedures, or bone augmentation procedures may be preferentially considered. Careful risk stratification, clinical evaluation, and selective surgical management for at-risk military patients with anterior shoulder instability can optimize the recurrence risk and functional outcome in this population.

  11. Serum Cartilage Biomarkers and Shoulder Instability. (United States)

    Owens, Brett D; Cameron, Kenneth L; Bokshan, Steven L; Clifton, Kari B; Svoboda, Steven J; Wolf, Jennifer Moriatis


    Differences in cartilage biomarkers have been noted in patients with anterior cruciate ligament tears, but little is known about any similar relationship with shoulder instability. This study evaluated the relationship between serum cartilage biomarkers and shoulder instability. The authors present a prospective cohort study of young athletes followed from 2006 to 2010. A nested case-control analysis was conducted within this cohort to evaluate the association between preinjury collagen type II cleavage (a marker for type II collagen cleavage) and procollagen II carboxy propeptide (a marker of cartilage synthesis) and the subsequent likelihood of shoulder instability during the 4-year follow-up period. Preinjury collagen type II cleavage and procollagen II carboxy propeptide levels in 51 subjects who had shoulder instability were compared with levels in 210 subjects without documented anterior cruciate ligament or shoulder instability (control group) with commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Mean preinjury collagen type II cleavage levels in patients who subsequently had shoulder instability were significantly lower than those in the control group (73.91 vs 79.24 pg/mL, P=.03). No significant difference was found in preinjury procollagen II carboxy propeptide levels compared with the control group (359.94 vs 396.37, P=.24). This study is the first to examine the relationship between baseline collagen biomarkers and subsequent shoulder instability. The finding of lower baseline collagen type II cleavage levels in patients with subsequent shoulder instability may represent a genetic predisposition or a compensatory mechanism by which cartilage degradation is decreased in those who are more likely to have instability. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(1):34-36.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Global instabilities and transient growth in Blasius boundary-layer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 4(a) and (b) respectively shows how the global eigenvalues depend upon structural damp- ing, with coefficient D, and stiffening the wall by increasing the value of the spring-foundation coefficient, K. The former shows that the inclusion of sufficient structural damping stabilises the TWF-branch. This might be expected ...

  13. Distal radio-ulnar joint instability in children and adolescents after wrist trauma. (United States)

    Andersson, J K; Lindau, T; Karlsson, J; Fridén, J


    This study retrospectively evaluated the medical records and radiographs of patients younger than aged 25 that were referred for a second opinion due to ulnar-sided wrist pain and persistent distal radio-ulnar (DRU) joint instability. We identified 85 patients with a major wrist trauma before the age of 18. Median age at trauma was 14 years. Median time between trauma and diagnosis of DRUJ instability was 3 years. Sixty-seven patients (79%) had sustained a fracture at the initial trauma. The two most common skeletal injuries related to the DRUJ instability were Salter-Harris type II fractures (24%) and distal radius fractures (19%). In 19 patients (22%), the secondary DRUJ instability was caused by malunion or growth arrest. Eighteen patients (21%) had no fracture; in spite of this, they presented with subsequent symptomatic DRUJ instability. Fourteen of these 18 patients had a triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tear, confirmed by arthroscopy, open surgery, or magnetic resonance imaging. In conclusion, late DRUJ instability due to wrist fractures or isolated TFCC tears was found to be common in children and adolescents. IV. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. On the odd and even secondary instabilities of Görtler vortices (United States)

    Souza, Leandro F.


    Boundary layer flows over concave wall can be unstable to disturbances giving rise to streamwise counter-rotating vortices known as Görtler vortices. These vortices in its nonlinear form are responsible for a strong distortion of the streamwise velocity profiles in the wall-normal and spanwise directions. The resulting inflectional velocity profiles are unstable to unsteady disturbances. These disturbances are called secondary instabilities and can develop into horseshoe vortices or a sinuous motion of the Görtler vortices. These types of secondary instabilities are known as even (varicose) and odd (sinuous) modes, respectively. Although many studies focused this subject, it has not been stated which mode dominates the transition process. In the present study the secondary instability of Görtler flow is investigated using high-order spatial numerical simulation. Multi-frequency unsteady disturbances are introduced with the same spanwise wavelength as the Görtler vortices, but different spanwise phases. Three different spanwise phases are used and the effect on the secondary instability is analyzed. Both, even and odd secondary instabilities are observed, according to the relative spanwise position of the unsteady disturbances. The growth analysis for each secondary crossplane instability mode is made using a temporal Fourier analysis and the physics is explored with the aid of the flow structures visualization. The results introducing disturbances that give rise to odd and even modes simultaneously show that, for the spanwise wavelength analyzed, the odd modes grow first and dominate the transition process.

  15. On the Numerical Dispersion of Electromagnetic Particle-In-Cell Code : Finite Grid Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers, Michael David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States) Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Huang, Chengkun [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zeng, Yong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Yi, Sunghwan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Albright, Brian James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is widely used in relativistic particle beam and laser plasma modeling. However, the PIC method exhibits numerical instabilities that can render unphysical simulation results or even destroy the simulation. For electromagnetic relativistic beam and plasma modeling, the most relevant numerical instabilities are the finite grid instability and the numerical Cherenkov instability. We review the numerical dispersion relation of the electromagnetic PIC algorithm to analyze the origin of these instabilities. We rigorously derive the faithful 3D numerical dispersion of the PIC algorithm, and then specialize to the Yee FDTD scheme. In particular, we account for the manner in which the PIC algorithm updates and samples the fields and distribution function. Temporal and spatial phase factors from solving Maxwell's equations on the Yee grid with the leapfrog scheme are also explicitly accounted for. Numerical solutions to the electrostatic-like modes in the 1D dispersion relation for a cold drifting plasma are obtained for parameters of interest. In the succeeding analysis, we investigate how the finite grid instability arises from the interaction of the numerical 1D modes admitted in the system and their aliases. The most significant interaction is due critically to the correct representation of the operators in the dispersion relation. We obtain a simple analytic expression for the peak growth rate due to this interaction.

  16. Superfluid instability of r-modes in ``differentially rotating'' neutron stars (United States)

    Andersson, N.; Glampedakis, K.; Hogg, M.


    Superfluid hydrodynamics affects the spin evolution of mature neutron stars and may be key to explaining timing irregularities such as pulsar glitches. However, most models for this phenomenon exclude the global instability required to trigger the event. In this paper we discuss a mechanism that may fill this gap. We establish that small scale inertial r-modes become unstable in a superfluid neutron star that exhibits a rotational lag expected to build up due to vortex pinning as the star spins down. Somewhat counterintuitively, this instability arises due to the (under normal circumstances dissipative) vortex-mediated mutual friction. We explore the nature of the superfluid instability for a simple incompressible model allowing for entrainment coupling between the two fluid components. Our results recover a previously discussed dynamical instability in systems where the two components are strongly coupled. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that the system is secularly unstable (with a growth time that scales with the mutual friction) throughout much of parameter space. Interestingly, large scale r-modes are also affected by this new aspect of the instability. We analyze the damping effect of shear viscosity, which should be particularly efficient at small scales, arguing that it will not be sufficient to completely suppress the instability in astrophysical systems.

  17. New instability strip for hot degenerates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starrfield, S.G.; Cox, A.N.; Hodson, S.W.


    A new kind of variable star, designated as PG1159-035 is distinguished not only by the complete lack of hydrogen in its spectrum but also by an effective temperature that exceeds 8 x 10/sup 4/ K. The star does not fall near any of the known regions of instability in the HR diagram which suggests that the instability mechanism will not be helium and hydrogen ionization as in the Cepheid variables. The more unusual compositions are examined in order to discover the cause of the instability in PG1159-035. (GHT)

  18. Analyses of cavitation instabilities in ductile metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    Cavitation instabilities have been predicted for a single void in a ductile metal stressed under high triaxiality conditions. In experiments for a ceramic reinforced by metal particles a single dominant void has been observed on the fracture surface of some of the metal particles bridging a crack...... for the influence of such size-effects on cavitation instabilities are presented. When a metal contains a distribution of micro voids, and the void spacing compared to void size is not extremely large, the surrounding voids may affect the occurrence of a cavitation instability at one of the voids. This has been...

  19. Two stream instabilities in degenerate quantum plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Son, S


    The quantum mechanical effect on the plasma two-stream instability is studied based on the dielectric function approach. The analysis suggests that the degenerate plasma relevant to the inertial confinement fusion behaves differently from classical plasmas when the electron drift velocity is comparable to the Fermi velocity. For high wave vector comparable to the Fermi wave vector, the degenerate quantum plasma has larger regime of the two-stream instabilities than the classical plasma. A regime, where the plasma waves with the frequency larger than 1.5 times of the Langmuir wave frequency become unstable to the two-stream instabilities, is identified.

  20. Turing instability in reaction-subdiffusion systems. (United States)

    Yadav, A; Milu, Shane M; Horsthemke, Werner


    We determine the conditions for the occurrence of Turing instabilities in activator-inhibitor systems, where one component undergoes subdiffusion and the other normal diffusion. If the subdiffusing species has a nonlinear death rate, then coupling between the nonlinear kinetics and the memory effects of the non-Markovian transport process advances the Turing instability if the inhibitor subdiffuses and delays the Turing instability if the activator subdiffuses. We apply the results of our analysis to the Schnakenberg model, the Gray-Scott model, the Oregonator model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, and the Lengyel-Epstein model of the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction.

  1. Influence of porosity on cavitation instability predictions for elastic-plastic solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Vadillo, G.


    Cavitation instabilities have been found for a single void in a ductile metal stressed under high triaxiality conditions. Here, the possibility of unstable cavity growth is studied for a metal containing many voids. The central cavity is discretely represented, while the surrounding voids...

  2. Mutual inductance instability of the tip vortices behind a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarmast, Sasan; Dadfar, Reza; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming


    calculate the full 360° wake. Different cases are subsequently analysed using dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). The results reveal that the main instability mechanism is dispersive and that the modal growth in the symmetric setup arises only for some specific...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Correia


    Discussion: NBS should be considered in the presence of microcephaly, typical facial features, growth retardation, chromosomal instability and immunodeficiency. The prognostic is poor due to the occurrence of frequent infections and the high incidence of cancer. Multidisciplinary follow-up and avoidance of radiation exposition are crucial.

  4. The signature of the magnetorotational instability in the Reynolds and Maxwell stress tensors in accretion discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios


    The magnetorotational instability is thought to be responsible for the generation of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that leads to enhanced outward angular momentum transport in accretion discs. Here, we present the first formal analytical proof showing that, during the exponential growth of the i...

  5. Bubble merger and scaling law of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability with surface tension (United States)

    Sohn, Sung-Ik; Baek, Seunghyeon


    We present a theoretical model to study the effects of surface tension on the growth of single and multiple bubbles in the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The asymptotic solution for a single bubble is obtained and is expressed in terms of the Eötvös number. The bubble merger process is also demonstrated from the model. We find the contrasting effects of surface tension: it reduces the growth of a single bubble, but enhances the mixing rate of multiple bubbles at a late time. The bubble merger of Rayleigh-Taylor instability follows the same scaling law of the growth of mixing zone even when surface tension exists, but the growth coefficient in the scaling law increases with surface tension. A comparison with an experimental result is in good agreement.

  6. Two-stream instability analysis for propagating charged particle beams with a velocity tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rose


    Full Text Available The linear growth of the two-stream instability for a charged-particle beam that is longitudinally compressing as it propagates through a background plasma (due to an applied velocity tilt is examined. Detailed, 1D particle-in-cell (PIC simulations are carried out to examine the growth of the wave packet produced by a small amplitude density perturbation in the background plasma. Recent analytic and numerical work by Startsev and Davidson [Phys. Plasmas 13, 062108 (2006PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.2212807] predicted reduced linear growth rates, which are indeed observed in the PIC simulations. Here, small-signal asymptotic gain factors are determined in a semianalytic analysis and compared with the simulation results in the appropriate limits. Nonlinear effects in the PIC simulations, including wave breaking and particle trapping, are found to limit the linear growth phase of the instability for both compressing and noncompressing beams.

  7. Effect of Coriolis force on the self-gravitational instability of dusty plasma in the presence of magnetic field (United States)

    Pensia, R. K.; Sutar, D. L.; Kumar, V.; Kumar, A.


    In view of the importance of Coriolis force in an astrophysical context, the problem of self-gravitational instability of dusty plasma in the presence of magnetic field is investigated. Equations of the problem are stated and the dispersion relation has been derived with the help of linearized perturbation equations. We find that the Jeans criterion of instability remains valid but the expression of the critical Jeans wave-number is modified. Mathematical calculations have been performed and some figures are plotted between the growth rate of instability and wave numbers. From the curves, it is found that dust sonic speed has a stabilizing effect.

  8. Rayleigh-Taylor instability for immiscible fluids of arbitrary viscosities: a magnetic levitation investigation and theoretical model. (United States)

    Carlès, Pierre; Huang, Zhibin; Carbone, Giovanni; Rosenblatt, Charles


    A magnetic field gradient was used to draw down a low density paramagnetic fluid below a more dense fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell. On turning off the field a Rayleigh-Taylor instability was observed in situ, and the growth of the most unstable wave vector was measured versus time. A theory for the instability that permits different viscosities for two immiscible fluids was developed, and good agreement was found with the experimental results. The technique of magnetic levitation promises to broaden significantly the accessible parameter space of gravitational interfacial instability experiments.

  9. Mixing of Proton and Electron Scales - Effects of Proton Temperature Anisotropy on the Electron Firehose Instability (United States)

    Maneva, Y. G.; Lazar, M.; Vinas, A. F.; Poedts, D. S.


    We perform kinetic linear theory instability analysis in a non-drifting anisotropic electron-proton plasma to study the effects of proton temperature anisotropies on the electron firehose instability in the collisionless solar wind. We solve the Vlasov linear theory dispersion relation for hot highly anisotropic electron-proton plasma in high-beta regime to study the behavior of the solar wind plasma close to the instability thresholds as observed by different spacecraft at 1 AU. We consider temperature and anisotropy regimes for which the electrons and the protons can interact via the excited electromagnetic fluctuations. For the selected parameters simultaneous electron and proton firehose instabilities can be observed with the growth rate of the electron firehose instability extending towards the proton scales. The co-existance of the proton and the electron firehose and the mixing of scales for the electromagnetic fluctuations excited by the two instabilities depends on the initial temperatures, anisotropies and angle of propagation. In the case of parallel wave propagation both left and right-hand polarized waves are simultaneously excited. As we increase the angle of propagation the electron firehose starts to dominate with excitation of large-amplitude aperiodic fluctuations over a large range of wave-numbers, starting at the protons scales and extending up to the smaller electron scales. We calculate the maximum growth rate of the oblique electron firehose as a function of the proton temperature anisotropy and discuss the implications of the electron-proton scale mixing for the observed plasma properties and instability thresholds in the undisturbed solar wind.

  10. Fast Transverse Beam Instability Caused by Electron Cloud Trapped in Combined Function Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antipov, Sergey [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)


    Electron cloud instabilities affect the performance of many circular high-intensity particle accelerators. They usually have a fast growth rate and might lead to an increase of the transverse emittance and beam loss. A peculiar example of such an instability is observed in the Fermilab Recycler proton storage ring. Although this instability might pose a challenge for future intensity upgrades, its nature had not been completely understood. The phenomena has been studied experimentally by comparing the dynamics of stable and unstable beam, numerically by simulating the build-up of the electron cloud and its interaction with the beam, and analytically by constructing a model of an electron cloud driven instability with the electrons trapped in combined function dipoles. Stabilization of the beam by a clearing bunch reveals that the instability is caused by the electron cloud, trapped in beam optics magnets. Measurements of microwave propagation confirm the presence of the cloud in the combined function dipoles. Numerical simulations show that up to 10$^{-2}$ of the particles can be trapped by their magnetic field. Since the process of electron cloud build-up is exponential, once trapped this amount of electrons significantly increases the density of the cloud on the next revolution. In a combined function dipole this multi-turn accumulation allows the electron cloud reaching final intensities orders of magnitude greater than in a pure dipole. The estimated fast instability growth rate of about 30 revolutions and low mode frequency of 0.4 MHz are consistent with experimental observations and agree with the simulations. The created instability model allows investigating the beam stability for the future intensity upgrades.

  11. A study on the effect of macroeconomics instability index on private investment in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Saki


    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform an empirical study to investigate the impact of economical stability on the amount of investment coming from the private sector. We calculate macroeconomics instability index (MIX using the existing methods in the literature. We have also used Glezakos (1973 method [Glezakos,C.(1973. Export instability and economic growth: A statistical verification. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 21(3, 670-678.], which considers long-term deviation of real values as instability index. Therefore, we use four variables of inflation rate (TINF, the ratio of budget deficit on growth domestic product (GDP (TBD, foreign debt on GDP (TFD and the ratio of actual currency rate on nominate currency (TFD. The preliminary results show that the short-term changes on LNIP with one lag and LNIV have positive impact on LNIP. In addition, any short term changes on LNMII has negative and meaningful impact on LNIP and approximately 0.67 percent of difference between the actual and long term are discounted in each period. The results indicate that instability index has negative effect even in short term on Iran's industry. This shows the relevant importance of instability on economy.

  12. Radiative-condensation instability in gravitating strongly coupled dusty plasma with polarization force (United States)

    Prajapati, R. P.; Bhakta, S.


    The radiative-condensation instability (RCI) in self-gravitating strongly coupled dusty plasma (SCDP) is investigated considering the effects of dust thermal velocity and polarization force on the massive dust particulates. In particular, the outer core of the dense neutron star which is supposed to be strongly coupled in nature with temperature T˜107 K and number density n˜1.3×1030 cm-3 is analyzed. The modified generalized hydrodynamic (GH) equations and electron temperature perturbation equation with radiative effects are solved using the linear perturbation method. In the classical hydrodynamic limit, the modified condition of Jeans instability owing to radiative condensation, polarization force and dust thermal velocity is obtained. In the kinetic limit, velocity of compressional mode also modifies the condition of Jeans instability. The dust thermal velocity and viscoelastic effects have stabilizing whereas polarization force and radiative cooling have destabilizing influence on the growth rate of the Jeans instability. The radiative effects stabilize the growth rate of unstable radiative modes. In isobaric mode (short wavelength), the basic condition of radiative instability is obtained which is unaffected due to the presence of polarization force and viscoelastic effects. The radiative cooling time in the outer core of neutron star is estimated and compared with the gravitational free fall time, and it is found that the cooling takes place too fast for self-gravity to be important.

  13. Parametric Instabilities of Electromagnetic Waves in Plasmas, (United States)

    A simple formalism for the parametric decay of an intense, coherent electromagnetic wave into an electrostatic wave and scattered electromagnetic ... waves in a homogeneous plasma is developed. Various instabilities including Brillouin and Raman backscattering, Compton scattering, filamentation and

  14. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in solar spicules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Ebadi


    Full Text Available Magneto hydrodynamic waves, propagating along spicules, may become unstable and the expected instability is of Kelvin-Helmholtz type. Such instability can trigger the onset of wave turbulence leading to an effective plasma heating and particle acceleration. In present study, two-dimensional magneto hydrodynamic simulations performed on a Cartesian grid is presented in spicules with different densities, moving at various speeds depending on their environment. Simulations being applied in this study show the onset of Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and transition to turbulent flow in spicules. Development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability leads to momentum and energy transport, dissipation, and mixing of fluids. When magnetic fields are involved, field amplification is also possible to take place

  15. Cultural diversity, economic development and societal instability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nettle, Daniel; Grace, James B; Choisy, Marc; Cornell, Howard V; Guégan, Jean-François; Hochberg, Michael E


    ..., and effects that are mediated by economic conditions. We assembled a large cross-national dataset with information on alpha and beta cultural diversity, economic conditions, and indices of societal instability...

  16. Overview of Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, D.H.


    The aim of this talk is to survey Rayleigh-Taylor instability, describing the phenomenology that occurs at a Taylor unstable interface, and reviewing attempts to understand these phenomena quantitatively.

  17. Stepper motor instabilities in an aerospace application (United States)

    Kackley, Russell; Mccully, Sean


    Stepper motors are frequently used in positioning mechanisms because they have several advantages over ordinary DC motors. However, there is frequently no feedback loop and the motor may exhibit instabilities under some conditions. A stepper motor in an aerospace positioning mechanism was investigated. During testing, the motor exhibited unstable behavior, such as backrunning and forward running. The instability was dependent on voltage pulse characteristics, temperature, positioning angle, step rate, and interaction between the two motors in the system. Both testing and analysis results verified the instability. A special purpose FORTRAN code was written to simulate the system. This code was combined with another simpler code to show the performance of the system in the phase plane so that instability boundaries could be displayed along with the motor performance. The analysis was performed to verify that proposed modifications would produce stable performance before implementation in the hardware. Subsequent testing verified the analytic stability predictions.

  18. [Cervical spine instability in the surgical patient]. (United States)

    Barbeito, A; Guerri-Guttenberg, R A


    Many congenital and acquired diseases, including trauma, may result in cervical spine instability. Given that airway management is closely related to the movement of the cervical spine, it is important that the anesthesiologist has detailed knowledge of the anatomy, the mechanisms of cervical spine instability, and of the effects that the different airway maneuvers have on the cervical spine. We first review the normal anatomy and biomechanics of the cervical spine in the context of airway management and the concept of cervical spine instability. In the second part, we review the protocols for the management of cervical spine instability in trauma victims and some of the airway management options for these patients. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. All rights reserved.

  19. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.


    Roč. 838, č. 2 (2017), 158/1-158/7 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016

  20. Vlasov simulations of negative mass instability of Langmuir waves (United States)

    Hara, Kentaro; Chapman, Thomas; Banks, Jeffrey; Berger, Richard; Joseph, Ilon; Brunner, Stephan; Boyd, Iain


    An unambiguous signal of the negative mass instability (NMI) of large amplitude Langmuir waves has been observed for the first time using a 1D-1V Vlasov simulation code. During the NMI, recently proposed by Dodin (PRL 110, 215006 (2013)), particles trapped in the potential well move to different trapped orbits with different bounce frequencies due to mutual Coulomb repulsion and potentially undergo phase bunching. The NMI in Langmuir waves has been studied using the Vlasov simulation with initial conditions conducive to comparison with theoretical estimates of the growth rate. In order to investigate the instability, Fourier analysis of the trapped particle distribution has been performed in action-angle coordinates. Theoretical and numerical growth rates of the NMI are in good agreement when the trapped particle population is initialized as a delta-like function in energy. The mechanism of nonlinear saturation of the NMI is also discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Fusion Energy Sciences Program, Grant DESC0001939.

  1. On viscoelastic instability in polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Hassager, Ole


    The 3D Lagrangian Integral Method is used to simulate the effects of surface tension on the viscoelastic end-plate instability, occuring in the rapid extension of some polymeric filaments between parallel plates. It is shovn that the surface tension delays the onset of the instability. Furthermore...... it is demonstrated that surface tension plays a key role in the selection of the most unstable mode...

  2. Systematics of shoulder instability; Systematik der Schulterinstabilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitner, K.F.; Maehringer-Kunz, A. [Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Mainz (Germany)


    Shoulder instability is defined as a symptomatic abnormal motion of the humeral head relative to the glenoid during active shoulder motion. Glenohumeral instabilities are classified according to the causative factors as the pathogenesis of instability plays an important role with respect to treatment options. Instabilities are classified into traumatic and atraumatic instabilities as part of a multidirectional instability syndrome and into microtraumatic instabilities. For diagnostics plain radiographs (''trauma series'') are performed to document shoulder dislocation and its successful repositioning. Direct magnetic resonance (MR) arthrography is the most important imaging modality for delineation of the different injury patterns of the labral-ligamentous complex and bony structures. Monocontrast computed tomography (CT) arthrography with the use of multidetector CT scanners represents an alternative imaging modality; however, MR imaging should be preferred in the work-up of shoulder instabilities due to the mostly younger age of patients. (orig.) [German] Unter einer Schulterinstabilitaet versteht man jede zu Beschwerden fuehrende Translation des Humeruskopfs in Relation zur Gelenkpfanne waehrend einer aktiven Bewegung der Schulter. Glenohumerale Instabilitaeten werden heute nach ihrer Aetiologie eingeteilt, da bei der Wahl der Therapie der Entstehungsmechanismus der Instabilitaet eine wichtige Rolle spielt. Danach unterscheidet man primaer traumatisch von atraumatisch entstandenen Instabilitaeten sowie Mikroinstabilitaeten. Bei der Diagnostik dienen konventionelle Roentgenuebersichtsaufnahmen nur noch zur Dokumentation einer Luxation und zur Beurteilung der Reposition. Die durch eine Instabilitaet hervorgerufenen Verletzungsfolgen am labroligamentaeren Komplex und den knoechernen Strukturen werden heute bevorzugt mit der direkten MR-Arthrographie dargestellt. Hierbei koennen unterschiedliche Verletzungsmuster dargestellt werden. Nach

  3. Elastic flow instability in nanotube suspensions. (United States)

    Lin-Gibson, S; Pathak, J A; Grulke, E A; Wang, H; Hobbie, E K


    We report an elastic instability associated with flow-induced clustering in semidilute non-Brownian colloidal nanotubes. Rheo-optical measurements are compared with simulations of mechanical flocculation in sheared fiber suspensions, and the evolving structure is characterized as a function of confinement and shear stress. The transient rheology is correlated with the evolution of highly elastic vorticity-aligned aggregates, with the underlying instability being somewhat ubiquitous in complex fluids.

  4. Beam Instabilities in Circular Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server



    The theory of impedance-induced bunched-beam coherent instabilities is reviewed following Laclare's formalism, adding the effect of an electronic damper in the transverse plane. Both single-bunch and coupled-bunch instabilities are discussed, both low-intensity and high-intensity regimes are analysed, both longitudinal and transverse planes are studied, and both short-bunch and long-bunch regimes are considered. Observables and mitigation measures are also examined.

  5. Computational methods for probability of instability calculations (United States)

    Wu, Y.-T.; Burnside, O. H.


    This paper summarizes the development of the methods and a computer program to compute the probability of instability of a dynamic system than can be represented by a system of second-order ordinary linear differential equations. Two instability criteria based upon the roots of the characteristics equation or Routh-Hurwitz test functions are investigated. Computational methods based on system reliability analysis methods and importance sampling concepts are proposed to perform efficient probabilistic analysis. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the methods.

  6. Topographic-driven instabilities in terrestrial bodies (United States)

    Vantieghem, S.; Cebron, D.; Herreman, W.; Lacaze, L.


    Models of internal planetary fluid layers (core flows, subsurface oceans) commonly assume that these fluid envelopes have a spherical shape. This approximation however entails a serious restriction from the fluid dynamics point of view. Indeed, in the presence of mechanical forcings (precession, libration, nutation or tides) due to gravitational interaction with orbiting partners, boundary topography (e.g. of the core-mantle boundary) may excite flow instabilities and space-filling turbulence. These phenomena may affect heat transport and dissipation at the main order. Here, we focus on instabilities driven by longitudinal libration. Using a suite of theoretical tools and numerical simulations, we are able to discern a parameter range for which instability may be excited. We thereby consider deformations of different azimuthal order. This study gives the first numerical evidence of the tripolar instability. Furthermore, we explore the non-linear regime and investigate the amplitude as well as the dissipation of the saturated instability. Indeed, these two quantities control the torques on the solid layers and the thermal transport. Furthermore, based on this results, we address the issue of magnetic field generation associated with these flows (by induction or by dynamo process). This instability mechanism applies to both synchronized as non-synchronized bodies. As such, our results show that a tripolar instability might be present in various terrestrial bodies (Early Moon, Gallilean moons, asteroids, etc.), where it could participate in dynamo action. Simulation of a libration-driven tripolar instability in a deformed spherical fluid layer: snapshot of the velocity magnitude, where a complex 3D flow pattern is established.

  7. Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas (United States)

    Sharapov, S. E.; Alper, B.; Berk, H. L.; Borba, D. N.; Breizman, B. N.; Challis, C. D.; Classen, I. G. J.; Edlund, E. M.; Eriksson, J.; Fasoli, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gassner, T.; Ghantous, K.; Goloborodko, V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Hacquin, S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hellesen, C.; Kiptily, V. G.; Kramer, G. J.; Lauber, P.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisak, M.; Nabais, F.; Nazikian, R.; Nyqvist, R.; Osakabe, M.; Perez von Thun, C.; Pinches, S. D.; Podesta, M.; Porkolab, M.; Shinohara, K.; Schoepf, K.; Todo, Y.; Toi, K.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Voitsekhovich, I.; White, R. B.; Yavorskij, V.; TG, ITPA EP; Contributors, JET-EFDA


    Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfvén instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discusses progress in interpreting the observed phenomena. A multi-machine comparison is presented giving information on the performance of both diagnostics and modelling tools for different plasma conditions outlining expectations for ITER based on our present knowledge.

  8. Arthroscopic Findings in Anterior Shoulder Instability


    Hantes, Michael; Raoulis, Vasilios


    Background: In the last years, basic research and arthroscopic surgery, have improved our understanding of shoulder anatomy and pathology. It is a fact that arthroscopic treatment of shoulder instability has evolved considerably over the past decades. The aim of this paper is to present the variety of pathologies that should be identified and treated during shoulder arthroscopy when dealing with anterior shoulder instability cases. Methods: A review of the current literature regarding arthros...

  9. Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Sharapov, S E; Berk, H L; Borba, D N; Breizman, B N; Challis, C D; Classen, I G J; Edlund, E M; Eriksson, J; Fasoli, A; Fredrickson, E D; Fu, G Y; Garcia-Munoz, M; Gassner, T; Ghantous, K; Goloborodko, V; Gorelenkov, N N; Gryaznevich, M P; Hacquin, S; Heidbrink, W W; Hellesen, C; Kiptily, V G; Kramer, G J; Lauber, P; Lilley, M K; Lisak, M; Nabais, F; Nazikian, R; Nyqvist, R; Osakabe, M; von Thun, C Perez; Pinches, S D; Podesta, M; Porkolab, M; Shinohara, K; Schoepf, K; Todo, Y; Toi, K; Van Zeeland, M A; Voitsekhovich, I; White, R B; Yavorskij, V; TG, ITPA EP; Contributors, JET-EFDA


    Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfven instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discusses progress in interpreting the observed phenomena. A multi-machine comparison is presented giving information on the performance of both diagnostics and modelling tools for different plasma conditions outlining expectations for ITER based on our present knowledge.

  10. Studies of elastic-plastic instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo


    Analyses of plastic instabilities are reviewed, with focus on results in structural mechanics as well as continuum mechanics. First the basic theories for bifurcation and post-bifurcation behavior are briefly presented. Then, localization of plastic flow is discussed, including shear band formation...... in solids, localized necking in biaxially stretched metal sheets, and the analogous phenomenon of buckling localization in structures. Also some recent results for cavitation instabilities in elastic-plastic solids are reviewed....

  11. Gigayear Instabilities in Planetary Systems (United States)

    Fabrycky, Daniel

    One of the biggest modern discoveries about the Solar System is that it is chaotic (Laskar 1989, 1994). On million-year timescales, nearby trajectories exponentially diverge; on billion-year timescales, planets can develop large eccentricities and even collide. This is possible because our planets interact with enough energy and with the right (secular) timescales. This has the potential to put the planet Mercury on an unstable orbit in the future, before the Sun exhausts its fuel. Currently, as a standard step in the analysis, exoplanet observing teams check whether the planetary systems they are discovering are stable. This usually involves a few-Megayear numerical integration, and the system usually passes that test. However, the signatures of continuing instability have not been looked for in the exoplanet population, nor has its implications for planetary formation and evolution been fully recognized. We will study several specific evolutionary scenarios in which instability may manifest only on gigayear timescales, i.e. midway through the lives of the host stars. This is relevant to the solicitation in that it characterizes the dynamics of exoplanetary systems. In the first project, we will compare N-body, numerically-calculated secular, and Fourier-expansion secular theories to determine what essential ingredients go into the conclusion that a general planetary system is chaotic. We will apply these tools to specific realizations of Kepler-discovered close-in planetary systems consisting of three or more Neptunes or super-Earths, which is the most populous known exoplanet population. We will thus find the common ailments afflicting middle-age planetary systems. In the second project, we will consider how planets might get stranded in their Kuiper and Oort clouds during early system evolution, only to destabilize the inner system later on. Various investigators have wondered whether the Solar System is accompanied by a massive planetary companion, including a

  12. Interface instability modes in freezing colloidal suspensions: revealed from onset of planar instability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Lilin; You, Jiaxue; Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Jincheng; Lin, Xin


    Freezing colloidal suspensions widely exists in nature and industry. Interface instability has attracted much attention for the understandings of the pattern formation in freezing colloidal suspensions...

  13. [Capsular retensioning in anterior unidirectional glenohumeral instability]. (United States)

    Benítez Pozos, Leonel; Martínez Molina, Oscar; Castañeda Landa, Ezequiel


    To present the experience of the Orthopedics Service PEMEX South Central Hospital in the management of anterior unidirectional shoulder instability with an arthroscopic technique consisting of capsular retensioning either combined with other anatomical repair procedures or alone. Thirty-one patients with anterior unidirectional shoulder instability operated-on between January 1999 and December 2005 were included. Fourteen patients underwent capsular retensioning and radiofrequency, and in 17 patients, capsular retensioning was combined with suture anchors. Patients with a history of relapsing glenohumeral dislocations and subluxations, with anterior instability with or without associated Bankart lesions were selected; all of them were young. The results were assessed considering basically the occurrence of instability during the postoperative follow-up. No cases of recurring instability occurred. Two cases had neuroma and one experienced irritation of the suture site. Six patients had residual limitation of combined lateral rotation and abduction movements, of a mean of 10 degrees compared with the healthy contralateral side. The most frequent incident was the leak of solutions to the soft tissues. Capsular retensioning, whether combined or not with other anatomical repair techniques, has proven to result in a highly satisfactory rate of glenohumeral stabilization in cases of anterior unidirectional instabilities. The arthroscopic approach offers the well-known advantages of causing less damage to the soft tissues, and a shorter time to starting rehabilitation therapy and exercises.

  14. Sheath-induced instabilities in plasmas with E0×B0 drift. (United States)

    Smolyakov, A I; Frias, W; Kaganovich, I D; Raitses, Y


    It is shown that ion acoustic waves in plasmas with E0×B0 electron drift become unstable due to the closure of plasma current in the chamber wall. Such unstable modes may enhance both near-wall conductivity and turbulent electron transport in plasma devices with E0×B0 electron drift and unmagnetized ions. It is shown that the instability is sensitive to the wall material: a high value of the dielectric permittivity (such as in metal walls) reduces the mode growth rate by an order of magnitude but does not eliminate the instability completely.

  15. Recent Experiment Results on Fast Ion Instability at 2.5 GeV PLS

    CERN Document Server

    Kim Eun San; Hukuma, Hitoshi; Ikeda, Hitomi; Park, Chong-Do; Park, Sung-Ju; Soo Ko In; Yun Huang Jung


    We present recent experiment results on the fast ion instability that were performed at the PLS storage ring. With higher vacuum pressures of three orders of magnitude than nominal one by He gas injection into the ring, increases of a factor of around three in the vertical beam size were observed by interferometer system. From the various measurement results, we estimated growth times for the instability as a funcion of vacuum pressure and beam current. We also compared the results with those of the computer simulations and analytical calculations.

  16. Trapped Electron Instability of Electron Plasma Waves: Vlasov simulations and theory (United States)

    Berger, Richard; Chapman, Thomas; Brunner, Stephan


    The growth of sidebands of a large-amplitude electron plasma wave is studied with Vlasov simulations for a range of amplitudes (. 001 vph = +/-ωbe , where vph =ω0 /k0 and ωbe is the bounce frequency of a deeply trapped electron. In 2D simulations, we find that the instability persists and co-exists with the filamentation instability. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and funded by the Laboratory Research and Development Program at LLNL under project tracking code 12-ERD.

  17. Distributed ion pump related transverse instability in CESR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.T.; Holmquist, T. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Nuclear Studies


    An anomalous damping or growth of transverse coupled bunch modes is observed in the Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR). The growth rates and tune shifts of these modes are a highly nonlinear function of current. Unlike an instability produced by the coupling impedance of the vacuum chamber, the magnitude of the growth rate first increases, then declines, as the beam current is increased. The effect is known to be related to the operation of the distributed ion pumps, as it disappears when the pumps are not powered. We review the observations of this effect, and show that it can be explained by the presence of electrons trapped in the CESR chamber by the field of the dipole magnets and the electrostatic leakage field of the distributed ion pumps. Photoelectrons are introduced into the chamber by synchrotron radiation and can be captured in or ejected from the chamber by the passage of the beam. The transverse position of the beam thus modulates the trapped photoelectron charge density, which in turn deflects the beam, creating growth or damping and a tune shift for each coupled bunch mode. Predictions of the dependence of growth rate and tune shift on bunch current and bunch pattern by a numerical model of this process are in approximate agreement with observations. (author)

  18. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars (United States)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.


    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  19. Instability in Immiscible Fluids Displacement from Cracks and Porous Samples (United States)

    Smirnov, N. N.; Nikitin, V. F.; Ivashnyov, O. E.


    problems of terrestrial engineering and technology. Surface tension affected flows in porous media could be much better understood in microgravity studies eliminating the masking effects of gravity. Saffman-Taylor instability of the interface could bring to formation and growth of "fingers" of gas penetrating the bulk fluid. The growth of fingers and their further coalescence could not be described by the linear analysis. Growth of fingers causes irregularity of the mixing zone. The tangential velocity difference on the interface separating fluids of different densities and viscousities could bring to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability resulting in "diffusion of fingers" partial regularization of the displacement mixing zone. Thus combination of the two effects would govern the flow in the displacement process. fracture under a pressure differential displacing the high viscosity residual fracturing fluid. There are inherent instability and scalability problems associated with viscous fingering that play a key role in the cleanup procedure. Entrapment of residual fracturing fluid by the gas flow lowers down the quality of a fracture treatment leaving most of fluid in the hydraulic fracture thus decreasing the production rate. The gravity effects could play essential role in vertical hydraulic fractures as the problem is scale dependent. displacement of viscous fluid by a less viscous one in a two-dimensional channel with vertical breaks, and to determine characteristic size of entrapment zones. Extensive direct numerical simulations allow to investigate the sensitivity of the displacement process to variation of values of the main governing parameters. were found for the two limiting cases: infinitely wide cell, and narrow cell with an infinitely small gap between the finger and the side walls. governing parameters. The obtained solutions allowed to explain the physical meaning of the exiting empirical criteria for the beginning of viscous fingering and the growth of a

  20. A framework to quantify karyotype variation associated with CHO cell line instability at a single-cell level. (United States)

    Baik, Jong Youn; Lee, Kelvin H


    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the major mammalian host cells for biomanufacturing of therapeutic proteins, have been extensively investigated to enhance productivity and product quality. However, cell line instability resulting in unexpected changes in productivity or product quality continues to be a challenge. Based on previous reports about causes and characteristics of production instability, we hypothesized that chromosomal rearrangements due to genomic instability are associated with production instability and that these events can be characterized. We developed a production instability model using secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP)-expressing CHO cells (CHO-SEAP) as well as a framework to quantify chromosomal rearrangements by karyotyping. In the absence of methotrexate (MTX), CHO-SEAP cells exhibited a slightly increased growth rate, a significantly decreased specific productivity, and changes in the chromosomal rearrangement ratio of seven chromosomes. In contrast, when MTX was re-introduced, the growth rate and SEAP productivity reversed to the initial values, demonstrating the reversibility of production instability in CHO-SEAP cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis identified that the SEAP genes were incorporated in the chromosomal rearrangement (insertion) part of the der(Z9) chromosome. Karyotype analysis indicated that the insertion ratio of the der(Z9) chromosome decreased in the CHO-SEAP cells grown without MTX, demonstrating a correlation between chromosomal rearrangement and production instability. Our results support a mechanism for production instability, wherein a randomly generated chromosomal rearrangement (or genotype) results in cells with a growth advantage that is also associated with non (or low)-producing traits. As a result, the non-producing cells grow faster and thereby outgrow the producing population. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1045-1053. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Measurement properties of the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index in Dutch patients with shoulder instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linde, J.A.; Willems, W.J.; van Kampen, D.A.; van Beers, L.W.A.H.; van Deurzen, D.F.P.; Terwee, C.B.


    Background: The Western Ontario Shoulder Instability index (WOSI) is a patient-reported outcome measure for patients with shoulder instability. The purpose of this study was to validate the WOSI in a Dutch population by evaluating its structural validity, internal consistency, measurement error,

  2. Influence of multiple ion species on low-frequency electromagnetic wave instabilities. [in solar wind (United States)

    Brinca, Armando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.


    The effect of multiple (singly ionized) coexisting newborn ion species on the stability of low-frequency electromagnetic waves was investigated using a plasma model in which solar wind magnetoplasma is made up of isotropic Maxwellian electron and proton populations with a common number density of 4.95/cu cm and temperatures equal to 17.2 eV and 6.9 eV, respectively. It is shown that the effect of multiple ions on wave growth, for given background magnetoplasma conditions and relative densities, depends not only on their mass but also on the physical nature of the wave modes. If the ion masses are disparate, each one of the coexisting ion beams tends to stimulate instabilities without undue influence from the other species. If the masses of newborn ions are similar, they can strongly catalyze wave growth of fluidlike nonresonant modes, but bring about weak growth enhancements in cyclotron resonant instabilities.

  3. Superradiant instability of massive vector fields around spinning black holes in the relativistic regime (United States)

    East, William E.


    We study the superradiant instability of massive vector fields, i.e. Proca fields, around spinning black holes in the test field limit. This is motivated by the possibility that observations of astrophysical black holes can probe the existence of ultralight bosons subject to this mechanism. By making use of time-domain simulations, we characterize the growth rate, frequency, spatial distribution, and other properties of the unstable modes, including in the regime where the black hole is rapidly spinning and the Compton wavelength of the Proca field is comparable to the black hole radius. We find that relativistic effects in this regime increase the range of Proca masses that are unstable, as well as the maximum instability rate. We also study the gravitational waves that can be sourced by such an instability, finding that they can be significantly stronger than in the massive scalar field case.

  4. Current-driven magnetohydrodynamic thermal instabilities in sheared fields. [of solar corona (United States)

    Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Rosner, R.


    Approximate analytic solutions are sought for the dispersion relation for the MHD stability of magnetized medium in current-driven filamentation modes such as those observed in the solar atmosphere. The magnetic field is assumed to have a self-consistent sheared equilibrium structure. The analysis is carried out in the small wavenumber regime, where shear length is similar to the mode wavelength. Instability is found to depend on the ratio between the thermal and magnetic diffusivities, i.e., the Prandtl number, which identifies the unstable transverse wavenumbers. The instability conditions are expressed in an algebraic equation amenable to numerical solution. Results are provided from use of the model to determine the maximum growth rate and typical scale lengths of instabilities in a precoronal atmosphere and the lower transition region.

  5. Loss of RMI2 Increases Genome Instability and Causes a Bloom-Like Syndrome. (United States)

    Hudson, Damien F; Amor, David J; Boys, Amber; Butler, Kathy; Williams, Lorna; Zhang, Tao; Kalitsis, Paul


    Bloom syndrome is a recessive human genetic disorder with features of genome instability, growth deficiency and predisposition to cancer. The only known causative gene is the BLM helicase that is a member of a protein complex along with topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1 and 2, which maintains replication fork stability and dissolves double Holliday junctions to prevent genome instability. Here we report the identification of a second gene, RMI2, that is deleted in affected siblings with Bloom-like features. Cells from homozygous individuals exhibit elevated rates of sister chromatid exchange, anaphase DNA bridges and micronuclei. Similar genome and chromosome instability phenotypes are observed in independently derived RMI2 knockout cells. In both patient and knockout cell lines reduced localisation of BLM to ultra fine DNA bridges and FANCD2 at foci linking bridges are observed. Overall, loss of RMI2 produces a partially active BLM complex with mild features of Bloom syndrome.

  6. Development of Richtmyer-Meshkov and Rayleigh-Taylor Instability in presence of magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Manoranjan; Banerjee, Rahul; Roy, Sourav; Gupta, M R


    Fluid instabilities like Rayleigh-Taylor,Richtmyer-Meshkov and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability can occur in a wide range of physical phenomenon from astrophysical context to Inertial Confinement Fusion(ICF).Using Layzer's potential flow model, we derive the analytical expressions of growth rate of bubble and spike for ideal magnetized fluid in R-T and R-M cases. In presence of transverse magnetic field the R-M and R-T instability are suppressed or enhanced depending on the direction of magnetic pressure and hydrodynamic pressure. Again the interface of two fluid may oscillate if both the fluids are conducting. However the magnetic field has no effect in linear case.

  7. Study of parametric instability in gravitational wave detectors with silicon test masses (United States)

    Zhang, Jue; Zhao, Chunnong; Ju, Li; Blair, David


    Parametric instability is an intrinsic risk in high power laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors, in which the optical cavity modes interact with the acoustic modes of the mirrors, leading to exponential growth of the acoustic vibration. In this paper, we investigate the potential parametric instability for a proposed next generation gravitational wave detector, the LIGO Voyager blue design, with cooled silicon test masses of size 45 cm in diameter and 55 cm in thickness. It is shown that there would be about two unstable modes per test mass at an arm cavity power of 3 MW, with the highest parametric gain of  ∼76. While this is less than the predicted number of unstable modes for Advanced LIGO (∼40 modes with max gain of  ∼32 at the designed operating power of 830 kW), the importance of developing suitable instability suppression schemes is emphasized.

  8. Secondary Instabilities in 3-D Magnetic Reconnection under a Strong Guide Field (United States)

    Wang, Xueyi; Lin, Yu; Chen, Liu


    3-D magnetic reconnection is investigated using the gyrokinetic electron and fully-kinetic ion (GeFi) particle simulation model. The simulation is carried out for a force free current sheet with a strong guide field BG as occurring in solar and laboratory plasmas. It is found that secondary instabilities are excited in the separatrix region of the primary reconnection due to the 3-D effects associated with the finite kz, where kz is the wave number along the guide field direction. The instabilities are demonstrated as being of the MHD kink type, which lead to electron heating and acceleration in the parallel direction. The dependence of the growth rate of the secondary instabilities on the electron-ion resistivity, the ion-to-electron mass ratio mi /me , and the half-width of the current sheet are also investigated.

  9. Head-tail instability and Landau damping in bunches with space charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kornilov


    Full Text Available Head-tail modes in bunches with space charge are studied using particle tracking simulations. The eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions of transverse coherent oscillations in a Gaussian bunch are determined and compared with theories. A model for an airbag distribution in a barrier potential gives good predictions for the head-tail spectrum and for eigenfunctions in bunches with space charge. Using numerical simulations, space-charge induced Landau damping in a bunch is demonstrated. The damping rates are quantified for different modes and space-charge tune shifts. Finally, the head-tail instability with space charge is studied for the resistive-wall impedance below the mode coupling threshold. Results demonstrate that space-charge induced damping can suppress the instability for moderately strong space charge; instability growth rates saturate at strong space charge, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  10. Loss of RMI2 Increases Genome Instability and Causes a Bloom-Like Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien F Hudson


    Full Text Available Bloom syndrome is a recessive human genetic disorder with features of genome instability, growth deficiency and predisposition to cancer. The only known causative gene is the BLM helicase that is a member of a protein complex along with topoisomerase III alpha, RMI1 and 2, which maintains replication fork stability and dissolves double Holliday junctions to prevent genome instability. Here we report the identification of a second gene, RMI2, that is deleted in affected siblings with Bloom-like features. Cells from homozygous individuals exhibit elevated rates of sister chromatid exchange, anaphase DNA bridges and micronuclei. Similar genome and chromosome instability phenotypes are observed in independently derived RMI2 knockout cells. In both patient and knockout cell lines reduced localisation of BLM to ultra fine DNA bridges and FANCD2 at foci linking bridges are observed. Overall, loss of RMI2 produces a partially active BLM complex with mild features of Bloom syndrome.

  11. Effects of solar wind composition, anisotropy, and streaming on ordinary mode electromagnetic instability (United States)

    Buti, B.


    The stability of the low-frequency waves propagating transverse to the magnetic field of a plasma composed of electrons, protons, and alpha particles with anisotropic electron and ion temperatures is explored. The threshold for the ordinary mode instability and the growth rates have a very strong dependence on the electron temperature anisotropy but have a comparatively weaker dependence on the ion temperature anisotropy, on the relative abundance of helium to hydrogen, and on the relative streaming of two ion species. The threshold for the instability of these low-frequency waves is (m sub e/m sub p) to the 1/2 power times smaller than the one corresponding to high-frequency waves; however, for a relative abundance of helium to hydrogen up to 20% for the relevant known magnetic fields, particle densities, temperatures, and drifts, the solar wind remains below the threshold for this instability.

  12. Ion finite Larmor radius effects on the interchange instability in an open system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katanuma, I.; Sato, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Kato, S.; Kubota, R. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)


    A particle simulation of an interchange instability was performed by taking into account the ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects. It is found that the interchange instability with large FLR grows in two phases, that is, linearly growing phase and the nonlinear phase subsequent to the linear phase, where the instability grows exponentially in both phases. The linear growth rates observed in the simulation agree well with the theoretical calculation. The effects of FLR are usually taken in the fluid simulation through the gyroviscosity, the effects of which are verified in the particle simulation with large FLR regime. The gyroviscous cancellation phenomenon observed in the particle simulation causes the drifts in the direction of ion diamagnetic drifts.

  13. The temporal interplay of self-esteem instability and affective instability in borderline personality disorder patients' everyday lives. (United States)

    Santangelo, Philip S; Reinhard, Iris; Koudela-Hamila, Susanne; Bohus, Martin; Holtmann, Jana; Eid, Michael; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W


    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is defined by a pervasive pattern of instability. Although there is ample empirical evidence that unstable self-esteem is associated with a myriad of BPD-like symptoms, self-esteem instability and its temporal dynamics have received little empirical attention in patients with BPD. Even worse, the temporal interplay of affective instability and self-esteem instability has been neglected completely, although it has been hypothesized recently that the lack of specificity of affective instability in association with BPD might be explained by the highly intertwined temporal relationship between affective and self-esteem instability. To investigate self-esteem instability, its temporal interplay with affective instability, and its association with psychopathology, 60 patients with BPD and 60 healthy controls (HCs) completed electronic diaries for 4 consecutive days during their everyday lives. Participants reported their current self-esteem, valence, and tense arousal levels 12 times a day in approximately one-hr intervals. We used multiple state-of-the-art statistical techniques and graphical approaches to reveal patterns of instability, clarify group differences, and examine the temporal interplay of self-esteem instability and affective instability. As hypothesized, instability in both self-esteem and affect was clearly elevated in the patients with BPD. In addition, self-esteem instability and affective instability were highly correlated. Both types of instability were related to general psychopathology. Because self-esteem instability could not fully explain affective instability and vice versa and neither affective instability nor self-esteem instability was able to explain psychopathology completely, our findings suggest that these types of instability represent unique facets of BPD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Careers in conditions of instability


    Hohlova Valentina Vasil'evna; Malahova Julija Vital'evna


    The purpose of this work is the research of the social-economic phenomenon of a career as a result of conscious human position and behaviour in the field of employment, which is connected with job and professional growth, as a chain of events which are components of life, the sequence of professional activities and other biographical roles, which all together express the commitment of a person’s activity according to his generalized model of self-development. On the basis of the theoretical a...

  15. Bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibiofibular joint instability. (United States)

    Morrison, Troy D; Shaer, James A; Little, Jill E


    Dislocation of the tibiofibular joint is rare and usually results from a traumatic event. Only 1 case of atraumatic proximal tibiofibular joint instability in a 14-year-old girl has been reported in the literature, however this condition might occur more frequently than once thought. A wide range of treatment options exist for tibiofibular dislocations. Currently, the first choice is a conservative approach, and when this fails, surgical means such as resection of the fibula head, arthrodesis, and reconstruction are considered. However, no consensus exists on the most effective treatment. This article reports a unique case of bilateral, atraumatic, proximal tibia and fibular joint instability involving a 30-year-old man with a 20-year history of pain and laxity in the right knee. The patient had no trauma to his knees; he reported 2 immediate family members with similar complaints, which suggests that this case is likely congenital. After conservative approaches proved to be ineffective, the patient underwent capsular reconstruction using free autologous gracilis tendon. At 6-month postoperative follow-up, the patient was pain free with no locking and instability. He then underwent surgery on the left knee. At 1-year follow-up after the second surgery, the patient had no symptoms or restrictions in mobility. We provide an alternative surgical approach to arthrodesis and resection for the treatment of chronic proximal tibiofibular instability. In the treatment of chronic tibiofibular instability, we believe that reconstruction of the tibiofibular joint is a safe and effective choice. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. Transverse mode coupling instability of colliding beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White


    Full Text Available In high brightness circular colliders, coherent and incoherent beam dynamics are dominated by beam-beam interactions. It is generally assumed that the incoherent tune spread introduced by the beam-beam interactions is sufficiently large to cure any instabilities originating from impedance. However, as the two counterrotating beams interact they can give rise to coherent dipole modes and therefore modify the coherent beam dynamics and stability conditions. In this case, coherent beam-beam effects and impedance cannot be treated independently and their interplay should be taken into account in any realistic attempt to study the beam stability of colliding beams. Due to the complexity of these physics processes, numerical simulations become an important tool for the analysis of this system. Two approaches are proposed in this paper: a fully self-consistent multiparticle tracking including particle-in-cell Poisson solver for the beam-beam interactions and a linearized model taking into account finite bunch length effects. To ensure the validity of the results a detailed benchmarking of these models was performed. It will be shown that under certain conditions coherent beam-beam dipole modes can couple with higher order headtail modes and lead to strong instabilities with characteristics similar to the classical transverse mode coupling instability originating from impedance alone. Possible cures for this instability are explored both for single bunch and multibunch interactions. Simulation results and experimental evidences of the existence of this instability at the LHC will be presented for the specific case of offset collisions.

  17. Microsatellite Instability Markers Status in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giti Esmailnia


    Full Text Available Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most prevalent and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Iran. Our aim was to investigate five mononucleotide statuses among Iranian patients with sporadic colorectal cancer. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 80 sporadic CRC patients were evaluated for microsatellite instability (MSI. The pentaplex panel including 5 quasi mononucleotide microsatellite markers (NR-21, BAT-26, BAT-25, NR-27 and NR-24 was used. The MSI analysis was performed on paired tumoral DNA from cancerous tissues and genomic DNA from whole blood. MSI carriers were identified by analysis of tumor tissue using polymerase chain reaction. Results: Our findings showed that microsatellite instability was detected in 36 of 80 cases (45% with colorectal cancer. MSI analysis revealed that 17 cases of MSI-H (21%, 19 MSI-L (23% and 44 microsatellite stable tumors (55%. Instability is observed in the tumoral DNA compared to the DNA from the normal DNA sample. The most instable markers were NR-21, NR-24 in which instability was detected in 45% of patients. Conclusion: Using a panel including 3 mentioned MSI markers should be more promising markers for identifying MSI status in patients with sporadic colorectal cancer.

  18. Capillary instability on a hydrophilic stripe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speth, Raymond L [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lauga, Eric [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr, La Jolla, CA 92093-0411 (United States)], E-mail:


    A recent experiment showed that cylindrical segments of water filling a hydrophilic stripe on an otherwise hydrophobic surface display a capillary instability when their volume is increased beyond the critical volume at which their apparent contact angle on the surface reaches 90 deg. (Gau et al 1999 Science 283 46-9). Surprisingly, the fluid segments did not break up into droplets-as would be expected for a classical Rayleigh-Plateau instability-but instead displayed a long-wavelength instability where all excess fluid gathered in a single bulge along each stripe. We consider here the dynamics of the flow instability associated with this setup. We perform a linear stability analysis of the capillary flow problem in the inviscid limit. We first confirm previous work showing that all cylindrical segments are linearly unstable if (and only if) their apparent contact angle is larger than 90 deg. We then demonstrate that the most unstable wavenumber for the surface perturbation decreases to zero as the apparent contact angle of the fluid on the surface approaches 90 deg, allowing us to re-interpret the creation of bulges in the experiment as a zero-wavenumber capillary instability. A variation of the stability calculation is also considered for the case of a hydrophilic stripe located on a wedge-like geometry.

  19. Dynamic data-driven prediction of instability in a swirl-stabilized combustor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumalya Sarkar


    Full Text Available Combustion instability poses a negative impact on the performance and structural durability of both land-based and aircraft gas turbine engines, and early detection of combustion instabilities is of paramount importance not only for performance monitoring and fault diagnosis, but also for initiating efficient decision and control of such engines. Combustion instability is, in general, characterized by self-sustained growth of large-amplitude pressure tones that are caused by a positive feedback arising from complex coupling of localized hydrodynamic perturbations, heat energy release, and acoustics of the combustor. This paper proposes a fast dynamic data-driven method for detecting early onsets of thermo-acoustic instabilities, where the underlying algorithms are built upon the concepts of symbolic time series analysis (STSA via generalization of D-Markov machine construction. The proposed method captures the spatiotemporal co-dependence among time series from heterogeneous sensors (e.g. pressure and chemiluminescence to generate an information-theoretic precursor, which is uniformly applicable across multiple operating regimes of the combustion process. The proposed method is experimentally validated on the time-series data, generated from a laboratory-scale swirl-stabilized combustor, while inducing thermo-acoustic instabilities for various protocols (e.g. increasing Reynolds number (Re at a constant fuel flow rate and reducing equivalence ratio at a constant air flow rate at varying air-fuel premixing levels. The underlying algorithms are developed based on D-Markov entropy rates, and the resulting instability precursor measure is rigorously compared with the state-of-the-art techniques in terms of its performance of instability prediction, computational complexity, and robustness to sensor noise.

  20. Residual turbulence from velocity shear stabilized interchange instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C. P.; Hassam, A. B. [University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)


    The stabilizing effect of velocity shear on the macroscopic, broad bandwidth, ideal interchange instability is studied in linear and nonlinear regimes. A 2D dissipative magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) code is employed to simulate the system. For a given flow shear, V Prime , linear growth rates are shown to be suppressed to below the shear-free level at both the small and large wavelengths. With increasing V Prime , the unstable band in wavenumber-space shrinks so that the peak growth results for modes that correspond to relatively high wavenumbers, on the scale of the density gradient. In the nonlinear turbulent steady state, a similar turbulent spectrum obtains, and the convection cells are roughly circular. In addition, the density fluctuation level and the degree of flattening of the initial inverted density profile are found to decrease as V Prime increases; in fact, unstable modes are almost completely stabilized and the density profile reverts to laminar when V Prime is a few times the classic interchange growth rate. Moreover, the turbulent particle flux diminishes with increasing velocity shear such that all the flux is carried by the classical diffusive flux in the asymptotic limit. The simulations are compared with measurements of magnetic fluctuations from the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment, MCX, which investigated interchange modes in the presence of velocity shear. The experimental spectral data, taken in the plasma edge, are in general agreement with the numerical data obtained in higher viscosity simulations for which the level of viscosity is chosen consistent with MCX Reynolds numbers at the edge. In particular, the residual turbulence in both cases is dominated by elongated convection cells. Finally, concomitant Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities in the system are also examined. Complete stability to interchanges is obtained only in the parameter space wherein the generalized Rayleigh inflexion theorem is satisfied.

  1. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in the Orion nebula: the effect of radiation pressure (United States)

    Yaghouti, S. Akram; Nejad-Asghar, Mohsen; Abbassi, Shahram


    The recent observations of rippled structures on the surface of the Orion molecular cloud (Berné et al. 2010) have been attributed to the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. The wavelike structures that have been mainly seen near star-forming regions take place at the interface between the hot diffuse gas, which is ionized by massive stars, and the cold dense molecular clouds. The radiation pressure of massive stars and stellar clusters is one of the important issues that has been considered frequently in the dynamics of clouds. Here, we investigate the influence of radiation pressure, from the well-known Trapezium cluster in the Orion nebula, on the evolution of KH instability. The stability of the interface between the H ii region and the molecular clouds in the presence of radiation pressure has been studied using the linear perturbation analysis for a certain range of wavelengths. The linear analysis shows that the consideration of the radiation pressure intensifies the growth rate of KH modes and consequently decreases the e-fold time-scale of the instability. On the other hand, the domain of the instability is extended and includes more wavelengths, consisting of smaller ones rather than the case where the effect of the radiation pressure is not considered. Our results show that for λKH > 0.15 pc, the growth rate of KH instability does not depend on radiation pressure. Based on our results, the radiation pressure is a triggering mechanism in the development of the KH instability and subsequent formation of turbulent sub-structures in the molecular clouds near massive stars. The role of magnetic fields in the presence of radiation pressure is also investigated and it has resulted in the magnetic field suppressing the effects induced by radiation pressure.

  2. Linear simulations of the cylindrical Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in magnetohydrodynamics

    KAUST Repository

    Bakhsh, Abeer


    Numerical simulations and analysis indicate that the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability(RMI) is suppressed in ideal magnetohydrodynamics(MHD) in Cartesian slab geometry. Motivated by the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial confinement fusion and suppression by means of a magnetic field, we investigate the RMI via linear MHD simulations in cylindrical geometry. The physical setup is that of a Chisnell-type converging shock interacting with a density interface with either axial or azimuthal (2D) perturbations. The linear stability is examined in the context of an initial value problem (with a time-varying base state) wherein the linearized ideal MHD equations are solved with an upwind numerical method. Linear simulations in the absence of a magnetic field indicate that RMI growth rate during the early time period is similar to that observed in Cartesian geometry. However, this RMI phase is short-lived and followed by a Rayleigh-Taylor instability phase with an accompanied exponential increase in the perturbation amplitude. We examine several strengths of the magnetic field (characterized by β=2p/B^2_r) and observe a significant suppression of the instability for β ≤ 4. The suppression of the instability is attributed to the transport of vorticity away from the interface by Alfvén fronts.

  3. Reversible beam heater for suppression of microbunching instability by transverse gradient undulators (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Qin, Weilun; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhirong


    The microbunching instability driven by beam collective effects in a linear accelerator of a free-electron laser (FEL) facility significantly degrades the electron beam quality and FEL performance. A conventional method to suppress this instability is to introduce an additional uncorrelated energy spread by laser-electron interaction, which has been successfully operated in the Linac Coherent Light Source and Fermi@Elettra, etc. Some other ideas are recently proposed to suppress the instability without increasing energy spread, which could benefit the seeded FEL schemes. In this paper, we propose a reversible electron beam heater using two transverse gradient undulators to suppress the microbunching instability. This scheme introduces both an energy spread increase and a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space coupling, which suppress the microbunching instabilities driven by both longitudinal space charge and coherent synchrotron radiation before and within the system. Finally the induced energy spread increase and emittance growth are reversed. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations are presented to verify the feasibility of the scheme and indicate the capability to improve the seeded FEL radiation performance.

  4. Instability of combined gravity-inertial-Rossby waves in atmospheres and oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie


    Full Text Available The properties of the instability of combined gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane are investigated. The wave-energy exchange equation shows that there is an exchange of energy with the background stratified medium. The energy source driving the instability lies in the background enthalpy released by the gravitational buoyancy force.

    It is shown that if the phase speed of the westward propagating low frequency-long wavelength Rossby wave exceeds the Poincaré-Kelvin (or "equivalent" shallow water wave speed, instability arises from the merging of Rossby and Poincaré modes. There are two key parameters in this instability condition; namely, the equatorial/rotational Mach (or Froude number M and the latitude θ0 of the β-plane. In general waves equatorward of a critical latitude for given M can be driven unstable, with corresponding growth rates of the order of a day or so. Although these conclusions may only be safely drawn for short wavelengths corresponding to a JWKB wave packet propagating internally and located far from boundaries, nevertheless such a local instability may play a significant role in atmosphere-ocean dynamics.

  5. Novel Feed-through Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) Experiment for Characterization of Dynamic Material Response (United States)

    Opie, Saul; Gautam, Sudrishti; Fortin, Elizabeth; Lynch, Jenna; Loomis, Eric; Peralta, Pedro

    Hydrodynamic instabilities occur often in applications where forces act across a bimaterial interface. In Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instabilities, surface perturbations grow exponentially under opposing pressure and density gradients. In the closely related Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instability, the same perturbations grow linearly due to an impulsive acceleration, e.g., a passing shock wave. These effects are often analyzed with linear fluid theory, but it is well known that for materials possessing shear strength the perturbation evolution can be significantly affected. A challenge in modeling these effects is that existing knowledge of the interplay between strength and hydrodynamic instabilities in solids is limited for the loads and strain rates that are typically used to study them. We have developed novel feed-through RM instability experiments that are useful to understand and model this interplay. We will describe the experimental setup and show simulations that agree well with experimental results in two materials, one-phase copper, and iron loaded above and below the alpha-epsilon phase boundary, where modeling used a phase-aware strength model. In copper, the growth of surface perturbations is quite sensitive to strength model parameters, and so is the amplitude of the shock front perturbations. This is also observed in iron, along with an additional sensitivity in the modeling results to the parameters used to describe phase change kinetics. Work supported by Department of Energy (DOE) [Grant Number DE-SC0008683] from the Office of Fusion Energy Science.

  6. Reversible beam heater for suppression of microbunching instability by transverse gradient undulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu


    Full Text Available The microbunching instability driven by beam collective effects in a linear accelerator of a free-electron laser (FEL facility significantly degrades the electron beam quality and FEL performance. A conventional method to suppress this instability is to introduce an additional uncorrelated energy spread by laser-electron interaction, which has been successfully operated in the Linac Coherent Light Source and Fermi@Elettra, etc. Some other ideas are recently proposed to suppress the instability without increasing energy spread, which could benefit the seeded FEL schemes. In this paper, we propose a reversible electron beam heater using two transverse gradient undulators to suppress the microbunching instability. This scheme introduces both an energy spread increase and a transverse-to-longitudinal phase space coupling, which suppress the microbunching instabilities driven by both longitudinal space charge and coherent synchrotron radiation before and within the system. Finally the induced energy spread increase and emittance growth are reversed. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations are presented to verify the feasibility of the scheme and indicate the capability to improve the seeded FEL radiation performance.

  7. Electrohydrodynamic instability of premixed flames under manipulations of dc electric fields (United States)

    Ren, Yihua; Cui, Wei; Li, Shuiqing


    We report an electrohydrodynamic instability in a premixed stagnation flame under manipulations of a dc electric field. This instability occurs when the electric field strength is at a certain value below the breakdown threshold, which is 0.75 kV/cm in the experimental setup. Above this value the flame front suddenly transits from a substrate-stabilized near-flat shape to a nozzle-stabilized conical surface, accompanied by a jump in the electric current through the flame field. At the transition moment, the flame spontaneously propagates upstream to the nozzle while the flow velocity at the upstream of the flame front decreases to zero, as revealed by high-speed photographs and PIV measurements. These phenomena indicate a transient balance between the fluid inertia and the electric body force around the instability threshold. A quantitative model suggests that the flame instability can be explained by a positive feedback loop, where the electric field applies a nonuniform electric body force, pulling the flame front upstream, and the pulled flame front in turn enhances the local electric body force. The electrohydrodynamic instability occurs when the electric pulling is strong enough and both the growth rates and the magnitudes of the electric body force on flame exceed those of the fluid dynamic pressure.

  8. Instability of combined gravity-inertial-Rossby waves in atmospheres and oceans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie


    Full Text Available The properties of the instability of combined gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane are investigated. The wave-energy exchange equation shows that there is an exchange of energy with the background stratified medium. The energy source driving the instability lies in the background enthalpy released by the gravitational buoyancy force. It is shown that if the phase speed of the westward propagating low frequency-long wavelength Rossby wave exceeds the Poincaré-Kelvin (or "equivalent" shallow water wave speed, instability arises from the merging of Rossby and Poincaré modes. There are two key parameters in this instability condition; namely, the equatorial/rotational Mach (or Froude number M and the latitude θ0 of the β-plane. In general waves equatorward of a critical latitude for given M can be driven unstable, with corresponding growth rates of the order of a day or so. Although these conclusions may only be safely drawn for short wavelengths corresponding to a JWKB wave packet propagating internally and located far from boundaries, nevertheless such a local instability may play a significant role in atmosphere-ocean dynamics.

  9. Experimental investigation of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Christopher R. (University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI)


    The Richtmyer-Meshkov instability (RMI) is experimentally investigated using several different initial conditions and with a range of diagnostics. First, a broadband initial condition is created using a shear layer between helium+acetone and argon. The post-shocked turbulent mixing is investigated using planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF). The signature of turbulent mixing is present in the appearance of an inertial range in the mole fraction energy spectrum and the isotropy of the late-time dissipation structures. The distribution of the mole fraction values does not appear to transition to a homogeneous mixture, and it is possible that this effect may be slow to develop for the RMI. Second, the influence of the RMI on the kinetic energy spectrum is investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The influence of the perturbation is visible relatively far from the interface when compared to the energy spectrum of an initially flat interface. Closer to the perturbation, an increase in the energy spectrum with time is observed and is possibly due to a cascade of energy from the large length scales of the perturbation. Finally, the single mode perturbation growth rate is measured after reshock using a new high speed imaging technique. This technique produced highly time-resolved interface position measurements. Simultaneous measurements at the spike and bubble location are used to compute a perturbation growth rate history. The growth rates from several experiments are compared to a new reshock growth rate model.

  10. Electromagnetic instability induced by neutrino interaction (United States)

    Bhatt, Jitesh R.; George, Manu

    We consider the generation and evolution of magnetic field in a primordial plasma at temperature T ≤ 1MeV in the presence of asymmetric neutrino background, i.e. the number densities of right-handed and left-handed neutrinos are not the same. Semi-classical equations of motion of a charged fermion are derived using the effective low-energy Lagrangian. We show that the spin degree of freedom of the charged fermion couples with the neutrino background. Using this kinetic equation, we study the collective modes of the plasma. We find that there exist an unstable mode. This instability is closely related with the instability induced by chiral-anomaly in high temperature T ≥ 80TeV plasma where right and left-handed electrons are out of equilibrium. We find that at the temperatures below the neutrino decoupling this instability can produce magnetic field in the universe. We discuss cosmological implications of the results.

  11. Early Prevention Method for Power Systems Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmitrova, Evgenia

    . The predicted effect of the suggested countermeasure application is in a good agreement with the results obtained by RMS dynamic simulation. Developed method enables adaptive preventive control for near real-time stability maintenance. The achieved results are opening promising perspective for power system......In the scope of this work, a method capable of fast identification of the proper countermeasure, that prevents emerging instability, has been developed. The focus is placed on the prevention of aperiodic small signal angular instability by means of manipulations applied to load nodes (nodes...... containing no voltage sources). The main functionality of the early prevention method is to deliver control solution allowing escape from instability on the basis of data obtained by PMU measurements. The developed algorithm performs identification of the optimal node for countermeasure application...

  12. Plasma instabilities of a charge breeder ECRIS (United States)

    Tarvainen, O.; Angot, J.; Izotov, I.; Skalyga, V.; Koivisto, H.; Thuillier, T.; Kalvas, T.; Lamy, T.


    Experimental observation of plasma instabilities in a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source (CB-ECRIS) is reported. It is demonstrated that the injection of 133Cs+ or 85Rb+ ion beam into the oxygen discharge of the CB-ECRIS can trigger electron cyclotron instabilities, which restricts the parameter space available for the optimization of the charge breeding efficiency. It is concluded that the transition from a stable to unstable plasma regime is caused by gradual accumulation and ionization of Cs/Rb and simultaneous change of the discharge parameters in 10-100 ms time scale, not by a prompt interaction between the incident ion beam and the ECRIS plasma. The instabilities lead to loss of ion confinement, which results in the sputtering of the surfaces in contact with the plasma, followed by up to an order of magnitude increase of impurity currents in the extracted n+ ion beam.

  13. Genome instabilities arising from ribonucleotides in DNA. (United States)

    Klein, Hannah L


    Genomic DNA is transiently contaminated with ribonucleotide residues during the process of DNA replication through misincorporation by the replicative DNA polymerases α, δ and ε, and by the normal replication process on the lagging strand, which uses RNA primers. These ribonucleotides are efficiently removed during replication by RNase H enzymes and the lagging strand synthesis machinery. However, when ribonucleotides remain in DNA they can distort the DNA helix, affect machineries for DNA replication, transcription and repair, and can stimulate genomic instabilities which are manifest as increased mutation, recombination and chromosome alterations. The genomic instabilities associated with embedded ribonucleotides are considered here, along with a discussion of the origin of the lesions that stimulate particular classes of instabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonlinear saturation of Weibel-type instabilities (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bhuvana; Cagas, Petr; Hakim, Ammar


    Weibel-type instabilities, which grow in plasmas with anisotropic velocity distribution, have been studied for many years and drawn recent interest due to their broad applicability spanning from laboratory laser plasmas to origins of intergalactic magnetic fields in astrophysical plasmas. Magnetic particle trapping has been considered as the main mechanism of the nonlinear saturation of these instabilities. However, novel continuum kinetic and two-fluid five moment simulations show that there are additional effects - the transverse flow introduced by the magnetic field creates a secondary electrostatic two-stream instability which alters the saturation and is responsible for a quasi-periodic behavior in the nonlinear phase. This research was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Grant Number FA9550-15-1-0193.

  15. Edge instability in incompressible planar active fluids (United States)

    Nesbitt, David; Pruessner, Gunnar; Lee, Chiu Fan


    Interfacial instability is highly relevant to many important biological processes. A key example arises in wound healing experiments, which observe that an epithelial layer with an initially straight edge does not heal uniformly. We consider the phenomenon in the context of active fluids. Improving upon the approximation used by Zimmermann, Basan, and Levine [Eur. Phys. J.: Spec. Top. 223, 1259 (2014), 10.1140/epjst/e2014-02189-7], we perform a linear stability analysis on a two-dimensional incompressible hydrodynamic model of an active fluid with an open interface. We categorize the stability of the model and find that for experimentally relevant parameters, fingering instability is always absent in this minimal model. Our results point to the crucial role of density variation in the fingering instability in tissue regeneration.

  16. Pathways towards instability in financial networks (United States)

    Bardoscia, Marco; Battiston, Stefano; Caccioli, Fabio; Caldarelli, Guido


    Following the financial crisis of 2007-2008, a deep analogy between the origins of instability in financial systems and complex ecosystems has been pointed out: in both cases, topological features of network structures influence how easily distress can spread within the system. However, in financial network models, the details of how financial institutions interact typically play a decisive role, and a general understanding of precisely how network topology creates instability remains lacking. Here we show how processes that are widely believed to stabilize the financial system, that is, market integration and diversification, can actually drive it towards instability, as they contribute to create cyclical structures which tend to amplify financial distress, thereby undermining systemic stability and making large crises more likely. This result holds irrespective of the details of how institutions interact, showing that policy-relevant analysis of the factors affecting financial stability can be carried out while abstracting away from such details.

  17. Pick-Up Ion Instabilities at Planetary Magnetospheres (United States)

    Strangeway, Robert J.; Sharber, James (Technical Monitor)


    wave modes can be drive unstable by the pressure anisotropy associated with the pick up ions. The pick ion velocity is perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field, and is generally much larger than the thermal velocity, at least initially. At its simplest, we found that the ion cyclotron waves are controlled by the parameters of the species in gyro-resonance with the wave. Thus, while the growth rates for the lower mass (higher gyro-frequency) pick-up ions are generally larger, we found that the heavier SO2+ ion cyclotron waves are generally preferred. This is because one of the effects of the wave instability is to diffuse the ions in pitch angle and energy. The lower mass ions therefore consist of both a ring of recently created pick-up ions, and a thermal background. This thermal background quenches the ion cyclotron instability. SO2+ is different, however. Being a molecule, the species can also dissociate. Our analysis suggests that the dissociation acts on a time scale comparable to or faster than the velocity space diffusion time scale. There are consequently no thermal SO2+ ions to quench the instability. We have also investigated the mirror-mode. This mode can at times grow more rapidly than the individual ion cyclotron waves. This is mainly because the mirror-mode can grow off the pressure anisotropy of the individual species with which the waves are in resonance. Lastly, as part of this effort we have begun to investigate the instability for obliquely propagating modes. Galileo observations show that at times the ion cyclotron waves are significantly elliptically polarized, and further the wave vector is at a large angle to the field, significant growth can occur for oblique propagation. Depending on the group velocity of the waves, it is possible that obliquely propagating modes have higher advective growth rate, but this has yet to be determined.

  18. Control and simulation of thermoacoustic instabilities (United States)

    Poinsot, Thierry


    Combustion instabilities (CI), due to thermoacoustic coupling between acoustic waves and chemical reaction, constitute a major danger for all combustion systems. They can drive the system to unstable states where the whole combustor can oscillate, vibrate, quench or in extreme cases explode or burn. Such phenomena are commonly observed in the final phases of development programs, leading to major difficulties and significant additional costs. One of the most famous examples of combustion instabilities is the F1 engine of the Apollo program which required more than 1000 engine tests to obtain a stable regime satisfying all other constraints (performance, ignition, etc). CIs constitute one of the most challenging problems in fluid mechanics: they combine turbulence, acoustics, chemistry, unsteady two-phase flow in complex geometries. Since combustion instabilities have been identified (more than hundred years ago), the combustion community has followed two paths: (1) improve our understanding of the phenomena controlling stability to build engines which would be ``stable by design'' and (2) give up on a detailed understanding of mechanisms and add control systems either in open or closed loop devices to inhibit unstable modes. Of course, understanding phenomena driving combustion instabilities to suppress them would be the most satisfying approach but there is no fully reliable theory or numerical method today which can predict whether a combustor will be stable or not before it is fired. This talk will present an overview of combustion instabilities phenomenology before focusing on: (1) active control methods for combustion instabilities and (2) recent methods to predict unstable modes in combustors. These methods are based on recent Large Eddy Simulation codes for compressible reacting flows on HPC systems but we will also describe recent fully analytical methods which provide new insights into unstable modes in annular combustion chambers. Support: European

  19. Arthroscopic Findings in Anterior Shoulder Instability. (United States)

    Hantes, Michael; Raoulis, Vasilios


    In the last years, basic research and arthroscopic surgery, have improved our understanding of shoulder anatomy and pathology. It is a fact that arthroscopic treatment of shoulder instability has evolved considerably over the past decades. The aim of this paper is to present the variety of pathologies that should be identified and treated during shoulder arthroscopy when dealing with anterior shoulder instability cases. A review of the current literature regarding arthroscopic shoulder anatomy, anatomic variants, and arthroscopic findings in anterior shoulder instability, is presented. In addition, correlation of arthroscopic findings with physical examination and advanced imaging (CT and MRI) in order to improve our understanding in anterior shoulder instability pathology is discussed. Shoulder instability represents a broad spectrum of disease and a thorough understanding of the pathoanatomy is the key for a successful treatment of the unstable shoulder. Patients can have a variety of pathologies concomitant with a traditional Bankart lesion, such as injuries of the glenoid (bony Bankart), injuries of the glenoid labrum, superiorly (SLAP) or anteroinferiorly ( e.g . anterior labroligamentous periosteal sleeve avulsion, and Perthes), capsular lesions (humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament), and accompanying osseous-cartilage lesions (Hill-Sachs, glenolabral articular disruption). Shoulder arthroscopy allows for a detailed visualization and a dynamic examination of all anatomic structures, identification of pathologic findings, and treatment of all concomitant lesions. Surgeons must be well prepared and understanding the normal anatomy of the glenohumeral joint, including its anatomic variants to seek for the possible pathologic lesions in anterior shoulder instability during shoulder arthroscopy. Patient selection criteria, improved surgical techniques, and implants available have contributed to the enhancement of clinical and functional outcomes to the

  20. Instabilities in magnetized inhomogeneous plasmas with the effect of recombination (United States)

    Jyoti, Joshi, Vishal; Kumar, Tanuj


    The Inhomogeneous plasma with positive ions and electrons in which collisions are taking place is considered. To include the modification due to the magnetized plasma, a static magnetic field B0 is considered to be applied in the z-direction and the wave propagation is taken at an angle θ with it in the (X, Z) plane. The ions are assumed to be cold and singly charged. Fluid equations which take into account the recombination effects are formulated for ions and the electrons. Potential is found from Poisson's equation using normal mode analysis (NMA) along with linear approximation, neglecting higher order perturbed terms. From Potential equation, dispersion relation is generated which is solved numerically for obtaining the value of ω using typical plasma parameters. The behavior of growth rate with magnetic field, propagation angle, recombination constant along with different plasma oscillation wavelength to Debye length ratio (λ / λDe) has been studied. Two types of instabilities has been observed. Both the instabilities showing the same behavior with respect to recombination constant, magnetic field and (λ / λDe) plasma oscillation wavelength to Debye wavelength ratio. But they behave opposite to each other with respect to propagation angle (angle between the magnetic field and the propagation vector).

  1. On the miscible Rayleigh Taylor instability: two and three dimensions (United States)

    Young, Y.-N.; Tufo, H.; Dubey, A.; Rosner, R.


    We investigate the miscible Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability in both two and three dimensions using direct numerical simulations, where the working fluid is assumed incompressible under the Boussinesq approximation. We first consider the case of randomly perturbed interfaces. With a variety of diagnostics, we develop a physical picture for the detailed temporal development of the mixed layer: we identify three distinct evolutionary phases in this development, which can be related to detailed variations in the growth of the mixing zone. Our analysis provides an explanation for the observed differences between two- and three-dimensional RT instability; the analysis also leads us to concentrate on the RT models which (i) work equally well for both laminar and turbulent flows, and (ii) do not depend on turbulent scaling within the mixing layer between fluids. These candidate RT models are based on point sources within bubbles (or plumes) and their interaction with each other (or the background flow). With this motivation, we examine the evolution of single plumes, and relate our numerical results (for single plumes) to a simple analytical model for plume evolution.

  2. Secular Gravitational Instability of a Dust Layer in Shear Turbulence (United States)

    Michikoshi, Shugo; Kokubo, Eiichiro; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro


    We perform a linear stability analysis of a dust layer in a turbulent gas disk. Youdin investigated the secular gravitational instability (GI) of a dust layer using hydrodynamic equations with a turbulent diffusion term. We obtain essentially the same result independently of Youdin. In the present analysis, we restrict the area of interest to small dust particles, while investigating the secular GI in a more rigorous manner. We discuss the time evolution of the dust surface density distribution using a stochastic model and derive the advection-diffusion equation. The validity of the analysis by Youdin is confirmed in the strong drag limit. We demonstrate quantitatively that the finite thickness of a dust layer weakens the secular GI and that the density-dependent diffusion coefficient changes the growth rate. We apply the results obtained to the turbulence driven by the shear instability and find that the secular GI is faster than the radial drift when the gas density is three times as large as that in the minimum-mass disk model. If the dust particles are larger than chondrules, the secular GI grows within the lifetime of a protoplanetary disk.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soler, R.; Goossens, M. [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Diaz, A. J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ballester, J. L., E-mail: [Solar Physics Group, Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122, Palma de Mallorca (Spain)


    The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) has been observed in the solar atmosphere. Ion-neutral collisions may play a relevant role for the growth rate and evolution of the KHI in solar partially ionized plasmas such as in, e.g., solar prominences. Here, we investigate the linear phase of the KHI at an interface between two partially ionized magnetized plasmas in the presence of a shear flow. The effects of ion-neutral collisions and compressibility are included in the analysis. We obtain the dispersion relation of the linear modes and perform parametric studies of the unstable solutions. We find that, in the incompressible case, the KHI is present for any velocity shear regardless of the value of the collision frequency. In the compressible case, the domain of instability depends strongly on the plasma parameters, especially the collision frequency and the density contrast. For high collision frequencies and low density contrasts the KHI is present for super-Alfvenic velocity shear only. For high density contrasts the threshold velocity shear can be reduced to sub-Alfvenic values. For the particular case of turbulent plumes in prominences, we conclude that sub-Alfvenic flow velocities can trigger the KHI thanks to the ion-neutral coupling.

  4. Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Hartvig


    This paper deals with the aeroelostic instabilities that have occurred and may still occur for modem commercial wind turbines: stall-induced vibrations for stall-turbines, and classical flutter for pitch-regulated turbines. A review of previous works is combined with derivations of analytical...... stability limits for typical blade sections that show the fundamental mechanisms of these instabilities. The risk of stall-induced vibrations is mainly related to blade airfoil characteristics, effective direction of blade vibrations and structural damping, whereas the blade tip speed, torsional blade...

  5. MHD thermal instabilities in cool inhomogeneous atmospheres (United States)

    Bodo, G.; Ferrari, A.; Massaglia, S.; Rosner, R.


    The formation of a coronal state in a stellar atmosphere is investigated. A numerical code is used to study the effects of atmospheric gradients and finite loop dimension on the scale of unstable perturbations, solving for oscillatory perturbations as eigenfunctions of a boundary value problem. The atmosphere is considered as initially isothermal, with density and pressure having scale heights fixed by the hydrostatic equations. Joule mode instability is found to be an efficient mechanism for current filamentation and subsequent heating in initially cool atmospheres. This instability is mainly effective at the top of magnetic loops and is not suppressed by thermal conduction.

  6. Theory of electrohydrodynamic instabilities in electrolytic cells (United States)

    Bruinsma, R.; Alexander, S.


    The paper develops the theory of the hydrodynamic stability of an electrolytic cell as a function of the imposed electric current. A new electrohydrodynamic instability is encountered when the current is forced to exceed the Nernst limit. The convection is driven by the volume force exerted by the electric field on space charges in the electrolyte. This intrinsic instability is found to be easily masked by extrinsic convection sources such as gravity or stirring. A linear stability analysis is performed and a dimensionless number Le is derived whose value determines the convection pattern.



    Turner, D. G.


    Although Polaris is generally regarded as an overtone pulsator that may soon switch to pulsation in the fundamental mode, it is argued that the variable is actually crossing the instability strip for the first time and is in the process of leaving the instability strip altogether. The luminosity of Polaris inferred from its optical F3 V companion, as well as from A, F, and G-type stars lying within a few degrees of it and populating a group main sequence coincident with that for Polaris B...

  8. Methods for Simulating the Heavy Core Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Philip


    Full Text Available Vortices have been proposed as the sites of planet formation, where dust collects and grows into planetesimals, the building blocks of planets. However, for very small dust particles that can be treated as a pressure-less fluid, we have recently discovered the “heavy core” instability, driven by the density gradient in the vortex. In order to understand the eventual outcome of this instability, we need to study its non-linear development. Here, we describe our ongoing work to develop highly accurate numerical models of a vortex with a density gradient embedded within a protoplanetary disk.

  9. Heuristic explanation of journal bearing instability (United States)

    Crandall, S. H.


    A fluid-filled journal bearing is viewed as a powerful pump circulating fluid around the annular space between the journal and the bearing. A small whirling motion of the journal generates a wave of thickness variation progressing around the channel. The hypothesis that the fluid flow drives the whirl whenever the mean of the pumped fluid velocity is greater than the peripheral speed of the thickness variation wave is discussed and compared with other simple explanations of journal bearing instability. It is shown that for non-cavitation long bearings the hypothesis predicts instability onset correctly for unloaded bearings but gradually overpredicts the onset speed as the load is increased.

  10. Efficiency Versus Instability in Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab


    Plasma wake-field acceleration in a strongly nonlinear (a.k.a. the blowout) regime is one of the main candidates for future high-energy colliders. For this case, we derive a universal efficiency-instability relation, between the power efficiency and the key instability parameter of the witness bunch. We also show that in order to stabilize the witness bunch in a regime with high power efficiency, the bunch needs to have high energy spread, which is not presently compatible with collider-quality beam properties. It is unclear how such limitations could be overcome for high-luminosity linear colliders.

  11. Modulational instability in periodic quadratic nonlinear materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corney, Joel Frederick; Bang, Ole


    We investigate the modulational instability of plane waves in quadratic nonlinear materials with linear and nonlinear quasi-phase-matching gratings. Exact Floquet calculations, confirmed by numerical simulations, show that the periodicity can drastically alter the gain spectrum but never completely...... removes the instability. The low-frequency part of the gain spectrum is accurately predicted by an averaged theory and disappears for certain gratings. The high-frequency part is related to the inherent gain of the homogeneous non-phase-matched material and is a consistent spectral feature....

  12. Shape instability of a magnetic elastomer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raikher, Yu L; Stolbov, O V [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Ural Branch of RAS, 614013 Perm (Russian Federation); Stepanov, G V [State Scientific Center ' Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds' , 11123 Moscow (Russian Federation)], E-mail:


    Shape instability occurring in a thin plate (membrane) made of a soft magnetoelastic material under a uniform magnetic field is predicted and analysed. The instability onset is shown to be similar to the second-order transition; the dependence of the threshold field on the magnetic and geometric parameters of the membrane is derived analytically; the membrane shapes (domes) are evaluated with the aid of numerical simulation. The theory proposed is in general agreement with experiments performed on a siloxane rubber/iron carbonyl composite. (fast track communication)

  13. Computing Instability In Combustion Of Liquid Propellants (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Shang, Huan-Min


    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code developed for use in design analyses of flow instabilities associated with combustion of sprayed liquid propellants in rocket engines. Code also contributes to design of improved commercial sprayed-fuel combustors in furnaces and jet engines. Proves robust, user-friendly software tool with comprehensive analysis capability. Enables characterization of stability or instability of engine in terms of such physically meaningful parameters as initial conditions of spray, spatial distribution of ratio between concentrations of fuel and oxidizer at injector faces, geometry of combustor, and configurations of baffles.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lyabuk


    Full Text Available The approach to the description of conditions of martensitic transformation in austenitic steel is advanced. Transformation induced hardening is the result of Le Chatelier principle in instability alloys. The phase transformation in austenitic instability stainless steel is the cause of reduction of grain refining and increase of strength. It was experimentally shown that physical-mechanical characteristics of the prepared materials were defined by the structure and inhomogeneous distribution of the hardening phase within a grain. The reasons for high thermal stability of inverse austenitic were established. The factors determining the inverse austenitic relaxation resistibility and resources for its increasing were revealed.

  15. Composition driven structural instability in perovskite ferroelectrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Xu


    Full Text Available Ferroelectric solid solutions usually exhibit enhanced functional properties at the morphotropic phase boundary separating two ferroelectric phases with different orientations of polarization. The underlying mechanism is generally associated with polarization rotational instability and the flattened free energy profile. In this work we show that the polarization extensional instability can also be induced at the morphotropic phase boundary beyond the reported polar-nonpolar phase boundary. The piezoelectricity enhanced by this mechanism exhibits excellent thermal stability, which helps to develop high performance piezoelectric materials with good temperature stability.

  16. Role of intrinsic flame instability in the excitation of combustion chamber instability (United States)

    Akkerman, V'yacheslav; Law, Chung K.


    While considerable progress was made on understanding the various modes of flame instability at the fundamental level, and substantial empirical information and phenomenological descriptions was also accumulated on combustion instability within combustion chambers such as those of rocket engines, few attempts were made to explore the possible macro-scale excitation of the latter through the micro-scale manifestation of the former. Here we present an initial attempt towards identifying such a possibility and the associated coupling mechanisms. We shall incorporate the flame parameters into the classical theories of liquid-propellant rocket engines, and then implement the rocket dynamics into the analyses of premixed and diffusion flame segments. The analyses are conducted for the various instability modes, including the diffusional-thermal, Darrieus-Landau, and Rayleigh-Taylor (body-force) instabilities for premixed flames, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz and body-force instabilities for diffusion flames. The role of chamber-generated sound on stabilizing the inherent flame instabilities and triggering the parametric instability is also considered.

  17. MHD instabilities in astrophysical plasmas: very different from MHD instabilities in tokamaks! (United States)

    Goedbloed, J. P.


    The extensive studies of MHD instabilities in thermonuclear magnetic confinement experiments, in particular of the tokamak as the most promising candidate for a future energy producing machine, have led to an ‘intuitive’ description based on the energy principle that is very misleading for most astrophysical plasmas. The ‘intuitive’ picture almost directly singles out the dominant stabilizing field line bending energy of the Alfvén waves and, consequently, concentrates on expansion schemes that minimize that contribution. This happens when the wave vector {{k}}0 of the perturbations, on average, is perpendicular to the magnetic field {B}. Hence, all macroscopic instabilities of tokamaks (kinks, interchanges, ballooning modes, ELMs, neoclassical tearing modes, etc) are characterized by satisfying the condition {{k}}0 \\perp {B}, or nearly so. In contrast, some of the major macroscopic instabilities of astrophysical plasmas (the Parker instability and the magneto-rotational instability) occur when precisely the opposite condition is satisfied: {{k}}0 \\parallel {B}. How do those instabilities escape from the dominance of the stabilizing Alfvén wave? The answer to that question involves, foremost, the recognition that MHD spectral theory of waves and instabilities of laboratory plasmas could be developed to such great depth since those plasmas are assumed to be in static equilibrium. This assumption is invalid for astrophysical plasmas where rotational and gravitational accelerations produce equilibria that are at best stationary, and the associated spectral theory is widely, and incorrectly, believed to be non-self adjoint. These complications are addressed, and cured, in the theory of the Spectral Web, recently developed by the author. Using this method, an extensive survey of instabilities of astrophysical plasmas demonstrates how the Alfvén wave is pushed into insignificance under these conditions to give rise to a host of instabilities that do not

  18. Ion-hose instability in a long-pulse linear induction accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas C. Genoni


    Full Text Available The ion-hose instability is a transverse electrostatic instability which occurs on electron beams in the presence of a low-density ion channel. It is a phenomenon quite similar to the interaction between electron clouds and proton or positron beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. In the DARHT-2 accelerator, the 2-kA, 2-μs beam pulse produces an ion channel through impact ionization of the residual background gas (10^{-7}–10^{-6}   torr. A calculation of the linear growth by Briggs indicates that the instability could be strong enough to affect the radiographic application of DARHT, which requires that transverse oscillations be small compared to the beam radius. We present semianalytical theory and 3D particle-in-cell simulations (using the Lsp code of the linear and nonlinear growth of the instability, including the effects of the temporal change in the ion density and spatially decreasing beam radius. We find that the number of e-foldings experienced by a given beam slice is given approximately by an analytic expression using the local channel density at the beam slice. Hence, in the linear regime, the number of e-foldings increases linearly from head to tail of the beam pulse since it is proportional to the ion density. We also find that growth is strongly suppressed by nonlinear effects at relatively small oscillation amplitudes of the electron beam. This is because the ion oscillation amplitude is several times larger than that of the beam, allowing nonlinear effects to come into play. An analogous effect has recently been noted in electron-proton instabilities in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. For DARHT-2 parameters, we find that a pressure of ≤1.5×10^{-7}   torr is needed to keep the transverse beam oscillation amplitude less than about 20% of the rms beam radius.

  19. Optimal perturbations of non-parallel wakes and their stabilizing effect on the global instability (United States)

    Del Guercio, Gerardo; Cossu, Carlo; Pujals, Gregory


    We compute the spatial optimal energy amplification of steady inflow perturbations in a non-parallel wake and analyse their stabilizing action on the global mode instability. The optimal inflow perturbations, which are assumed spanwise periodic and varicose, consist in streamwise vortices that induce the downstream spatial transient growth of streamwise streaks. The maximum energy amplification of the streaks increases with the spanwise wavelength of the perturbations, in accordance with previous results obtained for the temporal energy growth supported by parallel wakes. A family of increasingly streaky wakes is obtained by forcing optimal inflow perturbations of increasing amplitude and then solving the nonlinear Navier-Stokes equations. We show that the linear global instability of the wake can be completely suppressed by forcing optimal perturbations of sufficiently large amplitude. The attenuation and suppression of self-sustained oscillations in the wake by optimal 3D perturbations is confirmed by fully nonlinear numerical simulations. We also show that the amplitude of optimal spanwise periodic (3D) perturbations of the basic flow required to stabilize the global instability is much smaller than the one required by spanwise uniform (2D) perturbations despite the fact that the first order sensitivity of the global eigenvalue to basic flow modifications is zero for 3D spanwise periodic modifications and non-zero for 2D modifications. We therefore conclude that first-order sensitivity analyses can be misleading if used far from the instability threshold, where higher order terms are the most relevant.

  20. Physical mechanism of centrifugal-gravity wave resonant instability in azimuthally symmetric swirling flows (United States)

    Yellin-Bergovoy, Ron; Heifetz, Eyal; Umurhan, Orkan M.


    We present an explicit analysis of wave-resonant instability of swirling flows inside fast rotating cylindrical containers. The linear dynamics are decomposed into the interaction between the horizontal inner centrifugal edge waves and the outer vertical gravity waves with the aim of understanding the dynamics of the centrifugal waves. We show how the far field velocity induced respectively by the centrifugal and the gravity waves affect each other's propagation rates and amplitude growth. We follow this with an analysis of the instability in terms of a four-wave interaction, two centrifugal and two gravity ones, and explain why the resonant instability can be obtained only between a pair of two counterpropagating waves, one centrifugal and one gravity. Furthermore, a near resonant regime which does not yield instability is shown to result from a phase-locking configuration between a pair of a counterpropagating centrifugal wave and a propropagating gravity one, where the interaction affects the waves' propagation rates but not the amplitude growth.

  1. Development of cancer-initiating cells and immortalized cells with genomic instability (United States)

    Yoshioka, Ken-ichi; Atsumi, Yuko; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Teraoka, Hirobumi


    Cancers that develop after middle age usually exhibit genomic instability and multiple mutations. This is in direct contrast to pediatric tumors that usually develop as a result of specific chromosomal translocations and epigenetic aberrations. The development of genomic instability is associated with mutations that contribute to cellular immortalization and transformation. Cancer occurs when cancer-initiating cells (CICs), also called cancer stem cells, develop as a result of these mutations. In this paper, we explore how CICs develop as a result of genomic instability, including looking at which cancer suppression mechanisms are abrogated. A recent in vitro study revealed the existence of a CIC induction pathway in differentiating stem cells. Under aberrant differentiation conditions, cells become senescent and develop genomic instabilities that lead to the development of CICs. The resulting CICs contain a mutation in the alternative reading frame of CDKN2A (ARF)/p53 module, i.e., in either ARF or p53. We summarize recently established knowledge of CIC development and cellular immortality, explore the role of the ARF/p53 module in protecting cells from transformation, and describe a risk factor for genomic destabilization that increases during the process of normal cell growth and differentiation and is associated with the downregulation of histone H2AX to levels representative of growth arrest in normal cells. PMID:25815132

  2. An Experimental Study of Roughness-Induced Instabilities in a Supersonic Boundary Layer (United States)

    Kegerise, Michael A.; King, Rudolph A.; Choudhari, Meelan; Li, Fei; Norris, Andrew


    Progress on an experimental study of laminar-to-turbulent transition induced by an isolated roughness element in a supersonic laminar boundary layer is reported in this paper. Here, the primary focus is on the effects of roughness planform shape on the instability and transition characteristics. Four different roughness planform shapes were considered (a diamond, a circle, a right triangle, and a 45 degree fence) and the height and width of each one was held fixed so that a consistent frontal area was presented to the oncoming boundary layer. The nominal roughness Reynolds number was 462 and the ratio of the roughness height to the boundary layer thickness was 0.48. Detailed flow- field surveys in the wake of each geometry were performed via hot-wire anemometry. High- and low-speed streaks were observed in the wake of each roughness geometry, and the modified mean flow associated with these streak structures was found to support a single dominant convective instability mode. For the symmetric planform shapes - the diamond and circular planforms - the instability characteristics (mode shapes, growth rates, and frequencies) were found to be similar. For the asymmetric planform shapes - the right-triangle and 45 degree fence planforms - the mode shapes were asymmetrically distributed about the roughness-wake centerline. The instability growth rates for the asymmetric planforms were lower than those for the symmetric planforms and therefore, transition onset was delayed relative to the symmetric planforms.

  3. Front instability and energy of the free surface (United States)

    Beltrame, Philippe


    In recent years, there has been a proliferation of research devoted to the formation of preferential flow paths occurring without macroscopic heterogeneity of the porous media. DiCarlo (2013) points out the connection between "overshoot" and the front instability. Extension of the standard Richards equation is required to capture this phenomenon. In most of the improvements, interfacial phenomena as the triple line at the front are considered. For instance, velocity dependent contact angle (Wang et al., 2013) or contact angle hysteresis (Rätz and Schweizer, 2012) allow to simulate successfully the instability. Another approach proposed by Cueto-Felgueroso and Juanes (2009) introduces a macroscopic surface tension related to the existence of the water/air interface. As previously, the simulation of an advancing front displays physical looking fingering displacements. The goal of this contribution is to better understand the role of the different surface energies in the emergence of the front instability. We propose a model involving both the macroscopic surface tension and the soil wettability. This latter allows to define a contact angle and possibly hysteresis using heterogeneous wettability (Beltrame et al., 2011). Therefore, we employ the phase field approach developed by Felgueroso and Juanes, 2009 to which we add a free energy term corresponding to the wettability: a disjoining or conjoining pressure resulting from effective molecular interactions between the substrate and the free surface (DeGennes, 1985). The difference with the classical suction pressure is the hydrophobic behavior for ultra-thin film (small water saturation). Such a water repellency was recently estimated in the soil (Diamantopoulos et al. 2013). Stability analysis of an advancing front in an uniform porous media shows that macroscopic surface tension and wettability may independently produce the instability growth. In contrast, for a front stopping when reaching the layers interface of

  4. Doubly diffusive magnetic buoyancy instability in the solar interior (United States)

    Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Rosner, R.


    An investigation of the buoyancy of diffuse magnetic fields has shown that in the presence of rotation, static equilibrium configurations of the toroidal magnetic field and ambient plasma can exist. In that case, the escape of toroidal magnetic flux from the solar interior may be determined by the growth of instabilities which the equilibrium configuration may be subject to. In connection with the present investigation, it is assumed that in the region of toroidal magnetic flux amplification, the magnetic field has not as yet filamented into flux ropes, and is therefore 'diffuse'. A study is conducted of the MHD stability of an electrically conducting and differentially rotating gas in the presence of a toroidal magnetic field, an external constant gravitational field, and radiance pressure. The full dispersion relation for the magnetic buoyancy problem is developed, and the solutions of the dispersion relation are discussed.

  5. Viscous Rayleigh-Taylor instability in spherical geometry (United States)

    Mikaelian, Karnig O.


    We consider viscous fluids in spherical geometry, a lighter fluid supporting a heavier one. Chandrasekhar [Q. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 8, 1 (1955), 10.1093/qjmam/8.1.1] analyzed this unstable configuration providing the equations needed to find, numerically, the exact growth rates for the ensuing Rayleigh-Taylor instability. He also derived an analytic but approximate solution. We point out a weakness in his approximate dispersion relation (DR) and offer a somewhat improved one. A third DR, based on transforming a planar DR into a spherical one, suffers no unphysical predictions and compares reasonably well with the exact work of Chandrasekhar and a more recent numerical analysis of the problem [Terrones and Carrara, Phys. Fluids 27, 054105 (2015), 10.1063/1.4921648].

  6. Hydrodynamic instabilities in beryllium targets for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, S. A., E-mail:; Simakov, A. N.; Wilson, D. C.; Olson, R. E.; Kline, J. L.; Batha, S. H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Clark, D. S.; Hammel, B. A.; Milovich, J. L.; Salmonson, J. D.; Kozioziemski, B. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)


    Beryllium ablators offer higher ablation velocity, rate, and pressure than their carbon-based counterparts, with the potential to increase the probability of achieving ignition at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)]. We present here a detailed hydrodynamic stability analysis of low (NIF Revision 6.1) and high adiabat NIF beryllium target designs. Our targets are optimized to fully utilize the advantages of beryllium in order to suppress the growth of hydrodynamic instabilities. This results in an implosion that resists breakup of the capsule, and simultaneously minimizes the amount of ablator material mixed into the fuel. We quantify the improvement in stability of beryllium targets relative to plastic ones, and show that a low adiabat beryllium capsule can be at least as stable at the ablation front as a high adiabat plastic target.

  7. Anisotropy and Feedthrough in Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities (United States)

    Weis, Matthew; Rittersdorf, Ian; Lau, Yue Ying; Zhang, Peng; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Zier, Jacob


    The magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability (MRT) in a finite slab is studied analytically using the ideal MHD model. The slab may be accelerated by an arbitrary combination of magnetic pressure and fluid pressure, thus allowing an arbitrary degree of anisotropy intrinsic to the acceleration mechanism. The magnetic field in different regions may assume arbitrary magnitude and direction tangential to the interface. In general, MRT retains robust growth if it exists. However, feedthrough may be substantially reduced if there are magnetic fields on both sides of the slab, and if the MRT mode invokes bending of the magnetic field lines. The analytically tractable eigenmode solutions allow an evaluation of the temporal evolution of MRT from random initial surface roughness. Work supported by DoE award DE-SC0002590, NSF award PHY 0903340, and by DoE through Sandia National Lab awards 240985 and 76822 to U. of Michigan. JCZ was supported by an NPSC fellowship through Sandia.

  8. Microsatellite Instability Pathway and EMAST in Colorectal Cancer. (United States)

    Carethers, John M


    Microsatellite instability (MSI) refers to the biochemical detection of frameshifted microsatellite sequences from genomic DNA. Genesis of MSI is due to defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) that fails to correct post DNA replicative slippage mistakes at microsatellites. Most of the estimated 100,000 genomic microsatellites are non-coding; however, ~150-300 microsatellites are coding such that, when frameshifted during the pathogenesis of an MSI tumor, can generate immunogenic neopeptide antigens that limit the growth of tumor and prolong patient survival. In addition to the immune reaction and longer survival, patients with MSI colorectal cancers tend to have poorly differentiated tumors with mucinous features that are located in the right colon. Patients with MSI tumors are more resistant to 5-fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy but may be responsive to PD-1 immune checkpoint blockade. Specific defects of MMR function not only drive MSI but also elevate microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotide repeats that may further modify patient outcome.

  9. Bispectra of Internal Tides and Parametric Subharmonic Instability

    CERN Document Server

    Frajka-Williams, Eleanor; MacKinnon, Jennifer A


    Bispectral analysis of the nonlinear resonant interaction known as parametric subharmonic instability (PSI) for a coherence semidiurnal internal tide demonstrates the ability of the bispectrum to identify and quantify the transfer rate. Assuming that the interaction is confined to a vertical plane, energy equations transform in such a way that nonlinear terms become the third-moment spectral quantity known as the bispectrum. Bispectral transfer rates computed on PSI in an idealized, fully-nonlinear, non-hydrostatic Boussinesq model compare well to model growth rates of daughter waves. Bispectra also identify the nonlinear terms responsible for energy transfer. Using resonance conditions for an M2 tide, the locus of PSI wavenumber triads is determined as a function of parent-wave frequency and wavenumbers, latitude and range of daughter-wave frequencies. The locus is used to determine the expected bispectral signal of PSI in wavenumber space. Bispectra computed using velocity profiles from the HOME experiment ...

  10. Aspects of electrohydrodynamic instabilities at polymer interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, TP; Lin, ZQ; Schaffer, E; Steiner, U

    Electrospinning is emerging as a simple means of producing fibers with diameters ranging from 0.02 mum to many microns. Electrospinning, however, relies on the force generated by an electric field on the surface of a polymer solution to either enhance instabilities in a thinning jet or to rapidly

  11. Neutrino signal from pair-instability supernovae (United States)

    Wright, Warren P.; Gilmer, Matthew S.; Fröhlich, Carla; Kneller, James P.


    A very massive star with a carbon-oxygen core in the range of 64M ⊙evolution at the extreme of stellar masses. Much will be sought within the electromagnetic radiation we detect from such a supernova but we should not forget that the neutrinos from a pair-instability supernova contain unique signatures of the event that unambiguously identify this type of explosion. We calculate the expected neutrino flux at Earth from two, one-dimensional pair-instability supernova simulations which bracket the mass range of stars which explode by this mechanism taking into account the full time and energy dependence of the neutrino emission and the flavor evolution through the outer layers of the star. We calculate the neutrino signals in five different detectors chosen to represent present or near future designs. We find the more massive progenitors explode as pair-instability supernova which can easily be detected in multiple different neutrino detectors at the "standard" supernova distance of 10 kpc producing several events in DUNE, JUNO, and Super-Kamiokande, while the lightest progenitors produce only a handful of events (if any) in the same detectors. The proposed Hyper-Kamiokande detector would detect neutrinos from a large pair-instability supernova as far as ˜50 kpc allowing it to reach the Megallanic Clouds and the several very high mass stars known to exist there.

  12. Pattern formation - Instabilities in sand ripples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J. L.; v. Hecke, M.; Haaning, A.


    Sand ripples are seen below shallow wavy water and are formed whenever water oscillates over a bed of sand. Here we analyse the instabilities that can upset this perfect patterning when the ripples are subjected to large changes in driving amplitude or frequency, causing them to deform both...

  13. Control of Coherent Instabilities by Linear Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Cappi, R; Möhl, D


    One of the main challenges in the design of high-energy colliders is the very high luminosity necessary to provide significant event rates. This imposes strong constraints to achieve and preserve beams of high brightness, i.e. intensity to emittance ratio, all along the injector chain. Amongst the phenomena that can blow up and even destroy the beam are transverse coherent instabilities. Two methods are widely used to damp these instabilities. The first one is Landau damping by non-linearities. The second consists in using an electronic feedback system. However, non-linearities are harmful to single-particle motion due to resonance phenomena, and powerful wideband feedback systems are expensive. It is shown in this paper that linear coupling is a further method that can be used to damp transverse coherent instabilities. The theory of collective motion is outlined, including the coupling of instability rise and damping rates, chromaticity and Landau damping. Experimental results obtained at the CERN PS are rep...

  14. Understanding financial instability through complex systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Veld, D.


    This article presents an outline and some early results of the research project Understanding inancial instability through complex systems, supported by the Dutch Science Foundation NWO. The project is carried out by the Center for Nonlinear Dynamics in Economics and Finance (CeNDEF) at the

  15. Instabilities in power law gradient hardening materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo


    Tension and compression instabilities are investigated for specimens with dimensions in the micron range. A finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity theory is implemented in a finite element scheme capable of modeling power law hardening materials. Effects...

  16. Greenscreen Teaching: Institutional Instability and Classroom Innovation (United States)

    Perkins, Miriam Y.


    "Greenscreen Teaching" explores how the stresses of institutional and social change impact teaching and learning, and the creative resourcefulness born out of instability. In precarious institutions and social contexts, relevant outcomes for theological learning include developing attentiveness, robust moral discernment, and courageous…

  17. Treatment of glenohumeral instability in rugby players. (United States)

    Funk, Lennard


    Rugby is a high-impact collision sport, with impact forces. Shoulder injuries are common and result in the longest time off sport for any joint injury in rugby. The most common injuries are to the glenohumeral joint with varying degrees of instability. The degree of instability can guide management. The three main types of instability presentations are: (1) frank dislocation, (2) subluxations and (3) subclinical instability with pain and clicking. Understanding the exact mechanism of injury can guide diagnosis with classical patterns of structural injuries. The standard clinical examination in a large, muscular athlete may be normal, so specific tests and techniques are needed to unearth signs of pathology. Taking these factors into consideration, along with the imaging, allows a treatment strategy. However, patient and sport factors need to be also considered, particularly the time of the season and stage of sporting career. Surgery to repair the structural damage should include all lesions found. In chronic, recurrent dislocations with major structural lesions, reconstruction procedures such as the Latarjet procedure yields better outcomes. Rehabilitation should be safe, goal-driven and athlete-specific. Return to sport is dependent on a number of factors, driven by the healing process, sport requirements and extrinsic pressures. Level of evidence V.

  18. Rodeo athletes: management of shoulder instability. (United States)

    Figueiredo, Eduardo A; Belangero, Paulo S; Cohen, Carina; Louchard, Rafael L; Terra, Bernardo B; Pochini, Alberto C; Andreoli, Carlos V; Cohen, Moisés; Ejnisman, Benno


    The aim of this study was to describe epidemiological data and evaluate the clinical results of traumatic anterior glenohumeral instability in rodeo athletes. Thirteen patients, all male, with a mean age of 23.2 (18-31) years old, with anterior glenohumeral instability were include in this study. In 9 patients, the right side was affected. The mean time elapsed between injury and undergoing surgery was 56 months (24-120 months). The surgical technique used (arthroscopic or open bone block procedure) was chosen based on the ISIS (Instability Severity Index Score). Only professional athletes who had been in the sport for at least 60 months were included. Functional evaluation was conducted using the UCLA scale, after a 24-month follow-up period. The number of dislocation episodes varied from 10 to 100 (mean 27 episodes). All of the patients were submitted a surgical treatment open bone block procedure, due to their degree of sport participation, type of sport (forced overhead and collision) and the presence of associated bone defect lesions. According to UCLA criteria, the results were excellent in 12 patients and good in one. The mean time elapsed before returning to the sport was five months, varying between two and ten months. Complications included one patient developing axillary neuropraxia, which was completely resolved six months after the operation, and another patient developed a superficial skin infection. The rodeo athletes with anterior shoulder instability had serious associated bony lesions and has good outcome after bone block procedure.

  19. Corruption, Governance and Political Instability in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian State is a victim of high-level corruption, bad governance, political instability and cyclical legitimacy crisis. In the absence of support from civil society, the effective power of government was eroded and patron-client relationships took a prime role over the formal aspects of politics, such as the rule of law, ...

  20. Nonlinear Instabilities on an Axisymmetric Ferrofluid Jet (United States)

    Cornish, Michael; Papageorgiou, Demetrios


    The stability properties of an inviscid axisymmetric ferrofluid jet running over a current carrying rod are investigated. The rod generates an azimuthal magnetic field which can fully stabilize the Rayleigh-plateau instability for a sufficiently large magnetic field. However, long wave instability can occur when the magnetic field is below critical; this regime has not been studied nonlinearly unlike the above critical regime where the magnetic stabilization property has led to theoretical and experimental discoveries of solitary waves on the ferrofluid jet. We study the flow asymptotically near the critical value of the magnetic field. In the stable regime, we derive the Boussinesq equation. Our interest is in the unstable regime, where magnetic forces are slightly smaller than capillary forces. The Rayleigh-plateau instability is no longer suppressed and a weakly nonlinear long wave model is derived and studied analytically and computationally. The final part of the study follows the nonlinear evolution of the free surface for magnetic fields away from the critical level. A fully nonlinear long-wave theory will be used to derive reduced model equations to evaluate the nonlinear competition between capillary instability of the liquid jet and the stabilizing magnetic field.

  1. Nonlinear parametric instability of wind turbine wings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper Winther; Nielsen, Søren R.K.


    Nonlinear rotor dynamic is characterized by parametric excitation of both linear and nonlinear terms caused by centrifugal and Coriolis forces when formulated in a moving frame of reference. Assuming harmonically varying support point motions from the tower, the nonlinear parametric instability...

  2. Genome organization, instabilities, stem cells, and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar Pazhanisamy


    Full Text Available It is now widely recognized that advances in exploring genome organization provide remarkable insights on the induction and progression of chromosome abnormalities. Much of what we know about how mutations evolve and consequently transform into genome instabilities has been characterized in the spatial organization context of chromatin. Nevertheless, many underlying concepts of impact of the chromatin organization on perpetuation of multiple mutations and on propagation of chromosomal aberrations remain to be investigated in detail. Genesis of genome instabilities from accumulation of multiple mutations that drive tumorigenesis is increasingly becoming a focal theme in cancer studies. This review focuses on structural alterations evolve to raise a variety of genome instabilities that are manifested at the nucleotide, gene or sub-chromosomal, and whole chromosome level of genome. Here we explore an underlying connection between genome instability and cancer in the light of genome architecture. This review is limited to studies directed towards spatial organizational aspects of origin and propagation of aberrations into genetically unstable tumors.

  3. Suppression of instability in rotatory hydromagnetic convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently discovered hydrodynamic instability [1], in a simple Bénard configuration in the parameter regime 02 > 1 under the action of a nonadverse temperature gradient, is shown to be suppressed by the simultaneous action of a uniform rotation and a uniform magnetic field both acting parallel to gravity for oscillatory ...

  4. The disruptive instability in Tokamak plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salzedas, F.J.B.


    Studies performed in RTP (Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project) of the most violent and dangerous instability in tokamak plasmas, the major disruption, are presented. A particular class of disruptions is analyzed, namely the density limit disruption, which occur in high density plasmas. The radiative

  5. Theory and Experiments on Chemical Instabilities. (United States)


    following institutions and conferences: 1981 Jan. 8 X Reunion de Fisica Estadistica , Cocoyoc, Mexico, Resonances and Control Features Feb. 13 Michigan State...Aeronautics and Astronautics, Invited Remarks, Palo Alto, CA 1982 Feb. 25,26 Industrial Affiliates Program ": .’ Hydrodynamic and Chemical Instabilities

  6. Mechanisms of cadmium induced genomic instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipic, Metka, E-mail: [National Institute of Biology, Department for Genetic Toxicology and Cancer Biology, Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    Cadmium is an ubiquitous environmental contaminant that represents hazard to humans and wildlife. It is found in the air, soil and water and, due to its extremely long half-life, accumulates in plants and animals. The main source of cadmium exposure for non-smoking human population is food. Cadmium is primarily toxic to the kidney, but has been also classified as carcinogenic to humans by several regulatory agencies. Current evidence suggests that exposure to cadmium induces genomic instability through complex and multifactorial mechanisms. Cadmium dose not induce direct DNA damage, however it induces increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, which in turn induce DNA damage and can also interfere with cell signalling. More important seems to be cadmium interaction with DNA repair mechanisms, cell cycle checkpoints and apoptosis as well as with epigenetic mechanisms of gene expression control. Cadmium mediated inhibition of DNA repair mechanisms and apoptosis leads to accumulation of cells with unrepaired DNA damage, which in turn increases the mutation rate and thus genomic instability. This increases the probability of developing not only cancer but also other diseases associated with genomic instability. In the in vitro experiments cadmium induced effects leading to genomic instability have been observed at low concentrations that were comparable to those observed in target organs and tissues of humans that were non-occupationally exposed to cadmium. Therefore, further studies aiming to clarify the relevance of these observations for human health risks due to cadmium exposure are needed.

  7. Capillary instability on a hydrophilic stripe (United States)

    Speth, Raymond L.; Lauga, Eric


    A recent experiment showed that cylindrical segments of water filling a hydrophilic stripe on an otherwise hydrophobic surface display a capillary instability when their volume is increased beyond the critical volume at which their apparent contact angle on the surface reaches 90° (Gau et al 1999 Science 283 46-9). Surprisingly, the fluid segments did not break up into droplets—as would be expected for a classical Rayleigh-Plateau instability—but instead displayed a long-wavelength instability where all excess fluid gathered in a single bulge along each stripe. We consider here the dynamics of the flow instability associated with this setup. We perform a linear stability analysis of the capillary flow problem in the inviscid limit. We first confirm previous work showing that all cylindrical segments are linearly unstable if (and only if) their apparent contact angle is larger than 90°. We then demonstrate that the most unstable wavenumber for the surface perturbation decreases to zero as the apparent contact angle of the fluid on the surface approaches 90°, allowing us to re-interpret the creation of bulges in the experiment as a zero-wavenumber capillary instability. A variation of the stability calculation is also considered for the case of a hydrophilic stripe located on a wedge-like geometry.

  8. Upstream and Downstream Influence in STBLI Instability (United States)

    Martin, Pino; Priebe, Stephan; Helm, Clara


    Priebe and Martín (JFM, 2012) show that the low-frequency unsteadiness in shockwave and turbulent boundary layer interactions (STBLI) is governed by an inviscid instability. Priebe, Tu, Martín and Rowley (JFM, 2016) show that the instability is an inviscid centrifugal one, i.e Görtlerlike vortices. Previous works had given differing conclusions as to whether the low-frequency unsteadiness in STBLI is caused by an upstream or downstream mechanism. In this paper, we reconcile these opposite views and show that upstream and downstream correlations co-exist in the context of the nature of Görtler vortices. We find that the instability is similar to that in separated subsonic and laminar flows. Since the turbulence is modulated but passive to the global mode, the turbulent separated flows are amenable to linear global analysis. As such, the characteristic length and time scales, and the receptivity of the global mode might be determined, and low-order models that represent the low-frequency dynamics in STBLI might be developed. The centrifugal instability persists even under hypersonic conditions. This work is funded by the AFOSR Grant Number AF9550-15-1-0284 with Dr. Ivett Leyva.

  9. Snake venom instability | Willemse | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egyptian cobra Naja haje haje) and puffadder (Bills arietans). Considerable differences in electrophoretic characteristics were found between fresh venom and commercial venom samples from the same species of snake. These differences could be attributed partly to the instability of snake venom under conditions of drying ...

  10. Galloping instability to chaos of cables

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Albert C J


    This book provides students and researchers with a systematic solution for fluid-induced structural vibrations, galloping instability and the chaos of cables. They will also gain a better understanding of stable and unstable periodic motions and chaos in fluid-induced structural vibrations. Further, the results presented here will help engineers effectively design and analyze fluid-induced vibrations.

  11. Remittances, spending, and political instability in Ukraine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuntsevych, Iuliia


    Roč. 64, č. 1 (2016), s. 42-57 ISSN 0722-480X Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : Ukraine * remittances * political instability Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  12. Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability induced flow, turbulence, and mixing. I (United States)

    Zhou, Ye


    Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) and Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) instabilities play an important role in a wide range of engineering, geophysical, and astrophysical flows. They represent a triggering event that, in many cases, leads to large-scale turbulent mixing. Much effort has been expended over the past 140 years, beginning with the seminal work of Lord Rayleigh, to predict the evolution of the instabilities and of the instability-induced mixing layers. The objective of Part I of this review is to provide the basic properties of the flow, turbulence, and mixing induced by RT, RM, and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instabilities. Historical efforts to study these instabilities are briefly reviewed, and the significance of these instabilities is discussed for a variety of flows, particularly for astrophysical flows and for the case of inertial confinement fusion. Early experimental efforts are described, and analytical attempts to model the linear, and nonlinear regimes of these mixing layers are examined. These analytical efforts include models for both single-mode and multi-mode initial conditions, as well as multi-scale models to describe the evolution. Comparisons of these models and theories to experimental and simulation studies are then presented. Next, attention is paid to the issue of the influence of stabilizing mechanisms (e.g., viscosity, surface tension, and diffuse interface) on the evolution of these instabilities, as well as the limitations and successes of numerical methods. Efforts to study these instabilities and mixing layers using group-theoretic ideas, as well as more formal notions of turbulence cascade processes during the later stages of the induced mixing layers, are inspected. A key element of the review is the discussion of the late-time self-similar scaling for the RT and RM growth factors, α and θ. These parameters are influenced by the initial conditions and much of the observed variation can be explained by this. In some cases, these instabilities


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, A. J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, 38205, C/ Via Lactea, s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Soler, R. [Centre for Plasma Astrophysics, Department of Mathematics, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Ballester, J. L., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)


    We study the modification of the classical criterion for the linear onset and growing rate of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) in a partially ionized plasma in the two-fluid description. The plasma is composed of a neutral fluid and an electron-ion fluid, coupled by means of particle collisions. The governing linear equations and appropriate boundary conditions, including gravitational terms, are derived and applied to the case of the RTI in a single interface between two partially ionized plasmas. The limits of collisionless, no gravity, and incompressible fluids are checked before addressing the general case. We find that both compressibility and ion-neutral collisions lower the linear growth rate, but do not affect the critical threshold of the onset of the RTI. The configuration is always unstable when a lighter plasma is below a heavier plasma regardless the value of the magnetic field strength, the ionization degree, and the ion-neutral collision frequency. However, ion-neutral collisions have a strong impact on the RTI growth rate, which can be decreased by an order of magnitude compared to the value in the collisionless case. Ion-neutral collisions are necessary to accurately describe the evolution of the RTI in partially ionized plasmas such as prominences. The timescale for the development of the instability is much longer than in the classical incompressible fully ionized case. This result may explain the existence of prominence fine structures with life times of the order of 30 minutes. The timescales derived from the classical theory are about one order of magnitude shorter and incompatible with the observed life times.

  14. Instability of supersonic cold streams feeding galaxies - I. Linear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with body modes (United States)

    Mandelker, Nir; Padnos, Dan; Dekel, Avishai; Birnboim, Yuval; Burkert, Andreas; Krumholz, Mark R.; Steinberg, Elad


    Massive galaxies at high redshift are predicted to be fed from the cosmic web by narrow, dense streams of cold gas that penetrate through the hot medium encompassed by a stable shock near the virial radius of the dark-matter halo. Our long-term goal is to explore the heating and dissipation rate of the streams and their fragmentation and possible breakup, in order to understand how galaxies are fed, and how this affects their star formation rate and morphology. We present here the first step, where we analyse the linear Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) of a cold, dense slab or cylinder in 3D flowing supersonically through a hot, dilute medium. The current analysis is limited to the adiabatic case with no gravity. By analytically solving the linear dispersion relation, we find a transition from a dominance of the familiar rapidly growing surface modes in the subsonic regime to more slowly growing body modes in the supersonic regime. The system is parametrized by three parameters: the density contrast between stream and medium, the Mach number of stream velocity with respect to the medium and the stream width with respect to the halo virial radius. A realistic choice for these parameters places the streams near the mode transition, with the KHI exponential-growth time in the range 0.01-10 virial crossing times for a perturbation wavelength comparable to the stream width. We confirm our analytic predictions with idealized hydrodynamical simulations. Our linear estimates thus indicate that KHI may be effective in the evolution of streams before they reach the galaxy. More definite conclusions await the extension of the analysis to the non-linear regime and the inclusion of cooling, thermal conduction, the halo potential well, self-gravity and magnetic fields.

  15. Transport Properties of the Azimuthal Magnetorotational Instability (United States)

    Guseva, Anna; Willis, Ashley P.; Hollerbach, Rainer; Avila, Marc


    The magnetorotational instability (MRI) is thought to be a powerful source of turbulence in Keplerian accretion disks. Motivated by recent laboratory experiments, we study the MRI driven by an azimuthal magnetic field in an electrically conducting fluid sheared between two concentric rotating cylinders. By adjusting the rotation rates of the cylinders, we approximate angular velocity profiles {ω }\\propto {r}q. We perform direct numerical simulations of a steep profile close to the Rayleigh line q≳ -2 and a quasi-Keplerian profile q≈ -3/2 and cover wide ranges of Reynolds ({{Re}} ≤slant 4× {10}4) and magnetic Prandtl numbers (0≤slant {{Pm}}≤slant 1). In the quasi-Keplerian case, the onset of instability depends on the magnetic Reynolds number, with {{{Rm}}}c≈ 50, and angular momentum transport scales as \\sqrt{{{Pm}}}{{{Re}}}2 in the turbulent regime. The ratio of Maxwell to Reynolds stresses is set by Rm. At the onset of instability both stresses have similar magnitude, whereas the Reynolds stress vanishes or becomes even negative as Rm increases. For the profile close to the Rayleigh line, the instability shares these properties as long as {{Pm}}≳ 0.1 but exhibits a markedly different character if {{Pm}}\\to 0, where the onset of instability is governed by the Reynolds number, with {{{Re}}}c ≈ 1250, and transport is via Reynolds stresses and scales as Re2. At intermediate Pm = 0.01 we observe a continuous transition from one regime to the other, with a crossover at {{Rm}}={ O }(100). Our results give a comprehensive picture of angular momentum transport of the MRI with an imposed azimuthal field.

  16. Prevalence of knee instability in relation to sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Hansen, Thorsten Ingemann


    The objective was to estimate the prevalence of knee instability among active athletes and to investigate potential associations to type, amount and duration of sports participation. Based on a questionnaire, 339 athletes provided information about different features of occupation, sports activity...... and knee instability. The 12-month period prevalence of knee instability and constant or recurrent knee instability, and absence from sport and absence from work due to knee instability, was 22%, 14%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Knee instability as such, and constant or recurrent knee instability were found...... to be positively associated with female gender and different features of occupational work. In conclusion, knee instability is a commonly reported phenomenon among active athletes. It was found to be independent of the type and the amount of sports activity but highly dependent on female gender, type and amount...

  17. Weakly nonlinear analysis of short-wave elliptical instability (United States)

    Rodrigues, Savio B.; De Luca, Jayme


    Two-dimensional inviscid flows with elliptical streamlines have linearly unstable three-dimensional modes close to the center of the ellipse. The linear instability equilibrates in the presence of enough viscosity, yielding a continuous set of neutrally stable plane waves known as Craik-Criminale waves (CCWs). For initial disturbance in a discrete superposition of plane waves our weakly nonlinear analysis yields a cubic ordinary differential equation for the slow-time evolution of the neutrally stable plane-wave amplitudes. In the subcritical region we find that all solutions eventually vanish, while in the supercritical region the amplitudes either saturate or have exponential growth; the existence of a finite-time blowup at cubic order being unlikely. The saturation to a steady state is possible only for special initial conditions, and for generic initial conditions the amplitudes saturate to a chaotic state. In contrast, a single CCW with exponential growth is still unstable, but it loses stability to cycles of growth and decay among the plane waves.

  18. Multimodal Perturbation Evolution in the Compressible Rayleigh-Taylor Instability (United States)

    Wieland, Scott; Reckinger, Scott; Hamlington, Peter; Livescu, Daniel


    Explorations of the miscible, compressible, and single mode Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) have shown that the initial type and strength of the background stratification can have a wide range of effects on the growth of the RTI, such as exaggerated bubble and spike asymmetries and complete growth suppression. These effects arise, in part, because background stratification significantly alters the vorticity dynamics of the system in comparison to the incompressible regime. In order to further understand the effects of background stratification on RTI growth and dynamics, high fidelity wavelet-based direct numerical simulations (WDNS) have been performed for an initially isothermal background state at a variety of stratification strengths, where the RTI is initiated using a multimodal perturbation at low Atwood number (i.e., 0.04). The formulation of the multimodal perturbation is outlined and the temporal evolution of the system is described for different stratification strengths. Preliminary results show that, in addition to the effects seen in the single mode regime, background stratification dampens high frequency perturbations, resulting in only the lower wavelength perturbations surviving until late times.

  19. Ion thermal and dispersion effects in Farley-Buneman instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litt, S. K., E-mail:; Smolyakov, A. I., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Hassan, E., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Department of Physics, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Horton, W., E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Applied Research Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)


    Farley-Buneman modes are an example of the collisional instability, which is thought to be the dominant mechanism for the irregularities in low ionosphere region. Despite high collisionality due to electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions, the kinetic effects associated with finite temperature are important for determination of the mode frequencies and growth rate. This is especially important for ion component that is largely unmagnetized due to low ion cyclotron frequency. The ion thermal effects are strongly pronounced for shorter wavelengths and are crucial for the growth rate cut-off at high wavenumbers. We develop an extended fluid model for ion dynamics to incorporate the effects of ion thermal motion. The model is based on the extended MHD model that includes the evolution equations for higher order moments such as ion viscosity and ion heat flux. We also develop the generalized Chapman-Enskog closure model that provides exact linear closures based on the linearized kinetic equation. The results of these models are compared and tested against the linear kinetic model. The dispersion of Farley-Buneman modes and growth rate behavior are investigated in the short wavelength region.

  20. Observation of dual-mode, Kelvin-Helmholtz instability vortex merger in a compressible flow (United States)

    Wan, W. C.; Malamud, G.; Shimony, A.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Trantham, M. R.; Klein, S. R.; Shvarts, D.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.


    We report the first observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices evolving from well-characterized, dual-mode initial conditions in a steady, supersonic flow. The results provide the first measurements of the instability's vortex merger rate and supplement data on the inhibition of the instability's growth rate in a compressible flow. These experimental data were obtained by sustaining a shockwave over a foam-plastic interface with a precision-machined seed perturbation. This technique produced a strong shear layer between two plasmas at high-energy-density conditions. The system was diagnosed using x-ray radiography and was well-reproduced using hydrodynamic simulations. Experimental measurements imply that we observed the anticipated vortex merger rate and growth inhibition for supersonic shear flow.

  1. High-Voltage Breakdown Penalties for the Beam-Breakup Instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekdahl, Carl August [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The strength of the dangerous beam breakup (BBU) instability in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) is determined by the transverse coupling impedance Z of the induction cell cavity. For accelerating gap width w less than the beam pipe radius b, the transverse impedance is theoretically proportional to w/b, favoring narrow gaps to suppress BBU. On the other hand, cells with narrow gaps cannot support high accelerating gradients, because of electrical breakdown and shorting of the gap. Thus, there is an engineering trade-off between BBU growth and accelerating gradient, which must be considered for next generation LIAs now being designed. In this article this tradeoff is explored, using a simple pillbox cavity as an illustrative example. For this model, widening the gap to reduce the probability of breakdown increases BBU growth, unless higher magnetic focusing fields are used to further suppress the instability.

  2. Fabrication of Multi-layered Shock Wave Tube for Hydrodynamic Instability Experiment (United States)

    Zhu, Xiurong; Zhou, Bin; Xu, Xiang; Zhong, Yanhong; Du, Ai; Li, Yunong; Zhang, Zhihua; Shen, Jun; Wu, Guangming; Ni, Xingyuan


    In inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments, the growth of hydrodynamic instability occurred at the layer-to-layer interface of multilayer capsule is of the main importance to obtain ignition and high gain. In order to investigate and simulate the growth of hydrodynamic instability at "SG II"laser facility, we designed and fabricated a multi-layered shock wave tube (MSWT) in this article. The MSWT consisted of four functional units: planar polystyrene (CH) film, Al film with perturbation patterns, polyimide (PI) plastic and cylindrical carbonized-resorcinol-formaldehyde (CRF) aerogel, which were assembled into a cylindrical CH tube. The design, preparation process and assembly process of MSWT were detailed described. The assembly deviations and packaging material were discussed.

  3. Study of Electron Cloud Instability in Fermilab Main Injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. M. [Fermilab; Ohmi, K. [KEK, Tsukuba


    Electron cloud has been observed in Fermilab main injector. Electron signal is enhanced near the transition. The slippage factor which suppress instabilities approach to zero at the transition. Instabilities must be most serious near the trans ition. The instability caused by the electron cloud is an important issue for high intensity operation and the future toward Project-X. Simulations of electron cloud instability near the transition is presented.

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection generates genetic instability in gastric cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machado, Ana Manuel; Figueiredo, C.; Seruca, R.


    The discovery that Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastric cancer has led to numerous studies that investigate the mechanisms by which H. pylori induces carcinogenesis. Gastric cancer shows genetic instability both in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, besides impairment of important DNA repair...... of the host, such as oxidative damage, methylation, chromosomal instability, microsatellite instability, and mutations. Interestingly, H. pylori infection generates genetic instability in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Based on the reviewed literature we conclude that H. pylori infection promotes gastric...

  5. A Computational Study of Transverse Combustion Instability Mechanisms (United States)


    Marshall Space Flight Center. References 1. Smith, D. A., Zukoski, E. E., “Combustion Instability Sustained by Unsteady Vortex Combustion,” 21st JPC ...Prediction in a Model Rocket Combustor,” 47th JPC , AIAA 2011-6030. 10. Harvazinski, M. E., Modeling Self-Excited Combustion Instabilities Using A...Instabilities,” 49th JPC , AIAA 2013-3992. 13. Smith, R., Xia, G., Anderson, W., Merkle, C. L., “Extraction of Combustion Instability Mechanisms form Detailed

  6. Current-Driven Filament Instabilities in Relativistic Plasmas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Chuang


    This grant has supported a study of some fundamental problems in current- and flow-driven instabilities in plasmas and their applications in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysics. It addressed current-driven instabilities and their roles in fast ignition, and flow-driven instabilities and their applications in astrophysics.

  7. On the stabilizing mechanism of 2D absolute and global instabilities by 3D streaks


    Cossu, Carlo


    Global and local absolute instabilities of 2D wakes are known to be stabilized by spanwise periodic modulations of the wake profile. The present study shows that this stabilizing effect is of general nature and can be mimicked by enforcing spanwise periodic modulations of the wave advection velocity in the generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. The first order sensitivity of the absolute and global growth rate to the enforced modulation is zero, exactly as in the Navier-Stokes case. We...

  8. Parametric decay instability of an obliquely propagating ordinary wave in the electron cyclotron frequency range (United States)

    Gusakov, E. Z.; Popov, A. Yu.


    The possibility of the low-power-threshold parametric decay of an obliquely propagating ordinary wave to an upper hybrid wave and a low-hybrid wave is analysed under conditions of nonmonotonic plasma density profile in a magnetic trap. The instability threshold and growth rate are derived explicitly. The analytical results are illustrated under the conditions typical of the ordinary mode fundamental electron cyclotron resonance heating harmonic experiments at the FTU tokamak.

  9. Chromosomal heterogeneity and instability characterize pediatric medulloblastoma cell lines and affect neoplastic phenotype


    Castro-Gamero, Angel Mauricio; Borges, Kleiton Silva; Lira, Regia Caroline; Andrade, Augusto Faria; Fedatto, Paola Fernanda; Cruzeiro, Gustavo Alencastro Veiga; Silva, Ricardo Bonfim; Fontes,Aparecida Maria; Valera, Elvis Terci; Bobola, Michael; Scrideli,Carlos Alberto; Tone,Luiz Gonzaga


    Chromosomal heterogeneity is a hallmark of most tumors and it can drive critical events as growth advantages, survival advantages, progression and karyotypic evolution. Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant central nervous system tumor in children. This work attempted to investigate chromosomal heterogeneity and instability profiles of two MB pediatric cell lines and their relationship with cell phenotype. We performed GTG-banding and cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assays, ...

  10. LASER PHYSICS: Instability of the radiation wavefront in pulsed CO2 amplifiers (United States)

    Fedorov, S. V.; Yur'ev, M. S.


    A theoretical investigation is reported of the evolution in space and time of a small-scale perturbation against the background of a smooth beam entering a pulsed CO2 amplifier. The ranges of the transverse frequency, longitudinal coordinate, and time in which the perturbation growth is exponential are determined. It is shown that the wavefront instability can be suppressed by amplification of the main beam and by the attenuation of sound.

  11. Competition between pairing and ferromagnetic instabilities in ultracold Fermi gases near Feshbach resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekker, D; Babadi, M; Sensarma, R


    We study the quench dynamics of a two-component ultracold Fermi gas from the weak into the strong interaction regime, where the short time dynamics are governed by the exponential growth rate of unstable collective modes. We obtain an effective interaction that takes into account both Pauli block...... blocking and the energy dependence of the scattering amplitude near a Feshbach resonance. Using this interaction we analyze the competing instabilities towards Stoner ferromagnetism and pairing....

  12. Analysis of multi-bunch instabilities at the Diamond storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Rehm, Guenther; Smaluk, Victor


    We present the result of the analytical, numerical and experimental analysis of multi-bunch instabilities at the Diamond storage ring. This work compares the impedance estimates with CST with the analysis of the growth rates of the excited multi-bunch modes in different machine configurations. The contribution of a number of wakefield sources has been identified with very high precision thanks to high quality data provided by the existing TMBF diagnostics.

  13. Gradient-drift instability and turbulence in the equatorial electrojet (United States)

    Hu, Shuanghui

    The gradient-drift instability is of the Rayleigh-Taylor type, and is excited when equilibrium density gradients point in the direction of equilibrium electric fields. The linear and nonlinear evolution of the gradient-drift waves responsible for type II irregularities is studied theoretically using observed profiles in the equatorial electrojet. An outstanding challenge for theory is to account for the dominance of kilometer-scale structures in daytime as well as nighttime despite the fact that the density profiles during such conditions are quite different. A two-dimensional numerical system is designed to simulate gradient-drift turbulence in the equatorial electrojet, and to demonstrate the nonlinear energy cascade process. In the daytime, linearly unstable kilometer-scale waves grow at maximum growth rates as a result of the competition between the density-gradient drive and the damping due to diffusion, velocity shear, and recombination. The nonlinear mode coupling cascades energy from the linearly unstable long waves to the stable short waves, and results in turbulently saturated states with kilometer-scale structures, consistent with radar and in situ measurements. The vertical electron velocity spectra, constructed from the simulation output, show 1-2 km vertical structures which are qualitatively in agreement with high-resolution radar observations at the Jicamarca Radio Observatory in Peru. The nighttime density profiles, obtained by rocket flights at Alcantara (Brazil) during the Guara campaign in 1994, are much more jagged than the daytime ones and provide a strong density-gradient drive, with alternating stable and unstable regions in the vertical direction. In contrast with the daytime, the strong density-gradient drive produces peak linear growth rates at wavelengths of 10-20 meters. However, the kilometer-scale waves are also linearly unstable with sufficiently high growth rates that they play a crucial role in the nonlinear evolution of these

  14. Ablative stabilization of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in regimes relevant to inertial confinement fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilkenny, J.D.


    As shown elsewhere an ablatively imploded shell is hydrodynamically unstable, the dominant instability being the well known Rayleigh-Taylor instability with growth rate {gamma} = {radical}Akg where k = 2{pi}/{lambda} is the wave number, g is the acceleration and A the Attwood number ({rho}{sub hi} {minus} {rho}{sub lo})/({rho}{sub hi} + {rho}{sub lo}) where {rho}{sub hi} is the density of the heavier fluid and {rho}{sub lo} is the density of the lighter fluid. A theoretical understanding of ablative stabilization has gradually evolved, confirmed over the last five years by experiments. The linear growth is very well understood with excellent agreement between experiment and simulation for planar geometry with wavelengths in the region of 30--100{mu}m. There is an accurate, albeit phenomenological dispersion relation. The non-linear growth has been measured and agrees with calculations. In this lecture, the authors go into the fundamentals of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and the experimental measurements that show it is stabilized sufficiently by ablation in regimes relevant to ICF.

  15. Influence of polarization force on Jeans Self Gravitational Instability of Strongly Coupled dusty Plasma (United States)

    Sharma, Prerana

    In the present work, we investigate the influence of dust polarization force on the Jeans instability of self-gravitating strongly coupled dusty fluids. We consider dusty plasma containing strongly correlated negatively charged dust grains and weakly correlated Maxwellian electrons and ions. The formulation of the present work is done using the general hydrodynamic model and it is based on the assumption that dust polarization force is aroused due to the electrostatic interactions between thermal ions and highly negatively charged dust grains. In deriving dispersion relation the plane wave solutions are used on the linearized perturbation equations. The analysis is done by normal mode analysis theory. The dispersion relation is analyzed to obtain Jeans instability criterion of instability. Numerical results are presented to show the effect of polarization parameter and strong correlation effects of dust. The polarization force and strong coupling effects of dust are shown to affect the growth rate of gravitational mode of propagation. The growth rates are further compared in kinetic and hydrodynamic regime of propagation. It is found that the decay in the growth rate is faster in the kinetic mode of propagation in comparison to the hydrodynamic mode. The present investigation is relevant to the collapse of ultra-cold astrophysical objects like inner core of white dwarf and neutron star.

  16. Transient Growth of Ekman-Couette Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Liang; Tilgner, Andreas


    Coriolis force effects on shear flows are important in geophysical and astrophysical contexts. We here report a study on the linear stability and the transient energy growth of the plane Couette flow with system rotation perpendicular to the shear direction. External rotation causes linear instability. At small rotation rates, the onset of linear instability scales inversely with the rotation rate and the optimal transient growth in the linearly stable region is slightly enhanced, ~Re^2. The corresponding optimal initial perturbations are characterized by roll structures inclined in the streamwise direction and are twisted under external rotation. At large rotation rates, the transient growth is significantly inhibited and hence linear stability analysis is a reliable indicator for instability.

  17. Simulation of liquid propellant rocket engine combustion instabilities (United States)

    Ventrice, M. B.; Fang, J. C.; Purdy, K. R.


    A simulation technique for studying the high frequency combustion instabilities of liquid propellant rocket engines has been developed and used to investigate various aspects of instability phenomena. Of importance was investigation of the significance of the method of coupling the combustion and the gas dynamics of the system. Two coupling processes were studied: linear response of the combustion process to pressure fluctuations, and the nature of the resulting instabilities; and nonlinear response of the combustion process to velocity fluctuations, and the nature of the resulting instabilities. For the combustion model studied, nonlinear (velocity) coupling was found to more closely characterize liquid propellant instabilities.

  18. Selected Topics in Microwave Instabilities and Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, K. Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    The Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP) is embarking on its first X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project. It is a cascading high-gain harmonic generation FEL. Microwave instabilities driven by various effects, especially the space-charge force, will degrade the qual- ity of the electron beam before entering into the undulator. However, inside the undulator, the occurrence of microbunching becomes an ut- most important ingredient for the generation of coherent radiation. In short, controlled and uncontrolled microwave instabilities must be fully understood in such a project. These are the slides of a series of eight-hour lectures given at the SINAP in June of 2013, with the intention of a fully understanding of the microbunching phenomenon. The sections of wake field and impedance theory are added as an in- troduction for those who are not familiar with the subject.

  19. Coulomb center instability in bilayer graphene (United States)

    Oriekhov, D. O.; Sobol, O. O.; Gorbar, E. V.; Gusynin, V. P.


    In the low-energy two-band as well as four-band continuum models, we study the supercritical charge instability in gapped bilayer graphene in the field of an impurity charge when the lowest-energy bound state dives into the hole continuum. It is found that the screening effects are crucially important in bilayer graphene. If they are neglected, then the critical value for the impurity charge tends to zero as the gap Δ vanishes. If the screened Coulomb interaction is considered, then the critical charge tends to a finite value for Δ →0 . The different scalings of the kinetic energy of quasiparticles and the Coulomb interaction with respect to the distance to the charged impurity ensure that the wave function of the electron bound state does not shrink toward the impurity as its charge increases. This results in the absence of the fall-to-center phenomenon in bilayer graphene although the supercritical charge instability is realized.

  20. Instability in electromagnetically driven flows Part I

    CERN Document Server

    Gissinger, Christophe; Fauve, Stephan


    The MHD flow driven by a travelling magnetic field (TMF) in an annular channel is investigated numerically. For sufficiently large magnetic Reynolds number Rm, or if a large enough pressure gradient is externally applied, the system undergoes an instability in which the flow rate in the channel dramatically drops from synchronism with the wave to much smaller velocities. This transition takes the form of a saddle-node bifurcation for the time-averaged quantities. In this first paper, we characterize the bifurcation, and study the stability of the flow as a function of several parameters. We show that the bifurcation of the flow involves a bistability between Poiseuille-like and Hartman-like regimes, and relies on magnetic flux expulsion. Based on this observation, new predictions are made for the occurrence of this stalling instability.

  1. Microwave instability in electron storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Mosnier, A


    Tracking simulations, with the aim of studying the microwave regime with short and intense bunches, suggest different instability mechanisms, according to the impedance model. In order to get a better insight of the source of the instability, i.e. azimuthal or radial mode coupling, we choose to follow the Sacherer (IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-24, 1977 1393) approach to investigate the stability of the stationary solution. The generalized Sacherer's integral, including mode coupling and potential well distortion, is then solved by using the 'step function technique' for the expansion of the radial function, as proposed by Oide and Yokoya (KEK Preprint-90-10, April, 1990). For illustration, the effect of the resonant frequency of a broadband resonator in the SOLEIL storage ring is studied. When the resonator frequency is much higher than the bunch spectrum width, azimuthal mode coupling can occur before radial mode coupling. When the resonator frequency is lower, radial mode coupling comes usually first, but two ...

  2. Elastic instability in stratified core annular flow. (United States)

    Bonhomme, Oriane; Morozov, Alexander; Leng, Jacques; Colin, Annie


    We study experimentally the interfacial instability between a layer of dilute polymer solution and water flowing in a thin capillary. The use of microfluidic devices allows us to observe and quantify in great detail the features of the flow. At low velocities, the flow takes the form of a straight jet, while at high velocities, steady or advected wavy jets are produced. We demonstrate that the transition between these flow regimes is purely elastic--it is caused by the viscoelasticity of the polymer solution only. The linear stability analysis of the flow in the short-wave approximation supplemented with a kinematic criterion captures quantitatively the flow diagram. Surprisingly, unstable flows are observed for strong velocities, whereas convected flows are observed for low velocities. We demonstrate that this instability can be used to measure the rheological properties of dilute polymer solutions that are difficult to assess otherwise.

  3. Rehabilitation for Shoulder Instability - Current Approaches. (United States)

    Jaggi, Anju; Alexander, Susan


    The shoulder relies predominantly on dynamic muscular control to provide stability. Successful treatment is highly dependent upon the correct clinical diagnosis, identification of anatomical structural defects and abnormal movement patterns so that rehabilitation programs can be designed accordingly and individualised to the patient. A systematic outline is provided to guide the clinician on how to identify muscular insufficiencies both local to the shoulder joint and global muscles that can influence shoulder instability. Management is based on expert experience and current literature. The Stanmore classification helps to correctly diagnose the type of instability and prioritise management. Symptom modification tests can help to guide management, however assessing individual muscle groups local to glenohumeral control is also recommended. Physical and psychosocial factors can influence motor control in the presence of pain and injury. A multi-disciplinary approach is required to avoid recurrence of symptoms with rehabilitation focusing on kinetic chain, scapular and gleno-humeral control.

  4. Nanoemulsion Through Stretching-Folding Instability (United States)

    Ohl, Claus-Dieter; Chan, Chon U.


    A new kind of instability sets in when a oil filament is focused by surrounding water-flow through a thin constriction commonly used in fluid focusing devices. At sufficiently high flow rates the oil filament is forced into harmonic oscillations through interfacial forces. Past the constriction the liquid is suddenly slowed down which leads to rapid shortening of the filament's wavelength. At sufficiently high amplitudes the co-flowing water stream breaks up and pinches off micrometer and sub-micrometer sized droplets in a very repeatable manner, thus producing a water-in-oil emulsion. This pinch off is caused by a stretching and folding instability when the oscillating flow impinges into the quasi stagnant reservoir past the constriction. We will present high-speed movies at up to 300,000 frames per second resolving details of the very fast events. A simple model based on restoring interfacial forces is able to predict the kilohertz oscillation frequency observed.

  5. Electrostatic instabilities in a mirror trap revisited (United States)

    Kotelnikov, Igor A.; Chernoshtanov, Ivan S.; Prikhodko, Vadim V.


    The conditions for the stabilization of the Drift-Cyclotron Loss-Cone (DCLC) and Double-Humped (DH) microinstabilities in a mirror trap are critically revisited assuming the plasma is confined in the kinetic regime, which is characterized by an empty loss cone. The temperature of warm ions, necessary for stabilization of the DH instability, is calculated. The fraction of warm ions necessary to stabilize the DCLC instability at a given radial density gradient is calculated. Assuming the wavelength is much shorter than the Larmor radius, a simple criterion for the stability of drift-cyclotron loss-cone oscillations is derived whose accuracy is verified by comparison with the solution of the exact dispersion equation and with known experimental data obtained in the past decades in PR-6, 2XII, 2XIIB, TMX, and TMX-U devices for plasma confinement.

  6. Patellofemoral Pain and Instability in Adolescent Athletes. (United States)

    Bessette, Matthew; Saluan, Paul


    Injuries and disorders of the patellofemoral joint in the adolescent athlete can encompass a wide spectrum of symptomatology and pathology. Anterior knee pain is a common presenting symptom in sports medicine clinics, and can have numerous underlying etiologies. This activity-related pain may be the manifestation of enthesopathy, tendinopathy, fat pad impingement, or numerous other conditions, but is more commonly related to more subtle skeletal and muscular imbalances. Treatment is typically nonoperative in nature, and excellent results are reported with physical therapy. Patellofemoral instability usually has a more dramatic onset in the form of dislocation or subluxation events, commonly experienced during athletics. Concomitant injuries to the patellofemoral articular cartilage are common. Again, treatment is typically nonoperative initially, but recurrent or recalcitrant instability may necessitate reconstructive or realignment procedures. Skeletal maturity often dictates what procedures can be safely attempted.

  7. Thermal instability in the interstellar medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghanbari


    Full Text Available   This study demonstrates how thermal structures in the interstellar medium can emerge as a result of thermal instability. For a two-dimensional case, the steady state thermal structures was investigeted and it was shown that a large class of solutions exist. For a one –dimensional case the conductivity was found to be negligible. The effects of to cal cooling on the thermal instability were explored in some depth. In this case analytical results for time-dependent cooling function were presented, too. We studied nonlinear wave phenomena in thermal fluid systems, with a particular emphasis on presenting analytical results. When conductivity is proportional to temperature, the beliavior of thermal waves is soliton like. For slow thermal waves, approximate analytical results were presented. Extensions of this work are discussed briefly, together with possible astrophysical applications.

  8. Dissipative drift instability in dusty plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilakshi Das


    Full Text Available An investigation has been done on the very low-frequency electrostatic drift waves in a collisional dusty plasma. The dust density gradient is taken perpendicular to the magnetic field B0⃗, which causes the drift wave. In this case, low-frequency drift instabilities can be driven by E1⃗×B0⃗ and diamagnetic drifts, where E1⃗ is the perturbed electric field. Dust charge fluctuation is also taken into consideration for our study. The dust- neutral and ion-neutral collision terms have been included in equations of motion. It is seen that the low-frequency drift instability gets damped in such a system. Both dust charging and collision of plasma particles with the neutrals may be responsible for the damping of the wave. Both analytical and numerical techniques have been used while developing the theory.

  9. Rehabilitation for Shoulder Instability – Current Approaches (United States)

    Jaggi, Anju; Alexander, Susan


    Background: The shoulder relies predominantly on dynamic muscular control to provide stability. Successful treatment is highly dependent upon the correct clinical diagnosis, identification of anatomical structural defects and abnormal movement patterns so that rehabilitation programs can be designed accordingly and individualised to the patient. Method: A systematic outline is provided to guide the clinician on how to identify muscular insufficiencies both local to the shoulder joint and global muscles that can influence shoulder instability. Management is based on expert experience and current literature. Results: The Stanmore classification helps to correctly diagnose the type of instability and prioritise management. Symptom modification tests can help to guide management, however assessing individual muscle groups local to glenohumeral control is also recommended. Conclusion: Physical and psychosocial factors can influence motor control in the presence of pain and injury. A multi-disciplinary approach is required to avoid recurrence of symptoms with rehabilitation focusing on kinetic chain, scapular and gleno-humeral control. PMID:28979601

  10. Longwave instabilities and patterns in fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Shklyaev, Sergey


    This book summarizes the main advances in the field of nonlinear evolution and pattern formation caused by longwave instabilities in fluids. It will allow readers to master the multiscale asymptotic methods and become familiar with applications of these methods in a variety of physical problems.  Longwave instabilities are inherent to a variety of systems in fluid dynamics, geophysics, electrodynamics, biophysics, and many others. The techniques of the derivation of longwave amplitude equations, as well as the analysis of numerous nonlinear equations, are discussed throughout. This book will be of value to researchers and graduate students in applied mathematics, physics, and engineering, in particular within the fields of fluid mechanics, heat and mass transfer theory, and nonlinear dynamics. .

  11. Jeans Instability of the Self-Gravitating Viscoelastic Ferromagnetic Cylinder with Axial Nonuniform Rotation and Magnetic Field (United States)

    Dhiman, Joginder Singh; Sharma, Rajni


    The effects of nonuniform rotation and magnetic field on the instability of a self gravitating infinitely extending axisymmetric cylinder of viscoelastic ferromagnetic medium have been studied using the Generalised Hydrodynamic (GH) model. The non-uniform magnetic field and rotation are acting along the axial direction of the cylinder and the propagation of the wave is considered along the radial direction, while the ferrofluid magnetization is taken collinear with the magnetic field. A general dispersion relation representing magnetization, magnetic permeability and viscoelastic relaxation time parameters is obtained using the normal mode analysis method in the linearized perturbation equation system. Jeans criteria which represent the onset of instability of self gravitating medium are obtained under the limits; when the medium behaves like a viscous liquid (strongly coupled limit) and a Newtonian liquid (weakly coupled limit). The effects of various parameters on the Jeans instability criteria and on the growth rate of self gravitating viscoelastic ferromagnetic medium have been discussed. It is found that the magnetic polarizability due to ferromagnetization of medium marginalizes the effect of non-uniform magnetic field on the Jeans instability, whereas the viscoelasticity of the medium has the usual stabilizing effect on the instability of the system. Further, it is found that the cylindrical geometry is more stable than the Cartesian one. The variation of growth rate against the wave number and radial distance has been depicted graphically.

  12. Magnetically Induced Rotating Rayleigh-Taylor Instability. (United States)

    Scase, Matthew M; Baldwin, Kyle A; Hill, Richard J A


    Classical techniques for investigating the Rayleigh-Taylor instability include using compressed gasses1, rocketry2 or linear electric motors3 to reverse the effective direction of gravity, and accelerate the lighter fluid toward the denser fluid. Other authorse.g.4,5,6 have separated a gravitationally unstable stratification with a barrier that is removed to initiate the flow. However, the parabolic initial interface in the case of a rotating stratification imposes significant technical difficulties experimentally. We wish to be able to spin-up the stratification into solid-body rotation and only then initiate the flow in order to investigate the effects of rotation upon the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The approach we have adopted here is to use the magnetic field of a superconducting magnet to manipulate the effective weight of the two liquids to initiate the flow. We create a gravitationally stable two-layer stratification using standard flotation techniques. The upper layer is less dense than the lower layer and so the system is Rayleigh-Taylor stable. This stratification is then spun-up until both layers are in solid-body rotation and a parabolic interface is observed. These experiments use fluids with low magnetic susceptibility, |χ| ~ 10-6 - 10-5, compared to a ferrofluids. The dominant effect of the magnetic field applies a body-force to each layer changing the effective weight. The upper layer is weakly paramagnetic while the lower layer is weakly diamagnetic. When the magnetic field is applied, the lower layer is repelled from the magnet while the upper layer is attracted towards the magnet. A Rayleigh-Taylor instability is achieved with application of a high gradient magnetic field. We further observed that increasing the dynamic viscosity of the fluid in each layer, increases the length-scale of the instability.

  13. Coherent instabilities of a relativistic bunched beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, A.W.


    A charge-particle beam contained in an accelerator vacuum chamber interacts electromagnetically with its environment to create a wake field. This field than acts back on the beam, perturbing the particle motion. If the beam intensity is high enough, this beam-environment interaction may lead to an instability and to subsequent beam loss. The beam and its environment form a dynamical system, and it is this system that will be studied. 84 references.

  14. Joint venture instability: a life cycle approach


    Roy Chowdhury, Prabal; Roy Chowdhury, Indrani


    Joint ventures represent one of the most fascinating developments in international business. In the last few decades, the rate of joint venture formation has accelerated dramatically. Nowadays joint ventures are much more widespread and occur in industries like telecommunications, biotechnology etc. At the same time, however, it must be noted that joint ventures are very unstable. In this paper we survey the phenomenon of joint venture instability. We draw on the relative recent theoretical l...

  15. Beam instability studies for the SSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, W.


    Beam instability studies of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) during the period 1989--1993 are briefly reviewed in this paper. Various topics are covered: single bunch and multi-bunch, single beam and beam-beam, parasitic heating and active feedback, etc. Although the SSC will not be built, many of the results obtained from these studies remain as useful references to the accelerator community.

  16. Basic biomechanic principles of knee instability


    Zlotnicki, Jason P.; Naendrup, Jan-Hendrik; Ferrer, Gerald A.; Debski, Richard E.


    Motion at the knee joint is a complex mechanical phenomenon. Stability is provided by a combination of static and dynamic structures that work in concert to prevent excessive movement or instability that is inherent in various knee injuries. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is a main stabilizer of the knee, providing both translational and rotatory constraint. Despite the high volume of research directed at native ACL function, pathogenesis and surgical reconstruction of this structure, a...

  17. The Farley Instability: A Laboratory Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, N.; Pécseli, Hans; Petersen, P. I.


    An experiment is described that was performed in an alkali plasma (Cs) device in order to test the theory of the Farley instability. With υ E×B > Cs (the speed of sound) and νι ≳ ω cι (ν e ≪ ω ce ) wave excitation occurs, the waves traveling normal to the magnetic field B at the υ E×B speed. The ...

  18. Traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Roberto Polydoro Rosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The shoulder is the most unstable joint in the human body. Traumatic anterior instability of the shoulder is a common condition, which, especially in young patients, is associated with high recurrence rates. The effectiveness of non-surgical treatments when compared to surgical ones is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to review the literature for current concepts and updates regarding the treatment of this condition.

  19. Instability in flow boiling in microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar


    This Brief addresses the phenomena of instability in flow boiling in microchannels occurring in high heat flux electronic cooling. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” and "Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,"by the same author team, this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  20. Mirror Instability in the Turbulent Solar Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hellinger, Petr; Landi, S.; Matteini, L.; Verdini, A.; Franci, L.


    Roč. 838, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 158. ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : instabilities * solar wind * turbulence * waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 5.533, year: 2016