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Sample records for weevil parasite catolaccus

  1. MODIFICACIÓN AL PROCESO DE PRODUCCIÓN MASIVA DE LOS PARASITOIDES Catolaccus grandis Y Catolaccus hunteri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Reyes-Rosas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con el objetivo de modificar la tecnología de producción masiva de Catolaccus grandis y Catolaccus hunteri, himenópteros parasitoides de Anthonomus grandis el picudo del algodonero en Tamaulipas, México en el 2002. Se determinó la eficiencia del papel toalla para el secado de manos, en el sellamiento de cápsulas moldeadas en cera de hidrocarburos y poliolefina (LCHP, donde se confina al huésped, y evaluar la efectividad del gorgojo del garbanzo Callosobruchus maculatus como hospedante facticio para la cría de ambos parasitoides. Hubo producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri utilizando C. maculatus como huésped y el papel toalla fue efectivo para sellar los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP. La producción masiva de C. grandis y C. hunteri mediante C. maculatus, contribuyó a incrementar la seguridad y facilidad del proceso, además de una significativa reducción de costos. El papel toalla en el sellado de los orificios de las cápsulas moldeadas en LCHP, redujo en un 50% por m2 los costos del proceso, sin afectar la eficiencia del parasitismo y emergencia de C. grandis.

  2. Efeito de quatro tipos de mel na longevidade e reprodução de Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera:pteromalidae Effect of four types of honey on longevity and reproduction of Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera:Pteromalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alves Wanderley

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo conhecer o melhor tipo de mel em relação à longevidade e fertilidade do parasitóide do bicudo-do-algodoeiro Catolaccus grandis. Adultos recém-emergidos foram transferidos para recipientes plásticos de 500mL, adaptados com tubo para fornecer água e umidade para os insetos. Um casal do parasitóide foi mantido em cada recipiente em câmara climatizada a 25±1°C, UR = 70±10% e fotoperíodo de 14h. O trabalho constou de 4 tratamentos: mel de flor de laranjeira; mel de flores de plantas silvestres; mel de cana-de-açúcar (todos produzidos por Apis mellifera e mel de flores silvestres produzido por abelha Jataí (Tetragonistica angustula, com 15 repetições cada. Adultos recém-emergidos do parasitóide receberam cinco larvas de Euscepes postfasciatus encapsuladas em parafilm. Três gotículas de mel foram colocadas sobre o parafilm. Calculou-se a longevidade de machos e fêmeas, número de ovos dia-1 fêmea-1 e número total de ovos fêmea-1 e construíram-se as tabelas de fertilidade. As melhores dietas para alimentar adultos de C. grandis foram o mel silvestre e o de laranjeira. A melhor fecundidade foi observada na dieta de mel de laranjeira (101,60 ovos fêmea-1 e os melhores resultados para aumento reprodutivo e populacional deste parasitóide foram obtidos com mel de laranja e com mel silvestre.The aim of this work was to investigate the best type of honey in relation to longevity and life fertility of Catolaccus grandis. Recent emerged adults were transferred to 500ml plastic recipients adapted to supply water and moisture to insects. A couple of parasite was kept for each recipient in climatic chamber at 25±1°C, RH = 70±10% and photofase 14h. The work had four treatments: orange, wild plant species honey, Jatai Tetragonistica angustula and sugar cane honey with fifteen replications each. Recent emerged adults received five Euscepes postfasciatus larvae, which were encapsulated in parafilm. Three

  3. Glacial bottleneck and postglacial recolonization of a seed parasitic weevil, Curculio hilgendorfi, inferred from mitochondrial DNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, K; Kato, M; Murakami, N

    2008-07-01

    Climatic changes during glacial periods have had a major influence on the recent evolutionary history of living organisms, even in the warm temperate zone. We investigated phylogeographical patterns of a weevil Curculio hilgendorfi (Curculionidae), a host-specific seed predator of Castanopsis (Fagaceae) growing in the broadleaved evergreen forests in Japan. We examined 2709 bp of mitochondrial DNA for 204 individuals collected from 62 populations of the weevil. Four major haplogroups were detected, in southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands and in central and southern parts of the Ryukyu Islands. The demographic population expansion was detected for the two groups in the main islands but not for the Ryukyu groups. The beginning time of the expansion was dated to 39,000-59,000 years ago, which is consistent with the end of the last glacial period. Our data also demonstrated that the southwestern population of the main islands has experienced a more severe bottleneck and more rapid population growth after glacial ages than the northeastern population. At least three refugial areas in the main islands were likely to have existed during the last glacial periods, one of which had not previously been recognized by analyses of intraspecific chloroplast DNA variation of several plant species growing in the broadleaved evergreen forests. Our results represent the first phylogeographical and population demographic analysis of an insect species associated with the broadleaved evergreen forests in Japan, and reveal more detailed postglacial history of the forests.

  4. Aspectos biológicos de adultos de um parasitóide do bicudo do algodoeiro Biological aspects of a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil

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    Lúcia Helena Avelino Araújo

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Bracon sp. é um importante agente de controle biológico de Anthonomus grandis (Boheman. Estudaram-se em laboratório, aspectos biológicos de Bracon sp., utilizando-se como hospedeiro larva do bicudo do algodoeiro, a temperatura de 26 ± 2oC, 70 ± 5% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. O ciclo biológico de Bracon sp. teve duração média de 11,7 dias, o período de incubação de 1 dia, o período médio larval de 3,9 dias, com 4 estádios; a viabilidade larval de 98,7%, o período pré-pupal de 0,6 dia, o período pupal de 6,2 dias, o tempo de pré-oviposição de 4,0 dias. A fêmea colocou, em média, 74 ovos em um período de 27,2 dias, a oviposição média diária de 2,7 ovos/fêmea/dia, o período de pós-oviposição de 3,7 dias e a longevidade de Bracon sp. foi de 34 dias para as fêmeas. A informação da biologia deste braconídeo é necessária para desenvolver estratégias de propagação e colonização do parasitóide.Bracon sp. is an important biological control agent of Anthonomus grandis, the cotton Boll weevil. The objective of this work was to evaluate biological aspects of Bracon sp. using cotton Boll weevil larvae as host, at conditions of 26 ± 2oC, with 70 ± 5% RH and 12h photoperiod. The complete life cycle of Bracon sp. was 11.7 days. The incubation period lasted 1.0 day and the larval period 3.9 days with four stages; the viability of the larvae was 98.7%; prepupal period lasted 0.6 day; and the pupal period lasted 6.2 days. Preoviposition period was 4.0 days, and the females laid an average of 74.0 eggs with in an oviposition period of 27.2 days, while the average daily oviposition rate was 2.7 eggs per female per day, posovipositional lasted 3.7 days, and the longevity of Bracon sp. was 34.0 days in females. The information of the biology of this Braconid is needed to develop parasitoid propagation and colonization strategies.

  5. Alfalfa Weevil in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Edward W.

    1989-01-01

    The alfalfa weevil is a major pest throughout Utah. It is a beetle with one generation per year. Eggs hatch in the spring, and the grub-like immature weevils (larvae) feed by chewing on the alfalfa foliage. In high numbers, alfalfa weevils can cause severe damage to Utah alfalfa. In any given year, however, the weevils are few enough in number in many fields to cause only minor damage.

  6. Host-associated genetic differentiation in a seed parasitic weevil Rhinusa antirrhini (Coleptera: Curculionidae) revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vera, Gerardo; Mitrović, Milana; Jović, Jelena; Tosevski, Ivo; Caldara, Roberto; Gassmann, Andre; Emerson, Brent C

    2010-06-01

    Plant feeding insects and the plants they feed upon represent an ecological association that is thought to be a key factor for the diversification of many plant feeding insects, through differential adaptation to different plant selective pressures. While a number of studies have investigated diversification of plant feeding insects above the species level, relatively less attention has been given to patterns of diversification within species, particularly those that also require plants for oviposition and subsequent larval development. In the case of plant feeding insects that also require plant tissues for the completion of their reproductive cycle through larval development, the divergent selective pressure not only acts on adults, but on the full life history of the insect. Here we focus attention on Rhinusa antirrhini (Curculionidae), a species of weevil broadly distributed across Europe that both feeds on, and oviposits and develops within, species of the plant genus Linaria (Plantaginaceae). Using a combination of mtDNA (COII) and nuclear DNA (EF1-alpha) sequencing and copulation experiments we assess evidence for host associated genetic differentiation within R. antirrhini. We find substantial genetic variation within this species that is best explained by ecological specialisation on different host plant taxa. This genetic differentiation is most pronounced in the mtDNA marker, with patterns of genetic variation at the nuclear marker suggesting incomplete lineage sorting and/or gene flow between different host plant forms of R. antirrhini, whose origin is estimated to date to the mid-Pliocene (3.77 Mya; 2.91-4.80 Mya).

  7. Contenido de los nutrientes básicos en Catolaccus grandis Burks criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodon

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    ARAUJO LÚCIA HELENA AVELINO

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los niveles de carbohidratos, proteínas solubles y aminoácidos libres de larvas, pupas hembras y adultos hembras de Catolaccus grandis (Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodón envenenadas por hembras del parasitoide y por larvas de primer instar del parasitoide. Esto estudio fue conducido en la Unidade de Investigación de Control Biologico de Plagas del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de la América, en Weslaco, Texas. Las 20 muestras de cada uno de los tres estados de desarrollo: tercer instar larval, pupas hembra y adultos hembra del parasitoide C. grandis, fueron separadas y pesadas individualmente y se cuantió el contenido de carbohidratos totales, proteínas solubles totales y aminoácidos libres criados en diferentes sustratos. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la existencia de patrones metabólicos significativamente distintos de estos nutrientes básicos.

  8. Parasites

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-05-06

    In this podcast, a listener wants to know what to do if he thinks he has a parasite or parasitic disease.  Created: 5/6/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 5/6/2010.

  9. Parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Mehlum, Halvor; Moene, Karl O.; Torvik, Ragnar

    2003-01-01

    Unproductive enterprises that feed on productive businesses, are rampant in developing countries. These parasitic enterprises take divergent forms, some headed by violent bandits and brutal mafia bosses, others by organized middlemen or smart political insiders. All of them seem to have the profit motive in common. A consequence of parasitic enterprises is that societies may be locked into a self enforcing configuration of beliefs and practices that result in persistent poverty. In some insta...

  10. Tri-Party Underground Symbiosis between a Weevil, Bacteria and a Desert Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Oren; Helman, Yael; Friedman, Ariel-Leib-Leonid; Behar, Adi; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Inhabitants of arid ecosystems face severe nitrogen and water limitations. Inventive adaptations by organisms occupying such habitats are essential for survival. This study describes a tri-party symbiotic interaction between a plant (Salsola inermis), a beetle (Conorhynchus pistor), and a bacterium (Klebsiella pneumonia). The weevil survives by living within a mud structure affixed to the plant roots, thus benefiting from increased carbon and water, and refuge from predators and parasites. Active nitrogen-fixing bacteria harbored within the weevil's gut mediate this interaction, by supplying nitrogen to the system, which eventually promotes seed development. We studied the correlation between the weevil's existence and (i) root carbon and nitrogen content, (ii) soil water content and (iii) seed weight. Roots hosting weevils contained more nitrogen, heavier seeds and less carbon. In addition, water content was higher around the roots than in open spaces a short distance from the plant stem. Bacterial studies and nitrogen-fixation analyses, including molecular and chemical assays, indicated atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the larval stage and identified the bacterium. The coexistence of weevil and bacterial behavior coinciding with the plant's life cycle was revealed here by a long period of field observations. Out of over 60,000 known weevils, this is the only report of a weevil living most of its life underground without harming plants. The unique tri-party interaction described herein shows the important ecological role of desert plant roots and provides an example of a sustainable consortium of living organisms coping with the challenging desert environment. PMID:24244267

  11. Response of banana cultivars to banana weevil attack

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to keep banana plantations free of destructive levels of banana weevil. Gold et al (1997) have reported that moderate and intensive sanitation significantly lowered both weevil population and damage due to banana weevil. New pheromone traps (Cosmo-lures) that can trap many times more weevils compared to traditional ...

  12. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BEAN WEEVIL (Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    and 13.1mg of iron respectively; indication that insects are rich sources of Fe. Like other insects weevils are good sources of calcium, occasioned by their possession of exoskeleton which is composed of calcium (Ebong, 1993). (d). Table III reports the level of toxicants in bean weevil. The milligram per 100g dry matter of the.

  13. Enhancing banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ) resistance by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review, the current status of banana weevil resistance, sources of resistance and resistance mechanisms is assessed. Further, current efforts and future prospects for identifying resistance genes outside the genus Musa with potential to control banana weevil in a transgenic approach are outlined and discussed.

  14. EFFECT OF MULCHING ON BANANA WEEVIL MOVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    pheromone-baited traps. Three treatments were used to create different mulching levels: banana without mulch. (control), banana with thin mulch (< 6 cm thick), and banana with thick mulch (15 cm thick). Pheromone traps were placed in the plots and weevil trap catches were monitored. Weevil catches in pheromone traps ...

  15. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-04-01

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p organisms and provide possible stoichiometric responses of both plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment.

  16. The structure of rice weevil pectin methylesterase.

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    Teller, David C; Behnke, Craig A; Pappan, Kirk; Shen, Zicheng; Reese, John C; Reeck, Gerald R; Stenkamp, Ronald E

    2014-11-01

    Rice weevils (Sitophilus oryzae) use a pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11), along with other enzymes, to digest cell walls in cereal grains. The enzyme is a right-handed β-helix protein, but is circularly permuted relative to plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases, as shown by the crystal structure determination reported here. This is the first structure of an animal pectin methylesterase. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution some time ago for this crystal form, but structure solution required the use of molecular-replacement techniques that have been developed and similar structures that have been deposited in the last 15 years. Comparison of the structure of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with that from Dickeya dandantii (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) indicates that the reaction mechanisms are the same for the insect, plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases. The similarity of the structure of the rice weevil enzyme to the Escherichia coli lipoprotein YbhC suggests that the evolutionary origin of the rice weevil enzyme was a bacterial lipoprotein, the gene for which was transferred to a primitive ancestor of modern weevils and other Curculionidae. Structural comparison of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with plant and bacterial enzymes demonstrates that the rice weevil protein is circularly permuted relative to the plant and bacterial molecules.

  17. Phylogeography of specialist weevil Trichobaris soror: a seed predator of Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Mora, Marisol; Piñero, Daniel; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Can the genetic structure of a specialist weevil be explained by the geological history of their distribution zone? We analyze the genetic variation of the weevil Trichobaris soror, a specialist seed predator of Datura stramonium, in order to address this question. For the phylogeographic analysis we used the COI gene, and assessed species identity in weevil populations through geometric morphometric approach. In total, we found 53 haplotypes in 413 samples, whose genetic variation supports the formation of three groups: (1) the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TVB group), (2) the Sierra Madre Sur (SMS group) and (3) the Balsas Basin (BB group). The morphometric analysis suggests that BB group is probably not T. soror. Our results have two implications: first, the phylogeographic pattern of T. soror is explained by both the formation of the geological provinces where it is currently distributed and the coevolution with its host plant, because the TVB and SMS groups could be separated due to the discontinuity of altitude between the geological provinces, but the recent population expansion of TVB group and the high frequency of only one haplotype can be due to specialization to the host plant. Second, we report a new record of a different species of weevil in BB group parasitizing D. stramonium fruits.

  18. EFFECT OF MULCHING ON BANANA WEEVIL MOVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hebblethwaite, 1989). Mulching influences weevil movements in banana plantations (Gold et al., 1999), but to what extent this would affect pheromone trap catches of C. sordidus is not known. Mulching may have several effects on efficacy of pheromone ...

  19. Genetic, ecological, behavioral and geographic differentiation of populations in a thistle weevil: implications for speciation and biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Isabelle; Singer, Michael C; Magalhães, Sara; Courtiol, Alexandre; Dubois, Yvain; Carbonell, David; Justy, Fabienne; Beldade, Patrícia; Parmesan, Camille; Michalakis, Yannis

    2008-02-01

    Because weevils are used as biocontrol agents against thistles, it is important to document and understand host shifts and the evolution of host-specificity in these insects. Furthermore, such host shifts are of fundamental interest to mechanisms of speciation. The mediterranean weevil Larinus cynarae normally parasitizes either one of two thistle genera, Onopordum and Cynara, being locally monophagous. In Sardinia, however, both host genera are used. We used three types of data to help understand this complex host use: (i) weevil attack rates on the two host genera among 53 different populations in Sardinia and nearby Corsica, (ii) host preference in a lab setting, and (iii) genetic (allozyme) differentiation among weevil populations exploiting the same or different hosts. Using a subset of populations from northern Sardinia, we attempted to relate interpopulation differences in host preference to gene flow among populations by comparing pairwise differences in oviposition preference (Qst) and in allozyme frequencies (Fst). Overall, Qst and Fst were positively correlated. Fst was positively correlated with geographic distance among pairs of populations using the same host, but not among different-host population pairs. As mating occurs on the hosts, this result suggests reinforcement. Genetic evidence indicates Cynara as the ancestral host of the weevils from both islands and our current studies suggest repeated attempts to colonize Onopordum, with a successful shift in Corsica and a partial shift in Sardinia. This scenario would explain why in Sardinia the level of attack was higher on Cynara than on Onopordum and why, when given a choice in the laboratory, Sardinian weevils preferred Cynara even when sampled from Onopordum. The lability of host shifts in L. cynarae supports caution in using these or related weevils as biocontrol agents of exotic thistles.

  20. Response of banana cultivars to banana weevil attack

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides can effectively control banana weevil but these are unaffordable by resource ... use of weevil resistant cultivars. Chemical control is effective but expensive to small holder farmers, contaminates the environment, and is poisonous to both humans and their ..... Banana Weevil and Nematode Damage Assessment in.

  1. Biological Control of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M T; Georgis, R; Nyczepir, A P; Miller, R W

    1993-03-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) strain A11, S. feltiae (Filipjev) strain SN, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar strains HP88 and Georgia were tested for their efficacy as biological control agents of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), in pecan orchard soil-profile containers under greenhouse conditions. Percentage C. caryae parasitism by S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora strain HP88 and Georgia was consistently poor when applied either prior to or following C. caryae entry into the soil, suggesting that these nematode species and (or) their enterobacteria are poor biological control agents of weevil larvae. Soil taken 21 days following application of S. carpocapsae or H. bacteriophora strain HP88 induced a low rate of infection of Galleria mellonella larvae, whereas soil that had been similarily treated with H. bacteriophora strain Georgia induced a moderate rate of infection. Percentage C. caryae parasitism by S. feltiae was consistently low when applied following C. caryae entry into the soil and was inconsistent when applied as a barrier prior to entry of weevil larvae into the soil. Soil taken 21 days following application of S. feltiae induced a high rate of infection of G. mellonella larvae.

  2. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  3. Three Boll Weevil Diapause Myths in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonmus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), originated in Mesoamerica but its contemporary distribution extends from the United States Cotton Belt to Argentina, throughout which it is a serious pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. While research on the boll weev...

  4. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  5. [Life table of natural population of banana pseudostem weevil, Odoiporus longicollis Oliver, in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongyue; Liang, Guangwen; Zeng, Ling

    2002-12-01

    The active factor life tables of natural population of banana pseudostem weevil were built, and the controlling effect of active factors was evaluated by using exclusion index of population control (EIPC). The results showed that the population trend indices in growing and harvested banana trunks were 4,3481 and 3,6628, and the EIPC of predation and others were 1,9256 and 2,3577, respectively. The EIPC of natural death were 1,3607 and 1,3554, and that of parasitism and disease in growing and harvested banana trunks were 1,1988 and 1,1668, respectively. The factor of predation and others was important.

  6. and Xylopia aetiopica (Annonaceae) on maize weevil Sitophilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution of different constituents to the toxicity of the essential oil constituents of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae) and Xylopia aetiopica (Annonaceae) on maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

  7. Iridovirus in the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Hunter

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV6 was evaluated for mode of transmission and ability to cause infection in the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.. This is the first evidence of IIV6 infection in D. abbreviatus, which caused both patent and sub-lethal covert infections in both larvae and adults. Adults and larvae were successfully infected with IIV6 by puncture, injection and per os. Transmission of IIV6 was demonstrated between infected and healthy individuals regardless of gender. Virus was detected in egg masses produced by virus-infected females suggesting IIV6 is transmitted transovarially. Virus particles were observed in the cytoplasm of weevil cells, and were shown to infect fat bodies, muscle, and nerve tissues, as visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Patent infections resulted in death of individuals within 3 to 4 days post infection. Individuals with covert infections tested positive for virus infection on day 7 by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Sequencing of PCR amplicons confirmed virus infection. Discovery of new pathogens against root weevils may provide new management tools for development of control strategies based on induced epizootics. This is the first report of a virus infecting D. abbreviatus.

  8. Genotypic variation for maize weevil resistance in eastern and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is the most destructive storage insect pest of maize (Zea mays L.) worldwide, ... heritability (89 – 96%) for weevil resistance that suggested high potential for germplasm improvement through ... emphasizing other traits, including grain yield enhancement (Tollenaar and ...

  9. Response of banana cultivars to banana weevil attack | Kiggundu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Highland Bananas (EAHB) (Musa AAA, 'Matooke' group) are a major staple food in the East African region. However, banana weevil (Cosmopolites sorllidus) is a major production constraint to bananas and may cause damage levels of up to 100%. Pesticides can effectively control banana weevil but these are ...

  10. Contact toxicity of 38 insecticides to pales weevil adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline L. Robertson; Robert L. Lyon; Nancy L. Gillette

    1975-01-01

    The pales weevil, Hylobius pales (Herbst), attacks all pine species in Eastern North America and is considered the most destructive pest of pine reproduction in the Eastern United States (Speers and Rauchenberger 1971). Large numbers of seedlings are damaged or killed by the adult weevils, which feed on the inner bark.

  11. Selection of assessment methods for evaluating banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Oviposition is in the base of the banana mat. The larvae tunnel in the corm and lower pseudostem. Most attack occurs below the soil surface. Pupation is within the plant. Population build-up is slow and weevil problems become increasingly important in ratoon crops. Damage is caused entirely by larval feeding. Weevil ...

  12. Field attraction of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus to Kairomones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Bruck, D.J.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Root weevils in the genus Otiorhynchus are cited as one of the most important pests in the major nursery and small fruit production areas throughout the United States, western Canada, and northern Europe. A major problem in combating weevil attack is monitoring and timing of control measures.

  13. Sampling plantations to determine white-pine weevil injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Talerico; Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1973-01-01

    Use of 1/10-acre square plots to obtain estimates of the proportion of never-weeviled trees necessary for evaluating and scheduling white-pine weevil control is described. The optimum number of trees to observe per plot is estimated from data obtained from sample plantations in the Northeast and a table is given. Of sample size required to achieve a standard error of...

  14. Control of Pecan Weevil With Microbial Biopesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Bock, Clive; Mai, Kim; Boykin, Debbie; Wells, Lenny; Hudson, William G; Mizell, Russell F

    2017-09-23

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of pecans Carya illinoinensis ([Wangenh.] K. Koch) (Fagales: Juglandaceae). Control recommendations rely on broad spectrum chemical insecticides. Due to regulatory and environmental concerns, effective alternatives for C. caryae control must be sought for pecan production in conventional and organic systems. We explored the use of microbial biopesticides for control of C. caryae in Georgia pecan orchards. Three experiments were conducted. The first investigated an integrated microbial control approach in an organic system at two locations. Three microbial agents, Grandevo (based on byproducts of the bacterium Chromobacterium subtsugae Martin, Gundersen-Rindal, Blackburn & Buyer), the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, were applied to each treatment plot (0.6 ha) at different times during the season. A second experiment compared the effects of S. carpocapsae and B. bassiana applied as single treatments relative to application of both agents (at different times); survival of C. caryae was assessed approximately 11 mo after larvae were added to pots sunk in an organic pecan orchard. In a conventional orchard (with 1.0 ha plots), the third experiment compared Grandevo applications to a commonly used regime of chemical insecticides (carbaryl alternated with a pyrethroid). All experiments were repeated in consecutive years. The combined pest management tactic (experiment 1) reduced C. caryae infestation relative to non-treated control plots in both locations in 2014 and one of the two locations in 2015 (the other location had less than 1% infestation). In experiment 2, no differences among combined microbial treatments, single-applied microbial treatments or different numbers of application were observed, yet all microbial treatments reduced C. caryae survival relative to the control. In the third

  15. Diapause in the Boll Weevil (Coleopetra: Curculionidae) : Life-Stage Sensitivity to Enviromental Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso; Jefferey L. Willers

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the diapause response in naturally occurring boll weevils under field and simulated field environments of north Mississippi. Squares containing early-stage weevils were collected in July, August, and September and subsamples from each group were installed into similar dynamic environments in the laboratory. In this manner, some weevils experienced...

  16. EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN CONTROLLING OF THE BANANA WEEVIL BORER Cosmopolites sordidus Germar IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsol Hasyim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar, is an important pest of highland banana and plantain in Africa, but it exists in low densities in presumed area of origin in Southeast Asia such as in Indonesia. This suggests a possible existence of effective co-evolved natural enemies in the origin area of Indonesia, especially West Sumatra. The objectives of this study were: (1 to evaluate banana weevil pest status at selected sites in West Sumatra, (2 to survey parasitoids and predators, and (3 to determine the control potential of the most important natural enemies. Surveys were undertaken in March 2002-August 2003 in five locations in West Sumatra, i.e., Bukittinggi, Sitiung, Pariaman, Pasaman, and Batusangkar. Five farms per site were selected randomly among all farms that contained banana stands of > 0.5 ha. Sampling for banana weevil adults and damage, and for predators was done throughout small banana stands and within a 20 m x 40 m (0.08 ha subplot on larger farms. Field-collected larvae were taken to the laboratory and reared on corm pieces (3 cm x 3 cm x 3 cm until pupation. Larvae were collected from pseudostem as well as corm residues. To estimate the abundance of non-social predators, i.e., those other than ants, 10 residues each on each farm were examined from plants that had been harvested 1-4 weeks, 5-8 weeks or 9 or more weeks before our visit to the site. Samples of the different morphospecies were saved in alcohol for later identification. The result showed that the banana weevil incidence was found to be low,  0.6-1.7 adults per trap. Plant damage indices were below 2.2%. We collected and reared 24,360 eggs and 3118 larvae, but no parasitism was detected. Phorids (Megaselia sp. and drosophilids were recovered from larval rearings, but most likely were scavengers. A complex of predators was detected, the most important of which was the histerid beetles,  Plaesius javanus Erichson. In laboratory tests, adults and larvae

  17. Biological role of Nardonella endosymbiont in its weevil host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuriwada

    Full Text Available Weevils constitute the most species-rich animal group with over 60,000 described species, many of which possess specialized symbiotic organs and harbor bacterial endosymbionts. Among the diverse microbial associates of weevils, Nardonella spp. represent the most ancient and widespread endosymbiont lineage, having co-speciated with the host weevils for over 125 million years. Thus far, however, no empirical work on the role of Nardonella for weevil biology has been reported. Here we investigated the biological role of the Nardonella endosymbiont for the West Indian sweet potato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus. This insect is an experimentally tractable pest insect that can easily be reared on a natural diet of sweet potato root as well as on an agar-based artificial diet. By larval feeding on an antibiotic-containing artificial diet, Nardonella infection was effectively eliminated from the treated insects. The antibiotic-treated insects exhibited significantly lighter body weight and lower growth rate than the control insects. Then, the antibiotic-treated insects and the control insects were respectively allowed to mate and oviposit on fresh sweet potatoes without the antibiotic. The offspring of the antibiotic-treated insects, which were all Nardonella-negative, exhibited significantly lighter body weight, smaller body size, lower growth rate and paler body color in comparison with the offspring of the control insects, which were all Nardonella-positive. In conclusion, the Nardonella endosymbiont is involved in normal growth and development of the host weevil. The biological role of the endosymbiont probably underlies the long-lasting host-symbiont co-speciation in the evolutionary course of weevils.

  18. Insecticide activity of clove essential oil on bean weevil and maize weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Jairoce

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bean weevil and maize weevil can cause considerable damage to stored grains. These insects are mainly controlled with synthetic chemical insecticides, which may bring serious problems to human and environmental health. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the essential oil of clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill & Perry (Myrtaceae (origin: Bahia, season Sep.2014-Feb.2015] in the control of S. zeamais and A. obtectus under laboratory conditions. The essential oil was extracted through the classic hydrodistillation process and its chemical components were identified via gas chromatography. Oil efficiency was tested at the doses of 35, 17.9, 8.9, 3.6, 1.8, 0.4 and 0.2 μL g-1 (derived from a pilot study for insect control and the LC50 was determined. The results showed that eugenol was the major compound. The essential oil caused mortality of 100% for both species 48 h after treatment with the concentrations of 17.9 and 35 μL g-1. The LC50 for A. obtectus was 9.45 μL g-1, against 10.15 μL g-1 for S. zeamais. The use of clove essential oil represents a promising alternative to be used under storage conditions for the integrated management of stored grains pests.

  19. Pollination of Anthurium (Araceae) by derelomine flower weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nico M

    2007-03-01

    Cyclanthura flower weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Derelomini) are identified for the first time as pollinators of multiple species of Anthurium (Araceae) in Costa Rica. The weevils are present on the inflorescences in small numbers during the pistillate and staminate phase of anthesis, and consume plant tissues and pollen. The individuals of one species of Cyclanthura can visit several Anthurium species within the same locality. They also engage in reproductive activities and are likely to oviposit into the flowers. The mating strategies suggest that sperm precedence selects males that are able to secure their position as the last partner prior to oviposition.

  20. Biological control of Otiorhynchus sulcatus by insect parasitic nematodes, Heterorhabditis spp., at low temperatures : a systems analytical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    The black vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, is an important pest in ornamentals and nursery stock in The Netherlands. The larvae, which feed on the root system of the plant, can be controlled by insect parasitic nematodes, Heterorhabditis.

  1. White-pine weevil control with knapsack mistblower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur R. Hastings; John H. Risley

    1962-01-01

    Tests made in New York State in 1956-60 indicate that the portable knapsack mistblower has considerable promise for practical control of the white-pine weevil, now the major insect enemy of white pine in the Northeast. Lindane and malathion, alone and with Aroclor 5460, were the toxicants used in the tests.

  2. Effects of potassium deficiency, drought and weevils on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Gold (1996) concluded from a literature review that phytophagous insects are sensitive to nutritional changes .... Corm damage due to weevils was assessed using the method described by Gold et al. ..... high K fertilizer recovery efficiency of 75% that have been found in some other banana fertilizer studies (Lopez and.

  3. Effect of radio frequency treatments on cowpea weevil adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried pulses (chickpeas, lentils and dried peas) are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. Postharvest infestation by stored product insect pests such as the cowpea weevil may cause importing countries to require phytosanitary treatments before shipment. Typically, chemical fumiga...

  4. Control damage by seedling debarking weevil. Technical note No. 271

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidt, D.C.; Weaver, C.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Technical note describing a method of controlling the damage to seedlings by the seedling debarking weevil by using nematodes. Information is given on the damage involved, the nematodes to be used, treatment methods, planting procedures, benefits and costs, and results of earlier trials.

  5. Biological effects of plant extracts against the rice weevil Sitophilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of C. odorata was moderately toxic to S. oryzae but that of K. senegalensis was highly toxic to the weevils, evoking 100% mortality in maize treated with the highest dosage after 72 h of exposure. Grains treated with extract of the two plant materials caused a highly significant reduction in the number of progeny ...

  6. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption

  7. A screening method for banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) is a serious pest in most banana-growing areas of the world. Host-plant resistance is considered to be the most feasible and sustainable method for its control. However, a quick and effective method for screening banana genotypes for resistance against.

  8. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), movement relative to pheromone-baited traps. Three treatments were used to create different mulching levels: banana without mulch (control), banana with thin mulch (< 6 cm thick), and banana with thick mulch (15 cm thick). Pheromone traps

  9. The palm weevil Rhynchophorus vulneratus is eradicated from Laguna Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Hoddle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In October 2010, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, originally identified as the red palm weevil, R. ferrugineus, was discovered infesting Canary Island date palms in Laguna Beach, California. The red palm weevil has caused extensive mortality of palms in the Mediterranean, the Middle East and North Africa, and its discovery in California caused concern for the state's ornamental palm and date industries and the many palms in Southern California landscapes. A rapid, coordinated effort led to the deployment of traps baited with the weevil's aggregation pheromone, coordinated pesticide applications to privately owned palms and destruction of palms at advanced stages of infestation. Research confirmed the chemical components of the aggregation pheromone, assessed the efficacy of trapping strategies and resolved the taxonomic identity, native range and putative region of origin for the population detected in Laguna Beach. The last confirmed detection of a live R. vulneratus was Jan. 20, 2012. USDA-APHIS declared this weevil eradicated from California on Jan. 20, 2015. The estimated cost of the eradication was $1,003,646.

  10. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-12-31

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F₁ progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils' damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.

  11. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Obata

    Full Text Available Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots. are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  12. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Hiroki; Manabe, Aya; Nakamura, Naoko; Onishi, Tomokazu; Senba, Yasuko

    2011-03-29

    Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots.) are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  13. Parasites: Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Water Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Parasites can live in natural water sources. When outdoors, treat your water before drinking ...

  14. The influence of silvicultural practices on genetic improvement: height growth and weevil resistance in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; D.M. Smith

    1981-01-01

    When grown in a common environment, the progeny of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) from weeviled stands improved by selection thinning outperformed the progeny of wolfy dominants from untreated stands in both height and weevil resistance. Within families, weevils tended to attack the tallest trees. Among families the relationship was not as strong and...

  15. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hölscher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils.

  16. Bio-ecological studies of the mango stone weevil in southern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to suggest that flowers may provide food and breeding sites. Infestation by the weevil did not affect fruit quality despite the high potential to disrupt the export trade in mangoes. The low quarantine rejection threshold of one fruit in 40 set in the export market suggests that solution to the problem posed by the weevil requires ...

  17. Polygalacturonase from Sitophilus oryzae: Possible horizontal transfer of a pectinase gene from fungi to weevils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Shen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Endo-polygalacturonase, one of the group of enzymes known collectively as pectinases, is widely distributed in bacteria, plants and fungi. The enzyme has also been found in several weevil species and a few other insects, such as aphids, but not in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, or Caenorhabditis elegans or, as far as is known, in any more primitive animal species. What, then, is the genetic origin of the polygalacturonases in weevils? Since some weevil species harbor symbiotic microorganisms, it has been suggested, reasonably, that the symbionts' genomes of both aphids and weevils, rather than the insects' genomes, could encode polygalacturonase. We report here the cloning of a cDNA that encodes endo-polygalacturonase in the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L., and investigations based on the cloned cDNA. Our results, which include analysis of genes in antibiotic-treated rice weevils, indicate that the enzyme is, in fact, encoded by the insect genome. Given the apparent absence of the gene in much of the rest of the animal kingdom, it is therefore likely that the rice weevil polygalacturonase gene was incorporated into the weevil's genome by horizontal transfer, possibly from a fungus.

  18. Temperature influences on diapause induction and survival in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been the most important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) wherever it occurs. Although eradication programs in the U.S. have reduced the range of this pest, the weevil remains an intractable problem in subtropical Tex...

  19. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  20. Roles of host plants in boll weevil range expansion beyond tropical Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    New findings on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), biology and ecology have had repercussions on the current level of understanding about short- and long-range boll weevil dispersal, and range expansion from its original tropical Mesoamerican habitat. The w...

  1. Forensic pollen geolocation techniques used to identify the origin of boll weevil reinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, entered the United States of America in the early 20th century and became a major pest in cotton, Gossypium spp. Shortly after the passage of Tropical Storm Erin on 16 August 2007 through the South Texas/Winter Garden boll weevil eradication zone, over 150 boll ...

  2. Screening Sitka spruce for resistance to weevil damage in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    René I. Alfaro; John N. King

    2012-01-01

    The white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), has serious impacts on Sitka (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière), Engelmann (P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.), and white spruce (P. glauca (Moench) Voss) plantations in British Columbia (BC), Canada. This weevil attacks...

  3. Controlling pecan weevil with beneficial fungi: the impact of fungal species and fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated the potential for using entomopathogenic fungi to suppress pecan weevil in the soil. We compared the efficacy of two fungal species, Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their a...

  4. Value loss from weevil-caused defects in eastern white pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Carl H. Stoltenberg

    1957-01-01

    Owners of eastern white pine stands suffer financially in several ways from attacks by the white-pine weevil (Pissodes strobi). Crooks, forks, and other weevil-caused tree-bole deformities increase bucking, logging, and sawing costs, and they reduce recoverable volumes. The injuries also reduce the average value of the lumber recovered. It is only with this reduction...

  5. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae),

  6. effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to its aggregation pheromone was influenced by age, female mating status and weevil density. Laboratory bioassays were conducted using a double pitfall olfactometer, while a bucket ...

  7. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to its aggregation pheromone was influenced by age, female mating status and weevil density. Laboratory bioassays were conducted using a double ...

  8. Olfactory responses of the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, to tree odours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    A Y-tube olfactometer and a still-air olfactometer were developed to determine the attractiveness of several host plants for the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.); Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Odours of weevil-damaged yew (Taxus baccata) and spindle trees (Euonymus fortunei) are attractive to

  9. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae, Using Natural Plant Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.

  10. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  11. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Hölscher; Andreas Buerkert; Bernd Schneider

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by N...

  12. Fish parasites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems......This book contains 22 chapters on some of the most important parasitic diseases in wild and farmed fish. International experts give updated reviews and provide solutions to the problems...

  13. Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to live. You can get them from contaminated food or water, a bug bite, or sexual contact. Some parasitic diseases are easily treated and some are not. Parasites range in size from tiny, one-celled organisms called protozoa to worms that can be seen with the naked eye. ...

  14. "Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri," a novel clade of bacterial endocellular symbionts from weevils of the genus Curculio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Koga, Ryuichi; Nikoh, Naruo; Meng, Xian Ying; Kimura, Nobutada; Fukatsu, Takema

    2010-01-01

    Here we investigated the bacterial endosymbionts of weevils of the genus Curculio. From all four species of Curculio weevils examined, a novel group of bacterial gene sequences were consistently identified. Molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the sequences formed a distinct clade in the Gammaproteobacteria, which was not related to previously known groups of weevil endosymbionts such as Nardonella spp. and Sodalis-allied symbionts. In situ hybridization revealed that the bacterium was intracellularly harbored in a bacteriome associated with larval midgut. In adult females, the bacterium was localized in the germalia at the tip of each overiole, suggesting vertical transmission via ovarial passage. Diagnostic PCR surveys detected high prevalence of the bacterial infection in natural host populations. Electron microscopy identified the reduced cell wall of the bacterial cells, and the bacterial genes exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition and accelerated molecular evolution, which are suggestive of a long-lasting endosymbiotic association. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the novel endocellular bacteria represent the primary symbiont of Curculio weevils and proposed the designation "Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri." In addition to "Ca. Curculioniphilus," we identified Sodalis-allied gammaproteobacterial endosymbionts from the chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis, which exhibited partial infection frequencies in host insect populations and neither AT-biased nucleotide composition nor accelerated molecular evolution. We suggest that such Sodalis-allied secondary symbionts in weevils might provide a potential source for symbiont replacements, as has occurred in an ancestor of Sitophilus grain weevils.

  15. Lipid composition of the pecan weevil,Curculio caryae (Horn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, R D; Thompson, A C; Gueldner, R C; Mody, N V; Neel, W W

    1973-11-01

    The lipids of larvae, male adults, and female adults of the pecan weevil,Curculio caryae (Horn), were studied, and special attention was given the fatty acid composition. The larvae contained an unusually high amount of lipid material (40.6%), most of it concentrated in the neutral lipid fraction. Male and famale adults contained more conventional quantities, 5.8 and 8.2%, respectively. Oleic acid was the major fatty acid in the total and neutral lipids of all stages; linoleic acid was the most abundant in the phospholipid fractions.

  16. Iridovirus infection of cell cultures from the Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Hunter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We here report the development and viral infection of a Diaprepes root weevil cell culture. Embryonic tissues of the root weevil were used to establish cell cultures for use in screening viral pathogens as potential biological control agents. Tissues were seeded into a prepared solution of insect medium and kept at a temperature of 24°C. The cell culture had primarily fibroblast-like morphology with some epithelial monolayers. Root weevil cells were successfully infected in vitro with a known insect virus, Invertebrate Iridescent Virus 6. Potential uses of insect cell cultures and insect viruses are discussed.

  17. Pre-dispersal strategies by Quercus schottkyana to mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Xia; William L. Harrower; Roy Turkington; Hong-Yu Tan; Zhe-Kun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how pre-dispersal strategies may mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns in a population of Quercus schottkyana, a dominant oak in Asian evergreen broad-leaved forests, and assess if weevil infestation contributes to low seedling recruitment. We counted the number of acorns produced, daily from the end of August to mid-late November for 9 years from 2006?2014. We also recorded the rate of acorn infestation by weevils and acorn germination rates of weekly collectio...

  18. The role of seed size, phenology, oogenesis and host distribution in the specificity and genetic structure in seed weevils (Curculio spp.) in mixed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-LeClaire, Harold; Bonal, Raúl; García-López, Daniel; Espelta, Josep Maria

    2017-11-23

    Synchrony between seed growth and oogenesis are suggested to largely shape trophic breadth of seed-feeding insects and ultimately contribute to their co-existence by means of resource partitioning or in the time when infestation occurs. Here we investigated: i) the role of seed phenology and sexual maturation of females in the host specificity of seed-feeding weevils (Curculio spp) predating in hazel and oak mixed forests and ii) the consequences that trophic breadth and host distribution have in the genetic structure of the weevil populations. DNA analyses were used to establish unequivocally host specificity and to determine the population genetic structure. We identified four species with different specificity, namely C. nucum females matured earlier and infested a unique host (hazelnuts) while three species (C. venosus, C. glandium, C. elephas) predated upon the acorns of the two oaks (Q. ilex and Q. humilis). The high specificity of C. nucum coupled with a more discontinuous distribution of hazel trees resulted in a significant genetic structure among sites. Also, the presence of an excess of local rare haplotypes indicated that C. nucum populations went through genetic expansion after recent bottlenecks. Conversely, these effects were not observed in the more generalist C. glandium predating upon oaks. Ultimately, co-existence of weevil species in this multi-host-parasite system is influenced by both resource and time partitioning. To what extent the restriction in gene flow among C. nucum populations may have negative consequences for their persistence in a time of increasing disturbances (e.g. drought in Mediterranean areas) deserves further research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. [Biological characteristics of the egg phase of citrus root weevils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Jerson V C; Parra, José R P

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study some characteristics of the egg phase of three species of citrus root weevils. The insects were collected from citrus plants in Itapetininga, SP, and brought to the Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, SP, where the species Naupactus cervinus (Boheman), Naupactus versatilis (Hustache) and Parapantomorus fluctuosus (Boheman) were kept. Duration and viability of the egg phase were evaluated, and the lower temperature threshold and thermal constant (K) were calculated for these species. The species of citrus root weevils showed different duration of egg phases. The egg phase ranged from 40.4 to 13.8 N. cervinus, from 38.7 to 20.0 days for N. versatilis, and from 35.0 to 13.8 days for P. fluctuosus, depending upon temperature. The temperature thresholds of this stage were 8.1, 8.3, and 9.9 masculineC at thermal constant was 385.7, 397.7 and 294.1 degree-days, for N. cervinus, N. versatilis and P. fluctuosus respectively. The duration of the egg phases of N. cervinus and N. versatilis were similar at the same temperatures and P. fluctuosus had a faster development than Naupactus spp. in all temperatures tested.

  20. Pollination of Anthurium (Araceae by derelomine flower weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico M Franz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyclanthura flower weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Derelomini are identified for the first time as pollinators of multiple species of Anthurium (Araceae in Costa Rica. The weevils are present on the inflorescences in small numbers during the pistillate and staminate phase of anthesis, and consume plant tissues and pollen. The individuals of one species of Cyclanthura can visit several Anthurium species within the same locality. They also engage in reproductive activities and are likely to oviposit into the flowers. The mating strategies suggest that sperm precedence selects males that are able to secure their position as the last partner prior to oviposition. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 269-277. Epub 2007 March. 31.Por primera vez se informa que algunos curculiónidos de flores de Cyclanthura (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Derelomini polinizan varias especies de Anthurium (Araceae en Costa Rica. Los curculiónidos están presentes en las inflorescencias en pequeñas cantidades durante la fase pistilada y estaminada de la antesis, y consumen tejidos de la planta y polen. Los individuos de una especie de Cyclanthura pueden visitar varias especies de Anthurium en la misma localidad ; también se ocupan en actividades reproductivas y probablemente ovipositan en las flores. Las estrategias de apareamiento sugieren que la competencia a nivel de gametos selecciona favorablemente al último macho en la secuencia de apareamiento de la hembra, pues éste deposita su semen justo antes de que ella oviposite.

  1. Host-plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, R.W.H.M.; van Dijk, N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. Assessment of reproductive performance shows

  2. Community structure of acorn weevils (Curculio): inferences from multispecies occupancy models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govindan, Byju N; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    .... Specifically, mast production and acorn weevil (Curculio L., 1758) occupancy were estimated annually from 2006 to 2008 for individual host trees in a sample of 74 northern red oaks (Quercus rubra L.), 100 white oaks (Quercus alba L...

  3. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and

  4. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment

  5. Behavioral and Reproductive Response of White Pine Weevil (Pissodes strobi to Resistant and Susceptible Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi, Peck. is a native forest insect pest in the Pacific Northwest of North America that attacks species of spruce (Picea spp. and pine (Pinus spp.. Young Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr.] trees are particularly susceptible to weevil attack. Pockets of naturally occurring Sitka spruce resistance have been identified in high weevil hazard areas in coastal British Columbia. In this study, we characterize behavioral, physiological and reproductive responses of weevils to an extremely resistant Sitka spruce genotype (H898 in comparison to a highly susceptible genotype (Q903. The experiments relied on a large number of three-year-old clonally propagated trees and were therefore restricted to two contrasting Sitka spruce genotypes. When exposed to resistant trees, both male and female weevils were deterred during host selection and mating, females showed delayed or reduced ovary development, and successful reproduction of weevils was prevented on resistant trees.

  6. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    OpenAIRE

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van, A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to...

  7. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele; Kesegofetse Thomas; Seipati Seketeme

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for al...

  8. Diversification of endosymbiosis: replacements, co-speciation and promiscuity of bacteriocyte symbionts in weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Notsu, Yutaka; Sota, Teiji; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-07-01

    The processes and mechanisms underlying the diversification of host-microbe endosymbiotic associations are of evolutionary interest. Here we investigated the bacteriocyte-associated primary symbionts of weevils wherein the ancient symbiont Nardonella has experienced two independent replacement events: once by Curculioniphilus symbiont in the lineage of Curculio and allied weevils of the tribe Curculionini, and once by Sodalis-allied symbiont in the lineage of grain weevils of the genus Sitophilus. The Curculioniphilus symbiont was detected from 27 of 36 Curculionini species examined, the symbiont phylogeny was congruent with the host weevil phylogeny, and the symbiont gene sequences exhibited AT-biased nucleotide compositions and accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Curculioniphilus symbiont was acquired by an ancestor of the tribe Curculionini, replaced the original symbiont Nardonella, and has co-speciated with the host weevils over evolutionary time, but has been occasionally lost in several host lineages. By contrast, the Sodalis-allied symbiont of Sitophilus weevils exhibited no host-symbiont co-speciation, no AT-biased nucleotide compositions and only moderately accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Sodalis-allied symbiont was certainly acquired by an ancestor of the Sitophilus weevils and replaced the original Nardonella symbiont, but the symbiotic association must have experienced occasional re-associations such as new acquisitions, horizontal transfers, replacements and/or losses. We detected Sodalis-allied facultative symbionts in populations of the Curculionini weevils, which might represent potential evolutionary sources of the Sodalis-allied primary symbionts. Comparison of these newcomer bacteriocyte-associated symbiont lineages highlights potential evolutionary trajectories and consequences of novel symbionts after independent replacements of the same ancient symbiont.

  9. Diversification of endosymbiosis: replacements, co-speciation and promiscuity of bacteriocyte symbionts in weevils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Notsu, Yutaka; Sota, Teiji; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms underlying the diversification of host–microbe endosymbiotic associations are of evolutionary interest. Here we investigated the bacteriocyte-associated primary symbionts of weevils wherein the ancient symbiont Nardonella has experienced two independent replacement events: once by Curculioniphilus symbiont in the lineage of Curculio and allied weevils of the tribe Curculionini, and once by Sodalis-allied symbiont in the lineage of grain weevils of the genus Sitophilus. The Curculioniphilus symbiont was detected from 27 of 36 Curculionini species examined, the symbiont phylogeny was congruent with the host weevil phylogeny, and the symbiont gene sequences exhibited AT-biased nucleotide compositions and accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Curculioniphilus symbiont was acquired by an ancestor of the tribe Curculionini, replaced the original symbiont Nardonella, and has co-speciated with the host weevils over evolutionary time, but has been occasionally lost in several host lineages. By contrast, the Sodalis-allied symbiont of Sitophilus weevils exhibited no host–symbiont co-speciation, no AT-biased nucleotide compositions and only moderately accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Sodalis-allied symbiont was certainly acquired by an ancestor of the Sitophilus weevils and replaced the original Nardonella symbiont, but the symbiotic association must have experienced occasional re-associations such as new acquisitions, horizontal transfers, replacements and/or losses. We detected Sodalis-allied facultative symbionts in populations of the Curculionini weevils, which might represent potential evolutionary sources of the Sodalis-allied primary symbionts. Comparison of these newcomer bacteriocyte-associated symbiont lineages highlights potential evolutionary trajectories and consequences of novel symbionts after independent replacements of the same ancient symbiont. PMID:23446834

  10. Triaspis curculiovorus sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Japan, Parasitizing Acorn Weevils

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno, PAPP; Kaoru, MAETO; Zoological Department, Hungarian Natural History Museum; Hokkaido Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute

    1992-01-01

    Triaspis curculiovorus sp. n. from Japan is described and illustrated with taxonomic remarks and a list of the Triaspis species of the eastern Palaearctic Region. The new species is a parasitoid of Curculio larvae infesting Quercus acorns.

  11. Micromorphology of the elytral cuticle of beetles, with an emphasis on weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Thomas; Riedel, Alexander; Greven, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    The elytral cuticle of 40 beetle species, comprising 14 weevils (Curculionoidea) and 26 representatives of other taxa, is examined. All weevils and 18 other species have an endocuticle with prominent macrofibers, which corresponds to a modified pseudo-orthogonal cuticle. Angles between successive layers of macrofibers range between 30° and 90°, but are constantly less than 60° in weevils. In all Curculionoidea, as well as in one buprestid and one erotylid species exo- and endocuticle are densely interlocked. In the weevil Sitophilus granarius, transmission electron microscopy revealed vertical microfibrils extending from the exocuticle between the macrofibers of the underlaying endocuticle. Vertical microfibrils connecting successive macrofiber layers of the endocuticle were observed in S. granarius and Trigonopterus nasutus. Distinct cuticular characters are traced on a beetle phylogeny: the angles between unidirectional endocuticle layers; the presence and the shape of endocuticular macrofibers; and the interlocking of exo- and endocuticle. While character traits seem to be more or less randomly distributed among Coleoptera, the Curculionoidea have a uniform groundplan: The "weevil-specific" combination of characters includes 1) interlocking of exo- and endocuticle, 2) an endocuticle with distinct ovoid macrofibers embedded in a matrix and 3) comparatively small angles between successive endocuticular layers. Thus, phylogenetic constraints appear equally important to functional factors in the construction of the weevil elytron. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pimenta

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp. Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus’ flowers (166.6 ± 74.4 and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9 than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage.

  13. Resource limitation in natural populations of phytophagous insects. A long-term study case with the chestnut weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouzie, Domitien; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Oberli, Frantz; Menu, Frédéric

    2002-03-01

    The chestnut weevil, Curculio elephas (Gyll.), is a non-outbreaking species whose populations and food resources, the European chestnut, Castanea sativa, can be precisely defined. Thirteen and 17 generations of this insect were studied in two isolated sites. Field observations and experiments allowed us to estimate the absolute abundance, availability and use of chestnuts for weevil oviposition, and the number of weevil females emerging per site. Unavailable chestnuts were defined as the fruits either infested first by the chestnut moth ( Cydia splendana) larvae (because of competition between the two species) or those avoided by chestnut weevil females when selecting their egg-laying sites, independently of chestnut moth presence. From a third to a half of the chestnuts were not available on the average for weevil infestation. Only one-fourth, on the average, of those available for oviposition were actually used by chestnut weevil females. Regardless of year and site, the number of available chestnuts per weevil female was higher than that of weevil-infested fruits per female, considering global food resources independently of their temporal variation in quality. However, realized fecundity of weevil females was positively correlated with the mean number of available chestnuts per female. We concluded that food resources can be limiting without being fully exploited by females because of temporal variation in chestnut quality.

  14. Ecology and phenology of the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on an unusual wild host, Hibiscus pernambucensis, in southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzaluz, I O; Jones, R W

    2001-12-01

    The phenology and ecology of Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda and its interaction and importance in maintaining populations of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were studied over a period of 3 yr in the Soconusco Region of the state of Chiapas, Mexico. H. pernambucensis is a small tree of Neotropical distribution, restricted to lowland areas, and generally associated with halophytic vegetation. This species is found exclusively along the shores of brackish estuaries, in or near mangrove swamps in southeastern Mexico. In this region, H. pernambucensis has a highly seasonal flowering pattern in which the greatest bud production occurs shortly after the start of the rainy season in May and the highest fruit production occurs in July and August. Boll weevil larvae were found in buds of H. pernambucensis during all months but February and densities of buds and weevils were highest from May through September. The percentage of buds infested with boll weevil larvae rarely exceeded 30%. Because plant densities and reproductive output of H. pernambucensis is relatively low and, consequently, the number of oviposition and larval development sites for boll weevils is limited, the importance of this plant as a source of boll weevils with potential of attacking commercial cotton is minimal in comparison with the quantity produced in cultivated cotton. However, the plant could be important as a reservoir of boll weevils in areas of boll weevil quarantine and eradication programs. The factors and circumstances that may have led to this apparent recent host shift of the boll weevil in this region are discussed.

  15. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.D.; Jacobs, K.; Kirisits, T.; Chhetri, D.B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young

  16. Chemical variability and leaf damage among lychee varieties, host of the Sri Lanka weevil, Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marchall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Variability and leaf damages among lychee varieties, host of the Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall. Jerome Niogret, Nancy Epsky, Paul Kendra, Peter Teal The Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undercimpustulatus undatus Marshall is serious economic pest in India and P...

  17. Effects of Temperature and Adult Diet on Development of Hypertrophied Fat Body in Prediapausing Boll Weevil (Coleoptera Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the effects of temperature and adult diet on the development of hypertrophied fat bodies in prediapausing adult boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman. Simulation models derived from this work are used to estimate the minimal ages at which male and female boll weevils exhibit diapause morphology, based on conditions...

  18. Behavioural responses of the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, to semiochemicals from conspecifics, Otiorhynchus salicicola, and host plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus is a parthenogenetic reproducing species which forages for suitable host plants at night, but is found congregated in dark places during the day. Frass of this weevil species is suspected to contain attractive compounds that are host-plant related. Using a

  19. Phoretic uropodine mites (Acari: Mesostigmata associated with the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Farmahiny Farahani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During an investigation on phoretic mite associates of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, in Sistan and Balouchestan Province of Iran, two uropodine species were collected and identified as Centrouropoda almerodai (Uropodidae and Uroobovella marginata (Dinychidae. This is the first record of the genus Centrouropoda from Iran and the first record of phoretic mites associated with this weevil from the country.

  20. Have stump piles any effect on the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L. incidence and seedling damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree stumps are being increasingly used for bioenergy purposes, which may have significant effects on pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L. populations and the level of damage they can cause to seedlings. Pine weevils are attracted by the smell of fresh stumps in clear-cut areas, and have been shown to cause serious damage to planted coniferous seedlings in European forests. This study was conducted to measure the incidence of pine weevil and damage caused to Norway spruce (Picea abies seedlings in a field experiment including single stump pile plots (SSP, multiple stump pile plots (MSP and control plots in North Karelia, Finland. Pine weevils were significantly more abundant in MSP stump plots (22% higher than in SSP plots, and are 23% more abundant compared to the control plots. The extent of seedling damage was significantly lower in the SSP (by 67% and MSP plots (by 58% than in the controls. Seedlings damage increased significantly with the distance from the stump pile. Stump harvesting practices should be updated and, in particular, multiple stump piles should be avoided in the clearcut area. However, future studies will be required to explore the environmental and physical factors in the stump-removal area influencing pine weevil abundance.

  1. Consequences of habitat fragmentation for the prairie-endemic weevil Haplorhynchites aeneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Emily C; Berlocher, Stewart H; Tooker, John F; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2011-12-01

    Widespread destruction of tallgrass prairies in the midwestern United States has fragmented plant communities with the result that populations of endemic animal species have become geographically isolated from one another. The goal of the research summarized here was to evaluate the potential for conserving endemic prairie species of herbivorous insects by managing their host plants. Our study species was the weevil Haplorhynchites aeneus (Boehman), adults of which feed on pollen of plants in the genus Silphium (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). The female weevils clip the peduncles of flower heads and oviposit into the heads, where the larvae feed on the ovules. The research was conducted in 12 prairie sites in eastern Illinois. An allozyme analysis revealed that most populations of H. aeneus at the various prairie sites were genetically differentiated from one another, but the degree of differentiation was not associated with geographic distance between sites. Adult H. aeneus fed and oviposited on the plant species Silphium laciniatum L., S. integrifolium Michx., and S. terebinthinaceum Jacq, which differ in bloom phenology. There was no evidence of genetic differentiation of weevil populations with respect to host plant species, and adult weevils strongly preferred S. terebinthinaceum. We conclude that the oligophagous nature of the weevil assures its survival in small prairie remnants even where some of the host plant species are absent. Although H. aeneus can have a significant impact on reproduction of host plants by clipping flower heads, the perennial nature of Silphium species prevents their local extinction.

  2. Flora and Fauna on Backs of Large Papuan Moss-Forest Weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressitt, J L; Sedlacek, J; Szent-Ivany, J J

    1965-12-31

    Large, living, flightless weevils feeding on leaves of woody plants high moss forest on various New Guinea mountain ranges have plant growth on their backs. Fungi and algae have been found on 11 species of Gymnopholus, lichens on six species, and liverworts on one species. In other genera of weevils, on the same mountains, there are additional specific associations with fungi, algae, lichens, and liverworts. The fungi and lichens, at least, are inhabited by oribatid mites of a new family, which may spread the plants from beetle to beetle. Also, nematodes, rotifers, psocids, and diatoms occur among the plants. Specialized scales or hairs, and a secretion, in depressions on the weevils' backs, appear to be associated with cpcouragement of the plant growth. Mutualistic symbiotic relationships seem to be clearly indicated.

  3. Ecomorphological adaptation of acorn weevils to their oviposition site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph; Vogler, Alfried P

    2004-09-01

    Comparisons between closely related species in different habitats provide a window into understanding how biotic factors shape evolutionary pathways. Weevils in the genus Curculio have radiated extensively across the Palearctic, where similar ecomorphs have evolved independently on different hosts. We examined ecological and morphological data for 31 Curculio species using multivariate statistics to determine which morphological traits covary and which correlate with the host seed size. A subset of 15 taxa for which phylogenetic relationships were known were used for comparative analyses and inferring historical patterns of trait evolution. The morphological analyses suggest rostrum size increased proportionately to body size in both males and females and that both rostrum and body size correlate with host seed size but that rostrum shape does not correlate with any of the seed traits used in the analyses. Host shifts from small seeds to considerably larger seeds or vice versa have occurred several times independently and historical trait evolution indicates that these host shifts were accompanied by morphological changes in rostrum size. These patterns suggest that seed size is an important selective agent for changes in rostrum length along with body size and thus may be a key factor promoting morphological differentiation in the genus Curculio.

  4. Additive photonic colors in the Brazilian diamond weevil: entimus imperialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, S.; Vigneron, J.-P.; Colomer, J.-F.; Vandenbem, C.; Deparis, O.

    2012-10-01

    Structurally colored nano-architectures found in living organisms are complex optical materials, giving rise to multiscale visual effects. In arthropods, these structures often consist of porous biopolymers and form natural photonic crystals. A signature of the structural origin of coloration in insects is iridescence, i.e., color changes with the viewing angle. In the scales located on the elytra of the Brazilian weevil Entimus imperialis (Curculionidae), three-dimensional photonic crystals are observed. On one hand, each of them interacts independently with light, producing a single color which is observed by optical microscopy and ranges from blue to orange. On the other hand, the color perceived by the naked eye is due to multi-length-scale light effects involving different orientations of a single photonic crystal. This disorder in crystal orientations alters the light propagation in such a way that the crystal iridescence is removed. Entimus imperialis is therefore a remarkable example of additive photonic colors produced by a complex multi-scale organic architecture. In order to study this specific natural photonic structure, electron microscopy is used. The structure turns out to be formed of a single type of photonic crystal with different orientations within each scale on the elytra. Our modeling approach takes into account the disorder in the photonic crystals and explains why the structure displays bright colors at the level of individual scales and a non-iridescent green color in the far-field.

  5. Wireless sensor network based on UAV for weevils surveillance in Saudí Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Donadios Garriga, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Red Palm Weevil o Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is an invasive spice that had become a catastrophic plague for lots of palm trees in Saudi Arabia, but all around the world too. Nowadays, the surveillance of the plague is done using tramps placed near the palm trees, and one person comes to the tramp and counts manually the number of weevils into the tramp. This project is aimed to improve the actual surveillance method. To realize it we have been created a Wireless Sensor Network and differen...

  6. Root weevils of artificial forests in Ukraine steppe area (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cleonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volovnik S. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of root weevils (Cleonini: were found in man-made forests in the steppe of Ukraine. They are Asproparthenis punctiventris, Bothynoderes affinis, Bothynoderes declivis, Cleonis pigra, Cyphocleonus dealbatus, Pachycerus segnis, Temnorhinus strabus. All these species were registered in open habitats, namely forest borders, glades, sides of the roads, slopes, and connected with plants from Asteraceae, Chenopodiacea, Boraginaceae. If beet plantations situated near artificial forests then A. punctiventris, B. affinis, B. declivis could damage them in case of mass reproduction. C.dealbatus is a potential pest of the ornamental camoniles. Literary data as to real damage caused to artificial forests by root weevils need to be proved.

  7. Hydrocarbons from males, females, and larvae of pecan weevil: Curculio caryae (Horn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, N V; Hedin, P A; Neel, W W; Miles, D H

    1975-02-01

    As part of a program to identify as many as possible of the components of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), the hydrocarbons from males, females, and larvae were isolated by solvent extraction and column chromatography and subjected to gas lipuid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. n-Alkanes from C14-C32 in the larvae and unsaturated and branched chain hydrocarbons from C20-C32 in males and females were found. There are no significant differences between the hydrocarbons of the male and female pecan weevils.

  8. Protozoan Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Haidee

    2016-02-01

    • Stool antigen detection for Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica are now commercially available, have better sensitivity and specificity than the traditional stool microscopy, and are less dependent on personnel skill. Tests employing newer techniques with faster turnaround time are also available for diagnosing trichomoniasis.• Nitazoxanide, the only U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved medication for therapy of cryptosporidiosis, is effective among immunocompetent patients. However, on the basis of strong evidence from multiple clinical trials, nitazoxanide is considered ineffective among immunocompromised patients. (14) • Giardiasis can be asymptomatic or have a chronic course leading to malabsorption and failure to thrive. It can be treated with metronidazole, tinidazole, or nitazoxanide. On the basis of growing observational studies, postinfectious and extraintestinal manifestations of giardiasis occur, but the mechanisms are unclear. Given the high prevalence of giardiasis, public health implications need to be defined. (16) • Eradicating E histolytica from the gastrointestinal tract requires only intraluminal agent therapy. Therapy for invasive illnesses requires use of imidazole followed by intraluminal agents to eliminate persistent intraluminal parasites. • Malaria is considered the most lethal parasitic infection, with Plasmodium falciparum as the predominant cause of mortality. P vivax and P ovale can be dormant in the liver, and primaquine is necessary to resolve infection by P vivax and P ovale. • Among immunocompetent patients, infection with Toxoplasma gondii may be asymptomatic, involve localized lymphadenopathy, or cause ocular infection. In immunocompromised patients, reactivation or severe infection is not uncommon. On the basis of limited observational studies (there are no well-controlled randomized trials), therapy is recommended for acute infection during pregnancy to prevent transmission to the

  9. Efficacy of rice husk ash against rice weevil and lesser grain borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine efficacy of RHA from “Mr. Harry” rice variety against Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus oryzae. Low (RHAL) and high (RHAH) application rates of RHA, corresponding to 0.5 and 1 g kg-1, respectively, were evaluated against both weevils on wheat. Insecto®, a commercial DE, ...

  10. Studies on food preferences of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. to different crops in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Devi Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food preference by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky was studied on seven different crops and varieties including maize, wheat and rice. They were maize cultivars namely Arun-2, Manakamana-4, Deuti, buckwheat local cultivar, wheat cultivar namely Annapurna-1, polished rice-Radha 4 and unshelled rice cultivar Mansuli under storage condition at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal from June 2013 to February 2014 . The hosts were tested using completely randomized design with three replications and were laid in free-choice and no-choice conditions. The maximum number of grain loss was recorded in wheat followed by polished rice respectively. Similarly, the highest weight loss was recorded in polished rice followed by Wheat in both conditions. F1 progeny emergence of weevil was highest in wheat followed by polished rice in free-choice and in no choice conditions, the highest progeny were emerged from polished rice followed by wheat. The lowest numbers of weevils emerged from rice in both conditions. Maximum germination losses were recorded in wheat (24.33% and lowest in Arun-2 (9.67. The rice showed a relatively higher preference to maize weevil under storage condition.

  11. Diapause in the Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Seasonal Occurrence in Mississippi Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the diapause response among boll weevils collected as immatures in squares at different times of the summer and held under simulated field photoperiods and temperatures of northern Mississippi. The percentage of adults exhibiting prediapause increased seasonally, starting with the 1st generation in July and achieving a maximal rate of 96.7% late in...

  12. Starvation-induced morphological responses of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Status of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, as a pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the United States has diminished because of progress by eradication programs. However, this pest remains of critical importance in South America, and intractable populations in extreme South Texas ...

  13. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  14. Weevils of the genus Ceutorhynchus Germ associated with oilseed rape in northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sivčev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research of the genus Ceutorhynchus associated with oilseed rape was conducted in northern parts of Serbia (Stari Žednik, Subotica. A specific assemblage of eight weevil species was found. The most numerous were stem weevils Ceutorhynchus napi with 81% of all trapped specimens, followed by C. pallidactylus with 18%. The remaining six weevil specimens were C. obstrictus, C.erysimi, C. minutus, C. picitarsis, C. sulcicollis and C. typhae, comprising 1% of all trapped insects. Stem weevils C. napi and C. pallidactylus began to immigrate into the oilseed rape fields in autumn, as early as November 10 (BBCH 17-18. The maximum flight was recorded at the beginning of oilseed rape stem elongation (BBCH 22-25 on March 23. A new generation of C. pallidactylus emerged from oilseed rape fields in June (BBCH 76-88, while individual specimens occurred during the autumn. The majority of C. napi emerged in March next year, sporadically until May 7. As a consequence of C. napi dominance insecticide treatment should be performed earlier than usual, i.e. when C. pallidactilus is the primary target.

  15. Dispersal of the cotton boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in South America: evidence of RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scataglini, M A; Confalonieri, V A; Lanteri, A A

    2000-01-01

    RAPD technique provides useful information on the geographic origin and dispersal of the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis in South America. Nine populations from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Mexico and USA were analyzed. Weevils were captured on native plants (Misiones province, Argentina) and on cotton cultures, except the sample from the United States (USDA laboratory-reared colony). A sample of the 'Peruvian square weevil', A. vestitus, from Ecuador, was included in the analysis in order to compare interspecific variation. The four primers used in the analysis revealed 41 'anonymous loci'. The neighbor-joining tree based on Nei's distances and values of Nm (migrants per generation), indicate that genetic similarity between samples from Tecomán (Mexico) and Puerto Iguazú (Argentina), is higher than among remaining South American populations. This result supports an hypothesis of natural occurrence of the boll weevil in South America, prior to extensive cotton cultivation. Population outbreaks of the species would be associated with increase of agricultural lands.

  16. Genetics of resistance to stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Zunjare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae has emerged as important storage grain pest of maize, causing substantial economic losses. Owing to high costs and environmental hazards of pesticides, host plant resistance holds promise for effective control of weevils. In the present study, a set of experimental maize hybrids generated using line × tester mating design were evaluated against S. oryzae. Significant variation for grain weight loss (GWL (6.0–49.1%, number of insect progeny emerged (NIP (17.8–203.3, grain hardness (GH (263.1–495.4 N, and pericarp thickness (PT (60.3–161.0 μm was observed. Strong positive association was observed between GWL and NIP. GH and PT did not show any correlation with GWL and NIP. Additive and non-additive gene actions were important for both GWL and NIP. Promising inbreds and experimental crosses identified can be effectively utilized in the resistance breeding programme. In majority of promising crosses having desirable SCA effects, one of the parents had desirable GCA effects, indicating that selection of inbred parents based on per se performance for generating resistant crosses may be possible. The commercial hybrid checks were highly susceptible compared to experimental hybrids. The inbreds and experimental hybrids identified hold promise in developing weevil resistant maize cultivars offering sustainable solution to management of weevils in maize.

  17. Host plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Dijk, van N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    1. The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. 2. Assessment of reproductive performance

  18. Olfactory antennal responses of the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) to plant volatiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to a broad range of volatile plant compounds. The response profile is restricted to a small number of volatiles that evoke substantial EAGs. Large EAG responses were particularly found

  19. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  20. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single

  1. Attractant compositions for weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruck, D.J.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to formulations of volatile organic compounds having effects on Otiorhynchus weevils e.g., Otiorhynchus sulcatus. In some embodiments, volatile organic compounds selected from (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-2-pentenol, methyl eugenol and a combination thereof are effective for

  2. Field efficacy against the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum and short-term persistence of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Batalla-Carrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a pest affecting hazelnut orchards in Europe, with an important economical repercussion. Its potential control, short-term field persistence and the vertical distribution of native entomopathogenic nematode strains were tested in Muntanyes de Prades, Tarragona (NE Iberian Peninsula over two consecutive years. Steinernema feltiae strain D114, Steinernema sp. strain D122 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain DG46 were used in summer and spring applications at a dosage of 5·105 IJs m-2. The three nematode species reduced the hazelnut weevil population, ranging from 32% to 88% efficacy, without significant differences in efficacy or between the two applications. Persistence evaluation was carried out during 9 weeks for S. feltiae (D114, Steinernema sp. (D122 and H. bacteriophora (DG46 and showed all species capable of lasting for this period. Nematodes and larval vertical distribution was assessed. Most of the hazelnut weevil stayed within the first 25 cm although some were found as deep as 40 cm. Entomopathogenic nematodes were found along all 40 cm depth. This study proves the suitability of entomopathogenic nematodes to control the hazelnut weevil.

  3. Sensitivity of the quarantine pest rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus to postharvest irradiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus (Olivier), is a new quarantine pest of Hawaii sweetpotatoes. Currently, sweetpotatoes can be exported from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland using a postharvest irradiation treatment of 150 Gy to control three other regulated insect pests. Studies were conducted...

  4. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  5. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes José E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis.

  6. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to pecan weevil larvae, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, D I

    2001-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans in the Southeast. Entomopathogenic nematodes have been shown to be pathogenic toward the larval stage of this pest. Before this research, only three species of nematodes had been tested against pecan weevil larvae. In this study, the virulence of the following nine species and 15 strains of nematodes toward fourth-instar pecan weevil was tested: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Baine, HP88, Oswego, NJ1, and Tf strains), H. indica Poinar, Karunakar & David (original and Homl strains), H. marelatus Liu & Berry (IN and Point Reyes strains), H. megidis Poinar, Jackson & Klein (UK211 strain), H. zealandica Poinar (NZH3 strain), Steinernema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar & Raulston (355 strain), S. carpocapsae (Weiser) (All strain), S. feltiae (Filipjev) (SN strain), and S. glaseri (Steiner) (NJ43 strain). No significant difference in virulence was detected among nematode species or strains. Nematode-induced mortality was not significantly greater than control mortality (in any of the experiments conducted) for the following nematodes: H. bacteriophora (Baine), H. zealandica (NZH3), S. carpocapsae (All), S. feltiae (SN), S. glaseri (NJ43), and S. riobrave (355). All other nematodes caused greater mortality than the control in at least one experiment. Heterorhabditis megidis (UK211) but not H. indica (original) displayed a positive linear relationship between nematode concentration and larval mortality. Results suggested that, as pecan weevil larvae age, they may have become more resistant to infection with entomopathogenic nematodes.

  7. Pre-dispersal strategies by Quercus schottkyana to mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Harrower, William L; Turkington, Roy; Tan, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-11-22

    We investigated how pre-dispersal strategies may mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns in a population of Quercus schottkyana, a dominant oak in Asian evergreen broad-leaved forests, and assess if weevil infestation contributes to low seedling recruitment. We counted the number of acorns produced, daily from the end of August to mid-late November for 9 years from 2006-2014. We also recorded the rate of acorn infestation by weevils and acorn germination rates of weekly collections. Annual acorn production was variable, but particularly low in 2011 and 2013. There was no trade-off between acorn production and acorn dry mass. However, acorns produced later in the season were significantly heavier. For most years: (i) the rate of weevil infestation was negatively density dependent (a greater proportion of acorns died with increased acorn density), (ii) the percentage germination of acorns was positively density dependent (proportionately more acorns germinated with increased density), and (iii) as the season progressed, the percentage of infested acorns declined while germination rates increased. Finally, (iv) maximum acorn production, percentage infestation and percentage germination were asynchronous. Although pre-dispersal mortality is important it is unlikely to be the primary factor leading to low recruitment of oak seedlings.

  8. On-farm management practices against rice root weevil (Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Pandey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population and occupies almost one-fifth of the global cropland under cereals. The rice root weevil, Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae has posed a problem in paddy cultivation areas in India. The damage by this root weevil results in a significant decrease in root and shoot biomass and ultimately the yield of rice plants. Studies were conducted to test the effective management practices of rice root weevil using a seedling treatment with chlorpyriphos alone and in combination with a soil application of chlorpyriphos, fipronil and cartap hydrochloride during 2013 and 2014. The benefit:cost (B:C ratio was also determined from the marketable yield and cost of treatments incurred in the technology to justify the economic viability of the appropriate technology management against E. oryzae. Reductions in tillers/hill (35.2% and 26.27% and, in panicles/hill (44.0% and 31.96% were observed during 2013 and 2014, respectively. The least number of root weevils (3.67 and 3.13 were observed in comparison to no root weevil management practice (23.53 and 32.53 during 2013 and 2014, respectively, from the treatment of seedlings prior to transplanting with chlorpyriphos at 3 mL/L of water followed by soil application with cartap hydrochloride at 20 kg/ha. The highest numbers of tillers/hill (25.00 and 23.60, numbers of panicles/hill (20.00 and 19.40, yield (5.41 t/ha and 4.57 t/ha and B:C ratio (1.75 and 1.48 were also observed from the same treatment during 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  9. Tropical insect diversity: evidence of greater host specialization in seed-feeding weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Guille; Bonal, Raúl; Sol, Daniel; Muñoz, Alberto; Sork, Victoria L; Espelta, Josep M

    2017-08-01

    Host specialization has long been hypothesized to explain the extraordinary diversity of phytophagous insects in the tropics. However, addressing this hypothesis has proved challenging because of the risk of over-looking rare interactions, and hence biasing specialization estimations, and the difficulties to separate the diversity component attributable to insect specialization from that related to host diversity. As a result, the host specialization hypothesis lacks empirical support for important phytophagous insect clades. Here, we test the hypothesis in a radiation of seed-feeding insects, acorn weevils (Curculio spp.), sampled in temperate and tropical regions (California and Nicaragua, respectively) with an equivalent pool of oak host species. Using DNA sequences from three low-copy genes, we delimited to species level 778 weevil larvae extracted from host seeds and assessed their phylogenetic relationships by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. We then reconstructed the oak-weevil food webs and examined differences in alpha, beta and gamma diversity using Hill numbers of effective species. We found a higher alpha, beta and gamma diversity of weevils in Nicaragua compared to California despite similar richness of host species at both local and regional level. By means of Bayesian mixed models, we also found that tropical weevil species were highly specialized both in terms of host range and interaction strength, whereas their temperate congeners had a broader taxonomic and phylogenetic host spectrum. Finally, in Nicaraguan species, larval body size was highly correlated with the size of the acorns infested, as would be expected by a greater host specialization, whereas in California this relationship was absent. Altogether, these lines of evidence support the host specialization hypothesis and suggest contrasting eco-evolutionary dynamics in tropical and temperate regions even in absence of differences in host diversity. © 2017 by the Ecological

  10. Feasibility study on estimation of rice weevil quantity in rice stock using near-infrared spectroscopy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puttinun Jarruwat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thai rice is favored by large numbers of consumers of all continents because of its excellent taste, fragrant aroma and fine texture. Among all Thai rice varieties, Thai Hommali rice is the most preferred. Classification of rice as premium quality requires that almost all grain kernels of the rice be perfectly whole with only a small quantity of foreign particles. Of all the foreign particles found in rice, rice weevils can wreck severest havoc on the quality and quantity of rice such that premium grade rice is transformed into low grade rice. It is widely known that rice millers adopt the "overdose" fumigation practice to control the birth and propagation of rice weevils, the practice of which inevitably gives rise to pesticide residues on rice which end up in the body of consumers. However, if population concentration of rice weevils could be approximated, right amounts of chemicals for fumigation would be applied and thereby no overdose is required. The objective of this study is thus to estimate the quantity of rice weevils in both milled rice and brown rice of Thai Hommali rice variety using the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique. Fourier transforms near infrared (FT-NIR spectrometer was used in this research and the near-infrared wavelength range was 780–2500 nm. A total of 20 levels of rice weevil infestation with an increment of 10 from 10 to 200 mature rice weevils were applied to 1680 rice samples. The spectral data and quantity of weevils are analyzed by partial least square regression (PLSR to establish the model for prediction. The results show that the model is able to estimate the quantity of weevils in milled Hommali rice and brown Hommali rice with high $R_{\\rm val}^{2}$ of 0.96 and 0.90, high RPD of 6.07 and 3.26 and small bias of 2.93 and 2.94, respectively.

  11. Evaluation of the efficacy of Steinernema carpocapsae against the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in Phoenix canariensis

    OpenAIRE

    Llácer, Elena; Martínez de Altube, María del Mar; Jacas Miret, Josep Anton

    2009-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), is an important pest of palms. It has recently colonized the Mediterranean Basin, where it is a serious problem on ornamental Phoenix canariensis (Chabaud) palms. The efficacy of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) in a chitosan formulation (Biorend R®) against this weevil in a semi-field trial including both preventative and curative assays has been studied. Our results prove the p...

  12. Interception of weevils on cut flowers from South Africa by Korea plant quarantine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonhoon Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, a total of 31 samples belonging to superfamily Curculionoidea (Coleoptera were intercepted from the cut flowers imported from South Africa at the Korean quarantine border. These samples were identified based on the available literature, and they were confirmed as 11 species belonging to four families. However, only three species were identified at the species level. The others were only classified into seven genera and one tribe level. Until now, there have been very few studies about weevils distributed in Africa. Consequently, there is a lack of available information for species identification of intercepted weevils at the quarantine border. This study aims to raise public awareness regarding the introduction of unwanted insect pests from the international trade of plants and/or plant products. It also suggests the need for international cooperation and taxonomic networking for the identification of intercepted pests. Keywords: Curculionoidea, cut flower, interception, plant quarantine, taxonomic networking system

  13. Immunity to parasitic infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamb, Tracey J

    2012-01-01

    .... Often endemic in developing countries many parasitic diseases are neglected in terms of research funding and much remains to be understood about parasites and the interactions they have with the immune system...

  14. Resistance of maize to the maize weevil: II. Non-preference | Derera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maize weevil preferred 'SR52', a local commercial hybrid that we used as the susceptible check (6.62% weight loss), and other local hybrids (6.02 to 6.80% weight loss), to 'Oaxaca 179' (the resistant check), which incurred a weight loss of 3.50%. Four percent of the experimental hybrids incurred less than 2.0% grain ...

  15. Uninjured trees - a meaningful guide to white-pine weevil control decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Waters

    1962-01-01

    The white-pine weevil, Pissodes strobi, is a particularly insidious forest pest that can render a stand of host trees virtually worthless. It rarely, if ever, kills a tree; but the crooks, forks, and internal defects that develop in attacked trees over a period of years may reduce the merchantable volume and value of the tree at harvest age to zero. Dollar losses are...

  16. Diaprepes root weevil, a new California pest, will raise costs for pest control and trigger quarantines

    OpenAIRE

    Jetter, Karen M.; Godfrey, Kris

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an economic analysis of cost increases for citrus, avocado and nursery producers should the Diaprepes root weevil become established in California. First identified in Southern California in 2005, Diaprepres would mainly affect orange, grapefruit, lemon and avocado crops. The primary impacts would be increased production costs for pest treatments and increased harvesting costs to conform to quarantine regulations, in particular to ship ornamental plants out of infested reg...

  17. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects.

  18. Explaining Andean potato weevils in relation to local and landscape features: a facilitated ecoinformatics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Parsa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pest impact on an agricultural field is jointly influenced by local and landscape features. Rarely, however, are these features studied together. The present study applies a "facilitated ecoinformatics" approach to jointly screen many local and landscape features of suspected importance to Andean potato weevils (Premnotrypes spp., the most serious pests of potatoes in the high Andes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated a comprehensive list of predictors of weevil damage, including both local and landscape features deemed important by farmers and researchers. To test their importance, we assembled an observational dataset measuring these features across 138 randomly-selected potato fields in Huancavelica, Peru. Data for local features were generated primarily by participating farmers who were trained to maintain records of their management operations. An information theoretic approach to modeling the data resulted in 131,071 models, the best of which explained 40.2-46.4% of the observed variance in infestations. The best model considering both local and landscape features strongly outperformed the best models considering them in isolation. Multi-model inferences confirmed many, but not all of the expected patterns, and suggested gaps in local knowledge for Andean potato weevils. The most important predictors were the field's perimeter-to-area ratio, the number of nearby potato storage units, the amount of potatoes planted in close proximity to the field, and the number of insecticide treatments made early in the season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results underscored the need to refine the timing of insecticide applications and to explore adjustments in potato hilling as potential control tactics for Andean weevils. We believe our study illustrates the potential of ecoinformatics research to help streamline IPM learning in agricultural learning collaboratives.

  19. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  20. Bioactivity of short-chain aliphatic ketones against adults of the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    The granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.), is one of the most damaging pests of stored grains, causing severe quantitative and qualitative losses. Sustainable control means, alternative to the commonly used fumigants and broad-spectrum contact insecticides, are urgently needed owing to legislative limits, the development of resistant insect strains and increasing consumer demand for safe food. Short-chain aliphatic ketones, known to be emitted by cereal grains and previously identified as repellents to adult granary weevils, were evaluated for their ability to disrupt insect orientation towards wheat grains and as possible natural fumigants. In behavioural bioassays, 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 2,3-butanedione significantly reduced insect orientation towards odours of wheat grains, with 2-hexanone and 2-heptanone being the most active. In fumigation tests, all compounds were effective in killing weevil adults, but they performed differently according to chemical structure, speed of action and presence of wheat grains. In the presence of grains, the highest fumigant toxicity was shown by 2-pentanone (LC(50) = 8.4 ± 1.0 mg L(-1)) after 24 h exposure, and by 2-pentanone (LC(50) = 4.5 ± 0.3 mg L(-1)), 2-heptanone (LC(50) = 7.1 ± 0.3 mg L(-1) ) and 2-hexanone (LC(50) = 8.1 ± 0.6 mg L(-1)) 1 week after the treatment end. Short-chain aliphatic ketones have potential for applications in IPM programmes for the granary weevil because of their behaviour-altering activity and fumigant toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Field evaluation of Bt cotton crop impact on nontarget pests: cotton aphid and boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujii, E R; Togni, P H B; de A Ribeiro, P; de A Bernardes, T; Milane, P V G N; Paula, D P; Pires, C S S; Fontes, E M G

    2013-02-01

    Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac protein have high specificity for the control of lepidopteran larvae. However, studies conducted in several countries have shown these plants have a differential impact on nontarget herbivores. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization rates and population abundance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in plots of Bt (Nuopal) and non-Bt cotton (Delta Opal) in an experimental field in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. No difference was observed in the preference and colonization by winged aphids to plants from the two treatments. There was no significant difference in abundance of wingless aphids or in the production of winged aphids between treatments. Apparently, the parameters that control factors such as fecundity, survival, and dispersal were similar on both Bt and non-Bt plants. Monitoring of plants for coccinellids, a specialist predator of aphids, and ants that act on the dispersal of aphids among plants showed no significant difference between Bt and non-Bt plants, supporting the inference above. Regarding the effect on boll weevil, there was also no significant difference between treatments in the total number of fruiting structures attacked in each plot, the percentage of fruiting structures attacked per plant or on the number of weevils emerging from fruits with boll weevil damage from egg-laying, when damaged fruit samples were held in the laboratory. Based on these results, we conclude that there is no impact of Bt cotton crop expressing Cry1Ac on the nontarget herbivores tested under field conditions.

  2. Multi-trophic effects of ungulate intraguild predation on acorn weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, Raúl; Muñoz, Alberto

    2007-06-01

    Predators and parasitoids may contribute to controlling the population sizes of phytophagous insects, and this has been shown to benefit plants. Phytophagous insects may also be killed by other herbivores (intraguild predation), usually larger-sized vertebrates that ingest insects accidentally while feeding on common food sources. We studied the intraguild predation on acorn weevils by ungulates and assessed the consequences for weevil populations. Infested acorns are prematurely abscised and the weevil larvae finish their development inside the acorns after being dropped. Our results show that weevil larvae were killed by ungulates eating the infested acorns on the ground. Ungulates did not discriminate between infested and sound acorns, and the probability of a larva being incidentally eaten was inversely related to acorn availability. Thus, predation risk was enhanced by the premature drop of infested acorns when acorn availability on the ground was low. Predation rates on infested acorns were much higher where ungulates were present, and acorn infestation rates were significantly lower. However, ungulates did not provide the oaks any net benefit, since the reduction of infestation rates was not enough to compensate for the large amounts of sound acorns eaten by ungulates. Seed predation is usually studied as a progressive loss of seeds by pre- and post-dispersal predators, but the interactions between them are usually not considered. We show that intraguild predation on insects by large ungulates had an effect on the structure of the foraging guild, as the proportion of acorns predated by insects decreased; however, replicating the same experimental design in different ecological scenarios would increase the strength of these results. In conclusion, the present study shows the importance of considering the multi-trophic interactions between seed predators in order to have a complete picture of granivory.

  3. Biochemical properties of digestive carbohydrases from the sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ahsaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens B., is one of the most important pests of sugar beet plant in Iran. The petioles and leaves of sugar beet are attacked by larvae and adults of the sugar beet weevil. Chemical application is currently used for controlling the pest. Digestion in the alimentary canal of the sugar beet weevil is facilitated by some carbohydrases. Results of the in vitro studies indicated the presence of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase in the digestive tract of the pest. Highest activities of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase were at pH 5, pH 5 and pH 4, respectively. No significant alpha-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase activity was detected in the pest's digestive system. Optimum temperatures for alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase activity were determined at 45, 50 and 40 oC, respectively. alpha-amylase was more stable under acidic condition (pH 4 to pH 6 than under highly acidic and alkaline condition. Na+ and K+ increased alpha-amylase activity, but sodium dodecyl sulfate significantly decreased amylase activity. Also, the activity of alpha-amylase was inhibited by the other compounds such as MgCl2, CaCl2 and EDTA. Zymogram analysis using native-PAGE revealed one band of alpha-amylase activity in Lixus incanescens. High activity of carbohydrases in the digestive system of adults was determined and further researches are needed to be applied to design new strategies for controlling the sugar beet weevil based on natural carbohydrase inhibitors.

  4. Olfactory Cues Are Subordinate to Visual Stimuli in a Neotropical Generalist Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Lapointe, Stephen L.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects. PMID:23341926

  5. Parasites as prey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedknegt, M.A.; Welsh, J.E.; Thieltges, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Parasites are usually considered to use their hosts as a resource for energy. However, there is increasing awareness that parasites can also become a resource themselves and serve as prey for other organisms. Here we describe various types of predation in which parasites act as prey for other

  6. THE USE OF GRIGNARD REAGENT IN PHEROMONE SYNTHESIS FOR PALM WEEVIL (Rhynchorus, Sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsito Warsito

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In an integrated controlling system of palm weevil, using of synthetic feromoid is strickly needed. The research is aimed to synthesize pheromone which secreted by the weevil, e.g. 4-methyl-5-nonanol (R. ferrugineus and 3-methyl-4-octanol (R. schach through Grignard reagent which formed in situ. The synthesis was proceded by retrosynthesis to determine the precursor, valeraldehyde. The precursor was reacted with Grignard reagent of sec-amyl magnesium bromide (R. ferrugenieus and sec-butyl magnesium bromide (R. shach which made in situ. Characterization of the synthetic molecular pheromone was performed by Gas Chromatography-mass spectroscopy and Fourier Transformed Infra Red. The bioassay of the molecule was carried out by olfactometer. The result showed that the conversion of the reactions were 51.28% (4-methyl-5-nonanol and 85.90% (3-methyl-4-octanol. The character of physico-chemical and bioactivity of the synthetic pheromone are identic with natural pheromones.   Keywords: palm weevil, pheromone, grignard reagent

  7. Genetical genomics identifies the genetic architecture for growth and weevil resistance in spruce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilga Porth

    Full Text Available In plants, relationships between resistance to herbivorous insect pests and growth are typically controlled by complex interactions between genetically correlated traits. These relationships often result in tradeoffs in phenotypic expression. In this study we used genetical genomics to elucidate genetic relationships between tree growth and resistance to white pine terminal weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck. in a pedigree population of interior spruce (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii and their hybrids that was growing at Vernon, B.C. and segregating for weevil resistance. Genetical genomics uses genetic perturbations caused by allelic segregation in pedigrees to co-locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs for gene expression and quantitative traits. Bark tissue of apical leaders from 188 trees was assayed for gene expression using a 21.8K spruce EST-spotted microarray; the same individuals were genotyped for 384 SNP markers for the genetic map. Many of the expression QTLs (eQTL co-localized with resistance trait QTLs. For a composite resistance phenotype of six attack and oviposition traits, 149 positional candidate genes were identified. Resistance and growth QTLs also overlapped with eQTL hotspots along the genome suggesting that: 1 genetic pleiotropy of resistance and growth traits in interior spruce was substantial, and 2 master regulatory genes were important for weevil resistance in spruce. These results will enable future work on functional genetic studies of insect resistance in spruce, and provide valuable information about candidate genes for genetic improvement of spruce.

  8. Effects of the diet on the microbiota of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Montagna

    Full Text Available Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  9. Steinernematids and Heterorhabditids as Biological Control Agents for Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus Oliv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Hanounik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical insecticides have long, been considered as the primary method or insect control, but their use has been associated with suppression of non-target species, emergence of resistant strains, contamination of food crops and water. These concerns enhanced the enforcement of strict governmental regulations which limited the use of such chemicals and stimulated the search for alternative biological control methods. Entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae received a considerable attention. These nematodes seek and rapidly kill a wide range of insects, including the red palm weevil. They are safe to plants and mammals, exempt from registration requirements, easy to apply by sprayers or drip irrigation systems and compatible with many chemicals. Application of genetically enhanced strains of Steinemematids and Heterorhahditids to larvae of red palm weevils resulted in 95 – 100% mortalities in the laboratory and 50% in the field. Additional work is needed to improve virulence, mass production technologies, tolerance to adverse conditions, formulations, and release strategies of entomopathogenic nematodes before they can be commercialized as biological control agents for red palm weevils and other cryptic insects attacking aerial plant parts in the region.

  10. EFFECT OF FENNEL WATER EXTRACTS ON REDUCTION OF FEEDING OF PEA LEAF WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the effect of aqueous extracts from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seeds at 2%, 5%, 10% and 20% concentrations on the feeding of peal leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L. on broad bean (Vicia faba L.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Feeding intensity assessment was conducted by dipping leaves of broad bean in respective solutions of the extracts and determining the area of broad bean leaves, eaten by pea leaf weevil beetle in the 12 hour intervals. In addition, absolute deterrence index and palatability index were calculated. As a result of the observation no significant limiting effect of fennel seed aqueous extracts on the feeding of the pea leaf weevil females was shown. All of the used fennel extracts had inhibitory effect on the feeding of male S. linetaus and the strongest effect of extracts was observed in the first 36 hours of the experiment. The high values of the palatability index (particularly for the females with relatively low absolute deterrence index, indicate limited possibilities of the use of aqueous extracts from fennel seeds for the protection against the feeding of the beetles from the genus Sitona.

  11. Classification of weevils as a data-driven science: leaving opinion behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarte Jordal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Data and explicit taxonomic ranking criteria, which minimize taxonomic change, provide a scientific approach to modern taxonomy and classification. However, traditional practices of opinion-based taxonomy (i.e., mid-20th century evolutionary systematics, which lack explicit ranking and naming criteria, are still in practice despite phylogenetic evidence. This paper discusses a recent proposed reclassification of weevils that elevates bark and ambrosia beetles (Scolytinae and Platypodinae to the ranks of Family. We demonstrate that the proposed reclassification 1 is not supported by an evolutionary systematic justification because the apparently unique morphology of bark and ambrosia beetles is shared with other unrelated wood-boring weevil taxa; 2 introduces obvious paraphyly in weevil classification and hence violates good practices on maintaining an economy of taxonomic change; 3 is not supported by other taxonomic naming criteria, such as time banding. We recommend the abandonment of traditional practices of an opinion-based taxonomy, especially in light of available data and resulting phylogenies.

  12. Effects of the Diet on the Microbiota of the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    KAUST Repository

    Montagna, Matteo

    2015-01-30

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  13. Intestinal parasites and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alauro, F; Lee, R V; Pao-In, K; Khairallah, M

    1985-11-01

    Intestinal parasites and pregnancy commonly coexist. Environmental, nutritional, and immunologic factors influence the clinical manifestations and determine the need for treatment of intestinal parasitism during pregnancy. No serious medical or obstetric problems attributable to intestinal parasites developed among 147 parasitized pregnant refugees living and delivering in a refugee camp in Southeast Thailand. These patients received adequate nutrition, careful prenatal monitoring, and no antiparasitic drug therapy. During pregnancy chemotherapy for intestinal parasites should not be used unless required for appropriate clinical and public health reasons.

  14. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  15. Molecular and morphological tools to distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838: a new weevil pest of the endangered Eggers Agave from St Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agave Snout Weevil (ASW) or Sisal Weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, is one of the most destructive pests of agave plants, capable of destroying up to 70% of commercial crops, costing millions of dollars in damage to global industries including tequila, mezcal, perfume, henequen, nardo...

  16. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) response to and volitilization rates of grandlure when combined with varying doses of eugenol in the extended-life pheromone lure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll weevil extended-life pheromone lures, impregnated with 25 mg grandlure and 30 mg eugenol, are replacing standard pheromone lures (10 mg grandlure) in boll weevil eradication programs, to increase the changing interval from 2 weeks, to 3 or 4 weeks, which reduces labor and material costs. The a...

  17. Genetic Profiling to Determine Potential Origins of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Captured in a Texas Eradication Zone: Endemicity, Immigration, or Sabotage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five specimens of adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, were captured nearly simultaneously in pheromone traps clustered near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone in late summer 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earl...

  18. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  19. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  20. Systemic insecticides for control of black vine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in container- and field-grown nursery crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Persad, Anand B

    2009-06-01

    Black vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), are serious pests of container- and field-grown nursery crops. Management programs usually target the larval stage in container-grown plants and the adults in field-grown plants. We tested several new systemic insecticides for efficacy against black vine weevil in container-grown Sedum spp. and field-grown Taxus spp. In 2006 and 2007, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and chlorantraniliprole were applied as surface drenches to containerized Sedum plants, and suppression of larval densities and adult feeding were evaluated. Sedum leaf bioassays were used to further examine the influence of clothianidin, dinotefuran, and chlorantraniliprole on adult feeding. In 2006, pots were infested with adult black vine weevil 1 d after treating, and in 2007 pots were infested 1 or 43 d after treating. All three insecticides significantly reduced the numbers of larvae in 2006, but not in 2007, because of low numbers of larvae in the untreated control plants. Dinotefuran and clothianidin reduced feeding by adult black vine weevil on containerized Sedum plants, resulting in more blossoms, fewer damaged leaves, and a lower percentage of leaves damaged compared with control plants. In bioassays with detached leaves, all three insecticides reduced feeding compared with control plants. Efficacy and timing of clothianidin, imidacloprid, and acephate soil drenches and imidacloprid and acephate soil injections were evaluated for black vine weevil control over a 1-yr period in field-grown Taxus plants. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced the numbers of larvae in field-grown Taxus plants compared with control plants; and all but the spring acephate drench improved the appearance of the Taxus (foliar rating) plants compared with untreated plants. All of the tested insecticides showed potential for preventing infestations of black vine weevil larvae and reducing feeding by the adults in ornamental plants.

  1. Influence of stem diameter on the survival and growth of containerized Norway spruce seedlings attacked by pine weevils (Hylobius spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsen, Aake; Mattsson, Staffan; Weslien, Jan [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius spp.) feeding on stem bark of young conifer seedlings pose a serious threat to forest regeneration-planting programmes in Nordic countries. This study was designed to determine the threshold diameter for planted, untreated containerized seedlings, above which pine weevils cause little or no damage. The effects of sublethal weevil damage on seedling growth were also assessed. In total, 5320 containerized spruce seedlings were planted on scarified and unscarified plots on three sites in southern Sweden. Seedlings in six size classes, which differed with regard to age (1.5-3.5 yrs) and cultivation density (28-446 seedlings m{sup -2}) were grown using the Combicell system. None of the seedlings was treated with insecticides, except for those in the smallest class, where both untreated and treated seedlings were used. Inspections were made periodically during the first 3 yrs and after both 5 and 7 yrs. A statistically significant relationship was found between seedling losses due to pine weevil attack and seedling stem-base diameter at the time of planting out, on both scarified and unscarified plots. For seedlings with a stem-base diameter of around 10 mm, mortality due to pine weevil attack on scarified plots was low enough to be considered negligible. This threshold diameter was several millimetres greater for seedlings planted on unscarified plots. An analysis of the relationship between the extent of weevil damage and seedling growth rate showed that among surviving seedlings, those that grew fast tended to show low levels of damage. On unscarified plots, the mortality rate amongst seedlings treated once with a permethrin insecticide was only one-third that of untreated seedlings. On scarified plots, the corresponding difference was somewhat smaller. Repeated insecticide treatment resulted in a pronounced reduction in seedling mortality on the unscarified plots, whereas the effect was weaker on scarified plots.

  2. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Barton, Diane M; Philip, Bruce A; Ferguson, Colin M; Goldson, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants.

  3. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Foodborne parasites from wildlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, Christian Moliin Outzen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund

    2015-01-01

    The majority of wild foods consumed by humans are sourced from intensively managed or semi-farmed populations. Management practices inevitably affect wildlife density and habitat characteristics, which are key elements in the transmission of parasites. We consider the risk of transmission...... of foodborne parasites to humans from wildlife maintained under natural or semi-natural conditions. A deeper understanding will be useful in counteracting foodborne parasites arising from the growing industry of novel and exotic foods....

  5. Susceptibility of the filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and filbert weevil (Curculio occidentalis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Denny J; Walton, Vaughn M

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the two primary direct insect pests of hazelnuts in Oregon to three species of entomopathogenic nematodes. The entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis marelatus Pt. Reyes, Steinernema carpocapsae All and Steinernema kraussei L137) were used in laboratory soil bioassays to determine their virulence against filbertworm, Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and filbert weevil, Curculio occidentalis (Casey) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). All three nematode species were infective in laboratory bioassays. Infectivity ranged from 73-100% and 23-85% for filbertworm and filbert weevil, respectively. Field results were similar to those found in the laboratory with filbertworm larvae being more susceptible to nematode infection.

  6. Common intestinal parasites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kucik, Corry Jeb; Martin, Gary L; Sortor, Brett V

    2004-01-01

    Intestinal parasites cause significant morbidity and mortality. Diseases caused by Enterobius vermicularis, Giardia lamblia, Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica occur in the United States. E...

  7. Intestinal parasites and tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Alonso Cedeño-Burbano

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The available evidence was insufficient to affirm that intestinal parasites predispose to developing tuberculous. The studies carried out so far have found statistically insignificant results.

  8. Neglected Parasitic Infections: Toxocariasis

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-01-05

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Neglected Parasitic Infections in the United States. Neglected Parasitic Infections are a group of diseases that afflict vulnerable populations and are often not well studied or diagnosed. A subject matter expert from CDC's Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria describes the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of toxocariasis.  Created: 1/5/2012 by Center for Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria (DPDM); Emergency Risk Communication Branch (ERCB)/Joint Information Center (JIC), Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 1/9/2012.

  9. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.S; Rocha, T.L. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, E.A.R [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Grossi-de-Sa, M.F. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil.

  10. Reproductive Plasticity of an Invasive Insect Pest, Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunshang; Ao, Yan; Jiang, Mingxing

    2017-10-16

    Reproductive plasticity is a key determinant of species invasiveness. However, there are a limited number of studies addressing this issue in exotic insects. The rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is native to North America, is one of the most invasive insect pests in east Asia. In this study, we investigated the reproductive status of first-generation females (progeny of overwintered weevils) from five geographic regions in southern and northern China in the field, and reproductive status and ovipositional features of females provided with suitable host plants in the laboratory after collection. Under field conditions, a proportion of females oviposited, while the rest remained in diapause from all three southern regions investigated, but reproductive development did not take place in females from the two northern regions, where the weevil produces only one generation per year. However, when fed host plants in the laboratory, females from all regions laid eggs. They typically had a very short ovipositional period (3-6 d on average on rice at a temperature of 27°C), laid a low number of eggs, and did not die soon after oviposition; this was different from common reproductive females. We concluded that first-generation L. oryzophilus females, which largely enter diapause after emergence, are highly plastic in their reproductive performance and are ready to reproduce under favorable conditions. Our results indicate the significance of their reproductive plasticity for geographic spread and population development. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Systemic insecticides reduce feeding, survival, and fecundity of adult black vine weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a variety of ornamental nursery crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Ranger, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Systemic activity of the neonicotinoids clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam and the anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole was tested against adult black vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Astilbe, Euonymus, Heuchera, Rhododendron, Sedum, and Taxus. Insecticide treatments were applied to the soilless substrate of containerized plants. Bioassays were conducted 12 or 13, 26, and 42 d after treatment (DAT) and ran for 7 d; and feeding, mortality, and weight gain or loss by weevils were evaluated. Foliage was removed from test plants and then placed in arenas with adult black vine weevils. The neonicotinoids reduced feeding and weight gain by adult black vine weevils on most plant species with residual activity 42 DAT on some plant species. At 12 DAT, mortality was caused by the three neonicotinoids on Astilbe and by thiamethoxam on Sedum; and at 26 DAT dinotefuran caused mortality on Astilbe. Chlorantraniliprole reduced feeding on Taxus at 12 DAT, with no activity detected in other bioassays. Another set of bioassays was conducted to examine survival and fecundity of adult black vine weevils during prolonged feeding on Heuchera and Taxus systemically treated with dinotefuran or thiamethoxam. Bioassay procedures were similar to those described above, except they ran continuously for 56 d. Prolonged feeding on dinotefuran and thiamethoxam treated Heuchera and Taxus resulted in high mortality of adult black vine weevils and reduced fecundity. These studies show that the systemic activity of neonicotinoids is influenced by plant species and that systemic neonicotinoids have the potential to suppress black vine weevil populations in containerized nursery crops.

  13. “Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri,” a Novel Clade of Bacterial Endocellular Symbionts from Weevils of the Genus Curculio ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Koga, Ryuichi; Nikoh, Naruo; Meng, Xian Ying; Kimura, Nobutada; Fukatsu, Takema

    2010-01-01

    Here we investigated the bacterial endosymbionts of weevils of the genus Curculio. From all four species of Curculio weevils examined, a novel group of bacterial gene sequences were consistently identified. Molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the sequences formed a distinct clade in the Gammaproteobacteria, which was not related to previously known groups of weevil endosymbionts such as Nardonella spp. and Sodalis-allied symbionts. In situ hybridization revealed that the bacterium was intracellularly harbored in a bacteriome associated with larval midgut. In adult females, the bacterium was localized in the germalia at the tip of each overiole, suggesting vertical transmission via ovarial passage. Diagnostic PCR surveys detected high prevalence of the bacterial infection in natural host populations. Electron microscopy identified the reduced cell wall of the bacterial cells, and the bacterial genes exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition and accelerated molecular evolution, which are suggestive of a long-lasting endosymbiotic association. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the novel endocellular bacteria represent the primary symbiont of Curculio weevils and proposed the designation “Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri.” In addition to “Ca. Curculioniphilus,” we identified Sodalis-allied gammaproteobacterial endosymbionts from the chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis, which exhibited partial infection frequencies in host insect populations and neither AT-biased nucleotide composition nor accelerated molecular evolution. We suggest that such Sodalis-allied secondary symbionts in weevils might provide a potential source for symbiont replacements, as has occurred in an ancestor of Sitophilus grain weevils. PMID:19880647

  14. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of the banana weevilCosmopolites sordidus to host plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenberg, W J; Ndiege, I O; Karago, F W; Hansson, B S

    1993-02-01

    Male and femaleCosmopolites sordidus were attracted to freshly cut banana rhizome and pseudostem in a still-air olfactometer. Females responded similarly to odors from a comparatively resistant and from a susceptible cultivar of banana, when presented as either freshly cut tissue or as Porapak-trapped volatiles. Females were also attracted to rotting banana pseudostem and to volatiles collected from it. Males and females gave similar responses to host tissue in both the behavioral bioassay and to collected volatiles in EAG recordings. Weevils did not respond, either behaviorally or electrophysiologically, to a synthetic mixture of mono- and sesqiterpenes, which made up over 9% of the volatiles collected from pseudostem.

  15. Parasites from the Past

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Martin Jensen; Fredensborg, Brian Lund; Nejsum, Peter

    will investigate how the diversity of food-borne parasitic infections has changed with cultural and dietary habits, hunting practice and intensity of animal husbandry. This is done by isolating and typing ancient DNA remains from parasite eggs found in archeological samples from across Denmark....

  16. (Cobb) Thorne, parasite de

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lazare

    2012-10-11

    Oct 11, 2012 ... Sarah JL, Pinochet J, Stanton J (1996). Radopholus similis Cobb, nematode parasite des bananiers. Parasites et ravageurs des Musa. Fiche technique n° 1. INIBAP, Montpellier, France, p. 2. Singleton VL, Ortofer R, Lamuela-Raventos RM (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and ...

  17. Parasites and marine invasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchin, M.E.; Lafferty, K.D.; Kuris, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Introduced marine species are a major environmental and economic problem. The rate of these biological invasions has substantially increased in recent years due to the globalization of the world's economies. The damage caused by invasive species is often a result of the higher densities and larger sizes they attain compared to where they are native. A prominent hypothesis explaining the success of introduced species is that they are relatively free of the effects of natural enemies. Most notably, they may encounter fewer parasites in their introduced range compared to their native range. Parasites are ubiquitous and pervasive in marine systems, yet their role in marine invasions is relatively unexplored. Although data on parasites of marine organisms exist, the extent to which parasites can mediate marine invasions, or the extent to which invasive parasites and pathogens are responsible for infecting or potentially decimating native marine species have not been examined. In this review, we present a theoretical framework to model invasion success and examine the evidence for a relationship between parasite presence and the success of introduced marine species. For this, we compare the prevalence and species richness of parasites in several introduced populations of marine species with populations where they are native. We also discuss the potential impacts of introduced marine parasites on native ecosystems.

  18. Parasite infections revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegertjes, G.F.; Forlenza, M.; Joerink, M.; Scharsack, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    Studying parasites helps reveal basic mechanisms in immunology. For long this has been recognized for studies on the immune system of mice and man. But it is not true for immunological studies on fish. To support this argument we discuss selected examples of parasite infections not only in

  19. AIDS - associated parasitic diarrhoea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of human immunodeficiency virus infection, with its profound and progressive effect on the cellular immune system, a group of human opportunistic pathogens has come into prominence. Opportunistic parasitic infection can cause severe morbidity and mortality. Because many of these infections are treatable, an early and accurate diagnosis is important. This can be accomplished by a variety of methods such as direct demonstration of parasites and by serological tests to detect antigen and/or specific antibodies. However, antibody response may be poor in these patients and therefore immunodiagnostic tests have to be interpreted with caution. Cryptosporidium parvum , Isospora belli , Cyclospora cayetanensis , Microsporidia, Entamoeba histolytica and Strongyloides stercoralis are the commonly detected parasites. Detection of these parasites will help in proper management of these patients because drugs are available for most of these parasitic infections.

  20. Enhancing dissemination of Beauveria bassiana with host plant base incision trapfor the management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Emudong, P.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Kagezi, G.H.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Karamura, E.

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision

  1. Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata) and weevil (Rhinoncomimus latipes) response to varying moisture and temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Berg; Judith Hough-Goldstein; Ellen C. Lake; Vincent D' Amico

    2015-01-01

    The combined effects of herbivory and water stress on growth and reproduction of mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross) were investigated in greenhouse trials over two years, with well-watered or water-limited plants either exposed or not exposed to herbivory by the mile-a-minute weevil (Rhinoncomimus latipes...

  2. Pissodes castaneus (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the bark pine weevil: a pest or a biological indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson Tadeu Iede; Wilson Reis Filho; Susete Rocio C. Penteado; Scheila Messa. Zaleski

    2011-01-01

    The risk of introduction of exotic forest pests is a global problem, evidenced by records of interceptions even in countries that have a quite effective system of plant protection. The banded pine weevil, Pissodes castaneus, is native to Europe and North Africa and was introduced into Argentina and Uruguay and recently into Brazil where it was first...

  3. Establishment and dispersal of the biological control weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes on mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen C. Lake; Judith Hough-Goldstein; Kimberley J. Shropshire; Vincent D' Amico

    2011-01-01

    Mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (Polygonaceae), is an annual vine from Asia that has invaded the eastern US where it can form dense monocultures and outcompete other vegetation in a variety of habitats. The host-specific Asian weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was first...

  4. Oviposition Decision of the Weevil Exapion ulicis on Ulex europaeus Depends on External and Internal Pod Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms underlying insects’ host choice and plant susceptibility is important to the study of plant-insect interactions in general, and in the context of plant invasions. This study investigates the oviposition and feeding choices of the specialist weevil Exapion ulicis on the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus, gorse. To do so, we studied the oviposition and feeding preferences of the weevil in choice experiments, using pods and flowers, respectively, from gorses grown in a common garden. The plants used came from regions with different infestation histories: Brittany and Scotland belong to the native range, where the weevil is present, while Reunion and New Zealand belong to the invasive range, where the weevil was not initially introduced with gorse. Results of these experiments suggest that the oviposition choice of E. ulicis females is driven by cues located at the surface of pods and inside them, including pod size and pod seed content. Feeding-choice experiments showed a different pattern of preference compared to oviposition. Taken together with previous studies, our results reveal that E. ulicis uses several traits to choose its host, including whole-plant traits, flower traits and pod traits.

  5. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  6. The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Filbert Weevil Infested Acorns in an Oak Woodland in Marin County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernard R. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Two-hundred shoots contained within randomly selected locations from each of thirty-six coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, trees were sampled to determine the abundance and spatial distribution of acorns infested by the filbert weevil, Curculio occidentis in northern California during 1989. The seasonal abundance of infested acorns...

  7. The life history and immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Coleoptera: Curculiondidae) on Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal; M.Tracy Johnson; Paul. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the life history and immature stages of Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini). This weevil is a fruit borer in Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae), a Neotropical tree that is invasive in Pacific islands. The larva has three instars, and development from egg to...

  8. Bean [alpha]-Amylase Inhibitor Confers Resistance to the Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) in Transgenic Peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, H. E.; Gollasch, S.; Moore, A.; Tabe, L. M.; Craig, S.; Hardie, D. C.; Chrispeels, M. J.; Spencer, D.; Higgins, TJV.

    1995-04-01

    Bruchid larvae cause major losses of grain legume crops through-out the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the azuki bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Others, such as the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum), attack the crop growing in the field. We transferred the cDNA encoding the [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]-AI) found in the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) into pea (Pisum sativum) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Expression was driven by the promoter of phytohemagglutinin, another bean seed protein. The [alpha]-amylase inhibitor gene was stably expressed in the transgenic pea seeds at least to the T5 seed generation, and [alpha]-AI accumulated in the seeds up to 3% of soluble protein. This level is somewhat higher than that normally found in beans, which contain 1 to 2% [alpha]-AI. In the T5 seed generation the development of pea weevil larvae was blocked at an early stage. Seed damage was minimal and seed yield was not significantly reduced in the transgenic plants. These results confirm the feasibility of protecting other grain legumes such as lentils, mungbean, groundnuts, and chickpeas against a variety of bruchids using the same approach. Although [alpha]-AI also inhibits human [alpha]-amylase, cooked peas should not have a negative impact on human energy metabolism.

  9. Effects of crop sanitation on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae), populations and crop damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Crop sanitation, i.e. destruction of crop residues, has been hypothesized to lower banana weevil damage by removing adult refuges and breeding sites. Although it has been widely recommended to farmers, limited data are available to demonstrate the efficacy of this method. The effects of crop

  10. Abundance and frequency of the Asiatic oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and defoliation on American, Chinese, and hybrid chestnut ( Castanea )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley E. Case; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Barbara C. Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (...

  11. Endosymbiont diversity among sibling weevil species competing for the same resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merville, Adrien; Venner, Samuel; Henri, Hélène; Vallier, Agnès; Menu, Frédéric; Vavre, Fabrice; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Bel-Venner, Marie-Claude

    2013-02-04

    Whereas the impact of endosymbionts on the ecology of their hosts is well known in some insect species, the question of whether host communities are influenced by endosymbionts remains largely unanswered. Notably, the coexistence of host species competing with each other, which is expected to be stabilized by their ecological differences, could be facilitated by differences in their endosymbionts. Yet, the composition of endosymbiotic communities housed by natural communities of competing host species is still almost unknown. In this study, we started filling this gap by describing and comparing the bacterial endosymbiotic communities of four sibling weevil species (Curculio spp.) that compete with each other to lay eggs into oak acorns (Quercus spp.) and exhibit marked ecological differences. All four species housed the primary endosymbiont Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri, yet each of these had a clearly distinct community of secondary endosymbionts, including Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, and two Wolbachia strains. Notably, three weevil species harbored their own predominant facultative endosymbiont and possessed the remaining symbionts at a residual infection level. The four competing species clearly harbor distinct endosymbiotic communities. We discuss how such endosymbiotic communities could spread and keep distinct in the four insect species, and how these symbionts might affect the organization and species richness of host communities.

  12. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-03-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil.

  13. Volatiles from a mite-infested spruce clone and their effects on pine weevil behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kännaste, Astrid; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2009-10-01

    Induced responses by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings to feeding damage by two mite species were studied by analyzing the volatiles emitted during infestation. Four specimens of a Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) clone were infested with mites of Nalepella sp., another four with Oligonychus ununguis, and four were kept mite-free as controls. After a year of infestation, spruce volatiles were collected, analyzed, and identified using SPME-GC-MS. In addition, enantiomers of chiral limonene and linalool were separated by two-dimensional GC. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), (-)-linalool, (E)-beta-farnesene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene were the main volatiles induced by both species of mites, albeit in different proportions. The ability of the main compounds emitted by the mite-infested spruces to attract or repel the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), was tested. (E)-beta-farnesene was found to be attractive in the absence of spruce odor, whereas methyl salicylate had a deterrent effect in combination with attractive spruce odor. The other tested compounds had no significant effects on the behavior of the weevils.

  14. Endosymbiont diversity among sibling weevil species competing for the same resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas the impact of endosymbionts on the ecology of their hosts is well known in some insect species, the question of whether host communities are influenced by endosymbionts remains largely unanswered. Notably, the coexistence of host species competing with each other, which is expected to be stabilized by their ecological differences, could be facilitated by differences in their endosymbionts. Yet, the composition of endosymbiotic communities housed by natural communities of competing host species is still almost unknown. In this study, we started filling this gap by describing and comparing the bacterial endosymbiotic communities of four sibling weevil species (Curculio spp.) that compete with each other to lay eggs into oak acorns (Quercus spp.) and exhibit marked ecological differences. Results All four species housed the primary endosymbiont Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri, yet each of these had a clearly distinct community of secondary endosymbionts, including Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, and two Wolbachia strains. Notably, three weevil species harbored their own predominant facultative endosymbiont and possessed the remaining symbionts at a residual infection level. Conclusions The four competing species clearly harbor distinct endosymbiotic communities. We discuss how such endosymbiotic communities could spread and keep distinct in the four insect species, and how these symbionts might affect the organization and species richness of host communities. PMID:23379718

  15. Adaptive divergence of scaling relationships mediates the arms race between a weevil and its host plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2006-01-01

    Coevolution of exaggerated morphologies between insects and plants is a well-known but poorly understood phenomenon in evolutionary biology. In the antagonistic interaction between a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), and its host plant, Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica), we examined the evolutionary trajectory of an exaggerated offensive trait of the weevil (rostrum length) in terms of scaling relationship. Sampling throughout Japan revealed that the ratio of the rostrum length to overall body size was correlated with the ratio of the pericarp thickness to overall fruit size across the localities. We found a geographical interpopulation divergence in a parameter pertaining to the allometric equation of rostrum length (the coefficient a in y=axb, where y and x denote rostrum and body lengths, respectively), and the pattern of geographical differentiation in the allometric coefficient was closely correlated with the variation in the pericarp thickness of Japanese camellia. Our results provide a novel example of a geographically diverged scaling relationship in an insect morphology resulting from a coevolutionary arms race with its host plant. PMID:17148283

  16. Parasitic miticidal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghubash, Rudayna

    2006-08-01

    Parasites are a common cause of dermatological disease in the dog and cat. Knowledge of different miticidal options for the common parasitic diseases is imperative when choosing the appropriate treatment for a patient. This is especially important with the recent advent of safer and more effective antiparasitic medications. Diagnostic and therapeutic methods for Cheyletiella spp., Demodex spp., Notoedres cati, Sarcoptes scabei, and Otodectes cyanotis are discussed, with emphasis on protocols for miticidal therapies, as well as safety concerns and side effects. This information will allow the practitioner to choose the safest and most efficient treatment for parasitic skin disease in their small animal patients.

  17. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  18. Is the invasive species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae (Argentine stem weevil a threat to New Zealand natural grassland ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ingeborg Patricia Barratt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with the most common host of this species, Lolium perenne (ryegrass. Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than L. perenne, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zealandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in L. perenne in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No were eggs found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with naturally occurring individuals arising from the next field generation. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants.

  19. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  20. [Influence of fruit size of Camellia meiocarpa on growth of oil tea weevil, Curculio chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-wen; He, Li-hong; Ma, Ling; Xia, Jiao; Zeng, Ai-ping

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between mature larval mass of oil tea weevil (Curculio chinensis) and fruit volume of its host plant oil tea (Camellia meiocarpa) was fitted with Logistic equation in order to understand the restriction of host fruit size on large larval growth and development of the weevil. The results showed that the larval mass increased with the increasing host fruit volume, which was in good conformity with the Logistic model. The weevil larval growth followed the principle of diminishing marginal utility, and it could be divided into two periods, the fast-growing period (3.216 cm3, one larva per fruit; >4.747 cm3, two larvae per fruit). The minimum fruit size threshold was 1500 cm3 for one larva per fruit, and 2.539 cm3 for two larvae per fruit. The temporal pattern that the mature larvae exited from their host fruits was established, the number of larvae escaping from their host fruits decreased daily after the fruit collection, and the larval escaping peak largely appeared from 6:00 to 10:00 AM with 43.9% of total escaping number, and especially from 7:00 to 8:00 AM with 21.1% of total escaping number. The bigger the larvae, the earlier exited from their host fruits. The restriction of fruit size on growth and development of oil tea weevil was observed, and it should be a behavioral adaptation strategy to increase the offspring' s fitness for the parental weevil adults to oviposit on the bigger fruits.

  1. Children and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this infection if their mother was infected during pregnancy. Several parasitic diseases occur occasionally in the United States and ... clothing. Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) diseases ("helminth" means ... intestinal obstruction, anemia, and retarded growth and cognitive development. ...

  2. Pathoecology of Chiribaya parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinson Elizabeth

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The excavations of Chiribaya culture sites in the Osmore drainage of southern Peru focused on the recovery of information about prehistoric disease, including parasitism. The archaeologists excavated human, dog, guinea pig, and llama mummies. These mummies were analyzed for internal and external parasites. The results of the analysis and reconstruction of prehistoric life from the excavations allows us to interpret the pathoecology of the Chiribaya culture.

  3. Imaging of parasitic diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Maurice C. [American Univ. of Beirut Medical Center (Lebanon). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology; Abd El Bagi, Mohamed E. [Riyadh Military Hospital (Saudi Arabia). Radiology and Imaging Dept. 920W; Tamraz, Jean C. (eds.) [CHU Hotel-Dieu de France, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2008-07-01

    This book provides an overview of the imaging findings of parasitic diseases using modern imaging equipment. The chapters consist of short descriptions of causative pathogens, epidemiology, modes of transmission, pathology, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, and imaging findings, with illustrative examples of parasitic diseases that can affect various systems of the human body. Tables summarizing key diagnostic features and clinical data pertinent to diagnosis are also included. This book is intended for radiologists worldwide. (orig.)

  4. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Robério C. S.; Colares, Felipe; Torres, Jorge B.; Santos, Roberta L.; Bastos, Cristina S.

    2014-01-01

    Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation. PMID:26462942

  5. Distribution of Parasitic Cestod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Karimi

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ligulae intestinalis is a parasitic cestode, which has the economic-health importance in fishery industries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of this parasite in Mazandaran. The effects of habitat temperature and kind of pool (sandy-cement were considered as well. Methods: In this study, 103 fish samples were obtained in all stages; the samples (male and female were divided into 3 groups based on length of fish, temperature, origin of cultured fish, kind of pool, height from sea and sex. Macroscopic and microscopic observations were carried out in all stages of the parasite (procercoid, plerocercoid and adult. Chi-square and Pearson's double square tests (P<0.05 were conducted in order to evaluate the prevalence and determination of reliability in six sampling areas, respectively. Results: Total rate of the parasites were 9.7% in all groups. There was significant difference between parasitism rate and height of sea level, kind of pool (maximum in sandy pools and high temperature. The multi analyses regarding to above-mentioned three criteria also indicated meaningful difference between these criteria and parasitism rate. Seasonal conditions enhance the prevalence of ligulae intestinalis. Conclusion: Flexibility in parasite's life cycle and choosing different hosts makes it challenging case in fishery industry; moreover its prevalence could be predicted according to environmental conditions so choosing the minimal at risk place for salmonids farming. Further studies are recommended for evaluating the problems in fish fertility and probable risk for infected fish consumers.

  6. Effect of Irrigation on Within-Grove Distribution of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorous ferrugineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aldryhim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The red palm weevil (RPW Rhynchophorous ferrugineus (Oliv. is the most important pest attacking date palm trees. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drip and flood irrigation on the within-grove distribution of RPW. The current study was started with the first appearance of the infestation to almost disappearance of the infestation. Results showed that more infested trees were detected in plots with flood irrigation. The number of infested trees in these plots represented 89% of the total infested trees. This study suggested that irrigation management and soil moisture are key factors in the dispersion of the RPW infestation and could be used as one of the integrated pest management tools.

  7. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus seed coat phaseolin is detrimental to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phaseolin (a vicilin-like 7S storage globulin peptides in the seed coat of the legume Phaseolus lunatus L. (lima bean was demonstrated by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Utilizing an artificial seed system assay we showed that phaseolin, isolated from both cotyledon and testa tissues of P. lunatus, is detrimental to the nonhost bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F (cowpea weevil with ED50 of 1.7 and 3.5%, respectively. The level of phaseolin in the seed coat (16.7% was found to be sufficient to deter larval development of this bruchid. The expression of a C. maculatus-detrimental protein in the testa of nonhost seeds suggests that the protein may have played a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to legume seeds.

  8. Attraction of Coffee Bean Weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus, to Volatiles from the Industrial Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Mei, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Li, Yao-Fa; She, Dongmei; Zhang, Tao; Ning, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The coffee bean weevil (CBW), Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) is an important pest of stored products such as grains, coffee beans, cassava, and traditional Chinese medicine materials. In China, CBW causes large losses of Daqu, a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter, and, unfortunately, the use of conventional insecticides against CBW is not suitable in Daqu storage. We found CBW to be highly attracted to fermenting yeast cultures, such as Kluyveromyces lactis. Eight volatile compounds, produced by fermenting cultures and not by sterile samples, were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Five of these substances elicited significant responses in Y-tube behavioral bioassays. Field trapping experiments revealed 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate to be crucial for attraction of CBW. Results show that yeast volatiles play an important role in host location, and that 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate could be utilized as potential attractants in monitoring and control systems against this important pest.

  9. Four photoreceptor classes in the open rhabdom eye of the red palm weevil, Rynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Marko; Pirih, Primož; Belušič, Gregor

    2016-03-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW) is a severe palm pest with high dispersal capability. Its visual sense allows it to navigate long distances and to discriminate among differently colored traps. We investigated the RPW compound eyes with anatomical and electrophysiological methods. The ommatidia are composed of eight photoreceptor cells in an open rhabdom arrangement with six peripheral and two central photoreceptors. The photoreceptor signals are relatively slow and noisy. The majority of recorded photoreceptors have broad spectral sensitivity with a peak in the green, at 536 nm. Three minor classes of photoreceptors have narrower spectral sensitivities with maxima in the UV (366 nm), green (520 nm) and yellow (564 nm). Sensitivity below 350 nm is very low due to filtering by the UV-absorbing cornea. The set of photoreceptors represents the retinal substrate for putative trichromatic color vision.

  10. Treatment of bare root spruce seedlings with permethrin against pine weevil before lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torstensson, Lennart; Boerjesson, Elisabet [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology; Arvidsson, Bernt [Svenska Skogsplantor AB, Joenkoeping (Sweden)

    1999-07-01

    The possibility of applying permethrin on coniferous bare root seedlings to protect them against pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) in the transplant lines may avoid or diminish problems connected with dipping or spraying plant bundles with the insecticide after lifting. Spraying 0.5 or 1% permethrin solution on bare root spruce seedlings in the transplant lines resulted in initial amounts of about 0.35 and 0.74 {mu}g permethrin mm{sup -2} bark on the lower part of the plant stem. This amount diminished during the first month to a level that remained stable for a period of at least 1. 5 yrs. The permethrin that reached the soil was degraded with a half-life of 3-4 months. The trans isomer was degraded more rapidly than the cis isomer.

  11. Nutrition-parasite interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coop, R L; Kyriazakis, I

    1999-08-01

    The interactions between host nutrition and parasitism in ruminants are viewed within a framework that accounts for the allocation of scarce nutrient resources, such as energy and protein, between the various competing body functions of the host. These include functions that are the direct result of parasitism. Since it is proposed that the host gives priority to the reversal of the pathophysiological consequences of parasitism over other body functions, it is to be expected that improved nutrition will always lead to improved resilience. On the other hand, it is proposed that the function of growth, pregnancy and lactation are prioritised over the expression of immunity. Thus, improved nutrition may affect the degree of expression of immunity during these phases. The framework is useful at highlighting areas of future research on host/parasite/nutrition interactions. Its suggestions can account for the observations of the periparturient relaxation of immunity in reproducing females, as well as the reduction in worm burden in small ruminants supplemented with additional protein. Although developed for gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants, the concepts of the framework should be applicable to the interactions of nutrition in other parasitic diseases.

  12. Lures for red palm weevil trapping systems: aggregation pheromone and synthetic kairomone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Sandra; Melita, Ourania; Michaelakis, Antonios; Milonas, Panagiotis; Minuz, Roxana; Riolo, Paola; Abbass, Mohamed Kamal; Lo Bue, Paolo; Colazza, Stefano; Peri, Ezio; Soroker, Victoria; Livne, Yaara; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The optimisation of the lure is essential for the implementation of trapping systems to control insect pests. In this work, the response of the red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, to increasing emission rates of its aggregation pheromone (ferrugineol) and the efficacy of a convenient synthetic kairomone based on fermentation odours (ethyl acetate and ethanol) have been evaluated in different years and locations along the Mediterranean basin. In general, although capture data and emission had noticeable variability among locations, significantly fewer RPW were captured in pyramidal Picusan® traps with the lowest ferrugineol emission rates tested (0.6-3.8 mg day-1 ). Captures increased rapidly with ferrugineol emission up to 4-5 mg day-1 ; then, higher emission rates did not improve or reduce captures, up to the highest emission rate tested of 50.9 mg day-1 . Thus, there is no evidence of an optimum release rate corresponding to a maximum of RPW catches. Traps baited with the synthetic kairomone (1:3 ethyl acetate/ethanol) captured 1.4-2.2 times more total weevils than traps baited only with ferrugineol. Moreover, in most of the locations, the synthetic blend was at least as effective as the local coattractants used (plant material + molasses). Ferrugineol emission rate can vary in a wide range without significantly affecting RPW response. Coattractants based on fermenting compounds, ethyl acetate and ethanol, are able to improve the attractant level of ferrugineol and could be employed to replace non-standardised natural kairomones in RPW trapping systems after further optimisation of their proportions and doses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Revision and phylogeny of the Caribbean weevil genus Apotomoderes Dejean, 1834 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Franz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The weevil genus Apotomoderes Dejean, 1834 (Curculionidae: Entiminae: Geonemini is revised, including a redescription of the only previously known species, A. lateralis (Gyllenhal, 1834, and descriptions of five new species: A. anodontos sp. n., A. menocrater sp. n., A. sotomayorae sp. n., A. chariedris sp. n., and A. hadroprion sp. n. The monophyly of Apotomoderes is supported by multiple synapomorphic character states including the two-segmented labial palps, a postocular constriction on the head, a sexually dimorphic, globular pronotum in males, and the presence of setae in the dorsal subapical region of the aedeagus. In addition, all species of Apotomoderes except A. anodontos have a large, knife-like cuticular tooth on the profemur and a toothed ridge along the anteromesal margin of the protibia. Illustrations of external and internal morphological traits are provided, along with a key to the six constituent species. A cladistic analysis of 12 taxa (6 outgroup, 6 ingroup and 22 characters yielded a single most parsimonious cladogram (L=33, CI=75, RI=90 with the topology (A. anodontos, (A. menocrater, (A. sotomayorae, (A. lateralis, (A. chariedris, A. hadroprion. A species of Artipus Sahlberg (Naupactini was placed as the most immediate relative of Apotomoderes; however, the state of phylogenetic knowledge of Caribbean entimine weevil is still too incomplete to warrant any higher level rearrangements. All species of Apotomoderes occur on Hispaniola with the exception of A. sotomayorae which is endemic to Mona Island, Puerto Rico. A historical biogeographic reconstruction yielded the taxon-area cladogram (southwestern Dominican Republic, (eastern Dominican Republic, Mona Island, suggesting two successive eastbound colonization events in the Miocene/Pliocene, originating from the southern Hispaniola peninsula. Reliable host plant records are unavailable although adults of A. menocrater have been found on allspice (Pimenta Lindley; Myrtaceae

  14. Identification of relevant non-target organisms exposed to weevil-resistant Bt sweetpotato in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukarwa, R J; Mukasa, S B; Odongo, B; Ssemakula, G; Ghislain, M

    2014-06-01

    Assessment of the impact of transgenic crops on non-target organisms (NTO) is a prerequisite to their release into the target environment for commercial use. Transgenic sweetpotato varieties expressing Cry proteins (Bt sweetpotato) are under development to provide effective protection against sweetpotato weevils (Coleoptera) which cause severe economic losses in sub-Saharan Africa. Like any other pest control technologies, genetically engineered crops expressing insecticidal proteins need to be evaluated to assess potential negative effects on non-target organisms that provide important services to the ecosystem. Beneficial arthropods in sweetpotato production systems can include pollinators, decomposers, and predators and parasitoids of the target insect pest(s). Non-target arthropod species commonly found in sweetpotato fields that are related taxonomically to the target pests were identified through expert consultation and literature review in Uganda where Bt sweetpotato is expected to be initially evaluated. Results indicate the presence of few relevant non-target Coleopterans that could be affected by Coleopteran Bt sweetpotato varieties: ground, rove and ladybird beetles. These insects are important predators in sweetpotato fields. Additionally, honeybee (hymenoptera) is the main pollinator of sweetpotato and used for honey production. Numerous studies have shown that honeybees are unaffected by the Cry proteins currently deployed which are homologous to those of the weevil-resistant Bt sweetpotato. However, because of their feeding behaviour, Bt sweetpotato represents an extremely low hazard due to negligible exposure. Hence, we conclude that there is good evidence from literature and expert opinion that relevant NTOs in sweetpotato fields are unlikely to be affected by the introduction of Bt sweetpotato in Uganda.

  15. Exaggerated trait allometry, compensation and trade-offs in the New Zealand giraffe weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J Painting

    Full Text Available Sexual selection has driven the evolution of exaggerated traits among diverse animal taxa. The production of exaggerated traits can come at a cost to other traits through trade-offs when resources allocated to trait development are limited. Alternatively some traits can be selected for in parallel to support or compensate for the cost of bearing the exaggerated trait. Male giraffe weevils (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during contests for mates. Here we characterise the scaling relationship between rostrum and body size and show that males have a steep positive allometry, but that the slope is non-linear due to a relative reduction in rostrum length for the largest males, suggesting a limitation in resource allocation or a diminishing requirement for large males to invest increasingly into larger rostra. We also measured testes, wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia size and found no evidence of a trade-off between these traits and rostrum length when comparing phenotypic correlations. However, the relative length of wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia all increased with relative rostrum length suggesting these traits may be under correlational selection. Increased investment in wing and leg length is therefore likely to compensate for the costs of flying with, and wielding the exaggerated rostrum of larger male giraffe weevils. These results provide a first step in identifying the potential for trait compensation and trades-offs, but are phenotypic correlations only and should be interpreted with care in the absence of breeding experiments.

  16. Exaggerated Trait Allometry, Compensation and Trade-Offs in the New Zealand Giraffe Weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painting, Christina. J.; Holwell, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection has driven the evolution of exaggerated traits among diverse animal taxa. The production of exaggerated traits can come at a cost to other traits through trade-offs when resources allocated to trait development are limited. Alternatively some traits can be selected for in parallel to support or compensate for the cost of bearing the exaggerated trait. Male giraffe weevils (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis) display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during contests for mates. Here we characterise the scaling relationship between rostrum and body size and show that males have a steep positive allometry, but that the slope is non-linear due to a relative reduction in rostrum length for the largest males, suggesting a limitation in resource allocation or a diminishing requirement for large males to invest increasingly into larger rostra. We also measured testes, wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia size and found no evidence of a trade-off between these traits and rostrum length when comparing phenotypic correlations. However, the relative length of wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia all increased with relative rostrum length suggesting these traits may be under correlational selection. Increased investment in wing and leg length is therefore likely to compensate for the costs of flying with, and wielding the exaggerated rostrum of larger male giraffe weevils. These results provide a first step in identifying the potential for trait compensation and trades-offs, but are phenotypic correlations only and should be interpreted with care in the absence of breeding experiments. PMID:24312425

  17. The overwintering biology of the acorn weevil, Curculio glandium in southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaka, Hiroko; Sinclair, Brent J

    2014-08-01

    The acorn weevil, Curculio glandium, is a widespread predator of acorns in eastern North America that overwinters in the soil as a larva. It is possible that low temperatures limit its northern geographic range, so we determined the cold tolerance strategy, seasonal variation in cold tolerance, and explored the physiological plasticity of overwintering larvae. Weevil larvae were collected from acorns of red and bur oak from Pelee Island, southwestern Ontario in fall 2010 and 2011. C. glandium larvae are freeze avoidant and larvae collected from bur oak acorns had lower supercooling points (SCPs: -7.6±0.36°C, LT50: -7.2°C) than those collected from red oak acorns (SCPs: -6.1±0.40°C, LT50: -6.1°C). In the winter of 2010-2011, SCPs and water content decreased, however these changes did not occur in 2011-2012, when winter soil temperatures fluctuated greatly in the absence of the buffering effect of snow. To examine whether larvae utilize cryoprotective dehydration, larvae from red oak acorns were exposed to -5°C in the presence of ice for seven days. These conditions decreased the SCP without affecting water content, suggesting that SCP and water content are not directly coupled. Finally, long-term acclimation at 0°C for six weeks slightly increased cold tolerance but also did not affect water content. Thus, although larval diet affects cold tolerance, there is limited plasticity after other treatments. The soil temperatures we observed were not close to lethal limits, although we speculate that soil temperatures in northerly habitats, or in years of reduced snow cover, has the potential to cause mortality in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Internal parasites of reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raś-Noryńska, Małgorzata; Sokół, Rajmund

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays a growing number of exotic reptiles are kept as pets. The aim of this study was to determine the species of parasites found in reptile patients of veterinary practices in Poland. Fecal samples obtained from 76 lizards, 15 turtles and 10 snakes were examined by flotation method and direct smear stained with Lugol's iodine. In 63 samples (62.4%) the presence of parasite eggs and oocysts was revealed. Oocysts of Isospora spp. (from 33% to 100% of the samples, depending on the reptilian species) and Oxyurids eggs (10% to 75%) were predominant. In addition, isolated Eimeria spp. oocysts and Giardia intestinalis cysts were found, as well as Strongylus spp. and Hymenolepis spp. eggs. Pet reptiles are often infected with parasites, some of which are potentially dangerous to humans. A routine parasitological examination should be done in such animals.

  19. Malaria parasites: the great escape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Rénia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of the genus Plasmodium have a complex life cycle. They alternate between their final mosquito host and their intermediate hosts. The parasite can be either extra- or intracellular, depending on the stage of development. By modifying their shape, motility, and metabolic requirements, the parasite adapts to the different environments in their different hosts. The parasite has evolved to escape the multiple immune mechanisms in the host that try to block parasite development at the different stages of their development. In this article, we describe the mechanisms reported thus far that allow the Plasmodium parasite to evade innate and adaptive immune responses.

  20. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  1. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M.G., E-mail: mhonnicke@bnl.go [NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil); Rigon, L. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Menk, R.-H. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCPa, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Arfelli, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Dipartamento di Fisica-Universita di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Foerster, L.A.; Rosado-Neto, G.H. [Departamento de Zoologia-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2010-08-21

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  2. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fatiha Righi Assia; Kada Righi; Khelil Anouar; Pujade-Villar Juli

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.). This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit...

  3. Insecticidal activity of floral, foliar, and root extracts of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) against adult mexican bean weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Weaver; Carl D. Wells; Florence V. Dunkel; Wolfgang Bertsch; Sharlene E. Sing; Shobha Sriharan

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine speed of action and toxicities of extracts of Tagetes minuta L., a source of naturally occurring insecticidal compounds. LC50 values for male and female Mexican bean weevils, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), were determined for floral, foliar, and root extracts of T. minuta. The 24-h LC50 values ranged from 138 μ g/cm2 for males...

  4. Evaluation of plant resistance in field pea by host plant choice behaviour of pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendesil Amosa, Esayas

    2015-01-01

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important grain legume crop due to its nutritional value and role in improving soil fertility in cropping systems. Insect pests are one of the main production constraints for field pea, with pea weevil (PW), (Bruchus pisorum L.) being an economically important pest of field pea worldwide. Current PW control practices rely on chemical insecticides, which are unaffordable for most small-scale farmers in developing countries such as Ethiopia, where PW is estab...

  5. Curculio Curculis lupus: biology, behavior and morphology of immatures of the cannibal weevil Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Augusto Souza de Medeiros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Weevils are one of the largest groups of living organisms, with more than 60,000 species feeding mostly on plants. With only one exception, their described larvae are typical plant-feeders, with mouthparts adapted to chewing plant material. Here we describe the second case of a weevil with early-instar larvae adapted to killing conspecifics. We have studied the life history of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943 (Curculioninae: Derelomini sensu Caldara, Franz & Oberprieler (2014, a species whose immatures feed internally on palm flowers and fruits. We provide detailed descriptions of all immature stages, including the extremely modified first-instar larva. Unlike other weevils and later instars, this stage exhibits a flat body with very long ventropedal lobe setae, a large and prognathous head with a gula, and falciform mandibles, each with a serrate retinaculum, that are used to fight with and eventually kill other first-instar larvae. We also provide biological notes on all stages and the results of behavioral tests that showed that larval aggression occurs only among early life stages. Finally we show that adult size is highly dependent on timing of oviposition. This specialized killer first instar probably evolved independently from the one other case known in weevils, in Revena rubiginosa (Conoderinae: Bariditae sensu Prena, Colonnelli & Hespenheide (2014. Interestingly, both lineages inhabit the same hosts, raising the possibility that both intra- and inter-specific competition shaped those phenotypes. Given the scarcity of knowledge on early larval stages of concealed insect herbivores, it is possible that our findings represent an instance of a much broader phenomenon. Our observations also allowed us to conclude that Anchylorhynchus eriospathae and A. hatschbachi G. G. Bondar, 1943 are actually the same species, which we synonymize here by considering the latter as a junior synonym (new synonymy.

  6. Curculio Curculis lupus: biology, behavior and morphology of immatures of the cannibal weevil Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Bruno Augusto Souza; Bená, Daniela de Cássia; Vanin, Sergio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Weevils are one of the largest groups of living organisms, with more than 60,000 species feeding mostly on plants. With only one exception, their described larvae are typical plant-feeders, with mouthparts adapted to chewing plant material. Here we describe the second case of a weevil with early-instar larvae adapted to killing conspecifics. We have studied the life history of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943 (Curculioninae: Derelomini sensuCaldara, Franz & Oberprieler (2014)), a species whose immatures feed internally on palm flowers and fruits. We provide detailed descriptions of all immature stages, including the extremely modified first-instar larva. Unlike other weevils and later instars, this stage exhibits a flat body with very long ventropedal lobe setae, a large and prognathous head with a gula, and falciform mandibles, each with a serrate retinaculum, that are used to fight with and eventually kill other first-instar larvae. We also provide biological notes on all stages and the results of behavioral tests that showed that larval aggression occurs only among early life stages. Finally we show that adult size is highly dependent on timing of oviposition. This specialized killer first instar probably evolved independently from the one other case known in weevils, in Revena rubiginosa (Conoderinae: Bariditae sensuPrena, Colonnelli & Hespenheide (2014)). Interestingly, both lineages inhabit the same hosts, raising the possibility that both intra- and inter-specific competition shaped those phenotypes. Given the scarcity of knowledge on early larval stages of concealed insect herbivores, it is possible that our findings represent an instance of a much broader phenomenon. Our observations also allowed us to conclude that Anchylorhynchus eriospathae and A. hatschbachi G. G. Bondar, 1943 are actually the same species, which we synonymize here by considering the latter as a junior synonym (new synonymy).

  7. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  8. Oviposition preference of pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. among host and non-host plants and its implication for pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Mendesil eAmosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1 and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm. and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L., in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  9. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-03-31

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively.

  10. Use of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIA- NE07 in the control of banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Amador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the species of banana borers, black weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus is the most economically important pest in Costa Rica and worldwide. The control of C. sordidus in intensive production systems is mainly based on application of insecticides; therefore the search for biological alternatives, such as the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, is needed. The susceptibility of Cosmopolites sordidus to Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIANE07 was evaluated. The effect of inoculating H. atacamensis on larvae and adults of C. sordidus, in vitro and in artificially infected corms, was evaluated. Larvae inoculated with EPN had a mortality of 88% on the second day and 100% on the third day; no mortality was observed in adults. The treatments of 100, 500 and 1000 IJ.larvae-1 showed statistically significant differences from the control and theLD50 was 52 IJ.larvae-1. When the larvae were placed within the corms the LD50 increased to 375 IJ.larvae-1. The results indicate that the strain H. atacamensis CIA-NE07 is capable of locating and infecting weevil larvae within the banana corm and reach infection levels over 80%, 10 days after inoculation at doses of 1000 and 2000 IJ.larvae-1. The entomopathogenic nematodes are a viable alternative to be considered in the Integrated Pest Management programs of black weevil, in crops such us banana and plantain.

  11. Aquatic weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea assembly response to the different ecological conditions in artificial lakes in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial stagnant aquatic ecosystems such as reservoirs, are suitable for monitoring the succession of biocenoses because they are usually formed by rearrangement of the former current river ecosystems. The weevil assembly, as part of such a dynamic biocenose, develops following host macrophytes. In the frame of weevil fauna studies realized during 2001 and 2002 in wet habitats beside four artificial lakes in Central Serbia (Gruža, Grošnica, Šumarice and Bubanj, the aquatic adults from 13 species, divided into two families, Eryrhinidae (Tanysphyrus lemnae and Notaris scirpi and Curculionidae (Bagous bagdatensis, B. collignensis, B. lutulentus, Pelenomus canaliculatus, P. comari, P. waltoni, Phytobius leucogaster, Rhinoncus castor, R. inconspectus, R. pericarpius and R. perpendicularis, were collected. The quantitative and qualitative picture of the studied aquatic weevil assemblies, as well as indices of similarity among them, are given and related to the dimensions and ecological characteristics of studied aquatic systems (particularly the level of eutrophication. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 1252

  12. Parasitic lung infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi

    2009-05-01

    Global climate change and population explosion leading to changes in natural ecosystem and travel across the continents have resulted in an increase in the transmission of parasites to human beings. This review focuses on recent advancements in parasitic lung infections. Invasive parasitic diseases including lung infections are increasingly being reported in patients with immunodeficiency syndromes. A recombinant kinesin-related antigen of Leishmania donovani has been validated with ELISA using urine samples for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Pyruvate kinase deficiency has been shown to provide protection against Plasmodium falciparum infection. Intravenous artesunate is an alternative drug for the treatment of severe malaria. The best way to protect from malaria is the use of long-lasting insecticide-treated bednets. Biennial treatment with praziquantel has been found to be cost-effective treatment for control of infection with Schistosoma haematobium. Pulmonary paragonimiasis can be diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy of pulmonary nodules. Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection can mimic accelerated idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Migratory nodular shadows with halos are important chest computed tomographic findings in human toxocariasis. Patients with immunodeficiency syndromes (HIV infection, organ transplantation and immunosuppressive drugs, including corticosteroids) should be evaluated for early detection of parasitic lung infections.

  13. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  14. On biomass of parasitic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J. H.; Mo, L.-F.

    2008-02-01

    An extremely simple and elementary but rigorous derivation of maximal biomass of parasitic plants is given using an assumption that metabolic rate of the parasite should not be larger than that of its host organ

  15. Molecular and Morphological Tools to Distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838 (Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae): A New Weevil Pest of the Endangered Century Plant, Agave eggersiana from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Lourdes Chamorro; Joshua Persson; Christian W. Torres-Santana; Jeff Keularts; Sonja J. Scheffer; Matthew L. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The agave snout weevil (AGW) or sisal weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal is here reported for the first time in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) where it threatens Agave eggersiana Trel., a USVI endemic and endangered century-plant. We provide molecular, morphological, and behavioral characters to successfully distinguish the two known Scyphophorus...

  16. microRNAs in parasites and parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yadong; Cai, Xuepeng; Bradley, Janette E

    2013-03-01

    miRNAs, a subclass of small regulatory RNAs, are present from ancient unicellular protozoans to parasitic helminths and parasitic arthropods. The miRNA-silencing mechanism appears, however, to be absent in a number of protozoan parasites. Protozoan miRNAs and components of their silencing machinery possess features different from other eukaryotes, providing some clues on the evolution of the RNA-induced silencing machinery. miRNA functions possibly associate with neoblast biology, development, physiology, infection and immunity of parasites. Parasite infection can alter host miRNA expression that can favor both parasite clearance and infection. miRNA pathways are, thus, a potential target for the therapeutic control of parasitic diseases.

  17. Effects of a non-native biocontrol weevil, Larinus planus, and other emerging threats on populations of the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle, Cirsium pitcheri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Kayri; Jolls, Claudia L.; Marik, Julie E.; Vitt, Pati; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Kind, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Larinus planus Frabicius (Curculionidae), is a seed-eating weevil that was inadvertently introduced into the US and was subsequently distributed in the US and Canada for the control of noxious thistle species of rangelands. It has been detected recently in the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). We assayed weevil damage in a natural population of Pitcher's thistle at Whitefish Dunes State Park, Door County, WI and quantified the impact on fecundity. We then estimated the impact of this introduced weevil and other emerging threats on two natural, uninvaded populations of Pitcher's thistle for which we have long-term demographic data for 16 yr (Wilderness State Park, Emmet County, MI) and 23 yr (Miller High Dunes, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter County, IN). We used transition matrices to determine growth rates and project the potential effects of weevil damage, inbreeding, goldfinch predation, and vegetative succession on Pitcher's thistle population viability. Based on our models, weevil seed predation reduced population growth rate by 10–12%, but this reduction was enough to reduce time to extinction from 24 yr to 13 yr and 8 yr to 5 yr in the MI and IN population, respectively. This impact is particularly severe, given most populations of Pitcher's thistle throughout its range hover near or below replacement. This is the first report of unanticipated ecological impacts from a biocontrol agent on natural populations of Cirsium pitcheri.

  18. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  19. Components and Insecticidal Activity against the Maize Weevils of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Fruits and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, Zanthoxylum schinifolium essential oils were found to possess strong insecticidal activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium fruits and leaves were extracted via hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. Estragole (69.52% was the major compound of the essential oil of fresh fruits, followed by linalool (8.63% and limonene (4.34% and 94.33% of the total components were monoterpenoids. The main components of the essential oil of fresh leaves were linalool (12.94%, ar-tumerone (8.95%, limonene (6.45% and elixene (5.43% and only 50.62% were monoterpenoids. However, the essential oil from purchased fruits contained linalool (33.42%, limonene (13.66% and sabinene (5.72%, followed by estragole (4.67%, nerol (4.56% and 4-terpineol (4.27%. Estragole, linalool and sabinene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. The essential oil from the fresh fruits (LD50 = 15.93 μg/adult possessed two times more toxicity to the insects compared with that of fresh leaves (LD50 = 35.31 μg/adult. Estragole, linalool and sabinene exhibited contact activity against S. zeamais with LD50 values of 17.63, 13.90 and 23.98 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LC50 values of 13.19 mg/L (fresh fruits, 24.04 mg/L (fresh leaves and 17.63 mg/L (purchased fruits. Estragole, linalool and sabinene also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 14.10, 10.46 and 9.12 mg/L, respectively.

  20. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

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    Yussef F.B. Braga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

  1. Sexually Transmitted Parasitic Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Shelton, Andrew A.

    2004-01-01

    An increasing number of diseases are recognized as being sexually transmitted. The majority of these are bacterial or viral in nature; however, several protozoan and nematode infections can also be transmitted by sexual activity. For most of these diseases, the primary mode of transmission is nonsexual in nature, but sexual activity that results in fecal-oral contact can lead to transmission of these agents. Two parasitic diseases commonly transmitted by sexual contact are amebiasis and giard...

  2. Histopathological Investigations on Rickettsiella-like sp. and Nonoccluded Viruses Infecting the Pecan Weevil Curculio caryae, the Squash Beetle Epilachna borealis, and the Mexican Bean Beetle Epilachna varivestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark; Tompkins; Neel; Schroder; Schaefer

    1997-03-01

    Electron microscopic observations of abnormal specimens of pecan weevils, Curculio caryae, squash beetles, Epilachna borealis, and Mexican bean beetles, Epilachna varivestis, obtained from insect-rearing facilities and from field collections revealed that rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs) and viruses caused disease in these species. Several pleomorphic forms of the RLOs which were similar to those of Rickettsiella sp. were found in tissues of the fat body, hypodermis, tracheal matrix, muscle, and midgut of each insect species. In addition, RLOs also were found in heart and silk gland tissues of the pecan weevil. Stalked knobs or "pili" were found on the cell membranes of the RLOs in the infected tissues of the pecan weevil and the squash beetle. Crystals often associated with Rickettsiella infections were not observed. Virus-like particles of 18-42 nm were found in various tissues of the three species examined.

  3. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily D. Fountain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk, which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1 these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2 the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3 the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units.

  4. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.

  5. Bulk de novo mitogenome assembly from pooled total DNA elucidates the phylogeny of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Conrad P D T; Crampton-Platt, Alex; Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Jordal, Bjarte H; Emerson, Brent C; Vogler, Alfried P

    2014-08-01

    Complete mitochondrial genomes have been shown to be reliable markers for phylogeny reconstruction among diverse animal groups. However, the relative difficulty and high cost associated with obtaining de novo full mitogenomes have frequently led to conspicuously low taxon sampling in ensuing studies. Here, we report the successful use of an economical and accessible method for assembling complete or near-complete mitogenomes through shot-gun next-generation sequencing of a single library made from pooled total DNA extracts of numerous target species. To avoid the use of separate indexed libraries for each specimen, and an associated increase in cost, we incorporate standard polymerase chain reaction-based "bait" sequences to identify the assembled mitogenomes. The method was applied to study the higher level phylogenetic relationships in the weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea), producing 92 newly assembled mitogenomes obtained in a single Illumina MiSeq run. The analysis supported a separate origin of wood-boring behavior by the subfamilies Scolytinae, Platypodinae, and Cossoninae. This finding contradicts morphological hypotheses proposing a close relationship between the first two of these but is congruent with previous molecular studies, reinforcing the utility of mitogenomes in phylogeny reconstruction. Our methodology provides a technically simple procedure for generating densely sampled trees from whole mitogenomes and is widely applicable to groups of animals for which bait sequences are the only required prior genome knowledge. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Efficiency of inert mineral dusts in the control of corn weevil

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    Carlos F. Jairoce

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Corn weevil (Sitophilus zeamais may cause great losses in the crop and in stored corn grains. This insect is controlled with the use of chemical insecticides, which may cause serious damage to human health. One alternative of control is the use of inert dusts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of inert dusts in the control of S. zeamais under laboratory conditions. The experiment was conducted in 2014, in a completely randomized design, and the treatments consisted of basalt dust with three different granulometries (A, B and C and diatomaceous earth, each of which at the doses of 2 and 4 kg t-1 and a control (no application. Each treatment had four replicates, and the sample unit consisted of 20 g of corn grains infected with 10 adults of S. zeamais kept in temperature-controlled chamber at 25 °C, 70% RH and photophase of 12 h. The dust efficiency was calculated using the equation of Abbott. The mortality rate was higher with the use of diatomaceous earth, reaching 100% after 5 days of exposure and the percentage of control for basalt dusts, 29 days after treatment, was above 80%.

  7. Blueberry Cultivars Differ in Susceptibility to the Elephant Weevil, Orthorhinus cylindrirostris (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Gregory; Clift, Alan D; Mansfield, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    The accumulated damage from elephant weevil larvae, Orthorhinus cylindrirostris (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces blueberry yield and shortens the productive lifespan of blueberry plants by several years. Selective breeding to develop pest-resistant blueberry cultivars is a possible control option, but the relationship between O. cylindrirostris populations, plant damage, and blueberry yield has not been described. A field survey of 17 blueberry cultivars was conducted on a commercial farm to measure O. cylindrirostris populations (emergence holes and adult numbers) and yield from plants of different ages (2-12 yr). Blueberry plants accumulated damage over time, that is, older plants tended to have more O. cylindrirostris emergence holes than younger plants. All cultivars received some level of O. cylindrirostris attack but this did not always lead to yield losses. Newer cultivars that have been in production since 2000 were less susceptible to O. cylindrirostris than older cultivars. Removal of highly susceptible cultivars from commercial blueberry farms may reduce O. cylindrirostris populations. There is potential for selective breeding to increase plant resistance to O. cylindrirostris if the specific resistance mechanisms can be identified in blueberry. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Later insecticide action of bioproductos from three plants for controlling the brown weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus

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    Leónides Castellanos González

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The weevils produce serious damages to the stored grains, in particular to the bean. The employment of chemical products in these cases constitutes a risk for the health of people for that it is necessary the search new alternatives, effectives and less toxics Aims: to determine the in vitro mortality on Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say by three bioproducts containing powders of Azadirachta índica Juss. (neem, Melia azedarach L. (paradise y Eucalyptus sp. (eucalipto Settings and Design: Three assay with totally randomized designs were carried out with four treatments and four repetitions (Petri dish. The treatments were constituted by three concentrations (25, 50 and 75% of each bioproduct and a control Methods and Material: For the assays, adults of A. obtectus were fed with beans. The percentage of mortality was determined at the 48, 72 and 168 hours after the treatment with the phytopesticide Statistical analysis used: Data were transformed in arcsen √x, and they were processed by means of a variance analysis, using the statistical package SPSS version 15. The media were compared by the test of Tukey for P <0,05 Conclusions: Although neem, paradise and eucalyptus bioproductos in form of powders to the proportion of 25%, don't always got mortalities higher than 70% at 24 hours against the adults of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say under laboratory conditions, they overcome this value later, reaching 100% of mortality at 168 hours to all the studied concentrations.

  9. Weapon allometry varies with latitude in the New Zealand giraffe weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painting, C J; Buckley, T R; Holwell, G I

    2014-12-01

    Animal body size commonly shows a relationship with latitude to the degree that this phenomenon is one of the few 'rules' discussed in evolutionary ecology: Bergmann's rule. Although exaggerated secondary sexual traits frequently exhibit interesting relationships with body size (allometries) and are expected to evolve rapidly in response to environmental variation, the way in which allometry might interact with latitude has not been addressed. We present data showing latitudinal variation in body size and weapon allometry for the New Zealand giraffe weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis). Males display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during fights for access to females. Consistent with Bergmann's rule, mean body size increased with latitude. More interestingly, weapon allometry also varied with latitude, such that lower latitude populations exhibited steeper allometric slopes between weapon and body size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document a latitudinal cline in weapon allometry and is therefore a novel contribution to the collective work on Bergmann's rule and secondary sexual trait variation. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  10. Trichinella spiralis: Adaptation and parasitism

    OpenAIRE

    Zarlenga, Dante; Wang, Zhengyuan; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-01-01

    Publication of the genome from the clade I organism, Trichinella spiralis, has provided us an avenue to address more holistic problems in parasitology; namely the processes of adaptation and the evolution of parasitism. Parasitism among nematodes has evolved in multiple, independent events. Deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation are keys to understanding parasitism and advancing control strategies. Studies have been put forth on morphological and physiological aspec...

  11. Inbreeding and parasite sex ratios

    OpenAIRE

    Nee, Sean; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F.

    2002-01-01

    The breeding system of parasitic protozoa affects the evolution of drug resistance and virulence, and is relevant to disease diagnosis and the development of chemo- and immunotherapy. A major group of protozoan parasites, the phylum Apicomplexa, that includes the aetiological agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidiosis, all have dimorphic sexual stages. The sex ratio (proportion of males produced by parasites) is predicted to depend upon the inbreeding rate, and it has been suggested tha...

  12. [Blastocystis hominis- parasites or commensals? ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Aleksandra; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Lanocha, Natalia; Szymański, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is a cosmopolitan pro- tozoa which parasitizes the human large intestine. This parasite had been considered to be commensal of the large intestine for a long time, because even an intense invasion may be asymptomatic. However, this species is now being regarded as a parasitic organism. In this paper the latest data concerning the epidemiology, diagnostics and treatment of B. hominis invasion have been cited and discussed.

  13. Pregnancy, nutrition and parasitic diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Steketee, Richard W

    2003-01-01

    .... Among parasitic infections, malaria and intestinal helminths coexist widely with micronutrient deficiencies and contribute importantly to anemia and this cycle of retarded growth and development...

  14. Evaluation of Certain Plant Leaf Powders and Aqueous Extracts against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Awoke Yohannes; Genet Asayew; Getachew Melaku; Mulugeta Derbew; Sirgota Kedir; Nagappan Raja

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate powders and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach, Mentha piperita, Phytolacca dodecandra, Schinus molle and Xanthium strumarium leaves against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. Repellent activity of plant powders were evaluated by mixing 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 g of powder per 100 g of clean uninfested maize seeds individually in separate plastic container. The numbers of insects moving outside the container were recorded at 24 h and 48 h post exposur...

  15. ECOLOGICAL-FAUNISTIC AND ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF BEETLE-WEEVILS OF ISLAND CHECHEN OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Arsanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Ecological-faunistic investigations of island Chechen are great interest for understanding the law of formation of island biotas and reconstruction of zoogeological history of the Caspian Sea. Faunistic investigations of islands and coastal areas , habitats and others chorologic aspects illuminate the ways of their probable settlement,explains the paradoxes of propagation of some species. Study of relationships with host plants appear the crucial stage of ecological-faunistic investigathions of the weevils.Location. Materials of the work were expeditionary duties of the authors, as well as staff and the students of ecologo-geografical faculty of Dagistan State University and the Institute for Applied Ecology ( Makhachkala from 2009 to 2013 year for the island Chechen.Methods. Charges were made with the help of light traps, soil traps, including trap, enhanced light source .Geografpical coordinates of all locations were recorded using GPS- navigator: T1 - 43°57’58” N 47°38’35” E; T2 - 43°58’17” N 47°42’55”; T3 - 43°59’08” N 47°44’39” E; T4 - 43°57’27” N 47°45’05” E; T5 - 43°58’11” N47°38’46” E.Results. As a result of studies were set the species composition of the faun of the beetle-weevils of the island Chechen, the analyses of the distribution of species by locality; mounted forage plants of the beetles and quantitative distribution of the beetls for families forage plants; conduct the zoogeographical analysis of studied fauna.Main conclusions. The studies on the island of Chechen were collected 187 specimens belonging to 16 species and 14 geniuse; the most common type was Coniatus splendidulus. The food base of the weevil beetles in the island of Chechen are 10 plant families,thelargest number of species focused on Chenopodiаceae, then followed Polygonaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae. Analysis of fauna habitats of the beetle- weevils of the island Chechen allowed to allocate 7

  16. Insecticidal activity of alpha-cypermethrin against small banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest plantations and thickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokocka Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris plantations and thickets damaged by biotic and abiotic factors are particularly attractive to small-banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus, whose larvae excavate feeding tunnels in the stems of young trees, causing their death. There are no chemical methods that can be applied to protect forest plantations and thickets against this pest. Therefore, the studies were undertaken aimed at the assessment of the efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin used to reduce the numbers of this pest within restock areas. The scope of work included laboratory and field estimation of insecticidal activity of alpha-cypermethrin.

  17. Trichinella spiralis: Adaptation and parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarlenga, Dante; Wang, Zhengyuan; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2016-11-15

    Publication of the genome from the clade I organism, Trichinella spiralis, has provided us an avenue to address more holistic problems in parasitology; namely the processes of adaptation and the evolution of parasitism. Parasitism among nematodes has evolved in multiple, independent events. Deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation are keys to understanding parasitism and advancing control strategies. Studies have been put forth on morphological and physiological aspects of parasitism and adaptation in nematodes; however, data is now coming available to investigate adaptation, host switching and parasitism at the genomic level. Herein we compare proteomic data from the clade I parasite, Trichinella spiralis with data from Brugia malayi (clade III), Meloidogyne hapla and Meloidogyne incognita (clade IV), and free-living nematodes belonging to the genera Caenorhabditis and Pristionchus (clade V). We explore changes in protein family birth/death and expansion/reduction over the course of metazoan evolution using Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as outgroups for the phylum Nematoda. We further examine relationships between these changes and the ability and/or result of nematodes adapting to their environments. Data are consistent with gene loss occurring in conjunction with nematode specialization resulting from parasitic worms acclimating to well-defined, environmental niches. We observed evidence for independent, lateral gene transfer events involving conserved genes that may have played a role in the evolution of nematode parasitism. In general, parasitic nematodes gained proteins through duplication and lateral gene transfer, and lost proteins through random mutation and deletions. Data suggest independent acquisition rather than ancestral inheritance among the Nematoda followed by selective gene loss over evolutionary time. Data also show that parasitism and adaptation affected a broad range of proteins

  18. Susceptibility of different developmental stages of large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic fungi and effect of fungal infection to adult weevils by formulation and application methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad A; Butt, Tariq M

    2012-09-15

    The large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, is a major pest in European conifer forests causing millions of Euros of damage annually. Larvae develop in the stumps of recently felled trees; the emerging adults feed on the bark of seedlings and may kill them. This study investigated the susceptibility of different developmental stages of H. abietis to commercial and commercially viable isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium and Beauveria. All the developmental stages of H. abietis can be killed by Metarhizium robertsii, Metarhizium brunneum, and Beauveria bassiana. The most virulent isolate of M. robertsii ARSEF4556 caused 100% mortality of pupae, larvae and adults on day 4, 6 and 12, respectively. This strain was further tested against adult weevils in different concentrations (10(5)-10(8) conidia cm(-2) or ml(-1)) using two types of fungal formulation: 'dry' conidia and 'wet' conidia (suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) applied on different substrates (tissue paper, peat and Sitka spruce seedlings). 'Dry' conidia were more effective than 'wet' conidia on tissue paper and on spruce or 'dry' conidia premixed in peat. The LC(50) value for 'dry' conidia of isolate ARSEF4556 was three folds lower than 'wet' conidia on tissue paper. This study showed that 'dry' conidia are more effective than 'wet' conidia, causing 100% adult mortality within 12 days. Possible strategies for fungal applications are discussed in light of the high susceptibility of larvae and pupae to fungal pathogen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of toxicity of biorational insecticides against larvae of the alfalfa weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi V.P. Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is a major pest of alfalfa Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae. While H. postica usually causes the most damage before the first cutting, in summer of 2015 damaging levels of the pest persisted in Montana well after the first harvest of alfalfa. Although conventional insecticides can control H. postica, these chemicals have adverse effects on non-target organisms including pollinators and natural enemy insects. In this context, use of biorational insecticides would be the best alternative options, as they are known to pose less risk to non-target organisms. We therefore examined the six commercially available biorational insecticides against H. postica under laboratory condition: Mycotrol® ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA, Aza-Direct® (Azadirachtin, Met52® EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Xpectro OD® (B. bassiana GHA + pyrethrins, Xpulse OD® (B. bassiana GHA + Azadirachtin and Entrust WP® (spinosad 80%. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lowest labelled rates were tested for all products. However, in the case of Entrust WP, additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 times the lowest label rate were also assessed. Mortality rates were determined at 1–9 days post treatment. Based on lethal concentrations and relative potencies, this study clearly showed that Entrust was the most effective, causing 100% mortality within 3 days after treatment among all the tested materials. With regard to other biorational, Xpectro was the second most effective insecticide followed by Xpulse, Aza-Direct, Met52, and Mycotrol. Our results strongly suggested that these biorational insecticides could potentially be applied for H. postica control.

  20. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  1. Identification of the Weevil immune genes and their expression in the bacteriome tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Andrés

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent infections with mutualistic intracellular bacteria (endosymbionts are well represented in insects and are considered to be a driving force in evolution. However, while pathogenic relationships have been well studied over the last decades very little is known about the recognition of the endosymbionts by the host immune system and the mechanism that limits their infection to the bacteria-bearing host tissue (the bacteriome. Results To study bacteriome immune specificity, we first identified immune-relevant genes of the weevil Sitophilus zeamais by using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH and then analyzed their full-length coding sequences obtained by RACE-PCR experiments. We then measured immune gene expression in the bacteriome, and in the aposymbiotic larvae following S. zeamais primary endosymbiont (SZPE injection into the hemolymph, in order to consider the questions of bacteriome immune specificity and the insect humoral response to symbionts. We show that larval challenge with the endosymbiont results in a significant induction of antibacterial peptide genes, providing evidence that, outside the bacteriome, SZPE are recognized as microbial intruders by the host. In the bacteriome, gene expression analysis shows the overexpression of one antibacterial peptide from the coleoptericin family and, intriguingly, homologs to genes described as immune modulators (that is, PGRP-LB, Tollip were also shown to be highly expressed in the bacteriome. Conclusion The current data provide the first description of immune gene expression in the insect bacteriome. Compared with the insect humoral response to SZPE, the bacteriome expresses few genes among those investigated in this work. This local immune gene expression may help to maintain the endosymbiont in the bacteriome and prevent its invasion into insect tissues. Further investigations of the coleoptericin, the PGRP and the Tollip genes should elucidate the role

  2. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T 0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2 -ΔΔCt analyses revealed that T 0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T 0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g -1 fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T 0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T 1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g -1 fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evidence for reversible change in intensity of prolonged diapause in the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Morio; Toyama, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis undergoes a prolonged larval diapause that is completed by repeated exposure to chilling and warming. We examined the possible reversibility of diapause intensity in response to temperature changes. All larvae were subjected to an initial chilling followed by incubation at 20°C to force pupation of the 1-year-type larvae that require only one winter for diapause completion. We then exposed the larvae remaining in prolonged diapause to a second chilling at 5°C for different lengths of time, preceded or not preceded by incubation at 20°C (moderately high) and/or 25°C (high) and followed by a final post-chilling reincubation at 20°C. Many of the prolonged-diapausing larvae subjected only to a brief second chilling were re-activated upon reincubation. However, short exposure to 25°C before this second chilling dramatically decreased the percentage of larvae completing diapause. When larvae were exposed to 25°C for a short period, then incubated at 20°C and subjected to the brief second chilling, many were re-activated during reincubation. The chilling time required for most of the larvae to complete diapause decreased after pre-chilling incubation at 20°C and increased after incubation at 25°C. These results demonstrate that diapause intensity in C. sikkimensis changes reversibly in response to changes in ambient temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Repetitive elements in parasitic protozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Christine

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent paper published in BMC Genomics suggests that retrotransposition may be active in the human gut parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This adds to our knowledge of the various types of repetitive elements in parasitic protists and the potential influence of such elements on pathogenicity. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/11/321

  5. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  6. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  7. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of red palm weevil (Coleopter: Curculionidae) in agricultural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  8. New records of Paracrias Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae as parasitoids on weevil larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in Brazil, with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Palmieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paracrias strii Schauff, 1985 and P. ceratophaga Palmieri & Hansson sp. nov. are first record in Brazil and both are associated with Ceratopus Schoenherr larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae reared from syconia of two species of fig-trees. Both Paracrias species are diagnosed and illustrated. Males of P. ceratophaga sp. nov. are described. The association of Paracrias with weevil larvae is briefly discussed.

  9. The distribution of the invasive pest, rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is expanding in Europe: First record in the Balkans, confirmed by CO1 DNA barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of the invasive rice pest, rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) in the Balkans. Adult specimens were collected in flooded rice fields in the principal rice-growing region of Central Macedonia, Greece during July-August, 2016. Morphological identification was...

  10. Pre-release evaluation of Neochetina weevils potential for the management of Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm. In the Rift valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, F.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the host-specificity, potential efficacy and optimum densities of the two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and N. eichhorniae) as water hyacinth control agents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Density-plant damage relationship was monitored for two years (2012 to 2014)

  11. Adaptability of two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhorniae) with potential to control water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neochetina weevils have potential as biocontrol agents for water hyacinth, an aquatic weed which seriously affects irrigation water supply in sugarcane, vegetables and other horticultural crop production in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. A study was conducted on (i) the adaptability and duration of

  12. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Rajkumar, Mayalagu; Sun, Jun; Parida, Ajay; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (day 1) to 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  13. Dielectric properties of cowpea weevil, black eyed peas and mung beans with respect to the development of radio frequency heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In developing radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) disinfestation treatments for chickpeas and lentils, large amounts of product infested with cowpea weevil must be treated to validate treatment efficacy. To accomplish this, black-eyed peas and mung beans are being considered for use as surrogate...

  14. Composition and seasonal phenology of a nonindigenous root-feeding weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex in northern hardwood forests in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Pinski; W. J. Mattson; K. F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    Phyllobius oblongus (L.), Polydrusus sericeus (Schaller), and Sciaphilus asperatus (Bonsdorff) comprise a complex of nonindigenous root-feeding weevils in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Little is known about their detailed biology, seasonality, relative abundance, and distribution patterns....

  15. Effects of insecticides and defoliants applied alone and in combination for control of overwintering boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis; Coleoptera: Curculionidae)--laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Shoil M; Sappington, Thomas W; Elzen, Gary W; Norman, John W; Sparks, Alton N

    2004-09-01

    In laboratory, greenhouse and field tests, we determined the effects of combining full rates of the defoliants tribufos and thidiazuron and the herbicide thifensulfuron-methyl with half rates of the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin or azinphos-methyl, and the combination of tribufos and thidiazuron, both in half rates, on mortality of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and on the quality of defoliation. Tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) and tribufos, 0.235 kg ha(-1) + thidiazuron, 0.125 kg ha(-1) exhibited a slightly toxic effect to boll weevil, while tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) + lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.019 kg ha(-1), tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) + azinphos-methyl, 0.14 kg ha(-1), and tribufos, 0.235 kg ha(-1) + thidiazuron, 0.125 kg ha(-1) + azinphos-methyl, 0.14 kg ha(-l), provided control of boll weevil as good as or better than full-rate azinphos-methyl or lambda-cyhalothrin alone owing to synergistic effects. Thidiazuron or thifensulfuron-methyl alone or in combination with insecticides did not affect boll weevil mortality. Treatment with tribufos + thidiazuron, both at half rate, significantly increased defoliation compared to full rates of tribufos or thidiazuron alone, and provided adequate defoliation for approximately the same cost per hectare.

  16. Identification of genome regions controlling cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance to pea weevil through QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryamanesh, N; Zeng, Y; Byrne, O; Hardie, D C; Al-Subhi, A M; Khan, T; Siddique, K H M; Yan, G

    2013-11-15

    Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum, is one of the limiting factors for field pea (Pisum sativum) cultivation in the world with pesticide application the only available method for its control. Resistance to pea weevil has been found in an accession of Pisum fulvum but transfer of this resistance to cultivated pea (P. sativum) is limited due to a lack of easy-to-use techniques for screening interspecific breeding populations. To address this problem, an interspecific population was created from a cross between cultivated field pea and P. fulvum (resistance source). Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed to discover the regions associated with resistance to cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance. Three major QTLs, located on linkage groups LG2, LG4 and LG5 were found for cotyledon resistance explaining approximately 80 % of the phenotypic variation. Two major QTLs were found for pod wall/seed coat resistance on LG2 and LG5 explaining approximately 70 % of the phenotypic variation. Co-linearity of QTLs for cotyledon and pod wall/seed coat resistance suggested that the mechanism of resistance for these two traits might act through the same pathways. Only one QTL was found for pod wall resistance on LG7 explaining approximately 9 % of the phenotypic variation. This is the first report on the development of QTL markers to probe Pisum germplasm for pea weevil resistance genes. These flanking markers will be useful in accelerating the process of screening when breeding for pea weevil resistance.

  17. Integrated parasite management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Jesper Hedegaard; Madsen, Henry; Van, Phan Thi

    2015-01-01

    Fishborne zoonotic trematodes (FZT) are an emerging problem and there is now a consensus that, in addition to wild-caught fish, fish produced in aquaculture present a major food safety risk, especially in Southeast Asia where aquaculture is important economically. Current control programs target...... communities at risk through mass drug administration. However, we argue that treatment alone will not reduce the risk from eating infected fish and that sustainable effective control must adopt an integrated FZT control approach based on education, infrastructure improvements, and management practices...... that target critical control points in the aquaculture production cycle identified from a thorough understanding of FZT and host biology and epidemiology. We present recommendations for an integrated parasite management (IPM) program for aquaculture farms....

  18. Parasitic zoonotic diseases in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmiye Altintas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses and zoonotic diseases are becoming more common and they are now receiving increased attention across the world. Zoonotic parasites are found in a wide variety of protozoa, cestodes, nematodes, trematodes and arthropods worldwide and many zoonotic parasites have assumed an important role. The importance of some parasitic zoonoses has increased in recent years due to the fact that they can be agents of opportunistic infections. Although a number of zoonotic parasites are often found and do cause serious illnesses in Turkey, some are more common and these diseases are more important as they cause serious public health problems, such as leishmaniasis, toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis, echinococcosis, trichinellosis and toxocariasis. Information on these zoonotic diseases is provided here as these are the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases in Turkey.

  19. Assessing the virulence of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the pine-infesting weevils to scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The pine-infesting weevils are known to be effective vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi. To understand more about fungal virulence of these fungi, inoculation studies were conducted on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.. Two-year-old seedlings were wound-inoculated with one of eleven ophiostomatoid fungi associated with pine-infesting weevils. After 11 weeks, a darkened lesion, extending from the point of inoculation, was observed in all species, except for Ophiostoma cf. abietinum Marm. & Butin, Ophiostoma quercus (Georgev. Nannf., and Sporothrix inflata de Hoog. Seedling mortality was observed in seedlings inoculated with Leptographium truncatum (M.J. Wingf. & Marasas M.J. Wingf., Leptographium lundbergii Lagerb. & Melin, Leptographium procerum (W.B. Kendr. M.J. Wingf., Grosmannia radiaticola (J.J. Kim, Seifert & G.H. Kim Zipfel, Z.W. de Beer & M.J. Wingf., Ophiostoma floccosum Math.-Käärik, Ophiostoma minus (Hedgc. Syd. & P. Syd., and Ophiostoma piliferum (Fr. Syd. & P. Syd. Ophiostoma minus and L. truncatum caused the largest lesions and sapwood blue-stain in Scots pine. Grosmannia radiaticola, Ophiostoma piceae (Münch Syd. & P. Syd., O. floccosum, O. piliferum, L. lundbergii,and L. procerum produced significantly smaller lesions and sapwood blue-stain than O. minus and L. truncatum, while O. cf. abietinum, O. quercus and S. inflata did not cause any lesions.

  20. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  1. Fumigant toxicity of volatile natural products from Korean spices and medicinal plants towards the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Lee, B H; Choi, W S; Park, B S; Kim, J G; Campbell, B C

    2001-06-01

    The fumigant toxicity of various volatile constituents of essential oils extracted from sixteen Korean spices and medicinal plants towards the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was determined. The most potent toxicity was found in the essential oil from Mentha arvensis L. var piperascens (LC50 = 45.5 microliters litre-1 air). GC-MS analysis of essential oil from M arvensis showed it to be rich in menthol (63.2%), menthone (13.1%) and limonene (1.5%), followed in abundance by beta-pinene (0.7%), alpha-pinene (0.6%) and linalool (0.2%). Treatment of S oryzae with each of these terpenes showed menthone to be most active (LC50 = 12.7 microliters litre-1 air) followed by linalool (LC50 = 39.2 microliters litre-1 air) and alpha-pinene (LC50 = 54.9 microliters litre-1 air). Studies on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity of S oryzae showed menthone to have a nine-fold lower inhibitory effect than menthol, despite menthone being 8.1-fold more toxic than menthol to the rice weevil. Different modes of toxicity of these monoterpenes towards S oryzae are discussed.

  2. Assessment of Insecticidal Efficacy of Diatomaceous Earth and Powders of Common Lavender and Field Horsetail against Bean Weevil Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohinc, T; Vayias, B; Bartol, T; Trdan, S

    2013-12-01

    In the search for an effective and sustainable control method against the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), an important insect pest affecting stored common beans and other legumes, three different powders were tested against adult been weevils under laboratory conditions. The three powders were diatomaceous earth (DE) (commercial product SilicoSec®), common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) powder and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense) powder. The substances were tested at five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C), two relative humidity levels (RH) (55 and 75%), and four concentrations (100, 300, 500, and 900 ppm). The mortality of adults was measured after the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 7th days of exposure. The efficacy of the powders increased with the temperature, whereas in general, RH did not have a significant effect on the adults' survival. According to common practice of storing common beans, we recommend the use of DE against the pest in question, as this inert powder showed the highest efficacy at lower temperatures and concentrations. Concerning the wider use of common lavender and field horsetail powders, we suggest studying their combined use with other environmentally friendly methods with the aim of achieving the highest synergistic effect possible.

  3. Host plant phenology affects performance of an invasive weevil, Phyllobius oblongus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, David R; Jordan, Michelle S; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2010-10-01

    We investigated how host plant phenology and plant species affected longevity, reproduction, and feeding behavior of an invasive weevil. Phyllobius oblongus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is common in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region. Adults emerge in spring, feed on foliage of woody understory plants, and oviposit in the soil. Preliminary data indicate that adults often feed on sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marshall, foliage early in the season, then feed on other species such as raspberry, Rubus spp. Whether this behavior reflects temporal changes in the quality of A. saccharum tissue or merely subsequent availability of later-season plants is unknown. We tested adult P. oblongus in laboratory assays using young (newly flushed) sugar maple foliage, old (2-3 wk postflush) sugar maple foliage, and raspberry foliage. Raspberry has indeterminate growth, thus always has young foliage available for herbivores. Survival, oviposition, and leaf consumption were recorded. In performance assays under no-choice conditions, mated pairs were provided one type of host foliage for the duration of their lives. In behavioral choice tests, all three host plants were provided simultaneously and leaf area consumption was compared. Adults survived longer on and consumed greater amounts of young maple and raspberry foliage than old maple foliage. P. oblongus preferred young maple foliage to old maple foliage early in the season, however, later in the growing season weevils showed less pronounced feeding preferences. These results suggest how leaf phenology, plant species composition, and feeding plasticity in host utilization may interact to affect P. oblongus population dynamics.

  4. BIOTECHNOLOGY IN THE STUDY OF PROTOZOAN PARASITES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Donald E. Burgess

    2012-01-01

    .... Particular progress has occurred in areas such as cultivation of protozoan parasites, immunobiology of protozoan parasitic diseases, the biochemistry of protozoa and molecular genetics of these organisms...

  5. Pets and Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, G

    1997-11-01

    Which parasites can be transmitted by household cats and dogs? Certainly a variety of potentially dangerous helminths and protozoa can be transmitted to humans from pets but, for the most part, very special conditions must be present before this occurs. Small children, pregnant women and immunocompromised persons are three groups at greater potential risk than the general population. Infants and toddlers may contract visceral or cutaneous larva migrans, tapeworm infections and, rarely, other helminths or protozoa. Pregnant women and their offspring are at special risk for toxoplasmosis. Immunocompromised persons (including those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) are susceptible to multiple infections but especially to cryptosporidiosis, an underdiagnosed zoonosis present in contaminated water supplies. Other zoonotic infections (Echinococcosis, Dirofilariasis) rarely appear in the general population but, when they do occur, pose very real diagnostic challenges. The risk of disease transmission from pets can be minimized by taking a few simple precautions such as avoiding fecal-oral contact, not emptying the cat's litterbox if pregnant, washing hands carefully after handling pets, worming pets regularly and supervising toddler-pet interactions. In most cases, the psychologic benefits of pet ownership appear to outweigh the reducible risks of disease transmission.

  6. MENGENAL PARASIT FILARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ramadhani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis atau kaki gajah adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan karena infeksi cacing filaria yang hidup disaluran dan kelenjar getah bening (limfe serta menyebabkan gejala akut, kronis. Filariasis mulai dikenal di Indonesia tahun 1889 sejak Haga dan Van Eecke menemukan kasus pembesaran scrotum di Jakarta. Penyakit tersebut dapat menular kepada orang lain dengan perantara gigitan nyamuk. Seluruh wilayah Indonesia berpotensi untuk terjangkitnya penyakit tersebut, hal ini mengingat cacing sebagai penyebabnya dan nyamuk penularnya tersebar luas. Keadaan ini didukung oleh kerusakan lingkungan, seperti banjir, penebangan hutan dan lainnya yang memperluas tempat berkembangbiaknya nyamuk. Meskipun filariasis tidak mematikan secara langsung, dengan adanya demam dan bisul-bisul (abses yang hilang timbul, dan gejala menahun berupa pembesaran/elefantiasis yang merupakan cacat menetap akan sangat mengganggu. Secara ekonomis keadaan tersebut sangat merugikan, karena mengurangi produktivitas masyarakat, serta diperlukan biaya pengobatan dan perawatan yang tidak mudah dan tidak murah.Di Indonesia filariasis limfatik di sebabkan oleh tiga spesies cacing filaria yaitu Brugia malayi,B.timori dan Wuchereria bancrofti, yang terbagi lagi menjadi 6 tipe secara epidemiologi.Tiap parasit mempunyai siklus hidup yang kompleks dan infeksi pada manusia tidak akan berhasil kecuali jika terjadi pemaparan larva infektif untuk waktu yang lama. Setelah terjadi pemaparan, dibutuhkan waktu bertahun-tahun sebelum timbulnya perubahan patologis yang nyata pada manusia. Periodisitas dalam sirkulasi setiap mikrofilaria akan berbeda, tergantung dari spesiesnya.

  7. Parasites in pet reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavri Urška

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles, belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (4 of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3% of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (6 of endoparasites in 252 (76.1% of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1 and Protozoa (2 of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5% animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  8. Parasites in pet reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rataj, Aleksandra Vergles; Lindtner-Knific, Renata; Vlahović, Ksenija; Mavri, Urška; Dovč, Alenka

    2011-05-30

    Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles), belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (4)) of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3%) of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1), Acanthocephala (1), Pentastomida (1) and Protozoa (6)) of endoparasites in 252 (76.1%) of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4), Cestoda (1), Trematoda (1) and Protozoa (2)) of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5%) animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  9. Overdispersion In Marine Fish Parasites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    R. J. G. Lester

    2012-01-01

    A modification of Taylor's Power law was used to compare the degree of overdispersion in frequency distributions from 38 datasets of marine parasites, data that had originally been collected for fish...

  10. Pregnancy, nutrition and parasitic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steketee, Richard W

    2003-05-01

    In the developing world, young women, pregnant women, and their infants and children frequently experience a cycle where undernutrition (macronutrient and micronutrient) and repeated infection, including parasitic infections, lead to adverse consequences that can continue from one generation to the next. Among parasitic infections, malaria and intestinal helminths coexist widely with micronutrient deficiencies and contribute importantly to anemia and this cycle of retarded growth and development. In somewhat more limited or focal geographic settings, other parasitic diseases (e.g., schistosomiasis, filariasis) contribute similarly to this cycle. It is undoubtedly much better to enter a pregnancy free of infection and nutritionally replete than the various alternatives. Existing intervention strategies for micronutrient support and for the control of common parasitic infections before or during pregnancy, particularly malaria and intestinal helminths, should be followed. However, further research to identify barriers and priority approaches to achieving this goal remain very important in resource-poor settings where targeted public health efforts are required.

  11. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gibson, D. I.; Bray, R. A.; Hunt, D.; Georgiev, B. B.; Scholz, Tomáš; Harris, P.D.; Bakke, T.A.; Pomajska, T.; Niewiadomska, K.; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, V.; Bain, O.; Durette-Desset, M.-C.; Gibbons, L.; Moravec, František; Petter, A.; Dimitrova, Z.M.; Buchmann, K.; Valtonen, E. T.; de Jong, Y.

    -, č. 2 (2014), e1060 ISSN 1314-2828 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Acanthocephala * Biodiversity * Biodiversity Informatics * Cestoda * Fauna Europaea * Helminth * Monogenea * Nematoda * Parasite * Taxonomic indexing * Taxonomy * Trematoda * Zoology Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  12. Can host density attenuate parasitism?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magalhães, L; Freitas, R; Dairain, A; De Montaudouin, X

    .... Considering that these parasites infect cockles through filtration activity, our first hypothesis was that high host density will have a dilution effect so that infection intensity decreases with host density...

  13. Parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Leishmania, Plasmodium ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Parasites Cryptosporidium parvum, Leishmania, Plasmodium falciparum (malaria), Schistosoma. Cancer-associated antigens Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), melanoma-associated antigen, the MHC molecule HLA-B7.

  14. Pervasiveness of parasites in pollinators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E F Evison

    Full Text Available Many pollinator populations are declining, with large economic and ecological implications. Parasites are known to be an important factor in the some of the population declines of honey bees and bumblebees, but little is known about the parasites afflicting most other pollinators, or the extent of interspecific transmission or vectoring of parasites. Here we carry out a preliminary screening of pollinators (honey bees, five species of bumblebee, three species of wasp, four species of hoverfly and three genera of other bees in the UK for parasites. We used molecular methods to screen for six honey bee viruses, Ascosphaera fungi, Microsporidia, and Wolbachia intracellular bacteria. We aimed simply to detect the presence of the parasites, encompassing vectoring as well as actual infections. Many pollinators of all types were positive for Ascosphaera fungi, while Microsporidia were rarer, being most frequently found in bumblebees. We also detected that most pollinators were positive for Wolbachia, most probably indicating infection with this intracellular symbiont, and raising the possibility that it may be an important factor in influencing host sex ratios or fitness in a diversity of pollinators. Importantly, we found that about a third of bumblebees (Bombus pascuorum and Bombus terrestris and a third of wasps (Vespula vulgaris, as well as all honey bees, were positive for deformed wing virus, but that this virus was not present in other pollinators. Deformed wing virus therefore does not appear to be a general parasite of pollinators, but does interact significantly with at least three species of bumblebee and wasp. Further work is needed to establish the identity of some of the parasites, their spatiotemporal variation, and whether they are infecting the various pollinator species or being vectored. However, these results provide a first insight into the diversity, and potential exchange, of parasites in pollinator communities.

  15. Vector salivation and parasite transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. C. Ribeiro

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva of blood-sucking arthropods contains substances that counteract the host's hemostatic and inflammatory reactions, allowing the arthropod to locate blood and keep it flowing during the blood meal. Parasites may manipulate this system in order to achieve increased transmission, both to vertebrate and to invertebrate hosts. Additionally, salivary pharmacological substances may locally immunosupress the delivery site, allowing initial colonization of the vertebrate host by the parasite.

  16. Adaptations in the energy metabolism of parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Grinsven, K.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833436

    2009-01-01

    For this thesis fundamental research was performed on the metabolic adaptations found in parasites. Studying the adaptations in parasite metabolisms leads to a better understanding of parasite bioenergetics and can also result in the identification of new anti-parasitic drug targets. We focussed on

  17. Parasitic worms and inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Parasitic worms have evolved strategies to manipulate the host immune system, some of which may lead to a reduction in inflammation. Characterisation of the ways in which these organisms mediate an anti-inflammatory response and identification of parasite-derived molecules involved in immune modulation paves the way to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of inflammatory disease. This review highlights recent findings in this field of research in the context of a broader overview. Some parasites and parasite derived products inhibit inflammatory responses through effects on both the innate and adaptive immune response. Considerable progress has been made in identifying parasite derived molecules, the ways in which they interact with the immune system and how they mediate immunomodulation. There is great interest in the potential usefulness of parasite-mediated immunomodulation for the treatment and prevention of a range of inflammatory disorders. Much remains to be resolved regarding characterisation of potential helminth-derived biomodulators, timing and dose of exposure to the agents as well as characterisation of the modes of action so that synthetic analogues that mimic the effects can be generated.

  18. Parasitic Pneumonia and Lung Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attapon Cheepsattayakorn

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic infestations demonstrated a decline in the past decade as a result of better hygiene practices and improved socioeconomic conditions. Nevertheless, global immigration, increased numbers of the immunocompromised people, international traveling, global warming, and rapid urbanization of the cities have increased the susceptibility of the world population to parasitic diseases. A number of new human parasites, such as Plasmodium knowlesi, in addition to many potential parasites, have urged the interest of scientific community. A broad spectrum of protozoal parasites frequently affects the respiratory system, particularly the lungs. The diagnosis of parasitic diseases of airway is challenging due to their wide varieties of clinical and roentgenographic presentations. So detailed interrogations of travel history to endemic areas are critical for clinicians or pulmonologists to manage this entity. The migrating adult worms can cause mechanical airway obstruction, while the larvae can cause airway inflammation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of both protozoal and helminthic infestations that affect the airway system, particularly the lungs, including clinical and roentgenographic presentations, diagnostic tests, and therapeutic approaches.

  19. Paleoparasitology: the origin of human parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araujo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasitism is composed by three subsystems: the parasite, the host, and the environment. There are no organisms that cannot be parasitized. The relationship between a parasite and its host species most of the time do not result in damage or disease to the host. However, in a parasitic disease the presence of a given parasite is always necessary, at least in a given moment of the infection. Some parasite species that infect humans were inherited from pre-hominids, and were shared with other phylogenetically close host species, but other parasite species were acquired from the environment as humans evolved. Human migration spread inherited parasites throughout the globe. To recover and trace the origin and evolution of infectious diseases, paleoparasitology was created. Paleoparasitology is the study of parasites in ancient material, which provided new information on the evolution, paleoepidemiology, ecology and phylogenetics of infectious diseases.

  20. Phylogeographical patterns of a generalist acorn weevil: insight into the biogeographical history of broadleaved deciduous and evergreen forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kyoko; Kato, Makoto; Murakami, Noriaki

    2009-05-16

    Climatic changes during glacial periods have had a major influence on the recent evolutionary history of living organisms, even in temperate forests on islands, where the land was not covered with ice sheets. We investigated the phylogeographical patterns of the weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Curculionidae), a generalist seed predator of Fagaceae plants living in both deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan. Its genetic structure was compared to that of another host-specific seed predator, C. hilgendorfi, inhabiting only evergreen forests. We examined 921 bp of mitochondrial DNA for 115 individuals collected from 33 populations of C. sikkimensis from 11 plant species of three genera, Quercus, Lithocarpus, and Castanopsis. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that a large proportion (almost 50%, P ages, in the southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands, although these two types of forests are presently distributed in cool and warm temperate zones of Japan, respectively.

  1. The effects of gamma radiation on the reproduction of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera - Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghogomu, TR.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F. was carried out to study its effects on reproduction. Complete sterility of males and females is obtained when treated as adults with 10 krad. At lower doses the female is more susceptible than the male. The fecundity is affected and at doses above 100 krad death occurs before the female lays all her mature eggs. The sterility induced is observed in the reduction in percentage of egg hatch, but mortality after hatching is negligible. When females are exposed to substerilizing doses as pupae or adults, the fertility on the first day of oviposition is significantly reduced and those treated as adults are the most affected. On the second day there is improvement in fertility.

  2. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Righi Assia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.. This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit the damage of the chick pea weevil pest, and to protect consumer’s health. To determine the effect and efficiency of the oil, the tests were conducted using the different biological parameters of fertility, longevity, and fecundity, under controlled temperature and relative humidity (28°C and 75%. The effectiveness of organic oils was demonstrated. We tested these oils on the germination of seeds. The obtained results showed that the tested plant oils have a real organic insecticide effect. The essential oil of Artemisia proved most effective as a biocide; achieving a mortality rate of 100%. A significant reduction in longevity was observed under the effect of 30 μl of S. maritima (1.3 days and S. verbenaca (2.8, 4.6 days, respectively, for males and females compared to 8 and 15 days for the control. For fecundity, an inhibition of oviposition was obtained using 30 μl of Salvia and Scilla essential oils. The test on the seed germination using different essential oils, showed no damage to the germinating seeds. The germination rate was 99%. These findings suggest that the tested plants can be used as a bioinsecticide for control of the C. chinensis pest of stored products.

  3. Effect of Selenium, Molybdenum and Zinc on Seedling Growth and Frequency of Grain Weevil (Sitophilus granarius in Triticale Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Kastori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different doses (0, 90, 270, 810 kg/ha of selenium, molybdenum and zinc microelements on their translocation and accumulation in grains, seedling growth and grain infestation were examined under field conditions on a calcareous chernozem soil.Thirteen years after the application of selenium, molybdenum and zinc, significant translocation and accumulation of these elements in the grain were established, indicating a long-term effect of these microelements on triticale plants. The highest degree of accumulation in grains and seedling shoots was found for selenium, then molybdenum, while the detected amounts of zinc were significantly lower. The degree of accumulation of all threemicroelements in the grain and seedling shoot increased as doses increased. Translocation index from shoot to grain at the grain-filling phase was the highest when zinc was used, then selenium, and the lowest when molybdenum was applied. The highest translocationindex from the grain during germination into seedling shoots was obtained with zinc, then molybdenum and selenium. Translocation indexes of the investigated elements significantly decreased as the doses of elements increased. Dry weight of seedling shoots decreasedas molybdenum and zinc in grain increased. High selenium concentration moderately stimulated seedling development, pointing out a high tolerance of triticale to higher concentration of this microelement at initial development stages. Infestatation with grain weevil was provoked by high concentrations of these microelements in the grain. High concentrations of zinc and selenium, in particular, significantly decreased the percentage of damaged grains, while molybdenum moderately increased their numbers. The effect of zincand molybdenum may be attributed to their chemical effect, while selenium effect may also be referred to a negative effect of the volatile selenium compound. The effect of selenium, molybdenum and zinc contamination of grains

  4. Male biased gene flow in banana pseudostem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis Oliver) as revealed by analysis of the COI-tRNA(Leu) COII region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Vishvas M; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2015-02-01

    The genetic diversity amongst thirty weevils representing six Indian populations of banana pseudostem weevil, i.e., Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) was estimated by sequence analysis of the partial COI-tRNA(Leu)-COII region. The sequences exhibited AT bias typical of insect mitochondrial DNA which was highest in the first codon position of COI and in the third codon position of COII. There was no phylogeographic distribution of the populations. The Fu and Li's D and F tests were non-significant for this mitochondrial region. No Wolbachia infection was detected in any of the populations. The genetic differentiation amongst the populations was highly significant (p < 0.001; χ2 = 123.333; df = 75), suggesting restricted gene flow between the populations. This result did not correlate with that obtained with nuclear rDNA markers, i.e., ITS1 and ITS2, suggesting a male biased gene flow between the populations.

  5. Genome Evolution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Taisei; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian; Jones, John T

    2017-08-04

    Plant parasitism has evolved independently on at least four separate occasions in the phylum Nematoda. The application of next-generation sequencing (NGS) to plant-parasitic nematodes has allowed a wide range of genome- or transcriptome-level comparisons, and these have identified genome adaptations that enable parasitism of plants. Current genome data suggest that horizontal gene transfer, gene family expansions, evolution of new genes that mediate interactions with the host, and parasitism-specific gene regulation are important adaptations that allow nematodes to parasitize plants. Sequencing of a larger number of nematode genomes, including plant parasites that show different modes of parasitism or that have evolved in currently unsampled clades, and using free-living taxa as comparators would allow more detailed analysis and a better understanding of the organization of key genes within the genomes. This would facilitate a more complete understanding of the way in which parasitism has shaped the genomes of plant-parasitic nematodes.

  6. Parasitism, the diversity of life, and paleoparasitology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Araújo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The parasite-host-environment system is dynamic, with several points of equilibrium. This makes it difficult to trace the thresholds between benefit and damage, and therefore, the definitions of commensalism, mutualism, and symbiosis become worthless. Therefore, the same concept of parasitism may encompass commensalism, mutualism, and symbiosis. Parasitism is essential for life. Life emerged as a consequence of parasitism at the molecular level, and intracellular parasitism created evolutive events that allowed species to diversify. An ecological and evolutive approach to the study of parasitism is presented here. Studies of the origin and evolution of parasitism have new perspectives with the development of molecular paleoparasitology, by which ancient parasite and host genomes can be recovered from disappeared populations. Molecular paleoparasitology points to host-parasite co-evolutive mechanisms of evolution traceable through genome retrospective studies.

  7. Cotton harvest at 40% versus 75% boll-splitting on yield and economic return under standard and proactive boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) spray regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, A T; Robinson, J R C

    2008-10-01

    The standard practice of two or three preemptive insecticide applications at the start of pinhead (1-2-mm-diameter) squaring followed by threshold-triggered (when 10% of randomly selected squares have oviposition punctures) insecticide applications for boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), control does not provide reliable protection of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., lint production. This study, conducted during 2004 and 2005, showed that three to six fewer spray applications in a "proactive" approach, in which spraying began at the start of large (5.5-8-mm-diameter) square formation and continued at approximately 7-d intervals while large squares were abundant, resulted in fewer infested squares and 1.4- to 1.7-fold more lint than the standard treatment. Fewer sprays and increased yield made proactive spraying significantly more profitable than the standard approach, which resulted in relatively low or negative economic returns. Harvest at 75% boll-split in the proactive spray regime of 2005 resulted in four-fold greater economic return than cotton harvested at 40% boll-split because of improved protection of large squares and the elimination of late-season sprays inherent to standard spray regime despite the cost of an extra irrigation in the 75% boll-split treatments. The earlier, 40% harvest trigger does not avoid high late-season boll weevil pressure, which exerts less impact on bolls, the predominant form of fruiting body at that time, than on squares. Proactive spraying and harvest timing are based on an important relationship between nutrition, boll weevil reproduction, and economic inputs; therefore, the tactic of combining proaction with harvest at 75% boll-split is applicable where boll weevils are problematic regardless of climate or region, or whether an eradication program is ongoing.

  8. Effects of phosphorus availability and genetic variation of leaf terpene content and emission rate in Pinus pinaster seedlings susceptible and resistant to the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch, J.; Sampedro, L.; Llusia, Joan; Moreira Tomé, X.; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Peñuelas, Josep

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of phosphorus fertilisation on foliar terpene concentrations and foliar volatile terpene emission rates in six half-sib families of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings. Half of the seedlings were resistant to attack of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis L., a generalist phloem feeder, and the remaining seedlings were susceptible to this insect. We hypothesised that P stress could modify the terpene concentration in the needles and thus lead to altered terpene emission patterns ...

  9. Bio-ecology and integrated management of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the region of Valencia (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Dembilio, Óscar; Jacas Miret, Josep Anton

    2012-01-01

    The invasive red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most destructive pests of palms in the world. It is widely distributed in all continents and has been reported on 26 palm species belonging to 16 different genera. In the Mediterranean basin, R. ferrugineus has become the major pest of palms, mainly Phoenix canariensis hort. ex Chabaud, an endemic palm to the Canary Islands widely used as ornamental. In this manuscript we summarize the r...

  10. Field efficacy of Imidacloprid and Steinernema carpocapsae in a chitosan formulation against the Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Phoenix canariensis

    OpenAIRE

    Dembilio, Óscar; Llácer, Elena; Martínez de Altube, María del Mar; Jacas Miret, Josep Anton

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), has become the major pest of palms in the Mediterranean Basin. Chemical control against this species is difficult because of its cryptic habits and is mainly based on the repeated application of large quantities of synthetic insecticides. The aim of this work has been to evaluate in the field the efficacy of imidacloprid (Confidor 240 OD) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser with chitosan (Biorend R Palm...

  11. Insect-Induced Conifer Defense. White Pine Weevil and Methyl Jasmonate Induce Traumatic Resinosis, de Novo Formed Volatile Emissions, and Accumulation of Terpenoid Synthase and Putative Octadecanoid Pathway Transcripts in Sitka Spruce1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara; Madilao, Lufiani L.; Ralph, Steven; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Stem-boring insects and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are thought to induce similar complex chemical and anatomical defenses in conifers. To compare insect- and MeJA-induced terpenoid responses, we analyzed traumatic oleoresin mixtures, emissions of terpenoid volatiles, and expression of terpenoid synthase (TPS) genes in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) following attack by white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi) or application of MeJA. Both insects and MeJA caused traumatic resin accumulation in stems, with more accumulation induced by the weevils. Weevil-induced terpenoid emission profiles were also more complex than emissions induced by MeJA. Weevil feeding caused a rapid release of a blend of monoterpene olefins, presumably by passive evaporation of resin compounds from stem feeding sites. These compounds were not found in MeJA-induced emissions. Both weevils and MeJA caused delayed, diurnal emissions of (−)-linalool, indicating induced de novo biosynthesis of this compound. TPS transcripts strongly increased in stems upon insect attack or MeJA treatment. Time courses and intensity of induced TPS transcripts were different for monoterpene synthases, sesquiterpene synthases, and diterpene synthases. Increased levels of weevil- and MeJA-induced TPS transcripts accompanied major changes in terpenoid accumulation in stems. Induced TPS expression profiles in needles were less complex than those in stems and matched induced de novo emissions of (−)-linalool. Overall, weevils and MeJA induced similar, but not identical, terpenoid defense responses in Sitka spruce. Findings of insect- and MeJA-induced accumulation of allene oxide synthase-like and allene oxide cyclase-like transcripts are discussed in the context of traumatic resinosis and induced volatile emissions in this gymnosperm system. PMID:15618433

  12. [World epidemiology of parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Luc; Thellier, Marc; Faussart, Alexandra; Danis, Martin

    2007-01-31

    Parasitic diseases are cosmopolitan and may affect all the world population. They kill several million people every year. The migrations and tourism make that even tropical diseases can be frequently met outside their geographical distribution area. Except the arthropod-borne infections, the great majority of these diseases are in relation with the faecal contamination of soil, the general level of hygiene and the food practices. Malaria remains the first world parasitic disease in term of mortality. The strong fall of the amoebic endemicity is due only to the improvement of the methods of molecular diagnosis. The socio-political and climatic upheavals may result in a creeping extension of the geographical limits of many parasites.

  13. Neurobiology of plant parasitic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden-Dye, Lindy; Walker, R J

    2011-06-01

    The regulatory constraints imposed on use of chemical control agents in agriculture are rendering crops increasingly vulnerable to plant parasitic nematodes. Thus, it is important that new control strategies which meet requirements for low toxicity to non-target species, vertebrates and the environment are pursued. This would be greatly facilitated by an improved understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of these nematodes, but to date, these microscopic species of the Phylum Nematoda have attracted little attention in this regard. In this review, the current information available for neurotransmitters and neuromodulator in the plant parasitic nematodes is discussed in the context of the more extensive literature for other species in the phylum, most notably Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum. Areas of commonality and distinctiveness in terms of neurotransmitter profile and function between these species are highlighted with a view to improving understanding of to what extent, and with what level of confidence, this information may be extrapolated to the plant parasitic nematodes.

  14. Parasitic diseases of the pleura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Chitra; Huggins, John Terrill; Sahn, Steven A

    2013-05-01

    Parasitic infections are prevalent in certain parts of the world and may cause pleural involvement, which often goes unrecognized. Common parasites involving the pleura include Entamoeba histolytica, Echinococcus granulosus and Paragonimus westermani. Amebiasis can cause empyema with "anchovy sauce" pus, reactive pleural effusions and bronchopleural fistula with hydropneumothorax. Echinococcosis may result in pleural thickening, pneumothorax, secondary pleural hydatidosis and pleural effusions. Paragonimiasis may cause chylous and cholesterol pleural effusions, pleural thickening and pneumothorax. Less commonly, pulmonary eosinophilia, or Loeffler's syndrome, caused by Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia caused by Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi may involve the pleura. This article provides a comprehensive review of parasitic infections involving the pleura. A high index of suspicion in the appropriate clinical setting is required to facilitate prompt diagnosis and treatment of these diseases.

  15. Parasites and chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Manesh, Reza; Hosseini Safa, Ahmad; Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Jafari, Rasool; Bahadoran, Mehran; Yousefi, Morteza; Nasri, Hamid; Yousofi Darani, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Suppression of the human immune system results in an increase in susceptibility to infection by various infectious agents. Conditions such as AIDS, organ transplantation and chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) are the most important cause of insufficient immune response against infections. Long term renal disorders result in uremia, which can suppress human immune system. Parasitic infections are one of the most important factors indicating the public health problems of the societies. These infections can be more hostile and life threatening in susceptible individuals than in the normal people. In these patients some parasitic infections such as blastocystiosis, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis have been reported to be more prevalent. This review aimed to give an overview about parasitic infections in patients with renal disorders.

  16. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Soffan

    Full Text Available The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus, which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies.

  17. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffan, Alan; Antony, Binu; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies.

  18. Pine weevil feeding on Norway spruce bark has a stronger impact on needle VOC emissions than enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blande, James D. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: James.Blande@uku.fi; Turunen, Katariina [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: ksturune@hytti.uku.fi; Holopainen, Jarmo K. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: Jarmo.Holopainen@uku.fi

    2009-01-15

    Plants can respond physiologically to damaging ultraviolet-B radiation by altering leaf chemistry, especially UV absorbing phenolic compounds. However, the effects on terpene emissions have received little attention. We conducted two field trials in plots with supplemented UV-B radiation and assessed the influence of feeding by pine weevils, Hylobius abietis L., on volatile emissions from 3-year old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.). We collected emissions from branch tips distal to the feeding weevils, and from whole branches including the damage sites. Weevil feeding clearly induced the emission of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, particularly linalool and (E)-{beta}-farnesene, from branch tips, and the sums of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emitted by whole branches were substantially increased. We discovered little effect of UV-B radiation up to 30% above the ambient level on volatile emissions from branch tips distal to damage sites, but there was a possible effect on bark emissions from damage sites. - Chronic exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation has little effect on volatile emissions of Norway spruce.

  19. Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae to Larvae and Adults of the Hazelnut Weevil, Curculio nucum: Differential Virulence and Entry Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla-Carrera, Laia; Morton, Ana; Shapiro-Ilan, David; Strand, Michael R; García-Del-Pino, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the existing susceptibility differences of the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum L. (Coleoptera:, Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes by assessing the main route of entry of the nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae strain B14 and S. feltiae strain D114, into larvae and adult insects, as well as host immune response. Our results suggested that S. carpocapsae B14 and S. feltiae D114 primarily entered adult insects and larvae through the anus. Larvae were more susceptible to S. feltiae D114 than S. carpocapsae B14 and adults were highly susceptible to S. carpocapsae B14 but displayed low susceptibility to S. feltiae D114. Penetration rate correlated with nematode virulence. We observed little evidence that hazelnut weevils mounted any cellular immune response toward S. carpocapsae B14 or S. feltiae D114. We conclude the differential susceptibility of hazelnut weevil larvae and adults to S. carpocapsae B14 and S. feltiae D114 primarily reflected differences in the ability of these two nematodes to penetrate the host.

  20. Oncogenic Brain Metazoan Parasite Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela N. Spurgeon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple observations suggest that certain parasitic infections can be oncogenic. Among these, neurocysticercosis is associated with increased risk for gliomas and hematologic malignancies. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with colocalization of a metazoan parasite, possibly cysticercosis, and a WHO grade IV neuroepithelial tumor with exclusively neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemical stains (immunopositive for synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, and Neu-N and not for GFAP, vimentin, or S100. The colocalization and temporal relationship of these two entities suggest a causal relationship.

  1. The fish parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff

    2017-01-01

    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, the causative agent of white spot disease (ichthyophthiriasis) is a major burden for fish farmers and aquarists globally. The parasite infects the skin and the gills of freshwater fish, which may acquire a protective adaptive immune response against this disease...... and recognition of carcinogenic and environmentally damaging effects the most efficient compounds are prohibited. A continuous search for novel substances, which are highly effective against the parasites and harmless for the fish is ongoing. These compounds should be environmentally friendly and cost...

  2. Zoology: Invertebrates that Parasitize Invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo

    2016-07-11

    The genome of an orthonectid, a group of highly modified parasitic invertebrates, is drastically reduced and compact, yet it shows the bilaterian gene toolkit. Phylogenetic analyses place the enigmatic orthonectids within Spiralia, although their exact placement remains uncertain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Everyday and Exotic Foodborne Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn B Lee

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Everyday foodborne parasites, which are endemic in Canada, include the protozoans Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum. However, these parasites are most frequently acquired through unfiltered drinking water, homosexual activity or close personal contact such as in daycare centres and occasionally via a food vehicle. It is likely that many foodborne outbreaks from these protozoa go undetected. Transmission of helminth infections, such as tapeworms, is rare in Canada because of effective sewage treatment. However, a common foodborne parasite of significance is Toxoplasma gondii. Although infection can be acquired from accidental ingestion of oocysts from cat feces, infection can also result from consumption of tissue cysts in undercooked meat, such as pork or lamb. Congenital transmission poses an immense financial burden, costing Canada an estimated $240 million annually. Also of concern is toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients, which may lead to toxoplasmosis encephalitis, the second most common AIDS-related opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. Exotic parasites (ie, those acquired from abroad or from imported food are of growing concern because more Canadians are travelling and the number of Canada?s trading partners is increasing. Since 1996, over 3000 cases of Cyclospora infection reported in the United States and Canada were epidemiologically associated with importation of Guatemalan raspberries. Unlike toxoplasmosis, where strategies for control largely rest with individual practices, control of cyclosporiasis rests with government policy, which should prohibit the importation of foods at high risk.

  4. Inbreeding and parasite sex ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean; West, Stuart A; Read, Andrew F

    2002-04-07

    The breeding system of parasitic protozoa affects the evolution of drug resistance and virulence, and is relevant to disease diagnosis and the development of chemo- and immunotherapy. A major group of protozoan parasites, the phylum Apicomplexa, that includes the aetiological agents of malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidiosis, all have dimorphic sexual stages. The sex ratio (proportion of males produced by parasites) is predicted to depend upon the inbreeding rate, and it has been suggested that sex-ratio data offer a relatively cheap and easy method for indirectly estimating inbreeding rates. Here, we exploit a new theoretical machinery to show that there are generally valid relationships between f, Wright's coefficient of inbreeding, and sex ratio, z(*), the generality being with respect to population structure. To focus the discussion, we concentrate on malaria and show that the previously derived result, f = 1 - 2z(*), does not depend on the artificial assumptions about population structure that were previously made. Not only does this justify the use of sex ratio as an indirect measure of f, but also we argue that it may actually be preferable to measure f by measuring sex ratios, rather than by measuring departures from Hardy-Weinberg genotypic proportions both in malaria and parasites more generally.

  5. Fish immunity to scuticociliate parasites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piazzon de Haro, M.C.; Leiro, J.M.; Lamas, J.

    2013-01-01

    Some species of scuticociliates (Ciliophora) behave as facultative parasites and produce severe mortalities in cultured fish. Pathogenic scuticociliates can cause surface lesions and can also penetrate inside the body, where they feed on tissue and proliferate in the blood and most internal organs,

  6. Molecular characterization of intestinal protozoan parasites from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica, three major protozoan parasites which cause diarrhea. Out of 306 stool samples examined, 62.75% were detected as positive at least for one of the protozoan parasite studied. Species specific ...

  7. Travel/Travelers and Parasitic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Travel/Travelers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir International ... The Parasitic Illnesses That Can Be Acquired During Travel* Contaminated Food and Water More Common giardiasis cryptosporidiosis ...

  8. Parasitic Nematode Interactions with Mammals and Plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasmer, D.P.; Goverse, A.; Smant, G.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent

  9. Modelling the growth of parasitic plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yann Hautier; Andy Hector; Eva Vojtech; Drew Purves; Lindsay A. Turnbull

    2010-01-01

    ...% compared with unparasitized controls. We present and test a simple model of the host-parasite interaction in which parasite growth rate is a function of host growth rate that offers a new explanation for why hemiparasitic plants reduce...

  10. 4 Parasitism of Plutella xylostella.cdr

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    C, respectively, and relative humidity ranged from 31% to 62%, with an ... Dead host larvae were dissected daily to determine whether they were parasitized or not. Thus, parasitism was obtained from both rearing and dissections of hosts ...

  11. One Health: parasites and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Damer P; Betson, Martha

    2017-01-01

    The field of parasitism is broad, encompassing relationships between organisms where one benefits at the expense of another. Traditionally the discipline focuses on eukaryotes, with the study of bacteria and viruses complementary but distinct. Nonetheless, parasites vary in size and complexity from single celled protozoa, to enormous plants like those in the genus Rafflesia. Lifecycles range from obligate intracellular to extensive exoparasitism. Examples of parasites include high-profile medical and zoonotic pathogens such as Plasmodium, veterinary pathogens of wild and captive animals and many of the agents which cause neglected tropical diseases, stretching to parasites which infect plants and other parasites (e.g. Kikuchi et al. 2011; Hotez et al. 2014; Blake et al. 2015; Hemingway, 2015; Meekums et al. 2015; Sandlund et al. 2015). The breadth of parasitology has been matched by the variety of ways in which parasites are studied, drawing upon biological, chemical, molecular, epidemiological and other expertise. Despite such breadth bridging between disciplines has commonly been problematic, regardless of extensive encouragement from government agencies, peer audiences and funding bodies promoting multidisciplinary research. Now, progress in understanding and collaboration can benefit from establishment of the One Health concept (Zinsstag et al. 2012; Stark et al. 2015). One Health draws upon biological, environmental, medical, veterinary and social science disciplines in order to improve human, animal and environmental health, although it remains tantalizingly difficult to engage many relevant parties. For infectious diseases traditional divides have been exacerbated as the importance of wildlife reservoirs, climate change, food production systems and socio-economic diversity have been recognized but often not addressed in a multidisciplinary manner. In response the 2015 Autumn Symposium organized by the British Society for Parasitology (BSP; https

  12. Emerging parasitic diseases of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A

    2012-09-30

    There have been changes in the emergence and inability to control of a number of sheep parasitic infections over the last decade. This review focuses on the more globally important sheep parasites, whose reported changes in epidemiology, occurrence or failure to control are becoming increasingly evident. One of the main perceived driving forces is climate change, which can have profound effects on parasite epidemiology, especially for those parasitic diseases where weather has a direct effect on the development of free-living stages. The emergence of anthelmintic-resistant strains of parasitic nematodes and the increasing reliance placed on anthelmintics for their control, can exert profound changes on the epidemiology of those nematodes causing parasitic gastroenteritis. As a consequence, the effectiveness of existing control strategies presents a major threat to sheep production in many areas around the world. The incidence of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, is inextricably linked to high rainfall and is particularly prevalent in high rainfall years. Over the last few decades, there have also been increasing reports of other fluke associated diseases, such as dicroceliosis and paramphistomosis, in a number of western European countries, possibly introduced through animal movements, and able to establish with changing climates. External parasite infections, such as myiasis, can cause significant economic loss and presents as a major welfare problem. The range of elevated temperatures predicted by current climate change scenarios, result in an elongated blowfly season with earlier spring emergence and a higher cumulative incidence of fly strike. Additionally, legislative decisions leading to enforced changes in pesticide usage and choices have resulted in increased reports and spread of ectoparasitic infections, particularly mite, lice and tick infestations in sheep. Factors, such as dip disposal and associated environmental concerns, and, perhaps more

  13. Independent origins of parasitism in Animalia

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Sara B.; Armand M Kuris

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all animals may have a parasitic lifestyle, yet the number of transitions to parasitism and their potential for species diversification remain unresolved. Based on a comprehensive survey of the animal kingdom, we find that parasitism has independently evolved at least 223 times in just 15 phyla, with the majority of identified independent parasitic groups occurring in the Arthropoda, at or below the level of Family. Metazoan parasitology is dominated by the study of helminthes;...

  14. Parasites as prey in aquatic food webs: implications for predator infection and parasite transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Amundsen, P.-A.; Hechinger, R.F.; Johnson, P.T.J.; Lafferty, K.D.; Mouritsen, K.N.; Preston, D.L.; Reise, K.; Zander, C.D.; Poulin, R.

    2013-01-01

    While the recent inclusion of parasites into food-web studies has highlighted the role of parasites as consumers, there is accumulating evidence that parasites can also serve as prey for predators. Here we investigated empirical patterns of predation on parasites and their relationships with

  15. Fishing drives declines in fish parasite diversity and has variable effects on parasite abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Sandin, Stuart A; Zgliczynski, Brian; Guerra, Ana Sofía; Micheli, Fiorenza

    2014-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity and ecological importance of parasites, relatively few studies have assessed their response to anthropogenic environmental change. Heuristic models have predicted both increases and decreases in parasite abundance in response to human disturbance, with empirical support for both. However, most studies focus on one or a few selected parasite species. Here, we assess the abundance of parasites of seven species of coral reef fishes collected from three fished and three unfished islands of the Line Islands archipelago in the central equatorial Pacific. Because we chose fish hosts that spanned different trophic levels, taxonomic groups, and body sizes, we were able to compare parasite responses across a broad cross section of the total parasite community in the presence and absence of fishing, a major human impact on marine ecosystems. We found that overall parasite species richness was substantially depressed on fished islands, but that the response of parasite abundance varied among parasite taxa: directly transmitted parasites were significantly more abundant on fished than on unfished islands, while the reverse was true for trophically transmitted parasites. This probably arises because trophically transmitted parasites require multiple host species, some of which are the top predators most sensitive to fishing impacts. The increase in directly transmitted parasites appeared to be due to fishing-driven compensatory increases in the abundance of their hosts. Together, these results provide support for the predictions of both heuristic models, and indicate that the direction of fishing's impact on parasite abundance is mediated by parasite traits, notably parasite transmission strategies.

  16. Sensitivity of Haemoproteus columbae , Avian Parasite to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The birds Columbidae livia (Pigeons) were screened for malaria parasite by microbiological technique using Giemsa Staining Technique. The slides we examined for the presence of plasmodium parasite (Parasitaemia Value). Results indicated the presence of malaria parasites namely Haemoproteus columbae in three ...

  17. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We examined 349 faecal samples of 17 mammalian species and successfully identified 24 gastroin-testinal parasite taxa including 1 protozoan, 2 trematode, 3 cestode and 18 nematode taxa. Twenty of these parasites are known parasites of humans. We also found that as much as 73% of all infected samples were infected ...

  18. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Amietophyrnus regularis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of Amietophyrnus regularis (African Common Toad) in Anyigba were investigated. A total of 120 specimens were examined for helminth parasites, 113(94.17%) toads were infected, while 7(5.8%) were uninfected. Helminth parasites recovered were 1576, comprising of 1 Cestode: ...

  19. Postcolonial Ecologies of Parasite and Host: Making Parasitism Cosmopolitan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Warwick

    2016-04-01

    The interest of F. Macfarlane Burnet in host-parasite interactions grew through the 1920s and 1930s, culminating in his book, Biological Aspects of Infectious Disease (1940), often regarded as the founding text of disease ecology. Our knowledge of the influences on Burnet's ecological thinking is still incomplete. Burnet later attributed much of his conceptual development to his reading of British theoretical biology, especially the work of Julian Huxley and Charles Elton, and regretted he did not study Theobald Smith's Parasitism and Disease (1934) until after he had formulated his ideas. Scholars also have adduced Burnet's fascination with natural history and the clinical and public health demands on his research effort, among other influences. I want to consider here additional contributions to Burnet's ecological thinking, focusing on his intellectual milieu, placing his research in a settler society with exceptional expertise in environmental studies and pest management. In part, an ''ecological turn'' in Australian science in the 1930s, derived to a degree from British colonial scientific investments, shaped Burnet's conceptual development. This raises the question of whether we might characterize, in postcolonial fashion, disease ecology, and other studies of parasitism, as successful settler colonial or dominion science.

  20. Smart Parasitic Nematodes Use Multifaceted Strategies to Parasitize Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad A.; Azeem, Farrukh; Li, Hongjie; Bohlmann, Holger

    2017-01-01

    Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants. In this review, we have summarized which physiological and molecular changes occur when endoparasitic nematodes invade the plant roots and how they develop a successful interaction with plants using the effector proteins. We have also mentioned the host genes which are induced by the nematodes for a compatible interaction. Additionally, we discuss how nematodes modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and RNA silencing pathways in addition to post-translational modifications in their own favor for successful parasitism in plants.

  1. Smart Parasitic Nematodes Use Multifaceted Strategies to Parasitize Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Ali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes are omnipresent in nature including many species which are parasitic to plants and cause enormous economic losses in various crops. During the process of parasitism, sedentary phytonematodes use their stylet to secrete effector proteins into the plant cells to induce the development of specialized feeding structures. These effectors are used by the nematodes to develop compatible interactions with plants, partly by mimicking the expression of host genes. Intensive research is going on to investigate the molecular function of these effector proteins in the plants. In this review, we have summarized which physiological and molecular changes occur when endoparasitic nematodes invade the plant roots and how they develop a successful interaction with plants using the effector proteins. We have also mentioned the host genes which are induced by the nematodes for a compatible interaction. Additionally, we discuss how nematodes modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS and RNA silencing pathways in addition to post-translational modifications in their own favor for successful parasitism in plants.

  2. Fossils of parasites: what can the fossil record tell us about the evolution of parasitism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Tommy L F

    2017-02-01

    Parasites are common in many ecosystems, yet because of their nature, they do not fossilise readily and are very rare in the geological record. This makes it challenging to study the evolutionary transition that led to the evolution of parasitism in different taxa. Most studies on the evolution of parasites are based on phylogenies of extant species that were constructed based on morphological and molecular data, but they give us an incomplete picture and offer little information on many important details of parasite-host interactions. The lack of fossil parasites also means we know very little about the roles that parasites played in ecosystems of the past even though it is known that parasites have significant influences on many ecosystems. The goal of this review is to bring attention to known fossils of parasites and parasitism, and provide a conceptual framework for how research on fossil parasites can develop in the future. Despite their rarity, there are some fossil parasites which have been described from different geological eras. These fossils include the free-living stage of parasites, parasites which became fossilised with their hosts, parasite eggs and propagules in coprolites, and traces of pathology inflicted by parasites on the host's body. Judging from the fossil record, while there were some parasite-host relationships which no longer exist in the present day, many parasite taxa which are known from the fossil record seem to have remained relatively unchanged in their general morphology and their patterns of host association over tens or even hundreds of millions of years. It also appears that major evolutionary and ecological transitions throughout the history of life on Earth coincided with the appearance of certain parasite taxa, as the appearance of new host groups also provided new niches for potential parasites. As such, fossil parasites can provide additional data regarding the ecology of their extinct hosts, since many parasites have

  3. Transfusion-transmitted parasitic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Gagandeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of parasitic organisms through transfusion is relatively rare. Of the major transfusion-transmitted diseases, malaria is a major cause of TTIP in tropical countries whereas babesiosis and Chagas′ disease pose the greatest threat to donors in the USA In both cases, this is due to the increased number of potentially infected donors. There are no reliable serologic tests available to screen donors for any of these organisms and the focus for prevention remains on adherence to donor screening guidelines that address travel history and previous infection with the etiologic agent. One goal is the development of tests that are able to screen for and identify donors potentially infectious for parasitic infections without causing the deferral of a large number of non-infectious donors or significantly increasing costs. Ideally, methods to inactivate the infectious organism will provide an element of added safety to the blood supply.

  4. [World Collections of Parasitic Worms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinovieva, S V; Butorina, N N; Udalova, Zh V; Khasanova, S; Filimonova, L V; Petrosyan, V G; Pel'gunov, A N

    2015-01-01

    This article provides information about the depositories of parasitic worms in the scientific institutes and museums in the United States, Japan, and Europe (the total number of samples and the availability of types of helminths from various classes), as well as information on the availability of electronic catalogues of the collections in the continental, national, and regional centers for collective use. The extent of this material has determined the necessity of creating digital collections and libraries that would represent a new form of storing, displaying, and exchanging information for scientific research. An analysis was performed of the current state of approaches and methods of development of the specialized information retrieval system (IRS) and databases (DBs) on the parasitic worms in Russia on the basis of a common conceptual data model, taking into account their local use (as desktop systems of database management) and access by scientists worldwide via the Internet.

  5. Parasites in Forensic Science: a historic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rita; Alves, Helena; Richter, Joachim; Botelho, Monica C

    2017-01-01

    Parasites show a great potential to Forensic Science. Forensic Science is the application of any science and methodology to the legal system. The forensic scientist collects and analyses the physical evidence and produce a report of the results to the court. A parasite is an organism that lives at the expense of another and they exist in any ecosystem. Parasites are the cause of many important diseases. The forensic scientists can use the parasites to identify a crime scene, to determine the murder weapon or simply identify an individual. The applications for parasites in the Forensic Science can be many and more studies should be made in Forensic Parasitology. The most important parasites in Forensic Science are helminths specifically schistosomes. Through history there are many cases where schistosomes were described in autopsies and it was related to the cause of death. Here we review the applications of parasites in Forensic Science and its importance to the forensic scientist.

  6. Host Sexual Dimorphism and Parasite Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duneau, David; Ebert, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    In species with separate sexes, parasite prevalence and disease expression is often different between males and females. This effect has mainly been attributed to sex differences in host traits, such as immune response. Here, we make the case for how properties of the parasites themselves can also matter. Specifically, we suggest that differences between host sexes in many different traits, such as morphology and hormone levels, can impose selection on parasites. This selection can eventually lead to parasite adaptations specific to the host sex more commonly encountered, or to differential expression of parasite traits depending on which host sex they find themselves in. Parasites adapted to the sex of the host in this way can contribute to differences between males and females in disease prevalence and expression. Considering those possibilities can help shed light on host–parasite interactions, and impact epidemiological and medical science. PMID:22389630

  7. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  8. Phylogeographical patterns of a generalist acorn weevil: insight into the biogeographical history of broadleaved deciduous and evergreen forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Makoto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climatic changes during glacial periods have had a major influence on the recent evolutionary history of living organisms, even in temperate forests on islands, where the land was not covered with ice sheets. We investigated the phylogeographical patterns of the weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Curculionidae, a generalist seed predator of Fagaceae plants living in both deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan. Its genetic structure was compared to that of another host-specific seed predator, C. hilgendorfi, inhabiting only evergreen forests. Results We examined 921 bp of mitochondrial DNA for 115 individuals collected from 33 populations of C. sikkimensis from 11 plant species of three genera, Quercus, Lithocarpus, and Castanopsis. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that a large proportion (almost 50%, P Conclusion Our results suggest that geology and historical environment have contributed to shaping the present genetic structure of C. sikkimensis. The geographical patterns of genetic differentiation in the Chugoku-Shikoku region observed in the two types of Fagaceae-associated Curculio in this study have also been observed in several plant species growing in warm and cool temperate zones of Japan. The occurrence of this common pattern suggests that deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan survived together, or adjacent to each other, in small refugia during glacial ages, in the southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands, although these two types of forests are presently distributed in cool and warm temperate zones of Japan, respectively.

  9. Integrative Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and New Species of the Weevil Genus Onyxacalles Stüben (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Stüben

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular phylogeny of the western Palearctic weevil genus Onyxacalles Stüben, 1999 is presented, combining two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S in a Bayesian analysis. Based on molecular data, Onyxacalles pyrenaeus Boheman, 1844 is transferred into the genus Kyklioacalles Stüben 1999 (K. fausti group and—in an integrative taxonomy framework—the interaction between morphology and molecular analysis is illustrated. The species of Onyxacalles s. str. are assigned to three new species groups, O. henoni, O. luigionii, and O. portusveneris groups. The distribution of the related species in the Mediterranean area is illustrated with values of COI and 16S p-distances. Three new species are described and distinguished from their related species: Onyxacalles nuraghi Stüben sp.n. from Italy (Sardinia, Onyxacalles torre Stüben and Astrin sp. n. from France (Corsica and Onyxacalles vilae Stüben sp. n. from Croatia (Velebit Mts.. A catalogue of all 20 species of Onyxacalles is given, and a key is finally presented combined with image stacking of the habitus and aedeagus for all species.

  10. Austromonticola, a new genus of broad-nosed weevil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae from montane areas of New Zealand

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    Samuel D. J. Brown

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Austromonticola gen. n. is proposed for a group of eight New Zealand alpine broad-nosed weevil species, all of which are here described: A. atriarius sp. n. (type locality: Umbrella Mountains, Central Otago, A. caelibatus sp. n. (type locality: Ohau Range, Mackenzie, A. furcatus sp. n. (type locality: Old Man Range, Central Otago, A. inflatus sp. n. (type locality: Hawkdun Range, Central Otago, A. planulatus sp. n. (type locality: St Marys Range, Central Otago, A. postinventus sp. n. (type locality: Kirkliston Range, South Canterbury, A. mataura sp. n. (type locality: Mt Dick, Otago Lakes and A. rotundus sp. n. (type locality: Old Man Range, Central Otago. All species occur exclusively above 1000 m elevation in the mountains of Central Otago and South Canterbury in the South Island. A phylogeny of the genus, including six outgroups, was inferred from 33 morphological characters. It resolved the genus as monophyletic, and revealed two strongly supported clades within Austromonticola. DNA sequences of four gene regions were obtained from five species. Of these, the 3' end of COI proved to be the most suitable for the identification of specimens. Females of all species have diagnostic secondary sexual structures on the elytra and ventrites. These structures are hypothesised to have evolved to assist with oviposition in and beside cushion plants or by selection for structures to mitigate the costs to females of prolonged mating.

  11. Evaluation of pseudostem trapping as a control measure against banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, C S; Gold, C S; Okech, S H; Nokoe, S

    2002-02-01

    Controlled studies to determine the efficacy of pseudostem trapping in reducing adult populations of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), were conducted under farmer conditions in Ntungamo district, Uganda. Twenty-seven farms were stratified on the basis of C. sordidus population density (estimated by mark and recapture methods) and divided among three treatments: (i) researcher-managed trapping (one trap per mat per month): (ii) farmer-managed trapping (trap intensity at discretion of farmer); and (iii) controls (no trapping). Intensive trapping (managed by researchers) resulted in significantly lower C. sordidus damage after one year. Over the same period, C. sordidus numbers declined by 61% on farms where trapping was managed by researchers, 53% where farmers managed trapping and 38% on farms without trapping; however, results varied greatly among farms and, overall, there was no significant effect of trapping on C. sordidus numbers. Moreover, there was only a weak relationship between the number of C. sordidus removed and the change in population density. Trapping success appeared to be affected by management levels and immigration from neighbouring farms. Although farmers were convinced that trapping was beneficial, adoption has been low due to resource requirements.

  12. Modified alpha-amylase activity among insecticide-resistant and -susceptible strains of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, K V G; Silva, L B; Reis, A P; Oliveira, M G A; Guedes, R N C

    2010-09-01

    Fitness cost is usually associated with insecticide resistance and may be mitigated by increased energy accumulation and mobilization. Preliminary evidence in the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suggested possible involvement of amylases in such phenomenon. Therefore, alpha-amylases were purified from an insecticide-susceptible and two insecticide-resistant strains (one with fitness cost [resistant cost strain], and the other without it [resistant no-cost strain]). The main alpha-amylase of each strain was purified by glycogen precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography (>or=70-fold purification, cost strain exhibited higher activity towards starch and lower inhibition by acarbose and wheat amylase inhibitors. Opposite results were observed for the alpha-amylase from the resistant cost strain. Although the alpha-amylase from the resistant cost strain exhibited higher affinity to starch (i.e., lower K(m)), its V(max)-value was the lowest among the strains, particularly the resistant no-cost strain. Such results provide support for the hypothesis that enhanced alpha-amylase activity may be playing a major role in mitigating fitness costs associated with insecticide resistance.

  13. The Gut Entomotype of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae and Their Effect on Host Nutrition Metabolism

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    Abrar Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For invasive insects, the potential roles of gut microbiota in exploiting new food resources and spreading remain elusive. Red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is an invasive destructive pest which feeds on nutrient-poor tender tissues and has caused extensive mortality of palm trees. The microbes associated with insects can improve their nutrition assimilation. However, experimental evidence on the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota is still absent. The aim of this study is to determine the dynamics changes and the bacterial entomotype in the RPW gut and its potential physiological roles. Here, we confirmed RPW harbors a complex gut microbiota mainly constituted by bacteria in the families Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Entomoplasmataceae, and Streptococcaceae. RPW gut microbiota exhibited a highly stable microbial community with low variance in abundance across different life stages and host plants. Furthermore, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was markedly increased but that of Acetobacteraceae was reduced significantly after administration of antibiotics. Although no significant effects were found on the body weight gain of RPW larvae, these alterations dramatically decreased the concentration of hemolymph protein and glucose while that of hemolymph triglyceride increased. In the gut of wild-caught RPW larvae, seven bacterial species in the genera Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter were shown to have an ability to degrade cellulose. Together, RPW accommodate a stable gut microbiota which can degrade plant polysaccharides and confer their host optimal adaptation to its environment by modulating its metabolism.

  14. Transgenic sugarcane overexpressing CaneCPI-1 negatively affects the growth and development of the sugarcane weevil Sphenophorus levis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Vanessa Karine; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Chakravarthi, Mohan; Ribeiro, Carolina; Chabregas, Sabrina Moutinho; Falco, Maria Cristina; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic sugarcane expressing CaneCPI-1 exhibits resistance to Sphenophorus levis larvae. Transgenic plants have widely been used to improve resistance against insect attack. Sugarcane is an economically important crop; however, great losses are caused by insect attack. Sphenophorus levis is a sugarcane weevil that digs tunnels in the stem base, leading to the destruction of the crop. This insect is controlled inefficiently by chemical insecticides. Transgenic plants expressing peptidase inhibitors represent an important strategy for impairing insect growth and development. Knowledge of the major peptidase group present in the insect gut is critical when choosing the most effective inhibitor. S. levis larvae use cysteine peptidases as their major digestive enzymes, primarily cathepsin L-like activity. In this study, we developed transgenic sugarcane plants that overexpress sugarcane cysteine peptidase inhibitor 1 (CaneCPI-1) and assessed their potential through feeding bioassays with S. levis larvae. Cystatin overexpression in the transgenic plants was evaluated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, and immunoblot assays. A 50% reduction of the average weight was observed in larvae that fed on transgenic plants in comparison to larvae that fed on non-transgenic plants. In addition, transgenic sugarcane exhibited less damage caused by larval attack than the controls. Our results suggest that the overexpression of CaneCPI-1 in sugarcane is a promising strategy for improving resistance against this insect.

  15. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae

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    Sung-Woong Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis, majoram (Origanum majorana, and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  16. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Woong; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Jang, Myeong-Jin; Jung, Chan-Sik; Park, Il-Kwon

    2016-03-16

    To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis), majoram (Origanum majorana), and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The nut weevil (Curculio nucum) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum, the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT50, and LT90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  18. Effect of temperature on the termination of prolonged larval diapause in the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Morio

    2005-12-01

    Adults of the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis emerged over a 3-year period under laboratory and quasi-field conditions due to a prolonged diapause that occurred at the mature larval stage. Variable proportions of the larvae remained in diapause after a single cold (5 degrees C) treatment of 120 days. Extension of the chilling period to as long as 540 days did not increase the percentage of diapause termination, and excessively long chilling actually reduced the percentage. Chilling was not indispensable to the termination of larval diapause. Diapause intensity was very high and variable, and more than 1000 days at 20 degrees C was necessary to reactivate all diapause larvae. When the diapause larvae were exposed to cycles of low (5 degrees C for 120 days) and high (20 degrees C for 240 days) temperatures, the percentage of diapause termination reached 100% after two or three such cycles. Thus, the prolonged diapause of C. sikkimensis has characteristics similar to the common short winter diapause in other insects, but has unique characteristics that ensure polymodal reactivation over several years.

  19. Nanotechnology for parasitic plant control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-de-Luque, Alejandro; Rubiales, Diego

    2009-05-01

    The field of nanotechnology opens up novel potential applications for agriculture. Nanotechnology applications are already being explored and used in medicine and pharmacology, but interest for use in crop protection is just starting. The development of nanodevices as smart delivery systems to target specific sites and nanocarriers for controlled chemical release is discussed. Some nanotechnologies can improve existing crop management techniques in the short to medium term. Nanocapsules would help to avoid phytotoxicity on the crop by using systemic herbicides against parasitic weeds. Nanoencapsulation can also improve herbicide application, providing better penetration through cuticles and tissues, and allowing slow and constant release of the active substances. On the other hand, new crop management tools could be developed on the basis of medical applications. Nanoparticles have a great potential as 'magic bullets', loaded with herbicides, chemicals or nucleic acids, and targeting specific plant tissues or areas to release their charge. Viral capsids can be altered by mutagenesis to achieve different configurations and deliver specific nucleic acids, enzymes or antimicrobial peptides acting against the parasites. Many issues are still to be addressed, such as increasing the scale of production processes and lowering costs, as well as toxicological issues, but the foundations of a new plant treatment concept have been laid, and applications in the field of parasitic plant control can be started.

  20. Parasitic leiomyoma after laparoscopic myomectomy

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    Srithean Lertvikool

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old nulligravid underwent laparoscopic myomectomy and the masses were removed by an electric morcellator. Five years later, this patient suffered from acute pelvic pain and received an operation. During laparoscopic surgery, an 8-cm right-sided multiloculated ovarian cyst with chocolate-like content was seen. After adhesiolysis, two parasitic myomas (each ∼2 cm in diameter were found attached to the right ovarian cyst and the other two parasitic myomas (each ∼1 cm in diameter were found at the right infundibulopelvic ligament and omentum respectively. These tumors were successfully removed by laparoscopic procedure. Histopathological examination confirmed that all masses were leiomyomas and the right ovarian cyst was confirmed to be endometriosis. The formation of parasitic myomas was assumed that myomatous fragments during morcellation at the time of myomectomy may have been left behind unintentionally. Thus, morcellator should be used carefully. With that being said, all of the myomatous fragment should be removed after morcellation.

  1. Gene Expression in Trypanosomatid Parasites

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    Santiago Martínez-Calvillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The parasites Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi are the trypanosomatid protozoa that cause the deadly human diseases leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease, respectively. These organisms possess unique mechanisms for gene expression such as constitutive polycistronic transcription of protein-coding genes and trans-splicing. Little is known about either the DNA sequences or the proteins that are involved in the initiation and termination of transcription in trypanosomatids. In silico analyses of the genome databases of these parasites led to the identification of a small number of proteins involved in gene expression. However, functional studies have revealed that trypanosomatids have more general transcription factors than originally estimated. Many posttranslational histone modifications, histone variants, and chromatin modifying enzymes have been identified in trypanosomatids, and recent genome-wide studies showed that epigenetic regulation might play a very important role in gene expression in this group of parasites. Here, we review and comment on the most recent findings related to transcription initiation and termination in trypanosomatid protozoa.

  2. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marta; Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  3. Fauna Europaea: Helminths (Animal Parasitic

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    David Gibson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region, and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  4. Fauna europaea: helminths (animal parasitic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, David I; Bray, Rodney A; Hunt, David; Georgiev, Boyko B; Scholz, Tomaš; Harris, Philip D; Bakke, Tor A; Pojmanska, Teresa; Niewiadomska, Katarzyna; Kostadinova, Aneta; Tkach, Vasyl; Bain, Odile; Durette-Desset, Marie-Claude; Gibbons, Lynda; Moravec, František; Petter, Annie; Dimitrova, Zlatka M; Buchmann, Kurt; Valtonen, E Tellervo; de Jong, Yde

    2014-01-01

    Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Helminths parasitic in animals represent a large assemblage of worms, representing three phyla, with more than 200 families and almost 4,000 species of parasites from all major vertebrate and many invertebrate groups. A general introduction is given for each of the major groups of parasitic worms, i.e. the Acanthocephala, Monogenea, Trematoda (Aspidogastrea and Digenea), Cestoda and Nematoda. Basic information for each group includes its size, host-range, distribution, morphological features, life-cycle, classification, identification and recent key-works. Tabulations include a complete list of families dealt with, the number of species in each and the name of the specialist responsible for data acquisition, a list of additional specialists who helped with particular groups, and a list of higher taxa dealt with down to the family level. A compilation of useful references is appended.

  5. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Oliveira

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer.

  6. Coevolution of Parental Care, Parasitic, and Resistance Efforts in Facultative Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, Nicole M; Reeve, Hudson Kern

    2015-11-01

    Here we develop a tug-of-war game theory model of mixed-strategy facultative parasitism. In this framework, individuals decide how to strategically invest in parental care effort, parasitism, and resistance to being parasitized, choosing their investments to respond optimally to their opponent's behavior and vice versa. We have implemented the model in the well-studied case of mixed-strategy conspecific brood parasitism, which occurs when a female raises her own clutch of eggs and flexibly lays some eggs in a conspecific's nest. However, the nest of a parasitic female in this case may also be parasitized. We model this as a tug-of-war, allowing parasitic and resistance efforts to strategically coevolve with each other. We then derive expressions for parasitism outcomes commonly observed in the field. The model also captures the trade-offs between parental care and parasitism when both are possible. We make a number of novel predictions about the rate of successful versus attempted parasitism as well as how parental care effort, resistance to parasitism, and fitness vary as functions of group size and individual differences between players in energy budget and production efficiency. Although we focus primarily on conspecific brood parasitism, the model is general enough to be extended to other systems in which facultative parasitism is possible, including the parasitism of food, fertilizations, nest sites, or other resources from conspecifics.

  7. Parasites as prey in aquatic food webs: implications for predator infection and parasite transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieltges, David W.; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Lafferty, Levin D.; Mouritsen, Kim N.; Preston, Daniel L.; Reise, Karsten; Zander, C. Dieter; Poulin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    While the recent inclusion of parasites into food-web studies has highlighted the role of parasites as consumers, there is accumulating evidence that parasites can also serve as prey for predators. Here we investigated empirical patterns of predation on parasites and their relationships with parasite transmission in eight topological food webs representing marine and freshwater ecosystems. Within each food web, we examined links in the typical predator–prey sub web as well as the predator–parasite sub web, i.e. the quadrant of the food web indicating which predators eat parasites. Most predator– parasite links represented ‘concomitant predation’ (consumption and death of a parasite along with the prey/host; 58–72%), followed by ‘trophic transmission’ (predator feeds on infected prey and becomes infected; 8–32%) and predation on free-living parasite life-cycle stages (4–30%). Parasite life-cycle stages had, on average, between 4.2 and 14.2 predators. Among the food webs, as predator richness increased, the number of links exploited by trophically transmitted parasites increased at about the same rate as did the number of links where these stages serve as prey. On the whole, our analyses suggest that predation on parasites has important consequences for both predators and parasites, and food web structure. Because our analysis is solely based on topological webs, determining the strength of these interactions is a promising avenue for future research.

  8. Genotype-specific interactions between parasitic arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsucci, M; Navajas, M; Fellous, S

    2017-03-01

    Despite the ubiquity of coinfection, we know little of the effects of intra-specific genetic variability on coinfection by distinct parasite species. Here we test the hypothesis that parasite multiplication depends on the combination of parasite genotypes that coinfect the host (that is Genotype.parasite × Genotype.parasite interaction). To that aim, we infected tomato leaves with the ecto-parasitic mites Tetranychus urticae and Tetranychus evansi. We tested all possible combinations between four T. urticae and two T. evansi populations sampled on different hosts or localities. There was no universal (that is genotype-independent) effect of coinfection on mite multiplication; in many cases the two species had no effect on each other. However, several combinations of T. evansi and T. urticae populations led to elevated T. evansi numbers. Similarly, T. urticae reproduction largely depended on the interaction between T. urticae and T. evansi populations. This evidence for genotype-by-genotype interaction between coinfecting parasites indicates that the effect of coinfection on parasite epidemiology and evolution may vary in space according to the genetic composition of local parasite populations; it further suggests the possibility of coevolution between parasites species that share the same hosts.

  9. The evolution of parasitism in Nematoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaxter, Mark; Koutsovoulos, Georgios

    2015-02-01

    Nematodes are abundant and diverse, and include many parasitic species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that parasitism of plants and animals has arisen at least 15 times independently. Extant nematode species also display lifestyles that are proposed to be on the evolutionary trajectory to parasitism. Recent advances have permitted the determination of the genomes and transcriptomes of many nematode species. These new data can be used to further resolve the phylogeny of Nematoda, and identify possible genetic patterns associated with parasitism. Plant-parasitic nematode genomes show evidence of horizontal gene transfer from other members of the rhizosphere, and these genes play important roles in the parasite-host interface. Similar horizontal transfer is not evident in animal parasitic groups. Many nematodes have bacterial symbionts that can be essential for survival. Horizontal transfer from symbionts to the nematode is also common, but its biological importance is unclear. Over 100 nematode species are currently targeted for sequencing, and these data will yield important insights into the biology and evolutionary history of parasitism. It is important that these new technologies are also applied to free-living taxa, so that the pre-parasitic ground state can be inferred, and the novelties associated with parasitism isolated.

  10. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L LeBlanc

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host-parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking.

  11. Ecological consequences of manipulative parasites: chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Parasitic "puppet masters", with their twisted, self-serving life history strategies and impressive evolutionary takeovers of host minds, capture the imagination of listeners—even those that might not normally fi nd the topic of parasitism appealing (which includes most everyone). A favorite anecdote concerns the trematode Leucochloridium paradoxum migrating to the eyestalks of its intermediate host snail and pulsating its colored body, presumably to attract the predatory birds that are the final hosts for the worm. Identifying a parasite as “manipulative” infers that a change in host behavior or appearance is a direct consequence of the parasite’s adaptive actions that, on average, will increase the fi tness of the parasite. The list of parasites that manipulate their hosts is long and growing. Holmes and Bethel (1972) presented the earliest comprehensive review and brought the subject to mainstream ecologists. Over two decades ago, Andy Dobson (1988) listed seven cestodes, seven trematodes, ten acanthocephalans, and three nematodes that manipulated host behavior. Fifteen years later, Janice Moore (2002) filled a book with examples. The five infectious trophic strategies, typical parasites (macroparasites), pathogens, trophically transmitted parasites, parasitic castrators, and parasitoids (Kuris and Lafferty 2000; Lafferty and Kuris 2002, 2009) can modify host behavior, but the likelihood that a parasite manipulates behavior differs among strategies. The most studied infectious agents, non-trophically transmitted pathogens and macroparasites, have enormous public health, veterinary, and wildlife disease importance, yet few manipulate host behavior. The beststudied manipulative infectious agents are trophically transmitted parasites in their prey intermediate hosts. Parasitoids and parasitic castrators can also manipulate host behavior, but for different purposes and with different implications. Several studies of manipulative parasites conclude with

  12. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the major recent advances in evolutionary biology is the recognition that evolutionary interactions between species are substantially differentiated among geographic populations. To date, several authors have revealed natural selection pressures mediating the geographically-divergent processes of coevolution. How local, then, is the geographic structuring of natural selection in coevolutionary systems? Results I examined the spatial scale of a "geographic selection mosaic," focusing on a system involving a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), and its host plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica). In this system, female weevils excavate camellia fruits with their extremely-long mouthparts to lay eggs into seeds, while camellia seeds are protected by thick pericarps. Quantitative evaluation of natural selection demonstrated that thicker camellia pericarps are significantly favored in some, but not all, populations within a small island (Yakushima Island, Japan; diameter ca. 30 km). At the extreme, camellia populations separated by only several kilometers were subject to different selection pressures. Interestingly, in a population with the thickest pericarps, camellia individuals with intermediate pericarp thickness had relatively high fitness when the potential costs of producing thick pericarps were considered. Also importantly, some parameters of the weevil - camellia interaction such as the severity of seed infestation showed clines along temperature, suggesting the effects of climate on the fine-scale geographic differentiation of the coevolutionary processes. Conclusion These results show that natural selection can drive the geographic differentiation of interspecific interactions at surprisingly small spatial scales. Future studies should reveal the evolutionary/ecological outcomes of the "fine scale geographic mosaics" in biological communities. PMID:19941669

  14. Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toju Hirokazu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major recent advances in evolutionary biology is the recognition that evolutionary interactions between species are substantially differentiated among geographic populations. To date, several authors have revealed natural selection pressures mediating the geographically-divergent processes of coevolution. How local, then, is the geographic structuring of natural selection in coevolutionary systems? Results I examined the spatial scale of a "geographic selection mosaic," focusing on a system involving a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae, and its host plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica. In this system, female weevils excavate camellia fruits with their extremely-long mouthparts to lay eggs into seeds, while camellia seeds are protected by thick pericarps. Quantitative evaluation of natural selection demonstrated that thicker camellia pericarps are significantly favored in some, but not all, populations within a small island (Yakushima Island, Japan; diameter ca. 30 km. At the extreme, camellia populations separated by only several kilometers were subject to different selection pressures. Interestingly, in a population with the thickest pericarps, camellia individuals with intermediate pericarp thickness had relatively high fitness when the potential costs of producing thick pericarps were considered. Also importantly, some parameters of the weevil - camellia interaction such as the severity of seed infestation showed clines along temperature, suggesting the effects of climate on the fine-scale geographic differentiation of the coevolutionary processes. Conclusion These results show that natural selection can drive the geographic differentiation of interspecific interactions at surprisingly small spatial scales. Future studies should reveal the evolutionary/ecological outcomes of the "fine scale geographic mosaics" in biological communities.

  15. Effect of Bait Quantity and Trap Color on the Trapping Efficacy of the Pheromone Trap for the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

    OpenAIRE

    Abuagla, Abdullah Mohamed; Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), is not native to the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since its arrival in 1985, it has been causing major damage to date palm trees. A primary control strategy has been the use of pheromone baited traps. The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity of bait, and the best trap color, to obtain the maximum catch of R. ferrugineus under field conditions in the UAE. Traps with 100, 300, or 500 g of dat...

  16. When parasites disagree: Evidence for parasite-induced sabotage of host manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafer, Nina; Milinski, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Host manipulation is a common parasite strategy to alter host behavior in a manner to enhance parasite fitness usually by increasing the parasite's transmission to the next host. In nature, hosts often harbor multiple parasites with agreeing or conflicting interests over host manipulation. Natural selection might drive such parasites to cooperation, compromise, or sabotage. Sabotage would occur if one parasite suppresses the manipulation of another. Experimental studies on the effect of multi-parasite interactions on host manipulation are scarce, clear experimental evidence for sabotage is elusive. We tested the effect of multiple infections on host manipulation using laboratory-bred copepods experimentally infected with the trophically transmitted tapeworm Schistocephalus solidus. This parasite is known to manipulate its host depending on its own developmental stage. Coinfecting parasites with the same aim enhance each other's manipulation but only after reaching infectivity. If the coinfecting parasites disagree over host manipulation, the infective parasite wins this conflict: the noninfective one has no effect. The winning (i.e., infective) parasite suppresses the manipulation of its noninfective competitor. This presents conclusive experimental evidence for both cooperation in and sabotage of host manipulation and hence a proof of principal that one parasite can alter and even neutralize manipulation by another. PMID:25643621

  17. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  18. Overdispersion in marine fish parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, R J G

    2012-08-01

    A modification of Taylor's Power law was used to compare the degree of overdispersion in frequency distributions from 38 datasets of marine parasites, data that had originally been collected for fish stock discrimination. The results strongly indicate that the overriding factor contributing to overdispersion in these helminths and crustaceans is the number of hosts in the life cycle. This was particularly well shown by juveniles of Anisakis 1 from different fish species. Data on the cestode Otobothrium cysticum and the monogenean Pricea multae appear anomalous and lead to conclusions about their biology not at first evident from the literature.

  19. Intraspecific variability in host manipulation by parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, F; Brodeur, J; Maure, F.; De Franceschi, N.; Blanchet, S.; Rigaud, T.

    2011-01-01

    Manipulative parasites have the capacity to alter a broad range of phenotypic traits in their hosts, extending from colour, morphology and behaviour. While significant attention has been devoted to describing the diversity of host manipulation among parasite clades, and testing the adaptive value of phenotypic traits that can be manipulated, there is increasing evidence that variation exists in the frequency and intensity of the changes displayed by parasitized individuals within single host-...

  20. The evolution of parasitism in Nematoda

    OpenAIRE

    Blaxter, Mark; Koutsovoulos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Nematodes are abundant and diverse, and include many parasitic species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses have shown that parasitism of plants and animals has arisen at least 15 times independently. Extant nematode species also display lifestyles that are proposed to be on the evolutionary trajectory to parasitism. Recent advances have permitted the determination of the genomes and transcriptomes of many nematode species. These new data can be used to further resolve the phylogeny of Nematoda, ...

  1. Association of Parasitic Infections and Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurana S

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in the fields of molecular biology, epidemiology and infectious diseases have led to significant revelations to clarify the relationship between cancer and infective agents. This article reviews the relationship between parasitic infections and carcinogenesis and the possible mechanisms involved. Few parasites, e.g., Schistosoma haematobium and Opisthorchis viverrini have been found to be strongly associated with bladder cancer and cholangiocarcinoma respectively. The evidence for the association of several other parasites and cancers has also been postulated.

  2. Mistletoes as parasites: Host specificity and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, D A; Carpenter, M A

    1998-03-01

    Recent research on parasite evolution has highlighted the importance of host specialization in speciation, either through host-switching or cospeciation. Many parasites show common patterns of host specificity, with higher host specificity where host abundance is high and reliable, phylogenetically conservative host specificity, and formation of races on or in different host species. Recent advances in our understanding of host specificity and speciation patterns in a variety of animal parasites provides valuable insights into the evolutionary biology of mistletoes.

  3. Bacterial and parasitic diseases of pet fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Helen E; Palmeiro, Brian; Weber, E Scott

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial and parasitic diseases are very common problems in pet fish. Diagnostic testing for bacterial and parasitic diseases is simple to do; many tests can be done on ambulatory visits. When logical treatment strategies are initiated and supported by diagnostic testing, a successful outcome is possible. Identification of the correct pathogens also allows an educational opportunity for discussions on prevention and biosecurity practices with clients and although fish are poikilothermic, there are some bacterial and parasitic pathogens that are zoonotic.

  4. Host-parasite interactions: Marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, Perkinsus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudant, Philippe; E Chu, Fu-Lin; Volety, Aswani

    2013-10-01

    This review assesses and examines the work conducted to date concerning host and parasite interactions between marine bivalve molluscs and protozoan parasites, belonging to Perkinsus species. The review focuses on two well-studied host-parasite interaction models: the two clam species, Ruditapes philippinarum and R. decussatus, and the parasite Perkinsus olseni, and the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and the parasite Perkinsus marinus. Cellular and humoral defense responses of the host in combating parasitic infection, the mechanisms (e.g., antioxidant enzymes, extracellular products) employed by the parasite in evading host defenses as well as the role of environmental factors in modulating the host-parasite interactions are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieltges, David W.; Engelsma, Marc Y.; Wendling, Carolin C.; Wegner, K. Mathias

    2013-09-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest a multitude of effects on the hosts. This also includes effects on specific predator-prey relationships and the general structure of the food web. Focussing on molluscs, a major group in the Wadden Sea in terms of biomass and abundance and an important link between primary producers and predators, we review existing studies and exemplify the ecological role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. First, we give a brief inventory of parasites occurring in the Wadden Sea, ranging from microparasites (e.g. protozoa, bacteria) to macroparasites (e.g. helminths, parasitic copepods) and discuss the effects of spatial scale on heterogeneities in infection levels. We then demonstrate how parasites can affect host population dynamics by acting as a strong mortality factor, causing mollusc mass mortalities. In addition, we will exemplify how parasites can mediate the interaction strength of predator-prey relationships and affect the topological structure of the Wadden Sea food web as a whole. Finally, we highlight some ongoing changes regarding parasitism in the Wadden Sea in the course of global change (e.g. species introduction, climate change) and identify important future research questions to entangle the role of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web.

  6. Pregnancy, nutrition and parasitic diseases1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard W Steketee

    2003-01-01

    .... Among parasitic infections, malaria and intestinal helminths coexist widely with micronutrient deficiencies and contribute importantly to anemia and this cycle of retarded growth and development...

  7. Fish Parasites: A Growing Concern During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villazanakretzer, Diana L; Napolitano, Peter G; Cummings, Kelly F; Magann, Everett F

    2016-04-01

    Intestinal parasitic worms affect more than 2 billion people worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Fish-borne parasitic infections are becoming more common with the increasing popularity of sushi, sashimi, Carpaccio, tartare, gefilte, and ceviche. The ingestion of these parasites can cause serve anemia, malabsorption, severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, strong allergic reactions, and gastric ulcers. Knowledge about fish parasites and pregnancy is limited. A literature search on PubMed and Web of Science used the search terms "fish parasites" OR "diphyllobothrium" OR "anisakiasis" OR "pseudoterranova" OR ("food borne parasites" AND "fish") AND "pregnancy" OR "maternal" OR "fetus" OR "fetal" OR "newborn" OR "neonatal" OR "childbirth." No limit was put on the number of years searched. There were 281 publications identified. The abstracts of all of these publications were read. After exclusion of the articles that were not relevant to pregnancy, pregnancy outcome, and fish parasites, there were 24 articles that became the basis of this review. The pathophysiology, altered maternal immunity related to the infection, limited information about fish-borne parasitic infections and pregnancy, and treatments are discussed. The main impact of a fish-borne parasitic infection on pregnant women is anemia and altered immunity, which may increase the risk of a maternal infection. The primary fetal effects include intrauterine growth restriction and preterm delivery.

  8. Herbivory by an introduced Asian weevil negatively affects population growth of an invasive Brazilian shrub in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Stiling, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) is often cited to explain why some plants successfully invade natural communities while others do not. This hypothesis maintains that plant populations are regulated by coevolved enemies in their native range but are relieved of this pressure where their enemies have not been co-introduced. Some studies have shown that invasive plants sustain lower levels of herbivore damage when compared to native species, but how damage affects fitness and population dynamics remains unclear. We used a system of co-occurring native and invasive Eugenia congeners in south Florida (USA) to experimentally test the ERH, addressing deficiencies in our understanding of the role of natural enemies in plant invasion at the population level. Insecticide was used to experimentally exclude insect herbivores from invasive Eugenia uniflora and its native co-occurring congeners in the field for two years. Herbivore damage, plant growth, survival, and population growth rates for the three species were then compared for control and insecticide-treated plants. Our results contradict the ERH, indicating that E. uniflora sustains more herbivore damage than its native congeners and that this damage negatively impacts stem height, survival, and population growth. In addition, most damage to E. uniflora, a native of Brazil, is carried out by Myllocerus undatus, a recently introduced weevil from Sri Lanka, and M. undatus attacks a significantly greater proportion of E. uniflora leaves than those of its native congeners. This interaction is particularly interesting because M. undatus and E. uniflora share no coevolutionary history, having arisen on two separate continents and come into contact on a third. Our study is the first to document negative population-level effects for an invasive plant as a result of the introduction of a novel herbivore. Such inhibitory interactions are likely to become more prevalent as suites of previously noninteracting species continue to

  9. Growth and defence in young pine and spruce and the expression of resistance to a stem-feeding weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainhouse, D; Staley, J T; Jinks, R; Morgan, G

    2009-01-01

    Defence in young trees has been much less studied than defence in older ones. In conifers, resin within ducts in bark is an important quantitative defence, but its expression in young trees may be influenced by developmental or physical constraints on the absolute size of the resin ducts as well as by differential allocation of resources to growth and resin synthesis. To examine these relationships, we used nitrogen fertilisation of 1- and 2-year-old pine and spruce to produce trees of different sizes and measured the effect on the number and size of resin ducts and the amount of resin they contained. All of these variables tended to increase with stem diameter, indicating a positive relationship between resin-based defence and growth of 1- and 2-year-old trees. In pine, however, the mass of resin flowing from severed ducts was much lower relative to duct area in 1- than in 2-year-old trees, suggesting that the older trees allocated a higher proportion of the carbon budget to resin synthesis. Resin-based defence in 1-year-old pines appears to be both positively related to growth and resource limited. In spruce, resin production was generally lower, and age-related differences were not observed, suggesting that resin-based defence is less important in this species. Bio-assays of 2-year-old trees with the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, emphasised the importance of resin as a defence against this bark feeding insect. Nitrogen fertilisation had a limited influence on resistance expression. One-year-old trees remained susceptible because of their small size, low resin production and limited response to fertilisation. The strong growth response of 2-year-old trees to fertilisation increased resin-based defence, but most spruce trees remained susceptible, while most pines were resistant at all levels of fertilisation.

  10. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales Correa, Yenis Del Carmen; Faroni, Lêda R A; Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2015-11-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of olfactory receptor neurons for pheromone candidate and plant volatile compounds in the clover root weevil, Sitona lepidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kye Chung; McNeill, Mark; Unelius, C Rikard; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Suckling, David M

    2013-12-01

    Antennal olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) for pheromone and plant volatile compounds were identified and characterized in male and female clover root weevil, Sitona lepidus (Gyllenhal), using the single sensillum recording technique with five pheromone-related compounds, and 40 host and non-host plant volatile compounds. Overall, seven different types of olfactory sensilla containing specialized ORNs were identified in each sex of S. lepidus. Among them, three different types of sensilla in the males and two types in the females housed ORNs specialized for pheromone-related compounds. The ORNs in males were specialized for 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione or one or more of four stereoisomers of 5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone. In contrast, female sensilla did not contain ORNs sensitive to 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione while they contained ORNs sensitive to and specialized for the stereoisomers of (4S,5S)-5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone. In addition to the pheromone-related ORNs, four types of olfactory sensilla contained ORNs responsive to plant volatile compounds in male S. lepidus, and five types in females. Most of the ORNs identified in S. lepidus showed a high degree of specificity to specific volatile compounds although some of the active compounds showed overlapping response spectra in the ORNs across different types of sensilla. The most active plant volatile compounds were the four green leaf volatile compounds, (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-2-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenol and (E)-2-hexenal, and isomers of two monoterpenols, (±)-linalool and (±)-α-terpineol, all eliciting strong responses from relatively large numbers of ORNs in male and female S. lepidus. Our study indicates that S. lepidus has a set of highly sensitive and selective ORNs for pheromone and plant volatile compounds. Further work is needed to elucidate the behavioral implications of these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Laboratory and field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi for the management of the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Coleoptera: Brentidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Zhao, Zihua; Humber, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is one of the most important pests of sweet potatoes in the world. With free trade between the United States and the U.S.-controlled Mariana Islands, C. formicarius has spread along with this commodity. Because of the cryptic nature of the larvae and nocturnal activity of the adults, and the cancellation of long-residual pesticides, this pest has become increasingly difficult to control. Therefore, the present study sought to explore and to compare the effectiveness of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (90ml a.i./ha), Beauveria bassiana GHA (40ml a.i./ha), spinosad (90g a.i./ha), azadirachtin (1484ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+M. brunneum (20ml a.i./ha+45ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+azadirachtin (20ml a.i./ha+742ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+spinosad (20ml a.i./ha+45ml a.i./ha), M. brunneum+azadirachtin (45ml a.i./ha+742ml a.i./ha) and M. brunneum+spinosad (45ml a.i./ha+45 grams a.i./ha) in controlling this pest in both the laboratory and the field. The treatment with B. bassiana+M. brunneum was the most effective in reducing tuber damage by C. formicarius, producing the highest yields. The most adult cadavers were found in plots treated with the combination of two fungi. This combined fungal formulation appears to be appropriate for the practical control of C. formicarius on sweet potatoes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Toxicity of lemon grass Cymbopogon citratus powder and methanol extract against rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Osaigbokan Uwamose

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicity potential of lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus] products against adult rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. Methods: Lemon grass (C. citratus leaves were sundried for 7 days, pulverized and sieved using 0.5 mm mesh size to obtain fine powders. About 500 g of the powder were dissolved in 1000 mL of 90% methanol to produce the extract. The powder and extract were used for the bioassay. The powder was tested at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/10 g rice grains, respectively. The toxic potential of the extract of concentration of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/mL were evaluated using the filter paper method. The experiment was setup on a completely randomized design using three replicates per treatment. Results: The results indicated significant difference (F = 7.450; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 in mean percentage mortality after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure with the powder compared with the control. Significantly (F = 5.519; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 higher percentage adult mortality was also observed in the extract after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure compared with the control. The LC50 value of the powder was 4.91 g/10 g of rice while the LT50 was 160.51 h. The LC50 value of the extract was 2.16 mg/20 mL of methanol with an LT50 of 75.10 h. The methanol extract of C. citratus showed the highest mortality compared to the powder which was less toxic. Conclusions: The study showed that C. citratus products are promising insecticides and can be used effectively in the management of Sitophilus oryzae in storage..

  14. Complex selection on life-history traits and the maintenance of variation in exaggerated rostrum length in acorn weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, Raul; Espelta, Josep Maria; Vogler, Alfried P

    2011-12-01

    Trophic interactions can trigger the development of exaggerated specialized characters and promote morphological diversification. For example, acorn weevils (genus Curculio) present strikingly long rostrums, which are used by females to perforate oviposition holes through the seed coat. Species exhibiting longer rostrums are known to exploit larger acorns, and therefore rostrum length is thought to be subject to selection to match the preferred acorn type. However, rostrum length is strongly correlated with body size, and morphological divergence could result from either selection on rostrum length for optimal food exploitation or from other pressures acting on body size. We collected infested acorns at oak forests where the large Curculio elephas and the small-bodied Curculio glandium co-occur. There were no interspecific differences in adult female body size to rostrum length allometric relationships, and rostrum length is equally correlated with body size in either species. MtDNA-based species identification showed that C. glandium larvae were present within acorns of all sizes, whereas C. elephas larvae were restricted to acorns above a minimum size, irrespective of oak species. Hence, exploitation of large acorns can hardly have triggered rostrum enlargement, as the small sized C. glandium adults (with short rostrums) could perforate and oviposit in both small and large acorns. Rather, increased rostrum length is probably a by-product of the larger body sizes of individuals emerging from bigger acorns, which allow increased larval size and enhance larval survival likelihood. Summarizing, when exaggerated feeding traits co-vary with other body features, interspecific morphological variability may result from contrasting selective pressures acting on these correlated characters.

  15. Effect of Soil Moisture and a Surfactant on Entomopathogenic Nematode Suppression of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio caryae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Brown, Ian; Gardner, Wayne A; Hubbard, Robert K; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-12-01

    Our overall goal was to investigate several aspects of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, suppression with entomopathogenic nematodes. Specifically, our objectives were to: 1) determine optimum moisture levels for larval suppression, 2) determine suppression of adult C. caryae under field conditions, and 3) measure the effects of a surfactant on nematode efficacy. In the laboratory, virulence of Heterorhabditis megidis (UK211) and Steinernema carpocapsae (All) were tested in a loamy sand at gravimetric water contents of negative 0.01, 0.06, 0.3, 1.0, and 15 bars. Curculio caryae larval survival decreased as moisture levels increased. The nematode effect was most pronounced at -0.06 bars. At -0.01 bars, larval survival was

  16. [Trichostrongyloidea nematodes, parasites of Microchiroptera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M C; Chabaud, A G

    1975-01-01

    1. a) List of Nematodes collected by Professor Aellen in european Microchiroptera. Additionnal morphological data to the study of Molinostrongylus alatus, M. panousei, M. skrjabini. Description of M. aelleni n. sp. b) Description of M. richardae n. sp., M. benexae n. sp. et M. bauchoti n. sp., parasites of malagasian Molossidae. c) Description of M. colleyi n. sp. and M. owyangi n. sp., parasites of Malaysian Vespertilioninae, and of Allintoschius dunni n. sp., discovered in Myotis mystacinus from Malaysia and Pipistrellus nanus from Africa. 2. Taking into account the characteristics of the synlophe, the 17 species of the genus Molinostrongylus may be divided into five groups, each one being reasonably well characteristic of the genus of their Chiropteran host. 3. The composition of the Trichostrongyloidea fauna of Chiroptera and its relationship with Trichostrongyloidea from other Mammals (Tupaiidae, Pholidotes, Primates, Sciuridés) are analysed. Six groups are separated and divided into two well defined lines: 1) genus Strongylacantha, and 2) 12 genera stemming more or less directly from the Molineinae, 4. The three conical outgrowths at the tip of the female tail which differenciate presently the Anoplostrogylinae from the Molineinae appear to be an unreliable characteristic. The two subfamilies form a complex group which will be better understood if the evolution of the synlophe and that of the caudal bursa of the males are taken into account.

  17. Serological Studies of Parasite Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Christine E.; Smith, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Complement-fixation (CF) tests with sonicated aqueous extracts of adult forms of five species of gastrointestinal nematodes as antigens have been made on serial biweekly bleedings from two groups of parasitized calves grazing on infected pastures during the 1963 or 1964 seasons. Three of these nematode species, Cooperia oncophora, Ostertagia ostertagi and Nematodirus helvetianus, were found in large numbers in most of these animals. The calves were negative serologically before being placed on pasture but within 2 to 4 weeks some had developed considerable CF activity with Cooperia and other nematode antigens. Ten calves died, however, before significant CF titres had been attained. Eight control calves in the 1963 or 1964 groups which were grazed on “clean” pastures, remained serologically negative during the summer and autumn months. Four of the six surviving exposed animals in the 1964 group showed a fall in CF activity during the winter months when they were stabled, whereas the six surviving controls developed low CF titres suggesting that they were becoming mildly parasitized. In the spring of 1965 CF titres began to rise in some of the previously exposed and control yearlings even before they were placed on infected pasture in June. PMID:4226342

  18. Analysis of parasites by electrorotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, C; Goater, A D; Burt, J P H; Smith, H V

    2004-01-01

    The application of the AC electrokinetic technique of electrorotation for studying eukaryotic parasite transmission stages is reviewed. Electrorotation is a noninvasive technique that utilizes electrically energized microelectrode structures within micro-fluidic chambers to probe the physiological structure of micro-organisms. Application of the technique to the transmission life cycle stages of three separate genera of protozoan parasites, Cryptosporidium, Giardia and Cyclospora, and one nematode genus Ascaris, each of significant public health importance, is described. Standard electrorotation apparatus, consisting of micro-fabricated electrodes in a fluidic chip, quadrature sinusoidal signal generator, microscope and image capture system, was used to study each organism. Spectra of cellular rotation rate were recorded as a function of applied electric field frequency and compared with standardized biological tests, where appropriate, to illustrate the effectiveness and versatility of the electrorotation technique. Electrorotational determination of the viability of individual G. intestinalis cysts, Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts has been achieved. The sporulation state of Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts was also readily determined, as was the fertilization state of A. suum ova. Electrorotation is a simple, noninvasive and versatile analytical technique suited to a wide range of particle types and capable of incorporation into integrated Lab-on-a-chip devices.

  19. How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Magalhães Campião

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR. We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

  20. How Many Parasites Species a Frog Might Have? Determinants of Parasite Diversity in South American Anurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Ribas, Augusto Cesar de Aquino; Morais, Drausio Honorio; da Silva, Reinaldo José; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing interest in unveiling the dynamics of parasite infection. Understanding the interaction patterns, and determinants of host-parasite association contributes to filling knowledge gaps in both community and disease ecology. Despite being targeted as a relevant group for conservation efforts, determinants of the association of amphibians and their parasites in broad scales are poorly understood. Here we describe parasite biodiversity in South American amphibians, testing the influence of host body size and geographic range in helminth parasites species richness (PSR). We also test whether parasite diversity is related to hosts' phylogenetic diversity. Results showed that nematodes are the most common anuran parasites. Host-parasite network has a nested pattern, with specialist helminth taxa generally associated with hosts that harbour the richest parasite faunas. Host size is positively correlated with helminth fauna richness, but we found no support for the association of host geographic range and PSR. These results remained consistent after correcting for uneven study effort and hosts' phylogenic correlation. However, we found no association between host and parasite diversity, indicating that more diversified anuran clades not necessarily support higher parasite diversity. Overall, considering both the structure and the determinants of PRS in anurans, we conclude that specialist parasites are more likely to be associated with large anurans, which are the ones harbouring higher PSR, and that the lack of association of PSR with hosts' clade diversification suggests it is strongly influenced by ecological and contemporary constrains.

  1. Predation on transmission stages reduces parasitism: sea anemones consume transmission stages of a barnacle parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Caitlin R; Kuris, Armand M

    2017-06-01

    While parasites serve as prey, it is unclear how the spatial distribution of parasite predators provides transmission control and influences patterns of parasitism. Because many of its organisms are sessile, the rocky intertidal zone is a valuable but little used system to understand spatial patterns of parasitism and elucidate the underlying mechanisms driving these patterns. Sea anemones and barnacles are important space competitors in the rocky intertidal zone along the Pacific coast of North America. Anemones are voracious, indiscriminate predators; thus, they may intercept infectious stages of parasites before they reach a host. We investigate whether a sea anemone protects an associated barnacle from parasitism by Hemioniscus balani, an isopod parasitic castrator. At Coal Oil Point, Santa Barbara, California USA, 29% of barnacles were within 1 cm from an anemone at the surveyed tidal height. Barnacles associated with anemones had reduced parasite prevalence and higher reproductive productivity than those remote from sea anemones. In the laboratory, anemones readily consumed the transmission stage of the parasite. Hence, anemone consumption of parasite transmission stages may provide a mechanism by which community context regulates parasite prevalence at a local scale. Our results suggest predation may be an important process providing parasite transmission control.

  2. Biological invasions and host-parasite coevolution: different coevolutionary trajectories along separate parasite invasion fronts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feis, M.E.; Goedknegt, M.A.; Thieltges, D.W.; Buschbaum, C.; Wegner, K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Host–parasite coevolution has rarely been observed in natural systems. Its study often relies on microparasitic infections introducing a potential bias in the estimation of the evolutionary change of host and parasite traits. Using biological invasions as a tool to study host–parasite coevolution in

  3. Timing and host plant associations in the evolution of the weevil tribe Apionini (Apioninae, Brentidae, Curculionoidea, Coleoptera) indicate an ancient co-diversification pattern of beetles and flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sven; Friedman, Ariel L L; Astrin, Jonas J; Gottsberger, Brigitte; Letsch, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Host plant shifts of insects can lead to a burst of diversification driven by their arrival in a new adaptive zone. In this context, our study aims to explore timing and patterns in the evolution of the weevil tribe Apionini (Brentidae, Curculionoidea, Coleoptera), particularly in relation to affiliations with their host plants. The classification of Apionini is difficult because of their relatively uniform appearance. Most taxa live mono- or oligophagously on members of Asteraceae or Fabaceae, but many are associated with other plant families, like Lamiaceae, Malvaceae and Polygonaceae. However, a comprehensive hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Apionini is still missing. In the present study, we reconstructed trees and estimated divergence times among tribes. These results were further used to reconstruct the ancestral host plant use in Apionini weevils and to infer if the divergence timing of putative subtribes corresponds with the occurrence and radiation of their specific host plant groups. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the monophyly of most subtribes, with the exceptions of Oxystomatina, Kalcapiina and Aspidapiina. The subribe Aplemonina is inferred to be sister to all remaining Apionini. Divergence time estimates indicate the first occurrence of Apionini in the Upper Cretaceous and a simultaneous occurrence of several families of flowering plants and the occupation by Apionini weevil herbivores. These conspicuous coincidences support either an ancient co-diversification scenario or an escalating diversification in weevils induced by the radiation of flowering plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Growth factors and chemotactic factors from parasitic helminths: molecular evidence for roles in host-parasite interactions versus parasite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Tori C; Pearce, Edward J

    2010-06-01

    For decades molecular helminthologists have been interested in identifying proteins expressed by the parasite that have roles in modulating the host immune response. In some cases, the aim was targeting parasite-derived orthologues of mammalian cytokines and growth factors known to have functions in immune modulation. In others, novel proteins without homology to mammalian cytokines were isolated by investigating effects of purified worm extracts on various immunological processes. Often, the role parasite-derived growth factors play in worm development was ignored. Here, we review growth factors and chemotactic factors expressed by parasitic helminths and discuss their recognised and potential roles in immunomodulation and/or parasite development. (c) 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of insecticidal efficacy of four natural substances against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults: does the combined use of the substances improve their efficacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bohinc

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of different natural inert dusts (diatomaceous earth, wood ash, quartz sand and the leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults. The efficacy of the substances was tested individually and in combination with each other. The substances were applied at different concentrations, and bioassays were carried out at four different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35°C and two different relative humidity (RH levels (55% and 75%. The adult mortality was recorded after the 7th, 14th and 21st days of exposure. The progeny production of individuals exposed to different combinations was also assessed. Wood ash proved to be the most efficient inert dust in our research. We detected 100% mortality in the treatment exposed to a higher concentration (5 w% of wood ash at 35°C and 55% RH after 7 days of exposure. A lower RH level had also a negative impact on the progeny production. We can conclude that wood ash can be efficient in controlling granary weevil adults as a single substance or in combination with other substances. Further surveys should focus on the impact of the wood ash dose rates. Due to the high percentage of area covered with forest in some European countries, the main ingredient is present locally, but additional surveys are needed to help improve the practical use of wood ash.

  6. An Integrated Management Approach for Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus Oliv. a Key Pest of Date Palm in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Abraham

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The date palm, Phoenix doctylifera L., is the most important fruit crop in the Middle East, cultivated since prehistoric times. Since mid-eighties the dreaded pest of palms viz. the red palm weevil. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. has been reported to cause serious damage to date palm in certain pockets of the Gulf region. The pest subsequently spread to most of the date growing centers in the region and attained a key pest status. The unique agroclimatic conditions prevailing in the Middle East and the nature of the crop, coupled with transportation of planting material have helped in the rapid development and spread of the pest in a short period of about a decade Feeding of the soft tissues by this concealed borer often leads to the death of the palm. if timely curative measures are not adopted. However, taking up curative measures in the early stage of attack is often not possible as detection in infestation in the early stage is difficult. Moreover, the presence of neglected date gardens, beheaded palms, retention of unwanted off shoots etc. make the problem intricate. To tackle this problem from various angles and successfully combat the pest, the following Integrated Pest Management (IPM programme is suggested. The major components of the IPM strategy are surveillance, trapping the weevil using pheromones lures, detection of infestation by examining palms. Eliminating hidden breeding sites, clearing abandoned gardens, maintaining crop and field sanitation, preventive chemical treatments, curative chemical control implementing quarantine measures and training and education.

  7. Phylogeography and sister group of Lupangus, a new genus for three new flightless allopatric forest litter weevils endemic to the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Molytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily V. Grebennikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports discovery of a new genus Lupangus gen. n. with three new flightless weevils endemic to the forests of the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania: L. asterius sp. n. (East Usambara; the type species, L. jason sp. n. (Uluguru and L. orpheus sp. n. (Udzungwa. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses using parts of mitochondrial (COI, nuclear ribosomal (28S genes, as well as the nuclear spacer region (ITS2 from 46 terminals grouped together the reciprocally monophyletic Lupangus (3 terminals and Typoderus (3 terminals, with all three clades strongly supported. Phylogenetic analysis of 32 COI-5’ sequences recovered Lupangus species as reciprocally monophyletic, with L. orpheus being the sister to the rest. Internal phylogeny within both L. jason and L. orpheus are geographically structured, while that of L. asterius is not. Temporal analysis of Lupangus evolution using COI-5’ data assessed under slow and fast substitution rate schemes estimated separation of mitochondrial lineages leading to three Lupangus species at about 7–8 Ma and about 1.9–2.1 Ma, respectively. Temporal analyses consistently failed to suggest correlation between the timing of Lupangus evolution and the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations, thus rejecting the hypothesis of faunal interchanges during the wettest periods of the last million years. Applicability of flightless weevils for dispersal-vicariance analysis is reviewed, and their mostly undocumented and taxonomically entangled diversity in the Tanzanian Eastern Arc Mountains is briefly highlighted.

  8. Purification, partial characterization and role in lipid transport to developing oocytes of a novel lipophorin from the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Ximenes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid transport in arthropods is achieved by highly specialized lipoproteins, which resemble those described in vertebrate blood. Here we describe purification and characterization of the lipid-apolipoprotein complex, lipophorin (Lp, from adults and larvae of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. We also describe the Lp-mediated lipid transfer to developing oocytes. Lps were isolated from homogenates of C. maculatus larvae and adults by potassio bromide gradient and characterized with respect to physicochemical properties and lipid content. The weevil Lp (465 kDa and larval Lp (585 kDa, with hydrated densities of 1.22 and 1.14 g/mL, contained 34 and 56% lipids and 9 and 7% carbohydrates, respectively. In both Lps, mannose was the predominant monosaccharide detected by paper chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed two apolipoproteins in each Lp with molecular masses of 225 kDa (apolipoprotein-I and 79 kDa (apolipoprotein-II. The lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The major phospholipids found were phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in adult Lp, and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin in larval Lp. Hydrocarbons, fatty acids and triacylglycerol were the major neutral lipids found in both Lps. Lps labeled in the protein moiety with radioactive iodine (125I-iodine or in the lipid moiety with fluorescent lipids revealed direct evidence of endocytic uptake of Lps in live oocytes of C. maculatus.

  9. Cell fractionation of parasitic protozoa: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza Wanderley de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell fractionation, a methodological strategy for obtaining purified organelle preparations, has been applied successfully to parasitic protozoa by a number of investigators. Here we present and discuss the work of several groups that have obtained highly purified subcellular fractions from trypanosomatids, Apicomplexa and trichomonads, and whose work have added substantially to our knowledge of the cell biology of these parasites.

  10. Mammalian gastrointestinal parasites in rainforest remnants of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-04-27

    Apr 27, 2015 ... 2.3 Parasite recovery and identification. About half of each sample was stored in the original vial for possible future examination. We used 2 g of fecal samples for parasite recovery by sucrose floatation and sedimentation techniques ..... MS and Gillepsie TR 2011 Black and gold howler monkeys. (Alouatta ...

  11. Rodent malaria parasites : genome organization & comparative genomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Taco W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate the genome organization of rodent malaria parasites (RMPs) and compare the organization and gene content of the genomes of RMPs and the human malaria parasite P. falciparum. The release of the complete genome sequence of P.

  12. RNA interference in plant parasitic nematodes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-08-04

    Aug 4, 2008 ... role in regulating development and genome maintenance. RNAi has recently been demonstrated in ... Key words: RNA interference, RNAi, gene expression, plant parasitic nematodes. INTRODUCTION. Plant parasitic .... species to maximize the spectrum of resistance. RNAi effect has been demonstrated ...

  13. Parasite stress promotes homicide and child maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornhill, Randy; Fincher, Corey L.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using the parasite-stress theory of human values have discovered many cross-cultural behavioural patterns that inform a range of scholarly disciplines. Here, we apply the theory to major categories of interpersonal violence, and the empirical findings are supportive. We hypothesize that the collectivism evoked by high parasite stress is a cause of adult-on-adult interpersonal violence. Across the US states, parasite stress and collectivism each positively predicts rates of men's and women's slaying of a romantic partner, as well as the rate of male-honour homicide and of the motivationally similar felony-related homicide. Of these four types of homicide, wealth inequality has an independent effect only on rates of male-honour and felony-related homicide. Parasite stress and collectivism also positively predict cross-national homicide rates. Child maltreatment by caretakers is caused, in part, by divestment in offspring of low phenotypic quality, and high parasite stress produces more such offspring than low parasite stress. Rates of each of two categories of the child maltreatment—lethal and non-lethal—across the US states are predicted positively by parasite stress, with wealth inequality and collectivism having limited effects. Parasite stress may be the strongest predictor of interpersonal violence to date. PMID:22042922

  14. The effect of parasites on wildlife

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Populations of animals which live in the wild are regulated by many biotic and abiotic factors. Parasites are one of the biotic factors. Parasites may influence their hosts in different ways. They may cause the death of the host due to a direct lethal effect or an indirect effect. Direct lethal

  15. Prevalence of potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Humans can get infected through direct or indirect contact with infective stages of zoonotic parasites shed to the environment through dog faeces. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the presence of gastrointestinal parasites present in dog faeces shed on the street of Ibadan metropolis, one of ...

  16. Parasites in the Wadden Sea food web

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thieltges, D.W.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Wendling, C.C.; Wegner, K.M.

    2013-01-01

    While the free-living fauna of the Wadden Sea has received much interest, little is known on the distribution and effects of parasites in the Wadden Sea food web. However, recent studies on this special type of trophic interaction indicate a high diversity of parasites in the Wadden Sea and suggest

  17. Parasitic Rachipagus Conjoined Twins: Surgical Management and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We present the case, surgical management and follow-up, of a parasitic rachipagus conjoined twin born to a 23 year old lady. The parasitic twin had hypoplastic upper and lower limbs attached to the dorsal thoracic and lumbar region respectively with poorly developed external genitalia. At surgery, a neurovascular bundle ...

  18. Mixed infections and hybridisation in monogenean parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Schelkle

    Full Text Available Theory predicts that sexual reproduction promotes disease invasion by increasing the evolutionary potential of the parasite, whereas asexual reproduction tends to enhance establishment success and population growth rate. Gyrodactylid monogeneans are ubiquitous ectoparasites of teleost fish, and the evolutionary success of the specious Gyrodactylus genus is thought to be partly due to their use of various modes of reproduction. Gyrodactylus turnbulli is a natural parasite of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata, a small, tropical fish used as a model for behavioural, ecological and evolutionary studies. Using experimental infections and a recently developed microsatellite marker, we conclusively show that monogenean parasites reproduce sexually. Conservatively, we estimate that sexual recombination occurs and that between 3.7-10.9% of the parasites in our experimental crosses are hybrid genotypes with ancestors from different laboratory strains of G. turnbulli. We also provide evidence of hybrid vigour and/or inter-strain competition, which appeared to lead to a higher maximum parasite load in mixed infections. Finally, we demonstrate inbreeding avoidance for the first time in platyhelminths which may influence the distribution of parasites within a host and their subsequent exposure to the host's localized immune response. Combined reproductive modes and inbreeding avoidance may explain the extreme evolutionary diversification success of parasites such as Gyrodactylus, where host-parasite coevolution is punctuated by relatively frequent host switching.

  19. Parasitic nematode interactions with mammals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Goverse, Aska; Smant, Geert

    2003-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes that infect humans, animals, and plants cause serious diseases that are deleterious to human health and agricultural productivity. Chemical and biological control methods have reduced the impact of these parasites. However, surviving environmental stages lead to persistent reinfection of host species. In addition, development of resistance to nematicides and anthelmintics by these parasites and reduced availability of some nematicides, for environmental protection, pose significant obstacles for current and future prospects of effective parasite control. Due to marked differences in host species, research on animal and plant parasitic nematodes often proceeds independently. Despite the differences between animals and plants, basic cellular properties are shared among these host organisms. Some common properties may be important for mechanisms [homologous or convergent (homoplastic)] by which nematodes successfully infect these diverse hosts or by which animal and plant hosts resist infections by these pathogens. Here we compare host/parasite interactions between plant parasitic nematodes (PPN) and animal parasitic nematodes, with an emphasis on mammalian hosts (MPN). Similarities and differences are considered in the context of progress on molecular dissection of these interactions. A comprehensive coverage is not possible in the space allotted. Instead, an illustrative approach is used to establish examples that, it is hoped, exemplify the value of the comparative approach.

  20. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gastrointestinal helminths and protozoan parasites may cause mild, acute and chronic human infections. There is inadequate reliable information on the epidemiology of these parasites among patients attending tertiary hospitals in Tanzania. This retrospective study was conducted using hospital data obtained from the ...

  1. Besnoitiosis in rodents from Colorado. [Parasitic infestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, G E; Winsor, T F; Adee, R R

    1976-01-01

    Parasitic cysts of Besnoitia jellisoni (coccidia) were found in rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) trapped in Eastern Colorado. The parasite was associated with a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in the lungs of each rodent and was disseminated in several organs from one Peromyscus. The ultrastructural appearance of the merozoites and the cyst wall formed by the host cell were studied.

  2. Mistletoe ecophysiology: Host-parasite interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. Glatzel; B. W. Geils

    2009-01-01

    Mistletoes are highly specialized perennial flowering plants adapted to parasitic life on aerial parts of their hosts. In our discussion on the physiological interactions between parasite and host, we focus on water relations, mineral nutrition, and the effect of host vigour. When host photosynthesis is greatest, the xylem water potential of the host is most negative....

  3. The biogeography of host-parasite interactions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krasnov, Boris R; Morand, S

    2010-01-01

    ... with their disease-bearing hosts and vectors. Although we are most acutely aware of emerging diseases in our own population, all species harbour parasites of various kinds and are potential hosts for new pathogens. Indeed, the distribution of parasites with respect to host taxa and geography reveals a history of mobility along both axes. The study of emerging ...

  4. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa or multicellular (helminths and arthropods. The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  5. Update on pathology of ocular parasitic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Dipankar; Ramachandra, Varsha; Islam, Saidul; Bhattacharjee, Harsha; Biswas, Jyotirmay; Koul, Akanksha; Deka, Panna; Deka, Apurba

    2016-11-01

    Parasites are a group of eukaryotic organisms that may be free-living or form a symbiotic or parasitic relationship with the hosts. Consisting of over 800,000 recognized species, parasites may be unicellular (Protozoa) or multicellular (helminths and arthropods). The association of parasites with human population started long before the emergence of civilization. Parasitic zoonotic diseases are prevalent worldwide including India. Appropriate epidemiological data are lacking on existing zoonotic parasitic diseases, and newer diseases are emerging in our scenario. Systemic diseases such as cysticercosis, paragonimiasis, hydatidosis, and toxoplasmosis are fairly common. Acquired Toxoplasma infections are rising in immune-deficient individuals. Amongst the ocular parasitic diseases, various protozoas such as Cystoidea, trematodes, tissue flagellates, sporozoas etc. affect humans in general and eyes in particular, in different parts of the world. These zoonoses seem to be a real health related problem globally. Recent intensification of research throughout the world has led to specialization in biological fields, creating a conducive situation for researchers interested in this subject. The basics of parasitology lie in morphology, pathology, and with recent updates in molecular parasitology, the scope has extended further. The current review is to address the recent update in ophthalmic parasites with special reference to pathology and give a glimpse of further research in this field.

  6. The parasite connection in ecosystems and macroevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilacher, Adolf; Reif, Wolf-Ernst; Wenk, Peter

    2007-03-01

    In addition to their obvious negative effects (“pathogens”), endoparasites of various kinds play an important role in shaping and maintaining modern animal communities. In the long-term, parasites including pathogens are indispensable entities of any ecosystem. To understand this, it is essential that one changes the viewpoint from the host’s interests to that of the parasite. Together with geographic isolation, trophic arms race, symbiosis, and niche partitioning, all parasites (including balance strategists, i.e. seemingly non-pathogenic ones) modulate their hosts’ population densities. In addition, heteroxenic parasites control the balance between predator and prey species, particularly if final and intermediate hosts are vertebrates. Thereby, such parasites enhance the bonds in ecosystems and help maintain the status quo. As the links between eukaryotic parasites and their hosts are less flexible than trophic connections, parasite networks probably contributed to the observed stasis and incumbency of ecosystems over geologic time, in spite of continuous Darwinian innovation. Because heteroxenic parasites target taxonomic levels above that of the species (e.g. families), these taxa may have also become units of selection in global catastrophies. Macroevolutionary extrapolations, however, are difficult to verify because endoparasites cannot fossilize.

  7. Occurrence of Plasmodium gallenaecium Parasites in Chickens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of forty six Local Chickens (Gallus gallus) were obtained from Wudil Market in Wudil Local Government Area in January 2009. The birds were screened for malaria parasite by making thick and thin blood films on slides. The slides were examined for the presence of plasmodium parasite (parasitaemia Value). Results ...

  8. Prevalence of potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY. Background: Humans can get infected through direct or indirect contact with infective stages of zoonotic parasites shed to the environment through dog faeces. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate the presence of gastrointestinal parasites present in dog faeces shed on the street of Ibadan ...

  9. Policy, phylogeny, and the parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, Grant D; Feist, Stephen W; Stone, David M; Peeler, Edmund J; Bass, David

    2014-06-01

    Animal diseases gain political attention by their inclusion on lists of global bodies such as those of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). Inclusion requires national governments to report outbreaks promptly but may lead to trading restrictions between nations in an attempt to limit spread. Detection therefore has consequences that may have direct impact from farm to state levels. We consider here current approaches to discriminating listed parasites from related but unlisted counterparts. We outline necessary drivers for the discrimination of important taxa and how these may be influenced by national policies. Further, we propose a set of 'best practice' measures, broadly based upon current taxonomic philosophies for protists and metazoans, that should be applied when defining taxa for listing as notifiable. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parasitic Events in Envelope Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Doubek

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Envelope analysis allows fast fault location of individual gearboxes and parts of bearings by repetition frequency determination of the mechanical catch of an amplitude-modulated signal. Systematic faults arise when using envelope analysis on a signal with strong changes. The source of these events is the range of function definition of used in convolution integral definition. This integral is used for Hilbert image calculation of analyzed signal. Overshoots (almost similar to Gibbs events on a synthetic signal using the Fourier series are result from these faults. Overshoots are caused by parasitic spectral lines in the frequency domain, which can produce faulty diagnostic analysis.This paper describes systematic arising during faults rising by signal numerical calculation using envelope analysis with Hilbert transform. It goes on to offer a mathematical analysis of these systematic faults.

  11. Parasite remains in archaeological sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Bouchet

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefly surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  12. Emerging and established parasitic lung infestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Kilani, Tarek

    2010-09-01

    Many lung infestations from established and newly emerging parasites have been reported as a result of the emergence of HIV/AIDS, the increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs, increasing organ transplantations, the increase in global travel, and climate change. A renewed interest in parasitic lung infections has been observed recently because many protozoal and helminthic parasites cause clinically significant lung diseases. The diseases caused by these parasites may mimic common and complicated lung diseases ranging from asymptomatic disease to acute respiratory distress syndrome requiring critical care management. The availability of new molecular diagnostic methods and antiparasitic drugs enables early diagnosis and prompt treatment to avoid the morbidity and mortality associated with these infestations. Good hygiene practices, improvement in socioeconomic conditions, vector control measures, and consumption of hygienically prepared and properly cooked food are essential to reduce the occurrence of parasitic infestations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A description of parasites from Iranian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri, Vahid; Mobedi, Iraj; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Mirakabadi, Abbas Zare; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Teymurzadeh, Shohreh; Karimi, Gholamreza; Abdoli, Amir; Paykari, Habibollah

    2014-12-01

    Little is known of the parasitic fauna of terrestrial snakes in Iran. This study aimed to evaluate the parasitic infection rates of snakes in Iran. A total of 87 snakes belonging to eight different species, that were collected between May 2012 and September 2012 and died after the hold in captivity, under which they were kept for taking poisons, were examined for the presence of gastrointestinal and blood parasites. According to our study 12 different genera of endoparasites in 64 (73.56%) of 87 examined snakes were determined. Forty one snakes (47.12%) had gastrointestinal parasites. In prepared blood smears, it was found that in 23 (26.43%) of 87 examined snakes there are at least one hemoparasite. To our knowledge, these are the first data on the internal parasitic fauna of Iranian terrestrial snakes and our findings show a higher prevalence of these organisms among them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Trichinella spiralis: the evolution of adaptation and parasitism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasitism among nematodes has occurred in multiple, independent events. Deciphering processes that drive species diversity and adaptation are keys to understanding parasitism and advancing control strategies. Studies have been put forth on morphological and physiological aspects of parasitism and a...

  16. Prevalence of parasitic infections of stray cats in Jammu, India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Stray cats are afflicted with various parasitic infestations and the infective stages of these parasites may spread infection to other .... Plate V: Photomicrograph of isospora isolated from faecal sample of .... of Intestinal parasites in dogs and cats.

  17. Detection of the parasitic plant, Orobanche cumana on sunflower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... Orobanche cumana broomrape is a parasitic plant described as an agricultural problem for sunflower production in many ... hosts first occur at the underground level by the parasite ..... Parasitic Flowering Plants: Ecology and.

  18. Corticosteroids for parasitic eosinophilic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanaviratananich, Sikawat; Thanaviratananich, Sanguansak; Ngamjarus, Chetta

    2015-02-17

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is the major cause of infectious eosinophilic meningitis. Dead larvae of this parasite cause inflammation and exacerbate symptoms of meningitis. Corticosteroids are drugs used to reduce the inflammation caused by this parasite. To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids for the treatment of eosinophilic meningitis. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to November Week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to December 2014), Scopus (1960 to December 2014), Web of Science (1955 to December 2014), LILACS (1982 to December 2014) and CINAHL (1981 to December 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of corticosteroids versus placebo for eosinophilic meningitis. Two review authors (SiT, SaT) independently collected and extracted study data. We graded the methodological quality of the RCTs. We identified and analysed outcomes and adverse effects. We did not identifiy any new trials for inclusion or exclusion in this 2014 update. One study involving 110 participants (55 participants in each group) met our inclusion criteria. The corticosteroid (prednisolone) showed a benefit in shortening the median time to resolution of headaches (five days in the treatment group versus 13 days in the control group, P value treatment (9.1% versus 45.5%, P value treatment group (12.7% versus 40%, P value = 0.002). There was a reduction in the median time of analgesic use in participants receiving corticosteroids (10.5 versus 25.0, P value = 0.038). There were no reported adverse effects from prednisolone in the treatment group. Corticosteroids significantly help relieve headache in patients with eosinophilic meningitis, who have a pain score of four or more on a visual analogue scale. However, there is only one RCT supporting this benefit and this trial did not clearly mention allocation concealment and stratification. Therefore, we agreed to grade our included study as a moderate quality trial. Future well-designed RCTs are necessary.

  19. When parasites become prey: ecological and epidemiological significance of eating parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Lafferty, Kevin D.; Marcogliese, David J.; Memmott, Jane; Orlofske, Sarah A.; Poulin, Robert; Thieltges, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Recent efforts to include parasites in food webs have drawn attention to a previously ignored facet of foraging ecology: parasites commonly function as prey within ecosystems. Because of the high productivity of parasites, their unique nutritional composition and their pathogenicity in hosts, their consumption affects both food-web topology and disease risk in humans and wildlife. Here, we evaluate the ecological, evolutionary and epidemiological significance of feeding on parasites, including concomitant predation, grooming, predation on free-living stages and intraguild predation. Combining empirical data and theoretical models, we show that consumption of parasites is neither rare nor accidental, and that it can sharply affect parasite transmission and food web properties. Broader consideration of predation on parasites will enhance our understanding of disease control, food web structure and energy transfer, and the evolution of complex life cycles.

  20. Parasite Microbiome Project: Systematic Investigation of Microbiome Dynamics within and across Parasite-Host Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Bolnick, Daniel; Bordenstein, Seth; Brindley, Paul J; Figuères, Cédric; Holmes, Edward C; Martínez Martínez, Joaquín; Phillips, Anna J; Poulin, Robert; Rosario, Karyna

    2017-01-01

    Understanding how microbiomes affect host resistance, parasite virulence, and parasite-associated diseases requires a collaborative effort between parasitologists, microbial ecologists, virologists, and immunologists. We hereby propose the Parasite Microbiome Project to bring together researchers with complementary expertise and to study the role of microbes in host-parasite interactions. Data from the Parasite Microbiome Project will help identify the mechanisms driving microbiome variation in parasites and infected hosts and how that variation is associated with the ecology and evolution of parasites and their disease outcomes. This is a call to arms to prevent fragmented research endeavors, encourage best practices in experimental approaches, and allow reliable comparative analyses across model systems. It is also an invitation to foundations and national funding agencies to propel the field of parasitology into the microbiome/metagenomic era.

  1. The origin of malarial parasites in orangutans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Andreína Pacheco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent findings of Plasmodium in African apes have changed our perspectives on the evolution of malarial parasites in hominids. However, phylogenetic analyses of primate malarias are still missing information from Southeast Asian apes. In this study, we report molecular data for a malaria parasite lineage found in orangutans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened twenty-four blood samples from Pongo pygmaeus (Kalimantan, Indonesia for Plasmodium parasites by PCR. For all the malaria positive orangutan samples, parasite mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA and two antigens: merozoite surface protein 1 42 kDa (MSP-1(42 and circumsporozoite protein gene (CSP were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Fifteen orangutans tested positive and yielded 5 distinct mitochondrial haplotypes not previously found. The haplotypes detected exhibited low genetic divergence among them, indicating that they belong to one species. We report phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial genomes, MSP-1(42 and CSP. We found that the orangutan malaria parasite lineage was part of a monophyletic group that includes all the known non-human primate malaria parasites found in Southeast Asia; specifically, it shares a recent common ancestor with P. inui (a macaque parasite and P. hylobati (a gibbon parasite suggesting that this lineage originated as a result of a host switch. The genetic diversity of MSP-1(42 in orangutans seems to be under negative selection. This result is similar to previous findings in non-human primate malarias closely related to P. vivax. As has been previously observed in the other Plasmodium species found in non-human primates, the CSP shows high polymorphism in the number of repeats. However, it has clearly distinctive motifs from those previously found in other malarial parasites. CONCLUSION: The evidence available from Asian apes indicates that these parasites originated independently from those found in Africa, likely as the result of host

  2. The Origin of Malarial Parasites in Orangutans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, M. Andreína; Reid, Michael J. C.; Schillaci, Michael A.; Lowenberger, Carl A.; Galdikas, Biruté M. F.; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Escalante, Ananias A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent findings of Plasmodium in African apes have changed our perspectives on the evolution of malarial parasites in hominids. However, phylogenetic analyses of primate malarias are still missing information from Southeast Asian apes. In this study, we report molecular data for a malaria parasite lineage found in orangutans. Methodology/Principal Findings We screened twenty-four blood samples from Pongo pygmaeus (Kalimantan, Indonesia) for Plasmodium parasites by PCR. For all the malaria positive orangutan samples, parasite mitochondrial genomes (mtDNA) and two antigens: merozoite surface protein 1 42 kDa (MSP-142) and circumsporozoite protein gene (CSP) were amplified, cloned, and sequenced. Fifteen orangutans tested positive and yielded 5 distinct mitochondrial haplotypes not previously found. The haplotypes detected exhibited low genetic divergence among them, indicating that they belong to one species. We report phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial genomes, MSP-142 and CSP. We found that the orangutan malaria parasite lineage was part of a monophyletic group that includes all the known non-human primate malaria parasites found in Southeast Asia; specifically, it shares a recent common ancestor with P. inui (a macaque parasite) and P. hylobati (a gibbon parasite) suggesting that this lineage originated as a result of a host switch. The genetic diversity of MSP-142 in orangutans seems to be under negative selection. This result is similar to previous findings in non-human primate malarias closely related to P. vivax. As has been previously observed in the other Plasmodium species found in non-human primates, the CSP shows high polymorphism in the number of repeats. However, it has clearly distinctive motifs from those previously found in other malarial parasites. Conclusion The evidence available from Asian apes indicates that these parasites originated independently from those found in Africa, likely as the result of host switches from other non

  3. Molecular appraisal of intestinal parasitic infection in transplant recipients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yadav, Pooja; Khalil, Shehla; Mirdha, BijayRanjan

    2016-01-01

    .... We undertook this study to investigate the intestinal parasitic infections in transplant recipients with or without diarrhoea, and the genotypes of the isolated parasites were also determined. Methods...

  4. Gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae perjudiciales para "frutos rojos" en la Argentina Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae harmful for berry fruits in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guadalupe Del Rio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registraron seis especies de gorgojos de rostro corto de la subfamilia Entiminae que causan daños en cultivos de frutos rojos, en la Argentina. Tres de ellas son exóticas y se distribuyen a lo largo de los bosques patagónicos: Otiorhynchus ovatus (Linnaeus, O. rugosostriatus (Goeze y O. sulcatus (Fabricius(Otiorhynchini; otras tres son nativas y habitan en la zona norte y central del país: Hyphantus sulcifrons Boheman (Anypotactini, Naupactusxanthographus (Germary N. cervinus Boheman (Naupactini. Las larvas viven en el suelo y se alimentan de la superficie externa de las raíces de sus plantas hospedadoras, causan daños más importantes que los adultos, los cuales se alimentan principalmente sobre el follaje. Los principales objetivos de esta contribución son: aportar una clave, diagnosis y fotografías de los hábitos de las seis especies para facilitar su correcta determinación; brindar datos sobre su distribución, plantas hospedadoras y biología, y citar la especie O. ovatus por primera vez para la Argentina, asociada con cultivos de arándano y frutilla.Six species of broad nosed weevils of the subfamily Entiminae are recorded as harmful for berries in Argentina. Three of them are exotic and distributed along the Patagonian forests: Otiorhynchus ovatus (Linnaeus, O. rugosostriatus (Goeze and O. sulcatus (Fabricius(Otiorhynchini and three are native and range in the northern and central areas of this country: Hyphantus sulcifrons Boheman (Anypotactini, Naupactusxanthographus (Germarand N. cervinus Boheman (Naupactini. Larvae live in soil and bore externally on the roots of their host plants, causing more damage than adults that usually feed on the leaves. The main objectives of this contribution are: to give a dichotomous key, diagnoses and habitus photographs for the identification of the six species; to provide information on their geographic distributions, host plants and biology; and to bring the first record of O. ovatus for

  5. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Azami

    Full Text Available The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50, and out of 225 control group, 20% (45 were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%, Endolimax nana (8.7%, Giardia lamblia (7.4%, Blastocystis spp. (4.7%, Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%, Chilomastix mesnili (0.7% and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%. Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05. This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  6. Intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azami, Mehdi; Sharifi, Mehran; Hejazi, Sayed Hossein; Tazhibi, Mehdi

    2010-01-01

    The impact of intestinal parasitic infection in renal transplant recipients requires careful consideration in the developing world. However, there have been very few studies addressing this issue in Iran. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in renal transplant recipients in Iran. Stool specimens from renal transplant recipients and control groups were obtained between June 2006 and January 2007. The samples screened for intestinal parasitic infections using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, Sheather's flotation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods. Out of 150 renal transplant recipients, 33.3% (50), and out of 225 control group, 20% (45) were infected with one or more type of intestinal parasites. The parasites detected among patients included Entamoeba coli (10.6%), Endolimax nana (8.7%), Giardia lamblia (7.4%), Blastocystis spp. (4.7%), Iodamoeba butschlii (0.7%), Chilomastix mesnili (0.7%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (0.7%). Multiple infections were more common among renal transplant recipients group (p < 0.05). This study highlights the importance of testing for intestinal parasites among Iranian renal transplant recipients. Routine examinations of stool samples for parasites would significantly benefit the renal transplant recipients by contributing to reduce severe infections.

  7. Parasites in cultured and feral fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, T

    1999-08-01

    Parasites, causing little apparent damage in feral fish populations, may become causative agents of diseases of great importance in farmed fish, leading to pathological changes, decrease of fitness or reduction of the market value of fish. Despite considerable progress in fish parasitology in the last decades, major gaps still exist in the knowledge of taxonomy, biology, epizootiology and control of fish parasites, including such 'evergreens' as the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, a causative agent of white spot disease, or proliferative kidney disease (PKD), one of the most economically damaging diseases in the rainbow trout industry which causative agent remain enigmatic. Besides long-recognized parasites, other potentially severe pathogens have appeared quite recently such as amphizoic amoebae, causative agents of amoebic gill disease (AGD), the monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris which has destroyed salmon populations in Norway, or sea lice, in particular Lepeophtheirus salmonis that endanger marine salmonids in some areas. Recent spreading of some parasites throughout the world (e.g. the cestode Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) has been facilitated through insufficient veterinary control during import of fish. Control of many important parasitic diseases is still far from being satisfactory and further research is needed. Use of chemotherapy has limitations and new effective, but environmentally safe drugs should be developed. A very promising area of future research seems to be studies on immunity in parasitic infections, use of molecular technology in diagnostics and development of new vaccines against the most pathogenic parasites.

  8. Where are the parasites in food webs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhdeo Michael VK

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review explores some of the reasons why food webs seem to contain relatively few parasite species when compared to the full diversity of free living species in the system. At present, there are few coherent food web theories to guide scientific studies on parasites, and this review posits that the methods, directions and questions in the field of food web ecology are not always congruent with parasitological inquiry. For example, topological analysis (the primary tool in food web studies focuses on only one of six important steps in trematode life cycles, each of which requires a stable community dynamic to evolve. In addition, these transmission strategies may also utilize pathways within the food web that are not considered in traditional food web investigations. It is asserted that more effort must be focused on parasite-centric models, and a central theme is that many different approaches will be required. One promising approach is the old energetic perspective, which considers energy as the critical resource for all organisms, and the currency of all food web interactions. From the parasitological point of view, energy can be used to characterize the roles of parasites at all levels in the food web, from individuals to populations to community. The literature on parasite energetics in food webs is very sparse, but the evidence suggests that parasite species richness is low in food webs because parasites are limited by the quantity of energy available to their unique lifestyles.

  9. Systems analysis of host-parasite interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Justine; Jamshidi, Neema; Lewis, Nathan E; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Parasitic diseases caused by protozoan pathogens lead to hundreds of thousands of deaths per year in addition to substantial suffering and socioeconomic decline for millions of people worldwide. The lack of effective vaccines coupled with the widespread emergence of drug-resistant parasites necessitates that the research community take an active role in understanding host-parasite infection biology in order to develop improved therapeutics. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and the rapid development of publicly accessible genomic databases for many human pathogens have facilitated the application of systems biology to the study of host-parasite interactions. Over the past decade, these technologies have led to the discovery of many important biological processes governing parasitic disease. The integration and interpretation of high-throughput -omic data will undoubtedly generate extraordinary insight into host-parasite interaction networks essential to navigate the intricacies of these complex systems. As systems analysis continues to build the foundation for our understanding of host-parasite biology, this will provide the framework necessary to drive drug discovery research forward and accelerate the development of new antiparasitic therapies. © 2015 The Authors. WIREs Systems Biology and Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Blood parasites in reptiles imported to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halla, Ursula; Ursula, Halla; Korbel, Rüdiger; Rüdiger, Korbel; Mutschmann, Frank; Frank, Mutschmann; Rinder, Monika; Monika, Rinder

    2014-12-01

    Though international trade is increasing, the significance of imported reptiles as carriers of pathogens with relevance to animal and human health is largely unknown. Reptiles imported to Germany were therefore investigated for blood parasites using light microscopy, and the detected parasites were morphologically characterized. Four hundred ten reptiles belonging to 17 species originating from 11 Asian, South American and African countries were included. Parasites were detected in 117 (29%) of individual reptiles and in 12 species. Haemococcidea (Haemogregarina, Hepatozoon, Schellackia) were found in 84% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus), 20% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Kinyongia fischeri, Gekko gecko) and 50% of turtles (Pelusios castaneus). Infections with Hematozoea (Plasmodium, Sauroplasma) were detected in 14% of lizards (Acanthocercus atricollis, Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Furcifer pardalis, Xenagama batillifera, Acanthosaura capra, Physignathus cocincinus), while those with Kinetoplastea (Trypanosoma) were found in 9% of snakes (Python regius, Corallus caninus) and 25 % of lizards (K. fischeri, Acanthosaura capra, G. gecko). Nematoda including filarial larvae parasitized in 10% of lizards (Agama agama, Agama mwanzae, K. fischeri, Fu. pardalis, Physignathus cocincinus). Light microscopy mostly allowed diagnosis of the parasites' genus, while species identification was not possible because of limited morphological characteristics available for parasitic developmental stages. The investigation revealed a high percentage of imported reptiles being carriers of parasites while possible vectors and pathogenicity are largely unknown so far. The spreading of haemoparasites thus represents an incalculable risk for pet reptiles, native herpetofauna and even human beings.

  11. Helminth Parasites Alter Protection against Plasmodium Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H.; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response. PMID:25276830

  12. Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Jeffrey P; Robinson, Scott K

    2007-03-13

    Why do many hosts accept costly avian brood parasitism even when parasitic eggs and nestlings differ dramatically in appearance from their own? Scientists argue that evolutionary lag or equilibrium can explain this evolutionary enigma. Few, however, consider the potential of parasitic birds to enforce acceptance by destroying eggs or nestlings of hosts that eject parasitic eggs and thereby reject parasitism. This retaliatory "mafia" behavior has been reported in one species of parasitic cuckoo but never in parasitic cowbirds. Here we present experimental evidence of mafia behavior in the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater), a widely distributed North American brood parasite. We manipulated ejection of cowbird eggs and cowbird access to predator-proof nests in a common host to test experimentally for mafia behavior. When cowbird access was allowed, 56% of "ejector" nests were depredated compared with only 6% of "accepter" nests. No nests were destroyed when cowbird access was always denied or when access was denied after we removed cowbird eggs, indicating that cowbirds were responsible. Nonparasitized nests were depredated at an intermediate rate (20%) when cowbirds were allowed access, suggesting that cowbirds may occasionally "farm" hosts to create additional opportunities for parasitism. Cowbirds parasitized most (85%) renests of the hosts whose nests were depredated. Ejector nests produced 60% fewer host offspring than accepter nests because of the predatory behavior attributed to cowbirds. Widespread predatory behaviors in cowbirds could slow the evolution of rejection behaviors and further threaten populations of some of the >100 species of regular cowbird hosts.

  13. Parasite and host assemblages: embracing the reality will improve our knowledge of parasite transmission and virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, Thierry; Perrot-Minnot, Marie-Jeanne; Brown, Mark J. F.

    2010-01-01

    Interactions involving several parasite species (multi-parasitized hosts) or several host species (multi-host parasites) are the rule in nature. Only a few studies have investigated these realistic, but complex, situations from an evolutionary perspective. Consequently, their impact on the evolution of parasite virulence and transmission remains poorly understood. The mechanisms by which multiple infections may influence virulence and transmission include the dynamics of intrahost competition, mediation by the host immune system and an increase in parasite genetic recombination. Theoretical investigations have yet to be conducted to determine which of these mechanisms are likely to be key factors in the evolution of virulence and transmission. In contrast, the relationship between multi-host parasites and parasite virulence and transmission has seen some theoretical investigation. The key factors in these models are the trade-off between virulence across different host species, variation in host species quality and patterns of transmission. The empirical studies on multi-host parasites suggest that interspecies transmission plays a central role in the evolution of virulence, but as yet no complete picture of the phenomena involved is available. Ultimately, determining how complex host–parasite interactions impact the evolution of host–parasite relationships will require the development of cross-disciplinary studies linking the ecology of quantitative networks with the evolution of virulence. PMID:20667874

  14. Potential parasite transmission in multi-host networks based on parasite sharing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shai Pilosof

    Full Text Available Epidemiological networks are commonly used to explore dynamics of parasite transmission among individuals in a population of a given host species. However, many parasites infect multiple host species, and thus multi-host networks may offer a better framework for investigating parasite dynamics. We investigated the factors that influence parasite sharing--and thus potential transmission pathways--among rodent hosts in Southeast Asia. We focused on differences between networks of a single host species and networks that involve multiple host species. In host-parasite networks, modularity (the extent to which the network is divided into subgroups of rodents that interact with similar parasites was higher in the multi-species than in the single-species networks. This suggests that phylogeny affects patterns of parasite sharing, which was confirmed in analyses showing that it predicted affiliation of individuals to modules. We then constructed "potential transmission networks" based on the host-parasite networks, in which edges depict the similarity between a pair of individuals in the parasites they share. The centrality of individuals in these networks differed between multi- and single-species networks, with species identity and individual characteristics influencing their position in the networks. Simulations further revealed that parasite dynamics differed between multi- and single-species networks. We conclude that multi-host networks based on parasite sharing can provide new insights into the potential for transmission among hosts in an ecological community. In addition, the factors that determine the nature of parasite sharing (i.e. structure of the host-parasite network may impact transmission patterns.

  15. Helminth parasites of conventionally mantained laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.

  16. Parasitic Cavities Losses in SPEAR-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M.; /SLAC

    2016-12-19

    In PEP the large number of particles in a bunch, together with the small bunch length, may cause grievous energy loss from the beam to parasitic modes in the accelerating cavities. I have recently tried to estimate the parasitic cavity in PEP, based on a paper of Keil and I have obtained the result that the loss to parasitic modes will be about 10 MeV per particle per revolution for a bunch length of about 10 cm. In this note, I bring together some of the considerations that might bear on an experimental investigation of the loss using SPEAR-2.

  17. Functions of myosin motors tailored for parasitism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Christina; Graindorge, Arnault; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Myosin motors are one of the largest protein families in eukaryotes that exhibit divergent cellular functions. Their roles in protozoans, a diverse group of anciently diverged, single celled organisms with many prominent members known to be parasitic and to cause diseases in human and livestock......, are largely unknown. In the recent years many different approaches, among them whole genome sequencing, phylogenetic analyses and functional studies have increased our understanding on the distribution, protein architecture and function of unconventional myosin motors in protozoan parasites. In Apicomplexa......, myosins turn out to be highly specialized and to exhibit unique functions tailored to accommodate the lifestyle of these parasites....

  18. Mansonelliasis, a neglected parasitic disease in Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pierre Raccurt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reported in Haiti as early as 1923, Mansonella ozzardi is still a neglected disease ignored by the health authorities of the country. This review is an update on the geographic distribution of the coastal foci of mansonelliasis in Haiti, the epidemiological profile and prevalence rates of microfilariae in people living in endemic areas, the clinical impact of the parasite on health and the efficiency of the transmission of the parasite among three Culicoides biting-midge species identified as vectors in Haiti. Additionally, interest in establishing a treatment programme to combat this parasite using a single dose of ivermectin is emphasised.

  19. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Braga, Érika Martins; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2016-07-01

    Blood parasites are considered some of the most significant pathogens for the conservation of penguins, due to the considerable morbidity and mortality they have been shown to produce in captive and wild populations of these birds. Parasites known to occur in the blood of penguins include haemosporidian protozoans (Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon, Haemoproteus), piroplamid protozoans (Babesia), kinetoplastid protozoans (Trypanosoma), spirochete bacteria (Borrelia) and nematode microfilariae. This review provides a critical and comprehensive assessment of the current knowledge on these parasites, providing an overview of their biology, host and geographic distribution, epidemiology, pathology and implications for public health and conservation.

  20. Bacterial and parasitic diseases of parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doneley, Robert J T

    2009-09-01

    As wild-caught birds become increasingly rare in aviculture, there is a corresponding decline in the incidence of bacterial and parasitic problems and an increase in the recognition of the importance of maintaining health through better nutrition and husbandry. Nevertheless, the relatively close confines of captivity mean an increased pathogen load in the environment in which companion and aviary parrots live. This increased pathogen load leads to greater exposure of these birds to bacteria and parasites, and consequently a greater risk of infection and disease. This article discusses bacterial and parasitic infections in companion and aviary parrots. It includes the origins, pathogens, diagnosis, treatment, and some of the associated risk factors.

  1. (macro- Evolutionary ecology of parasite diversity: From determinants of parasite species richness to host diversification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Morand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarized the factors or determinants that may explain parasite diversity among host species and the consequences of this parasite diversity on the evolution of host-life history traits. As host–parasite interactions are asymmetrical exploited–exploiter relationships, ecological and epidemiological theories produce hypotheses to find the potential determinants of parasite species richness, while life-history theory helps for testing potential consequences on parasite diversity on the evolution of hosts. This review referred only to studies that have specifically controlled or took into account phylogenetic information illustrated with parasites of mammals. Several points needing more investigation were identified with a special emphasis to develop the metabolic theory of epidemiology.

  2. Standardizing the measurement of parasite clearance in falciparum malaria: the parasite clearance estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flegg Jennifer A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant reduction in parasite clearance rates following artesunate treatment of falciparum malaria, and increased failure rates following artemisinin combination treatments (ACT, signaled emergent artemisinin resistance in Western Cambodia. Accurate measurement of parasite clearance is therefore essential to assess the spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. The slope of the log-parasitaemia versus time relationship is considered to be the most robust measure of anti-malarial effect. However, an initial lag phase of numerical instability often precedes a steady exponential decline in the parasite count after the start of anti-malarial treatment. This lag complicates the clearance estimation, introduces observer subjectivity, and may influence the accuracy and consistency of reported results. Methods To address this problem, a new approach to modelling clearance of malaria parasites from parasitaemia-time profiles has been explored and validated. The methodology detects when a lag phase is present, selects the most appropriate model (linear, quadratic or cubic to fit log-transformed parasite data, and calculates estimates of parasite clearance adjusted for this lag phase. Departing from previous approaches, parasite counts below the level of detection are accounted for and not excluded from the calculation. Results Data from large clinical studies with frequent parasite counts were examined. The effect of a lag phase on parasite clearance rate estimates is discussed, using individual patient data examples. As part of the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network's (WWARN efforts to make innovative approaches available to the malaria community, an automated informatics tool: the parasite clearance estimator has been developed. Conclusions The parasite clearance estimator provides a consistent, reliable and accurate method to estimate the lag phase and malaria parasite clearance rate. It could be used

  3. Useful parasites: the evolutionary biology and biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , transposable elements have long been considered as 'parasitic' or 'selfish'. Today, we ... research niche and deserve to be included into the agenda of molecular ecologists, evolutionary geneticists, conservation biologists and plant breeders.

  4. Climate influences parasite-mediated competitive release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Martin H; Jensen, K Thomas; Mouritsen, Kim N

    2011-09-01

    Parasitism is believed to play an important role in maintaining species diversity, for instance by facilitating coexistence between competing host species. However, the possibility that environmental factors may govern the outcome of parasite-mediated competition has rarely been considered. The closely related amphipods Corophium volutator and Corophium arenarium both serve as second intermediate host for detrimental trematodes. Corophium volutator is the superior competitor of the two, but also suffers from higher mortality when exposed to infective trematode stages. Here, we report parasite-mediated competitive release of C. arenarium in an intertidal habitat, in part triggered by unusually high temperatures linked to the North Atlantic climate oscillation (NAO). The elevated temperatures accelerated the transmission of cercariae from sympatric first intermediate hosts (mud snails) to amphipods, causing a local collapse of the parasite-sensitive C. volutator population and concordant increase in the abundance of the competitively inferior C. arenarium.

  5. The adaptive significance of inquiline parasite workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2003-01-01

    Social parasites exploit the socially managed resources of their host's society. Inquiline social parasites are dependent on their host throughout their life cycle, and so many of the traits inherited from their free-living ancestor are removed by natural selection. One trait that is commonly lost...... is the worker caste, the functions of which are adequately fulfilled by host workers. The few inquiline parasites that have retained a worker caste are thought to be at a transitional stage in the evolution of social parasitism, and their worker castes are considered vestigial and non-adaptive. However......, this idea has not been tested. Furthermore, whether inquiline workers have an adaptive role outside the usual worker repertoire of foraging, brood care and colony maintenance has not been examined. In this paper, we present data that suggest that workers of the inquiline ant Acromyrmex insinuator play...

  6. Parasite zoonoses and wildlife: emerging issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R C Andrew; Kutz, Susan J; Smith, Andrew

    2009-02-01

    The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact.

  7. Parasite Zoonoses and Wildlife: Emerging Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Smith

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of wildlife as important sources, reservoirs and amplifiers of emerging human and domestic livestock pathogens, in addition to well recognized zoonoses of public health significance, has gained considerable attention in recent years. However, there has been little attention given to the transmission and impacts of pathogens of human origin, particularly protozoan, helminth and arthropod parasites, on wildlife. Substantial advances in molecular technologies are greatly improving our ability to follow parasite flow among host species and populations and revealing valuable insights about the interactions between cycles of transmission. Here we present several case studies of parasite emergence, or risk of emergence, in wildlife, as a result of contact with humans or anthropogenic activities. For some of these parasites, there is growing evidence of the serious consequences of infection on wildlife survival, whereas for others, there is a paucity of information about their impact.

  8. Schistosoma mansoni and Host-Parasite Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M-C.A. de Walick (Saskia)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Blood-dwelling parasitic trematodes (flatworms) of the genus Schistosoma cause the disease schistosomiasis or Bilharzia. There are 5 different Schistosoma species that infect humans and many other infecting different mammals. Over 200 million people worldwide are

  9. Histopathological changes induced by copepoda parasites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Histopathological changes induced by copepoda parasites infections on the gills of economically important fish mugilidae ( Liza falcipinnis and Mugil cephalus ) from Ganvie area of Lac Nokoue, Republic of Benin.

  10. Introduction of New Parasites in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Heidi L.

    was genetically very similar to previously published isolates from France and Italy, and may have been spread to Denmark from southern Europe. Giardia spp. a zoonotic, unicellular parasite (protozoa) well known in Danish livestock but recently found in extremely high numbers in Danish deer with chronic diarrhea....... Echinococcus multilocularis causes severe chronic liver damage (alveolar echinococcosis) in the intermediate host including humans, whereas the final host remains clinically unaffected. It is not known whether the parasite was introduced by dogs returning to Denmark after a stay in endemic areas or by wild...... of the roundworm Trichinella. This parasite infects not only wild animals but also pigs, horses and humans. There are no signs of infection in animals whereas humans, depending on ingested number of parasites, will suffer from e.g. fever, myalgia, edema, chronic muscle pain and even death. Today Denmark, contrary...

  11. Parasites of the Raccoon, Procyon lotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G.M.; Herman, C.M.

    1959-01-01

    At least 76 species of parasites have been reported from raccoons. These include 4 species of protozoa, 27 nematodes, 20 trematodes, 7 cestodes, 3 acanthocephala, and 15 arthropods. In many cases these represent single reports. In other cases some of the parasites are known to be of frequent occurrence and broad geographical range on the basis of several surveys that have been conducted. During the past 30 years 260 raccoons have been examined for parasites at the Patuxent Research Refuge. While most of these animals were collected on the refuge, several were from other localities in Maryland and a few from outside this state. The known distribution and occurrence of parasites of the raccoon are presented on charts and representative specimens of some of those collected at the Patuxent Research Refuge are demonstrated.

  12. O&P (Ova and Parasite) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States are the single-cell parasites Giardia species , Entamoeba histolytica , and Cryptosporidium species. Found throughout the world ... recreational water-related disease outbreaks in the U.S. Entamoeba histolytica is common but only causes illness in ...

  13. Chapter 42. Waterborne and Foodborne Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter identifies the most prominent parasites in North America that are acquired through contaminated food and water including protozoa (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cystoisospora, Cyclospora, Toxoplasma, and Balantidium), nematodes (Trichinella, Angiostrongyl...

  14. Intestinal Parasites of the Grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ., Ascaris sp., Hymenolepis sp. and Schistosoma haematobium, and protozoans such as Giardia sp. and Entamoeba sp. Almost all (95.2%) of the grasscutters were infected with Ancylostoma sp., the most prevalent parasite species in the study ...

  15. O&P (Ova and Parasite) Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... States are the single-cell parasites Giardia species , Entamoeba histolytica , and Cryptosporidium species. Found throughout the world in ... recreational water-related disease outbreaks in the U.S. Entamoeba histolytica is common but only causes illness in about ...

  16. Ant parasite queens revert to mating singly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumner, Seirian; Hughes, William Owen Hamar; Pedersen, Jes Søe

    2004-01-01

    A parasitic ant has abandoned the multiple mating habit of the queens of its related host. Multiple mating (polyandry) is widespread among animal groups, particularly insects 1 . But the factors that maintain it and underlie its evolution are hard to verify because benefits and costs are not easily...... quantified and they tend to be similar in related species. Here we compare the mating strategies of the leaf-cutting ant Acromyrmex echinatior and its recently derived social parasite Acromyrmex insinuator, which is also its closest relative 2 (see Fig. 1 ). We find that although the host queens mate with up...... to a dozen different males, the social parasite mates only singly. This rapid and surprising reversion to single mating in a socially parasitic ant indicates that the costs of polyandry are probably specific to a free-living lifestyle....

  17. Review of parasites of marine zooplankton

    OpenAIRE

    大塚, 攻; 長澤, 和也; 槐島, 光次郎

    2000-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships of marine zooplankton, ranging from protozoans to ichtyoplankton, are briefly reviewed. Marine symbionts range from loose associates through parasites s.s. to parasitoids. Symbionts include protozoans, diatoms, fungi, and a wide variety of metazoans such as trematodes, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans, polychaetes, and crustaceans. Host zooplankton infected by parasites s.s. can be classified into three categories: intermediate host, final host and paratenic (tran...

  18. Pitting of malaria parasites and spherocyte formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gichuki Charity W

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high prevalence of spherocytes was detected in blood smears of children enrolled in a case control study conducted in the malaria holoendemic Lake Victoria basin. It was speculated that the spherocytes reflect intraerythrocytic removal of malarial parasites with a concurrent removal of RBC membrane through a process analogous to pitting of intraerythrocytic inclusion bodies. Pitting and re-circulation of RBCs devoid of malaria parasites could be a host mechanism for parasite clearance while minimizing the anaemia that would occur were the entire parasitized RBC removed. The prior demonstration of RBCs containing ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen (pf 155 or RESA but no intracellular parasites, support the idea of pitting. Methods An in vitro model was developed to examine the phenomenon of pitting and spherocyte formation in Plasmodium falciparum infected RBCs (iRBC co-incubated with human macrophages. In vivo application of this model was evaluated using blood specimens from patients attending Kisumu Ditrict Hospital. RBCs were probed with anti-RESA monoclonal antibody and a DNA stain (propidium iodide. Flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy was used to compare RBCs containing both the antigen and the parasites to those that were only RESA positive. Results Co-incubation of iRBC and tumor necrosis factor-alpha activated macrophages led to pitting (14% ± 1.31% macrophages with engulfed trophozoites as opposed to erythrophagocytosis (5.33% ± 0.95% (P Conclusion It is proposed that in malaria holoendemic areas where prevalence of asexual stage parasites approaches 100% in children, RBCs with pitted parasites are re-circulated and pitting may produce spherocytes.

  19. Parasitic fungi on selected invasive weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Forejtová, Zuzana

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic fungi on selected invasive weeds Zuzana Forejtová Abstract This thesis deals with the invasive plant species problems and their pathogens in the Czech Republic. Special attention is given to weed species colonizing the agroecosystems. The modes and consequences of plant invasions are presented in theoretical part. Practical part includes a list and descriptions of found parasitic fungal pathogens colonizing selected invasive weeds. Moreover, this thesis can be used for educational p...

  20. Plant Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Leatherleaf Fern

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, D. T.; Osborne, Lance S.

    1986-01-01

    Seven species of plant parasitic nematodes were found to be associated with leatherleaf fern (Rumohra adiantiformis) in central Florida. Of these, Pratylenchus penetrans, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, and Criconemoides curvatum were commonly encountered. Nematode communities generally included two or three species of plant parasitic nematodes, with greatest diversity in nematode species occurring in ferneries shaded by oak trees. Species diversity was not correlated with fernery age. Leatherleaf...

  1. The resistance of hazel (Corylus avellana L. to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Part I. Evaluation of the resistance of several cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Piskornik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of 5 year investigations (1981-1985 considerable differences were found in the resistance of 24 hazel cultivars to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L.. The resistance was determined on the basis of the percentage of nuts damaged by larvae in the total yield. Six classes of resistance were established, from class I - very resistant cultivars, to class VI - very susceptible cultivars. In feeding experiments a positive correlation, significant at the 1% and 5% level was found between the frequency of beetle feeding on hazel fruitlets during the time of oviposition (July, and the class of resistance of cultivars; a negative correlation between these parameters was found in August, i.e. during hatching and development of larvae in the nuts. In July the beetles fed more readily and more frequently on nuts of susceptible cultivars, whereas they avoided them in August, i.e. in the period when larvae developed in many fruits of these cultivars.

  2. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

    2006-02-01

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  3. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)]. E-mail: setsuko@nfri.affrc.go.jp; Hasan, Mahbub [Laboratory for Stored Product Protection, Department of Zoology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyanoshita, Akihiro [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Imamura, Taro [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Hayashi, Toru [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  4. Parasitic infections in foreigners living in Japan: estimation of parasitic infection history by serum antibody screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakayama, Keisuke; Akao, Nobuaki; Ohta, Nobuo

    2011-09-30

    We recently surveyed parasitic infections in 334 foreigners living as permanent residents in Japan. The survey results are presented herein. Our results highlight open issues in Japan, with reference to measures taken in Western countries where immigrants have long been accepted. In addition, we present our epidemiological method for investigating parasitic infection, making use of simple and valid large-scale screening. Among the foreigners participating in this survey, parasitic infections other than those in toxoplasmosis antibody positive individuals were rare. However, in view of the recent trend for increased total numbers of foreigners living in Japan, the onset of parasitic infections is anticipated to increase in Japan henceforth.

  5. Role of Parasites in Cancer | Mandong | Nigerian Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: In areas of parasitic endemicity, the occurrence of cancer that is not frequent may be linked with parasitic infection. Epidemiological ,correlates between some parasitic infections and cancer is strong, suggesting a strong aetiological association. The common parasites associated with human cancers are ...

  6. Evolution of parasitism along convergent lines: from ecology to genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Robert; Randhawa, Haseeb S

    2015-02-01

    SUMMARY From hundreds of independent transitions from a free-living existence to a parasitic mode of life, separate parasite lineages have converged over evolutionary time to share traits and exploit their hosts in similar ways. Here, we first summarize the evidence that, at a phenotypic level, eukaryotic parasite lineages have all converged toward only six general parasitic strategies: parasitoid, parasitic castrator, directly transmitted parasite, trophically transmitted parasite, vector-transmitted parasite or micropredator. We argue that these strategies represent adaptive peaks, with the similarities among unrelated taxa within any strategy extending to all basic aspects of host exploitation and transmission among hosts and transcending phylogenetic boundaries. Then, we extend our examination of convergent patterns by looking at the evolution of parasite genomes. Despite the limited taxonomic coverage of sequenced parasite genomes currently available, we find some evidence of parallel evolution among unrelated parasite taxa with respect to genome reduction or compaction, and gene losses or gains. Matching such changes in parasite genomes with the broad phenotypic traits that define the convergence of parasites toward only six strategies of host exploitation is not possible at present. Nevertheless, as more parasite genomes become available, we may be able to detect clear trends in the evolution of parasitic genome architectures representing true convergent adaptive peaks, the genomic equivalents of the phenotypic strategies used by all parasites.

  7. Parasites and associated packed cell volume changes of captive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the period, 98 (77.8%) were infected with at least one parasite species. Arthropod parasites were encountered in 63 (34.1%) birds and the parasites recovered were Echidnophaga gallinacea (27.0%), Argas persicus (18.2%) and Ctnemidocoptes mutans (4.8%). The parasites generally occurred in low numbers.

  8. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of the Gray mouse lemur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faecal material from 169 individuals of Microcebus murinus living in five littoral forest fragments was analyzed for gastrointestinal parasites. The fragments differed in size and forest quality. Gastrointestinal parasite infection of M. murinus was characterised using parasite species richness, the prevalence of parasites, and ...

  9. Review of Parasitic Zoonoses in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Ahmed I.; Uga, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive picture of the zoonotic parasitic diseases in Egypt, with particular reference to their relative prevalence among humans, animal reservoirs of infection, and sources of human infection. A review of the available literature indicates that many parasitic zoonoses are endemic in Egypt. Intestinal infections of parasitic zoonoses are widespread and are the leading cause of diarrhea, particularly among children and residents of rural areas. Some parasitic zoonoses are confined to specific geographic areas in Egypt, such as cutaneous leishmaniasis and zoonotic babesiosis in the Sinai. Other areas have a past history of a certain parasitic zoonoses, such as visceral leishmaniasis in the El-Agamy area in Alexandria. As a result of the implementation of control programs, a marked decrease in the prevalence of other zoonoses, such as schistosomiasis and fascioliasis has been observed. Animal reservoirs of parasitic zoonoses have been identified in Egypt, especially in rodents, stray dogs and cats, as well as vectors, typically mosquitoes and ticks, which constitute potential risks for disease transmission. Prevention and control programs against sources and reservoirs of zoonoses should be planned by public health and veterinary officers based on reliable information from systematic surveillance. PMID:24808742

  10. Frequency of Intestinal Parasites in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Oormazdi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: For a long time, intestinal parasite infections are among the major problems of public health in Iran. Our aim was epidemiological studies on the frequency of intestinal parasites in patients re­ferred to three hospitals in Tehran during 2007-2008."nMethods: During 2007-2008, by simple random selection, 1000 stool samples were collected from Mi­lad, Hazrat-e-Rasoul and Shahid Fahmideh hospitals in Tehran, Iran. We examined the samples using di­rect smear, formol-ethyl acetate concentration, Agar-plate culture and Ziehl-Neelsen staining tech­nique."nResults: The frequency of intestinal parasites were: Blastocystis hominis 12.8%, Giardia lamblia 2.5%, En­tamoeba coli 4.8%, Iodamoeba butschlli 0.9%, unknown 4 nuclei cysts 0.4%, Endolimax nana 3.2%, Chilomastix mesnili 0.4%, Strongyloides stercoralis 0.1%, Hymenolepis nana 0.2% and Taenia sagi­nata 0.2%. Coccidian parasites were not found. Results show that infection with intestinal parasites does not statistically significant according to sex and age."nConclusion: The intestinal parasites, especially helminthic infections have been decreased during re­cent years.

  11. Immune escape strategies of malaria parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Stephanie Gomes

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites have to pass through various immunological barriers within the mosquito such as anti-microbial molecules and the mosquito microbiota in order to achieve successful transmission to the vertebrate host. Within these hosts, Plasmodium species employ various immune evasion strategies during different life cycle stages. Parasite persistence against the vertebrate immune response depends on the balance among virulence factors, pathology, metabolic cost of the host immune response, and the parasites ability to evade the immune response. In this review we discuss the strategies that Plasmodium parasites use to avoid the vertebrate host immune system and how they promote successful infection and transmission.

  12. Immune Escape Strategies of Malaria Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pollyanna S; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Rivera-Correa, Juan; Freire-De-Lima, Celio G; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Immunity to malaria is slow and short-lived despite the repeated parasite exposure in endemic areas. Malaria parasites have evolved refined machinery to evade the immune system based on a range of genetic changes that include allelic variation, biomolecular exposure of proteins, and intracellular replication. All of these features increase the probability of survival in both mosquitoes and the vertebrate host. Plasmodium species escape from the first immunological trap in its invertebrate vector host, the Anopheles mosquitoes. The parasites have to pass through various immunological barriers within the mosquito such as anti-microbial molecules and the mosquito microbiota in order to achieve successful transmission to the vertebrate host. Within these hosts, Plasmodium species employ various immune evasion strategies during different life cycle stages. Parasite persistence against the vertebrate immune response depends on the balance among virulence factors, pathology, metabolic cost of the host immune response, and the parasites ability to evade the immune response. In this review we discuss the strategies that Plasmodium parasites use to avoid the vertebrate host immune system and how they promote successful infection and transmission.

  13. Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Renal Transplant Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EB Kia

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organ transplant recipients can experience serious diseases from infections due to emerging and reemerging parasitic infections. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among renal transplant re-cipients of Iran. "nMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from June 2003 to August 2004 on renal transplant recipients in Iran. A total of 706 fecal samples obtained from randomly selected population originated from all over Iran. Patient's information was recorded in a questionnaire before sampling. A sample of stool was taken from each person. Direct wet smear exami-nation, formalin-ether concentration, Ziehl-neelsen staining, and agar plate culture were done for each sample. "nResults: Totally 32 patients (4.5% were positive for parasitic infections. In searching for emerging parasitic infections, the most prevalent parasites were found to be Blastocystis hominis, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba coli, respectively. The merely ova which were seen were related to Hymenolepis nana. With investigation of healthy control, no significant differ-ence was found between transplanted and normal population. "nConclusion: The population showed controlled rate of intestinal infections probably due to regular awareness concerning risks of opportunistic infections; albeit regular surveillance through routine examination of stool samples for parasites seems considerably advantages the transplant recipient patients.

  14. Mito-nuclear genetic comparison in a Wolbachia infected weevil: insights on reproductive mode, infection age and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Maternally inherited endosymbionts like Wolbachia pipientis are in linkage disequilibrium with the mtDNA of their hosts. Therefore, they can induce selective sweeps, decreasing genetic diversity over many generations. This sex ratio distorter, that is involved in the origin of parthenogenesis and other reproductive alterations, infects the parthenogenetic weevil Naupactus cervinus, a serious pest of ornamental and fruit plants. Results Molecular evolution analyses of mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS1) sequences from 309 individuals of Naupactus cervinus sampled over a broad range of its geographical distribution were carried out. Our results demonstrate lack of recombination in the nuclear fragment, non-random association between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and the consequent coevolution of both genomes, being an indirect evidence of apomixis. This weevil is infected by a single Wolbachia strain, which could have caused a moderate bottleneck in the invaded population which survived the initial infection. Conclusions Clonal reproduction and Wolbachia infection induce the coevolution of bacterial, mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The time elapsed since the Wolbachia invasion would have erased the traces of the demographic crash in the mtDNA, being the nuclear genome the only one that retained the signal of the bottleneck. The amount of genetic change accumulated in the mtDNA and the high prevalence of Wolbachia in all populations of N. cervinus agree with the hypothesis of an ancient infection. Wolbachia probably had great influence in shaping the genetic diversity of N. cervinus. However, it would have not caused the extinction of males, since sexual and asexual infected lineages coexisted until recent times. PMID:21050430

  15. IMPORTANT PROTOZOAN PARASITES IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisasi Gandahusada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important protozoan parasites in Indonesia are the malaria parasites, Toxoplasma gondii and Entamoeba histolytica. After the second world war the residual insecticides and effective antimalarial drugs were used in the control of malaria. After development of resistance among mosquitoes to insecticides, the Malaria Control Programme was switched over to the Malaria Eradication Programme. Malaria incidence dropped heavily. However, due to the quick development of vector resistance and financial limitations, malaria came back and so did the Malaria Control Programme. P. falciparum and P.vivax are the most common species in Indonesia. Important vectors are An. sundaicus, An. aconitus, An. maculatus, An. hyrcanus group, An. balabacensis, An. farauti etc. An. sundaicus and An. aconitus have developed resistance to DDT and Dieldrin in Java. In 1959 the Malaria Eradication Programme was started in Java, Bali and Lampung. In 1965 the API dropped to 0,15 per thousand. From 1966 onwards malaria transmission was on the increase, because spraying activities were slowed down, but dropped again from 1974 onwards by occasional residual house spraying with DDT or Fenitrothion, malaria surveillance and treatment of malaria cases, resulting in an API of 0.18 per thousand in 1987. At present malaria is not transmitted in Jakarta and in capitals of the provinces and kabupatens, except in Irian Jaya, Nusa Tenggara Timur and one or two other provinces, but it still exists in rural areas. The distribution of chloroquine resistant P.falciparum is patchy. Resistance is at the RI, RII and RUT levels. The main problems of malaria control are : the increasing development of resistance of the vector to insecticides, the change of An.aconitus from zoophili to anthropophili and from indoor to outdoor biting, the increasing resistance of P.falciparum to chloroquine, the shortage of skilled manpower and limitation of budget. In Indonesia many newborns with congenital

  16. Parasitic castration: the evolution and ecology of body snatchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2009-01-01

    Castration is a response to the tradeoff between consumption and longevity faced by parasites. Common parasitic castrators include larval trematodes in snails, and isopod and barnacle parasites of crustaceans. The infected host (with its many unique properties) is the extended phenotype of the parasitic castrator. Because an individual parasitic castrator can usurp all the reproductive energy from a host, and that energy is limited, intra- and interspecific competition among castrators is generally intense. These parasites can be abundant and can substantially depress host density. Host populations subject to high rates of parasitic castration appear to respond by maturing more rapidly.

  17. Immunization against parasitic diseases of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, P T

    1997-01-01

    Parasitologists have not, in the past, exploited the immune system to protect fish against parasitic diseases. In the past few years, however, there has been an increased interest in adopting this strategy, and we have made steady and promising progress against a few parasites which are of economic importance. Amyloodinium ocellatum is an ectoparasitic dinoflagellate on brackish and marine fishes, which may also cause problems to aquarium fishes. Antiserum from fish inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with living dinospores of the parasite immobilizes and agglutinates living dinospores; it also reduces parasite infectivity in cell culture. Cryptobia salmositica is a pathogenic haemoflagellate of salmonids on the Pacific coast of North America, causing mortality in semi-natural and intensive salmon culture facilities. A live attenuated vaccine inoculated i.p. protects susceptible juvenile and adult fish for at least 24 months. The protection involves production of complement fixing antibodies, phagocytosis, and antibody-dependent and antibody-independent T-cell cytotoxicity. A monoclonal antibody against a surface membrane glycoprotein (199-200 kDa is therapeutic in that it significantly reduces parasitaemias when inoculated into fish with acute disease. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an ectoparasitic ciliate of freshwater fishes with world wide distribution, usually causing disease when fish are stressed and/or when environmental conditions are favourable for parasite multiplication. Live theronts injected into the body cavity protect fish, and monoclonal antibodies with immobilizing activity upon parasites have been developed. There is some evidence of passive transfer of protective immunity from immune to naive fish, and to eggs. Diplostomum spathaceum is an intestinal parasite of gulls; the metacercaria stage of the parasite encyst and causes disease and mortality in numerous species of freshwater fish in Europe and in North America. Fish injected i.p. with

  18. Developmental stage of parasites influences the structure of fish-parasite networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellay, Sybelle; de Oliveira, Edson Fontes; Almeida-Neto, Mário; Lima Junior, Dilermando Pereira; Takemoto, Ricardo Massato; Luque, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Specialized interactions tend to be more common in systems that require strong reciprocal adaptation between species, such as those observed between parasites and hosts. Parasites exhibit a high diversity of species and life history strategies, presenting host specificity which increases the complexity of these antagonistic systems. However, most studies are limited to the description of interactions between a few parasite and host species, which restricts our understanding of these systems as a whole. We investigated the effect of the developmental stage of the parasite on the structure of 30 metazoan fish-parasite networks, with an emphasis on the specificity of the interactions, connectance and modularity. We assessed the functional role of each species in modular networks and its interactions within and among the modules according to the developmental stage (larval and adult) and taxonomic group of the parasites. We observed that most parasite and host species perform a few interactions but that parasites at the larval stage tended to be generalists, increasing the network connectivity within and among modules. The parasite groups did not differ among each other in the number of interactions within and among the modules when considering only species at the larval stage. However, the same groups of adult individuals differed from each other in their interaction patterns, which were related to variations in the degree of host specificity at this stage. Our results show that the interaction pattern of fishes with parasites, such as acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans and nematodes, is more closely associated with their developmental stage than their phylogenetic history. This finding corroborates the hypothesis that the life history of parasites results in adaptations that cross phylogenetic boundaries.

  19. Chimpanzee malaria parasites related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Duval, L.; Nerrienet, E.; Rousset, D.; Sadeuh Mba, S.A.; Houze, S.; Fourment, M.; Le Bras, J.; Robert, Vincent; Ariey, F.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evol...

  20. A novel β-fructofuranosidase in Coleoptera: Characterization of a β-fructofuranosidase from the sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedezzi, Rafael; Fonseca, Fernando P P; Santos Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano T; Terra, Walter R; Henrique-Silva, Flávio

    2014-12-01

    β-fructofuranosidases or invertases (EC 3.2.1.26) catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose into fructose and glucose. β-fructofuranosidases have been widely described in microorganisms, but were not known in the animal kingdom until very recently. There are studies reporting lepidopteran β-fructofuranosidases, but no β-fructofuranosidase gene sequence or encoding transcript has previously been identified in beetles. Considering the scarcity of functional studies on insect β-fructofuranosidases and their apparent non-occurrence among coleopterans, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and characterize a β-fructofuranosidase transcript identified in a cDNA library from the sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis (Curculionidae). To validate that the β-fructofuranosidase sequence (herein denominated Sl-β-fruct) is indeed encoded by the S. levis genome, PCRs were performed using genomic DNA extracted from the larval fat body as well as DNA from the midgut with microbial content. Amplification of Sl-β-fruct gene using larval fat body DNA indicated its presence in the insect's genomic DNA. The Sl-β-fruct gene was cloned in Pichia pastoris to produce the recombinant enzyme (rSl-β-fruct). Molecular weight of the recombinant protein was about 64 kDa, indicating possible glycosylation, since the theoretical weight was 54.8 kDa. The substrate specificity test revealed that rSl-β-fruct hydrolyzes sucrose and raffinose, but not melibiose or maltose, thereby confirming invertase activity. The pH curve revealed greatest activity at pH 5.0, demonstrating rSl-β-fruct to be an acidic β-fructofuranosidase. Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicated that the production of mRNA only occurs in the midgut and reaches the greatest expression level in 30-day-old larvae, which is the expected pattern for digestive enzymes. Chromatography of glycosidases from S. levis midguts showed two enzymes acting as β-fructofuranosidase, indicating the presence of a