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Sample records for weevil curculio caryae

  1. Effect of Soil Moisture and a Surfactant on Entomopathogenic Nematode Suppression of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio caryae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I.; Cottrell, Ted E.; Brown, Ian; Gardner, Wayne A.; Hubbard, Robert K.; Wood, Bruce W.

    2006-01-01

    Our overall goal was to investigate several aspects of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, suppression with entomopathogenic nematodes. Specifically, our objectives were to: 1) determine optimum moisture levels for larval suppression, 2) determine suppression of adult C. caryae under field conditions, and 3) measure the effects of a surfactant on nematode efficacy. In the laboratory, virulence of Heterorhabditis megidis (UK211) and Steinernema carpocapsae (All) were tested in a loamy sand at gravimetric water contents of negative 0.01, 0.06, 0.3, 1.0, and 15 bars. Curculio caryae larval survival decreased as moisture levels increased. The nematode effect was most pronounced at –0.06 bars. At –0.01 bars, larval survival was ≤5% regardless of nematode presence, thus indicating that intense irrigation alone might reduce C. caryae populations. Overall, our results indicated no effect of a surfactant (Kinetic) on C. caryae suppression with entomopathogenic nematodes. In a greenhouse test, C. caryae larval survival was lower in all nematode treatments compared with the control, yet survival was lower in S. carpocapsae (Italian) and S. riobrave (7–12) treatments than in S. carpocapsae (Agriotos), S. carpocapsae (Mexican), and S. riobrave (355) treatments (survival was reduced to approximately 20% in the S. riobrave [7–12] treatment). A mixture of S. riobrave strains resulted in intermediate larval survival. In field experiments conducted over two consecutive years, S. riobrave (7–12) applications resulted in no observable control, and, although S. carpocapsae (Italian) provided some suppression, treatment effects were generally only detectable one day after treatment. Nematode strains possessing both high levels of virulence and a greater ability to withstand environmental conditions in the field need to be developed and tested. PMID:19259466

  2. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated potential to use Hypocreales fungi for suppression of C. caryae. In this study, we first compared the efficacy of two fungal spp. Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52) in ability to ...

  3. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The nut weevil ( Curculio nucum ) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum , the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT 50 , and LT 90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  4. Effects of combining microbial and chemical insecticides on mortality of the Pecan Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Wood, Bruce W

    2011-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Current control recommendations are based on chemical insecticide applications. Microbial control agents such as the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) and the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin occur naturally in southeastern U.S. pecan orchards and have shown promise as alternative control agents for C. caryjae. Conceivably, the chemical and microbial agents occur simultaneously within pecan orchards or might be applied concurrently. The objective of this study was to determine the interactions between two chemical insecticides that are used in commercial C. caryae control (i.e., carbaryl and cypermethrin applied below field rates) and the microbial agents B. bassiana and S. carpocapsae. In laboratory experiments, pecan weevil larval or adult mortality was assessed after application of microbial or chemical treatments applied singly or in combination (microbial + chemical agent). The nature of interactions (antagonism, additivity, or synergy) in terms of weevil mortality was evaluated over 9 d (larvae) or 5 d (adults). Results for B. bassiana indicated synergistic activity with carbaryl and antagonism with cypermethrin in C. caryae larvae and adults. For S. carpocapsae, synergy was detected with both chemicals in C. caryae larvae, but only additive effects were detected in adult weevils. Our results indicate that the chemical-microbial combinations tested are compatible with the exception of B. bassiana and cypermethrin. In addition, combinations that exhibited synergistic interactions may provide enhanced C. caryae control in commercial field applications; thus, their potential merits further exploration.

  5. Molecular diagnostic for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on amplification of three species-specific microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Szendrei, Zsofia; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Mulder, Phillip G; Sappington, Thomas W

    2009-04-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally the traps collect nontarget weevils that can be misidentified by scouts. For example, the congeneric pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano, and other superficially similar weevils are attracted to components of the boll weevil lure or trap color. Although morphologically distinguishable by trained personnel, the potential for misidentification is compounded when captured weevils are dismembered or partially consumed by ants or ground beetles that sometimes feed on them in the traps. Because misidentification can have expensive consequences, a molecular diagnostic tool would be of great value to eradication managers. We demonstrate that a cocktail of three primer pairs in a single polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplify species-specific microsatellites that unambiguously distinguish the boll weevil from three other weevil species tested, including pepper weevil; cranberry weevil, Anthonomus eugenii musculus Say; and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae Horn. However, it does not distinguish the boll weevil from the subspecific "thurberia" weevil. A universal internal transcribed spacer primer pair included in the cocktail cross-amplifies DNA from all species, serving as a positive control. Furthermore, the diagnostic primers amplified the target microsatellites from various boll weevil adult body parts, indicating that the PCR technology using the primer cocktail is sensitive enough to positively identify a boll weevil even when the body is partly degraded.

  6. Control of Pecan Weevil With Microbial Biopesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Bock, Clive; Mai, Kim; Boykin, Debbie; Wells, Lenny; Hudson, William G; Mizell, Russell F

    2017-12-08

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of pecans Carya illinoinensis ([Wangenh.] K. Koch) (Fagales: Juglandaceae). Control recommendations rely on broad spectrum chemical insecticides. Due to regulatory and environmental concerns, effective alternatives for C. caryae control must be sought for pecan production in conventional and organic systems. We explored the use of microbial biopesticides for control of C. caryae in Georgia pecan orchards. Three experiments were conducted. The first investigated an integrated microbial control approach in an organic system at two locations. Three microbial agents, Grandevo (based on byproducts of the bacterium Chromobacterium subtsugae Martin, Gundersen-Rindal, Blackburn & Buyer), the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, were applied to each treatment plot (0.6 ha) at different times during the season. A second experiment compared the effects of S. carpocapsae and B. bassiana applied as single treatments relative to application of both agents (at different times); survival of C. caryae was assessed approximately 11 mo after larvae were added to pots sunk in an organic pecan orchard. In a conventional orchard (with 1.0 ha plots), the third experiment compared Grandevo applications to a commonly used regime of chemical insecticides (carbaryl alternated with a pyrethroid). All experiments were repeated in consecutive years. The combined pest management tactic (experiment 1) reduced C. caryae infestation relative to non-treated control plots in both locations in 2014 and one of the two locations in 2015 (the other location had less than 1% infestation). In experiment 2, no differences among combined microbial treatments, single-applied microbial treatments or different numbers of application were observed, yet all microbial treatments reduced C. caryae survival relative to the control. In the third

  7. The resistance of hazel (Corylus avellana to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L.- Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Part II. The physicochemical characteristics of the pericarp and dynamics of nut development and cultivar resistance to the pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Piskornik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant differences were found among the 22 studied hazel cultivars (Corylus avellana L. in their resistance to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L. which is the main pest of this crop in Europe. The study investigated the relationships between the resistance of the cultivars to the pest and the physicochemical properties of the pericarp, i.e. the lignification dynamics, changes in thickness and hardness during nut development and the rate of nutlet development. Correlation analysis showed that there was no dependence between the physicochemical properties of the pericarp and the resistance of the hazel cultivars to the hazelnut weevil. Nut development dynamics were also found to be unrelated to resistance to the pest. Laboratory feeding experiments showed that during the initial feeding phase and at the time the insect searches for an oviposition site, it seems to prefer cultivars with the largest nutlets. However, in the period of intensive oviposition, traits other than nutlet size seem to be decisive for the beetles choice of cultivar.

  8. Effects of entomopathogenic fungus species, and impact of fertilizers, on biological control of pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Gardner, Wayne A; Wells, Lenny; Cottrell, Ted E; Behle, Robert W; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-04-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch. Prior research indicated the potential for use of Hypocreales fungi to suppress C. caryae. We compared the efficacy of two fungal spp., Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their ability to cause C. caryae mortality. The fungus, B. bassiana, was applied to trunks of pecan trees (a method previously shown to be effective in C. caryae suppression) and efficacy was compared with M. brunneum applied to the ground or to the trunk with or without SoyScreen Oil as an ultraviolet protecting agent. Results indicated B. bassiana to be superior to M. brunneum regardless of application method; consequently, the potential for applying B. bassiana to control C. caryae was explored further. Specifically, the impact of different fertilizer regimes (as used by pecan growers) on the persistence of B. bassiana (GHA) in soil was determined. B. bassiana was applied to soil in a pecan orchard after one of several fertilizer treatments--i.e., ammonium nitrate, crimson clover, poultry litter, clover plus poultry litter, and a no-fertilizer control. B. bassiana persistence up to 49 d in 2009 and 2010 was assessed by plating soil onto selective media and determining the number of colony forming units, and by baiting soil with a susceptible host, Galleria mellonella (L.). Fertilizer treatments did not impact B. bassiana persistence. We conclude that standard fertilizers for nitrogen management, when applied according to recommended practices, are unlikely to negatively impact survival of B. bassiana in pecan orchards when the fungus is applied for C. caryae suppression during weevil emergence. Additional research on interactions between entomopathogenic fungi and fertilizer amendments (or other tree nutrition or soil management practices) is merited.

  9. Cumulative impact of a clover cover crop on the persistance and efficancy of Beauveria bassiana in suppressing the pecan weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans. Endemic levels of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can occur in pecan orchards and contribute to natural control of C. caryae. Commercial formulations of the fungus can also be applied for suppression of C. caryae. We hypothesized tha...

  10. Microstructure and nanoindentation of the rostrum of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Sudhanshu S. [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States); Current address: Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh 208016 (India); Jansen, Michael A.; Franz, Nico M. [School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-4501 (United States); Chawla, Nikhilesh, E-mail: nchawla@asu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The rostrum is an extension of the cuticle of the head of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and is often used to bore holes for oviposition (the process of laying eggs) into host plant tissue where larval development occurs. In members of the genus Curculio Linnaeus, 1758, the rostrum is long, slender, and strongly curved, but is nevertheless used to excavate straight bore-holes in the fruit of various host plants, through significant deformation of this structure. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the rostrum of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927, leading to a microstructural model that describes its deformation behavior. Specifically, we used the continuous stiffness measurement (CSM) technique in nanoindentation to measure the Young's modulus and hardness of rostrum. The values of Young's modulus and hardness for the endocuticle were measured to be 8.91 ± 0.93 GPa and 558 ± 60 MPa, respectively. These results are critical for generating accurate finite element models of the head's mechanical behavior while it undergoes deformation. - Highlights: •SEM was used to examine the rostrum of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927. •Nanoindentation to measure the Young's modulus and hardness of rostrum. •Results are critical for finite element models of the head's mechanical behavior.

  11. Effects of gamma irradiation on the emergence of larvae of curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Cydia kurokoi (Amsel) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Taro; Todoriki, Setsuko; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Hayashi, Toru

    2004-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on the emergence of larvae of the chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller), were investigated. One hundred chestnuts were irradiated in a 60 Co irradiator (Gammacell 220, Nordion, Canada) at a dose rate of 0.40 kGy/h. The doses at which irradiation was carried out were 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 1000 Gy. After treatment, the chestnuts were kept at 25degC, 70% RH and emerged larvae were counted daily. Larvae of the nut fruit moth, Cydia kurokoi (Amsel), also emerged from the chestnuts. The data on the chestnut weevil were subjected to probit analysis and the LD 99.9 of weevil larvae was estimated to be about 500 Gy. (author)

  12. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  13. Carya illinoinensis : Pekannussbaum, Pekan (Juglandaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Rollenbeck, Richmud

    2015-01-01

    "Paccan – Nuss, die mit einem Stein geknackt werden muss", so nannten die Algonkin- Indianer Nordamerikas die Nüsse der Hickory-Bäume, zu denen auch der Pekannussbaum (Carya illinoinensis, oft fälschlich Carya illinoensis geschrieben) gehört. Er ist verwandt mit der Echten Walnuss (Juglans regia). "Carya" leitet sich ab vom griechischen Wort "karyon" und bedeutet Nüsse oder Kerne. Als "Illinois nuts" brachten Pelzhändler die Nüsse an die Atlantikküste und so kamen sie zu ihrem botanischen Nam...

  14. Entomogenous nematodes: a field study for biological control of Curculio elephas Gyl. (Coleoptera Curculionidae); Nematodi entomoparassiti: una prova di impiego in campo della lotta contro il balanino del castagno, Curculio elephas Gyl. (Coleoptera Curculionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapagnani, M.R.; Caffarelli, V.; Letardi, A.; Barlattani, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Lazzari, L.; Ruggeri, L. [BIOERRE, Crespellano, Bologna (Italy); Lelli, L.

    1999-02-01

    Biological control of chestnut weevil (Curculio elephas Gyl.) using entomogenous nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) was investigated under field conditions. Experiments of infectivity, soil persistence and mobility of the infective juveniles stage of the nematodes were carried out through laboratory tests. Experimental results on developing infectivity process if entomogenous nematodes, have shown both inhibition at low temperature (average value 12 C) and mechanic barrier of weevil pupal envelope. Use of dispersal media as water or peat, was not relevant on experimental results. Further researches are required to test low temperature-resistant strain. [Italiano] Vengono riportati i risultati di uno studio di lotta biologica contro il balanino del castagno (Curculio elephas Gyl.) realizzato utilizzando ceppi di nematodi entomoparassiti (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae). Sono stati monitorati, in campo, l`andamento dell`infestazione del balanino del castagno, l`efficacia del trattamento e l`andamento della temperatura sia climatica che nel terreno a due diverse profondita`. Nel corso dello studio e` stata controllata periodicamente, con prove di laboratorio, la persistenza nel terreno e la capacita` infettiva dei nematodi utilizzati. Lo studio ha messo in evidenza la difficolta` da parte dei nematodi di esplicare la propria azione di entomoparassiti in condizioni di temperatura media attorno ai 12 C e di superare la barriera fisica operata dalla celletta entro cui si impupa il balanino. Il mezzo utilizzato per la dispersione dei nematodi (acqua o torba) risulta essere indifferente rispetto al risultato ottenuto. L`esperienza ha evidenziato l`interesse, in questo tipo di lotta, alla sperimentazione di ceppi di nematodi resistenti alle basse temperature.

  15. Tempo-Spatial Dynamics of Adult Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Semiochemical-Baited Trap Captures in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cumplido, Johnattan; Leskey, Tracy C; Holdcraft, Robert; Zaman, Faruque U; Hahn, Noel G; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), has become an important pest of highbush blueberries in the northeastern United States. Here, we conducted experiments in 2010-2013 to compare the efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for C. nenuphar versus conventional (beating cloth) sampling methods in blueberries, and to understand the seasonal abundance and distribution of C. nenuphar adults within and among blueberry fields using these traps. Black pyramid traps baited with the C. nenuphar aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid and the fruit volatile benzaldehyde caught three to four times more adults than unbaited traps without causing an increase in injury to berries in neighboring bushes. Numbers of adult weevils caught in traps correlated with those on bushes (beating cloth samples), indicating that trap counts can predict C. nenuphar abundance in the field. Early in the season, traps placed 20 m from field edges near a forest caught higher C. nenuphar numbers than traps placed at farther distances, suggesting movement of overwintered weevils from outside fields. Using a trapping network across multiple fields in an organic farm, we found evidence of C. nenuphar aggregation in "hotspots"; early in the season, C. nenuphar numbers in traps were higher in the middle of fields, and there was a correlation between these numbers and distance from the forest in 2013 but not in 2012. These results show that semiochemical-baited traps are effective in capturing C. nenuphar adults in blueberries, and that these traps should be placed in the interior of fields preferably, but not exclusively, near wooded habitats to maximize their efficacy. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. New bacterial products for control of pecan pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecans are economically the most important native nut crop in the USA. Among the major concerns are the pecan weevil (Curculio caryae), pecan aphids, and diseases such as pecan scab, Venturia effusa. These pests are generally controlled with broad spectrum chemicals. The chemical pesticides can be...

  17. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  18. The rare-earth metallome of pecan and other Carya

    Science.gov (United States)

    The nutritional physiology of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] and other Carya species remains to be fully understood; thus, presenting a substantial knowledge gap in the horticulture of pecan and similar species. There is an especial lack of knowledge regarding the metabolic, ecophys...

  19. Do boll weevils really diapause?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, diapause has been poorly understood since the term was first used 50 yrs ago to describe the pest’s winter dormancy in temperate regions. This literature-based study found that low temperature and changes in photoperiod are the boll weevil diapause-i...

  20. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745-1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculiosticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapionvaripes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculioflavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacercurculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchusundatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculiofulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribusroboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachyceruscristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculiocaninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitonalineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculioinnocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinusbarcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchusrufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchusrufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonusincisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonusilligeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonusvulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonuscanaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculiocanaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonuscanaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonusincisus. Salpingusfulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingusplanirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculioplanirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomuserinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchusferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchusglandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchusnivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchussparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus), Coelocephalapionatrirostre (Fabricius, 1802

  1. Odor-baited trap trees: a novel management tool for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2008-08-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most important pests of apple (Malus spp.) in eastern and central North America, historically has been managed in New England apple orchards by three full block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include perimeter row sprays, particularly after petal fall, to control immigrating adults. The odor-baited trap tree approach represents a new reduced input strategy for managing plum curculio based on the application of insecticides to a few perimeter-row trap trees rather than the entire perimeter row or full orchard block. Here, we compared the efficacy of a trap tree approach with perimeter row treatments to manage populations after petal fall in commercial apple orchards in 2005 and 2006. Injury was significantly greater in trap trees compared with unbaited perimeter row treated trees in both years of the study. In 2005, heavy rains prevented growers from applying insecticide applications at regular intervals resulting in high injury in nearly all blocks regardless of type of management strategy. In 2006, both the trap-tree and perimeter-row treatments prevented penetration by immigrating populations and resulted in economically acceptable levels of injury. The trap tree management strategy resulted in a reduction of approximately 70% total trees being treated with insecticide compared with perimeter row sprays and 93% compared with standard full block sprays.

  2. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  3. Lethality of reduced-risk insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in blueberries with emphasis on their curative activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongoing regulatory changes are eliminating or restricting the use of broad-spectrum insecticides in fruit crops in the USA, and current IPM programs for plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in highbush blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L, need to address these changes. To assist in this ...

  4. A contribution to the study of biology of Curculio elephas Gyll. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drekić Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the insects that feeds on pedunculate oak acorns and reduces its seed yield is Curculio elephas Gyll. The study of Curculio elephas Gyll is necessary because of the severe damages caused by this insect and also owing to its insufficiently investigated biology. The research was conducted in the common oak seed orchard at Banov Brod, forest estate „Sremska Mitrovica“, and in the entomological laboratory. The adults emerge from the soil chambers from mid July till the beginning of September. The presence of adults, as determined by crown fogging, ranged from the end of July till the beginning of September with the highest number in mid August. After emerging from the soil, females are already fertile with the developed eggs in the ovaries. They start egg laying after 1 to 8 days and they lay from one to seven eggs per day. Egg laying period lasts from 7 to 20 days. Fertility of C. elephas females ranges from 5 to 40 eggs, while their fecundity ranges from 19 to 45 eggs. At the end of the larval stage, larvae bore into the soil and stay there from one to three years. The species hibernates only in the larval stage. C. elephas has a one-year life cycle, while a minor part of the population has a two or three-year life cycle.

  5. Enhancing banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ) resistance by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) resistance by plant genetic modification: A perspective. Andrew Kiggundu, Michael Pillay, Altus Viljoen, Clifford Gold, Wilberforce Tushemereirwe, Karl Kunert ...

  6. Boll weevil invasion process in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is the most destructive cotton pest in the Western Hemisphere. In 1993, the pest was reported in Argentina, and in 1994 boll weevils were captured in cotton fields in the Formosa Province on the border between Argentina and Paraguay. The pest ha...

  7. Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toju Hirokazu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major recent advances in evolutionary biology is the recognition that evolutionary interactions between species are substantially differentiated among geographic populations. To date, several authors have revealed natural selection pressures mediating the geographically-divergent processes of coevolution. How local, then, is the geographic structuring of natural selection in coevolutionary systems? Results I examined the spatial scale of a "geographic selection mosaic," focusing on a system involving a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae, and its host plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica. In this system, female weevils excavate camellia fruits with their extremely-long mouthparts to lay eggs into seeds, while camellia seeds are protected by thick pericarps. Quantitative evaluation of natural selection demonstrated that thicker camellia pericarps are significantly favored in some, but not all, populations within a small island (Yakushima Island, Japan; diameter ca. 30 km. At the extreme, camellia populations separated by only several kilometers were subject to different selection pressures. Interestingly, in a population with the thickest pericarps, camellia individuals with intermediate pericarp thickness had relatively high fitness when the potential costs of producing thick pericarps were considered. Also importantly, some parameters of the weevil - camellia interaction such as the severity of seed infestation showed clines along temperature, suggesting the effects of climate on the fine-scale geographic differentiation of the coevolutionary processes. Conclusion These results show that natural selection can drive the geographic differentiation of interspecific interactions at surprisingly small spatial scales. Future studies should reveal the evolutionary/ecological outcomes of the "fine scale geographic mosaics" in biological communities.

  8. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    OpenAIRE

    Horváth, R.; Magura, T.; Péter, G.; Tóthmérész, B.

    2002-01-01

    The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest...

  9. Early Holocene pecan, Carya illinoensis, in the Mississippi River Valley near Muscatine, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Baker, R.G.; Nations, B.K.; Benn, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A fossil pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, from floodplain sediments of the Mississippi River near Muscatine, Iowa, was accelerator-dated at 7280 ?? 120 yr B.P. This discovery indicates that pecan was at or near its present northern limit by that time. Carya pollen profiles from the Mississippi River Trench indicate that hickory pollen percentages were much higher in the valley than at upland locations during the early Holocene. Pecan, the hickory with the most restricted riparian habitat, is the likely candidate for producing these peaks in Carya pollen percentages. Therefore, pecan may have reached its northern limit as early as 10,300 yr B.P. Its abundance in Early Archaic archaeological sites and the co-occurrence of early Holocene Carya pollen peaks with the arrival of the Dalton artifact complex in the Upper Mississippi Valley suggest that humans may have played a role in the early dispersal of pecan. ?? 1990.

  10. Early Holocene pecan, Carya illinoensis, in the Mississippi River Valley near Muscatine, Iowa*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Baker, Richard G.; Nations, Brenda K.; Benn, David W.

    1990-01-01

    A fossil pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, from floodplain sediments of the Mississippi River near Muscatine, Iowa, was accelerator-dated at 7280 ± 120 yr B.P. This discovery indicates that pecan was at or near its present northern limit by that time. Carya pollen profiles from the Mississippi River Trench indicate that hickory pollen percentages were much higher in the valley than at upland locations during the early Holocene. Pecan, the hickory with the most restricted riparian habitat, is the likely candidate for producing these peaks in Carya pollen percentages. Therefore, pecan may have reached its northern limit as early as 10,300 yr B.P. Its abundance in Early Archaic archaeological sites and the co-occurrence of early Holocene Carya pollen peaks with the arrival of the Dalton artifact complex in the Upper Mississippi Valley suggest that humans may have played a role in the early dispersal of pecan.

  11. Expression, purification and crystallization of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) vicilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, BoRam; Zhang, Renhao; Du, Wen-Xian; Grauke, Larry J; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Tree nuts are responsible for many cases of severe food allergies. The 7S seed storage protein vicilin has been identified as a food allergen in many kinds of tree nuts. The vicilin protein consists of an N-terminal low-complexity region with antimicrobial activity and a C-terminal domain that forms a trimeric structure that belongs to the cupin superfamily. In this study, vicilin from pecan (Carya illinoinensis) was isolated and was expressed in bacteria for the first time. The cupin structural core of the protein, residues 369-792, was purified by metal-affinity and gel-filtration chromatography to high purity. Vicilin crystals were obtained and the best crystal diffracted to 2.65 Å resolution in space group P212121.

  12. Development of SSR Markers in Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) and Their Transferability to Other Species of Carya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Zeng, Yanru; Shen, Dengfeng; Xia, Guohua; Huang, Yinzhi; Huang, Youjun; Chang, Jun; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia

    2014-10-01

    Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.), an important nut-producing species in Southeastern China, has high economic value, but so far there has been no cultivar bred under species although it is mostly propagated by seeding and some elite individuals have been found. It has been found recently that this species has a certain rate of apomixis and poor knowledge of its genetic background has influenced development of a feasible breeding strategy. Here in this paper we first release SSR (Simple sequence repeat) markers developed in this species and their transferability to other three species of the same genus, Carya. A total of 311 pairs of SSR primers in hickory were developed based on sequenced cDNAs of a fruit development-associated cDNA library and RNA-seq data of developing female floral buds and could be used to distinguish hickory, C. hunanensis Cheng et R. H. Chang ex R. H. Chang et Lu, C. illinoensis K. Koch (pecan) and C. dabieshanensis M. C. Liu et Z. J. Li, but they were monomorphic in both hickory and C. hunanensis although multi-alleles have been identified in all the four species. There is a transferability rate of 63.02% observed between hickory and pecan and the markers can be applied to study genetic diversity of accessions in pecan. When used in C. dabieshanensis, it was revealed that C. dabieshanensis had the number of alleles per locus ranging from 2 to 4, observed heterozygosity from 0 to 0.6667 and expected heterozygosity from 0.333 to 0.8667, respectively, which supports the existence of C. dabieshanensis as a separate species different from hickory and indicates that there is potential for selection and breeding in this species.

  13. Edge effect on weevils and spiders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Horváth

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The edge effect on weevils and spiders was tested along oak forest – meadow transects using sweep-net samples at the Síkfökút Project in Hungary. For spiders the species richness was significantly higher in the forest edge than either in the meadow or the forest interior. For weevils the species richness of the forest edge was higher than that of the meadow, but the difference was not statistically significant whereas the species richness of the forest interior was significantly lower than that of the forest edge and the meadow. The composition of the spider assemblage of the edge was more similar to the forest, while the composition of weevils in the edge was more similar to the meadow. Our results based on two invertebrate groups operating on different trophic levels suggest that there is a significant edge effect for the studied taxa resulting in higher species richness in the edge.

  14. Evolution: Weevils Get Tough on Symbiotic Tyrosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Colin

    2017-12-04

    Weevils, which represent one of the most diverse groups of terrestrial insects in nature, obtain a tough exoskeleton through the activity of an ancient bacterial symbiont with a tiny genome that serves as a factory for the production of tyrosine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  16. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  17. Comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model about Carya cathayensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da-Sheng, W.; Li-Juan, L.; Qin-Fen, Y.

    2013-01-01

    On the relation between the suitable environment and the distribution areas of Carya cathayensis Sarg., the current studies are mainly committed to qualitative descriptions, but did not consider quantitative models. The objective of this study was to establish a environment-suitability evaluation model which used to predict potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis. Firstly, the 3 factor data of soil type, soil parent material and soil thickness were obtained based on 2-class forest resource survey, and other factor data, which included elevation, slope, aspect, surface curvature, humidity index, and solar radiation index, were extracted from DEM (Digital Elevation Model). Additionally, the key affecting factors were defined by PCA (Principal Component Analysis), the weights of evaluation factors were determined by AHP (Analysis Hierarchy Process) and the quantitative classification of single factor was determined by membership function with fuzzy mathematics. Finally, a comprehensive environment-suitability evaluation model was established and which was also used to predict the potential suitable areas of C. cathayensis in Daoshi Town in the study region. The results showed that 85.6% of actual distribution areas were in the most suitable and more suitable regions and 11.5% in the general suitable regions

  18. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of Carya illinoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli Bianchin; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Pizzuti, Kauana; Filippi Dos Santos Alves, Camilla; Corrêa, Marcos Saldanha; Bolzan, Leandro Perger; Zago, Adriana; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Giongo, Janice Luehring; Baldissera, Matheus Dellaméa; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna

    2017-03-01

    Carya illinoensis is a widespread species, belonging to the Juglandaceae family, commonly known as Pecan. Popularly, the leaves have been used in the treatment of smoking as a hypoglycemic, cleansing, astringent, keratolytic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial agent. The following research aimed to identify for the first time the phytochemical compounds present in the leaves of C. illinoensis and carry out the determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 20 microorganisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Phenolic acids (gallic acid and ellagic acid), flavonoids (rutin), and tannins (catechins and epicatechins) were identified by HPLC-DAD and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and yeast. The results showed MIC values between 25 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL. The extracts were also able to inhibit the production of germ tubes by Candida albicans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pine weevil feeding in Scots pine and Norway spruce regenerations

    OpenAIRE

    Wallertz, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    Damage caused by the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L) feeding on conifer seedlings is a major problem in reforested areas in many parts of Europe. The adult weevil feeds on the stem-bark of young seedlings, frequently killing a large proportion of newly planted seedlings. The aims of the studies underlying this thesis were to investigate whether additional food supplies could decrease the damage caused by pine weevil to seedlings, and to determine whether access to extra food might explain w...

  20. Pine weevil (Hylobius abietis) antifeedants from lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratt, K; Sunnerheim, K; Nordenhem, H; Nordlander, G; Langström, B

    2001-11-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius abietis) fed less on bark of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) than on bark of Scots pine (P. sylvestris). Two pine weevil antifeedants, ethyl trans-cinnamate and ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenyl-propanoate, were isolated from bark of lodgepole pine. These two compounds significantly reduced pine weevil feeding in a laboratory bioassay. In field assays, the second compound significantly decreased pine weevil damage on planted seedlings. Ethyl 2,3-dibromo-3-phenylpropanoate has not previously been reported as a natural product.

  1. Eradication of sweet potato weevil using Co-60 gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Taizo

    2007-01-01

    Sweet potato weevil which is a harmful insect injuring sweet potatoes was found out at Yoron Island in 1915 for the first time in Kagoshima prefecture, Japan. Here the eradication of sweet potato weevils using cobalt 60 irradiation achieved at Kikai Island is described. The mass-reared male weevils in potatoes are in pasture after sterilized by gamma irradiation. If the sexually sterile male copulates with a wild female, the egg does not incubate. By the repeated sterilization during several generations, the eradication of sweet potato weevils was accomplished. (M.H.)

  2. Iridovirus in the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Hunter

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV6 was evaluated for mode of transmission and ability to cause infection in the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.. This is the first evidence of IIV6 infection in D. abbreviatus, which caused both patent and sub-lethal covert infections in both larvae and adults. Adults and larvae were successfully infected with IIV6 by puncture, injection and per os. Transmission of IIV6 was demonstrated between infected and healthy individuals regardless of gender. Virus was detected in egg masses produced by virus-infected females suggesting IIV6 is transmitted transovarially. Virus particles were observed in the cytoplasm of weevil cells, and were shown to infect fat bodies, muscle, and nerve tissues, as visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Patent infections resulted in death of individuals within 3 to 4 days post infection. Individuals with covert infections tested positive for virus infection on day 7 by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Sequencing of PCR amplicons confirmed virus infection. Discovery of new pathogens against root weevils may provide new management tools for development of control strategies based on induced epizootics. This is the first report of a virus infecting D. abbreviatus.

  3. Response of banana hybrids to the banana weevil (Cosmopolites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Response of banana hybrids to the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) .... A number of physical and chemical factors are .... The total number of weevils trapped were then counted and recorded. Agronomic characteristics. Bunch weight, girth and height. In addition to corm damage assesment, data was also ...

  4. Response of banana cultivars to banana weevil attack | Kiggundu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Highland Bananas (EAHB) (Musa AAA, 'Matooke' group) are a major staple food in the East African region. However, banana weevil (Cosmopolites sorllidus) is a major production constraint to bananas and may cause damage levels of up to 100%. Pesticides can effectively control banana weevil but these are ...

  5. Field attraction of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus to Kairomones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Bruck, D.J.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Root weevils in the genus Otiorhynchus are cited as one of the most important pests in the major nursery and small fruit production areas throughout the United States, western Canada, and northern Europe. A major problem in combating weevil attack is monitoring and timing of control measures.

  6. Laboratory and field evaluation of sterile male boll weevil competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    The production of pheromone by boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, treated with 10,000 rad of CO-60 gamma irradiation compared favorably with that of control weevils for 5 days; however, feeding (determined by frass collection) was reduced from the first day post-treatment. No direct correlation was found between production of pheromone and elimination of frass. Overwintered male boll weevils were found to produce small quantities of pheromone and the ratio of components was less attractive at the same concentration as the standard laboratory formulation of grandlure. Most healthy sterilized male weevils should be more attractive than overwintered males. Laboratory-reared sterilized male boll weevils can be as attractive to female weevils as overwintered field males. Weevils treated with busulfan (1,4-butanediol dimethanesulfonate) alone were more attractive than those treated with combinations of busulfan and hempa. In general, sterilization reduced the attractiveness of laboratory males by about 50 percent. Evidence is presented for the existence of ''super-males.''

  7. X-ray CT in the detection of palm weevils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, A.K.W.; Alghamdi, A.A.; Spyrou, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    Early detection of the red palm weevils (RPW) is a major challenge in agriculture among all kinds of palm trees due to the nature of the insect and the difficulty to trace them through their life stages associated with the tree life. Many methods have been applied for the weevil detection such as X-ray diffraction techniques, fluoroscopy and ultrasound. On the other hand, the idea of tomography has been used for other purposes such as the determination of the age of the tree and for applied environmental studies. Such technology can also reveal the weevil in principle. In this study, we explore the use of X-ray CT for weevil detection with the Monte Carlo method. A model of the stem of a palm tree is developed for simulations. MCNPX is chosen to carry out the simulations for the radiography tally in the code. The tally records the 2D data of the X-ray beams irradiating the tree model. An iterative reconstruction method for cone beam CT is applied to obtain the 3D slices of the tree model. We are exploring the minimum number of projection angles and the detectability of the weevil. We shall also report the sensitivity of weevil detection using X-ray CT with a large set of simulations with different weevil sizes and tree diameters. (author)

  8. An irradiation marker for mango seed weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heather, N.W.; Lescano, H.G.; Congdon, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to look for a method to determine whether live mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangifera (Fabricius) present in fruit had been irradiated at a quarantine dose or lower. We looked specifically for anatomical effects on the supra-oesophageal ganglion of larvae and tested a biochemical method for detection of the effects of irradiation on the protein profile of pupae. Neither method was successful. However, because for most international export markets mangoes need only be found free of the pest at inspection sourcing from pest-free production orchards and quality control systems incorporating requisite pest management components could prove practicable and satisfy most markets. (author)

  9. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis/Wangenh./K. Koch: A new species of the Allochthonous dendroflora in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobinac Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the alien species Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, carya-pecan, (Juglandaceae A. Richard ex Kunth that has not been mentioned so far in the dendroflora of Serbia. One tree was recorded within the first Serbian sugar factory in Čukarica that is now a protected cultural property in the City of Belgrade. The tree is about 35 years old and about 20 m high. The length of the trunk without branches is 6.0 m and the diameter at breast height is 57 cm. Carya-pecan is a native species of the southeastern part of North America, and is grown in Europe for edible fruits and quality wood. The recorded tree in Belgrade is fruitful and characterized by good vitality and rapid growth. Due to its special characteristics, it can have multiple practical application in the territory of Serbia for decoration in urban areas, for forest plantations and in orchards. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  10. (Allium sativum L.) Liliaceae as protectants against the maize weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REV. FR. ANTHONY

    2014-03-05

    , was evaluated as a possible grain protectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.). Each experiment was set out in completely randomized design (CRD) with four replications and a control treatment. Adult.

  11. Genotypic variation for maize weevil resistance in eastern and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences by National Agricultural Research Organisation ... damage, median development period, Dobie's index of susceptibility, and ... resistance and grain yield, suggesting that breeding for maize weevil ...

  12. Phenoloxidase and melanization test for mango seed weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heather, N.W.

    1999-01-01

    This project was initiated to determine whether the phenoloxidase test successfully developed for fruit flies would be applicable to mango seed weevil, Sternochetus mangiferae (Fabricius). Mango seed weevil represents a quarantine impediment to the entry of mangoes to mainland USA and some other countries. It is not a destructive pest and rarely causes fruit damage even in late maturing varieties in which adults can emerge from ripe fruit. The main problem with the weevils come from nursery propagators who are concerned about possible effects on germination. It is questionable whether this is adequate justification for the level of quarantine importance with which this pest is currently regarded. It should not be confused with the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus Fabricius which does damage all infested fruit. (author)

  13. Weevil x Insecticide: Does 'Personality' Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Juliana A; Cardoso, Danúbia G; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2013-01-01

    An insect's behavior is the expression of its integrated physiology in response to external and internal stimuli, turning insect behavior into a potential determinant of insecticide exposure. Behavioral traits may therefore influence insecticide efficacy against insects, compromising the validity of standard bioassays of insecticide activity, which are fundamentally based on lethality alone. By extension, insect 'personality' (i.e., an individual's integrated set of behavioral tendencies that is inferred from multiple empirical measures) may also be an important determinant of insecticide exposure and activity. This has yet to be considered because the behavioral studies involving insects and insecticides focus on populations rather than on individuals. Even among studies of animal 'personality', the relative contributions of individual and population variation are usually neglected. Here, we assessed behavioral traits (within the categories: activity, boldness/shyness, and exploration/avoidance) of individuals from 15 populations of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), an important stored-grain pest with serious problems of insecticide resistance, and correlated the behavioral responses with the activity of the insecticide deltamethrin. This analysis was performed at both the population and individual levels. There was significant variation in weevil 'personality' among individuals and populations, but variation among individuals within populations accounted for most of the observed variation (92.57%). This result emphasizes the importance of individual variation in behavioral and 'personality' studies. When the behavioral traits assessed were correlated with median lethal time (LT50) at the population level and with the survival time under insecticide exposure, activity traits, particularly the distance walked, significantly increased survival time. Therefore, behavioral traits are important components of insecticide efficacy, and individual variation should be

  14. Diapause in the Boll Weevil (Coleopetra: Curculionidae) : Life-Stage Sensitivity to Enviromental Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso; Jefferey L. Willers

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the diapause response in naturally occurring boll weevils under field and simulated field environments of north Mississippi. Squares containing early-stage weevils were collected in July, August, and September and subsamples from each group were installed into similar dynamic environments in the laboratory. In this manner, some weevils experienced...

  15. Boll weevil eradication: a model for sea lamprey control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James W.; Swink, William D.

    2003-01-01

    Invasions of boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) into the United States and sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) into the Great Lakes were similar in many ways. Important species (American cotton, Gossypium hirsutum, and lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush) and the industries they supported were negatively affected. Initial control efforts were unsuccessful until pesticides and application technologies were developed. For boll weevils, controls relying on pesticides evolved into an integrated program that included recommended farming practices and poisoned baits. However, the discovery of a boll weevil sex pheromone in 1964 allowed adoption of an ongoing program of eradication. Despite opposition over concept and cost, insecticides, pheromone traps, poisoned baits, and approved farming practices were used to eradicate boll weevils from Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, and Alabama by 1999. Using the working back approach along the path of the original invasion, eradication was nearly completed by 2002 in Mississippi and eradication programs were underway in Arkansas, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and parts of Texas. Insecticide use for cotton production decreased 50 to 90%, and cotton yields and farm income increased an average of 78 kg/ha and $190 U.S./ha in areas where boll weevils were eradicated. For sea lampreys, integrated management uses lampricides, barriers to migration, trapping, and release of sterilized males. Although sea lamprey eradication is not currently feasible, recent research on larval and sex pheromones might provide the tools to make it possible. A successful eradication program for sea lampreys starting in Lake Superior and expanding to the lower Great Lakes would ultimately provide huge ecological and economic benefits by eliminating lampricide applications, removing barriers that block teleost fishes, and facilitating the recovery of lake trout. Should the opportunity arise, the concept of sea lamprey eradication should

  16. Mechanical damage in cotton buds caused by the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman causes high levels of bud abscission in cotton plants due to feeding or oviposition punctures. It has been reported that abscission is mainly due to enzymes present in the insect's saliva, but mechanical damage could also contribute to square abscission. The objective of this paper was to undertake an analysis of the morphological damages caused by the insect in cotton squares using microscopy. Anthers and ovules are the main target of boll weevil feeding. The process initiates by perforation of young sepal and petal tissues and proceeds with subsequent alimentation on stamen and ovary leading to abscission of floral structures.

  17. [Effects of understory removal on soil greenhouse gas emissions in Carya cathayensis stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Chen, Xue-shuang; Wu, Jia-sen; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-03-01

    CO2, N2O and CH4 are important greenhouse gases, and soils in forest ecosystems are their important sources. Carya cathayensis is a unique tree species with seeds used for high-grade dry fruit and oil production. Understory vegetation management plays an important role in soil greenhouse gases emission of Carya cathayensis stands. A one-year in situ experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal on soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions in C. cathayensis plantation by closed static chamber technique and gas chromatography method. Soil CO2 flux had a similar seasonal trend in the understory removal and preservation treatments, which was high in summer and autumn, and low in winter and spring. N2O emission occurred mainly in summer, while CH4 emission showed no seasonal trend. Understory removal significantly decreased soil CO, emission, increased N2O emission and CH4 uptake, but had no significant effect on soil water soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon. The global warming potential of soil greenhouse gases emitted in the understory removal. treatment was 15.12 t CO2-e . hm-2 a-1, which was significantly lower than that in understory preservation treatment (17.04 t CO2-e . hm-2 . a-1).

  18. Control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Jackson, Mark A; Wood, Bruce W

    2013-02-01

    Key pecan insect pests include the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis), pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), and stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the potential utility of several alternative insecticides including three plant extract formulations, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, and citrus extract-19.4%, and two microbial insecticides, Chromobacterium subtsugae (Martin et al.) and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize). In the laboratory, eucalyptus extract, citrus extract-8.92%, citrus extract-19.4%, and C. subtsugae caused M. caryaefoliae mortality (mortality was reached approximately 78, 83, and 96%, respectively). In field tests, combined applications of I. fumosorosea with eucalyptus extract were synergistic and caused up to 82% mortality in M. caryaefoliae. In laboratory assays focusing on C. caryae suppression, C. subtsugae reduced feeding and oviposition damage, eucalyptus extract and citrus extract-19.4% were ineffective, and antagonism was observed when citrus extract-19.4% was combined with the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser). In field tests, C. subtsugae reduced C. caryae damage by 55% within the first 3d, and caused 74.5% corrected mortality within 7 d posttreatment. In the laboratory, C. subtsugae and eucalyptus extract did not cause mortality in the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus (Say). Applications of C. subtsugae for suppression of C. caryae, and eucalyptus extract plus I. fumosorosea for control of M. caryaefoliae show promise as alternative insecticides and should be evaluated further.

  19. Alfalfa weevil male: effect of γ-radiation and weevil age on mating competitiveness and sperm transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollam, J.D.; Hower, A.A. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Virgin male Hypera postica (Gyllenhal) were irradiated at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 weeks of age. Alfalfa weevils from each age group were subjected to γ-radiation doses of 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 krads. Mating competitiveness was reduced by the 5 to 6 krad doses in all age groups except those 4 weeks old. Weevils irradiated at 1 week of age showed a reduction in competitiveness at doses above 2 krad. Radiation dose and age at irradiation had little noticeable effect on sperm transfer

  20. Resistance of maize varieties to the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at evaluating commonly used maize varieties, collected from Melkasa and Bako Agricultural Research Centers and Haramaya University, Ethiopia, against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motsch., one of the most important cosmopolitan stored product pests in maize. A total of 13 improved maize ...

  1. Boll weevil: experimental sterilization of large numbers by fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, J.W.; Wright, J.E.; Davich, T.B.; Roberson, J.; Griffin, J.G.; Darden, E.

    1978-01-01

    Boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, 9 days after egg implantation in the larval diet were transported from the Boll Weevil Research Laboratory, Mississippi State, MS, to the Comparative Animal Research Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, and irradiated with 6.9 krad (test 1) or 7.2 krad (test 2) of 60 Co gamma rays delivered in 25 equal doses over 100 h. In test 1, from 600 individual pairs of T (treated) males x N (normal) females, only 114 eggs hatched from a sample of 950 eggs, and 47 adults emerged from a sample of 1042 eggs. Also, from 600 pairs of T females x N males, 6 eggs hatched of a sample of 6 eggs and 12 adults emerged from a sample of 20 eggs. In test 2, from 700 individual pairs of T males x N females, 54 eggs hatched from a sample of 1510, and 10 adults emerged from a sample of 1703 eggs. Also, in T females x N males matings, 1 egg hatched of a sample of 3, and no adults emerged from a sample of 4. Transportation and handling in the 2nd test reduced adult emergence an avg of 49%. Thus the 2 replicates in test 2 resulted in 3.4 x 10 5 and 4.3 x 10 5 irradiated weevils emerging/day for 7 days. Bacterial contamination of weevils was low

  2. Irradiated boll weevils: pheromone production determined by GLC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGovern, W.L.; McKibben, G.H.; Gueldner, R.C.; Cross, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The production of pheromone by Anthonomus grandis Boheman when treated with 10,000 rad of 60 Co gamma irradiation compared favorably with that of control weevils for 5 days; however, feeding (determined by frass collection) was reduced from day one. No direct correlation was found between production of pheromone and elimination of frass

  3. The conundrum of chemical boll weevil control in subtropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a tropical Mesoamerican insect that invaded the United States in 1893, spreading across the Cotton Belt as the key pest of cotton and causing billions of dollars in yield losses and insecticide-based control efforts;...

  4. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption

  5. Microbiological quality of raw and roasted African palm weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological quality of raw and roasted African palm weevil ( Rhynchophorus phoenicis ) consumed in the south eastern Nigeria. ... Rhynchophorus phoenicis though reported to be highly nutritious in terms of amino acid profile and presence of unsaturated fatty acid can be a source of food poison if not properly handled ...

  6. A screening method for banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) is a serious pest in most banana-growing areas of the world. Host-plant resistance is considered to be the most feasible and sustainable method for its control. However, a quick and effective method for screening banana genotypes for resistance against the banana ...

  7. Brilliant camouflage : photonic crystals in the diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilts, Bodo D.; Michielsen, Kristel; Kuipers, Jeroen; Raedt, Hans De; Stavenga, Doekele G.

    2012-01-01

    The neotropical diamond weevil, Entimus imperialis, is marked by rows of brilliant spots on the overall black elytra. The spots are concave pits with intricate patterns of structural-coloured scales, consisting of large domains of three-dimensional photonic crystals that have a diamond-type

  8. Relación entre la colonización de la encina por Curculio elephas Gyllenhal (Coleoptera, Curculionidae) y el periodo de caída natural de frutos

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Jiménez, A.; Villagrán Pinteño, Miguel; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    2005-01-01

    En un encinar del SW de España se ha realizado el seguimiento de una población del gorgojo Curculio elephas Gyll. (Coleóptera, Curculionidae) durante 2001 y 2002. La finalidad del trabajo fue valorar y relacionar la incidencia de la infestación del insecto con el proceso de maduración y caída natural de frutos de la encina. Durante ...

  9. Selective breeding for increased pheromone production in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCoy, J.R.; Wright, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The male boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, uses an aggregating pheromone to attract females, after which mating often occurs. Sterile boll weevil release programs depend upon this phenomenon to produce sterile matings with feral females. In an effort to increase the effectiveness of the individual sterile male and thereby reduce the number of sterile males required per hectare, a selective-breeding system was used to increase the total pheromone produced by individual male boll weevils. This breeding program increased the total pheromone production by individual male boll weevils to 4.5 times that of the parent population. After irradiation-induced sterilization, there remained 2.2 times more pheromone produced by the selected strain. Therefore, these sterile weevils should be about 2.2 times more attractive to feral females than the parent weevils now in use, and they have the potential to reduce the number of sterile males required in a sterile release program

  10. Fractionated vs acute irradiation: the effects of treating adult boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) at different ages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, J.W.; Wright, J.E.; Mattix, E.

    1979-01-01

    When 6-7 days old mass-reared ebony boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were given 25 doses of γ-irradiation totaling 6625 rads, mortality was 14%-15% less 1 week later than when young weevils (1-2 day-old) were similarly treated. However, giving older weevils an acute dose of 6625 rads did not reduce mortality. Seven-day-old weevils receiving the acute treatment mated 10% more than weevils that were 3 days old at the time of treatment. Seven-day-old male weevils exposed to the fractionated treatment transferred sperm to 12% more females than 7-day-old males exposed to the acute treatment. (Auth.)

  11. Characterization of Carya illinoiensis and Juglans regia oils obtained by different extraction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara Costa-Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely important to evaluate the extraction processes of vegetable oils used in food, considering that the nuts are rich sources of triacylglycerols. Thus, the present study aimed at comparing the methods of solvent extraction and extraction by pressing of the lipid fractions of walnut (Juglans regia and pecan nut (Carya illinoensis, in order to elucidate their influence on the content of bioactive substances. The samples were analyzed regarding fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phytosterols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, presenting relevant quantities of these bioactive substances. It was found that the extraction of oils by pressing minimized degradation of tocopherol when compared to solvent extraction. However, solvent extraction is more efficient to extract bioactive compounds such as phytosterols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.

  12. On-farm management practices against rice root weevil (Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall)

    OpenAIRE

    Rakesh Pandey; Ajit Kumar Chaturvedi; Rudal Prasad Chaudhary; Rajendra Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population and occupies almost one-fifth of the global cropland under cereals. The rice root weevil, Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has posed a problem in paddy cultivation areas in India. The damage by this root weevil results in a significant decrease in root and shoot biomass and ultimately the yield of rice plants. Studies were conducted to test the effective management practices of rice root weevil using a seedli...

  13. The use of aggregation pheromone to enhance dissemination of Beauveria bassiana for the control of the banana weevil in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.M.; Kagezi, G.H.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Candidate strains of Beauveria bassiana were identified for use in integrated pest management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus. Horizontal field transmission of B. bassiana between banana weevils using different delivery systems, including aggregation pheromones, was investigated. We

  14. Influence of yield on in vitro accumulation of aflatoxins in pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) nutmeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMeans, J L

    1983-02-01

    Pecans were harvested from trees (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) in November of 1977 through 1979. Kernel meals from high-, medium-, and low-yielding trees were inoculated with a spore suspension of Aspergillus parasiticus and incubated for 7 days at 25 degrees C. Significant differences in aflatoxin accumulation were found among the three substrates, with a direct correlation between high aflatoxin concentration and tree yield.

  15. Influence of yield on in vitro accumulation of aflatoxins in pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) nutmeats.

    OpenAIRE

    McMeans, J L

    1983-01-01

    Pecans were harvested from trees (Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch) in November of 1977 through 1979. Kernel meals from high-, medium-, and low-yielding trees were inoculated with a spore suspension of Aspergillus parasiticus and incubated for 7 days at 25 degrees C. Significant differences in aflatoxin accumulation were found among the three substrates, with a direct correlation between high aflatoxin concentration and tree yield.

  16. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Orientation and Distance From Brush Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-04-01

    Eradication programs for the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) rely on pheromone-baited traps to trigger insecticide treatments and monitor program progress. A key objective of monitoring in these programs is the timely detection of incipient weevil populations to limit or prevent re-infestation. Therefore, improvements in the effectiveness of trapping would enhance efforts to achieve and maintain eradication. Association of pheromone traps with woodlots and other prominent vegetation are reported to increase captures of weevils, but the spatial scale over which this effect occurs is unknown. The influences of trap distance (0, 10, and 20 m) and orientation (leeward or windward) to brush lines on boll weevil captures were examined during three noncropping seasons (October to February) in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Differences in numbers of captured weevils and in the probability of capture between traps at 10 or 20 m from brush, although often statistically significant, were generally small and variable. Variations in boll weevil population levels, wind directions, and wind speeds apparently contributed to this variability. In contrast, traps closely associated with brush (0 m) generally captured larger numbers of weevils, and offered a higher probability of weevil capture compared with traps away from brush. These increases in the probability of weevil capture were as high as 30%. Such increases in the ability of traps to detect low-level boll weevil populations indicate trap placement with respect to prominent vegetation is an important consideration in maximizing the effectiveness of trap-based monitoring for the boll weevil.

  17. Failure of pheromone traps in detecting incipient populations of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Investigation of two potential contributing factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progress towards complete eradication of the boll weevil has been delayed in some areas of Texas due to the inconsistent performance of pheromone traps in detecting incipient weevil populations. In 2008 substantial infestations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were detected in several c...

  18. The influence of silvicultural practices on genetic improvement: height growth and weevil resistance in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; D.M. Smith

    1981-01-01

    When grown in a common environment, the progeny of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) from weeviled stands improved by selection thinning outperformed the progeny of wolfy dominants from untreated stands in both height and weevil resistance. Within families, weevils tended to attack the tallest trees. Among families the relationship was not as strong and...

  19. Karyotypic analysis of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, L R; Beck, M L; Biggers, C J

    2000-01-01

    The diploid chromosome number of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, is 44. Both C- and N-banding techniques of mitotic cells demonstrated constitutive heterochromatin in the p arm of the eight largest chromosomes, the p arm of the X chromosome, and the centromeric region of autosomal groups A-D. Neither the y nor the group E autosomes appeared to contain constitutive heterochromatin. Supernumerary chromosomes were not found in the boll weevil. Restriction endonuclease banding of primary spermatocytes revealed a rod-shaped Xy tetrad in which the X and y were terminally associated. The p arm of the large, submetacentric X was C-band positive. While two of the autosomal tetrads were typically ring-shaped in primary spermatocytes, the remaining 19 autosomal tetrads were rod-shaped.

  20. Dynamic Changes in Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity during Pecan (Carya illinoinensis Kernel Ripening and Its Phenolics Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Jia

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pecan (Carya illinoinensis kernels have a high phenolics content and a high antioxidant capacity compared to other nuts—traits that have attracted great interest of late. Changes in the total phenolic content (TPC, condensed tannins (CT, total flavonoid content (TFC, five individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of five pecan cultivars were investigated during the process of kernel ripening. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS was also used to analyze the phenolics profiles in mixed pecan kernels. TPC, CT, TFC, individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity were changed in similar patterns, with values highest at the water or milk stages, lowest at milk or dough stages, and slightly varied at kernel stages. Forty phenolics were tentatively identified in pecan kernels, of which two were first reported in the genus Carya, six were first reported in Carya illinoinensis, and one was first reported in its kernel. The findings on these new phenolic compounds provide proof of the high antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels.

  1. Dynamic Changes in Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity during Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) Kernel Ripening and Its Phenolics Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaodong; Luo, Huiting; Xu, Mengyang; Zhai, Min; Guo, Zhongren; Qiao, Yushan; Wang, Liangju

    2018-02-16

    Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis ) kernels have a high phenolics content and a high antioxidant capacity compared to other nuts-traits that have attracted great interest of late. Changes in the total phenolic content (TPC), condensed tannins (CT), total flavonoid content (TFC), five individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity of five pecan cultivars were investigated during the process of kernel ripening. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass (UPLC-Q/TOF-MS) was also used to analyze the phenolics profiles in mixed pecan kernels. TPC, CT, TFC, individual phenolics, and antioxidant capacity were changed in similar patterns, with values highest at the water or milk stages, lowest at milk or dough stages, and slightly varied at kernel stages. Forty phenolics were tentatively identified in pecan kernels, of which two were first reported in the genus Carya , six were first reported in Carya illinoinensis , and one was first reported in its kernel. The findings on these new phenolic compounds provide proof of the high antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels.

  2. Components of competitiveness in sterile male boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavaso, E.J.; McGovern, W.L.; Wagner, T.L.; Willers, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the relative importance of age at the time of irradiation on attractiveness, mating ability, sperm transfer, prior mating, and longevity as factors of competitiveness in sterile male boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman. The amount of sperm transferred by irradiated males appeared to be the most important factor in competitiveness. More sperm was transferred by virgin males irradiated on day 5 than by virgin males irradiated on day 2, and males irradiated on day 5 had greater impact on egg hatch than those irradiated on day 2. The amount of sperm in spermathecae of females mated to virgin mates irradiated on day 5 was indistinguishable from that in females mated to virgin control males. Mating ability of males of all treatments was similar. Comparable numbers of boll weevils were captured in traps baited with males irradiated at 2 or 5 d during the first 4-5 d after irradiation, but thereafter, generally more weevils were captured in traps baited with males irradiated at 2 d or with control males. Attractiveness of males irradiated at 2 d was generally comparable to that of control males. More than 91% of irradiated males individually caged on cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., plants lived for 10 d in the field, and 40% lived for 14 d; all individually caged control males lived 14 d. When released into cotton fields, however, the numbers of both irradiated and control males declined sharply over 14 d. Thus, the potential for an effective 2-wk life span in the field suggested by the caged study did not appear to apply to laboratory-reared weevils released into cotton fields

  3. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hölscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-08-25

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars-Musa acuminata cv. "Grande Naine" (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. "Bluggoe" (ABB)-when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of "Bluggoe" that had been fed on by the weevils.

  4. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hölscher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils.

  5. Integrated fossil and molecular data reveal the biogeographic diversification of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct hickory genus (Carya Nutt.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Bo; Li, Rui-Qi; Xiang, Xiao-Guo; Manchester, Steven R; Lin, Li; Wang, Wei; Wen, Jun; Chen, Zhi-Duan

    2013-01-01

    The hickory genus (Carya) contains ca. 17 species distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of eastern Asia and subtropical to temperate regions of eastern North America. Previously, the phylogenetic relationships between eastern Asian and eastern North American species of Carya were not fully confirmed even with an extensive sampling, biogeographic and diversification patterns had thus never been investigated in a phylogenetic context. We sampled 17 species of Carya and 15 species representing all other genera of the Juglandaceae as outgroups, with eight nuclear and plastid loci to reconstruct the phylogeny of Carya. The phylogenetic positions of seven extinct genera of the Juglandaceae were inferred using morphological characters and the molecular phylogeny as a backbone constraint. Divergence times within Carya were estimated with relaxed Bayesian dating. Biogeographic analyses were performed in DIVA and LAGRANGE. Diversification rates were inferred by LASER and APE packages. Our results support two major clades within Carya, corresponding to the lineages of eastern Asia and eastern North America. The split between the two disjunct clades is estimated to be 21.58 (95% HPD 11.07-35.51) Ma. Genus-level DIVA and LAGRANGE analyses incorporating both extant and extinct genera of the Juglandaceae suggested that Carya originated in North America, and migrated to Eurasia during the early Tertiary via the North Atlantic land bridge. Fragmentation of the distribution caused by global cooling in the late Tertiary resulted in the current disjunction. The diversification rate of hickories in eastern North America appeared to be higher than that in eastern Asia, which is ascribed to greater ecological opportunities, key morphological innovations, and polyploidy.

  6. Integrated fossil and molecular data reveal the biogeographic diversification of the eastern Asian-eastern North American disjunct hickory genus (Carya Nutt..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Bo Zhang

    Full Text Available The hickory genus (Carya contains ca. 17 species distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of eastern Asia and subtropical to temperate regions of eastern North America. Previously, the phylogenetic relationships between eastern Asian and eastern North American species of Carya were not fully confirmed even with an extensive sampling, biogeographic and diversification patterns had thus never been investigated in a phylogenetic context. We sampled 17 species of Carya and 15 species representing all other genera of the Juglandaceae as outgroups, with eight nuclear and plastid loci to reconstruct the phylogeny of Carya. The phylogenetic positions of seven extinct genera of the Juglandaceae were inferred using morphological characters and the molecular phylogeny as a backbone constraint. Divergence times within Carya were estimated with relaxed Bayesian dating. Biogeographic analyses were performed in DIVA and LAGRANGE. Diversification rates were inferred by LASER and APE packages. Our results support two major clades within Carya, corresponding to the lineages of eastern Asia and eastern North America. The split between the two disjunct clades is estimated to be 21.58 (95% HPD 11.07-35.51 Ma. Genus-level DIVA and LAGRANGE analyses incorporating both extant and extinct genera of the Juglandaceae suggested that Carya originated in North America, and migrated to Eurasia during the early Tertiary via the North Atlantic land bridge. Fragmentation of the distribution caused by global cooling in the late Tertiary resulted in the current disjunction. The diversification rate of hickories in eastern North America appeared to be higher than that in eastern Asia, which is ascribed to greater ecological opportunities, key morphological innovations, and polyploidy.

  7. Stable isotope tracer marking of individual boll weevils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.D.; Showler, A.T.; Armstrong, J.S.; Westbrook, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Stable isotope markers have been used to study animal nutrition for several decades and more recently to study the foraging and cultural habits of imported fire ants. In this work, we have extended that effort to evaluate the potential for marking boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with the rare earth element samarium to aid in studies of insect invasion and pest eradication protocols. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was performed on the marked boll weevils as well as plant material from the cotton squares on which the insects were fed. Samarium levels in non-dosed insects average about 20 ng/g or about 100 pg total element per insect. Our computed average determination limit was 36 pg samarium/weevil. The determination limit for cotton plant squares and leaves averaged 3.5 ng/g and 8.2 ng/g, respectively. These initial results indicate the NAA method is capable of identifying individual marked insects which have assimilated 1 ng of samarium, a ten-fold increase in content over average blank values. (author)

  8. Relationship between carrot weevil infestation and parsley yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Angel N; Hoy, Casey W

    2005-08-01

    The relationship between numbers of carrot weevil, Listronotus oregonensis (LeConte), oviposition scars and parsley fresh weight and plant mortality was measured in research plots during 1999 and 2000. Fresh weight was measured in one to two cuttings of parsley planted on two planting dates. The average weight declined with increasing numbers of oviposition scars in the later planting in 1999. Compensatory growth in surviving plants may reduce this effect. Plant mortality increased as number of oviposition scars per plant increased in the second planting in both years and in the first cutting of the first planting in 2000. One oviposition scar per plant is sufficient to result in significant reduction in fresh weight per plant. In commercial parsley fields, the relationship between fresh weight of parsley per 30-cm row section of parsley was best described as a linear function of the proportion of plants with root feeding. Economic damage to parsley that is equivalent to the cost of controlling carrot weevil was estimated to result from approximately 1% of plants with root damage. Based upon this estimated economic injury level, we suggest an action threshold of 1% of plants containing carrot weevil oviposition scars earlier in the growing season when controls could be applied to prevent the damage.

  9. Tenancy, Marriage, and the Boll Weevil Infestation, 1892-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Feigenbaum, James; Muller, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    In the early twentieth century, the cotton-growing regions of the U.S. South were dominated by families of tenant farmers. Tenant farming created opportunities and incentives for prospective tenants to marry at young ages. These opportunities and incentives especially affected African Americans, who had few alternatives to working as tenants. Using complete-count Census of Population data from 1900-1930 and Census of Agriculture data from 1889-1929, we find that increases in tenancy over time increased the prevalence of marriage among young African Americans. We then study how marriage was affected by one of the most notorious disruptions to southern agriculture at the turn of the century: the boll weevil infestation of 1892-1922. Using historical Department of Agriculture maps, we show that the boll weevil's arrival reduced the share of farms worked by tenants as well as the share of African Americans who married at young ages. When the boll weevil infestation altered African Americans' opportunities and incentives to marry, the share of African Americans who married young fell accordingly. Our results provide new evidence about the effect of economic and political institutions on demographic transformations.

  10. Value loss from weevil-caused defects in eastern white pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Carl H. Stoltenberg

    1957-01-01

    Owners of eastern white pine stands suffer financially in several ways from attacks by the white-pine weevil (Pissodes strobi). Crooks, forks, and other weevil-caused tree-bole deformities increase bucking, logging, and sawing costs, and they reduce recoverable volumes. The injuries also reduce the average value of the lumber recovered. It is only with this reduction...

  11. The boll weevil plague and its effect on the southern agricultural sector, 1889–1929

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Brueckner, Markus; Herz, Benedikt

    2017-01-01

    In the early 1890s, cotton fields in the American South were ravaged by the boll weevil. Using a model that controls for differences in the intensity of cotton production at the county level, we show how the boll weevil significantly changed southern agricultural labor arrangements and labor market...

  12. Attraction of milkweed stem weevils, Rhyssomatus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculiondae), to grandlure

    Science.gov (United States)

    A trapping study was initiated in the spring of 2010 to compare the attraction of boll weevils to standard grandlure (synthesized boll weevil pheromone) and a new experimental formulation of grandlure. Both formulations contained the same four pheromone components, but differed in the proportion of...

  13. Attraction of dispersing boll weevils from surrounding habitats relative to simulated pheromone diffusion from traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability to detect populations of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), with pheromone traps has contributed significantly in progress toward eradication of the boll weevil. However, new information is needed to aid in the interpretation of trap captures, such as identification of habitats...

  14. Investigation of pheromone-based factors that may reduce capture of boll weevils in traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) eradication programs rely almost exclusively on pheromone traps to detect weevils, assess populations, and indicate the need for insecticide treatment. However, instances have been reported recently in Medina Co., TX, where field infestations occur without p...

  15. Temperature influences on diapause induction and survival in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been the most important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) wherever it occurs. Although eradication programs in the U.S. have reduced the range of this pest, the weevil remains an intractable problem in subtropical Tex...

  16. Forensic pollen geolocation techniques used to identify the origin of boll weevil reinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, entered the United States of America in the early 20th century and became a major pest in cotton, Gossypium spp. Shortly after the passage of Tropical Storm Erin on 16 August 2007 through the South Texas/Winter Garden boll weevil eradication zone, over 150 boll ...

  17. Reducing boll weevil populations by clipping terminal buds and removing abscised fruiting bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) punctures cotton squares and young bolls during feeding and oviposition, causing abscission of flower buds (squares) in the instance of oviposition. Fallen squares are a source of next generation adult boll weevils that...

  18. Root deformation reduces tolerance of lodgepole pine to attack by Warren root collar weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Jeanne A; Lindgren, B Staffan

    2010-04-01

    Surveys were conducted on regenerating stands of lodgepole pine to determine the relationship between root deformation and susceptibility to attack by the Warren root collar weevil, Hylobius warreni Wood. The total number of trees attacked by H. warreni did not differ between planted and natural trees. A matched case-control logistic regression suggested that root cross-sectional area was more important in predicting weevil attack for naturally regenerated trees than for planted trees, but weevils were associated with a larger reduction in height-to-diameter ratios for trees with planted root characteristics than for trees with natural root form. Neither the stability of attacked versus unattacked trees differed significantly and there was no significant interaction of weevil attack and tree type, but weevil-killed trees had different root characteristics than alive, attacked trees. Lateral distribution and root cross-sectional area were significant predictors of alive attacked trees versus weevil-killed trees, suggesting that trees with poor lateral spread or poor root cross-sectional area are more likely to die from weevil attack. We conclude that root deformation does not necessarily increase susceptibility to attack but may increase the likelihood of mortality. Thus, measures to facilitate good root form are needed when planting pine in areas with high risk of Warren root collar weevil attack.

  19. Polygalacturonase from Sitophilus oryzae: Possible horizontal transfer of a pectinase gene from fungi to weevils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Shen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Endo-polygalacturonase, one of the group of enzymes known collectively as pectinases, is widely distributed in bacteria, plants and fungi. The enzyme has also been found in several weevil species and a few other insects, such as aphids, but not in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, or Caenorhabditis elegans or, as far as is known, in any more primitive animal species. What, then, is the genetic origin of the polygalacturonases in weevils? Since some weevil species harbor symbiotic microorganisms, it has been suggested, reasonably, that the symbionts' genomes of both aphids and weevils, rather than the insects' genomes, could encode polygalacturonase. We report here the cloning of a cDNA that encodes endo-polygalacturonase in the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L., and investigations based on the cloned cDNA. Our results, which include analysis of genes in antibiotic-treated rice weevils, indicate that the enzyme is, in fact, encoded by the insect genome. Given the apparent absence of the gene in much of the rest of the animal kingdom, it is therefore likely that the rice weevil polygalacturonase gene was incorporated into the weevil's genome by horizontal transfer, possibly from a fungus.

  20. A semiochemical-based push-pull management strategy for pepper weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pepper weevil Anthonomus eugeenii is a serious pest on peppers in southern United States. The weevils lay their eggs in flower buds and immature fruit where the larvae feed on the developing seed. Consequently, infestations are hard to control by pesticide applications. The aggregation pheromo...

  1. Phenotypic evidence suggests a possible major-gene element to weevil resistance in Sitka spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    John N. King; René I. Alfaro; Peter Ott; Lara vanAkker

    2012-01-01

    The weevil resistance breeding program against the white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi Peck (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), particularly for Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr), is arguably one of the most successful pest resistance breeding programs for plantation forest species, and it has done a lot to rehabilitate...

  2. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil response to aggregation pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil,

  3. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  4. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae),

  5. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The banana (Musa spp.) weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus ...

  6. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fett, Roseane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% ± 0.06, the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 μmol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction. The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion.La composición nutricional de la cáscara de nuez Pecana [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] y los contenidos de fenoles totales y de taninos condensados de la infusión de la cáscara de nuez Pecana se determinaron en este trabajo. La actividad antioxidante de la infusión se evaluó a través de los sistemas ABTS, DPPH y β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. La cáscara presentó un contenido elevado de fibras (48% ± 0,06, el contenido de fenoles totales varió de 116 a 167 mg GAE/g y el de taninos condensados se encontró entre 35 y 48 mg CE/g. La actividad antioxidante varió entre 1112 y 1763 μmol TEAC/g en el sistema ABTS. Por el método DPPH, la actividad antioxidante fue de 305 a 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutos de reacción y de 482 a 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h de reacción. El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación que se obtuvo en el sistema β -caroteno/ácido linoleico varió de 70 a 96%. Los resultados indicaron un elevado contenido de fenoles y una elevada actividad antioxidante para la infusión de la cáscara de nuez Pecana.

  7. Comparisons of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pheromone traps with and without kill strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, C P C; Armstrong, J S; Spurgeon, D W; Duke, S

    2009-02-01

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), eradication programs typically equip pheromone traps with an insecticide-impregnated kill strip. These strips are intended to kill captured insects, thereby simplifying trap servicing and reducing the loss of weevils from predation and escape. However, the effectiveness of kill strips has not been extensively evaluated. We examined the influences of kill strips on weevil captures, trap servicing, and the incidences of weevil predation and trap obstruction (e.g., by spider webs). Evaluations were conducted weekly during three different production periods (pre- to early-, late-, and postseason) of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., to represent different environmental conditions and weevil population levels. Within each period, mean weekly captures of weevils in traps with and without kill strips were statistically similar. On average, traps with kill strips took 9 s longer to service than traps without kill strips, but statistical differences were only detected during the late-season period. Overall, the mean weekly proportion of traps with evidence of weevil predation or trap obstruction was significantly lower for traps with kill strips (0.25) than for traps without kill strips (0.37). However, this reduction in the frequency of weevil predation or trap obstruction was too small to produce a corresponding increase in the numbers of weevils captured. In light of these findings, the use of kill strips is likely unnecessary in eradication programs, but may be a consideration in situations when the numbers of deployed traps are reduced and chronic problems with weevil predation or trap obstruction exist.

  8. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  9. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    OpenAIRE

    H?lscher, Dirk; Buerkert, Andreas; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by N...

  10. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of CcPILS gene of Hickory (Carya cathayensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Yuan, Huwei; Gao, Liuxiao; Guo, Haipeng; Qiu, Lingling; Xu, Dongbin; Yan, Daoliang; Zheng, Bingsong

    2017-04-01

    PILS is a key auxin efflux carrier protein in the auxin signal transduction. A CcPILS gene related to hickory (Carya carthayensis) grafting process was obtained by RACE techniques. The full length of CcPILS gene was1541bp contained a 1263bp length open reading flame (ORF). The CcPILS encoded 294 amino acids with molecular weight of 46 kDa, PI 5.38 and localized at endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The gene contained a central hydrophilic loop separating two hydrophobic domains of about five transmembrane regions each. The gene of CcPILS belonged to Clade III sub-family of PILS and its sequence had high homology with Arabidopsis. Real Time RT-PCR analysis showed that the gene expressions were weakly induced in bud, inflorescence, fruit, leaf and stem, while strongly in root. The expression levels were strongly induced and reached a peak at the third day of grafting in scion and rootstock of hickory, which were 1.45 and 3.45 times higher, respectively, compared to that of control. The results indicated that CcPILS may be involved in regulating the expression of genes related to auxin signal transduction during hickory graft process.

  11. Transcriptomic Analysis Provides Insights into Grafting Union Development in Pecan (Carya illinoinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Zhenghai; Feng, Gang; Su, Wenchuan; Liu, Zhuangzhuang; Peng, Fangren

    2018-02-05

    Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis ), as a popular nut tree, has been widely planted in China in recent years. Grafting is an important technique for its cultivation. For a successful grafting, graft union development generally involves the formation of callus and vascular bundles at the graft union. To explore the molecular mechanism of graft union development, we applied high throughput RNA sequencing to investigate the transcriptomic profiles of graft union at four timepoints (0 days, 8 days, 15 days, and 30 days) during the pecan grafting process. After de novo assembly, 83,693 unigenes were obtained, and 40,069 of them were annotated. A total of 12,180 differentially expressed genes were identified between by grafting. Genes involved in hormone signaling, cell proliferation, xylem differentiation, cell elongation, secondary cell wall deposition, programmed cell death, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging showed significant differential expression during the graft union developmental process. In addition, we found that the content of auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellin were accumulated at the graft unions during the grafting process. These results will aid in our understanding of successful grafting in the future.

  12. Ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in orchards of cultivated pecan (Carya illinoinensis; Juglandaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonito, Gregory; Brenneman, Timothy; Vilgalys, Rytas

    2011-10-01

    Carya illinoinensis (pecan) belongs to the Juglandaceae (walnut family) and is a major economic nut crop in the southern USA. Although evidence suggests that some species in the Juglandaceae are ectomycorrhizal, investigations on their ectomycorrhizal fungal symbionts are quite limited. Here we assessed the ectomycorrhizal fungal diversity in cultivated orchards of C. illinoinensis. Five pecan orchards in southern Georgia, USA, were studied, three of which were known to fruit the native edible truffle species Tuber lyonii. We sequenced rDNA from single ectomycorrhizal root tips sampled from a total of 50 individual trees. Mycorrhizae were identified by ITS and LSU rDNA sequence-based methods. Forty-four distinct ectomycorrhizal taxa were detected. Sequestrate taxa including Tuber and Scleroderma were particularly abundant. The two most abundant sequence types belonged to T. lyonii (17%) and an undescribed Tuber species (~20%). Because of our interest in the ecology of T. lyonii, we also conducted greenhouse studies to determine whether this species would colonize and form ectomycorrhizae on roots of pecan, oak, or pine species endemic to the region. T. lyonii ectomycorrhizae were formed on pecan and oak seedlings, but not pine, when these were inoculated with spores. That oak and pecan seedling roots were receptive to truffle spores indicates that spore slurry inoculation could be a suitable method for commercial use and that, ecologically, T. lyonii may function as a pioneer ectomycorrhizal species for these hosts. © Springer-Verlag 2011

  13. Transcriptomic Analysis Provides Insights into Grafting Union Development in Pecan (Carya illinoinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghai Mo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pecan (Carya illinoinensis, as a popular nut tree, has been widely planted in China in recent years. Grafting is an important technique for its cultivation. For a successful grafting, graft union development generally involves the formation of callus and vascular bundles at the graft union. To explore the molecular mechanism of graft union development, we applied high throughput RNA sequencing to investigate the transcriptomic profiles of graft union at four timepoints (0 days, 8 days, 15 days, and 30 days during the pecan grafting process. After de novo assembly, 83,693 unigenes were obtained, and 40,069 of them were annotated. A total of 12,180 differentially expressed genes were identified between by grafting. Genes involved in hormone signaling, cell proliferation, xylem differentiation, cell elongation, secondary cell wall deposition, programmed cell death, and reactive oxygen species (ROS scavenging showed significant differential expression during the graft union developmental process. In addition, we found that the content of auxin, cytokinin, and gibberellin were accumulated at the graft unions during the grafting process. These results will aid in our understanding of successful grafting in the future.

  14. Antimycobacterial activity of Juglans regia, Juglans mollis, Carya illinoensis and Bocconia frutescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Vega, Delia Elva; Verde-Star, María Julia; Salinas-González, Noé; Rosales-Hernández, Bibiana; Estrada-García, Iris; Mendez-Aragón, Patricia; Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; González-Garza, María Teresa; Castro-Garza, Jorge

    2008-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a serious worldwide health threat, killing almost 2 million people per year. Alternative antimycobacterial drugs are urgently needed; studies have shown that medicinal plants traditionally used to treat respiratory diseases are a potential source of compounds to treat tuberculosis. This paper studied the antimycobacterial activity of 28 extracts from four different plant species that have been used in traditional Mexican medicine to treat tuberculosis. Bark and leaf crude extracts of Juglans regia L., Juglans mollis Engelm., Carya illinoensis (Wangenh) K. Koch and Bocconia frutescens showed in vitro anti-M. tuberculosis activity. Hexane bark extracts from C. illinoensis, J. mollis and J. regia were the most active with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 31, 50 and 100 microg/mL, respectively. Ethanol bark extracts from C. illinoensis and J. mollis showed activity at 100 and 125 microg/mL, respectively. Leaf extracts had the lowest activity. Methanol and hexane leaves extracts from B. frutescens had a MIC of 125 microg/mL. None of the aqueous extracts showed antimycobacterial activity. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. INTERACCIONES NUTRIMENTALES Y NORMAS DE DIAGNÓSTICO DE NUTRIMENTO COMPUESTO EN NOGAL PECANERO (Carya illinoensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. García-Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo de nogal pecanero (Carya illinoensis es actualmente uno de los de mayor rentabilidad en el norte de México. En la región conocida como la Comarca Lagunera que comprende parte de los estados de Coahuila y Durango se han reportado diversos desbalances nutrimentales que afectan el rendimiento y productividad de este cultivo. Este estudio fue desarrollado para determinar las normas de diagnóstico de nutrimento compuesto (DNC y para estudiar las interacciones entre nutrimentos de dicho cultivo. A través de la metodología de DNC se determinó el valor mínimo de alto rendimiento de fruto maduro, así como los rangos de macronutrimentos (N, P, K, Ca y Mg óptimos correspondientes en el tejido foliar, los cuales son llamados normas nutrimentales. Estas normas se definieron considerando un valor de rendimiento mínimo de 1.39 t·ha-1 en este cultivo. Los análisis de componentes principales, utilizando los índices de DNC, permitieron identificar las siguientes interacciones: positiva N-R y negativas N-Ca, K-Mg y P-Ca.

  16. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-Hua; Jiang, Ming-Xing; Cheng, Jia-An

    2008-07-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice.

  17. Do rice water weevils and rice stem borers compete when sharing a host plant?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-wei; He, Yan; Ji, Xiang-hua; Jiang, Ming-xing; Cheng, Jia-an

    2008-01-01

    The rice water weevil (RWW) Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an invasive insect pest of rice Oryza sativa L. in China. Little is known about the interactions of this weevil with indigenous herbivores. In the present study, adult feeding and population density of the weevil, injury level of striped stem borer Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and pink stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to rice, as well as growth status of their host plants were surveyed in a rice field located in Southeastern Zhejiang, China, in 2004 with the objective to discover interspecific interactions on the rice. At tillering stage, both adult feeding of the weevil and injury of the stem borers tended to occur on larger tillers (bearing 5 leaves) compared with small tillers (bearing 2~4 leaves), but the insects showed no evident competition with each other. At booting stage, the stem borers caused more withering/dead hearts and the weevil reached a higher density on the plants which had more productive tillers and larger root system; the number of weevils per tiller correlated negatively with the percentage of withering/dead hearts of plants in a hill. These observations indicate that interspecific interactions exist between the rice water weevil and the rice stem borers with negative relations occurring at booting or earlier developmental stages of rice. PMID:18600788

  18. A radioisotope technique for laboratory studies of the dispersal of rice weevil in grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Z.A.; Robertson, G.B.

    1979-01-01

    Adult rice weevils (Sitophilus oryzae (L.)) were marked with paint containing Scandium-46 and detected in a column of wheat 4.5 cm diam by means of a γ-scintillation counter. The radioactive paint had no effect on the mobility and longevity of the insects. Two weevils marked with Sc-46 could be located if they were more than 2.5 cm apart. An account is given of the use of the technique to follow the movements of a single pair of male and female weevils over 8 days. (Auth.)

  19. The effects of gamma irradiation on the vitamin E content and sensory qualities of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taipina, Magda S. [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. L. Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Rodas, Maria A.B. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Av. Dr. Arnaldo 355, 01246-902 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mastro, Nelida L. del [Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. L. Prestes 2242, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)], E-mail: nlmastro@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    Pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis) were treated with gamma irradiation and evaluated for changes in vitamin E content and sensory properties. Irradiation at 1 and 3 kGy resulted in no changes in vitamin E content measured as {alpha}-tocopherol equivalents by a colorimetric method. A trained sensory panel found that irradiation at 1 kGy produced no significant changes in appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes. The vitamin E content of irradiated pecan nuts remained stable, but from the point of view of sensory quality a dose of merely 1 kGy can be considered as recommendable.

  20. The effects of gamma irradiation on the vitamin E content and sensory qualities of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C.A.; Rodas, Maria A.B.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2009-01-01

    Pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis) were treated with gamma irradiation and evaluated for changes in vitamin E content and sensory properties. Irradiation at 1 and 3 kGy resulted in no changes in vitamin E content measured as α-tocopherol equivalents by a colorimetric method. A trained sensory panel found that irradiation at 1 kGy produced no significant changes in appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes. The vitamin E content of irradiated pecan nuts remained stable, but from the point of view of sensory quality a dose of merely 1 kGy can be considered as recommendable.

  1. The effects of gamma irradiation on the vitamin E content and sensory qualities of pecan nuts ( Carya illinoensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipina, Magda S.; Lamardo, Leda C. A.; Rodas, Maria A. B.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2009-07-01

    Pecan nuts ( Carya illinoensis) were treated with gamma irradiation and evaluated for changes in vitamin E content and sensory properties. Irradiation at 1 and 3 kGy resulted in no changes in vitamin E content measured as α-tocopherol equivalents by a colorimetric method. A trained sensory panel found that irradiation at 1 kGy produced no significant changes in appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes. The vitamin E content of irradiated pecan nuts remained stable, but from the point of view of sensory quality a dose of merely 1 kGy can be considered as recommendable.

  2. Use of lignocellulosic wastes of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) in the cultivation of Ganoderma lucidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcariz-Fermoselle, María Virginia; Fraile-Fabero, Raúl; Girbés-Juan, Tomás; Arce-Cervantes, Oscar; Oria de Rueda-Salgueiro, Juan Andrés; Azul, Anabela Marisa

    The wastes of pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) production are increasing worldwide and have high concentrations of tannins and phenols. To study the biodegradation of lignocellulosic wastes of pecan used as solid substrate for the cultivation of the white-rot fungus Ganoderma lucidum (Curtis) P. Karst. Six formulations of pecan wastes were used as solid substrate: pecan shells (PS100), pecan pericarp (PP100), pecan wood-chips (PB100), and the combinations PS50+PP50, PB50+PS50 and PB50+PP50. The substrates were inoculated with a wild strain of G. lucidum collected in the Iberian Peninsula. The biodegradation capability of G. lucidum was estimated by using the mycelial growth rate, the biological efficiency, the production and the dry biological efficiency. Notably, all solid substrates were suitable for G. lucidum growth and mushroom yield. The best performance in mushroom yield was obtained with PB100 (55.4% BE), followed by PB50+PP50 (31.7% BE) and PB50+PS50 (25.4% BE). The mushroom yield in the substrates containing pecan wood-chips (PB) was significantly higher. Our study is leading the way in attempting the cultivation of G. lucidum on lignocellulosic pecan waste. These results show an environmentally friendly alternative that increases the benefits for the global pecan industry, especially in rural areas, and transforms biomass into mushrooms with nutraceutical properties and biotechnological applications. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Mycorrhization of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) with black truffles: Tuber melanosporum and Tuber brumale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozzi, Giorgio; Sánchez, Sergio; Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Bonito, Gregory; Falini, Leonardo Baciarelli; Albertini, Emidio; Donnini, Domizia

    2017-04-01

    Pecan, Carya illinoinensis, is an economically important nut producing tree that can establish ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with a high diversity of fungi. In the southern USA, truffles (Tuber spp.) sometimes fruit prolifically in cultivated pecan orchards and regularly associate with pecan roots as ectomycorrhizae (ECMs). It has been demonstrated that some valuable European truffle species (e.g., Tuber borchii and Tuber aestivum) can form ECMs with pecan seedlings in nursery conditions. Thus, pecan may represent an attractive alternative host to forest trees for truffle growers given the potential for co-cropping truffles and pecans. To further explore the capacity of pecan to host truffle symbionts, pecan seedlings were inoculated with species of black truffles that are economically important in Europe, T. melanosporum and T. brumale. Ectomycorrhizae were characterized molecularly and their morphology was described in detail. Mycorrhization rates on pecan roots were assessed over a 2-year period. Tuber melanosporum and T. brumale produced well-formed ECMs with a level of root colonization in the first year of 37.3 and 34.5%, respectively. After 24 months, the level of mycorrhization increased for T. brumale (49.4%) and decreased for T. melanosporum (10.5%) inversely to that of non-target ECM greenhouse contaminants (e.g., Sphaerosporella brunnea, Trichophaea woolhopeia, Pulvinula constellatio). To assess whether mating types segregated in T. melanosporum as been reported for other host species, we amplified the mating-type locus from single T. melanosporum ECM belonging to different seedlings over a 2-year period. The two mating idiomorphs were nearly equally represented along the 2-year time span: MAT 1-1-1 decreased from 59.4% in the first year to 48.5% in the second year after inoculation. Data reported in this study add to knowledge on the mycorrhization of pecan trees with commercial truffles and has application to truffle and nut co-cropping systems.

  4. Transcriptome Analysis of Genes Involved in Lipid Biosynthesis in the Developing Embryo of Pecan (Carya illinoinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ruimin; Huang, Youjun; Sun, Zhichao; Huang, Jianqin; Wang, Zhengjia

    2017-05-24

    Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is an important woody tree species because of the high content of healthy oil in its nut. Thus far, the pathways and key genes related to oil biosynthesis in developing pecan seeds remain largely unclear. Our analyses revealed that mature pecan embryo accumulated more than 80% oil, in which 90% was unsaturated fatty acids with abundant oleic acid. RNA sequencing generated 84,643 unigenes in three cDNA libraries prepared from pecan embryos collected at 105, 120, and 165 days after flowering (DAF). We identified 153 unigenes associated with lipid biosynthesis, including 107 unigenes for fatty acid biosynthesis, 34 for triacylglycerol biosynthesis, 7 for oil bodies, and 5 for transcription factors involved in oil synthesis. The genes associated with fatty acid synthesis were the most abundantly expressed genes at 120 DAF. Additionally, the biosynthesis of oil began to increase while crude fat contents increased from 16.61 to 74.45% (165 DAF). We identified four SAD, two FAD2, one FAD6, two FAD7, and two FAD8 unigenes responsible for unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis. However, FAD3 homologues were not detected. Consequently, we inferred that the linolenic acid in developing pecan embryos is generated by FAD7 and FAD8 in plastids rather than FAD3 in endoplasmic reticula. During pecan embryo development, different unigenes are expressed for plastidial and cytosolic glycolysis. Plastidial glycolysis is more relevant to lipid synthesis than cytosolic glycolysis. The 18 most important genes associated with lipid biosynthesis were evaluated in five stages of developing embryos using quantitative PCR (qPCR). The qPCR data were well consistent with their expression in transcriptomic analyses. Our data would be important for the metabolic engineering of pecans to increase oil contents and modify fatty acid composition.

  5. Control of the mango weevil with the emphasis on radurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, I.B.

    1979-01-01

    The mango weevil is one of the most important mango insect pests. Although it is of lesser importance in the case of early maturing cultivars, it is of greater significance in late maturing cultivars. In these cultivars most of the insects are in die adult beetle stage at harvesting. The beetles are then inclined to leave the seed and tunnel through the edible portion of the fruit, leaving an unsightly scar on the outside of the fruit. This also serves as a suitable site for secondary fungal development. By spraying the mango trees during the winter, or early spring, the beetle population may be significantly reduced. Orchard sanitation and the destruction of the pips which are usually scattered over the farm, also contributes markedly to the reduction of the beetle population. Radurisation of matured, i.e. marketable fruit, protects it from damage in that it prevents the emergence of the weevil. The most effective dosages ranged from 0,5 to 0,85 kGy. Dosages in excess of 0,85 kGy tended to be phytotoxic to the fruit. It is hoped that this research will lead to commercial radurisation treatments [af

  6. [Biological characteristics of the egg phase of citrus root weevils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Jerson V C; Parra, José R P

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study some characteristics of the egg phase of three species of citrus root weevils. The insects were collected from citrus plants in Itapetininga, SP, and brought to the Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, SP, where the species Naupactus cervinus (Boheman), Naupactus versatilis (Hustache) and Parapantomorus fluctuosus (Boheman) were kept. Duration and viability of the egg phase were evaluated, and the lower temperature threshold and thermal constant (K) were calculated for these species. The species of citrus root weevils showed different duration of egg phases. The egg phase ranged from 40.4 to 13.8 N. cervinus, from 38.7 to 20.0 days for N. versatilis, and from 35.0 to 13.8 days for P. fluctuosus, depending upon temperature. The temperature thresholds of this stage were 8.1, 8.3, and 9.9 masculineC at thermal constant was 385.7, 397.7 and 294.1 degree-days, for N. cervinus, N. versatilis and P. fluctuosus respectively. The duration of the egg phases of N. cervinus and N. versatilis were similar at the same temperatures and P. fluctuosus had a faster development than Naupactus spp. in all temperatures tested.

  7. A survey of the weevils of Ukraine (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunakov, Nikolai; Nazarenko, Vitalij; Filimonov, Rostislav; Volovnik, Semyon

    2018-04-05

    The fauna of weevils Curculionoidea of Ukraine numbers 1453 species equivalent to 25.3% of European fauna. They belong to 10 families and 364 genera. A total of 51 species are recorded from Ukraine for the first time. Assessment of inventory completeness indicates that 62% of the area of Ukraine are covered by samples. Spatial join analysis has reveals strong collecting biases and shows maximal richness in cells which fall into well-sampled provinces. A total of 22 out of 33 studied model sites are well-sampled (C>0.5). In total, we estimate ca.1470 species of Curculionoidea living in Ukraine. Curculionidae comprise the majority (82%) of the fauna, with 1202 species and 266 genera, and with remarkably high proportion of the three largest subfamilies: Entiminae (26%), Curculioninae (19%), and Ceutorhynchinae (18%). Consolidated data analysis shows highest richness (678-822 spp.) in provinces which fall into the mountain areas. Aggregated species richness for each of five ecoregions uncovers highest values in Pontic steppe (665 species) and East European forest-steppe (593 species). Habitat distribution of weevils is strongly uneven. Most of the richness (565 spp.) is harboured in lowland broadleaf forests. Salt marshes, salt steppes and sands are extreme habitats with low richness but high proportion of habitat specialists. Only 141 dominant species representing 18% of the total fauna but make up to 63% of the total population of weevils in Ukraine. Endemic species comprise a small proportion of the fauna but are remarkably concentrated in the mountains of Crimea (24 species) and the Carpathians (25 species). Along with 'true' endemics, 210 species are narrowly-ranged non-endemics and also have higher concentration in Crimea and the Carpathians (105 and 38 spp.). A total of 82 species are qualified as widely-ranged with high concentration in Central European Mixed Forests and East European Forest Steppe (71 spp. on average per province).        The high

  8. Host-plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, R.W.H.M.; van Dijk, N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. Assessment of reproductive performance shows

  9. Parasitoids of boll weevil Anthonomus grandis and resident predators in kaolin-treated cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leme Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous use of control methods is essential to reach success in managing arthropod pests. The current study investigated the effect of kaolin application on resident predators in the cotton plant canopy and parasitism of boll weevil on abscised squares in the field, and parasitism of boll weevil in the laboratory. Predators Araneae, Formicidae, Chrysopidae, and Coccinellidae showed similar seasonal densities for kaolin-treated and untreated cotton fields as well as the emergence rate of the parasitoids Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Catolaccus grandis Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae from abscised field-collected structures. Under laboratory conditions, the parasitism of boll weevil larvae infesting squares was similar when treated and untreated squares with kaolin were offered to the parasitoid under free choice test. Therefore, the results show that spraying cotton fields with kaolin does not affect the natural biological control by parasitoids of boll weevil and pink bollworm and resident predators naturally occurring in cotton fields.

  10. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment

  11. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and

  12. Airborne pollen of Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus in the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Estrada, Alejandra; Alvarado-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Torres-Cepeda, Teresa Elizabeth; Foroughbakhch-Pournavab, Rahim; Hernández-Piñero, Jorge Luis

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere over the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was analyzed throughout a year from March 2003-February 2004, focused on the genus Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus owing to their interest as etiological pollinosis agents in diverse regions of the world. A 7-day Hirst type volumetric spore and pollen trap was located on a building roof of the city at 15 m from ground level for continuous sampling. The total quantity of pollen recorded for the study period was 21,083 grains/m(3), corresponding to 49.75 % of the taxa of interest. February and March were the months with higher pollen amounts in the air with 7,525 and 2,781 grains/m(3), respectively, and amounted to 49 % of total year through pollen. Fraxinus was the genus which contributed to the largest amount of pollen with 28 % of total grains (5,935 grains/m(3)) followed by Cupressus with 13 % (2,742 grains/ m(3)). Celtis, Pinus and Carya contributed with 5.3 % , 2.7 % , and 0.6 % of total pollen, respectively. These results indicate that Fraxinus and Cupressus are present in the area in sufficient quantity to indicate likely involvement in the origin of allergic disorders in the human population.

  13. Captures of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Relation to Trap Distance From Cotton Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Dale W

    2016-12-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) has been eradicated from much of the United States, but remains an important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in other parts of the Americas. Where the weevil occurs, the pheromone trap is a key tool for population monitoring or detection. Traditional monitoring programs have placed traps in or near the outermost cotton rows where damage by farm equipment can cause loss of trapping data. Recently, some programs have adopted a trap placement adjacent to but outside monitored fields. The effects of these changes have not been previously reported. Captures of early-season boll weevils by traps near (≤1 m) or far (7-10 m) from the outermost cotton row were evaluated. In 2005, during renewed efforts to eradicate the boll weevil from the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas, far traps consistently captured more weevils than traps near cotton. Traps at both placements indicated similar patterns of early-season weevil captures, which were consistent with those previously reported. In 2006, no distinction between trap placements was detected. Early-season patterns of captures in 2006 were again similar for both trap placements, but captures were much lower and less regular compared with those observed in 2005. These results suggest magnitude and likelihood of weevil capture in traps placed away from cotton are at least as high as for traps adjacent to cotton. Therefore, relocation of traps away from the outer rows of cotton should not negatively impact ability to monitor or detect the boll weevil. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

  14. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    OpenAIRE

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for al...

  15. A Robust Recognition System for Pecan Weevil using Artificial Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Saleh Mufleh Al-Saqer

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Pecan Weevil is a widely found pest among pecan trees and these pests are known to cause significant damage to the pecan trees resulting in enormous annual losses to pecan growers. Traditional identification techniques for pecan weevil include traps with pheromones to detect the infestation of these pests. However, these traditional methods require expensive labor hours to set-up the traps and their monitoring. These techniques are also unreliable for early detection of pec...

  16. Collection of pheromone from atmosphere surrounding boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J F; Benedict, J H; Payne, T L; Camp, B J; Vinson, S B

    1989-02-01

    An effluvial method was developed to collect the pheromone, grandlure from actively calling male boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis Boheman. The adsorbant, Porapak Q (ethylvinylbenzene-divinylbenzene), was utilized to trap and concentrate the pheromone. Captured pheromone was desorbed from columns packed with Porapak Q by elution withn-pentane and quantified by capillary column gas-liquid chromatography. In recovery studies with known amounts of synthetic grandlure, we found that the amount of each pheromone component collected was a function of collection duration, elution volume, and initial concentration. This effluvial method was capable of recovering as much as 94.9% of a known quantity (80 μg) of grandlure. The chromatograms were free of extraneous peaks. In studies of insect-produced pheromone, the effluvial method was used to collect pheromone from the air space surrounding male boll weevils as they fed on flower buds from CAMD-E cotton. The quantity and quality of boll-weevil-produced pheromone was determined for days 6, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14 of boll weevil adulthood. The maximum quantity of natural pheromone was produced on day 13 (4.2 μg/weevil) with a pheromone component ratio of 2.41∶2.29∶0.95∶1 for components I, II, III, and IV, respectively. The effluvial method described in this report is an efficient method to collect and quantify boll weevil pheromone from the atmosphere surrounding actively calling insects. Other applications of this method are suggested.

  17. Reproductive dormancy in boll-weevil from populations of the midwest of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula, D P; Claudino, D; Timbó, R V; Miranda, J E; Bemquerer, M P; Ribeiro, A C J; Sujii, E R; Fontes, E M G; Pires, C S S

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an introduced pest in Brazil, which in 30 yr has successfully expanded to various eco-regions and became the most important pest of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, Malvaceae). Given the limited knowledge about the adaptive mechanisms that allowed successful establishment of the pest population in a tropical region, in this work we studied the potential of the Midwest population of boll weevils to enter a reproductive dormancy and identified the importance of the feeding source for induction of dormancy. We investigated morphological and physiological characters as indicators of the dormancy. We also investigated the occurrence of reproductive dormancy in boll weevils populations from cotton farms of the Midwestern region of Brazil during the cotton and noncotton seasons of 2009 and 2010. The studies revealed that boll weevils entered facultative reproductive dormancy; however, unlike what has been observed for boll weevils from temperate and subtropical regions, the hypertrophy of fat body and hexamerin levels did not straightly correlated to reproductive dormancy. The food source and field conditions during early adult development were decisive factor for the induction of reproductive dormancy. The incidence of reproductive dormancy increased progressively as the phenology of cotton plant advanced, reaching approximately 90% at the end of the crop season. During the noncotton season, the boll weevil was predominantly found in reproductive dormancy, especially females; however, there is evidence of use of multiple adaptive strategies to colonize the next harvest.

  18. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pimenta

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp. Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus’ flowers (166.6 ± 74.4 and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9 than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage.

  19. Ecology and phenology of the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on an unusual wild host, Hibiscus pernambucensis, in southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzaluz, I O; Jones, R W

    2001-12-01

    The phenology and ecology of Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda and its interaction and importance in maintaining populations of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were studied over a period of 3 yr in the Soconusco Region of the state of Chiapas, Mexico. H. pernambucensis is a small tree of Neotropical distribution, restricted to lowland areas, and generally associated with halophytic vegetation. This species is found exclusively along the shores of brackish estuaries, in or near mangrove swamps in southeastern Mexico. In this region, H. pernambucensis has a highly seasonal flowering pattern in which the greatest bud production occurs shortly after the start of the rainy season in May and the highest fruit production occurs in July and August. Boll weevil larvae were found in buds of H. pernambucensis during all months but February and densities of buds and weevils were highest from May through September. The percentage of buds infested with boll weevil larvae rarely exceeded 30%. Because plant densities and reproductive output of H. pernambucensis is relatively low and, consequently, the number of oviposition and larval development sites for boll weevils is limited, the importance of this plant as a source of boll weevils with potential of attacking commercial cotton is minimal in comparison with the quantity produced in cultivated cotton. However, the plant could be important as a reservoir of boll weevils in areas of boll weevil quarantine and eradication programs. The factors and circumstances that may have led to this apparent recent host shift of the boll weevil in this region are discussed.

  20. Transoceanic origin of microendemic and flightless New Caledonian weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Tänzler, Rene; Balke, Michael; Riedel, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The origin of the astonishing New Caledonian biota continues to fuel a heated debate among advocates of a Gondwanan relict scenario and defenders of late oceanic dispersal. Here, we study the origin of New Caledonian Trigonopterus flightless weevils using a multimarker molecular phylogeny. We infer two independent clades of species found in the archipelago. Our dating estimates suggest a Late Miocene origin of both clades long after the re-emergence of New Caledonia about 37 Ma. The estimation of ancestral ranges supports an ancestral origin of the genus in a combined region encompassing Australia and New Guinea with subsequent colonizations of New Caledonia out of New Guinea in the mid-Miocene. The two New Caledonian lineages have had very different evolutionary trajectories. Colonizers belonging to a clade of foliage dwellers greatly diversified, whereas species inhabiting leaf-litter have been less successful.

  1. Morphology, diet, and temperature dependent host-free survival of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, is an important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in South America, Mexico, and southernmost Texas in the United States. A key factor in the persistence of the boll weevil is its ability to survive the non-cotton season. Mechanisms facilitating this...

  2. Effects of Temperature and Adult Diet on Development of Hypertrophied Fat Body in Prediapausing Boll Weevil (Coleoptera Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the effects of temperature and adult diet on the development of hypertrophied fat bodies in prediapausing adult boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman. Simulation models derived from this work are used to estimate the minimal ages at which male and female boll weevils exhibit diapause morphology, based on conditions...

  3. Boll weevil within season and off-season activity monitored using a pheromone-and-glue reusable tube trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério Carlos dos Santos Neves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The boll weevil colonizes cotton fields as early as cotton squaring, causing significant losses due to feeding and protected development inside fruiting structures throughout crop phenology. Successful control depends on control of adults and their accurate detection when they colonize the crops. The commercial trap and boll weevil attract-and-control tubes (BWACT are the only available tools to monitor and attract-and-kill boll weevil, despite limitation in efficacy, and insecticide in BWACT is not allowed in organic production. A grandlure-and-glue reusable and insecticide-free tube (GGT made with polyvinyl chloride tube, smeared with entomological glue, and lured with pheromone was tested to detect boll weevil activity across various seasons. Boll weevil showed activity during growing season and off-season from 2009 to 2012 in the Semiarid and with higher numbers captured in GGT in comparisons to commercial traps. GGT was able to detect early weevils in the field right after planting. Further, the overall averages resulted in 34-, 16.8-, and 7.5-times more weevils captured in GGTs compared to the traps during stalk destruction in the Semiarid 2011 and Cerrado season 2012/13 and during the harvesting period in the Cerrado season 2011/12, respectively. Therefore, boll weevils were captured actively during season and off-season and early captures obtained in GGT compared to traps showed a better correlation between captures and square damage.

  4. Efficacy of fipronil aerially applied in oil adjuvants and drift retardants against boll weevils, Anthonomus Grandis Boheman (Coleoptera:Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph E. Mulrooney

    2002-01-01

    Results of aerial application tests in the field and insecticide transfer tests in the laboratory showed that cottonseed oil was the most effective oil adjuvant to use with fipronil for controlling boll weevils under field conditions and for transferring fipronil from cotton leaf surfaces to boll weevils. The mineral oil and mineral oil + drift retardant more...

  5. Effects of two pheromone trap densities against banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, populations and their impact on plant damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Kagezi, G.H.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    An on-farm study to evaluate the effect of pheromone trap density on the population of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Col., Curculionidae) was conducted in Masaka district, Uganda. The pheromone used was Cosmolure+, a commercially available weevil aggregation pheromone. Forty-two

  6. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, poil palm stands had significantly different population density than that of a 8-year old oil palm stand. The information of this study should be useful as a baseline data to investigate why there is such a wide range of weevils per ha or spikelet. Further study should also be done to relate the number pollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  7. Investigating the potential of an autodissemination system for managing populations of vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) with entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Tom W; Hough, Gemma; Arbona, Charlotte; Roberts, Harriet; Bennison, Jude; Buxton, John; Prince, Gill; Chandler, Dave

    2018-05-01

    Vine weevil, also known as black vine weevil, (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) is an economically important pest affecting soft fruit and nursery stock in temperate regions. We used laboratory and polytunnel experiments to investigate a novel control system based on autodissemination of spores of an entomopathogenic fungus to populations of adult vine weevils. The fungus was applied as a conidial powder, used on its own or formulated with talc, to a simple plastic refuge for vine weevils. The potential for adult weevils to disseminate the fungus was investigated first in polytunnel experiments using fluorescent powders applied to the refuge in lieu of fungal conidia. In this system, 88% of adult weevils came in contact with the powder within 48 h. When the powder was applied to five adult weevils that were then placed within a population of 35 potential recipients, it was transmitted on average to 75% of the recipient population within 7 days. Three isolates of entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana isolate codes 433.99 and 1749.11 and Metarhizium brunneum isolate code 275.86), selected from a laboratory virulence screen. These three isolates were then investigated for efficacy when applied as conidial powders in artificial refuges placed among populations of adult weevils held in experimental boxes in the laboratory at 20 °C. Under this regime, the fungal isolates caused 70-90% mortality of adult weevils over 28 days. A final polytunnel experiment tested the efficacy of conidial powders of M. brunneum 275.86 placed in artificial refuges to increase vine weevil mortality. Overall weevil mortality was relatively low (26-41%) but was significantly higher in cages in which the conidial powders were placed in refuge traps than in cages with control traps. The lower weevil mortality recorded in the polytunnel experiment compared to the laboratory test was most likely a consequence of the greater amounts of inoculum required to kill adult weevils when conditions

  8. Use of sterile male technique for insects to eradicate red palm weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Turaihi, E.H.

    2012-01-01

    The date palm plantations in the Middle East countries are infested by a devastating insect which is called red palm weevil originally from India and spread firstly into the Arab Gulf countries through imported palm trees. Red palm weevil is mainly controlled by using synthetic chemical pesticides and aggregative pheromone traps. Use of chemical pesticides has dramatically increased during recent years and posed many poisoning cases, pollution of environment, killed beneficial and non-target insects. The aim of this study is to highlight the application of Sterile Insect Technique to suppress or eradicate red palm weevil. The results revealed that the application of Sterile Insect Technique to control cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in USA could be considered as an ideal example to apply the Sterile Insect Technique against red palm weevil because both species have similarities such as : both are exotic pests; have protected larval and pupal stages; have limited hosts; have economic importance; have an aggregative pheromone that attracts males and females; that can be used for detection and survey; and finally both insects are Coleopterans belonging to the same family.

  9. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  10. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky in storage condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram B Paneru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C. The findings showed that the maize genotypes had different response to maize weevil damage ranging from susceptible to tolerance. The genotypes Manakamana-3, Lumle White POP Corn and Ganesh-2 showed their tolerance to S. zeamais as evidenced by lower number of weevil emerged/attracted, lower amount of grain debris release and lower proportion of bored grains, while the genotype ZM-627 was the most susceptible to weevil damage in both tests. The other remaining genotypes were intermediate types. This information is useful to improve grain protection in storage and varietal improvement/release program.

  11. Flora and Fauna on Backs of Large Papuan Moss-Forest Weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressitt, J L; Sedlacek, J; Szent-Ivany, J J

    1965-12-31

    Large, living, flightless weevils feeding on leaves of woody plants high moss forest on various New Guinea mountain ranges have plant growth on their backs. Fungi and algae have been found on 11 species of Gymnopholus, lichens on six species, and liverworts on one species. In other genera of weevils, on the same mountains, there are additional specific associations with fungi, algae, lichens, and liverworts. The fungi and lichens, at least, are inhabited by oribatid mites of a new family, which may spread the plants from beetle to beetle. Also, nematodes, rotifers, psocids, and diatoms occur among the plants. Specialized scales or hairs, and a secretion, in depressions on the weevils' backs, appear to be associated with cpcouragement of the plant growth. Mutualistic symbiotic relationships seem to be clearly indicated.

  12. Evidence for volatile male-produced pheromone in banana weevilCosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenberg, W J; Ndiege, I O; Karago, F W

    1993-09-01

    Females of the banana weevil,Cosmopolites sordidus, were attracted to and made longer visits to live conspecific males, trapped volatiles from males, and dissected male hindguts in a still-air olfactometer. Male weevils were attracted to volatiles trapped from males and made longer visits to live males and volatiles from males. Live females, collected volatiles from females and female hindguts, elicited small or no behavioral responses from either sex. Electroantennogram (EAG) responses from both male and female antennae were elicited by collected volatiles from males and by dichloromethane extracts of male hindguts and bodies but not by surface washes of males. No significant EAG responses were given to equivalent material from females. It is therefore suggested that male banana weevils release an aggregation pheromone via their hindgut.

  13. INVESTIGATIONS ON THE RESISTANCE OF SOME BULGARIAN COMMON BEAN GENOTYPES TOWARDS BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dimitrova Apostolova

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The most effective, environmentally sound and safety way to fight pests with biological means is the use of resistant varieties to them. In the present study were indicated the reactions of 30 Bulgarian common bean genotypes to the most economically important enemy – bean weevil (Acanthoscelidis obtectus Say. For this purpose, the following indicators were traced – seed damages and young adult insects, which largely characterized the response of different common bean genotypes to that biological pest enemy. The results of this investigation present a sensitive response to the sustainability of different genotypes to the bean weevil. The Bulgarian common bean varieties Plovdiv 11M, Abritus, Crystal and Bulgari can be used in breeding programs as donors of resistance to the bean weevil.

  14. EFFECT OF PLANT ESSENTIAL OILS ON THE DEVELOPMENT AND FERTILITY OF GRAIN WEEVIL (SITOPHILUS GRANARIUS L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA WAWRZYNIAK

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available There was analyzed the effect of selected essential oils (orange, lemon, vanilla, linden blossom, thyme, geranium and tea oils on the development and fertility of the most dangerous cereal grain storage pest, grain weevil. Based on the results obtained, it was observed that a strong effect limiting the population of grain weevil was found for vanilla and orange oils. In the experiment combinations which involved essential oils, there was observed a prolonged pest development cycle and a higher mortality of maternal individuals than in the other tests. On the other hand, the lowest fecundity rate was recorded in the combination in which thyme oil was tested.

  15. Screening of promising maize genotypes against maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulky) in storage condition

    OpenAIRE

    Ram B Paneru; Resham B Thapa

    2017-01-01

    The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a serious pest of economic importance in stored grains. It causes major damage to stored maize grain thereby reducing its weight, quality and germination. An experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications to screen 32 maize genotypes against maize weevil in no-choice and free-choice conditions at Entomology Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur (Room temperature: Maximum 24-32°C and Minimum 18-27°C). The fin...

  16. Efficacy of the organic-certified insecticide Diatect II against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappington, Thomas W

    2002-10-01

    The efficacy of the organic insecticide Diatect II against boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L) in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas were assessed in small-plot field trials and greenhouse cage tests using azinphos-methyl treatments as a standard for comparison. Plastic sheets were placed in the furrows of the treated plots to retrieve boll weevils which dropped from the plants after being killed by the insecticides. Samples of live weevils taken by a tractor-mounted vacuum sampler revealed a modest, but significant, reduction in boll weevil populations in Diatect II plots. However, samples of dead weevils indicated that this reduction was due to movement of weevils out of the plots rather than to mortality. This interpretation is supported by greenhouse cage studies, where mortality in Diatect II treated cages was no greater than that in untreated control cages. The effects of insecticide treatments in small plots can be confounded easily and quickly by interplot movement of target insects. Although the relative effects of various compounds can usually be assessed by sampling the populations in plots soon after treatment, the best measure of efficacy is obtained by directly sampling insects that have died in the plot. This parameter is insulated from the effects of interplot movement, unless the toxicant is slow to immobilize the target insect. Taken together, our results indicate little efficacy by Diatect II against boll weevil under our test conditions.

  17. A study on the life cycle and the effect of radiation on rice weevil, sitophilus oryzae L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1969-12-31

    Studies on the life cycle and the effect of radiation on rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L. were made. Each stage of development of rice weevil was determined. The egg, larval and pupal stage was 7-9, 13-17 and 7-11 days respectively. The highest rate of oviposition was at 3-6 days. Rice weevils in different stages were exposed to various doses of gamma-radiation and the effects were recorded. It was observed that the males were more susceptible to radiation than females. A dose of 3500-5000 rads induced sterility in adult stage and no hatchability was observed at a dose of 5000 rads. The LD{sub 50} in egg, larval, pupal and adult stage was 15, 120, 1300 and 28400 rads respectively. The response of adult weevils to gamma radiation obtained from Co-60 and the reactor (U{sup 235}) appeared nearly the same. No radioresistance was observed in the second and third generations of rice weevils when adult parents were irradiated at a dose of 2500 rads. There was no recovery of germ cells in male insects following radiation exposure of about 5000 rads. A decrease in the population of rice weevils was noted when the irradiated males were introduced to mate with the non-irradiated females. The Sterile Male Release Technique could be well applied to reduce the number of rice weevils in storage places.

  18. Evaluation of extended-life pheromone formulations used with and without dichlorvos for boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J Scott; Greenberg, Shoil M

    2008-04-01

    Boll weevil traps baited with a ComboLure (25 of mg grandlure + 30 mg of eugenol + 90 of mg dichlorvos [DDVP]), an extended-release lure (25 mg of grandlure + 30 mg of eugenol + 60 of mg DDVP kill-strip), and extended-release lure with no DDVP were evaluated for boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), captures in South Texas cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fields during February-March 2005 and March-April 2006. The traps were serviced once a week for five consecutive weeks by using the same methodology as active boll weevil eradication programs. Mean captured boll weevils from extended-release lures with no DDVP were significantly higher in five of 10 trapping weeks compared with captures of the ComboLure and extended lure. Weekly mortality of boll weevils captured was similar for the ComboLure (72.6 +/- 4.7%) and extended lure + DDVP (73.5 +/- 4.0%), and both were significantly higher than the extended lure (32.8 +/- 5.0%) with no DDVP. The presence or absence of DDVP did not significantly affect the sex ratio of field-captured boll weevils. We found no functional reasoning for using DDVP in large scale trapping of boll weevils regardless of the formulation or presentation in the trap. We conducted two additional trapping evaluations after the 2005 and 2006 studies, but the numbers of boll weevils captured were too low for statistical comparisons, indicating that boll weevil eradication is reducing populations in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas.

  19. Efficacy of aggregation pheromone in trapping red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier) and rhinoceros beetle (Oryctes rhinoceros Linn.) from infested coconut palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, A K; Chandrashekharaiah, M; Kandakoor, Subhash B; Nagaraj, D N

    2014-05-01

    Red palm weevil and Rhinoceros beetle are the major pests inflicting severe damage to coconut palms. Due to ineffectiveness of the current management practices to control the two important pests on coconut, a study was conducted to know the attractiveness of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle to aggregation pheromone. Olfactometer studies indicated that the aggregation pheromone of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle attracted significantly more number of weevils (13.4 females and 7.6 male weevils) and beetles (6.5 male and 12.3 female beetles), respectively than control. Similarly, field studies found that both 750 and 1000 mg pheromone dosage lures of red palm weevil and rhinoceros beetle trapped significantly higher numbers of weevils (695.80 and 789 weevils, respectively) and beetles (98 and 108 beetles, respectively) in traps (P rhinoceros beetle population got trapped. Observations indicated activity of red palm weevil throughout the year and of rhinoceros beetle from September to March around Bangalore, South India. Pheromone traps for red palm weevil can be placed in fields from June to August and October to December and September to February for rhinoceros beetle. Population reductions of the two coleopteran pests by pheromone traps are compatible with mechanical and cultural management tools with cumulative effects.

  20. Protective effects of a by-product of the pecan nut industry (Carya illinoensis) on the toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide in rats Carya illinoensis protects against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnú, D; Barcelos, R C S; Boufleur, N; Reckziegel, P; Pase, C S; Müller, L G; Martins, N M B; Vareli, C; Bürger, M E

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the antioxidant effects of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shell aqueous extract (AE) on toxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) in the heart, kidney, liver, bladder, plasma and erythrocytes of rats. Rats were treated with water or pecan shell AE (5%) ad libitum, replacing drinking water for 37 days up to the end of the experiment. On day 30, half of each group received a single administration of vehicle or CP 200 mg/kg-ip. After 7 days, the organs were removed. Rats treated with CP showed an increase in lipid peroxidation (LP) and decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in all structures. Catalase (CAT) activity was increased in the heart and decreased in liver and kidney. Besides, CP treatment decreased plasmatic vitamin C (VIT C) levels and induced bladder macroscopical and microscopical damages. In contrast, co-treatment with pecan shell AE prevented the LP development and the GSH depletion in all structures, except in the heart and plasma, respectively. CAT activity in the heart and liver as well as the plasmatic VIT C levels remained unchanged. Finally, AE prevented CP-induced bladder injury. These findings revealed the protective role of pecan shell AE in CP-induced multiple organ toxicity.

  1. Some recent developments in white-pine weevil research in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. A. Jaynes

    1958-01-01

    Eastern white pine is one of the most important sawtimber species in the Northeast. This species would have still greater potential value were it not for the white-pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Peck), its most serious insect pest. This is a native insect that occurs throughout the range of eastern white pine. A large percentage of the white pines in...

  2. Host plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Dijk, van N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    1. The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. 2. Assessment of reproductive performance

  3. Preferential edge habitat colonization by a specialist weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.A. Hough-Goldstein; E. Lake; V. D' Amico; S.H. Berg

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the behavioral basis of dispersal and colonization is critical in biological control systems, where success of a natural enemy depends in part on its ability to find and move to new host patches. We studied behavior of the specialist weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev, a biological control agent of mile-a-minute weed, ...

  4. Boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) population genomics as a tool for monitoring and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the success of eradication efforts across most of the cotton-producing regions of the U.S., the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman) remains a major pest of cotton in much of the New World. The area along the Texas border with northern Mexico has been a particularly troub...

  5. Continued pheromone release by boll weevils (Coleoptera: curculionidae) following host removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheromone traps are a key component of management and eradication programs directed against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), but trap data remain difficult to interpret because of the day-to-day variability in captures. Our prior observations suggested a substantial proportion of boll...

  6. Olfactory antennal responses of the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) to plant volatiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to a broad range of volatile plant compounds. The response profile is restricted to a small number of volatiles that evoke substantial EAGs. Large EAG responses were particularly found

  7. Quantification of dichlorvos released from kill strips used in boll weevil eradication programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two types of kill strips, Hercon Vaportape II and Plato Insecticide Strip, are used by boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), eradication programs in the U.S. Both types utilize dichlorvos as the killing agent and are marketed to last up to a month in traps. Consequently, programs typically re...

  8. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gustavo R; Silva, Maria C M; Lucena, Wagner A; Nakasu, Erich Y T; Firmino, Alexandre A P; Beneventi, Magda A; Souza, Djair S L; Gomes, José E; de Souza, José D A; Rigden, Daniel J; Ramos, Hudson B; Soccol, Carlos R; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria F

    2011-09-09

    The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis.

  9. Effects of soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor on the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Octávio L; Dias, Simoni C; Magalhães, Claudio P; Monteiro, Ana C S; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

    2004-01-01

    The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is an economically important pest of cotton in tropical and subtropical areas of several countries in the Americas, causing severe losses due to their damage in cotton floral buds. Enzymatic assays using gut extracts from larval and adult boll weevil have demonstrated the presence of digestive serine proteinase-like activities. Furthermore, in vitro assays showed that soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI) was able to inhibit these enzymes. Previously, in vivo effects of black-eyed pea trypsin chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) have been demonstrated towards the boll weevil pest. Here, when neonate larvae were reared on an artificial diet containing SKTI at three different concentrations, a reduction of larval weight of up to 64% was observed for highest SKTI concentration 500 microM. The presence of SKTI caused an increase in mortality and severe deformities of larvae, pupae and adult insects. This work therefore represents the first observation of a Kunitz trypsin inhibitor active in vivo and in vitro against A. grandis. Bioassays suggested that SKTI could be used as a tool in engineering crop plants, which might exhibit increased resistance against cotton boll weevil.

  10. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes José E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis.

  11. Starvation-induced morphological responses of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Status of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, as a pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the United States has diminished because of progress by eradication programs. However, this pest remains of critical importance in South America, and intractable populations in extreme South Texas ...

  12. Genetics of resistance to stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Zunjare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae has emerged as important storage grain pest of maize, causing substantial economic losses. Owing to high costs and environmental hazards of pesticides, host plant resistance holds promise for effective control of weevils. In the present study, a set of experimental maize hybrids generated using line × tester mating design were evaluated against S. oryzae. Significant variation for grain weight loss (GWL (6.0–49.1%, number of insect progeny emerged (NIP (17.8–203.3, grain hardness (GH (263.1–495.4 N, and pericarp thickness (PT (60.3–161.0 μm was observed. Strong positive association was observed between GWL and NIP. GH and PT did not show any correlation with GWL and NIP. Additive and non-additive gene actions were important for both GWL and NIP. Promising inbreds and experimental crosses identified can be effectively utilized in the resistance breeding programme. In majority of promising crosses having desirable SCA effects, one of the parents had desirable GCA effects, indicating that selection of inbred parents based on per se performance for generating resistant crosses may be possible. The commercial hybrid checks were highly susceptible compared to experimental hybrids. The inbreds and experimental hybrids identified hold promise in developing weevil resistant maize cultivars offering sustainable solution to management of weevils in maize.

  13. effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Laboratory bioassays were conducted using a double pitfall olfactometer, while a bucket pitfall trap was ... baited trap. The response of the weevils to the pheromone was not significantly (P>0.05) influenced by its previous density. Key Words: Cosmopolites sordidus, mating status, ...... evolutionary ecological perspective.

  14. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  15. Sensitivity of the quarantine pest rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus to postharvest irradiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus (Olivier), is a new quarantine pest of Hawaii sweetpotatoes. Currently, sweetpotatoes can be exported from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland using a postharvest irradiation treatment of 150 Gy to control three other regulated insect pests. Studies were conducted...

  16. Molecular Diagnostic for Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Amplification of Three Species-specific Microsatellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally...

  17. effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    volatiles and the synthetic pheromone. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata. 106:169-175. Tinzaara, W., Tushemereirwe, W. and Kashaija,. I. 2000. Efficiency of pheromones and trap types in the capture of the banana weevil. Cosmopolites sordidus Germar in Uganda. Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 5:91-97.

  18. Factors influencing pheromone trap effectiveness in attracting the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted in Uganda to evaluate the influence of distance, environmental factors, trap location and trap type on catches of Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in pheromone-baited traps. Marked weevils were released at recorded locations within plots. Trap

  19. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  20. Some factors affecting reproduction in the Rice weevil Sitophilus Oryzae (L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasaballa, Z.A.; Abdelkawy, F.K.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory investigations on the effects or radiation, type of food and population density on the reproductive potential of the rice weevil. Sitophilus Oryzae were conducted at 30 degree C. and 75% R.H. The results indicate that the survival number of adult weevils infesting wheat grains increased markedly after 45 and 90 days of infestation. The survival and reproductive potential of the rice weevils declined significantly after exposure to gamma rays. This decline was more pronounced after 90 days and appeared to be markedly dose dependent. It was noticed that the rate of reproduction of the rice weevils was greatly influenced by insect crowding, science adults of S. Oryzae reared under crowded conditions failed to increase in numbers for 3 months as was expected. The reproduction of S. Oryzae was affected by the type of food. Wheat grains were more suitable than rice and maize grains as the average survival numbers of S. Oryzae reared on wheat grains were more after 45 and 90 days than those reared on rice and maize grains.3 tab

  1. Studies on food preferences of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. to different crops in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Devi Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food preference by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky was studied on seven different crops and varieties including maize, wheat and rice. They were maize cultivars namely Arun-2, Manakamana-4, Deuti, buckwheat local cultivar, wheat cultivar namely Annapurna-1, polished rice-Radha 4 and unshelled rice cultivar Mansuli under storage condition at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal from June 2013 to February 2014 . The hosts were tested using completely randomized design with three replications and were laid in free-choice and no-choice conditions. The maximum number of grain loss was recorded in wheat followed by polished rice respectively. Similarly, the highest weight loss was recorded in polished rice followed by Wheat in both conditions. F1 progeny emergence of weevil was highest in wheat followed by polished rice in free-choice and in no choice conditions, the highest progeny were emerged from polished rice followed by wheat. The lowest numbers of weevils emerged from rice in both conditions. Maximum germination losses were recorded in wheat (24.33% and lowest in Arun-2 (9.67. The rice showed a relatively higher preference to maize weevil under storage condition.

  2. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single

  3. Attractant compositions for weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruck, D.J.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to formulations of volatile organic compounds having effects on Otiorhynchus weevils e.g., Otiorhynchus sulcatus. In some embodiments, volatile organic compounds selected from (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-2-pentenol, methyl eugenol and a combination thereof are effective for

  4. Preferential Edge Habitat Colonization by a Specialist Weevil, Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the behavioral basis of dispersal and colonization is critical in biological control systems, where success of a natural enemy depends in part on its ability to find and move to new host patches. We studied behavior of the specialist weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev, a biological...

  5. Argentine stem weevil ( Listronotus bonariensis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) population dynamics in Canterbury, New Zealand dryland pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, S L; Barron, M C; Kean, J M; van Koten, C

    2011-06-01

    The Argentine stem weevil (Listronotus bonariensis) was an economically important pest in New Zealand pastures until the release of the parasitoid Microctonus hyperodae. This contribution uses historical data to investigate the regulation of the pest populations prior to, and somewhat during, the establishment of this parasitoid in dryland Canterbury, New Zealand. Thus, a significant goal of this study is to provide an L. bonariensis population dynamics baseline for any future work that aims to analyse the full effects of M. hyperodae on the weevil, now that equilibrium with the weevil host has been reached.The population dynamics of L. bonariensis, based on a life-table approach, were investigated using data collected regularly for eight years from populations in Canterbury, New Zealand. The key factor affecting end-of-season L. bonariensis density was found to be variation in second generation fourth instar prepupal and pupal mortality. This may have been caused by arrested development and ongoing mortality resulting from the onset of cooler autumnal conditions.A compensatory response was found in recruitment to the second summer weevil generation, whereby the realised fecundity of the emergent first summer generation of weevils was found to be negatively related to the density of adult weevils per ryegrass tiller. This is the first time that this has been found via long-term population analysis of L. bonariensis, although indications of this have been found elsewhere in caging, pot and small plot experiments.In this study, the effect of the parasitoid biocontrol agent Microctonus hyperodae on L. bonariensis population dynamics was unclear, as the analysis covered a period when the parasitoid Microctonus hyperodae was introduced and still establishing. It does, however, raise important questions for future analysis in terms of the interaction between parasitism and unrealised fecundity.The results in this contribution also highlighted regional differences

  6. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Graft Unions in Hickory (Carya cathayensis Provides Insights into Response Mechanisms to Grafting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoliang Yan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hickory (Carya cathayensis, a tree with high nutritional and economic value, is widely cultivated in China. Grafting greatly reduces the juvenile phase length and makes the large scale cultivation of hickory possible. To reveal the response mechanisms of this species to grafting, we employed a proteomics-based approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in the graft unions during the grafting process. Our study identified 3723 proteins, of which 2518 were quantified. A total of 710 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were quantified and these were involved in various molecular functional and biological processes. Among these DEPs, 341 were up-regulated and 369 were down-regulated at 7 days after grafting compared with the control. Four auxin-related proteins were down-regulated, which was in agreement with the transcription levels of their encoding genes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that the ‘Flavonoid biosynthesis’ pathway and ‘starch and sucrose metabolism’ were both significantly up-regulated. Interestingly, five flavonoid biosynthesis-related proteins, a flavanone 3-hyfroxylase, a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, a dihydroflavonol-4-reductase, a chalcone synthase, and a chalcone isomerase, were significantly up-regulated. Further experiments verified a significant increase in the total flavonoid contents in scions, which suggests that graft union formation may activate flavonoid biosynthesis to increase the content of a series of downstream secondary metabolites. This comprehensive analysis provides fundamental information on the candidate proteins and secondary metabolism pathways involved in the grafting process for hickory.

  7. Cloning and Functional Analysis of the MADS-box CiMADS9 Gene from Carya illinoinensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jiyu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A MADS-box gene, CiMADS9, was cloned from the male flowers of Carya illinoinensis by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The gene was 1 077 bp with a 768 bp open reading frame encoding 255 amino acids. Multiple sequence comparisons revealed that CiMADS9 is a typical MIKC-type MADS-box gene with a MADS-box domain and a K semi-conserved region. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CiMADS9 belongs to the AGL15 group of the MADS-box gene family. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that the expression levels in reproductive organs (i.e., flowers and young fruits were considerably higher than in vegetative tissues (i.e., leaves and branches. The highest expression levels were observed in male flowers. An overexpression vector for CiMADS9 was constructed and the gene was inserted into the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. CiMADS9 expression was confirmed in all transgenic lines. Compared with wild-type plants, transgenic A. thaliana plants overexpressing CiMADS9 exhibited delayed flowering and an increased number of leaves.

  8. Mycorrhization of pecan trees (Carya illinoinensis) with commercial truffle species: Tuber aestivum Vittad. and Tuber borchii Vittad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Bonito, Gregory; Baciarelli Falini, Leonardo; Bencivenga, Mattia

    2012-07-01

    Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) is an economically important nut tree native to the Mississippi basin and cultivated worldwide. In North America, species of truffles are regularly found fruiting in productive pecan orchards and the truffle genus Tuber appears to be abundant in pecan ectomycorrhizal (EM) communities. As an initial step to determine the feasibility of co-cropping European truffle species with pecan, we evaluated whether mycorrhizae of highly esteemed European truffle species (Tuber aestivum Vittad. T. borchii and T. macrosporum) could be formed on pecan seedlings. Seedlings were inoculated with truffle spores and were grown in a greenhouse for 10 months. Levels of EM colonization were estimated visually and quantified by counting EM tips. Ectomycorrhizae were identified both morphologically and molecularly with species-specific amplification and by sequencing of the ITS region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA). Both T. borchii and T. aestivum spores produced well-formed ectomycorrhizae on pecan seedlings with average root colonization levels of about 62% and 42%, respectively, whereas no ectomycorrhizae of T. macrosporum were formed. The anatomy and morphology of these truffle ectomycorrhizae on pecan was characterized. The co-cropping of T. aestivum and T. borchii may hold promise as an additional stream of revenue to pecan growers, although, further studies are needed to assess whether this symbiosis is maintained after planting in the field and whether truffle production can be supported by this host species.

  9. Discovery and profiling of novel and conserved microRNAs during flower development in Carya cathayensis via deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng Jia; Huang, Jian Qin; Huang, You Jun; Li, Zheng; Zheng, Bing Song

    2012-08-01

    Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) is an economically important woody plant in China, but its long juvenile phase delays yield. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of genes and important for normal plant development and physiology, including flower development. We used Solexa technology to sequence two small RNA libraries from two floral differentiation stages in hickory to identify miRNAs related to flower development. We identified 39 conserved miRNA sequences from 114 loci belonging to 23 families as well as two novel and ten potential novel miRNAs belonging to nine families. Moreover, 35 conserved miRNA*s and two novel miRNA*s were detected. Twenty miRNA sequences from 49 loci belonging to 11 families were differentially expressed; all were up-regulated at the later stage of flower development in hickory. Quantitative real-time PCR of 12 conserved miRNA sequences, five novel miRNA families, and two novel miRNA*s validated that all were expressed during hickory flower development, and the expression patterns were similar to those detected with Solexa sequencing. Finally, a total of 146 targets of the novel and conserved miRNAs were predicted. This study identified a diverse set of miRNAs that were closely related to hickory flower development and that could help in plant floral induction.

  10. Effects of photoperiod on boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) development, survival, and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, S M; Sappington, T W; Adamczyk, J J; Liu, T-X; Setamou, M

    2008-12-01

    Effects of photoperiod on development, survival, feeding, and oviposition of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, were assessed under five different photophases (24, 14, 12, 10, and 0 h) at a constant 27 degrees C temperature and 65% RH in the laboratory. Analyses of our results detected positive relationships between photoperiod and puncturing (mean numbers of oviposition and feeding punctures per day), and oviposition (oviposition punctures/oviposition+feeding punctures) activities, and the proportion of squares attacked by boll weevil females. When boll weevil females developed in light:darkness cycles, they produced a significantly higher percentage of eggs developing to adulthood than those developed in 24-h light or dark conditions. In long photoperiod (24:0 and 14:10 h), the number of female progeny was significantly higher and their development time was significantly shorter than those developed in short photoperiod (0:24 and 10:14 h). Lifetime oviposition was significantly highest at 12- and 14-h photophase, lowest at 0- and 10-h photophase, and intermediate at 24 h of light. Life table calculations indicated that boll weevil populations developed in a photoperiod of 14:10 and 12:12 (L:D) h will increase an average of two-fold each generation (Ro) compared with boll weevils developed in 24:0- and 10:14-h photoperiods and 15-fold compared with those at 0:24 h. Knowledge of the photoperiod-dependent population growth potential is critical for understanding population dynamics to better develop sampling protocols and timing insecticide applications.

  11. On-farm management practices against rice root weevil (Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Pandey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population and occupies almost one-fifth of the global cropland under cereals. The rice root weevil, Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae has posed a problem in paddy cultivation areas in India. The damage by this root weevil results in a significant decrease in root and shoot biomass and ultimately the yield of rice plants. Studies were conducted to test the effective management practices of rice root weevil using a seedling treatment with chlorpyriphos alone and in combination with a soil application of chlorpyriphos, fipronil and cartap hydrochloride during 2013 and 2014. The benefit:cost (B:C ratio was also determined from the marketable yield and cost of treatments incurred in the technology to justify the economic viability of the appropriate technology management against E. oryzae. Reductions in tillers/hill (35.2% and 26.27% and, in panicles/hill (44.0% and 31.96% were observed during 2013 and 2014, respectively. The least number of root weevils (3.67 and 3.13 were observed in comparison to no root weevil management practice (23.53 and 32.53 during 2013 and 2014, respectively, from the treatment of seedlings prior to transplanting with chlorpyriphos at 3 mL/L of water followed by soil application with cartap hydrochloride at 20 kg/ha. The highest numbers of tillers/hill (25.00 and 23.60, numbers of panicles/hill (20.00 and 19.40, yield (5.41 t/ha and 4.57 t/ha and B:C ratio (1.75 and 1.48 were also observed from the same treatment during 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  12. Feeding and oviposition deterrent activities of flower buds of globemallow,Sphaeralcea emoryi torrey, against boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, H; Bowers, W S

    1996-01-01

    The globemallow,Sphaeralcea emoryi Torrey, a plant native to Arizona was evaluated as a source of feeding or oviposition deterrents to the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Feeding and oviposition responses of reproductive weevils to the flower buds and artificial diets spiked with dry powder or extracts of the globemallow buds were determined. Boll weevils were deterred from feeding and ovipositing in the flower buds unless the calyxes were removed. Male and virgin female weevils were discouraged from feeding as much as gravid weevils. Secondary chemicals in the flower buds served primarily as feeding deterrents but also prevented oviposition. The concentration of these chemicals was highest in the calyxes of the buds, and potent deterrent activity could be extracted from the calyxes with methanol. Boll weevils were able to perceive the deterrents by contact chemosensory organs on the antennae, maxillary palps and labial palps.

  13. Effects of gamma radiation and irradiated bean seeds on the dry bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus say (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatowicz, S.; Brzostek, G.

    1988-01-01

    Low dosages of gamma radiation affected the development of immature stages of the bean weevil, Acanthoscelides obtectus Say. Radiosensitivity of the bean weevils decreased during their development, and adults seemed to be the most resistant stage for gamma radiation. There were no significant differences in mortality of immature stages of the pest during their development in beans treated with gamma radiation at dosages up to 1.06 kGy. Moreover, the females showed no ovipositional preference for untreated or irradiated beans

  14. Dataset on the regulation of banana weevil abundance and corm damage associated with plant richness and the ground-dwelling arthropods’ food web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Poeydebat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled ̎Plant richness enhances banana weevil regulation in a tropical agroecosystem by affecting a multitrophic food web ̎ [1]. It provides information about plant species richness, weevil corm damage and the abundance of different arthropod groups, including the banana weevil and its potential natural enemies and alternative preys.

  15. Components of male aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi herbst. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, P J; Hall, D R; Cross, J V

    2001-06-01

    The strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi, is a major pest of strawberries in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. As part of a project to develop noninsecticidal control methods, the pheromone system of this species was investigated. Comparison of volatiles produced by field-collected, overwintering individuals of each sex led to identification of three male-specific compounds--(Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (cis)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)cyclobutaneethanol, and 2-(1-methylethenyl)-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-ol (lavandulol)--in amounts of 6.1, 1.2, and 0.82 microg/day/ male. The first two compounds are components of the aggregation pheromone of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, grandlure II and grandlure I, respectively. Grandlure I was the (1R,2S)-(+) enantiomer and lavandulol was a single enantiomer, although the absolute configuration was not determined. Trace amounts of the other two grandlure components (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure III) and (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure IV) were also detected. (E,E)-1-(1-Methylethyl)-4-methylene-8-methyl-2,7-cyclo-decadiene (germacrene-D), a known volatile from strawberry plants, Fragaria ananassa, was collected in increased amounts in the presence of pheromone-producing weevils. Male weevils only produced pheromone on F. ananassa and not on scented mayweed, Matracaria recutita, or cow parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris, although these are known food sources. In field trials using various combinations of synthetic grandlures I, II, III, and IV and lavandulol, significantly more weevils were caught in traps baited with blends containing grandlure I and II and lavandulol than in those baited with blends without lavandulol or unbaited controls. Addition of grandlure III and IV had no significant effect on attractiveness. Horizontal sticky traps were found to be more effective than vertical sticky traps or standard boll weevil traps. In mid-season females

  16. Transcriptome analysis of Gossypium hirsutum flower buds infested by cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Sinara; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Silveira, Sylvia; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fátima; Martinelli, Adriana Pinheiro; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio

    2014-10-04

    Cotton is a major fibre crop grown worldwide that suffers extensive damage from chewing insects, including the cotton boll weevil larvae (Anthonomus grandis). Transcriptome analysis was performed to understand the molecular interactions between Gossypium hirsutum L. and cotton boll weevil larvae. The Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform was used to sequence the transcriptome of cotton flower buds infested with boll weevil larvae. The analysis generated a total of 327,489,418 sequence reads that were aligned to the G. hirsutum reference transcriptome. The total number of expressed genes was over 21,697 per sample with an average length of 1,063 bp. The DEGseq analysis identified 443 differentially expressed genes (DEG) in cotton flower buds infected with boll weevil larvae. Among them, 402 (90.7%) were up-regulated, 41 (9.3%) were down-regulated and 432 (97.5%) were identified as orthologues of A. thaliana genes using Blastx. Mapman analysis of DEG indicated that many genes were involved in the biotic stress response spanning a range of functions, from a gene encoding a receptor-like kinase to genes involved in triggering defensive responses such as MAPK, transcription factors (WRKY and ERF) and signalling by ethylene (ET) and jasmonic acid (JA) hormones. Furthermore, the spatial expression pattern of 32 of the genes responsive to boll weevil larvae feeding was determined by "in situ" qPCR analysis from RNA isolated from two flower structures, the stamen and the carpel, by laser microdissection (LMD). A large number of cotton transcripts were significantly altered upon infestation by larvae. Among the changes in gene expression, we highlighted the transcription of receptors/sensors that recognise chitin or insect oral secretions; the altered regulation of transcripts encoding enzymes related to kinase cascades, transcription factors, Ca2+ influxes, and reactive oxygen species; and the modulation of transcripts encoding enzymes from phytohormone signalling pathways. These

  17. Relative infestation of some local and developed chickpea genotypes by cowpea weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, R.A.K.; Abdelkawy, F.K.

    1993-01-01

    Six chickpea genotypes, half of them are local varieties (Giza 1, Giza 88 and Giza 2) and the other three were developed either by hybridization or through a mutation breeding programme L 1, L 2 and L 3) were evaluated for resistant to cowpea weevil callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Giza 1, Giza 88, L 1 and L 2 are large seeded type, while Giza 2 and L 3 have small seeds. Results indicated that L 1 was more resistant to cowpea weevil than the other large seeded genotypes. On the other hand, L 3 exhibited much more resistant to this pest than Giza 2. However L 1 and L 3 are characterized by high seed yield/plant and have rounded seeds with smooth cream test a. These traits are desirable for the common consumers in Egypt. This means that L 1 and L 3 as a new chickpea germplasm may be of value for the egyptian farmers planting this crop. 3 tab

  18. Sterilization of boll weevil pupae with fractionated doses of gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haynes, J.W.; Mitlin, N.; Davich, T.B.; Dawson, J.R.; McGovern, W.L.; McKibben, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fractionated doses of 6,250-8,000 rads of gamma irradiation administered to pupae of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh., sexually sterilized both sexes. Mortality of males thus treated with 6,250 and 8,000 rads via fractionation was 14% and 27% respectively, by 5 days posttreatment compared with 46% mortality when an equivalent acute dose was administered to newly emerged adults. Pheromone production of males irradiated at 6,250 rads was one-third that of the control for the first 4 days, but equal that of the control during 5-11 days posttreatment. This procedure lends itself to the large-scale sterilization of weevils needed in an eradication program. This technique is applicable to other insects that are highly susceptible to acute doses

  19. Radiosensitivity studies on the different stages and ages of orchid weevil, orchidophilus aterrimus (waterhouse)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Obra, G.B.; Reyes, M.R.; Resilva, S.R.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of different radiation doses on the different stages and ages of orchid weevil, Orchidophilus aterrimus (Waterhouse) was investigated. Among the different stages, the egg was found the most sensitive while the adult weevil was the most resistant to gamma radiation. The younger the insect within a stage, the more sensitive they are to the lethal effect of radiation. For instance, one-to three-day-old eggs were found most sensitive followed by four-to seven-day-old eggs, two- to four-day-old and 30-day-old larvae and early pupae. Late pupae and adults were the most radioresistant when irradiated with doses ranging from 150 to 450 Gy. Furthermore, young adults treated with 150 to 460 Gy did not lay any eggs while mature adults lay a few eggs but none of them hatched. Our data indicate that gamma radiation may be used as an alternative quarantine treatment for disinfestation of orchids. (author)

  20. EFFECTS OF WEEVILS (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE) CONTROL PRODUCTS, OVER THE GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, AND PRODUCTION OF PLANTAIN

    OpenAIRE

    M. Muñoz, Liliana; Cañas, Guillermo L.; Urrea, Aura I.; Guarín, Juan H.

    2013-01-01

    In a farm in the municipality of Andes (Antioquia, Colombia), parcels were planted with Dominico Hartón plantain associated with Caturra-type coffee, where weevil damage (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) occurred in 100% of the plantain plants, corms of approximately 2 kg were planted under the same association system. From the sowing until harvest, six types of products were applied every two months on these plantations: chemical of the region (Clorpirifos and Carboxin + Thiram), Carbofur...

  1. Variation of Body Size in Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Its Associations with Population Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yunshan; Ao, Yan; Jiang, Mingxing; Way, Michael O

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Life history characteristics help us to determine the ability of invasive species to establish and thrive in an exotic environment. However, so far, there have been very few reports concerning geographic variation in the body size of invasive insects and the associations between body size variation and population biology. In this study, we surveyed the geographic variation in body size of an invasive agricultural pest, the rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleopte...

  2. Field evaluation of Bt cotton crop impact on nontarget pests: cotton aphid and boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujii, E R; Togni, P H B; de A Ribeiro, P; de A Bernardes, T; Milane, P V G N; Paula, D P; Pires, C S S; Fontes, E M G

    2013-02-01

    Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac protein have high specificity for the control of lepidopteran larvae. However, studies conducted in several countries have shown these plants have a differential impact on nontarget herbivores. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization rates and population abundance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in plots of Bt (Nuopal) and non-Bt cotton (Delta Opal) in an experimental field in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. No difference was observed in the preference and colonization by winged aphids to plants from the two treatments. There was no significant difference in abundance of wingless aphids or in the production of winged aphids between treatments. Apparently, the parameters that control factors such as fecundity, survival, and dispersal were similar on both Bt and non-Bt plants. Monitoring of plants for coccinellids, a specialist predator of aphids, and ants that act on the dispersal of aphids among plants showed no significant difference between Bt and non-Bt plants, supporting the inference above. Regarding the effect on boll weevil, there was also no significant difference between treatments in the total number of fruiting structures attacked in each plot, the percentage of fruiting structures attacked per plant or on the number of weevils emerging from fruits with boll weevil damage from egg-laying, when damaged fruit samples were held in the laboratory. Based on these results, we conclude that there is no impact of Bt cotton crop expressing Cry1Ac on the nontarget herbivores tested under field conditions.

  3. Toxicity to cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis of a trypsin inhibitor from chickpea seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de P G Gomes, Angélica; Dias, Simoni C; Bloch, Carlos; Melo, Francislete R; Furtado, José R; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Franco, Octávio L

    2005-02-01

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is an important agricultural commodity, which is attacked by several pests such as the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. Adult A. grandis feed on fruits and leaf petioles, reducing drastically the crop production. The predominance of boll weevil digestive serine proteinases has motivated inhibitor screenings in order to discover new ones with the capability to reduce the digestion process. The present study describes a novel proteinase inhibitor from chickpea seeds (Cicer arietinum L.) and its effects against A. grandis. This inhibitor, named CaTI, was purified by using affinity Red-Sepharose Cl-6B chromatography, followed by reversed-phase HPLC (Vydac C18-TP). SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analyses, showed a unique monomeric protein with a mass of 12,877 Da. Purified CaTI showed significant inhibitory activity against larval cotton boll weevil serine proteinases (78%) and against bovine pancreatic trypsin (73%), when analyzed by fluorimetric assays. Although the molecular mass of CaTI corresponded to alpha-amylase/trypsin bifunctional inhibitors masses, no inhibitory activity against insect and mammalian alpha-amylases was observed. In order to observe CaTI in vivo effects, an inhibitor rich fraction was added to an artificial diet at different concentrations. At 1.5% (w/w), CaTI caused severe development delay, several deformities and a mortality rate of approximately 45%. These results suggested that CaTI could be useful in the production of transgenic cotton plants with enhanced resistance toward cotton boll weevil.

  4. Relationships of abscised cotton fruit to boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) feeding, oviposition, and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, Allan T

    2008-02-01

    Abscised cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., fruit in field plots planted at different times were examined to assess adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), use of squares and bolls during 2002 and 2003 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although boll abscission is not necessarily related to infestation, generally more bolls abscised than squares and abundances of fallen bolls were not related to the planting date treatments. During 2003, fallen squares were most abundant in the late-planted treatment. Although large squares (5.5-8-mm-diameter) on the plant are preferred for boll weevil oviposition, diameter of abscised squares is not a reliable measurement because of shrinkage resulting from desiccation and larval feeding. Fallen feeding-punctured squares and bolls were most abundant in late plantings but differences between fallen feeding-punctured squares versus fallen feeding-punctured bolls were found in only one treatment in 2003. During the same year, fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more numerous in the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments. Treatment effects were not found on numbers of oviposition-punctured bolls, but fallen oviposition-punctured squares were more common than bolls in the late-planted treatment compared with earlier treatments each year. Dead weevil eggs, larvae, and pupae inside fallen fruit were few and planting date treatment effects were not detected. Living third instars and pupae were more abundant in fallen squares of the late-planted treatment than in the earlier treatments and bolls of all three treatments. This study shows that fallen squares in late-planted cotton contribute more to adult boll weevil populations than bolls, or squares of earlier plantings.

  5. Proteolytic processing of the vitellogenin precursor in the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilmann, L J; Trewitt, P M; Kumaran, A K

    1993-01-01

    The soluble proteins of the eggs of the coleopteran insect Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the cotton boll weevil, consist almost entirely of two vitellin types with M(r)s of 160,000 and 47,000. We sequenced their N-terminal ends and one internal cyanogen bromide fragment of the large vitellin and compared these sequences with the deduced amino acid sequence from the vitellogenin gene. The results suggest that both the boll weevil vitellin proteins are products of the proteolytic cleavage of a single precursor protein. The smaller 47,000 M(r) vitellin protein is derived from the N-terminal portion of the precursor adjacent to an 18 amino acid signal peptide. The cleavage site between the large and small vitellins at amino acid 362 is adjacent to a pentapeptide sequence containing two pairs of arginine residues. Comparison of the boll weevil sequences with limited known sequences from the single 180,000 M(r) honey bee protein show that the honey bee vitellin N-terminal exhibits sequence homology to the N-terminal of the 47,000 M(r) boll weevil vitellin. Treatment of the vitellins with an N-glycosidase results in a decrease in molecular weight of both proteins, from 47,000 to 39,000 and from 160,000 to 145,000, indicating that about 10-15% of the molecular weight of each vitellin consists of N-linked carbohydrate. The molecular weight of the deglycosylated large vitellin is smaller than that predicted from the gene sequence, indicating possible further proteolytic processing at the C-terminal of that protein.

  6. CHEMICAL CONTROL OF BEAN WEEVIL, ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY IN STORAGE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M PORCA

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the positive results obtained by some pesticides applied against the bean weevil - Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, after a synthetic rewiew of the potential chemical methods which may be used in the chemical control of the insectes harmful to the stored bean seeds. The chemical control is realised treatments wits syntetic pyrethroid (permetrin, deltametrin and organophosphoric insecticides (malation, pirimifos metil, fenitrotion and chlrorpirifos-metil.

  7. The Reproductive Morphology and Physiological Age Grading of the Female Salvinia Weevil, Calder and Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Eisenberg; Seth Johnson; Michael J Grodowitz

    2018-01-01

    The morphology of the female Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands reproductive system is similar to other weevil species being meroistic and telotrophic. The reproductive system is composed of 2 ovaries each containing 2 ovarioles where the follicles mature. A physiological age grading system was developed where the continuum of ovarium development was divided into 2 nulliparous and 3 parous classes. This was based on the differentiation of the ovarioles, presence, and appearance of follicu...

  8. New Approach of Beauveria bassiana to Control the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) by Trapping Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, M J; Ajlan, A M; Al-Ahmad, M H

    2015-04-01

    This work is the first study to investigate the efficacy of the commercial formulation of Beauveria bassiana (Broadband) to control adults of red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier)). This fungus could be applied as one of the biological tactics in controlling red palm weevil. Bioassay experiments for medium lethal concentrate and medium time to cause death of 50% of red palm weevil adults were carried out. The result showed that the LC50 of B. bassiana (Broadband) was 2.19×10(7) and 2.76×10(6) spores/ml at 9 and 23 d of treatment, respectively. The LT50 was 13.95 and 4.15 d for concentration of 1×10(7) and 1×10(8) spores/ml, respectively, whereas 1×10(9) spores/ml caused 100% mortality after 24 h. Additionally, a red palm weevil pheromone trap was designed to attract the adults to be contaminated with spores of Broadband, which was applied to the sackcloth fabric that coated the internal surfaces of the bucket trap. The mating behavior was studied to determine direct and indirect infection of the spores from male to female and vice versa. The results showed a high efficacy of Broadband suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml; 40 ml of suspension at this concentration treated to cloth in a trap caused death of contaminated adults with B. bassiana spores directly and indirectly. The 100% mortality was obtained even after 13 d of traps treatment with 40 ml of the suspension at 1×10(9) spores/ml. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects.

  10. Evaluation of the Weevil-damaged Sweet Potato as Substrate for Microbial Protein Obtaining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lic. Antonio Montes-de-Oca-Olivares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The production of microbial protein from agricultural and agroindustrial wastes is an important way to supply the demand of this essential nutritional principle. Sweet potato (Ipomea batata tubercles damaged by weevil (Cylas formicarius are considered a waste due to their unpleasant flavor. This research deal in the characterization of sweet potato damaged by weevil, as an alternative substratefor the culture of the fodder yeast Candida utilis. It was found that the damaged tubercle had a similar composition that the healthy one, concerning dry matter, total reducing sugars, nitrogen and minerals; the high content of reducing sugars (30-40 % dry weight recommends the use of this waste as a substrate for single cell protein production. Several fungal strains were assayed to enzymatic degradation of sweet potato polysaccharides; from these ones, Aspergillus oryzae H/28-1 and Neurospora sp. were the more actives to release reducing sugars to the culture medium, being the last one the more prominent. Theyeast Candida utilis showed a satisfactory growth in media formulated in basis to weevil-damaged sweet potato, reaching reducing sugar consumptions over 80 % and biomass yields of 37-58 %; addition of urea as nitrogen source improved both parameters of the growth. The fermentation’s end-product acquired a pleasant flavor, which suggests a better palatability.

  11. Effects of High Carbon Dioxide Level on the Emergence of Oil Palm Pollinating Weevil, Elaeidobius Kamerunicus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amanina, N.S.; Hasnudin, M.Y.; Haniff, M.H.; Roslan, M.N.; A'fifah, A.R.; Ramle, M.

    2016-01-01

    Elaeidobius kamerunicus is the main pollinating insect of oil palm in Malaysia. The increase of ambient carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) may promote greater crop growth and yield of oil palm. However, E. kamerunicus' adaptability and survival under high CO 2 level are still unknown. An oil palm weevil emergence study was conducted in plant growth chambers with two CO 2 levels, 400 Parts Per Million and 800 Parts Per Million. The plant growth chambers were set at 27 degree celcius and 70% relative humidity for the entire study period. Spikelets were taken from apical, middle and basal regions of anthesising male inflorescences from 6-year old DxP palms under normal field conditions. The sampled spikelets were placed in clear plastic tubes with both open ends covered with muslin cloth. The emergence of adults was observed at two-day interval until 10 days after incubation. The total number of weevils which emerged from the spikelets at 400 Parts Per Million and 800 Parts Per Million CO 2 levels were 240 and 233 individuals, respectively. Doubling the ambient CO 2 level to 800 Parts Per Million had no effect on E. kamerunicus emergence in controlled condition. Further study on oil palm weevil adaptability and survival under high CO 2 level is needed to provide information on the effects of future climate change scenario and oil palm yield. (author)

  12. THE USE OF GRIGNARD REAGENT IN PHEROMONE SYNTHESIS FOR PALM WEEVIL (Rhynchorus, Sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsito Warsito

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In an integrated controlling system of palm weevil, using of synthetic feromoid is strickly needed. The research is aimed to synthesize pheromone which secreted by the weevil, e.g. 4-methyl-5-nonanol (R. ferrugineus and 3-methyl-4-octanol (R. schach through Grignard reagent which formed in situ. The synthesis was proceded by retrosynthesis to determine the precursor, valeraldehyde. The precursor was reacted with Grignard reagent of sec-amyl magnesium bromide (R. ferrugenieus and sec-butyl magnesium bromide (R. shach which made in situ. Characterization of the synthetic molecular pheromone was performed by Gas Chromatography-mass spectroscopy and Fourier Transformed Infra Red. The bioassay of the molecule was carried out by olfactometer. The result showed that the conversion of the reactions were 51.28% (4-methyl-5-nonanol and 85.90% (3-methyl-4-octanol. The character of physico-chemical and bioactivity of the synthetic pheromone are identic with natural pheromones.   Keywords: palm weevil, pheromone, grignard reagent

  13. Effects of the Diet on the Microbiota of the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    KAUST Repository

    Montagna, Matteo

    2015-01-30

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  14. Effects of the diet on the microbiota of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Montagna

    Full Text Available Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  15. Oleoresin crystallization in eastern white pine: relationships with chemical components of cortical oleoresin and resistance to the white-pine weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald C. Wilkinson

    1979-01-01

    Natural and weevil-larva-induced crystallization of oleoresin from 45 eastern white pine trees with known resin acid and monoterpene composition, and from 59 pairs of nonweeviled and heavily weeviled trees from the same seed sources, was examined in mid- and late spring. Very little difference was found between larva-induced and natural crystallization. Strobic acid-...

  16. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  17. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Half yearly report, February 16 to August 15, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriharan, S.

    1987-01-01

    This report outlines studies on the rate of moisture-loss in irradiated weevils and correlation loss of water with mortality. Further changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of weevils as a result of gamma radiation were determined. 2 figs., 10 tabs

  18. Molecular and morphological tools to distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838: a new weevil pest of the endangered Eggers Agave from St Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agave Snout Weevil (ASW) or Sisal Weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, is one of the most destructive pests of agave plants, capable of destroying up to 70% of commercial crops, costing millions of dollars in damage to global industries including tequila, mezcal, perfume, henequen, nardo...

  19. Replication of Chilo iridescent virus in the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, and development of an infectivity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, C W; Johnson, C L; Lodhi, S A; Bilimoria, S L

    2001-01-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, is a devastating pest of cotton. Chemical pesticides are problematic due to relative lack of target specificity and resistance. Microbial pesticides may provide viable alternatives because of their narrow host range. Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) is the type species for genus Iridovirus, family Iridoviridae: large, icosahedral cytoplasmic viruses containing a double-stranded DNA genome. Earlier work suggested that CIV replicated in the boll weevil; however, efficiency or production of infectious virus was not established. We showed that CIV undergoes a productive cycle in A. grandis. CIV DNA levels in boll weevil pupae increased significantly from 0 to 3 days post infection. Moreover, virogenic stromata and complete virus particles were observed in the cytoplasm by 7 days. An endpoint dilution assay using viral DNA replication as indicator suggested a 10(5)-fold increase in infectious virus titer over 7 days. This is the first such demonstration in larval infections with genus Iridovirus. Our study establishes that CIV undergoes a productive cycle in the boll weevil and provides an important and useful model system for replication at the organismal level. These results have important implications for the potential of CIV and its components in boll weevil control.

  20. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  1. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) response to and volatilization rates of grandlure when combined with varying doses of eugenol in the extended-life pheromone lure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J S

    2010-04-01

    Boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), trapping and pheromone quantitative analysis of extended-life pheromone lures manufactured with 0, 10, 20, and 30 mg of eugenol was conducted in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas under spring and summer conditions. Boll weevils responded positively to eugenol on one of 12 trapping weeks when densities were high, but when densities were low (30 degrees C, accumulative grandlure loss per week may be too high, leaving too little residual grandlure to effectively attract boll weevils at the end of 3 wk of trapping. Eugenol plays no role in reserving or encouraging the release of grandlure, or in increasing boll weevil captures when boll weevil densities are low.

  2. The protection of the poppy plant (Papaver somniferum L. against poppy weevil (Stenocarus ruficornis Stephens by foliar application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Sikora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Poppy seed (Papaver somniferum L. is an annual autumn or spring plant. This crop is cultivated generally for seed which is used as a foodstuff in food processing industry. The biological efficacy of different tested active ingredients (lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, aplha-cypermethrin, DE-225 and combination chlorpyrifos + cypermethrin on poppy weevil (Stenocarus ruficornis S. was evaluated in comparison with reference active ingredient (carbofuran used as a standard treatment. The active ingredients were applied against the mentioned pest once in the season and were used in doses which were similar to those used against stem weevils in winter oil seed rape. Reference active ingredient was used in the dose which was authorised in the Czech Republic as standard ones against the poppy weevil. All active ingredients revealed efficacy which was measured (as a size of injuries both on leaves and roots. Two trials were performed in 2001–2002 in which efficacy and selectivity were assessed.

  3. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Barton, Diane M; Philip, Bruce A; Ferguson, Colin M; Goldson, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants.

  4. Transfection of cultured cells of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, with a heat-shock-promoter-chloramphenicol-acetyltransferase construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, B; Heilmann, J; Sparks, R B; Santoso, A; Leopold, R A

    1992-01-01

    Expression of heat shock proteins (hsp) in the BRL-AG-3C cell line from the cotton boll weevil was examined. It was determined that the maximal expression of endogenous hsp occurred at 41 degrees C. Various transfection methods were then compared using this cell line in conjunction with a transiently expressed bacterial gene marker (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) which was under the control of the Drosophila hsp 70 gene promoter. The cationic lipid preparation Lipofectin was found to be very efficient at transfecting the boll weevil cells. Polylysine and 20-hydroxyecdysone-conjugated polylysine were moderately effective, whereas polybrene and electroporation, under the conditions reported herein, were ineffective at transfecting this cell line.

  5. Eradication of the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in the United States - A successful multi-regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Gary L.; Grefenstette, William J.

    2000-01-01

    The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, is believed to have entered the US from Mexico and was first detected in South Texas in 1892. Since that time, the pest has spread throughout most of the nation's cotton-producing areas and has become the industry's number one nemesis. More than US$13 billion in economic losses have occurred since its introduction, with recent annual expenditures of more than US$300 million for control costs alone. Although the weevil has been eradicated from over 4 million acres, its presence in non-programme areas continues to dictate production practices within the mid-south, Texas and Oklahoma

  6. Genetic profiling to determine potential origins of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) captured in a Texas eradication zone: endemicity, immigration, or sabotage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Seok; Sappington, Thomas W; Allen, Charles T

    2008-12-01

    Thirty-seven boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were captured in pheromone traps near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone during August-October 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earlier in the year, and only very low numbers had been captured in neighboring zones to the south and east. Therefore, the captures near Lubbock were unexpected. Five of the weevils captured the last week of August were preserved and genotyped at 10 microsatellite loci for comparison with a database of genotypes for 22 boll weevil populations sampled from eight U.S. states and four locations in Mexico. The Lubbock population itself is an unlikely source, suggesting that the captured weevils probably did not originate from a low-level endemic population. Populations from eastern states, Mexico, and Big Spring, TX, can be confidently excluded as potential source regions. Although the Weslaco and Kingsville, TX, areas cannot be statistically excluded, they are unlikely sources. The most likely sources are nearby areas in New Mexico, TX, or southwest Oklahoma, or from areas of eastern Texas represented by Waxahachie and El Campo populations. Together, genetic and circumstantial evidence suggest either that the trapped boll weevils are the offspring of alone mated female that immigrated from eastern Texas earlier in the summer or that weevils originally captured near Waxahachie but now long-dead were planted in the traps by a disgruntled employee of the eradication program.

  7. Reproductive Plasticity of an Invasive Insect Pest, Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunshang; Ao, Yan; Jiang, Mingxing

    2017-12-05

    Reproductive plasticity is a key determinant of species invasiveness. However, there are a limited number of studies addressing this issue in exotic insects. The rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is native to North America, is one of the most invasive insect pests in east Asia. In this study, we investigated the reproductive status of first-generation females (progeny of overwintered weevils) from five geographic regions in southern and northern China in the field, and reproductive status and ovipositional features of females provided with suitable host plants in the laboratory after collection. Under field conditions, a proportion of females oviposited, while the rest remained in diapause from all three southern regions investigated, but reproductive development did not take place in females from the two northern regions, where the weevil produces only one generation per year. However, when fed host plants in the laboratory, females from all regions laid eggs. They typically had a very short ovipositional period (3-6 d on average on rice at a temperature of 27°C), laid a low number of eggs, and did not die soon after oviposition; this was different from common reproductive females. We concluded that first-generation L. oryzophilus females, which largely enter diapause after emergence, are highly plastic in their reproductive performance and are ready to reproduce under favorable conditions. Our results indicate the significance of their reproductive plasticity for geographic spread and population development. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.S; Rocha, T.L. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, E.A.R [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Grossi-de-Sa, M.F. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil.

  10. A synergistic aggregation pheromone component in the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus Germar 1824 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, H; Mori, K; Nakayama, T; Jaffe, K

    1998-01-01

    Cosmopolites sordidus is an important pest on banana plantations worldwide. The chemistry of the aggregation pheromone of this insect has been recently resolved and here we present the first evidence from field trails that sordidin, a compound from the male released aggregation pheromone, attracts significant number of weevils only if host plant odors are also present. Sordidin attracts few insects when it is presented without the host plant tissue. However, the attractiveness of host plant tissue increases more than tenfold when it is presented simultaneously with sordidin in field traps. We confirm experimentally that sordidin may be used as part of a system for mass trapping and monitoring this insect.

  11. Crop vulnerability: Carya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long established native tree populations reflect local adaptations. Representation of diverse populations in accessible ex situ collections that link information on phenotypic expression to information on spatial and temporal origination is the most efficient means of preserving and exploring genet...

  12. The life history and immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Coleoptera: Curculiondidae) on Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal; M.Tracy Johnson; Paul. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the life history and immature stages of Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini). This weevil is a fruit borer in Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae), a Neotropical tree that is invasive in Pacific islands. The larva has three instars, and development from egg to...

  13. Effects of gamma radiation on the response of the rice weevil, sitophilus oryzae to heat and humidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakid, A.M.; Hilmy, N.M.; El-Monairy, O.M.

    1991-01-01

    The rice weevil, sitophilus oryzae L.was irradiated with 4 doses of gamma radiation (20,40,60 and 80 krad) and then examined for its response towards two different temperatures (45 and 25 degree C) or humidities (10 and 70% R.H.) For this purpose, two different apparatus were used. Each two temperature or humidity combinations were given to the weevils at the same time. The irradiated insects with 20 or 40 krad showed a marked increase in their speed at the warm side (45 degree C) than the controls. Those irradiated with 60 and 80 krad decreased their speed to about the control level. When the irradiated weevils were given the choice between 45 degree C and 25 degree C, their intensity of reaction towards the cooler side was decreased with increasing the doses. The rate of movement at 10% R.H. was not changed at 20 krad. However, at 40, 60 or 80 krad, it was increased with increasing the dose. The intensity of reaction of the irradiated weevils increased towards the dry side with increasing the dose.2 tab

  14. Feeding deterrent compounds to the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boheman in Rose-of-Sharon,Hibiscus syriacus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, T G; Hedin, P A; Burks, M L

    1987-05-01

    The Rose-of-Sharon,Hibiscus syriacus (L.), can be a significant alternate host plant for the boll weevil,Anthonomus gradis (Boh.). Boll weevils are known to be deterred from feeding and ovipositing in the buds unless the calyx is removed. This investigation was initiated to identify calyx allelochemicals that deter feeding with the eventual strategy of breeding for cotton lines high in these allelochemicals in the appropriate tissues. The feeding deterrency of calyx tissue from the buds of Rose-of-Sharon for the boll weevil was confirmed. The most active deterrent fraction was found to contain mostly fatty acids and their methyl esters. Saturated fatty acids and their methyl esters were generally found to be stimulatory, while the unsaturated species were found to be deterrent. Higher quantities of the fatty acids, particularly the unsaturated species, were found in Rose-of-Sharon calyx tissue than in the buds without calyx. This supports the hypothesis developed through the isolational work and testing of standards that the unsaturated fatty acids are significant deterrents of boll weevil feeding.

  15. Temporal changes in genetic variation of boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations, and implications for population assignment in eradication zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic differentiation among 10 populations of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis, sampled in 2009, in Texas and Mexico, was determined using ten microsatellite loci. In addition, temporal changes in genetic composition were examined in the eight populations for which samples were available fr...

  16. Population structure and genetic diversity of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Gossypium in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    While the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been identified as one of the most devastating pests in U.S. history, its origin and activity in Mexico, both on wild and cultivated cotton hosts (genus Gossypium), is poorly understood. Three forms (geographical or host-associated races) of A. grandis ...

  17. Molecular cloning of a cysteine proteinase cDNA from the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira Neto, Osmundo Brilhante; Batista, João Aguiar Nogueira; Rigden, Daniel John; Franco, Octávio Luiz; Fragoso, Rodrigo Rocha; Monteiro, Ana Carolina Santos; Monnerat, Rose Gomes; Grossi-De-Sa, Maria Fátima

    2004-06-01

    The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) causes severe cotton crop losses in North and South America. This report describes the presence of cysteine proteinase activity in the cotton boll weevil. Cysteine proteinase inhibitors from different sources were assayed against total A. grandis proteinases but, unexpectedly, no inhibitor tested was particularly effective. In order to screen for active inhibitors against the boll weevil, a cysteine proteinase cDNA (Agcys1) was isolated from A. grandis larvae using degenerate primers and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. Sequence analysis showed significant homologies with other insect cysteine proteinases. Northern blot analysis indicated that the mRNA encoding the proteinase was transcribed mainly in the gut of larvae. No mRNA was detected in neonatal larvae, pupae, or in the gut of the adult insect, suggesting that Agcys1 is an important cysteine proteinase for larvae digestion. The isolated gene will facilitate the search for highly active inhibitors towards boll weevil larvae that may provide a new opportunity to control this important insect pest.

  18. Effects of crop sanitation on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae), populations and crop damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Crop sanitation, i.e. destruction of crop residues, has been hypothesized to lower banana weevil damage by removing adult refuges and breeding sites. Although it has been widely recommended to farmers, limited data are available to demonstrate the efficacy of this method. The effects of crop

  19. Distribution, timing of attack, and oviposition of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, on banana crop residues in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    Crop sanitation (removal and chopping of residue corms and pseudostems following plant harvest) has been recommended as a 'best bet' means of reducing banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations. However, it has been unclear when such practices should be

  20. Enhancing dissemination of Beauveria bassiana with host plant base incision trapfor the management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Emudong, P.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Kagezi, G.H.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Karamura, E.

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision

  1. Influence of plant and residue age on attraction, acceptance and larval survival of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory trials were conducted in Uganda at the Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute to determine attraction, eclosion success and larval survivorship of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) on crop residues of different ages. In the first experiment, studies focused on different

  2. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  3. Oviposition Decision of the Weevil Exapion ulicis on Ulex europaeus Depends on External and Internal Pod Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms underlying insects’ host choice and plant susceptibility is important to the study of plant-insect interactions in general, and in the context of plant invasions. This study investigates the oviposition and feeding choices of the specialist weevil Exapion ulicis on the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus, gorse. To do so, we studied the oviposition and feeding preferences of the weevil in choice experiments, using pods and flowers, respectively, from gorses grown in a common garden. The plants used came from regions with different infestation histories: Brittany and Scotland belong to the native range, where the weevil is present, while Reunion and New Zealand belong to the invasive range, where the weevil was not initially introduced with gorse. Results of these experiments suggest that the oviposition choice of E. ulicis females is driven by cues located at the surface of pods and inside them, including pod size and pod seed content. Feeding-choice experiments showed a different pattern of preference compared to oviposition. Taken together with previous studies, our results reveal that E. ulicis uses several traits to choose its host, including whole-plant traits, flower traits and pod traits.

  4. Olfaction in the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Electroantennogram studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J C

    1984-12-01

    Electroantennogram (EAG) techniques were utilized to measure the antennal olfactory responsiveness of adult boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to 38 odorants, including both insect and host plant (Gossypium hirsutum L.) volatiles. EAGs of both sexes were indicative of at least two receptor populations: one receptor population primarily responsive to pheromone components and related compounds, the other receptor population primarily responsive to plant odors. Similar responses to male aggregation pheromone components (i.e., compounds I, II, and III + IV) were obtained from both sexes, but females were slightly more sensitive to I. Both sexes were highly responsive to components of the "green leaf volatile complex," especially the six-carbon saturated and monounsaturated primary alcohols. Heptanal was the most active aldehyde tested. More acceptors responded to oxygenated monoterpenes than to monoterpene hydrocarbons. β-Bisabolol, the major volatile of cotton, was the most active sesquiterpene. In general, males, which are responsible for host selection and pheromone production, were more sensitive to plant odors than were females. In fact, males were as sensitive to β-bisabolol and heptanal as to aggregation pheromone components. Electrophysiological data are discussed with regard to the role of insect and host plant volatiles in host selection and aggregation behavior of the boll weevil.

  5. Pathogenicity evaluation of native isolates of entomopathogenic fungí against andean weevil, Premnotrypes vorax (Hustache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Rivera

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was pathogenicity evaluation of Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae native isolates, obtained from natural habitats and stocked potato, against potato andean weevil, Premnotrypes vorax (Hustache (COLEOPTERA: Curculionidae, and important potato insect pest in Colombia and other Andean countries. Patogenicity was determined by laboratory bioassays, using either reared insects or field captured insects. Insect rearing data are presented. Pathogenicity evaluation was express as mortality against time, estimating LT50 and LT90 for all the fungal isolates, and mortality against spore concentration, estimating CL50 for two selected isolates. In all cases, total mortality percentils were above 45%. Differences between reared and field captured insects were evident. According to obtained data one of the fungal isolates: B. bassiana 9770, obtained from R vorax larva (TL50: 4.7 days - 9.8 days; TL90: 14.1 days - 20.8 days; CL50:7.03 x 104spores/ml appears as a promisory fungal isolate for further studies. Out of this study, differences in the andean weevil, P. vorax, adult mortality, with regard to entomopathogenic fungal isolate and insect origin were manifest.

  6. Local and neighboring patch conditions alter sex-specific movement in banana weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carval, Dominique; Perrin, Benjamin; Duyck, Pierre-François; Tixier, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying the movements and spread of a species over time and space is a major concern of ecology. Here, we assessed the effects of an individual's sex and the density and sex ratio of conspecifics in the local and neighboring environment on the movement probability of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus. In a "two patches" experiment, we used radiofrequency identification tags to study the C. sordidus movement response to patch conditions. We showed that local and neighboring densities of conspecifics affect the movement rates of individuals but that the density-dependent effect can be either positive or negative depending on the relative densities of conspecifics in local and neighboring patches. We demonstrated that sex ratio also influences the movement of C. sordidus, that is, the weevil exhibits nonfixed sex-biased movement strategies. Sex-biased movement may be the consequence of intrasexual competition for resources (i.e., oviposition sites) in females and for mates in males. We also detected a high individual variability in the propensity to move. Finally, we discuss the role of demographic stochasticity, sex-biased movement, and individual heterogeneity in movement on the colonization process.

  7. [Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationship to dessication and adult mortality]. Half-yearly report, February 15-August 14, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius) were irradiated with cesium-137 derived gamma radiation at various age groups. Hydrocarbon analysis of epicuticles were studied chromatographically and by mass spectroscopy. 3 figs., 4 tabs. (DT)

  8. Systemic Insecticides Reduce Feeding, Survival and Fecundity of Adult Black Vine Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a Variety of Ornamental Nursery Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of bioassays were conducted to test the systemic activity of clothianidin, chlorantraniliprole, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam against adult black vine weevils (Otiorhynchus sulcatus F.) on Taxus, Heuchera, Astilbe, Sedum, Euonymus, and Rhododendron grown in containers. The insecticides wer...

  9. Different bioassays for investigating orientation responses of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, show additive effects of host plant volatiles and a synthetic male-produced aggregation pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Loon, van J.A.; Gold, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    Three different bioassay methods to investigate the orientation behaviour of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to host plant volatiles and a synthetic pheromone (cosmolure+) were compared. A locomotion compensator was used to separately record walking

  10. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carval, Dominique; Resmond, Rémi; Achard, Raphaël; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants" (Carval et al., in press) [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  11. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

    OpenAIRE

    Carval, Dominique; Resmond, Rémi; Achard, Raphaël; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press) [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or...

  12. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Robério C S; Colares, Felipe; Torres, Jorge B; Santos, Roberta L; Bastos, Cristina S

    2014-10-31

    Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation.

  13. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robério C. S. Neves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation.

  14. Classical Biological Control of Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia Crassipes (Liliales: Pomteridiaeae), Using Neochentina Spp, Weevils (Curculionidae), During the Re-Inversion Period in the Lake victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiel, G.R.S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents recent results from an ongoing classical biological control programme for water hyacinth, implemented by Kenya Agricultural Research Institute Under the Lake Environmental Project. After the successful control of the weed, a re-inversion in the lake was experienced in August 2000 in Nyakach Bay. Between november 2000 and June 2001, approximately 5600 adults Neochetina spp. (coleoptera: Curculionidae) weevils, biological control agents for water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes (Liliales: Ponteridaceae) were harvested, from the Kibos rearing facility, Namba-Okana 'field security' and community weevil rearing units. Weevils were released on water hyacinth at thirteen sites in Berkeley, Nyakach, Osodo, Kendu, Homa and Karungu and Muhuru Bays, at Kuja-Migori river tributaries and upstream of Nzoia, Yala and Sondu-Miriu rivers. In general, reproductive and growth potential (number of daughter plants, petiole length and laminar area) and fresh weight of the weed was suppressed. there was a gradual increase in insect population levels (number of weevils plant -1 ) and damage to plants by weevil larvae. there is need to carry out an aerial survey to verify the visual estimates of water hyacinth cover and intensify mass rearing and releases of weevils in hotspot areas and to concentrate releases in riverine systems

  15. Effect of Irrigation on Within-Grove Distribution of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorous ferrugineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aldryhim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The red palm weevil (RPW Rhynchophorous ferrugineus (Oliv. is the most important pest attacking date palm trees. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drip and flood irrigation on the within-grove distribution of RPW. The current study was started with the first appearance of the infestation to almost disappearance of the infestation. Results showed that more infested trees were detected in plots with flood irrigation. The number of infested trees in these plots represented 89% of the total infested trees. This study suggested that irrigation management and soil moisture are key factors in the dispersion of the RPW infestation and could be used as one of the integrated pest management tools.

  16. Cholesterol oxidase interference on the emergence and viability of cotton boll weevil larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Roseane Cavalcanti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the enzyme cholesterol oxidase (Coase on emergence and viability of larvae of the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843. A series of bioassays was performed with eggs and neonate larvae exposed to different enzyme concentrations in artificial diet. Larval survival was affected at all enzyme concentrations tested, and the six-day LD50 was 53 mug/mL (CI 95%: 43-59. Coase also interfered with hatching of larvae after eggs were floated for 15 min in Coase solution at different concentrations. Observations at the light and electronic microscopic level of midguts from larvae fed on artificial diet containing 53 mug/mL of Coase and collected at six days revealed highly vacuolated regions in the epithelial cells as well as partial degradation of the basal membrane and microvilli.

  17. The Reproductive Morphology and Physiological Age Grading of the Female Salvinia Weevil, Calder and Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Eisenberg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of the female Cyrtobagous salviniae Calder and Sands reproductive system is similar to other weevil species being meroistic and telotrophic. The reproductive system is composed of 2 ovaries each containing 2 ovarioles where the follicles mature. A physiological age grading system was developed where the continuum of ovarium development was divided into 2 nulliparous and 3 parous classes. This was based on the differentiation of the ovarioles, presence, and appearance of follicular relics, cuticle hardness/coloration, and fat body quantity/appearance. High correlation occurred between the parous classes and number of eggs produced where the P3 class had over 9-fold higher number of eggs in comparison with the P1 class. Mean number of eggs produced for each parous class was significantly different, however, overlap occurred. Such a system enables a determination of the past, present, and future reproductive status of field populations and mass-rearing colonies.

  18. Potential industrial uses and quality of oil of palm weevil, rhynchophorus phoenicis F. (coleoptera: curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omotoso, O.T.; Adedire, C.O.

    2008-01-01

    The study of the industrial potentials of the palm weevil revealed the water absorption capacity to range from 53.33% in the late larval stage (LLS) to 113.33% in adult stage (ADS) while oil absorption capacity varied from 87.97% in LLS to 121.33% in ADS. The adult had the highest emulsion capacity while none of the samples formed foams. ADS gelled At 4% while LLS and ELS (early larval stage) gelled at 10% and 16%, respectively. The oil had a specific gravity of 0.8742. Iodine and unsaponifiable matter were the highest in ELS, while LLS had the highest saponification value. ADS recorded the highest values for acid, free fatty acid, peroxide, slip point, melting point, softening point, smoke point, flash point and fire point. The anti-nutrient contents were generally low. Phytic acid was the highest in LLS, whereas, ADS had the highest oxalate and tannin contents. (author)

  19. Multiple transgressions of Wallace's Line explain diversity of flightless Trigonopterus weevils on Bali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tänzler, Rene; Toussaint, Emmanuel F A; Suhardjono, Yayuk R; Balke, Michael; Riedel, Alexander

    2014-05-07

    The fauna of Bali, situated immediately west of Wallace's Line, is supposedly of recent Javanese origin and characterized by low levels of endemicity. In flightless Trigonopterus weevils, however, we find 100% endemism for the eight species here reported for Bali. Phylogeographic analyses show extensive in situ differentiation, including a local radiation of five species. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny and ancestral area reconstruction of Indo-Malayan-Melanesian species reveals a complex colonization pattern, where the three Balinese lineages all arrived from the East, i.e. all of them transgressed Wallace's Line. Although East Java possesses a rich fauna of Trigonopterus, no exchange can be observed with Bali. We assert that the biogeographic picture of Bali has been dominated by the influx of mobile organisms from Java, but different relationships may be discovered when flightless invertebrates are studied. Our results highlight the importance of in-depth analyses of spatial patterns of biodiversity.

  20. Ultrastructure Alterations in The Red Palm Weevil Antennal Sensilla Induced By Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, E.A.; Mohamed, H.F.; El-Naggar, S.E.M.

    2011-01-01

    The antennal sensilla of non-irradiated and irradiated male red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.) (Coleoptera: urculionidae), were investigated by using a scanning electron microscope. The antenna is composed of three segments; scape, pedicel and flagellum (funicle, club). Four different sensillar types were distinguished. Also eleven subtypes were distinguished which are: three subtypes of sensilla coeloconica, four subtypes of sensilla trichodea, two subtypes of sensilla basiconica, and two subtypes of sensilla chaetica. The positions of these sensilla on the antenna are discussed. These types are used by insects as mechanoreceptor, chemoreceptor and thermo-hygroreceptor. Differences in lengths and diameters of some types of sensilla were recorded as a result of irradiated male adult with two doses of gamma rays (15 or 20 Gy). In the higher dose (20 Gy), more effects of sensilla were recorded, especially for the sensilla chaetica followed by sensilla coeloconica

  1. Disinfestation of stored rice and corn grains by gamma irradiation. 3. Survival values for irradiated rice weevil and flour beetle and comparison of gamma irradiation and fumigation of weevil infested grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manoto, E.C.; Villarcarlos, L.T.

    1976-02-01

    Survival values for Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum adults were studied using gamma radiation dosage of 25, 50, 100 and 150 krad. Results with the two species seemed similar, although the rice weevil appeared the more sensitive. Rice and corn grains were artificially infested with Sitophilus oryzae and then treated with gamma radiation or fumigation. Both treatment reduced or eliminated adult emergence although fumigation left some insecticidal residues in corn. Sterility in the adult weevils was induced by 15 or 25 krad treatment of gamma radiation. A practical control level for bulk irradiation of rice or corn grains could probably be achieved by a 25 krad treatment although complete disinfestation should be achieved by a 50 krad treatment

  2. Nucleases as a barrier to gene silencing in the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Garcia, Rayssa; Lima Pepino Macedo, Leonardo; Cabral do Nascimento, Danila; Gillet, François-Xavier; Moreira-Pinto, Clidia Eduarda; Faheem, Muhammad; Moreschi Basso, Angelina Maria; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) approaches have been applied as a biotechnological tool for controlling plant insect pests via selective gene down regulation. However, the inefficiency of RNAi mechanism in insects is associated with several barriers, including dsRNA delivery and uptake by the cell, dsRNA interaction with the cellular membrane receptor and dsRNA exposure to insect gut nucleases during feeding. The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is a coleopteran in which RNAi-mediated gene silencing does not function efficiently through dsRNA feeding, and the factors involved in the mechanism remain unknown. Herein, we identified three nucleases in the cotton boll weevil transcriptome denoted AgraNuc1, AgraNuc2, and AgraNuc3, and the influences of these nucleases on the gene silencing of A. grandis chitin synthase II (AgraChSII) were evaluated through oral dsRNA feeding trials. A phylogenetic analysis showed that all three nucleases share high similarity with the DNA/RNA non-specific endonuclease family of other insects. These nucleases were found to be mainly expressed in the posterior midgut region of the insect. Two days after nuclease RNAi-mediated gene silencing, dsRNA degradation by the gut juice was substantially reduced. Notably, after nucleases gene silencing, the orally delivered dsRNA against the AgraChSII gene resulted in improved gene silencing efficiency when compared to the control (non-silenced nucleases). The data presented here demonstrates that A. grandis midgut nucleases are effectively one of the main barriers to dsRNA delivery and emphasize the need to develop novel RNAi delivery strategies focusing on protecting the dsRNA from gut nucleases and enhancing its oral delivery and uptake to crop insect pests.

  3. The pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) and its oil and polyphenolic fractions differentially modulate lipid metabolism and the antioxidant enzyme activities in rats fed high-fat diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Avila, Jesús A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; López-Díaz, José A; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E; Gómez-García, María Del Consuelo; de la Rosa, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Tree nuts such as pecans (Carya illinoinensis) contain mostly oil but are also a source of polyphenols. Nut consumption has been linked to a reduction in serum lipid levels and oxidative stress. These effects have been attributed to the oil while overlooking the potential contribution of the polyphenols. Because the evidence regarding each fraction's bioactivity is scarce, we administered high-fat (HF) diets to male Wistar rats, supplementing them with pecan oil (HF+PO), pecan polyphenols (HF+PP) or whole pecans (HF+WP), and analysed the effects of each fraction. The HF diet increased the serum leptin and total cholesterol (TC) with respect to the control levels. The HF+WP diet prevented hyperleptinemia and decreased the TC compared with the control. The HF+WP diet upregulated the hepatic expression of apolipoprotein B and LDL receptor mRNAs with respect to the HF levels. The HF+PO diet reduced the level of triacylglycerols compared with the control. The HF+PP diet stimulated the hepatic expression of liver X receptor alpha mRNA. The HF+WP diet increased the activities of hepatic catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S transferase compared with the control, and decreased the degree of lipid peroxidation compared with the HF diet. The most bioactive diet was the WP diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Market analysis of food products for detection of allergenic walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calleja, Inés María; de la Cruz, Silvia; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2015-06-15

    Two real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for detection of walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) traces in a wide range of processed foods are described here. The method consists on a real-time PCR assay targeting the ITS1 region, using a nuclease (TaqMan) probe labeled with FAM and BBQ. The method was positive for walnut and pecan respectively, and negative for all other heterologous plants and animals tested. Using a series of model samples with defined raw walnut in wheat flour and heat-treated walnut in wheat flour with a range of concentrations of 0.1-100,000 mg kg(-1), a practical detection limit of 0.1 mg kg(-1) of walnut content was estimated. Identical binary mixtures were done for pecan, reaching the same limit of detection of 0.1 mg kg(-1). The assay was successfully trialed on a total of 232 commercial foodstuffs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemical Characterization and Release of Polyphenols from Pecan Nut Shell [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] in Zein Microparticles for Bioactive Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kureck, Itamara; Policarpi, Priscila de Brito; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Maciel, Matheus Vinícius de Oliveira Brisola; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T; Barreto, Pedro Luiz Manique; Block, Jane Mara

    2018-05-03

    The pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] is a natural source of polyphenols with antioxidant properties. In this study, the encapsulation of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of pecan nut shell were evaluated for the release of bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential in order to explore food applications using zein as encapsulating agent. The extracts showed high contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins and high antioxidant activity. Concentrations of proanthocyanidins were 9-fold higher in hydroalcoholic extracts. The LC-DAD analysis showed that catechins were the major phenolic compounds in samples, with epigallocatechin levels up to 138.62 mg mL -1 . Zein microparticles loaded with aqueous extract released 2.3 times more phenolic compounds than the hydroalcoholic extracts and the DSC thermograms showed that extracts of pecan nut shell remained thermally stable up to 240 °C. The zein microcapsules obtained in this study were efficiently encapsulated and represent an interesting additive due its high antioxidant capacity, physicochemical characteristics and morphology. The use of zein microparticles combined with natural extracts constitute a step forward in the improvement of current technology for delivering phenolic compounds with applications in functional foods and nutraceuticals.

  6. Aqueous extract of pecan nut shell (Carya illinoensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) exerts protection against oxidative damage induced by cyclophosphamide in rat testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvegnu, Dalila M; Barcelos, Raquel C S; Roversi, Katiane; Boufleur, Nardelli; Pase, Camila S; Trevizol, Fabiola; Segat, Hecson J; Dias, Verônica T; Dolci, Geisa S; Antoniazzi, Caren T D; Reckziegel, Patricia; Lima, Fernanda; de Lima, Luiz A R; de Carvalho, Leandro M; da Silva Junior, Valdemiro A; Burger, Marilise E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of pecan nut (Carya illinoensis) shell aqueous extract (AE) on the oxidative and morphological status of rat testis treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Wistar rats received water or AE (5%) ad libitum for 37 days. On day 30, half of each group received a single intraperitoneal administration of vehicle or CP 200 mg/kg. After 7 days, the animals were killed and their testis removed. Rats treated with CP presented reduced levels of lactate dehydrogenase, vitamin C, and gluthatione, as well as decreased catalase activity, increased lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase activity, no alteration in carbonyl protein levels, and a loss of morphological testicular integrity. In contrast, cotreatment with pecan shell AE totally prevented the decrease of lactate dehydrogenase and vitamin C levels and catalase activity and partially prevented the depletion of gluthatione levels. Moreover, it totally prevented the increase in superoxide dismutase activity and lipid peroxidation levels and maintained testicular integrity. These findings show the protective role of pecan shell AE in CP-induced testicular toxicity. The use of this phytotherapy may be considered to minimize deleterious effects related to this chemotherapy.

  7. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoennicke, M.G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L.A.; Rosado-Neto, G.H.

    2010-01-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  8. EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN CONTROLLING OF THE BANANA WEEVIL BORER Cosmopolites sordidus Germar IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsol Hasyim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar, is an important pest of highland banana and plantain in Africa, but it exists in low densities in presumed area of origin in Southeast Asia such as in Indonesia. This suggests a possible existence of effective co-evolved natural enemies in the origin area of Indonesia, especially West Sumatra. The objectives of this study were: (1 to evaluate banana weevil pest status at selected sites in West Sumatra, (2 to survey parasitoids and predators, and (3 to determine the control potential of the most important natural enemies. Surveys were undertaken in March 2002-August 2003 in five locations in West Sumatra, i.e., Bukittinggi, Sitiung, Pariaman, Pasaman, and Batusangkar. Five farms per site were selected randomly among all farms that contained banana stands of > 0.5 ha. Sampling for banana weevil adults and damage, and for predators was done throughout small banana stands and within a 20 m x 40 m (0.08 ha subplot on larger farms. Field-collected larvae were taken to the laboratory and reared on corm pieces (3 cm x 3 cm x 3 cm until pupation. Larvae were collected from pseudostem as well as corm residues. To estimate the abundance of non-social predators, i.e., those other than ants, 10 residues each on each farm were examined from plants that had been harvested 1-4 weeks, 5-8 weeks or 9 or more weeks before our visit to the site. Samples of the different morphospecies were saved in alcohol for later identification. The result showed that the banana weevil incidence was found to be low,  0.6-1.7 adults per trap. Plant damage indices were below 2.2%. We collected and reared 24,360 eggs and 3118 larvae, but no parasitism was detected. Phorids (Megaselia sp. and drosophilids were recovered from larval rearings, but most likely were scavengers. A complex of predators was detected, the most important of which was the histerid beetles,  Plaesius javanus Erichson. In laboratory tests, adults and larvae

  9. A simple method for preparing artificial larval diet of the West Indian sweetpotato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesato, T.; Kohama, T.

    2008-01-01

    The method for preparing ordinary larval artificial diet for Euscepes postfasciatus (old diet) was complicated and time consuming. Some ingredients (casein, saccharose, salt mixture, etc.) of the diet were added to boiled agar solution, others (vitamin mixture, sweetpotato powder, etc.) were added after the solution was cooled to 55degC. To simplify the diet preparation, we combined all ingredients before mixing with water, and then boiled the solution (new diet). There were no significant differences of survival rate (from egg hatching to adult eclosion) and right elytron length between the weevils reared on the old and new diets, but the development period (from egg to adult) of the weevils fed the new diet was significantly (1.3 days) longer than that of those fed the old diet. Preparation time of the new diet was half that of the old diet. These results suggest that simplified diet preparation can be introduced into the mass-rearing of E. postfasciatus

  10. Evaluation of the Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suppression program in the state of Goiás, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, I S; Degrande, P E; Miranda, J E; dos Santos, W J

    2013-02-01

    The boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the most important cotton pest in Brazil. A large-scale field-testing of a Boll Weevil Suppression Program (BWSP) was implemented to assess its technical and operational feasibility for boll weevil suppression in the state of Goiás, Brazil. The pilot plan focused on 3,608 ha of cotton during the 2006/2007 and 6,011 ha in the 2007/2008 growing seasons; the areas were divided into four inner zones with an outer buffer zone. We analyzed data on boll weevil captures using pheromone traps installed in the BWSP fields, on the detection of the first insect and the first damaged floral bud, greatest damage, and number of insecticide applications. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the differences between presuppression and suppression years. Fourteen pheromone-baited trapping evaluations were used to compare the weevil populations from 2006/2007 and 2007/2008 growing seasons. The BWSP regime reduced in-season boll weevil captures from 15- to 500-fold compared to presuppression levels in the preceding year. The low capture rates were related to delays in infestation and damage by weevils. The smaller population size measured by trapping and field monitoring reduced the number of required insecticide treatments. The BWSP strategy was efficient in suppressing populations of this pest and is a viable program for cotton production in subtropical and tropical regions, with long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  11. Effect of Light Availability on the Interaction between Maritime Pine and the Pine Weevil: Light Drives Insect Feeding Behavior But Also the Defensive Capabilities of the Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Suárez-Vidal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Light is a major environmental factor that may determine the interaction between plants and herbivores in several ways, including top-down effects through changes in herbivore behavior and bottom-up effects mediated by alterations of plant physiology. Here we explored the relative contribution of these two regulation processes to the outcome of the interaction of pine trees with a major forest pest, the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis. We studied to what extent light availability influence insect feeding behavior and/or the ability of pines to produce induced defenses in response to herbivory. For this purpose, 3-year old Pinus pinaster plants from three contrasting populations were subjected to 6 days of experimental herbivory by the pine weevil under two levels of light availability (complete darkness or natural sunlight independently applied to the plant and to the insect in a fully factorial design. Light availability strongly affected the pine weevil feeding behavior. The pine weevil fed more and caused larger feeding scars in darkness than under natural sunlight. Besides, under the more intense levels of weevil damage (i.e., those registered with insects in darkness, light availability also affected the pine’s ability to respond to insect feeding by producing induced resin defenses. These results were consistent across the three studied populations despite they differed in weevil susceptibility and inducibility of defenses. Morocco was the most damaged population and the one that induced more defensive compounds. Overall, results indicate that light availability modulates the outcome of the pine–weevil interactions through both bottom-up and top-down regulation mechanisms.

  12. Residues of Malathion and Metabolites in and on the Cotton Leaf vs. Toxicity to the Boll Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.A. Wolfenbarger

    2002-01-01

    Malathion was applied at 12 and 16 oz [A.l.]/a to cotton near Mercedes, TX, in 1995 and sampled on 0, 2, 4 and 6 d posttreatment to determine residues of malathion, malaoxon, and iso-malathion. Residues were then compared to determine toxicity to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman. Residues of malathion comprised 99% of the leaf washes and 100% of the leaf...

  13. Prediction model for cabbage stem weevil ceutorhynchus pallidactylus Mrsh. occurrence on winther rape based on an artificial neural network

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klem, Karel; Spitzer, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2017), s. 302-308 ISSN 1461-9555 R&D Projects: GA MZe QJ1530373 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Brassica napus L * cabbage stem weevil * Ceutorhynchus pallidactylus * model * neural network * oilseed rape * weather conditions Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 1.726, year: 2016

  14. Insecticidal activity of floral, foliar, and root extracts of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) against adult mexican bean weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Weaver; Carl D. Wells; Florence V. Dunkel; Wolfgang Bertsch; Sharlene E. Sing; Shobha Sriharan

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine speed of action and toxicities of extracts of Tagetes minuta L., a source of naturally occurring insecticidal compounds. LC50 values for male and female Mexican bean weevils, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), were determined for floral, foliar, and root extracts of T. minuta. The 24-h LC50 values ranged from 138 μ g/cm2 for males...

  15. Preliminary field studies on the control of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv., using radiosterilized males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahalkar, G.W.; Harwalkar, M.R.; Rananavare, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    Feasibility of using sterile male release method for the control of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrungineus Oliv., a serious pest of coconut and other cultivated palms in India was investigated. A total of over 5000 radiosterilized males were released in an 800 acre coconut plantation near Kayangulam in Kerala. Data on the fertility pattern of native females is presented and the factors affecting the efficacy of sterile male release for control of this insect are discussed. (author)

  16. Receptor chirality and behavioral specificity of the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), for its pheromone, (+)-grandisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J C; Mori, K

    1989-02-01

    Electrophysiological recordings from antennal olfactory receptors and field behavioral experiments showed both male and female boll weevils,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to respond specifically to (+)-grandisol, an enantiomer of compound I of the boll weevil aggregation pheromone. Single-cell recordings revealed antennal olfactory neurons in both male and female weevils keyed to (+)-grandisol. Electroantennograms in response to serial dilutions of the grandisol enaniiomers showed a threshold 100 to 1000 times lower for (+)-grandisol relative to its antipode. In field behavioral experiments, both sexes were significantly more attracted to (+)-grandisol in combination with the three other pheromone components than the combination with (-)-grandisol. When (-)-grandisol was placed with the (+)-enantiomer at equal dosages, a slight although statistically insignificant inhibition occurred. Subsequent field tests showed that the low level of attraction exhibited by (-)-grandisol in combination with the other three pheromone components could be attributed to the other three components alone. These results are in contrast with an earlier study, which found (-)-grandisol to be as attractive as the (+)-enantiomer.

  17. Between-season attraction of cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae adults by its aggregation pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandes Wedson Desidério

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the attractiveness of boll weevil adults by its aggregation pheromone under winter field conditions. Two experimental fields were utilized at "Casa Branca", SP, Brazil. For each one, three areas were established near the refuge vegetation, sparated 500 m from each other. Each area was divided in three sub-areas or blocks of 100 m² to receive pheromone applications (2.5 g per block. In addition to the pre-application counting, five additional evaluations were carried out after the pheromone applicaton. Ten randomized sampling points per block were considered in each evaluation process. A. grandis adults responded immediately to the pheromone applications, and were captured for 14 days . The highest level of attractiveness was observed 24 hours after application. The application of the boll weevil aggregation pheromone during winter could increase the predation by natural enemies, due to the increase of prey availability. Chemical control can be recommended 24 hours after pheromone applications in small plots as a between-season strategy for the suppression of boll weevil adults.

  18. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-03-31

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively.

  19. Use of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIA- NE07 in the control of banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Amador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the species of banana borers, black weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus is the most economically important pest in Costa Rica and worldwide. The control of C. sordidus in intensive production systems is mainly based on application of insecticides; therefore the search for biological alternatives, such as the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, is needed. The susceptibility of Cosmopolites sordidus to Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIANE07 was evaluated. The effect of inoculating H. atacamensis on larvae and adults of C. sordidus, in vitro and in artificially infected corms, was evaluated. Larvae inoculated with EPN had a mortality of 88% on the second day and 100% on the third day; no mortality was observed in adults. The treatments of 100, 500 and 1000 IJ.larvae-1 showed statistically significant differences from the control and theLD50 was 52 IJ.larvae-1. When the larvae were placed within the corms the LD50 increased to 375 IJ.larvae-1. The results indicate that the strain H. atacamensis CIA-NE07 is capable of locating and infecting weevil larvae within the banana corm and reach infection levels over 80%, 10 days after inoculation at doses of 1000 and 2000 IJ.larvae-1. The entomopathogenic nematodes are a viable alternative to be considered in the Integrated Pest Management programs of black weevil, in crops such us banana and plantain.

  20. Irradiation as a potential phytosanitary treatment for the mango pulp weevil sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Philippine sugar mango

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obra, Glenda B.; Resilva, Sotero S.; Lorenzana, Louella Rowena J.

    2013-01-01

    Irradiation was explored as a method of quarantine disinfestation treatment for the mango pulp weevil Sternochetus frigidus (Fabr.) S. frigidus is an important quarantine pest preventing the export of mangoes from the Philippines to countries with strict quarantine regulations. Mangoes obtained from Guimaras Island are exempt from this ban as they are certified to be free from seed weevil and pulp weevil infestation. In the dose-response tests, S. frigidus larvae, pupae and adults in mangoes were irradiated at target doses of 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 300 and 400 Gy. The number of eggs laid by adult females decreased with increasing dose. Treatment with irradiation doses ≥75 Gy resulted in sterility in adults developing from larvae and pupae while doses of ≥100 Gy resulted in sterility in irradiated adults. The adult was the most tolerant stage based on sterility or prevention of adult reproduction. Significant differences were observed in adult longevity among treatment doses in S. frigidus, but none between sexes and in the interaction between dose and sex. (author)

  1. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G.; Diniz, Ivone R.; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L.

    2010-01-01

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  2. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  3. Stable integration and expression of a cry1Ia gene conferring resistance to fall armyworm and boll weevil in cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carliane Rc; Monnerat, Rose; Lima, Liziane M; Martins, Érica S; Melo Filho, Péricles A; Pinheiro, Morganna Pn; Santos, Roseane C

    2016-08-01

    Boll weevil is a serious pest of cotton crop. Effective control involves applications of chemical insecticides, increasing the cost of production and environmental pollution. The current genetically modified Bt crops have allowed great benefits to farmers but show activity limited to lepidopteran pests. This work reports on procedures adopted for integration and expression of a cry transgene conferring resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm by using molecular tools. Four Brazilian cotton cultivars were microinjected with a minimal linear cassette generating 1248 putative lines. Complete gene integration was found in only one line (T0-34) containing one copy of cry1Ia detected by Southern blot. Protein was expressed in high concentration at 45 days after emergence (dae), decreasing by approximately 50% at 90 dae. Toxicity of the cry protein was demonstrated in feeding bioassays revealing 56.7% mortality to boll weevil fed buds and 88.1% mortality to fall armyworm fed leaves. A binding of cry1Ia antibody was found in the midgut of boll weevils fed on T0-34 buds in an immunodetection assay. The gene introduced into plants confers resistance to boll weevil and fall armyworm. Transmission of the transgene occurred normally to T1 progeny. All plants showed phenotypically normal growth, with fertile flowers and abundant seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Alternative food sources and overwintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A; Sujii, Edison R; Diniz, Ivone R; Medeiros, Maria A de; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L; Branco, Marina C; Pires, Carmen S S; Fontes, Eliana M G

    2010-01-01

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae(50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions.

  5. Antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effect of pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shell extract in mice: a possible beneficial use for a by-product of the nut industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisan, Gabriela; Rossato, Mateus F; Hoffmeister, Carin; Müller, Liz G; Pase, Camila; Córdova, Marina M; Rosa, Fernanda; Tonello, Raquel; Hausen, Bruna S; Boligon, Aline A; Moresco, Rafael N; Athayde, Margareth L; Burguer, Marilise E; Santos, Adair R; Ferreira, Juliano

    2014-01-27

    Abstract Background: Interest in pecan (Carya illinoensis) nut shells, a by-product of the nut industry, has increased due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The goal of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and antiedematogenic activity and the mechanisms of the pecan shell aqueous extract (AE). Methods: First, we performed fingerprinting of C. illinoensis AE. The antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects of AE intragastric (i.g.) administration in mice (male Swiss mice 20-30 g) were evaluated using the acetic acid test or after subcutaneous (s.c.) paw injection of diverse transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) agonists, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), allyl isothiocyanate, or cinnamaldehyde. We also observed AE antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects after carrageenan s.c. paw injection and measured H2O2 production. Moreover, we observed the development of adverse effects after AE i.g. treatment. Results: The high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprinting of AE showed the presence of rutin. AE or rutin i.g. treatment produced antinociception in the acetic acid test and reduced the nociception and edema mediated by H2O2 s.c. hind paw injection or nociception induced by other TRPA1 agonists. Moreover, AE or rutin reduced the hyperalgesia, edema, and H2O2 production induced by carrageenan s.c. paw injection. No motor, gastric, or toxicological alterations were observed after AE administration. Conclusions: Collectively, the present results show that AE and its constituent rutin produced antinociceptive and antiedematogenic action in models of acute and persistent inflammatory nociception and it seems to be related to the inhibition of TRPA1 receptor activation.

  6. Absorption of SO/sub 2/ by pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. ) and its effect on net photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sisson, W.B.; Booth, J.A.; Throneberry, G.O.

    1981-06-01

    Absorption rates of SO/sub 2/ by pecan (Carya illinoensis (Wang) K. Koch) leaflets exposed to 2.6, 5.2, and 7.8 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ were measured over a 2 h period. SO/sub 2/ was rapidly absorbed by the leaflets in all treatments during the initial 30-50 min; the rate of uptake decreased to a rather constant level thereafter. Total SO/sub 2/ absorbed during the 2 h period was 15.6, 25.6, and 38.9 nmol cm/sup -2/ for the low, medium, and high SO/sub 2/ concentrations, respectively. Reductions in net photosynthetic rates were proportional to ambient SO/sub 2/ concentrations and total SO/sub 2/ absorbed. Partial photosynthetic recovery occurred in all treatments during a 2 hr post-treatment period and full recovery occurred during a 12 h dark period. Exposure to SO/sub 2/ resulted in slight increases in stomatal and boundary layer resistances to CO/sub 2/ and substantial increases in residual resistances. Absorption rates of SO/sub 2/ by alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) exposed to 5.2 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ for 1 h were approximately double those of pecan exposed to the same ambient SO/sub 2/ concentration. Alfalfa net photosynthetic rates were reduced 74% after 1 h exposure to 5.2 mg SO/sub 2/ m/sup -3/ while a depression of 42% occurred in pecan.

  7. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yussef F.B. Braga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

  8. Identification and field evaluation of attractants for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szendrei, Zsofia; Averill, Anne; Alborn, Hans; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2011-04-01

    Studies were conducted to develop an attractant for the cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus, a pest of blueberry and cranberry flower buds and flowers in the northeastern United States. In previous studies, we showed that cinnamyl alcohol, the most abundant blueberry floral volatile, and the green leaf volatiles (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, emitted from both flowers and flower buds, elicit strong antennal responses from A. musculus. Here, we found that cinnamyl alcohol did not increase capture of A. musculus adults on yellow sticky traps compared with unbaited controls; however, weevils were highly attracted to traps baited with the Anthonomus eugenii Cano aggregation pheromone, indicating that these congeners share common pheromone components. To identify the A. musculus aggregation pheromone, headspace volatiles were collected from adults feeding on blueberry or cranberry flower buds and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Three male-specific compounds were identified: (Z)-2-(3,3-dimethyl-cyclohexylidene) ethanol (Z grandlure II); (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure III); and (E)-(3,3- dimethylcyclohexylidene) acetaldehyde (grandlure IV). A fourth component, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-ol (geraniol), was emitted in similar quantities by males and females. The emission rates of these volatiles were about 2.8, 1.8, 1.3, and 0.9 ng/adult/d, respectively. Field experiments in highbush blueberry (New Jersey) and cranberry (Massachusetts) examined the attraction of A. musculus to traps baited with the male-produced compounds and geraniol presented alone and combined with (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate, and to traps baited with the pheromones of A. eugenii and A. grandis. In both states and crops, traps baited with the A. musculus male-produced compounds attracted the highest number of adults. Addition of the green leaf volatiles did not affect A. musculus attraction to its pheromone but skewed the sex ratio

  9. Components and Insecticidal Activity against the Maize Weevils of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Fruits and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, Zanthoxylum schinifolium essential oils were found to possess strong insecticidal activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium fruits and leaves were extracted via hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. Estragole (69.52% was the major compound of the essential oil of fresh fruits, followed by linalool (8.63% and limonene (4.34% and 94.33% of the total components were monoterpenoids. The main components of the essential oil of fresh leaves were linalool (12.94%, ar-tumerone (8.95%, limonene (6.45% and elixene (5.43% and only 50.62% were monoterpenoids. However, the essential oil from purchased fruits contained linalool (33.42%, limonene (13.66% and sabinene (5.72%, followed by estragole (4.67%, nerol (4.56% and 4-terpineol (4.27%. Estragole, linalool and sabinene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. The essential oil from the fresh fruits (LD50 = 15.93 μg/adult possessed two times more toxicity to the insects compared with that of fresh leaves (LD50 = 35.31 μg/adult. Estragole, linalool and sabinene exhibited contact activity against S. zeamais with LD50 values of 17.63, 13.90 and 23.98 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LC50 values of 13.19 mg/L (fresh fruits, 24.04 mg/L (fresh leaves and 17.63 mg/L (purchased fruits. Estragole, linalool and sabinene also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 14.10, 10.46 and 9.12 mg/L, respectively.

  10. Ethnobotanicals for Storage Pest Management: Effect of powdered leaves of Olax zeylanica in suppressing infestations of rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachini Dinusha Fernando

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae is considered the major problem in stored rice in Sri Lanka. Due to the adverse effects of pesticide usage, research on the re-evaluation and use of many ethnobotanicals as alternative storage pest control agents has been intensified. Although plant materials with insecticidal properties provide small-scale farmers with a locally available, eco-friendly and inexpensive method of control of storage insect pests, lack of understanding and knowledge prevent their widespread application. The present study was therefore undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of the botanical Olax zeylanica in controlling infestations of the rice weevil with the view of fulfilling this lack. In two separate bioassays, contact/feeding and fumigant toxicity of powdered leaves of O. zeylanica were tested against 1-7 days old adults under laboratory conditions. All experiments were conducted using a no-choice bioassay apparatus. Contact/feeding toxicity was tested by directly exposing weevils to 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 7.5g of leaf powder mixed with 100g of rice grains while fumigant toxicity was evaluated by using the same doses where weevils were exposed to fumes emitted from the leaf powders. In both bioassays 100% mortality of the weevils was observed within 18 hours of exposure to 3.0, 5.0 and 7.5g doses of leaf powder. Percentage weevil mortality in treated rice tested with three doses of leaf powder at all the time intervals (except for 1.0g was significantly higher (p < 0.05 than that of the corresponding control. No Contact/feeding toxicity was recorded when weevils were directly exposed to 1.0g leaf powder whereas only 14% weevil mortality was observed even after 24hours of exposure to fumes of leaf powder. Results also revealed that weevil mortality increased both with increasing dose and time of exposure. It is of interest to note that in both bioassays a 100% weevil mortality was obtained after 18 hours of exposure to

  11. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily D. Fountain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk, which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1 these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2 the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3 the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units.

  12. Morphometric assessment of the red stripe weevils, Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) from several localities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazali, Siti Nurlydia; Hazmi, Izfa Riza; Rahim, Faszly; Abang, Fatimah; Jemain, Abdul Aziz

    2018-04-01

    The recognition of intraspecific variation could enhance knowledge and understanding on the population divergence that might be resulted from different geographical areas. To study the possible effect derived from different locations, a morphometric study of the red stripe weevils, Rhynchophorus vulneratus from different localities in Malaysia was conducted using field and voucher specimens. A total of twenty-three morphological characters were examined from 108 individuals of R. vulneratus representing population of Kota Samarahan, Mukah and central of Peninsular Malaysia. The data were subjected to univariate one-way single factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysed in factor analysis using SPSS version 22.0 software. Univariate ANOVA showed that all tested variables were significantly different (panalysis, the first three factors with eigenvalues greater than 1.0 were successfully extracted, resulting in a high variation of 82.687%. For factor 1, 39.213% of total variation was recorded, factor 2 accounted for 34.096% and factor 3 contributing to 9.377%, respectively. The mixed plotting among the twenty-three morphological characters suggests a strong correlation among the parameters examined and further statistical analysis should be conducted to include environmental factors such as habitat types, food availability and predation effect.

  13. Efficiency of inert mineral dusts in the control of corn weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Jairoce

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Corn weevil (Sitophilus zeamais may cause great losses in the crop and in stored corn grains. This insect is controlled with the use of chemical insecticides, which may cause serious damage to human health. One alternative of control is the use of inert dusts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of inert dusts in the control of S. zeamais under laboratory conditions. The experiment was conducted in 2014, in a completely randomized design, and the treatments consisted of basalt dust with three different granulometries (A, B and C and diatomaceous earth, each of which at the doses of 2 and 4 kg t-1 and a control (no application. Each treatment had four replicates, and the sample unit consisted of 20 g of corn grains infected with 10 adults of S. zeamais kept in temperature-controlled chamber at 25 °C, 70% RH and photophase of 12 h. The dust efficiency was calculated using the equation of Abbott. The mortality rate was higher with the use of diatomaceous earth, reaching 100% after 5 days of exposure and the percentage of control for basalt dusts, 29 days after treatment, was above 80%.

  14. Isolation and characterization of farnesyl diphosphate synthase from the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taban, A Huma; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J; Welch, William H

    2009-06-01

    Farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) catalyzes the consecutive condensation of two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate with dimethylallyl diphosphate to form farnesyl diphosphate (FPP). In insects, FPP is used for the synthesis of ubiquinones, dolicols, protein prenyl groups, and juvenile hormone. A full-length cDNA of FPPS was cloned from the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (AgFPPS). AgFPPS cDNA consists of 1,835 nucleotides and encodes a protein of 438 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence has high similarity to previously isolated insect FPPSs and other known FPPSs. Recombinant AgFPPS expressed in E. coli converted labeled isopentenyl diphosphate in the presence of dimethylallyl diphosphate to FPP. Southern blot analysis indicated the presence of a single copy gene. Using molecular modeling, the three-dimensional structure of coleopteran FPPS was determined and compared to the X-ray crystal structure of avian FPPS. The alpha-helical fold is conserved in AgFPPS and the size of the active site cavity is consistent with the enzyme being a FPPS. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Does cypermethrin affect enzyme activity, respiration rate and walking behavior of the maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais)?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ronnie Von Santos Veloso; Eliseu José G.Pereira; Raul Narciso C.Guedes; Maria Goreti A.Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Insecticides cause a range of sub-lethal effects on targeted insects,which are frequently detrimental to them.However,targeted insects are able to cope with insecticides within sub-lethal ranges,which vary with their susceptibility.Here we assessed the response of three strains of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) to sub-lethal exposure to the pyrethoid insecticide cypermethrin.We expected enzyme induction associated with cypermethrin resistance since it would aid the resistant insects in surviving such exposure.Lower respiration rate and lower activity were also expected in insecticide-resistant insects since these traits are also likely to favor survivorship under insecticide exposure.Curiously though,cypermethrin did not affect activity of digestive and energy metabolism enzymes,and even reduced the activity of some enzymes (particularly for cellulase and cysteine-proteinase activity in this case).There was strain variation in response,which may be (partially) related to insecticide resistance in some strains.Sub-lethal exposure to cypermethrin depressed proteolytic and mainly cellulolytic activity in the exposed insects,which is likely to impair their fitness.However,such exposure did not affect respiration rate and walking behavior of the insects (except for the susceptible strain where walking activity was reduced).Walking activity varies with strain and may minimize insecticide exposure,which should be a concern,particularly if associated with (physiological) insecticide resistance.

  16. Effects of gamma radiation on the kola nut weevil, Balanogastris kolae (Desbr. ) (Coleopera: Curculionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivbijaro, M F [Ibadan Univ. (Nigeria)

    1977-09-01

    Studies on the kola nut weevil, Balanogastris kolae (Desbr.) with gamma radiation showed that 20 krad effectively caused high larval mortality and prevented pupation. Dead larvae became soft and bluishblack and, occasionally, dry and brown. Percentage adult emergence from irradiated pupae, longevity and fecundity of emerging adults provided the basis for evaluating the effectiveness of the ionizing radiation. Mean survival and adult emergence from young pupae irradiated with 20 krad was 6 and 2 percent, respectively, in contrast to 86 and 8 percent, respectively, in old pupae given the same dosage. Old pupae (3-5 days old) showed some tolerance to gamma radiation and over 20 krad was required to prevent adult emergence. Gamma radiation seriously reduced longevity to an average of 6 and 15 days, respectively, in pre- and post-emergence irradiated adults in contrast to 44 days in the control. Distortion of the membranous hind wings were some of the adverse effects observed in adults that emerged from irradiated pupae. Reproduction and oviposition was seriously impaired by irradiation before or immediately after emergence. The opinion of a panel of experienced kola nut testers was that gamma irradiation did not alter the taste or flavour of the kola nuts and no change was observed in the colour or texture of the irradiated nuts.

  17. Blueberry Cultivars Differ in Susceptibility to the Elephant Weevil, Orthorhinus cylindrirostris (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Gregory; Clift, Alan D; Mansfield, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    The accumulated damage from elephant weevil larvae, Orthorhinus cylindrirostris (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces blueberry yield and shortens the productive lifespan of blueberry plants by several years. Selective breeding to develop pest-resistant blueberry cultivars is a possible control option, but the relationship between O. cylindrirostris populations, plant damage, and blueberry yield has not been described. A field survey of 17 blueberry cultivars was conducted on a commercial farm to measure O. cylindrirostris populations (emergence holes and adult numbers) and yield from plants of different ages (2-12 yr). Blueberry plants accumulated damage over time, that is, older plants tended to have more O. cylindrirostris emergence holes than younger plants. All cultivars received some level of O. cylindrirostris attack but this did not always lead to yield losses. Newer cultivars that have been in production since 2000 were less susceptible to O. cylindrirostris than older cultivars. Removal of highly susceptible cultivars from commercial blueberry farms may reduce O. cylindrirostris populations. There is potential for selective breeding to increase plant resistance to O. cylindrirostris if the specific resistance mechanisms can be identified in blueberry. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cryptic iridescence in a fossil weevil generated by single diamond photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria E; Saranathan, Vinod; Locatelli, Emma R; Noh, Heeso; Briggs, Derek E G; Orr, Patrick J; Cao, Hui

    2014-11-06

    Nature's most spectacular colours originate in integumentary tissue architectures that scatter light via nanoscale modulations of the refractive index. The most intricate biophotonic nanostructures are three-dimensional crystals with opal, single diamond or single gyroid lattices. Despite intense interest in their optical and structural properties, the evolution of such nanostructures is poorly understood, due in part to a lack of data from the fossil record. Here, we report preservation of single diamond (Fd-3m) three-dimensional photonic crystals in scales of a 735,000 year old specimen of the brown Nearctic weevil Hypera diversipunctata from Gold Run, Canada, and in extant conspecifics. The preserved red to green structural colours exhibit near-field brilliancy yet are inconspicuous from afar; they most likely had cryptic functions in substrate matching. The discovery of pristine fossil examples indicates that the fossil record is likely to yield further data on the evolution of three-dimensional photonic nanostructures and their biological functions. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Wood digestion in Pselactus spadix Herbst--a weevil attacking marine timber structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oevering, Pascal; Pitman, Andrew J; Pandey, Krishna K

    2003-04-01

    Pselactus spadix tunnels timber structures in the marine environment. Recent studies reported a cosmopolitan distribution for this weevil, which is frequently found in harbour and port areas. P. spadix feeds on timber (hardwood and softwood) in immature and adult life stages, but its digestion of wood components had not been investigated. Using dry weight analyses of tunnel walls and frass produced, P. spadix adults consumed Scots pine with soft rot decay at a rate of 1.59 +/- 0.37 mg d-1 and the digestibility of this substrate was 57.96 +/- 5.89 (i.e. for 100 mg consumed SR-pine, 58 mg was digested). Using gravimetric analysis to quantify structural wood components in tunnel walls and frass, P. spadix adults were found to digest cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose with digestibility coefficients of 82.2, 41.2 and 14.5 respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses of tunnel walls and frass of adults and larvae from soft rotted pine also indicated digestion of all structural components, with larvae digesting cellulose and lignin more efficiently than adults. When FTIR was employed to analyse adult tunnel walls and frass from undecayed pine, cellulose and hemicellulose were digested, but no evidence of lignin digestion was found. This study shows that adults digest lignin when soft rot is present and suggests a symbiotic function of wood degrading microorganisms.

  20. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.

  1. Data on the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and of the earwig Euborellia caraibea in bare soil and cover crop plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Carval

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Cover cropping reduces the abundance of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus but does not reduce its damage to the banana plants” (Carval et al., in press [1]. This article describes how the abundance of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, and the abundance of the earwig Euborellia caraibea were affected by the addition of a cover crop. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  2. Effects of Storage and Granary Weevil Infestation on Gel Electrophoresis and Protein Solubility Properties of Hard and Soft Wheat Flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Sule; Yalçin, Erkan; Özkaya, Hazim

    2018-02-24

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of storage and granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.; Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on pH, protein solubility (PS) and gel electrophoresis properties of meal and roller-milled flours of hard (Ceyhan-99 cv.) and soft (Eser cv.) wheat cultivars, respectively, after 6 mo of storage. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) technique was applied for studying the electrophoretic properties. Hard and soft wheats were infested with non-sexed S. granarius at a rate of two adults/ kg, and stored for 6 mo at 30 ± 1°C and 70 ± 5% RH. The pest-free wheat samples were used as control. The infested and its control samples were collected monthly, and after cleaning the granary weevils, they were hammer-milled or roller-milled in order to get meal flours and roller-milled flours, respectively. The effect of infestation on the storage proteins was more obvious in meal flours than that of the roller-milled flours. Granary weevil feeding resulted secreting of hydrolyzing enzymes and increased the acidity of flours; subsequently the breaking and releasing of some storage proteins generally caused a decrease in pH and an increase in PS values of the meal flours of wheat cultivars. SDS-PAGE results generally indicated that towards the end of storage, the insect population, that greatly increased, caused minor protein depletions resulting decreasing protein band intensities between 113 and 58 kDa of hard wheat meal flour and 101 and 40 kDa of soft wheat roller-milled flour. Consequently, the potential effect of changes probably occurred in high molecular weight glutenin subunits of both wheat cultivars.

  3. Semiochemicals from herbivory induced cotton plants enhance the foraging behavior of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Sujii, E R; Mayon, P; Caulfield, J C; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2012-12-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been monitored through deployment of traps baited with aggregation pheromone components. However, field studies have shown that the number of insects caught in these traps is significantly reduced during cotton squaring, suggesting that volatiles produced by plants at this phenological stage may be involved in attraction. Here, we evaluated the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by undamaged or damaged cotton plants at different phenological stages, under different infestation conditions, and determined the attractiveness of these VOCs to adults of A. grandis. In addition, we investigated whether or not VOCs released by cotton plants enhanced the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone emitted by male boll weevils. Behavioral responses of A. grandis to VOCs from conspecific-damaged, heterospecific-damaged (Spodoptera frugiperda and Euschistus heros) and undamaged cotton plants, at different phenological stages, were assessed in Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that volatiles emitted from reproductive cotton plants damaged by conspecifics were attractive to adults boll weevils, whereas volatiles induced by heterospecific herbivores were not as attractive. Additionally, addition of boll weevil-induced volatiles from reproductive cotton plants to aggregation pheromone gave increased attraction, relative to the pheromone alone. The VOC profiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged cotton plants, in both phenological stages, were not different. Chemical analysis showed that cotton plants produced qualitatively similar volatile profiles regardless of damage type, but the quantities produced differed according to the plant's phenological stage and the herbivore species. Notably, vegetative cotton plants released higher amounts of VOCs compared to reproductive plants. At both stages, the highest rate of VOC release was observed in A. grandis-damaged plants. Results show that A. grandis uses

  4. ECOLOGICAL-FAUNISTIC AND ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF BEETLE-WEEVILS OF ISLAND CHECHEN OF THE CASPIAN SEA

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    Y. G. Arsanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Ecological-faunistic investigations of island Chechen are great interest for understanding the law of formation of island biotas and reconstruction of zoogeological history of the Caspian Sea. Faunistic investigations of islands and coastal areas , habitats and others chorologic aspects illuminate the ways of their probable settlement,explains the paradoxes of propagation of some species. Study of relationships with host plants appear the crucial stage of ecological-faunistic investigathions of the weevils.Location. Materials of the work were expeditionary duties of the authors, as well as staff and the students of ecologo-geografical faculty of Dagistan State University and the Institute for Applied Ecology ( Makhachkala from 2009 to 2013 year for the island Chechen.Methods. Charges were made with the help of light traps, soil traps, including trap, enhanced light source .Geografpical coordinates of all locations were recorded using GPS- navigator: T1 - 43°57’58” N 47°38’35” E; T2 - 43°58’17” N 47°42’55”; T3 - 43°59’08” N 47°44’39” E; T4 - 43°57’27” N 47°45’05” E; T5 - 43°58’11” N47°38’46” E.Results. As a result of studies were set the species composition of the faun of the beetle-weevils of the island Chechen, the analyses of the distribution of species by locality; mounted forage plants of the beetles and quantitative distribution of the beetls for families forage plants; conduct the zoogeographical analysis of studied fauna.Main conclusions. The studies on the island of Chechen were collected 187 specimens belonging to 16 species and 14 geniuse; the most common type was Coniatus splendidulus. The food base of the weevil beetles in the island of Chechen are 10 plant families,thelargest number of species focused on Chenopodiаceae, then followed Polygonaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae. Analysis of fauna habitats of the beetle- weevils of the island Chechen allowed to allocate 7

  5. SPECIES COMPOSITION AND ECOLOGICAL-ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL ANALYSIS OF THE WEEVILS (CURCULIONIDAE IN THE INNER-MOUNTAINOUS DAGESTAN

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    Gul'nara Magomedovna Mukhtarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of this research study is to determine the species composition of the study area, ecological and zoogeographical analysis, identification of trophic specialization, showing the dependence of the weevils to certain life forms of plants. Location. The work is based on observations and contributions received as a result of complex expeditions Ecological-geographical faculty of the Dagestan State University and the Institute of Applied Ecology in the territory of Inner Mountainous Dagestan.Methods. Materials presented of collection: of assistant professor of the Department Biology and Biodiversity Dagestan State University - Gul'nara Mukhtarova (Magomedova 1995 – 2002; of professor of the Department Biology and Biodiversity Dagestan State University - Madina Ismailova 1990, 1992, 1995 – 2002; of professor of the Department Biology and Biodiversity Dagestan State University - Gaiirbeg Abdurakhmanov 1985, 1986, 1987, 1996 – 2002. Analysis ranges of species of the studied fauna carried out using the classical works on zoogeography.Results. As a result of faunal studies for the study area recorded 415 species of the weevils. Conducted research and analysis of published data identified food connections for 94 % species of the fauna of weevils in the study area. Zoogeographical analysis of the faunal showed that the Palaearctic complex are most numerous and presented by 109 species (26%, the Caucasian complex – 83 (20%, the Steppe complex – 47 (11.3%, the European complex – 36 (8,67%, the Euro-Mediterranean complex – 30, the Turan complex – 28, the European-Siberian complex – 28, the Eastern Mediterranean complex 19, the Mediterranean complex – 17 (4.1%, the Persian complex – 10, the Holarctic complex – 5, the Cosmopolitan complex – 2, and the Paleotropics complex – 1. Main conclusions. Analysis of the findings shows a great similarity in the composition of the forage base of weevils for the different areas

  6. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  7. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmino, Alexandre Augusto Pereira; Fonseca, Fernando Campos de Assis; de Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Coelho, Roberta Ramos; Antonino de Souza, José Dijair; Togawa, Roberto Coiti; Silva-Junior, Orzenil Bonfim; Pappas, Georgios Joannis; da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Engler, Gilbert; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi) as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  8. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T 0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2 -ΔΔCt analyses revealed that T 0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T 0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g -1 fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T 0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T 1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g -1 fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Evaluation of toxicity of biorational insecticides against larvae of the alfalfa weevil

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    Gadi V.P. Reddy

    Full Text Available The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is a major pest of alfalfa Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae. While H. postica usually causes the most damage before the first cutting, in summer of 2015 damaging levels of the pest persisted in Montana well after the first harvest of alfalfa. Although conventional insecticides can control H. postica, these chemicals have adverse effects on non-target organisms including pollinators and natural enemy insects. In this context, use of biorational insecticides would be the best alternative options, as they are known to pose less risk to non-target organisms. We therefore examined the six commercially available biorational insecticides against H. postica under laboratory condition: Mycotrol® ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA, Aza-Direct® (Azadirachtin, Met52® EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Xpectro OD® (B. bassiana GHA + pyrethrins, Xpulse OD® (B. bassiana GHA + Azadirachtin and Entrust WP® (spinosad 80%. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lowest labelled rates were tested for all products. However, in the case of Entrust WP, additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 times the lowest label rate were also assessed. Mortality rates were determined at 1–9 days post treatment. Based on lethal concentrations and relative potencies, this study clearly showed that Entrust was the most effective, causing 100% mortality within 3 days after treatment among all the tested materials. With regard to other biorational, Xpectro was the second most effective insecticide followed by Xpulse, Aza-Direct, Met52, and Mycotrol. Our results strongly suggested that these biorational insecticides could potentially be applied for H. postica control. Keywords: Low risk insecticides, Insect pathogenic fungi, Efficacy, Lethal concentration, Mortality rate

  10. Effects of gamma irradiation on some major elements and mating competitiveness of the red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus (OLIVIER), Coleoptera : Curculionidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, H.F.; EL-Naggar, S.M.; EL-Kkoly, E.M.S.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, effects of three gamma doses (5, 10 and 15 Gray) applied to adult male and female weevils of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), were investigated. The concentration levels of sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorous were determined in the haemolymph treated and untreated F1 progeny (males or females) at the 4th instar larvae descendants from irradiated parents male and female weevils. Results indicated that gamma irradiation might have an effect on most investigated elements. No clear relationship could be detected among the applied doses and effect on the level of any of the studied elements. Male mating competitiveness was determined from the egg infertility resulting from F1 males originating from irradiated parental male weevils confined in various ratios with unirradiated adults. Studies comparing mating performance of irradiated males with that of normal males revealed that the mating competitiveness of the irradiated males was increased as the ratio of irradiated to unirradiated males increased from 1 : 1 to 3 : 1 , except at the lesser dose 5 Gy .The results also showed that the infertility was increased as the ratios increased except at the dose rate 10 Gy . The irradiated males were not fully competitive with normal males at the dose 5 Gy among the two ratios 1 : 1 and 3 : 1 and also among the ratio 1:1 at the doses 10 and 15 Gy. The irradiated males were fully competitive with normal males at the doses 10 and 15 Gy among the ratio 3 : 1

  11. Effects of insecticides and defoliants applied alone and in combination for control of overwintering boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis; Coleoptera: Curculionidae)--laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Shoil M; Sappington, Thomas W; Elzen, Gary W; Norman, John W; Sparks, Alton N

    2004-09-01

    In laboratory, greenhouse and field tests, we determined the effects of combining full rates of the defoliants tribufos and thidiazuron and the herbicide thifensulfuron-methyl with half rates of the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin or azinphos-methyl, and the combination of tribufos and thidiazuron, both in half rates, on mortality of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and on the quality of defoliation. Tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) and tribufos, 0.235 kg ha(-1) + thidiazuron, 0.125 kg ha(-1) exhibited a slightly toxic effect to boll weevil, while tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) + lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.019 kg ha(-1), tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) + azinphos-methyl, 0.14 kg ha(-1), and tribufos, 0.235 kg ha(-1) + thidiazuron, 0.125 kg ha(-1) + azinphos-methyl, 0.14 kg ha(-l), provided control of boll weevil as good as or better than full-rate azinphos-methyl or lambda-cyhalothrin alone owing to synergistic effects. Thidiazuron or thifensulfuron-methyl alone or in combination with insecticides did not affect boll weevil mortality. Treatment with tribufos + thidiazuron, both at half rate, significantly increased defoliation compared to full rates of tribufos or thidiazuron alone, and provided adequate defoliation for approximately the same cost per hectare.

  12. Employing in vitro directed molecular evolution for the selection of α-amylase variant inhibitors with activity toward cotton boll weevil enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Maria Cristina Mattar; Del Sarto, Rafael Perseghini; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Rigden, Daniel John; Teixeira, Fabíola Rodrigues; Bezerra, Caroline de Andrade; Albuquerque, Erika Valéria Saliba; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-09-20

    Numerous species of insect pests attack cotton plants, out of which the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main insect in Brazil and must be controlled to avert large economic losses. Like other insect pests, A. grandis secretes a high level of α-amylases in the midgut lumen, which are required for digestion of carbohydrates. Thus, α-amylase inhibitors (α-AIs) represent a powerful tool to apply in the control of insect pests. Here, we applied DNA shuffling and phage display techniques and obtained a combinatorial library containing 10⁸ α-AI variant forms. From this library, variants were selected exhibiting in vitro affinity for cotton boll weevil α-amylases. Twenty-six variant sequences were cloned into plant expression vectors and expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana. Transformed plant extracts were assayed in vitro to select specific and potent α-amylase inhibitors against boll weevil amylases. While the wild type inhibitors, used to create the shuffled library, did not inhibit the A. grandis α-amylases, three α-AI mutants, named α-AIC3, α-AIA11 and α-AIG4 revealed high inhibitory activities against A. grandis α-amylases in an in vitro assay. In summary, data reported here shown the potential biotechnology of new α-AI variant genes for cotton boll weevil control. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) populations and crop damage in farmers' fields in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.; Okech, S.H.O.

    2005-01-01

    An on-farm study of the effect of crop sanitation on the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and corm damage was conducted through farmer participatory trials in Ntungamo district, Uganda. Farmers practiced sanitation levels that were broadly defined as low, moderate and high,

  14. New records of Paracrias Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae as parasitoids on weevil larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in Brazil, with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Palmieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paracrias strii Schauff, 1985 and P. ceratophaga Palmieri & Hansson sp. nov. are first record in Brazil and both are associated with Ceratopus Schoenherr larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae reared from syconia of two species of fig-trees. Both Paracrias species are diagnosed and illustrated. Males of P. ceratophaga sp. nov. are described. The association of Paracrias with weevil larvae is briefly discussed.

  15. Composition and seasonal phenology of a nonindigenous root-feeding weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex in northern hardwood forests in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Pinski; W. J. Mattson; K. F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    Phyllobius oblongus (L.), Polydrusus sericeus (Schaller), and Sciaphilus asperatus (Bonsdorff) comprise a complex of nonindigenous root-feeding weevils in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Little is known about their detailed biology, seasonality, relative abundance, and distribution patterns....

  16. Loss of phytotelmata due to an invasive bromeliad-eating weevil and its potential effects on faunal diversity and biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Teresa M.; Frank, J. Howard; Cave, Ronald D.

    2014-01-01

    Epiphytic tank bromeliads are important ecosystem engineers because they form phytotelmata that create habitat, increase species richness and abundance, create water sources and nutrient reservoirs in the canopy, and collect and redirect nutrients in forest ecosystems. Native bromeliad populations have been devastated in Florida (USA) because an invasive bromeliad-eating weevil (Metamasius callizona) has been destroying the plants. Tillandsia utriculata is a tank bromeliad that was once widespread from central to south Florida. Its populations have been hit hard by the weevil and are declining rapidly. This study quantifies the mortality rate caused by the weevil in a population of T. utriculata at the Enchanted Forest Sanctuary in central Florida and estimates the associated loss of phytotelmata. Estimations of phytotelmata were calculated for the T. utriculata baseline population, the population at 6 months into the study when 87% of the population was destroyed, and at the end of the study when less than 3% of the bromeliad population remained (99% of all deaths were caused by the weevil). The baseline population contained 16,758 L of water. At six months, there were 3180 L, and at the end of the study, there were 408 L. The loss of phytotelmata results in the loss of habitat, a decrease in biological diversity, and altered water and nutrient cycles and availability.

  17. Community structure and floristic composition of Quercus fusiformis and Carya illinoinensis forests of the Northeastern Coastal Plain, Coahuila, Mexico Estructura y composición florística de los bosques de Quercus fusiformis y Carya illinoinensis de la planicie costera del noreste, Coahuila, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Encina-Domínguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe community structure and richness in oak and walnut forests occurring along the San Rodrigo, San Diego, Escondido and Arroyo de las Vacas rivers on the Northeastern Coastal Plain (NE Coahuila, Mexico, we established 30 1 000-m² circular plots, where we measured diameter at breast height (DBH and tree heights. Tree regeneration and herb and shrub stratum were assessed in 5 2-m² quadrats per site. A total of 48 species distributed in 29 families were recorded. Families with the largest richness were Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Malvaceae. For the oak forest, tree stratum density and basal area values were 386 stems/ha and 24.36 m²/ha, respectively, whereas for the walnut forest the corresponding values were 302 stems/ha and 21.26 m²/ha. The species with the highest relative importance values were Quercus fusiformis (59.48% and Carya illinoinensis (57.58%. Total tree richness was 14 species, the most common ones being Celtis reticulata and Diospyros texana, followed closely by C. illinoinensis and Q. fusiformis. Anthropogenic impact appears to result in a poor regeneration reflected as a low sapling density, as well as in the reduction and fragmentation of these communities; in turn, this process has led to intrusions of species typical of the xerophytic Tamaulipan Thorn Scrub. Further studies are needed on the regeneration of the dominant species of these forests in order to describe their dynamics and to promote their preservation.Con la finalidad de conocer la estructura y la composición florística de los bosques de encino y nogal situados a lo largo de los ríos San Rodrigo, San Diego, Escondido y Arroyo de las Vacas en la planicie costera nororiental (NE de Coahuila, México, se establecieron 30 parcelas circulares de 1 000 m² en las que se midió el DAP y la altura de las especies arbóreas; además, se evaluó la regeneración de las especies arbóreas y el estrato herbáceo y arbustivo en 5 cuadros de 2 m² por sitio

  18. The influence of irradiated wheat on longevity and reproduction of the grain weevil sitophilus granarius LINNE 1758

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, V.; Wiendl, F.M.; Franco, S.S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of the present research was to determine the influence of gamma irradiations on wheat, the diet of the grain weevil, using as parameters of the longevity and reproduction of this insect. The doses of 60 Co γ-rays applied to wheat grains were 0(control), 125, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Gy, at a dose rate of 3000 Gy per hour. The longevity, expressed as life-expectancy in days, and the reproduction expressed as the number of F 1 adults, showed no differences up to the dose of 2000 Gy. The wheat irradiated with the dose of 4000 Gy induced a lower life-expectancy of the insects fed with irradiated wheat and a smaller number of insects of the F 1 generation

  19. Activity of a Brazilian strain of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis against the cotton Boll Weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnerat, R; Martins, E; Praça, L; Dumas, V; Berry, C

    2012-02-01

    A Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis, toxic to Diptera, including mosquitoes, was found also to show toxicity to the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman at an equivalent level to that of the standard coleopteran-active B. thuringiensis subspecies tenebrionis T08017. Recombinant B. thuringiensis strains expressing the individual Cyt1Aa, Cry4Aa, Cry4Ba and Cry11Aa toxins from this strain were assessed to evaluate their potential contribution to the activity against A. grandis, either alone or in combination. Whilst individual toxins produced mortality, none was sufficiently potent to allow calculation of LC50 values. Combinations of toxins were unable to attain the same potency as the parental B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis, suggesting a major role for other factors produced by this strain.

  20. Orientation of boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to pheromone and volatile host compound in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J C

    1986-01-01

    Behavioral responses of male and female boll weevils to the aggregation pheromone, grandlure, and the major volatile of cotton, β-bisabolol, were investigated using a new dual-choice olfactometer. Dosage-response experiments revealed both males and females to be attracted by the aggregation pheromone at the 1.0 μg dosage. However, only males were attracted to β-bisabolol (1.0 μg). Both sexes were repelled by the highest dosage ofβ-bisabolol tested (10 μg). In preference experiment, males chose grandlure over β-bisabolol, while both sexes chose the combination of grandlure + β-bisabolol over β-bisabolol alone. There was some evidence for synergism between pheromone and plant odor for the females. The results correlate well with previous electrophysiological and behavioral experiments.

  1. Translocation of radiocesium released by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in Japanese chestnut and chestnut weevil larvae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yoshito; Ishii, Yasuo; Abe, Hironobu; Mitachi, Katsuaki; Watanabe, Takayoshi; Niizato, Tadafumi

    2016-01-01

    To examine the translocation of radiocesium scattered by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident that occurred in March 2011 to the Japanese chestnut, we investigated the autoradiography and radiocesium concentration in each part of Japanese chestnuts. The Japanese chestnut fruit has a thin skin between the kernel (cotyledons) and shell; the kernel of the fruit is edible. The 137 Cs concentration in each part of the fruit was found to be almost the same at about 1.0 × 10 4 Bq·kg -1 DW, as well as leaves. The radiocesium concentration in chestnut weevil larvae found on the fruit was approximately one-seventh of that in the kernel. (author)

  2. Evaluation of gamma irradiated essential oils to control stored-grain weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and cockroach, Blattella germanica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potenza, Marcos Roberto; Gomes, Davinni Habral Passini; Silvestre, Denise de Fatima; Da Silva, Rita de Cassia; Arthur, Valter

    2004-01-01

    Most of the essential oils have insecticidal activity and are alternatives to plant protection and urban pest control. The gamma radiation has been used to control microorganisms and insects in dehydrate herbs, spices, medicinal plants and other materials. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of irradiated essential oils as contact poison on Stored grain, weevil, Sitophilus zeamais and as stomach poison in cockroach, Blattella germanica. The bioassay with B. germanica demonstrated efficiency between 22.0 and 30.0% and between 30.0 and 42.0% respectively, to irradiated essential oils of E. citriodora and E. globulus and they demonstrated too repellency to the nymphs. The gamma radiation promoted changes in essential oils Eucalyptus citriodora and E. globulus and showed increased effectiveness on B. germanica nymphs besides a significative reduction of repellency. Gamma radiation thus interfered on behavior of some essential oils by increasing or reducing activating or inactivating their efficiency to pest control. (author)

  3. Effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Francisco S; Wanderley, Paulo A; Malaquias, José B; Fernandes, Francisco S; Nascimento, Antônio R B; Zanuncio, José C

    2011-09-01

    This research studied the effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, an ectoparasitoid of cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis Boheman) at constant temperatures of 20, 25 and 30ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a photophase of 14 h. Females of the parasitoid produced a greater number of eggs when exposed to 25ºC (124.65 eggs) in relation to those exposed to 20 (43.40 eggs) and 30ºC (49.60 eggs). The number of parasitized larvae per female of B. vulgaris at 25ºC (71.75) was greater than at 20ºC (31.40) and 30ºC (25.15). The daily intrinsic rates of increase (r m) were - 0.007 at 20ºC, 0.07 at 25ºC and 0.03 at 30ºC, revealing that the temperature of 25ºC produced increases of 1,100 and 133% in the value r m in relation to temperatures of 20 and 30ºC, respectively. In programs of biological control of the boll weevil using innoculative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris with approximately five (at 25 or 30ºC) or 20 day old (at 20ºC) should be used; when using innundative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris , with ages between 11 and 31; 9 and 29 or 3 and 14 days, respectively, at 20, 25 or 30ºC should be used.

  4. Resistance of irradiated and non-irradiated corn grain genotypes against the weevil Sitophilus zeamais Mots., 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Carolina Natali de

    2005-01-01

    The resistance of 13 /////com grain genotypes was evaluated against the attack of Sitophilus zeamais (Mots.) by means of a no-choice test; 6 of them were selected (AGN 2012, AGN 30AOO, AGN 31A31, AGN 25A23, AGN 32A43, and AGN 35A42) and then submitted to a free-choice test where attractiveness and non preference for oviposition were assessed. The grain from the selected genotypes were later treated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation at the doses of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5 kGy and submitted to the same tests. Based on the results, it was verified that genotypes AGN 2012 (30.6 eggs), AGN 31A31 (33.6 eggs), and AGN 30AOO (34.8 eggs) showed a non-preference for oviposition type of resistance, while non-preference for feeding and/or antibiosis were observed in the first two genotypes only. Genotypes AGN 25A23, AGN 32A43, and AGN 35A42 were the most susceptible to com weevil. The increasing gamma radiation ( 60 Co) doses reduced the mean mass of adults in genotype AGN 2012; however, the same parameter increased in genotype AGN 35A42; when treated at the dose of 1.5 kGy, genotypes AGN 2012 and AGN 31A31 showed a reduction in their mean masses of adults, while genotypes AGN 30AOO and AGN 35A42 showed higher mean mass of adults values. The increasing gamma radiation doses ( 60 Co) provided a reduction in mean grain dry mass consumed by the weevil; however, it was concluded that irradiation did not break com grain resistance and can be used for S. zeamais disinfestation prior to storage. (author)

  5. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Righi Assia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.. This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit the damage of the chick pea weevil pest, and to protect consumer’s health. To determine the effect and efficiency of the oil, the tests were conducted using the different biological parameters of fertility, longevity, and fecundity, under controlled temperature and relative humidity (28°C and 75%. The effectiveness of organic oils was demonstrated. We tested these oils on the germination of seeds. The obtained results showed that the tested plant oils have a real organic insecticide effect. The essential oil of Artemisia proved most effective as a biocide; achieving a mortality rate of 100%. A significant reduction in longevity was observed under the effect of 30 μl of S. maritima (1.3 days and S. verbenaca (2.8, 4.6 days, respectively, for males and females compared to 8 and 15 days for the control. For fecundity, an inhibition of oviposition was obtained using 30 μl of Salvia and Scilla essential oils. The test on the seed germination using different essential oils, showed no damage to the germinating seeds. The germination rate was 99%. These findings suggest that the tested plants can be used as a bioinsecticide for control of the C. chinensis pest of stored products.

  6. Estimation of the adult male population of sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) at its low-density period on Kikai Island in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Hatono, T.; Izumi, S.; Nishihara, S.; Kimura, K.; Torigoe, H.; Tanaka, T.; Miyaji, K.; Hara, Y.; Ueda, A.; Shigei, F.

    2008-01-01

    The sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius) is a major insect pest of the sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. We estimated the entire adult male population of C. formicarius at its low-density period on Kikai Island, Kagoshima Pref., Japan. The population of adult males at the high-density period in September was about 5 times larger than that at its low-density period in May, both of which were estimated by Yamamura's method. Using this calculation in combination with an estimate of the maximal population size (4 x 10E6) by Sugimoto et al. in 1994, the total number of male weevils at their low-density period can be assumed to be less than 8 x 10E5

  7. A revision of the New Zealand weevil genus Irenimus Pascoe, 1876 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel D J

    2017-05-08

    The taxonomy of the New Zealand weevil genus Irenimus Pascoe, 1876 is revised, resulting in a narrower concept of the genus than has been considered in recent decades. In total, the genus now contains only seven species. In addition to the type species, I. parilis Pascoe, 1876, the genus contains I. duplex (Broun, 1904) and five newly described species: I. aniptus new species (type locality, Oamaru, DN), I. crinitus new species (type locality, Hakataramea Valley, SC), I. minimus new species (type locality, Alexandra, CO), I. stichus new species (type locality, Tekapo, MK) and I. thoracicus new species (type locality, Oamaru, DN). The genus Chalepistes new genus is established to contain the majority of species previously described in the genus Catoptes Schönherr, 1842, but also including species described in Brachyolus White, 1846; Irenimus Pascoe, 1876; Inophloeus Pascoe, 1875; and Nicaeana Pascoe, 1877. A total of 27 valid described species are new combinations with Chalepistes: C. aequalis (Broun, 1895) (from Irenimus), C. albosparsus (Broun, 1917) (from Irenimus), C. apicalis (Broun, 1923) (from Catoptes), C. asperatus (Broun, 1914) (from Brachyolus), C. compressus (Broun, 1880) (from Irenimus), C. costifer (Broun, 1886) (from Inophloeus), C. curvus (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. dehiscens (Broun, 1917) (from Catoptes), C. dugdalei (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. egens (Broun, 1904) (from Irenimus), C. inaequalis (Sharp, 1886) (from Brachyolus), C. instabilis (Marshall, 1931) (from Catoptes), C. latipennis (Broun, 1893) (from Catoptes), C. limbatus (Broun, 1909) (from Catoptes), C. lobatus (Broun, 1921) (from Catoptes), C. patricki (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from Irenimus), C. pensus (Broun, 1914) (from Inophloeus), C. placidus (Broun, 1914) (from Nicaeana), C. posticalis (Broun, 1893) (from Irenimus), C. rhesus (Pascoe, 1875) (from Inophloeus), C. rubidus (Broun, 1881) (from Inophloeus), C. similis (Barratt & Kuschel, 1996) (from

  8. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Hiroki; Manabe, Aya; Nakamura, Naoko; Onishi, Tomokazu; Senba, Yasuko

    2011-03-29

    Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots.) are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  9. Susceptibility of Anthonomus grandis (cotton boll weevil) and Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm) to a cry1ia-type toxin from a Brazilian Bacillus thuringiensis strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima; Quezado de Magalhaes, Mariana; Silva, Marilia Santos; Silva, Shirley Margareth Buffon; Dias, Simoni Campos; Nakasu, Erich Yukio Tempel; Brunetta, Patricia Sanglard Felipe; Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Neto, Osmundo Brilhante de Oliveira; Sampaio de Oliveira, Raquel; Soares, Luis Henrique Barros; Ayub, Marco Antonio Zachia; Siqueira, Herbert Alvaro Abreu; Figueira, Edson L Z

    2007-09-30

    Different isolates of the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis produce multiple crystal (Cry) proteins toxic to a variety of insects, nematodes and protozoans. These insecticidal Cry toxins are known to be active against specific insect orders, being harmless to mammals, birds, amphibians, and reptiles. Due to these characteristics, genes encoding several Cry toxins have been engineered in order to be expressed by a variety of crop plants to control insectpests. The cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, are the major economically devastating pests of cotton crop in Brazil, causing severe losses, mainly due to their endophytic habit, which results in damages to the cotton boll and floral bud structures. A cry1Ia-type gene, designated cry1Ia12, was isolated and cloned from the Bt S811 strain. Nucleotide sequencing of the cry1Ia12 gene revealed an open reading frame of 2160 bp, encoding a protein of 719 amino acid residues in length, with a predicted molecular mass of 81 kDa. The amino acid sequence of Cry1Ia12 is 99% identical to the known Cry1Ia proteins and differs from them only in one or two amino acid residues positioned along the three domains involved in the insecticidal activity of the toxin. The recombinant Cry1Ia12 protein, corresponding to the cry1Ia12 gene expressed in Escherichia coli cells, showed moderate toxicity towards first instar larvae of both cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm. The highest concentration of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 tested to achieve the maximum toxicities against cotton boll weevil larvae and fall armyworm larvae were 230 microg/mL and 5 microg/mL, respectively. The herein demonstrated insecticidal activity of the recombinant Cry1Ia12 toxin against cotton boll weevil and fall armyworm larvae opens promising perspectives for the genetic engineering of cotton crop resistant to both these devastating pests in Brazil.

  10. Cotton harvest at 40% versus 75% boll-splitting on yield and economic return under standard and proactive boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) spray regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, A T; Robinson, J R C

    2008-10-01

    The standard practice of two or three preemptive insecticide applications at the start of pinhead (1-2-mm-diameter) squaring followed by threshold-triggered (when 10% of randomly selected squares have oviposition punctures) insecticide applications for boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), control does not provide reliable protection of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., lint production. This study, conducted during 2004 and 2005, showed that three to six fewer spray applications in a "proactive" approach, in which spraying began at the start of large (5.5-8-mm-diameter) square formation and continued at approximately 7-d intervals while large squares were abundant, resulted in fewer infested squares and 1.4- to 1.7-fold more lint than the standard treatment. Fewer sprays and increased yield made proactive spraying significantly more profitable than the standard approach, which resulted in relatively low or negative economic returns. Harvest at 75% boll-split in the proactive spray regime of 2005 resulted in four-fold greater economic return than cotton harvested at 40% boll-split because of improved protection of large squares and the elimination of late-season sprays inherent to standard spray regime despite the cost of an extra irrigation in the 75% boll-split treatments. The earlier, 40% harvest trigger does not avoid high late-season boll weevil pressure, which exerts less impact on bolls, the predominant form of fruiting body at that time, than on squares. Proactive spraying and harvest timing are based on an important relationship between nutrition, boll weevil reproduction, and economic inputs; therefore, the tactic of combining proaction with harvest at 75% boll-split is applicable where boll weevils are problematic regardless of climate or region, or whether an eradication program is ongoing.

  11. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Obata

    Full Text Available Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots. are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  12. Pine weevil feeding on Norway spruce bark has a stronger impact on needle VOC emissions than enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blande, James D.; Turunen, Katariina; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    2009-01-01

    Plants can respond physiologically to damaging ultraviolet-B radiation by altering leaf chemistry, especially UV absorbing phenolic compounds. However, the effects on terpene emissions have received little attention. We conducted two field trials in plots with supplemented UV-B radiation and assessed the influence of feeding by pine weevils, Hylobius abietis L., on volatile emissions from 3-year old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.). We collected emissions from branch tips distal to the feeding weevils, and from whole branches including the damage sites. Weevil feeding clearly induced the emission of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, particularly linalool and (E)-β-farnesene, from branch tips, and the sums of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emitted by whole branches were substantially increased. We discovered little effect of UV-B radiation up to 30% above the ambient level on volatile emissions from branch tips distal to damage sites, but there was a possible effect on bark emissions from damage sites. - Chronic exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation has little effect on volatile emissions of Norway spruce

  13. Selection of Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato isolates as microbial control agents against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussenbaum, A L; Lecuona, R E

    2012-05-01

    The boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) is the main pest of cotton in the Americas. The aim of this work was to evaluate isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana sensu lato and Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato virulent against A. grandis. Screening was performed to evaluate the pathogenicity of 28 isolates of M. anisopliae s.l. and 66 isolates of B. bassiana s.l. against boll weevil adults. To select the isolates, LC(50) values of the most virulent isolates were calculated, and compatibility between the fungi and insecticides was studied. In addition, the effects of these isolates on the feeding behavior of the adults were evaluated. Isolates Ma 50 and Ma 20 were the most virulent against A. grandis and their LC(50) values were 1.13×10(7) and 1.20×10(7) conidia/ml, respectively. In addition, these isolates were compatible with pyrethroid insecticides, but none with endosulfan. On the other hand, infected females reduced the damage caused by feeding on the cotton squares and their weight gain. This shows that entomopathogenic fungi cause mortality in the insects, but also these fungi could influence the feeding behavior of the females. In summary, these results indicate the possibility of the use of M. anisopliae s.l. as a microbiological control agent against boll weevils. Also, this species could be included in an Integrated Pest Management program. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Responses of the cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to seed treatments of canola (Brassica napus L.) with the neonicotinoid compounds clothianidin and imidacloprid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosdall, Lloyd M

    2009-12-01

    The cabbage seedpod weevil, Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham), is a major pest in the production of canola (Brassica napus L.) in North America and Europe, and effective population control is often essential for economical crop production. In North America, neonicotinoid insecticides have been used for several years in canola as seed treatments for reducing herbivory by flea beetles. The neonicotinoids clothianidin and imidacloprid were investigated to determine their effects on preimaginal development and on emergence of new-generation adults of C. obstrictus in comparison with effects of lindane, a chlorinated hydrocarbon seed treatment. Mean numbers of second- and third-instar larvae were significantly higher in plants seed-treated with lindane than in plants treated with the neonicotinoid compounds, even though weevil oviposition was similar for all treatments. Emergence of new-generation adults was reduced by 52 and 39% for plants seed-treated with clothianidin and imidacloprid, respectively, compared with emergence from plants treated with lindane. Seed treatment with both clothianidin and imidacloprid produced systemic insecticidal effects on larvae of C. obstrictus, with clothianidin slightly more effective than imidacloprid. Use of clothianidin or imidacloprid as seed treatments can comprise an important component in the integrated management of cabbage seedpod weevil in canola. (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S; da Silva, Juliana; Sousa, Karen; Ambrozio, Mariana L; de Almeida, Aline; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete I; Dias, Johnny F; Allgayer, Mariangela C; Dos Santos, Marcela S; Pereira, Patrícia; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Picada, Jaqueline N

    2016-01-01

    Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200-2,000 mg kg(-1)). The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg(-1). However, PSAE (50-200 mg·kg(-1)) and the phenolic compounds (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients.

  16. The Gut Entomotype of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae and Their Effect on Host Nutrition Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For invasive insects, the potential roles of gut microbiota in exploiting new food resources and spreading remain elusive. Red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is an invasive destructive pest which feeds on nutrient-poor tender tissues and has caused extensive mortality of palm trees. The microbes associated with insects can improve their nutrition assimilation. However, experimental evidence on the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota is still absent. The aim of this study is to determine the dynamics changes and the bacterial entomotype in the RPW gut and its potential physiological roles. Here, we confirmed RPW harbors a complex gut microbiota mainly constituted by bacteria in the families Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Entomoplasmataceae, and Streptococcaceae. RPW gut microbiota exhibited a highly stable microbial community with low variance in abundance across different life stages and host plants. Furthermore, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was markedly increased but that of Acetobacteraceae was reduced significantly after administration of antibiotics. Although no significant effects were found on the body weight gain of RPW larvae, these alterations dramatically decreased the concentration of hemolymph protein and glucose while that of hemolymph triglyceride increased. In the gut of wild-caught RPW larvae, seven bacterial species in the genera Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter were shown to have an ability to degrade cellulose. Together, RPW accommodate a stable gut microbiota which can degrade plant polysaccharides and confer their host optimal adaptation to its environment by modulating its metabolism.

  17. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnubio Valencia

    Full Text Available The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest.

  18. Vitellogenin knockdown strongly affects cotton boll weevil egg viability but not the number of eggs laid by females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Roberta R; de Souza Júnior, José Dijair Antonino; Firmino, Alexandre A P; de Macedo, Leonardo L P; Fonseca, Fernando C A; Terra, Walter R; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida Engler, Janice; da Silva, Maria Cristina M; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2016-09-01

    Vitellogenin (Vg), a yolk protein precursor, is the primary egg nutrient source involved in insect reproduction and embryo development. The Cotton Boll weevil (CBW) Anthonomus grandis Boheman, the most important cotton pest in Americas, accumulates large amounts of Vg during reproduction. However, the precise role of this protein during embryo development in this insect remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the effects of vitellogenin (AgraVg) knockdown on the egg-laying and egg viability in A. grandis females, and also characterized morphologically the unviable eggs. AgraVg transcripts were found during all developmental stages of A. grandis, with highest abundance in females. Silencing of AgraVg culminated in a significant reduction in transcript amount, around 90%. Despite this transcriptional reduction, egg-laying was not affected in dsRNA-treated females but almost 100% of the eggs lost their viability. Eggs from dsRNA-treated females showed aberrant embryos phenotype suggesting interference at different stages of embryonic development. Unlike for other insects, the AgraVg knockdown did not affect the egg-laying ability of A. grandis, but hampered A. grandis reproduction by perturbing embryo development. We concluded that the Vg protein is essential for A. grandis reproduction and a good candidate to bio-engineer the resistance against this devastating cotton pest.

  19. Histone and ribosomal RNA repetitive gene clusters of the boll weevil are linked in a tandem array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrdanz, R; Heilmann, L; Senechal, P; Sears, S; Evenson, P

    2010-08-01

    Histones are the major protein component of chromatin structure. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and the clusters are tandemly repeated. Ribosomal DNA contains a cluster of the rRNA sequences 18S, 5.8S and 28S. The rRNA genes are separated by the spacers ITS1, ITS2 and IGS. This cluster is also tandemly repeated. We found that the ribosomal RNA repeat unit of at least two species of Anthonomine weevils, Anthonomus grandis and Anthonomus texanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is interspersed with a block containing the histone gene quintet. The histone genes are situated between the rRNA 18S and 28S genes in what is known as the intergenic spacer region (IGS). The complete reiterated Anthonomus grandis histone-ribosomal sequence is 16,248 bp.

  20. Evaluation of pseudostem trapping as a control measure against banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, C S; Gold, C S; Okech, S H; Nokoe, S

    2002-02-01

    Controlled studies to determine the efficacy of pseudostem trapping in reducing adult populations of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), were conducted under farmer conditions in Ntungamo district, Uganda. Twenty-seven farms were stratified on the basis of C. sordidus population density (estimated by mark and recapture methods) and divided among three treatments: (i) researcher-managed trapping (one trap per mat per month): (ii) farmer-managed trapping (trap intensity at discretion of farmer); and (iii) controls (no trapping). Intensive trapping (managed by researchers) resulted in significantly lower C. sordidus damage after one year. Over the same period, C. sordidus numbers declined by 61% on farms where trapping was managed by researchers, 53% where farmers managed trapping and 38% on farms without trapping; however, results varied greatly among farms and, overall, there was no significant effect of trapping on C. sordidus numbers. Moreover, there was only a weak relationship between the number of C. sordidus removed and the change in population density. Trapping success appeared to be affected by management levels and immigration from neighbouring farms. Although farmers were convinced that trapping was beneficial, adoption has been low due to resource requirements.

  1. Population structure of the banana weevil, an introduced pest in the Canary Islands, studied by RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magaña, C; Beroiz, B; Hernández-Crespo, P; Montes de Oca, M; Carnero, A; Ortego, F; Castañera, P

    2007-12-01

    The banana weevil (BW), Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most important insect pests of bananas and plantains. The mobility and the origin of BW infestations at the Canary Islands (Tenerife, La Gomera and La Palma) have been analysed using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) as molecular markers. Populations from Costa Rica, Colombia, Uganda and Madeira were also included for comparison. One hundred and fifteen reproducible bands from eight primers were obtained. The level of polymorphism in the populations from the Canary Islands (40-62%) was in the range of those found in other populations. Nei's genetic distances, pair-wise fixation index (FST) values indicate that the closest populations are Tenerife populations among themselves (Nei's genetic distance=0.054-0.100; FST=0.091-0.157) and Costa Rica and Colombia populations (Nei's genetic distance=0.049; FST=0.113). Our results indicate the existence of BW local biotypes with limited gene flow and affected by genetic drift. These results are compatible with a unique event of colonization at Tenerife; whereas, the outbreaks in La Gomera and La Palma may come from independent introductions. The Madeira population is phylogenetically and geographically closer to the Canary Islands populations, suggesting that it is the most likely source of the insects introduced in the Canary Islands.

  2. Pyrosequencing the Midgut Transcriptome of the Banana Weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Reveals Multiple Protease-Like Transcripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Arnubio; Wang, Haichuan; Soto, Alberto; Aristizabal, Manuel; Arboleda, Jorge W; Eyun, Seong-Il; Noriega, Daniel D; Siegfried, Blair

    2016-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus is an important and serious insect pest in most banana and plantain-growing areas of the world. In spite of the economic importance of this insect pest very little genomic and transcriptomic information exists for this species. In the present study, we characterized the midgut transcriptome of C. sordidus using massive 454-pyrosequencing. We generated over 590,000 sequencing reads that assembled into 30,840 contigs with more than 400 bp, representing a significant expansion of existing sequences available for this insect pest. Among them, 16,427 contigs contained one or more GO terms. In addition, 15,263 contigs were assigned an EC number. In-depth transcriptome analysis identified genes potentially involved in insecticide resistance, peritrophic membrane biosynthesis, immunity-related function and defense against pathogens, and Bacillus thuringiensis toxins binding proteins as well as multiple enzymes involved with protein digestion. This transcriptome will provide a valuable resource for understanding larval physiology and for identifying novel target sites and management approaches for this important insect pest.

  3. Ultra Morphological Structure of Sensory Sensillae on the Legs and External Genitalia of the Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliv.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaby, Aziz M.; AlDosary, Mona M.

    2007-01-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) is a major pest infesting date trees in the Gulf region. Chemoreceptors play an important role for insects behaviour in detecting their defined host for feeding, egg laying or mating. The present study is aimed to study morphological structure of sensillae on different legs and external genitalia of both sexes. Three kinds of sensillae are found on the different parts of the three pairs of fore, mid and hind legs, these sensillae are identified as ( Trichoid in three types, coeloconic in two types and one type of Basiconic sensillae). Fore legs bear the highest number of different forms of sensillae, males contained realatively greater number than females. Mid femur only in female bears a dense hair of trichoid sensillae, while they are found on fore- mid and hind femur of males, this may be used for differentiating two sexes. Female ovipositor contained trichoid sensilla can be subdivided into three distinct type1,2, and 3 in addition placoid sensillae, it could be identified four types of trichoid sensilla on the male external genitalia and numerous of placoid sensillae.These may be for hygroreception. (author)

  4. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, W. A.; Tawfik, Walid; Rasool, K. G.; Aldawood, A. S.

    2015-01-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms. (paper)

  5. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  6. An Exploration of Edible Palm Weevil Larvae (Akokono) as a Source of Nutrition and Livelihood: Perspectives From Ghanaian Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Amos; Kotoh, Agnes; Parker, Megan; Milani, Peiman; Tawiah, Charlotte; Soor, Shobhita; Anankware, Jacob P; Kalra, Nikhila; Manu, Grace; Tandoh, Akua; Zobrist, Stephanie; Engmann, Cyril; Pelto, Gretel

    2017-12-01

    Meeting the nutritive needs of infants and young children is a challenge in Ghana. Alternative animal source foods, including insects, could enhance infant and young child dietary quality while also improving livelihoods. To investigate the perspectives of Ghanaian stakeholders on the acceptability of the palm weevil larvae ( akokono) as a food source and the feasibility of micro-farming this local edible insect as a complementary food for infants and young children. We conducted an ethnographic study in the Brong-Ahafo Region of Ghana. First, 48 caregivers were asked questions about feeding and care practices, including attitudes toward production and consumption of akokono. Then, a selection of previously interviewed respondents joined 1 of 8 focus group discussions to provide further insight on key themes that emerged from earlier interviews. Concurrently, interviews with 25 other key local stakeholders were conducted. Respondents generally had favorable perceptions of akokono as a nutritious food. A small minority would not consume akokono for religious reasons. Key factors positively influencing the acceptability of akokono as a complementary food were familiarity with the consumption of akokono by the primary caregiver and health worker endorsement of akokono. Stakeholders consider the larvae farmable and were open to its domestication. Anticipated barriers to scaling up akokono micro-farming include a need for greater familiarity with and acceptance of the insect as food for infants and young children and creation of a sustainable market. Engagement with stakeholders, including health workers, will facilitate use of akokono as a complementary food.

  7. Fumigant Compounds from the Essential Oil of Chinese Blumea balsamifera Leaves against the Maize Weevil (Sitophilus zeamais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Sha Chu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of Chinese medicinal herb, Blumea balsamifera leaves, was found to possess fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils, Sitophilus zeamais. The main components of the essential oil of B. balsamifera were 1,8-cineole (20.98%, borneol (11.99%, β-caryophyllene (10.38%, camphor (8.06%, 4-terpineol (6.49%, α-terpineol (5.91%, and caryophyllene oxide (5.35%. Bioactivity-guided chromatographic separation of the essential oil on repeated silica gel columns led to isolate five constituent compounds, namely, 1,8-cineole, borneol, camphor, α-terpineol, and 4-terpineol. 1,8-Cineole, 4-terpineol, and α-terpineol showed pronounced fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults (LC50 = 2.96 mg/L, 4.79 mg/L, and 7.45 mg/L air, resp. and were more toxic than camphor (LC50 = 21.64 mg/L air and borneol (LC50 = 21.67 mg/L air. The crude essential oil also possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults (LC50 = 10.71 mg/L air.

  8. Silencing the Odorant Binding Protein RferOBP1768 Reduces the Strong Preference of Palm Weevil for the Major Aggregation Pheromone Compound Ferrugineol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu Antony

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In insects, perception of the environment—food, mates, and prey—is mainly guided by chemical signals. The dynamic process of signal perception involves transport to odorant receptors (ORs by soluble secretory proteins, odorant binding proteins (OBPs, which form the first stage in the process of olfactory recognition and are analogous to lipocalin family proteins in vertebrates. Although OBPs involved in the transport of pheromones to ORs have been functionally identified in insects, there is to date no report for Coleoptera. Furthermore, there is a lack of information on olfactory perception and the molecular mechanism by which OBPs participate in the transport of aggregation pheromones. We focus on the red palm weevil (RPW Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, the most devastating quarantine pest of palm trees worldwide. In this work, we constructed libraries of all OBPs and selected antenna-specific and highly expressed OBPs for silencing through RNA interference. Aggregation pheromone compounds, 4-methyl-5-nonanol (ferrugineol and 4-methyl-5-nonanone (ferruginone, and a kairomone, ethyl acetate, were then sequentially presented to individual RPWs. The results showed that antenna-specific RferOBP1768 aids in the capture and transport of ferrugineol to ORs. Silencing of RferOBP1768, which is responsible for pheromone binding, significantly disrupted pheromone communication. Study of odorant perception in palm weevil is important because the availability of literature regarding the nature and role of olfactory signaling in this insect may reveal likely candidates representative of animal olfaction and, more generally, of molecular recognition. Knowledge of OBPs recognizing the specific pheromone ferrugineol will allow for designing biosensors for the detection of this key compound in weevil monitoring in date palm fields.

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT ORIGIN BEANS (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS L. ON TOLERANCE TO THE BEAN WEEVIL (ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A ODAGIU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say is a very harmful pest. When pest control lacks it can produce 100% damages in stocked seeds. Research performed in Romania emphasized the importance of resistant or tolerant origins use besides the quarantine and fight measures in order to limit the stroke of this pest (Manolache et al., 1966; Marghitu et al., 1978. Research aimed to establish the chemical composition of the beans of different origins in the same time with correlation between the different chemical components and their tolerance against A. obtectus stroke.

  10. (2R,5S)-Theaspirane Identified as the Kairomone for the Banana Weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, from Attractive Senesced Leaves of the Host Banana, Musa spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagale, Samson A; Woodcock, Christine M; Hooper, Antony M; Caulfield, John C; Withall, David; Chamberlain, Keith; Acquaah, Samuel O; Van Emden, Helmut; Braimah, Haruna; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2018-04-12

    The principal active component produced by highly attractive senesced host banana leaves, Musa spp., for the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, is shown by coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography (GC-EAG), coupled GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), chemical synthesis and coupled enantioselective (chiral) GC-EAG to be (2R,5S)-theaspirane. In laboratory behaviour tests, the synthetic compound is as attractive as natural host leaf material and presents a new opportunity for pest control. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Combining 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, the major flower volatile of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca, with the aggregation pheromone of the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi improves attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibe, Atle; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin; Cross, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil [Anthonomus rubi Herbst (Col.: Curculionidae)], a 1:4:1 blend of Grandlure I, II and racemic lavadulol, has been available for pest monitoring for several years but shows low attractancy. Attempts to control A.rubi using the pheromone alone...... were also unsuccessful. This paper reports the finding that addition of the major flower volatile from wild strawberry flowers [Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae)], 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (comprising 98% of the volatiles emitted from wild strawberry flowers), to the aggregation pheromone increased trap catches...... pest of strawberry....

  12. Aqueous extract from pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] shell show activity against breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and Ehrlich ascites tumor in Balb-C mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Josiane; Policarpi, Priscila de Britto; Grinevicius, Valdelúcia Maria Alves de Souza; Mota, Nádia Sandrine Ramos Santos; Toaldo, Isabela Maia; Luiz, Marilde Terezinha Bordignon; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Block, Jane Mara

    2018-01-30

    In Brazil many health disorders are treated with the consumption of different varieties of tea. Shell extracts of pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis), which have significant amounts of phenolic compounds in their composition, are popularly taken as tea to prevent diverse pathologies. Phenolic compounds from pecan nut shell extract have been associated with diverse biological effects but the effect on tumor cells has not been reported yet. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the relationship between DNA fragmentation, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by pecan nut shell extract and its antitumor activity. Cytotoxicity, proliferation, cell death and cell cycle were evaluated in MCF-7 cells by MTT, colony assay, differential coloring and flow cytometry assays, respectively. DNA damage effects were evaluated through intercalation into CT-DNA and plasmid DNA cleavage. Tumor growth inhibition, survival time increase, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest were assessed in Ehrlich ascites tumor in Balb/C mice. The cytotoxic effect of pecan nut shell extracts, the induction of cell death by apoptosis and also the cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells have been demonstrated. The survival time in mice with Ehrlich ascites tumor increased by 67%. DNA damage was observed in the CT-DNA, plasmid DNA and comet assays. The mechanism involved in the antitumor effect of pecan nut shell extracts may be related to the activation of key proteins involved in apoptosis cell death (Bcl-XL, Bax and p53) and on the cell cycle regulation (cyclin A, cyclin B and CDK2). These results were attributed to the phenolic profile of the extract, which presented compounds such as gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, chlorogenic, vanillic, caffeic and ellagic acid, and catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and epicatechin gallate. The results indicated that pecan nut shell extracts are effective against tumor cells growth and may be considered as an alternative to the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2017

  13. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos S. Porto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200–2,000 mg kg−1. The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg−1. However, PSAE (50–200 mg·kg−1 and the phenolic compounds (10–100 mg·kg−1 did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10–100 mg·kg−1 decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients.

  14. Effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S. Ramalho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the effect of temperature on the reproduction of Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, an ectoparasitoid of cotton boll weevil ( Anthonomus grandis Boheman at constant temperatures of 20, 25 and 30ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and a photophase of 14 h. Females of the parasitoid produced a greater number of eggs when exposed to 25ºC (124.65 eggs in relation to those exposed to 20 (43.40 eggs and 30ºC (49.60 eggs. The number of parasitized larvae per female of B. vulgaris at 25ºC (71.75 was greater than at 20ºC (31.40 and 30ºC (25.15. The daily intrinsic rates of increase (r m were - 0.007 at 20ºC, 0.07 at 25ºC and 0.03 at 30ºC, revealing that the temperature of 25ºC produced increases of 1,100 and 133% in the value r m in relation to temperatures of 20 and 30ºC, respectively. In programs of biological control of the boll weevil using innoculative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris with approximately five (at 25 or 30ºC or 20 day old (at 20ºC should be used; when using innundative releases, adult females of B. vulgaris , with ages between 11 and 31; 9 and 29 or 3 and 14 days, respectively, at 20, 25 or 30ºC should be used.Estudamos os efeitos da temperatura na reprodução de Bracon vulgaris Ashmead, ectoparasitóide do bicudo-do-algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, em câmaras climatizadas, em temperaturas constantes de 20, 25 and 30ºC, umidade relativa do ar de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 h. As fêmeas do parasitóide produziram mais ovos a 25ºC (124,65 ovos do que aquelas expostas a 20 (43,40 ovos e a 30ºC (49,60 ovos. O número médio de larvas parasitadas por fêmea de B. vulgaris a 25ºC(71,75 larvas foi maior do que a 20ºC (31,40 larvas e 30ºC (25,15 larvas. As taxas diárias de aumento (r m foram -0,007 a 20ºC, 0,07 a 25ºC e 0,03 a 30ºC, indicando que a temperatura de 25ºC produziu aumento de 1100 e 133% no valor de r m em relação às temperaturas de 20 e 30ºC, respectivamente. Nos programas de controle biol

  15. Toxicity of lemon grass Cymbopogon citratus powder and methanol extract against rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Osaigbokan Uwamose

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicity potential of lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus] products against adult rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. Methods: Lemon grass (C. citratus leaves were sundried for 7 days, pulverized and sieved using 0.5 mm mesh size to obtain fine powders. About 500 g of the powder were dissolved in 1000 mL of 90% methanol to produce the extract. The powder and extract were used for the bioassay. The powder was tested at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/10 g rice grains, respectively. The toxic potential of the extract of concentration of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/mL were evaluated using the filter paper method. The experiment was setup on a completely randomized design using three replicates per treatment. Results: The results indicated significant difference (F = 7.450; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 in mean percentage mortality after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure with the powder compared with the control. Significantly (F = 5.519; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 higher percentage adult mortality was also observed in the extract after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure compared with the control. The LC50 value of the powder was 4.91 g/10 g of rice while the LT50 was 160.51 h. The LC50 value of the extract was 2.16 mg/20 mL of methanol with an LT50 of 75.10 h. The methanol extract of C. citratus showed the highest mortality compared to the powder which was less toxic. Conclusions: The study showed that C. citratus products are promising insecticides and can be used effectively in the management of Sitophilus oryzae in storage..

  16. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales Correa, Yenis Del Carmen; Faroni, Lêda R A; Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2015-11-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Azadirachtin-induced hormesis mediating shift in fecundity-longevity trade-off in the Mexican bean weevil (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallqui, K S Vilca; Vieira, J L; Guedes, R N C; Gontijo, L M

    2014-04-01

    Insecticides can have lethal or sublethal effects upon targeted pest species, and sublethal effects may even favor pest outbreaks if insecticide-induced hormesis occurs. Hormesis is a biphasic dose-response of a given chemical compound that is stimulatory at low doses and toxic at high doses. The former response may result from the disruption of animal homeostasis leading to trade-off shifts between basic ecophysiological processes. A growing interest in the use of biorational insecticides, such as azadirachtin to control stored-product pests, raises concerns about potential sublethal effects. In this study, we explored the hypothesis that azadirachtin can negatively impact the reproductive capacity of the Mexican bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae), a key pest of stored beans. In addition, we investigated whether adults of this species could compensate for any sublethal effect that might have affected any of their reproductive parameters by adjusting the allocation of its reproductive efforts. The results showed that females of Z. subfasciatus increased fecundity daily to compensate for azadirachtin-induced decreased longevity. In addition, a stage-structured matrix study revealed that populations of Z. subfasciatus engendered from females exposed to azadirachtin exhibited a higher rate of population increase (r) and a higher net reproductive rate (R(o)). Finally, a projection matrix analysis showed notably higher densities along the generations for azadirachtin-exposed Z. subfasciatus populations. Thus, our study provides empirical evidence for the capacity of Z. subfasciatus to adapt to sublethal effects caused by biorational insecticides; consequently, this study highlights the importance of understanding this phenomenon when devising pest management strategies.

  18. Herbivory by an introduced Asian weevil negatively affects population growth of an invasive Brazilian shrub in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Stiling, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) is often cited to explain why some plants successfully invade natural communities while others do not. This hypothesis maintains that plant populations are regulated by coevolved enemies in their native range but are relieved of this pressure where their enemies have not been co-introduced. Some studies have shown that invasive plants sustain lower levels of herbivore damage when compared to native species, but how damage affects fitness and population dynamics remains unclear. We used a system of co-occurring native and invasive Eugenia congeners in south Florida (USA) to experimentally test the ERH, addressing deficiencies in our understanding of the role of natural enemies in plant invasion at the population level. Insecticide was used to experimentally exclude insect herbivores from invasive Eugenia uniflora and its native co-occurring congeners in the field for two years. Herbivore damage, plant growth, survival, and population growth rates for the three species were then compared for control and insecticide-treated plants. Our results contradict the ERH, indicating that E. uniflora sustains more herbivore damage than its native congeners and that this damage negatively impacts stem height, survival, and population growth. In addition, most damage to E. uniflora, a native of Brazil, is carried out by Myllocerus undatus, a recently introduced weevil from Sri Lanka, and M. undatus attacks a significantly greater proportion of E. uniflora leaves than those of its native congeners. This interaction is particularly interesting because M. undatus and E. uniflora share no coevolutionary history, having arisen on two separate continents and come into contact on a third. Our study is the first to document negative population-level effects for an invasive plant as a result of the introduction of a novel herbivore. Such inhibitory interactions are likely to become more prevalent as suites of previously noninteracting species continue to

  19. Enhanced activity of carbohydrate- and lipid-metabolizing enzymes in insecticide-resistant populations of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, R A; Guedes, R N C; Oliveira, M G A; Ferreira, G H

    2008-08-01

    Insecticide resistance is frequently associated with fitness disadvantages in the absence of insecticides. However, intense past selection with insecticides may allow the evolution of fitness modifier alleles that mitigate the cost of insecticide resistance and their consequent fitness disadvantages. Populations of Sitophilus zeamais with different levels of susceptibility to insecticides show differences in the accumulation and mobilization of energy reserves. These differences may allow S. zeamais to better withstand toxic compounds without reducing the beetles' reproductive fitness. Enzymatic assays with carbohydrate- and lipid-metabolizing enzymes were, therefore, carried out to test this hypothesis. Activity levels of trehalase, glycogen phosphorylase, lipase, glycosidase and amylase were determined in two insecticide-resistant populations showing (resistant cost) or not showing (resistant no-cost) associated fitness cost, and in an insecticide-susceptible population. Respirometry bioassays were also carried out with these weevil populations. The resistant no-cost population showed significantly higher body mass and respiration rate than the other two populations, which were similar. No significant differences in glycogen phosphorylase and glycosidase were observed among the populations. Among the enzymes studied, trehalase and lipase showed higher activity in the resistant cost population. The results obtained in the assays with amylase also indicate significant differences in activity among the populations, but with higher activity in the resistant no-cost population. The inverse activity trends of lipases and amylases in both resistant populations, one showing fitness disadvantage without insecticide exposure and the other not showing it, may underlay the mitigation of insecticide resistance physiological costs observed in the resistant no-cost population. The higher amylase activity observed in the resistant no-cost population may favor energy storage

  20. Radiation induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationships to desiccation and adult mortality: Annual progress report, February 15, 1986 to February 14, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriharan, S.

    1987-03-01

    The effects of gamma-ray irradiation on granary weevil Sitophilus granarius was studied. Cesium-137 was investigated with regard to its effectiveness in insect disinfestation of grains. The cuticular hydrocarbons of treated and control weevils were analyzed by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry (Gc/Ms). The effects of different dose rates and Relative Humidity (RH) conditions on desiccation were studied by determining body weight and moisture loss. Observations on germination of irradiated wheat seeds were made as complementary to the above studies. The weevils of older age group were more sensitive to gamma radiation. With dose-rate exceeding .15 kGy the mortality is higher during 11 to 15 days after irradiation. While at lower dose-rates 0.01 kGy and 0.05 kGy lower age group insect tend to prolong and survive longer. Analysis of epicuticular hydrocarbons of adult Sitophilus granarius showed that hydrocarbons C 25 to C 33 were present in significant amount. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of irradiated and control weevils suggests that there was little qualitative but considerable quantitative differences between the hydrocarbon fraction (C 25 to C 33 ) in these two groups. 3 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Comparison of insecticidal efficacy of four natural substances against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.]) adults: does the combined use of the substances improve their efficacy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohinc, T.; Trdan, S.

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of different natural inert dusts (diatomaceous earth, wood ash, quartz sand) and the leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.]) adults. The efficacy of the substances was tested individually and in combination with each other. The substances were applied at different concentrations, and bioassays were carried out at four different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35°C) and two different relative humidity (RH) levels (55% and 75%). The adult mortality was recorded after the 7th, 14th and 21st days of exposure. The progeny production of individuals exposed to different combinations was also assessed. Wood ash proved to be the most efficient inert dust in our research. We detected 100% mortality in the treatment exposed to a higher concentration (5 w%) of wood ash at 35°C and 55% RH after 7 days of exposure. A lower RH level had also a negative impact on the progeny production. We can conclude that wood ash can be efficient in controlling granary weevil adults as a single substance or in combination with other substances. Further surveys should focus on the impact of the wood ash dose rates. Due to the high percentage of area covered with forest in some European countries, the main ingredient is present locally, but additional surveys are needed to help improve the practical use of wood ash.

  2. Behavioral and neurosensory responses of the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), to fluorinated analogs of aldehyde components of its pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J C; Prestwich, G D; Sun, W C

    1991-06-01

    Competitive field tests with α-fluorinated analogs of compounds III and IV (III-α-F and IV-α-F, respectively) of the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boh., aggregation pheromone showed these compounds, when combined with the other pheromone components [(±)-I and II], to be as attractive as grandlure [(+)-I, II, and III+IV]. Dose-response curves constructed from electroantennograms of male boll weevils to serial stimulus loads of III, IV, III-α-F, IV-α-F, and the corresponding acyl fluorinated analogs (III-acyl-F and IV-acyl-F) showed the α-fiuorinated analogs to be as active as the pheromone components (threshold=0.1 μg), while the acyl fluorinated analogs had a 10-100 x higher threshold (=1-10 μg). Single-neuron recordings showed that IV neurons and II neurons (Dickens, 1990) responded to IV-α-F and III-α-F, respectively, while IV-acyl-F and III-acyl-F were inactive. Since a previous study showed compounds I, II, and IV to be essential for behavioral responses in the field, it seems likely that the activity of the α-fluorinated analogs observed here is due to the stimulation of IV neurons by IV-α-F as indicated in single neuron recordings.

  3. Comparison of insecticidal efficacy of four natural substances against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults: does the combined use of the substances improve their efficacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bohinc

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of different natural inert dusts (diatomaceous earth, wood ash, quartz sand and the leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults. The efficacy of the substances was tested individually and in combination with each other. The substances were applied at different concentrations, and bioassays were carried out at four different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35°C and two different relative humidity (RH levels (55% and 75%. The adult mortality was recorded after the 7th, 14th and 21st days of exposure. The progeny production of individuals exposed to different combinations was also assessed. Wood ash proved to be the most efficient inert dust in our research. We detected 100% mortality in the treatment exposed to a higher concentration (5 w% of wood ash at 35°C and 55% RH after 7 days of exposure. A lower RH level had also a negative impact on the progeny production. We can conclude that wood ash can be efficient in controlling granary weevil adults as a single substance or in combination with other substances. Further surveys should focus on the impact of the wood ash dose rates. Due to the high percentage of area covered with forest in some European countries, the main ingredient is present locally, but additional surveys are needed to help improve the practical use of wood ash.

  4. Site of pheromone biosynthesis and isolation of HMG-CoA reductase cDNA in the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taban, A Huma; Fu, Jessica; Blake, Jacob; Awano, Ami; Tittiger, Claus; Blomquist, Gary J

    2006-08-01

    Isolated gut tissue from male cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), incorporated radiolabeled acetate into components that co-eluted with monoterpenoid pheromone components on HPLC. This demonstrates that pheromone components of male A. grandis are produced de novo and strongly suggests that pheromone biosynthesis occurs in gut tissue. A central enzyme in isoprenoid biosynthesis is 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-R), and a full-length HMG-R cDNA was isolated from A. grandis. The predicted translation product was 54 and 45% identical to HMG-R from Ips paraconfusus and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. HMG-R gene expression gradually increased with age in male A. grandis, which correlates with pheromone production. However, topical application of JH III did not significantly increase HMG-R mRNA levels.

  5. Lethal and sublethal effects of selected insecticides and an insect growth regulator on the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) ectoparasitoid Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzen, G W; Maldonado, S N; Rojas, M G

    2000-04-01

    A laboratory culture of Catolaccus grandis (Burks), an ectoparasitoid of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, was exposed to lethal and sublethal doses of insecticides and an insect growth regulator using a spray chamber bioassay. Materials tested were azinphos-methyl, endosulfan, fipronil, malathion, cyfluthrin, dimethoate, spinosad, methyl parathion, acephate, oxamyl, and tebufenozide. At full rates, spinosad was significantly less toxic to female C. grandis than other treatments except endosulfan. Fipronil and malathion were significantly more toxic to females than other treatments. Most of the chemicals tested were highly toxic to male C. grandis; spinosad was least toxic. At reduced rates, most of 4 selected chemicals tested were low in toxicity to C. grandis; however, a reduced rate of malathion was significantly more toxic to females than other treatments. No C. grandis pupae developed from parasitism during a 24-h treatment period with malathion or spinosad. The sex ratio of progeny from sprayed adults appeared to be unaffected by the treatments.

  6. Esterases of laboratory-reared and field-collected cotton boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis Boh.: polymorphism of adult esterases and formal genetics of esterase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggers, C J; Bancroft, H R

    1977-04-01

    The esterases of the cotton boll weevil were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis into four major regions. These were named Est I-IV in order of migration from anode to origin. Polymorphism was observed in all regions. The Est II region was shown to consist of no more than two bands (fast and slow). The inheritance of the fast and slow bands of Est II was demonstrated to be controlled by codominant autosomal alleles. Analysis of the gene frequency of the Est II region showed that one field population was consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg law (P = 0.995), while a second field population was not at equilibrium (P less than 0.001).

  7. Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Cassia Bená

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus vis Clark (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, inquiline into the gall of Leandra aurea (Melastomataceae. The third instar larva and the pupa of Anthonomus vis Clark, 1992 are described and illustrated, based upon specimens collected in the Serra de São José, Tiradentes, in Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil. The species was previously known from the type series collected in the states of Amapá and Pará. Comparisons with the larva and pupa of A. grandis Boheman, 1843 and A. monostigma Champion, 1903 are included. The larvae of A. vis live as inquilines in the galls induced by a species of momphid moths (Lepidoptera, Momphidae in the stems of Leandra aurea (Cham. Cogn. (Melastomataceae.

  8. Differential recognition of geometric isomers by the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Evidence for only three essential components in aggregation pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, J C; Prestwich, G D

    1989-02-01

    For two decades, the aggregation pheromone of the boll weevil,Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was thought to consist of four compounds: I [(+)-(Z)-2-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclobutane ethanol]; II [(Z)-3,3-dimethyl-Δ(I,β)-cyclohexane ethanol]; III [(Z)-3,3-dimethyl-Δ(1,α)-cyclohexane acetaldehyde); and IV [(E)-3,3-dimethyl-Δ(1,α)-cyclohexane acetaldehyde). Evidence is presented from behavioral and electrophysiological studies to show that only three of these components, I, II, and IV, are essential for attraction. Competitive field tests, in which each possible three-component blend was tested against the four-component mixture, demonstrated that omission of I, II. or IV resulted in decreased trap captures (P < 0.01). Trap captures by these blends lacking I, II, or IV resembled those by the hexane solvent alone in a similar experiment. However, omission of III did not significantly alter field attractiveness of the blend. Dosage-response curves constructed from electroantennogram responses of both males and females to serial dilutions of III, IV, and a 50∶50 mixture of the geometric isomers III and IV showed both sexes to be 10- to 100-fold more sensitive to IV than III. Data from the electrophysiological studies were consistent with a single acceptor type for the (E)-cyclohexylidene aldehyde, IV, for males, and possibly one or two acceptor types for III and IV for females. Possible roles for the (Z)-cyclohexylidene aldehyde, III, and implications for the pheromonal attractant currently used in boll weevil eradication/suppression programs are discussed.

  9. Presence and significance of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins associated with the Andean weevil Premnotrypes vorax (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SilvioAlejandro López-Pazos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Andean weevil Premnotrypes vorax represents an important cause of damage to Colombian potato crops. Due to the impact of this plague on the economy of the country, we searched for new alternatives for its biological control, based on the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. A total of 300 B. thuringiensis strains obtained from potato plantations infested with P. vorax were analyzed through crystal morphology, SDS-PAGE, PCR and bioassays. We used site- directed mutagenesis to modify the Cry3Aa protein. Most of the B. thuringiensis isolates had a bipyramidal crystal morphology. SDS-PAGE analyses had seven strains groups with σ-endotoxins from 35 to 135 kDa. The genes cry 2 and cry 1 were significantly more frequent in the P. vorax habitat (PCR analyses. Three mutant toxins, 1 (D354E, 2 (R345A, ∆Y350, ∆Y351, and 3 (Q482A, S484A, R485A, were analyzed to assess their activity against P. vorax larvae. Toxicity was low, or absent, against P. vorax for isolates, wild type cry 3Aa and cry 3Aa mutants. The genetic characterization of the collection provides opportunities for the selection of strains to be tested in bioassays against other insect pests of agricultural importance, and for designing Cry proteins with improved insecticidal toxicity. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1235-1243. Epub 2009 December 01.El gorgojo andino Premnotrypes vorax es una causa importante de daño en los cultivos colombianos de este tubérculo. Debido al impacto que esta plaga tiene sobre la economía del país, nos interesamos en buscar alternativas nuevas para el control biológico de P. vorax, basadas en la bacteria entomopatógena Bacillus thuringiensis. Se recolectaron un total de 300 cepas de B. thuringiensis a partir de plantaciones de papa infestadas con P. vorax, las cuales fueron analizadas por medio de la morfología del cristal, SDS-PAGE, PCR y ensayos biológicos. La mayoría de los aislamientos de B. thuringiensis presentaron cristales

  10. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on ground after damage by boll weevil and the efficiency of the equipment used to collect them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we determined the spatial and temporal distribution of fallen cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen damaged by boll weevil and the efficiency and time interval of the equipment used to collect cotton samples. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on the soil damaged by boll weevil among cotton rows was determined in an experimental design of randomized blocks in a factorial arrangement of 4x3, represented by soil surface tracks located at 1-11cm, 12-22cm, 23-33cm, and 34-44cm away from the planting row of cotton plants 70, 85, and 100 days of age. Efficiency and collection time interval of the cotton samples fallen on the soil infested by boll weevil by plastic rakes that were straight or fan-shaped, big broom, collector instrument model CNPA and aspirator of leaves ‘Trapp’ were determined in randomized block design with five treatments, 10 repetitions for each. Results demonstrated that the collection of cotton samples must be performed with greater attention to soil strips located below the cotton top projection and aspirator ‘Trapp’ of leaves was more appropriate for the operation as it used less time of collection with similar efficiency to other available equipment.

  11. Identification of the genes involved in odorant reception and detection in the palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important quarantine pest, by antennal transcriptome analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Antony, Binu

    2016-01-22

    Background The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) is one of the most damaging invasive insect species in the world. This weevil is highly specialized to thrive in adverse desert climates, and it causes major economic losses due to its effects on palm trees around the world. RPWs locate palm trees by means of plant volatile cues and use an aggregation pheromone to coordinate a mass-attack. Here we report on the high throughput sequencing of the RPW antennal transcriptome and present a description of the highly expressed chemosensory gene families. Results Deep sequencing and assembly of the RPW antennal transcriptome yielded 35,667 transcripts with an average length of 857 bp and identified a large number of highly expressed transcripts of odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors/co-receptors (ORs/Orcos), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). In total, 38 OBPs, 12 CSPs, 76 ORs, 1 Orco, 6 SNMPs, 15 GRs and 10 IRs were annotated in the R. ferrugineus antennal transcriptome. A comparative transcriptome analysis with the bark beetle showed that 25 % of the blast hits were unique to R. ferrugineus, indicating a higher, more complete transcript coverage for R. ferrugineus. We categorized the RPW ORs into seven subfamilies of coleopteran ORs and predicted two new subfamilies of ORs. The OR protein sequences were compared with those of the flour beetle, the cerambycid beetle and the bark beetle, and we identified coleopteran-specific, highly conserved ORs as well as unique ORs that are putatively involved in RPW aggregation pheromone detection. We identified 26 Minus-C OBPs and 8 Plus-C OBPs and grouped R. ferrugineus OBPs into different OBP-subfamilies according to phylogeny, which indicated significant species-specific expansion and divergence in R. ferrugineus. We also identified a diverse family of CSP proteins, as well as a coleopteran

  12. Supplementary Material for: Identification of the genes involved in odorant reception and detection in the palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important quarantine pest, by antennal transcriptome analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Antony, Binu; Soffan, Alan; Jakše, Jernej; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Aldosari, Saleh; Aldawood, Abdulrahman; Pain, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) is one of the most damaging invasive insect species in the world. This weevil is highly specialized to thrive in adverse desert climates, and it causes major economic losses due to its effects on palm trees around the world. RPWs locate palm trees by means of plant volatile cues and use an aggregation pheromone to coordinate a mass-attack. Here we report on the high throughput sequencing of the RPW antennal transcriptome and present a description of the highly expressed chemosensory gene families. Results Deep sequencing and assembly of the RPW antennal transcriptome yielded 35,667 transcripts with an average length of 857 bp and identified a large number of highly expressed transcripts of odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors/co-receptors (ORs/Orcos), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). In total, 38 OBPs, 12 CSPs, 76 ORs, 1 Orco, 6 SNMPs, 15 GRs and 10 IRs were annotated in the R. ferrugineus antennal transcriptome. A comparative transcriptome analysis with the bark beetle showed that 25 % of the blast hits were unique to R. ferrugineus, indicating a higher, more complete transcript coverage for R. ferrugineus. We categorized the RPW ORs into seven subfamilies of coleopteran ORs and predicted two new subfamilies of ORs. The OR protein sequences were compared with those of the flour beetle, the cerambycid beetle and the bark beetle, and we identified coleopteran-specific, highly conserved ORs as well as unique ORs that are putatively involved in RPW aggregation pheromone detection. We identified 26 Minus-C OBPs and 8 Plus-C OBPs and grouped R. ferrugineus OBPs into different OBP-subfamilies according to phylogeny, which indicated significant species-specific expansion and divergence in R. ferrugineus. We also identified a diverse family of CSP proteins, as well as a coleopteran

  13. Identification of the genes involved in odorant reception and detection in the palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important quarantine pest, by antennal transcriptome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Binu; Soffan, Alan; Jakše, Jernej; Abdelazim, Mahmoud M; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S; Pain, Arnab

    2016-01-22

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) is one of the most damaging invasive insect species in the world. This weevil is highly specialized to thrive in adverse desert climates, and it causes major economic losses due to its effects on palm trees around the world. RPWs locate palm trees by means of plant volatile cues and use an aggregation pheromone to coordinate a mass-attack. Here we report on the high throughput sequencing of the RPW antennal transcriptome and present a description of the highly expressed chemosensory gene families. Deep sequencing and assembly of the RPW antennal transcriptome yielded 35,667 transcripts with an average length of 857 bp and identified a large number of highly expressed transcripts of odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors/co-receptors (ORs/Orcos), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). In total, 38 OBPs, 12 CSPs, 76 ORs, 1 Orco, 6 SNMPs, 15 GRs and 10 IRs were annotated in the R. ferrugineus antennal transcriptome. A comparative transcriptome analysis with the bark beetle showed that 25% of the blast hits were unique to R. ferrugineus, indicating a higher, more complete transcript coverage for R. ferrugineus. We categorized the RPW ORs into seven subfamilies of coleopteran ORs and predicted two new subfamilies of ORs. The OR protein sequences were compared with those of the flour beetle, the cerambycid beetle and the bark beetle, and we identified coleopteran-specific, highly conserved ORs as well as unique ORs that are putatively involved in RPW aggregation pheromone detection. We identified 26 Minus-C OBPs and 8 Plus-C OBPs and grouped R. ferrugineus OBPs into different OBP-subfamilies according to phylogeny, which indicated significant species-specific expansion and divergence in R. ferrugineus. We also identified a diverse family of CSP proteins, as well as a coleopteran-specific CSP lineage that

  14. Evaluation of freshly prepared juice from garlic (Allium sativum L. as a biopesticide against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwachukwu Ifeanyi Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshly prepared garlic (Allium sativum L. juice, containing the antimicrobial allicin, was evaluated as a possible grain pro-tectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.. Each experiment was set out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with four replications, and there was a control treatment. Adult mortality and weight loss percentage were investigated. There was an observed increase in adult mortality following days of exposure in all treatments. Statistically significant (p < 0.05 reduced grain loss was also observed in all the treatments when compared with the control. The juice samples were freshly prepared from an indigenous Nigerian garlic cultivar (GUN and a cultivar purchased from a supermarket in Germany (GAG. These garlic juice samples exhibited lethal effects causing at least 90% adult mortality in contact toxicity tests. The amount of allicin in GUN was 1.88 mg/ml according to High Pressure Liquids Chromatography (HPLC analysis, while the amount of allicin in GAG was 3.50 mg/ml. This study highlights the potential of A. sativum containing allicin for biorational control of maize grains against S. zeamais infestation and damage.

  15. A diverse family of serine proteinase genes expressed in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis): implications for the design of pest-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Batista, João A N; Rigden, Daniel J; Fragoso, Rodrigo R; Silva, Rodrigo O; Gomes, Eliane A; Franco, Octávio L; Dias, Simoni C; Cordeiro, Célia M T; Monnerat, Rose G; Grossi-De-Sá, Maria F

    2004-09-01

    Fourteen different cDNA fragments encoding serine proteinases were isolated by reverse transcription-PCR from cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) larvae. A large diversity between the sequences was observed, with a mean pairwise identity of 22% in the amino acid sequence. The cDNAs encompassed 11 trypsin-like sequences classifiable into three families and three chymotrypsin-like sequences belonging to a single family. Using a combination of 5' and 3' RACE, the full-length sequence was obtained for five of the cDNAs, named Agser2, Agser5, Agser6, Agser10 and Agser21. The encoded proteins included amino acid sequence motifs of serine proteinase active sites, conserved cysteine residues, and both zymogen activation and signal peptides. Southern blotting analysis suggested that one or two copies of these serine proteinase genes exist in the A. grandis genome. Northern blotting analysis of Agser2 and Agser5 showed that for both genes, expression is induced upon feeding and is concentrated in the gut of larvae and adult insects. Reverse northern analysis of the 14 cDNA fragments showed that only two trypsin-like and two chymotrypsin-like were expressed at detectable levels. Under the effect of the serine proteinase inhibitors soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor and black-eyed pea trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor, expression of one of the trypsin-like sequences was upregulated while expression of the two chymotrypsin-like sequences was downregulated. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Purification of a 6.5 kDa protease inhibitor from Amazon Inga umbratica seeds effective against serine proteases of the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, L A; Teles, R C L; Leite, J R S A; Franco, O L; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Medrano, F J; Bloch, C; Freitas, S M

    2005-08-01

    A 6.5 kDa serine protease inhibitor was purified by anion-exchange chromatography from the crude extract of the Inga umbratica seeds, containing inhibitor isoforms ranging from 6.3 to 6.7 kDa and protease inhibitors of approximately 19 kDa. The purified protein was characterized as a potent inhibitor against trypsin and chymotrypsin and it was named I. umbratica trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor (IUTCI). MALDI-TOF spectra of the IUTCI, in the presence of DTT, showed six disulfide bonds content, suggesting that this inhibitor belongs to Bowman-Birk family. The circular dichroism spectroscopy indicates that IUTCI is predominantly formed by unordered and beta-sheet secondary structure. It was also characterized, by fluorescence spectroscopy, as a stable protein at range of pH from 5.0 to 7.0. Moreover, this inhibitor at concentration of 75 microM presented a remarkable inhibitory activity (60%) against digestive serine proteases from boll weevil Anthonomus grandis, an important economical cotton pest.

  17. Distribution and probable physiological role of esterases in reproductive, digestive, and fat-body tissues of the adult cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B R; Bancroft, H R

    1986-06-01

    Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to examine gut, Malpighian tube, fat-body, testes, and ovarioles tissues of the adult cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. Esterases for which the inheritance has been reported previously by Terranova using whole-body homogenates were detected in dissected tissues and the probable physiological function of each allozyme is suggested. EST-1 occurs most frequently in ovarioles and female fat bodies. EST-2 is most often found in fat bodies and may be important in lipid turnover. No sex difference was observed. EST-3S is found in fat bodies and reproductive tissue, while EST-3F is always located in gut tissues, indicating that EST-3 is not controlled by a single autosomal locus with two codominant alleles as previously reported. EST-4, the most abundant esterase, can be detected in gut tissue at any age and is probably involved in digestion. EST-5 contains four allozymes which appear most frequently in testes and may be important during reproduction.

  18. Molecular cloning of alpha-amylases from cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis and structural relations to plant inhibitors: an approach to insect resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Neto, Osmundo B; Batista, João A N; Rigden, Daniel J; Franco, Octávio L; Falcão, Rosana; Fragoso, Rodrigo R; Mello, Luciane V; dos Santos, Roseane C; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F

    2003-01-01

    Anthonomus grandis, the cotton boll weevil, causes severe cotton crop losses in North and South America. Here we demonstrate the presence of starch in the cotton pollen grains and young ovules that are the main A. grandis food source. We further demonstrate the presence of alpha-amylase activity, an essential enzyme of carbohydrate metabolism for many crop pests, in A. grandis midgut. Two alpha-amylase cDNAs from A. grandis larvae were isolated using RT-PCR followed by 5' and 3' RACE techniques. These encode proteins with predicted molecular masses of 50.8 and 52.7kDa, respectively, which share 58% amino acid identity. Expression of both genes is induced upon feeding and concentrated in the midgut of adult insects. Several alpha-amylase inhibitors from plants were assayed against A. grandis alpha-amylases but, unexpectedly, only the BIII inhibitor from rye kernels proved highly effective, with inhibitors generally active against other insect amylases lacking effect. Structural modeling of Amylag1 and Amylag2 showed that different factors seem to be responsible for the lack of effect of 0.19 and alpha-AI1 inhibitors on A. grandis alpha-amylase activity. This work suggests that genetic engineering of cotton to express alpha-amylase inhibitors may offer a novel route to A. grandis resistance.

  19. Area-wide mass trapping by pheromone-based attractants for the control of sugar beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar, Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmić, Zrinka; Tóth, Miklós; Lemić, Darija; Grubišić, Dinka; Pospišil, Milan; Bažok, Renata

    2017-10-01

    Owing to the changing climate, narrow crop rotation, and changes in insecticide application practice, sugar beet weevil (SBW) (Bothynoderes punctiventris Germar) has become the most important economic pest in sugar beet. To develop alternative control methods, an area-wide (AW) control program using aggregation pheromones was implemented over 4 years on an area of 6 and 14.8 km 2 in east Croatia. The mass trapping of SBW on the 'old' sugar beet fields reduced the population from 0.73% to 11.59%. Owing to the strong attack, mass trapping was not effective enough to avoid an insecticide application. However, it significantly reduced the number of insecticide applications, the amount of insecticide used, and the damage compared to the fields outside the mass trapping area. This is the first study to implement an AW program for SBW. It may not be possible to state from this study that trapping alone can reduce the SBW population below the economic threshold level. However, the data do suggest that trapping can play an important role in the reduction of insecticide applications and in creating an integrated pest management plan for dealing with SBW under similar circumstances. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Application of Principal Component Analysis in Assessment of Relation Between the Parameters of Technological Quality of Wheat Grains Treated with Inert Dusts Against Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L.

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    Marija Bodroža-Solarov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters of several wheat grain lots (low vitreous and high vitreous grains,non-infested and infested with rice weevils, (Sitophilus oryzae L. treated with inert dusts(natural zeolite, two diatomaceous earths originating from Serbia and a commercial productProtect-It® were investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to investigatethe classification of treated grain lots and to assess how attributes of technological qualitycontribute to this classification. This research showed that vitreousness (0.95 and test weight(0.93 contributed most to the first principal component whereas extensigraph area (-0.76contributed to the second component. The determined accountability of the total variabilityby the first component was around 55%, while with the second it was 18%, which meansthat those two dimensions together account for around 70% of total variability of the observedset of variables. Principal component analysis (PCA of data set was able to distinguishamong the various treatments of wheat lots. It was revealed that inert dust treatments producedifferent effects depending on the degree of endosperm vitreousness.

  1. Effects of phosphorus availability and genetic variation of leaf terpene content and emission rate in Pinus pinaster seedlings susceptible and resistant to the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, J-S; Sampedro, L; Llusià, J; Moreira, X; Zas, R; Peñuelas, J

    2012-03-01

    We studied the effects of phosphorus fertilisation on foliar terpene concentrations and foliar volatile terpene emission rates in six half-sib families of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings. Half of the seedlings were resistant to attack of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis L., a generalist phloem feeder, and the remaining seedlings were susceptible to this insect. We hypothesised that P stress could modify the terpene concentration in the needles and thus lead to altered terpene emission patterns relevant to plant-insect signalling. The total concentration and emission rate ranged between 5732 and 13,995 μg·g(-1) DW and between 2 and 22 μg·g(-1) DW·h(-1), respectively. Storage and emission were dominated by the isomers α- and β-pinene (77.2% and 84.2% of the total terpene amount amassed and released, respectively). In both resistant and susceptible families, P stress caused an increase of 31% in foliar terpene concentration with an associated 5-fold decrease in terpene emission rates. A higher terpene content in the leaves implies that the 'excess carbon', available under limiting growth conditions (P scarcity), is allocated to terpene production. Sensitive families showed a greater increase in terpene emission rates with increasing P concentrations, which could explain their susceptibility to H. abietis. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Trials on the Timing of Chemical Control of Lentil weevil, Bruchus lentis Frӧlich (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae in Lentil Field in Gachsaran Region (Iran

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    K. Saeidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lentil weevil, Bruchus lentis Frӧlich, (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae is the most serious pest of lentil in Iran. Economic losses due to this pest reach up to 40% of the lentil crop. Over a two-year study (2012 and 2013 in Agricultural Research Station of Gachsaran Region, best timing of chemical control of B. lentis was determined. A field experiment with cultivation of lentil Sina variety Lens culinaris Medik was conducted in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of spraying four times (respectively, during the early flowering, 10 days after the first spraying, 10 days after the second spraying; 10 days after the third spraying and control (without spraying. For the spraying from Endosulfan insecticide EC50% at ratio one liter per hectare was used. Three samples were taken from the pods and totally 150 pods from each replicate for contaminations of seeds were investigated. After the determination of the percent of seeds contamination, results were statistically analysed. Based on the results obtained, first spray treatment, with the mean contamination of 15.45% and second spray treatment with the mean contamination of 12.25% had the highest impact on reducing contamination lentil seeds to B. lentis and between them there was no statistically significant difference and were in one group. Therefore, spraying one time during the early flowering until 15 days after it was the best time to control of B. lentis.

  3. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

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    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  4. Seleção de isolados de Beauveria bassiana patogênicos ao bicudo-do-algodoeiro Selection of isolates of Beauveria bassiana pathogenic to cotton boll weevil

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    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se selecionar isolados de Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vüillemin provenientes de diferentes hospedeiros e regiões geográficas, patogênicos ao Anthonomus grandis, o bicudo-do-algodoeiro. Foram analisados 12 isolados em condições de laboratório. Os isolados obtidos originalmente de A. grandis foram pouco virulentos a essa praga. A mortalidade do bicudo teve início no segundo dia após a inoculação das suspensões fúngicas, variando de 15% a 83%, com TL50 entre 5,30 a 11,06 dias. Os isolados apresentaram variabilidade quanto à germinação dos conídios em meio de cultura artificial, e esta não se correlacionou com a patogenicidade. O isolado CG138 de B. bassiana destacou-se como um dos mais virulentos ao bicudo-do-algodoeiro.The objective of this work was to screen pathogenic isolates of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo Vüillemin from different hosts and geographic regions, pathogenic to the cotton boll weevil. Twelve isolates were evaluated. Isolates originally obtained from boll weevil showed low pathogenicity against this host. Insect mortality began on the second day after inoculation by fungal suspension, ranging from 15% to 83%, with a TL50 of 5.30 to 11.06 days. Variability among isolates concerning conidial germination in artificial culture medium was verified, and TG50 did not correlate with pathogenicity. One of the most virulent isolates of B. bassiana against cotton boll weevil is CG138.

  5. Aspectos biológicos de adultos de um parasitóide do bicudo do algodoeiro Biological aspects of a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil

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    Lúcia Helena Avelino Araújo

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Bracon sp. é um importante agente de controle biológico de Anthonomus grandis (Boheman. Estudaram-se em laboratório, aspectos biológicos de Bracon sp., utilizando-se como hospedeiro larva do bicudo do algodoeiro, a temperatura de 26 ± 2oC, 70 ± 5% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. O ciclo biológico de Bracon sp. teve duração média de 11,7 dias, o período de incubação de 1 dia, o período médio larval de 3,9 dias, com 4 estádios; a viabilidade larval de 98,7%, o período pré-pupal de 0,6 dia, o período pupal de 6,2 dias, o tempo de pré-oviposição de 4,0 dias. A fêmea colocou, em média, 74 ovos em um período de 27,2 dias, a oviposição média diária de 2,7 ovos/fêmea/dia, o período de pós-oviposição de 3,7 dias e a longevidade de Bracon sp. foi de 34 dias para as fêmeas. A informação da biologia deste braconídeo é necessária para desenvolver estratégias de propagação e colonização do parasitóide.Bracon sp. is an important biological control agent of Anthonomus grandis, the cotton Boll weevil. The objective of this work was to evaluate biological aspects of Bracon sp. using cotton Boll weevil larvae as host, at conditions of 26 ± 2oC, with 70 ± 5% RH and 12h photoperiod. The complete life cycle of Bracon sp. was 11.7 days. The incubation period lasted 1.0 day and the larval period 3.9 days with four stages; the viability of the larvae was 98.7%; prepupal period lasted 0.6 day; and the pupal period lasted 6.2 days. Preoviposition period was 4.0 days, and the females laid an average of 74.0 eggs with in an oviposition period of 27.2 days, while the average daily oviposition rate was 2.7 eggs per female per day, posovipositional lasted 3.7 days, and the longevity of Bracon sp. was 34.0 days in females. The information of the biology of this Braconid is needed to develop parasitoid propagation and colonization strategies.

  6. Different processing of CAPA and pyrokinin precursors in the giant mealworm beetle Zophobas atratus (Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis grandis (Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, Susanne; Marciniak, Pawel; Köhler, Rene; Nachman, Ronald J; Suh, Charles P-C; Predel, Reinhard

    2018-03-01

    Capa and pyrokinin (pk) genes in hexapods share a common evolutionary origin. Using transcriptomics and peptidomics, we analyzed products of these genes in two beetles, the giant mealworm beetle (Zophobas atratus; Tenebrionidae) and the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis grandis; Curculionidae). Our data revealed that even within Coleoptera, which represents a very well-defined group of insects, highly different evolutionary developments occurred in the neuropeptidergic system. These differences, however, primarily affect the general structure of the precursors and differential processing of mature peptides and, to a lesser degree, the sequences of the active core motifs. With the differential processing of the CAPA-precursor in Z. atratus we found a perfect example of completely different products cleaved from a single neuropeptide precursor in different cells. The CAPA precursor in abdominal ganglia of this species yields primarily periviscerokinins (PVKs) whereas processing of the same precursor in neurosecretory cells of the subesophageal ganglion results in CAPA-tryptoPK and a novel CAPA-PK. Particularly important was the detection of that CAPA-PK which has never been observed in the CNS of insects before. The three different types of CAPA peptides (CAPA-tryptoPK, CAPA-PK, PVK) each represent potential ligands which activate different receptors. In contrast to the processing of the CAPA precursor from Z. atratus, no indications of a differential processing of the CAPA precursor were found in A. g. grandis. These data suggest that rapid evolutionary changes regarding the processing of CAPA precursors were still going on when the different beetle lineages diverged. The sequence of the single known PVK of A. g. grandis occupies a special position within the known PVKs of insects and might serve asa basis to develop lineage-specific peptidomimetics capable of disrupting physiological processes regulated by PVKs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Different Lignocellulosic Diets on Bacterial Microbiota and Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities in the Gut of the Cotton Boll Weevil (Anthonomus grandis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Guerrero, Emiliano; Soria, Marcelo; Salvador, Ricardo; Ceja-Navarro, Javier A; Campos, Eleonora; Brodie, Eoin L; Talia, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Cotton boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis , are omnivorous coleopteran that can feed on diets with different compositions, including recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials. We characterized the changes in the prokaryotic community structure and the hydrolytic activities of A. grandis larvae fed on different lignocellulosic diets. A. grandis larvae were fed on three different artificial diets: cottonseed meal (CM), Napier grass (NG) and corn stover (CS). Total DNA was extracted from the gut samples for amplification and sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene. Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the gut microbiota followed by Actinobacteria, Spirochaetes and a small number of unclassified phyla in CM and NG microbiomes. In the CS feeding group, members of Spirochaetes were the most prevalent, followed by Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Bray-Curtis distances showed that the samples from the CS community were clearly separated from those samples of the CM and NG diets. Gut extracts from all three diets exhibited endoglucanase, xylanase, β-glucosidase and pectinase activities. These activities were significantly affected by pH and temperature across different diets. We observed that the larvae reared on a CM showed significantly higher activities than larvae reared on NG and CS. We demonstrated that the intestinal bacterial community structure varies depending on diet composition. Diets with more variable and complex compositions, such as CS, showed higher bacterial diversity and richness than the two other diets. In spite of the detected changes in composition and diversity, we identified a core microbiome shared between the three different lignocellulosic diets. These results suggest that feeding with diets of different lignocellulosic composition could be a viable strategy to discover variants of hemicellulose and cellulose breakdown systems.

  8. A taxonomic monograph of the leaf-litter inhabiting weevil genus Plumolepilius new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios-Izás, Manuel A; Anderson, Robert S; Morrone, Juan J

    2016-09-14

    We describe the Mesoamerican leaf litter weevil genus Plumolepilius Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new genus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Conotrachelini) (type species P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species), species of which inhabit mountain ecosystems from the state of Chiapas in southeastern Mexico to northern Panama. In this paper we describe nine new species from Mexico, Guatemala, and El Salvador: P. trifiniensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (El Salvador and Guatemala); P. branstetteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. longinoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. cortezi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. canoi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. schusteri Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala and Mexico); P. daryi Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); P. yolnabajensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala); and P. macalajauensis Barrios-Izás & Anderson, new species (Guatemala).        The genus and the species are named and described, information on their geographical distributions is given and images of the habitus of both sexes and the aedeagus are presented. A key to the species of Plumolepilius based on males is included.        The monophyly of Plumolepilius was confirmed by a parsimony analysis of external and male aedeagus morphology and the genus is best characterized by the presence of plumose scales lining the prosternal channel. Phylogenetic analysis supports that Lepilius Champion 1905 is the sister genus of Plumolepilius.

  9. The influence of crop management on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) populations and yield of highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukazambuga, N D T M; Gold, C S; Gowen, S R; Ragama, P

    2002-10-01

    A field study was undertaken in Uganda using highland cooking banana (cv. Atwalira) to test the hypothesis that bananas grown under stressed conditions are more susceptible to attack by Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). Four banana treatments were employed to create different levels of host-plant vitality: (1) high stress: intercrop with finger millet; (2) moderate stress: monoculture without soil amendments; (3) low stress: monoculture with manure; (4) high vigour: monoculture with continuous mulch and manure. Adult C. sordidus were released at the base of banana mats 11 months after planting and populations were monitored for three years using mark and recapture methods. Cosmopolites sordidus density was greatest in the mulched plots which may have reflected increased longevity and/or longer tenure time in moist soils. Lowest C. sordidus numbers were found in intercropped banana. Damage, estimated as percentage corm tissue consumed by larvae, was similar among treatments. However, the total amount of tissue consumed was greater in mulched banana than in other systems. Plants supporting the heaviest levels of C. sordidus damage displayed bunch size reductions of 40-55%. Banana yield losses ranged from 14-20% per plot with similar levels in the intercropped and mulched systems. Yield reductions, reported as t ha-1, were twice as high in the mulched system as in the intercrop. The results from this study indicate that C. sordidus problems are not confined to stressed banana systems or those with low levels of management, but that the weevil can also attain pest status in well-managed and productive banana stands.

  10. Transmission of entomopathogenic fungi on banana weevil controlTransmissão de fungo entomopatogênico no controle da broca do rizoma

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    Ernesto Antonio Lema López

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the transmission of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana among adults of banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus in the field. C. sordidus healthy adults were marked and released on the basis of banana plants. Two days later insects marked and inoculated with the entomopathogenic fungus were released in the same area. Pseudostem traps were placed at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days for recover of released insects and to evaluate the mortality. It was observed that 3.7% of the non inoculated insects died due to pathogen infection caracterizing B. bassiana transmission between inoculated and healthy insects due to an increase in natural pre-existing prevalescence that was 0.3% of infected insects.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a transmissão do fungo entomopatogênico (Beauveria bassiana entre adultos da broca do rizoma (Cosmopolites sordidus em condições de campo. Insetos adultos e sadios de C. sordidus foram marcados e liberados na base de touceiras de bananeiras e dois dias após na mesma área foram liberados insetos marcados e inoculados com o fungo B. bassiana. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias armadilhas de pseudocaule foram utilizadas para a recaptura dos insetos e determinação da mortalidade pelo fungo. Observou-se uma porcentagem de infecção de 3,7% dos insetos sadios recuperados, caracterizando a transmissão de B. bassiana entre insetos inoculados e sadios devido ao aumento da prevalência natural preexistente que era de 0,3 % de insetos doentes.

  11. PGRP-LB homolog acts as a negative modulator of immunity in maintaining the gut-microbe symbiosis of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawadi, Bishnu; Wang, Xinghong; Xiao, Rong; Muhammad, Abrar; Hou, Youming; Shi, Zhanghong

    2018-09-01

    Many notorious insect pests live in the symbiotic associations with gut microbiota. However, the mechanisms underlying how they host their gut microbiota are unknown. Most gut bacteria can release peptidoglycan (PGN) which is an important antigen to activate the immune response. Therefore, how to keep the appropriate gut immune intensity to host commensals while to efficiently remove enteropathogens is vital for insect health. This study is aimed at elucidating the roles of an amidase PGRP, Rf PGRP-LB, in maintaining the gut-microbe symbiosis of Red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier. RfPGRP-LB is a secreted protein containing a typical PGRP domain. The existence of five conservative amino acid residues, being required for amidase activity, showed that RfPGRP-LB is a catalytic protein. Expression analysis revealed abundance of RfPGRP-LB transcripts in gut was dramatically higher than those in other tissues. RfPGRP-LB could be significantly induced against the infection of Escherichia coli. In vitro assays revealed that rRfPGRP-LB impaired the growth of E. coli and agglutinated bacteria cells obviously, suggesting RfPGRP-LB is a pathogen recognition receptor and bactericidal molecule. RfPGRP-LB knockdown reduced the persistence of E. coli in gut and load of indigenous gut microbiota significantly. Furthermore, the community structure of indigenous gut microbiota was also intensively altered by RfPGRP-LB silence. Higher levels of the antimicrobial peptide, attacin, were detected in guts of RfPGRP-LB silenced larvae than controls. Collectively, RfPGRP-LB plays multiple roles in modulating the homeostasis of RPW gut microbiota not only by acting as a negative regulator of mucosal immunity through PGN degradation but also as a bactericidal effector to prevent overgrowth of commensals and persistence of noncommensals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inherited influence of low dose gamma radiation on the reproductive potential and spermiogenesis of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

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    Hatem A. Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F is a severe agriculture pest worldwide. In the current work, newly emerged adult males of C. maculatus have been irradiated with a low dose of 20Gy gamma radiation. The inherited deleterious effects on the fecundity, hatchability, adult emergence, and the sterility percent were recorded for the progenies F1 and F2 of the irradiated parental males. The fecundity, hatched larvae, the number of males and females were reduced in both F1 and F2. The sterility percent was high in F1 (70.8% and increased in the F2 (88.3% generation. Histopathological effects were also documented in the testes of F1 and F2 progenies. The spermatids and sperms have exhibited a variety of abnormalities. In the early spermatids, the nebenkern outer cell membrane was ruptured. The spermatid nucleus loses its homogeneous texture and has multiple foci of dense chromatin, as well as, profiles range has little dense material. In some groups, the nucleus had a peculiar ring of chromatin. The sperms had shown a variety of aberrations. The sperms irregularity distributed in lysed cysts by unusual manner. Also, some sperms had remarkably enlarged axoneme and small rounded nucleus. Many of the sperm cells were observed with two axonemes, abnormal mitochondria derivatives, and more than two accessory bodies. These results indicate that the low dose of 20 Gy induces semi-sterility in C. maculatus through generations. The same technique would help to improve using of sterile insect technique for other agriculture pests.

  13. Control of Rice Weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L., in Stored Wheat Grains with Mesquite Plant, Prosopis juliflora (SW, D.C. Seed Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.H. AI-Moajel

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of mesquite plant, Prosopis juliflora (SW D.C. (Family: Mimosaceae, seed extracts against rice weevil. Sitophilus oryzae (L, reared on wheat grains was investigated in the laboratory. The tested plant extracts of P. juliflora in petroleum ether, chloroform, and acetone, effectively controlled adults and their toxicity based on LC95 and LC5O values respectively was in order: acetone (12.0, 5.8ml/kg < pet ether (8.0, 4.1ml/kg chloroform (6.3, 2.2ml/kg. A highly significant oviposition deterency effect (P< 0.05 was found for all extracts at LC50 levels, while at LC95 levels, oviposition was nearly completely inhibited. Thus, progeny emergence was completely suppressed at Legs levels, also at LCSC, of acetone extract. Chlorofonn extract indicated a slow rate of degradation alter one month of storage (90% mortality. All tested plant extracts reduced weight loss in wheat grains after 45 days of storage, but chloroform extract was the most effective. Most treatments did not significantly affect water absorption but viability was significantly reduced. Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts caused a significant inhibition effect on acetyl choline esterase (AchE in adults while acetone extract caused a significant activation effect. All three different extracts, caused a significant activation effect on phosphases (AcP and AlkP, except for chloroform and acetone extract treatments which caused significant inhibition of AcP in adults. All extracts caused a significant decrease in protein and carbohydrate contents of adults, except the carbohydrate content of adults treated with acetone extract. There was a significant increase in lipid content in adults treated with all three extracts and significant increase of carbohydrate content only in adults treated with acetone extract.

  14. Synthesis of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-N,N'-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl)cyclobutane-1,3-diimine , a unique compound from Arundo donax, and its analogues to test their antifeedant activity against the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, K; Takikawa, H; Mori, K

    2000-03-01

    2,2,4,4-Tetramethyl-N,N'-bis(2,6-dimethylphenyl) cyclobutane-1,3-diimine (1), which was isolated from the Thai plant Arundo donax as an antifeedant against the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis), and its analogues (9-13) were synthesized and shown to possess no remarkable antifeedant activity of practical interest.

  15. Comparison of Trap Types, Placement, and Colors for Monitoring Anthonomus musculus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Adults in Highbush Blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego; Salamanca, Jordano; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera; Alborn, Hans T; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The cranberry weevil, Anthonomus musculus Say (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key (univoltine) pest of highbush blueberries in the northeast United States. To date, however, no trapping system has been developed to successfully monitor this pest. In 2012–2014, studies were conducted in commercial highbush blueberry farms in New Jersey to 1) evaluate the efficacy of various commercially available traps, designed for other weevil species (e.g., pepper weevil, plum curculio, boll weevil, red palm weevil, and black vine weevil), in capturing A. musculus adults; 2) test whether the relative location of traps within the blueberry canopy affects adult captures and 3) determine the effects of different colored (yellow, white, green, red, blue, brown, and black) sticky traps on weevil captures. For a comparison with existing techniques, we also monitored the number of overwintered adult weevils on blueberry bushes using beat sheet sampling. Of all traps and colors tested, the most A. musculus adults were caught on yellow sticky traps and more adults were captured when these traps were placed at the bottom half of the blueberry canopy, i.e., 0.5–1.0 m above ground. Most weevils were caught on colored traps late in the season (i.e., during bloom), which corresponds mostly to the second (summer) adult generation. Thus, number of overwintered adults caught on traps did not correlate with those on bushes. Although our study identified traps that can be used to capture A. musculus adults, these traps alone (i.e., without semiochemicals) have so far limited applicability for monitoring overwintered adult weevils in highbush blueberries.

  16. The theatrical life of things: Plautus and the physical

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    Alison Sharrock

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the semiotics of props and other physical items in Plautus’ Curculio. The play is over-determined with props: a candle, a door, fragrant wine, water, a ring, which comes in twice (and has a twin, a letter to go with it, a seal with represented elephant-slaying sword, a missing eye, a bad gut, animal names, like the wolfy banker Lyco, and the weevil-parasite Curculio, and a property manager who comes out for a little chat with the audience about the real-life Rome they can see around them. I am particularly concerned with the most powerfully metatheatrical and metapoetic elements, including the preternaturally quiet door, and the ring which has a life of its own weaving through the play and indeed through the comic tradition.

  17. Natural Areas Inventory 1981 (GREAT III)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    lanuginosa 3 Campsis radicans Carpinus caroliniana Carya cordifonnis Carya illinoensis Carya laciniosa Carya ovalis 2. Carya ovata Carya ...texana Carya toraentosa Ceanothus americanus Celastrus scandens 2, Celtis laevigata ^Celtis occidentalis Celtis tenuifolia 3 Cephalanthus

  18. Control of the Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus with kaolin Controle do caruncho-do-feijão Zabrotes subfasciatus com caulim

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    Adriana Yatie Mikami

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae is an important pest of stored beans in tropical regions. The efficiency of kaolin [with or without neem (Azadirachta indica oil] and diatomaceous earth (DE (standard treatment was studied in laboratory aiming to obtain alternatives for chemical control of this insect. Insects were confined in plastic vials containing beans treated with kaolin (2, 4 and 8g kg-1, kaolin + neem [2g kg-1(5% neem oil], diatomaceous earth (1g kg-1 and control. Mortality of adult insects, number of eggs and F1generation beetles emergency were assessed. Kaolin caused mortality of Z. subfasciatus, however higher periods and doses than DE were necessary to promote high mortality (100% or close. Kaolin treatments also affected female behavior because many eggs were placed in the vials walls. Number of emerged adults (F1 was similar between DE and kaolin; hence, kaolin constitutes a promising tool to the management of Z. subfasciatus. The mixture of kaolin and neem oil was not efficient in the control of Z. subfasciatus.O caruncho-do-feijão Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae é uma importante praga de grãos de feijão armazenado nas regiões tropicais. A eficiência do caulim [com ou sem óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica] e terra diatomácea (TD (tratamento padrão foi estudada em laboratório com o intuito de obter alternativas para o controle químico deste inseto. Insetos foram confinados em frascos de plástico com feijão tratado com caulim (2, 4 e 8g kg-1, caulim + nim [2g kg-1(5% óleo de nim], terra diatomácea (1g kg-1 e controle. Mortalidade de insetos adultos, número de ovos e emergência da geração F1 foram avaliados. Caulim causou a mortalidade de Z. subfasciatus, porém foram necessários maiores períodos e doses que a TD para promover elevada mortalidade (100% ou aproximadamente. Os tratamentos com caulim também afetaram o comportamento da f

  19. Mutantes morfológicos de algodoeiro herbáceo como fonte de resistência ao bicudo Morphological mutants of upland cotton as source of boll weevil resistance

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    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três características morfológicas mutantes de linhagens de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch., isoladas ou combinadas no mesmo genótipo, como fonte de resistência ao bicudo, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, sob infestação natural, com delineamento de blocos ao acaso e arranjo fatorial 2´3 com um tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Em teste com chance de escolha, a característica bráctea frego foi a que apresentou maior redução no dano de oviposição pelo bicudo (34,71%, em relação ao equivalente normal. A folha "okra" reduziu o dano apenas quando associada à bráctea frego (40%. A combinação das três características mutantes na mesma planta proporcionou a menor porcentagem de botões com dano de oviposição (23,13%.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of three morphological mutants of upland cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutm L. r. latifolium Hutch., isolated or in combination in the same cotton genotype, as a source of resistance to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. The experiment was carried out in the field, under natural infestation, with a completely randomized block design arranged in a factorial 2´3 plus an additional treatment, with four replications. In a multiple choice test, the character mutant frego bract presented the higher reduction on boll weevil oviposition damage (34.71%, in relation to the normal equivalent. The okra leaf reduced the boll weevil damage only when associated with frego bract (40%. The combination of the three mutant characters in the same plant presented the least square percent with oviposition damage (23.13%.

  20. Effect of diameter of the cotton squares in the development of boll weevil Efeito do diâmetro do botão floral no desenvolvimento do bicudo-do-algodoeiro

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    Marcos Doniseti Michelotto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of diameter of the cotton squares in the corporal mass of adults of boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. The assay was carried out under field and laboratory conditions, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. Six samplings obtained from a random harvesting of ten plants of each cultivar (Coodetec 405 and Fibermax 986. The number and diameter of squares were recorded for each plant. Squares with oviposition orifices were kept individually in a recipient and observed daily until adult emergence. The larger the diameter of the squares, the more corporal mass of boll weevil newly emerged adults in both cultivars.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do diâmetro dos botões florais de algodoeiro na massa corporal de adultos do bicudo-do-algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. O experimento foi realizado em condições de campo e laboratório, em Jaboticabal (SP, Brasil. Foram realizadas seis amostragens, coletando-se ao acaso dez plantas nas cultivares Coodetec 405 e Fibermax 986, avaliando-se o número e o diâmetro de botões florais. Os botões florais com orifícios de oviposição foram individualizados em frascos e observados diariamente para a visualização da emergência dos adultos. Botões florais com maiores diâmetros proporcionam maior massa corporal de adultos de A. grandis recém-emergidos nas duas cultivares.

  1. Efficacy of Topical Application, Leaf Residue or Soil Drench of Blastospores of Isaria fumosorosea for Citrus Root Weevil Management: Laboratory and Greenhouse Investigations

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    Pasco B. Avery

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of topical, leaf residue, and soil drench applications with Isaria fumosorosea blastospores (Ifr strain 3581 was assessed for the management of the citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.. Blastospores of Ifr were applied topically at a rate of 107 blastospores mL−1 on both the larvae and adults, and each insect stage was incubated in rearing cups with artificial diet at 25 °C, either in the dark or in a growth chamber under a 16 h photophase for 2 weeks, respectively. Percent larval and adult mortality due to the infection of Ifr was assessed after 14 days as compared to untreated controls. Leaf residue assays were assessed by feeding the adults detached citrus leaves previously sprayed with Ifr (107 blastospores mL−1 in Petri dish chambers and then incubating them at 25 °C for 2–3 weeks. Efficacy of the soil drench applications was assessed on five larvae feeding on the roots of a Carrizo hybrid citrus seedling ~8.5–10.5 cm below the sterile sand surface in a single 16 cm × 15.5 cm pot inside a second pot lined with plastic mesh to prevent escapees. Drench treatments per pot consisted of 100 mL of Ifr suspension (107 blastospores mL−1, flushed with 400, 900, or 1400 mL of water compared to 500, 1000, and 1500 mL of water only for controls. The mean concentration of Ifr propagules as colony forming units per gram (CFUs g−1 that leached to different depths in the sand profile per treatment drench rate was also determined. Two weeks post-drenching of Ifr treatments, larvae were assessed for percent mortality, size differences, and effect of treatments in reducing feeding damage to the plant root biomass compared to the controls. Topical spray applications caused 13 and 19% mortality in larvae and adults after 7 days compared to none in the control after 14 days, respectively. Adults feeding on a single Ifr treated leaf for 24 h consumed less than the control, and resulted in 100% mortality 35 days post

  2. Comportamento de progênies oriundas de raças primitivas de algodão herbáceo frente ao ataque do bicudo Behavior of lines from cotton primitive race stocks to attack of the boll weevil

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    Francisco José Correia Farias

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de obter linhagens resistentes ao bicudo-do-algodoeiro (Anthonomus grandis Boheman, a Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodão vem testando progênies oriundas de raças primitivas de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. originárias do México e da América Central, que apresentam níveis aceitáveis de resistência ao bicudo. Em 1991 e 1992, as progênies em BC1F5 e BC1F6 oriundas das linhagens Texas 277, Texas 326 e Texas 1180, Texas 297, Texas 339, Texas 766 e Texas 1134, foram avaliadas com relação à resistência ao bicudo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições. A unidade experimental foi constituída por duas fileiras de 5 m, sob um espaçamento de 0,75 m x 0,20 m. As parcelas foram infestadas com adultos do bicudo recém-emergidos, a uma taxa de 10.000 adultos/ha. Aos seis dias após a liberação dos adultos, as parcelas foram pulverizadas com Cipermethrim, sendo realizadas em intervalos semanais. Foram procedidas cinco avaliações através da coleta de 33 botões florais ao acaso, por parcela. Os maiores níveis de resistência ao bicudo foram obtidos pelas progênies Texas 326-95-1, Texas 277-87-5, Texas 1180-99-2, Texas 297 e Texas 339, com redução de ataque de 44,0, 41,2, 32,0, 40,4 e 36,4%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha CNPA 6H.The goal of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman resistance program of Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodão is to obtain cultivars that give 80% suppression when compared to commercial cultivars. The primitive cottons (Gossypium hirsutum L. from Mexico and Central America have been known to show measurable levels of resistance to the boll weevil. In 1991 and 1992, the lines in BC1F5 and BC1F6 from Texas 277, Texas 326, Texas 1180, Texas 297, Texas 339, Texas 766 and Texas 1134 were evaluated to boll weevil resistance. The experiment was carried out at Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. The trial

  3. Protejarea puieţilor de răşinoase împotriva atacului de Hylobius abietis prin îmbăiere în Supersect 10EC şi Nu-Film 17 [Protection of conifer seedlings against pine weevil (Hylobius abietis feeding by dipping into Supersect 10EC and Nu-Film 17 before planting

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    Olenici N

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Protection of seedlings afforded by Supersect 10EC alone and Supersect 10EC mixed with NuFilm 17 against pine weevil feeding was evaluated in field experiments in northern part of Romania. The seedlings, mainly of Norway spruce, but also European larch and Black pine, have been treated by dipping into insecticide solution (1 % Supersect or 1 % Supersect plus 1 % Nu-Film just before planting of the seedlings in three new clear-cutting areas. The efficacy of the treatment was evaluated after 3-5 months. The frequency of attack in Norway spruce seedlings was reduced by 21.4-61.1% when Supersect was used together with Nu-Film, but only by 0-35.5 % when it was used alone. For the same species, the intensity of attack was diminished by 62.4-83,2 % when the treatment was done with Supersect and Nu-Film, and by 48.7-63.3 % when it was used only Supersect. For the other two species, the efficacy of treatment was generally lower. The tests showed that in new clear-cuttings, where the weevil population level is very high and the weevils are active for a long time, the treatment could be efficiently enough only during the first 2- 3 months especially during the years with rainy weather. Consequently, additional protective measure should be applied in such situations. In order to achieve a good efficiency, the stems of the seedlings should be clear and dry before the treatment, and after the treatment the seedlings should be protected against the rain until the insecticide dries up on them. Higher concentrations of insecticides could give better results, but this should be proved in other tests.

  4. Do arms races punctuate evolutionary stasis? Unified insights from phylogeny, phylogeography and microevolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2009-09-01

    One of the major controversies in evolutionary biology concerns the processes underlying macroevolutionary patterns in which prolonged stasis is disrupted by rapid, short-term evolution that leads species to new adaptive zones. Recent advances in the understanding of contemporary evolution have suggested that such rapid evolution can occur in the wild as a result of environmental changes. Here, we examined a novel hypothesis that evolutionary stasis is punctuated by co-evolutionary arms races, which continuously alter adaptive peaks and landscapes. Based on the phylogeny of long-mouthed weevils in the genus Curculio, likelihood ratio tests showed that the macroevolutionary pattern of the weevils coincides with the punctuational evolution model. A coalescent analysis of a species, Curculio camelliae, the mouthpart of which has diverged considerably among populations because of an arms race with its host plant, further suggested that major evolutionary shifts had occurred within 7000 generations. Through a microevolutionary analysis of the species, we also found that natural selection acting through co-evolutionary interactions is potentially strong enough to drive rapid evolutionary shifts between adaptive zones. Overall, we posit that co-evolution is an important factor driving the history of organismal evolution.

  5. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Chinese Hickory (Carya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... were evaluated. The results indicated ... key role in the oxidation process which is viewed as one ... cations. A fresh kernel of Chinese Hickory (10 g) was shattered into ... After addition of 20% ammonium sulphate and 2% metaphosphoric ... CHEE in 1 ml of distilled water were mixed with phosphate buffer.

  6. El picudo del algodonero en la Argentina: Principales resultados e implicancias de los estudios moleculares The cotton boll weevil in Argentina: Main results and implications of the molecular studies

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    Analía A. Lanteri

    2003-12-01

    the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, in Argentina, the insect arrived in the cotton area of Chaco. Molecular studies on populations from Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay, and possible source populations from USA and Mexico, provided helpful information to control the pest. RAPD technique (Random Analysis of Polymorphic DNA and sequencing of Cytochrome Oxidase I and II mitochondrial genes, allowed to differentiate two main lineages: a lineages with scarce or null variability measured by heterocigosis and haplotypic diversity, considered recent colonizers, and associated with xerophytic environments and cotton areas (Formosa province; b lineages with high genetic variability and haplotypic diversity, considered ancestral, and associated with areas of wild vegetation as the subtropical forests of Misiones (Iguazú National Park. Both lineages probably have different origins, adaptations and host preferences, and at present would be hibridizing in ecotonal areas. We propose that the boll weevil probably occurs in South America as a consequence of a natural dispersal associated to wild hosts, mainly of the genera Gossypium and Cienfuegosia, probably since Pleistocene times. On the other hand, there is a possibility of introductions from USA to Brazil, trough the commercial exchange. Extensive cotton cultivation and deforestation, with formation of corridors connecting fragments of forests would explain the rapid dispersal of the pest during the last 20 years, in cotton and/or non cotton areas under environmental impact, such as the Misiones province.

  7. Contenido de los nutrientes básicos en Catolaccus grandis Burks criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodon Basic nutrients content of Catolaccus grandis Burks reared in cotton boll weevil larvae

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    LÚCIA HELENA AVELINO ARAUJO

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar los niveles de carbohidratos, proteínas solubles y aminoácidos libres de larvas, pupas hembras y adultos hembras de Catolaccus grandis (Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae criados sobre larvas del picudo del algodón envenenadas por hembras del parasitoide y por larvas de primer instar del parasitoide. Esto estudio fue conducido en la Unidade de Investigación de Control Biologico de Plagas del Departamento de Agricultura de los Estados Unidos de la América, en Weslaco, Texas. Las 20 muestras de cada uno de los tres estados de desarrollo: tercer instar larval, pupas hembra y adultos hembra del parasitoide C. grandis, fueron separadas y pesadas individualmente y se cuantió el contenido de carbohidratos totales, proteínas solubles totales y aminoácidos libres criados en diferentes sustratos. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la existencia de patrones metabólicos significativamente distintos de estos nutrientes básicos.The aim of this work was to determine the levels of carbohydrate, soluble proteins and free amino acids of larvae, pupae and adult females Catolaccus grandis Burks (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae which were reared in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis larvae venomized by ectoparasitoid of female and 1st instar ectoparasitoid larvae. This study was carried out at the Biological Control of Pests Research Unit, Weslaco, Texas. The twenty samples of each one of three stages of development: 3rd instar larval, female pupae and female adult of parasitoid C. grandis were separated and individually weighted, and levels of carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids were quantified when reared in different substrates. The results confirmed the existence of metabolic patterns significantly distinct from the basic nutrient model.

  8. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus

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    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  9. Método de diagnóstico para el monitoreo de resistencia a insecticidas en poblaciones de "picudo del algodonero", Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae A diagnostic test for insecticide resistance monitoring in "cotton boll weevil" Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae populations

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    Teodoro Stadler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El control de las poblaciones de Anthonomus grandis Boheman, por debajo de su umbral de daño económico durante el ciclo del cultivo del algodón, se realiza en forma efectiva hasta el momento, a través de insecticidas de síntesis. La presión selectiva de las aplicaciones extensivas e intensivas de insecticidas hace imperativa la detección temprana de focos de resistencia a los mismos, en función de un correcto manejo del fenómeno. Se desarrolló un método de diagnóstico de resistencia para A. grandis a partir de la técnica "vial test", que fue adaptada en forma de "kit" para el monitoreo rápido y sencillo de los focos de resistencia en el campo. La toxicidad (CL99, para calcular la concentración discriminante (CD del insecticida y la preparación del "kit", se obtiene a partir de bioensayos de laboratorio con una cepa normal susceptible de A. grandis. Se determinó la vida media de los insecticidas dentro de los viales por CIPAC MT 46, para establecer una fecha de vencimiento del "kit". La CD y el método en su conjunto fueron validados a través de ensayos a campo. El "kit", usado en el monitoreo de resistencia en el campo, fue especialmente diseñado para ser utilizado en las condiciones geográficas, económicas y socio-culturales presentes en la región algodonera argentina. La implementación de esta técnica permitirá conseguir la información necesaria, y así obtener una apropiada alternancia de insecticidas. Como consecuencia, se prevé una reducción de impacto ambiental de las prácticas agronómicas en el control de plagas en algodón.The in-season control of the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman is done by insecticide application, which so far is the only effective way to reduce boll weevil populations to levels below economic significance. The extensive and intensive control actions with insecticides cause selective pressure on pest populations. Thus, to achieve an accurate insecticide resistance

  10. Key to higher taxa of South American weevils based on adult characters (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea Clave de taxones superiores de gorgojos sudamericanos basada en caracteres de los adultos (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

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    ADRIANA E. MARVALDI

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea from South America are currently classified in the following families and subfamilies: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae and Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae and Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae and Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae and Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae, Mesoptiliinae (= Magdalidinae, Molytinae, Baridinae, Lixinae, Conoderinae (= Zygopinae, Cossoninae, Scolytinae and Platypodinae. In the present contribution we bring a dichotomous key for the identification of seven families and 28 subfamilies of Curculionoidea from South America, and for 21 tribes of the highly heterogeneous subfamilies Curculioninae and Molytinae. These tribes are Curculionini Anthonomini, Ceutorhynchini, Derelomini, Otidocephalini, Erodiscini, Camarotini, Piazorhinini, Prionobrachiini, Smicronychini, Rhamphini and Tychiini, within Curculioninae; and Hylobiini, Pissodini, Conotrachelini, Cleogonini, Sternechini, Pacholenini, Cholini, Petalochilini and Amalactini, within Molytinae. Most of them have been classified as subfamilies in traditional schemes. The key is mainly based on external morphological characters, but also includes data on genitalia, mouth parts and other biological features. Definitions and illustrations of diagnostic characters used in the key are providedLos gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea de América del Sur se clasifican actualmente en las siguientes familias y subfamilias: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae y Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae y Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae y Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae y Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae

  11. NON PREFERENCE FOR OVIPOSITION AND FEEDING OF Weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA-BRUCHIDAE IN BEAN LINES (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BEARERS OF ARCELIN NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA OVIPOSIÇÃO E ALIMENTAÇÃO DE Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PORTADORES DE ARCELINA

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    Eliane Divina de Tolêdo Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Arcelin is a seed protein only found in wild beans which gives resistance to bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemann, 1833. In this study the non preference for oviposition and feeding of the bean weevil was evaluated on a series of near isogenic bean lines: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 and Arc 4. The bean cultivars Porrillo 70 and Goiano Precoce were utilized as susceptible checks. There wasn’t oviposition preference among the six genotypes studied. The near isogenic lines that contain Arcelin 1 and Arcelin 2 were the last in preference for feeding.

    KEY-WORDS: Resistance; non preference.

    A arcelina é uma proteína encontrada somente em feijões silvestres e é o fator que confere resistência ao caruncho Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833. Procurou-se verificar a não-preferência para oviposição e alimentação de Z. subfasciatus em uma série de linhagens de feijão quase isogênicas contendo diferentes alelos de arcelina: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 e Arc 4. Os controles suscetíveis utilizados foram Porrillo 70 e Goiano Precoce. Não houve preferência para oviposição entre os seis genótipos estudados. As linhagens quase isogênicas contendo Arcelina 1 e Arcelina 2 foram as menos preferidas para alimentação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; Phaseolus; Zabrotes; não-preferência.

  12. EFFICIENCY OF INSECTICIDES IN LARVAE AND ADULTS CONTROL OF CITRUS ROOT WEEVILS EFICIÊNCIA DE INSETICIDAS NO CONTROLE DE LARVAS E ADULTOS DE CURCULIONÍDEOS-DAS-RAÍZES EM CITROS

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    Felipe Sulzbach

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The control of larvae and adults of citrus root weevils (Naupactus spp. was evaluated in four experiments, in field and laboratory conditions, at Itapetininga, São Paulo State, Brazil. For larvae control of Naupactus spp. the insecticides tested were: aldicarb, bifenthrin, carbofuran, carbosulfan, chlorpyrifos (GR, chlorpyrifos (EW, fipronil, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam (GR. For adults control of Naupactus cervinus and N. versatilis the following products were tested: abamectin, carbosulfan. lufenuron, lufenuron + abamectin, and thiamethoxam (WG. The efficiency control of Naupactus spp. larvae was below 80%, for all treatments tested (insecticides, dosages, and application methods. On larvae, the best results were obtained with thiamethoxam (GR 2.40 g, fipronil 0.19 g, and thiamethoxam (WG 1.00 g of a.i.plant-1, with 71.43%, 74.12% and 77.87% larvae population reduction, respectively. For N. cervinus and N. versatilis adults control, thiamethoxam (WG with 0.75 g and 1.00 g, and carbosulfan with 0.64 g of a.i. planta-1 showed efficiency above 80% in the field tests. While in the laboratory test, besides these treatments, also tiamethoxam (WG with 0.5 g of a.i. plant-1 presented such efficiency. The adult mortality was similar between the studied species. Thiamethoxam (WG and carbosulfan may be reccommended for adults of this insect.

    KEY-WORDS: Insect pest; Naupactini; chemical control.

    O controle de larvas e adultos de curculionídeos-das-raízes foi avaliado em quatro experimentos, em condições de  laboratório e de campo, no município de Itapetininga, SP. Para o controle de larvas de Naupactus spp. foram testados os inseticidas: aldicarbe, bifentrina, carbofurano, carbosulfano, clorpirifós (GR, clorpirifós (EW, fipronil, imidacloprido e tiametoxam (GR. Para o

  13. Persistência de óleos essenciais em milho armazenado, submetido à infestação de gorgulho do milho Persistence of essential oils in stored maize submitted to infestation of maize weevil

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    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais e os compostos constituintes têm sido pesquisados quanto a sua atividade inseticida contra pragas de grãos armazenados. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a persistência de óleos essenciais em milho armazenado, submetido à infestação do gorgulho do milho, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. A persistência dos óleos e do eugenol foi avaliada no período inicial (logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. As mortalidades de S. zeamais, no período inicial, variaram entre 93,8 (Piper hispidinervum, Melaleuca leucadendron e eugenol e 100% (Eugenia uniflora, frutos verdes de Schinus terebinthifolius e Piper marginatum. A partir dos 30 dias, as mortalidades, de modo geral, decresceram, com exceção de P. marginatum (92,2%, que alcançou 53,1% de mortalidade aos 120 dias de armazenamento. De acordo com as equações de regressão ajustadas para o número de S. zeamais emergidos em todo o período de armazenamento, apenas não houve significância para os óleos de S. terebinthifolius, P. marginatum e testemunha. Em relação à média geral, o óleo de P. marginatum foi o mais persistente, proporcionando emergência de apenas 0,30 insetos, diferindo dos óleos restantes, do eugenol e da testemunha. Os demais tratamentos só diferiram em relação à testemunha.The essential oils and constituent compounds have been studied for their insecticidal activity against stored grain pests. In this research, persistence of the essential oils in stored maize subject to infestation by maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae were evaluated. Persistence of oils and eugenol were evaluated in the initial period (after impregnation and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. Mortalities of S. zeamais in the initial period ranged between 93.8 (Piper hispidinervum, Melaleuca leucadendron and eugenol to 100% (Eugenia uniflora, green fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius and Piper

  14. Avaliação de acessos de batata-doce para resistência à broca-da-raiz, crisomelídeos e elaterídeos Screening of sweet potato accessions for resistance to the West Indian sweet potato weevil, chrysomelids and elaterids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Humberto França

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados para resistência a danos causados por insetos nas folhas e raízes, no campo, 366 acessos do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de batata-doce da Embrapa Hortaliças. Os insetos de interesse foram Diabrotica spp., Conoderus sp., Epitrix sp., e a broca-da-raiz da batata-doce, Euscepes postfasciatus. Considerando o estrato raízes, aproximadamente 21% dos acessos avaliados mostraram-se resistentes a crisomelídeos e elaterídeos, tendo sido identificados pelo menos sete clones melhores que a referência padrão de resistência àqueles insetos, a cultivar Brazlândia Roxa. Sete acessos, entre esses o CNPH 005, CNPH 026 e CNPH 258 mostraram-se bastante homogêneos e consistentes em três avaliações. Esses mesmos clones, além dos clones CNPH 088, CNPH 295, CNPH 314 e CNPH 318 mostraram-se entre os mais resistentes à broca-da-raiz, porque tiveram 7% ou menos das suas raízes tuberosas danificadas por Euscepes postfasciatus enquanto as cultivares Brazlândia Branca e Princesa obtiveram, respectivamente, 23,3% e 53,3% de danos. Outros nove acessos foram classificados como mais suscetíveis que essas cultivares. A aplicação desses resultados no manejo integrado de pragas em batata-doce é discutido.Three hundred sixty six sweet potato plant accessions of the Sweet potato Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Hortali��as (Brazil were evaluated in the field for resistance to the Wireworm-Diabrotica-Systena (WDS pest complex: Diabrotica spp., Conoderus sp., Epitrix sp., and West Indian sweet potato weevil, Euscepes postfaciatus. About 21% of all plant accessions showed high resistance to chrysomelids and elaterids. Seven clones, among them CNPH 005, CNPH 026 and CNPH 258 were more resistant than the standard resistant commercial cultivar Brazlândia Roxa. These sweet potato accessions and CNPH 088, CNPH 295, CNPH 314 and CNPH 318, were the most promising sources of resistance against the West Indian sweet potato weevil because they had 7% or less

  15. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    shrub species in reference standard sites, but may dominate in degraded systems Carya illinoensis Carya cordiformis Carpinus caroliniana Carya ovata...americana sedges Carex spp. ironwood Carpinus caroliniana water hickory Carya aquatica bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis pecan Carya illinoensis ...and water hickory ( Carya aquatica). Less flooded sites are often dominated by green ash, Nuttall oak (Q. nuttallii), or willow oak, and the driest

  16. Assessment of Clover Root Curculio, Sitona puncticollis Stephens (Col.: Curculionidae Injury on Lucerne (Medicago sativa in Pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pourhaji

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is one of the most important crops that are infested by Sitona species in Iran. Adults and larvae of Sitona spp. feed on foliage and root of legumes and cause serious damages on them. Collection of adults of this genus during 2003 -2004 years from alfalfa fields of eleven localities in East Azarbaidjan Province, Sitona puncticollis Stephens was found to be the dominant species. To estimate of damage of this species, 100 pots of common alfalfa cultivar (Ghara yonje were sowed and after 2.5 months. Fifty pots were infested with eggs of S. puncticollis and the rests were maintained as control. After two months, length of stem and roots and their dry and fresh weights were measured in 30 infested and 30 uninfested pots. The data of infested and uninfested pots were compared by T- test. Results showed that there were significant differences (P< 0.01 between all measured traits in infested and uninfested pots.

  17. Towards Coleoptera-specific high-throughput screening systems for compounds with ecdysone activity: development of EcR reporter assays using weevil (Anthonomus grandis)-derived cell lines and in silico analysis of ligand binding to A. grandis EcR ligand-binding pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soin, Thomas; Iga, Masatoshi; Swevers, Luc; Rougé, Pierre; Janssen, Colin R; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-08-01

    Molting in insects is regulated by ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones. Several synthetic non-steroidal ecdysone agonists are on the market as insecticides. These ecdysone agonists are dibenzoylhydrazine (DBH) analogue compounds that manifest their toxicity via interaction with the ecdysone receptor (EcR). Of the four commercial available ecdysone agonists, three (tebufenozide, methoxyfenozide and chromafenozide) are highly lepidopteran specific, one (halofenozide) is used to control coleopteran and lepidopteran insects in turf and ornamentals. However, compared to the very high binding affinity of these DBH analogues to lepidopteran EcRs, halofenozide has a low binding affinity for coleopteran EcRs. For the discovery of ecdysone agonists that target non-lepidopteran insect groups, efficient screening systems that are based on the activation of the EcR are needed. We report here the development and evaluation of two coleopteran-specific reporter-based screening systems to discover and evaluate ecdysone agonists. The screening systems are based on the cell lines BRL-AG-3A and BRL-AG-3C that are derived from the weevil Anthonomus grandis, which can be efficiently transduced with an EcR reporter cassette for evaluation of induction of reporter activity by ecdysone agonists. We also cloned the almost full length coding sequence of EcR expressed in the cell line BRL-AG-3C and used it to make an initial in silico 3D-model of its ligand-binding pocket docked with ponasterone A and tebufenozide.

  18. Ciclo biológico, comportamiento y censo del picudo del camu camu, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en Pucallpa, Perú Biological cycle, behavior and census of camu camu weevil, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, in Pucallpa, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Perez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El picudo, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995, es una de las plagas mas importantes del camu camu Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh en la Amazonía Peruana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el ciclo biológico de este insecto bajo condiciones de laboratorio y describir su comportamiento y fluctuación en condiciones de campo en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. El porcentaje de eclosión de larvas fue de 87%, la duración del periodo de incubación de los huevos fue de 5,5±0,9 (4 a 7 días, del estado larval en el fruto 22,2±1,9 (20 a 25 días y en el suelo (fase pre-pupa, 54,4±5,5 (46 a 67 días, del periodo pupal 11,8±0,9 (9 a 13 días y la longevidad del adulto fue de 51,8±18,9 (9 a 75 días. Los adultos se alimentaron de frutos de diferentes diámetros y estados de maduración y de botones florales, ramas tiernas y flores. No se registró la presencia de adultos de C. dubiae en frutos secos, ni en la base del tallo, sino en ritidomas. La mayor actividad de alimentación y de reproducción de los adultos fue entre 18:30 a 22:00 h. Los adultos fueron observados en el cultivo durante todo el año, encontrándose con mayor frecuencia en los meses de enero a marzo en pisos bajos inundables y entre octubre a diciembre en tierra firme no inundable, coincidiendo con la fase de floración y fructificación de la planta.Camu camu weevil Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 is a one of the main pests of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Peruvian Amazonia. The aim of this study was to determine the biological cycle of this insect under laboratory conditions, to describe its behavior and population numbers under field conditions in Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru. The percentage of hatching was 87%; the egg incubation period was 5.5±0.9 (4 to 7 days; the length of the larval stage inside the fruit was 22.2±1.9 (20 to 25 days, and the length larval stage (pre-pupa underground was 54.4±5.5 (46 to 67 days. The length of pupal period was 11.8

  19. The types of Palaearctic species of the families Apionidae, Rhynchitidae, Attelabidae and Curculionidae in the collection of Étienne Louis Geoffroy (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of 131 more or less complete Curculionoid specimens of the collection Étienne Louis Geoffroy, conserved in the Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de Paris (Entomologie has permitted the identification of several nominal species that were nomina dubia and the establishment of several new synonymies and combinations, and, in some cases, the reversion of precedence following Art. 23.9 of the Code, declaring nomina protecta and nomina oblita. New synonymies are (the first term is the valid name: Lixus filiformis (Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio longus Gmelin, 1790; Lasiorhynchites cavifrons (Gyllenhal, 1833 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer viridis Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Byctiscus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Rhinomacer auratus Geoffroy, 1785; Neocoenorrhinus pauxillus (Germar, 1824 nom. protectum = Rhinomacer caeruleus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Deporaus betulae (Linnaeus, 1758 = Curculio nigrostriatus Goeze, 1777 = Rhinomacer niger Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio fuliginosus Gmelin, 1790; Coniocleonus hollbergii (F√•hraeus, 1842 = Curculio sulcatus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio sulcatus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio sulcatus Gmelin, 1790; Larinus iaceae (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio carduelis Goeze, 1777; Hypera postica (Gyllenhal, 1813, nom. protectum = Curculio fasciolatus Geoffroy, 1785, nom. oblitum; Charagmus griseus (Fabricius, 1775 = Curculio cupreosquamosus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio intersectus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio squamosus Gmelin, 1790; Sitona hispidulus (Fabricius, 1777 = Curculio griseus Goeze, 1777 = Curculio modestus Geoffroy, 1785 = Curculio geoffroaei Gmelin, 1790; Aulacobaris cuprirostris (Fabricius, 1787 = Curculio viridisericeus Goeze, 1777; Cleopomiarus plantarum (Germar, 1824, nom. protectum = Curculio

  20. Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Leaves and Fruits of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle L. to Control Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. Bioactividad de aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del aguaribay (Schinus molle L. en el gorgojo del arroz (Sitophilus oryzae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Benzi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. is a primary insect pest of stored grain. The development of resistance resulted in the application of synthetic insecticides. In recent years many plant essential oils have provided potential alternatives to currently used insect control agents. The Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus molle L. var. areira (L. DC. (Anacardiaceae has different biological properties such as insecticidal activity. In this study, repellent, fumigant activity, nutritional indices, and feeding deterrent action were evaluated on S. oryzae adults. Filter paper impregnation was used to test fumigant toxicity, whereas treated whole wheat was used to evaluate repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay was done to evaluate feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. Leaf essential oils showed repellent effects at both concentrations (0.04 and 0.4% w/w, while fruit essential oils lacked repellent activity. Both plant oils altered nutritional indices. Fruit essential oils had a strong feeding deterrent action (62% while leaves had a slight effect (40.6%. With respect to fumigant activity, neither of the essential oils was found to be toxic.El gorgojo del arroz (Sitophilus oryzae. L. es un insecto-plaga de infestación primaria de granos. El uso de insecticidas sintéticos ha desarrollado fenómenos de resistencia. En los últimos años los aceites esenciales se presentan como una alternativa en el control de insectos-plaga. El aguaribay (Schinus molle L. var. areira (L. DC. (Anacardiaceae es una planta con diferentes propiedades biológicas entre las que se destacan el uso como insecticida. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad fumigante, repelente, los índices nutricionales y la actividad antialimentaria de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos de S. molle var. areira en adultos de S. oryzae. Para la actividad fumigante se utilizó la técnica de impregnación de papeles de filtro; para la actividad repelente

  1. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of kernels and shells of Mexican pecan (Carya illinoinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rosa, Laura A; Alvarez-Parrilla, Emilio; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2011-01-12

    The phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of pecan kernels and shells cultivated in three regions of the state of Chihuahua, Mexico, were analyzed. High concentrations of total extractable phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins were found in kernels, and 5-20-fold higher concentrations were found in shells. Their concentrations were significantly affected by the growing region. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by ORAC, DPPH•, HO•, and ABTS•-- scavenging (TAC) methods. Antioxidant activity was strongly correlated with the concentrations of phenolic compounds. A strong correlation existed among the results obtained using these four methods. Five individual phenolic compounds were positively identified and quantified in kernels: ellagic, gallic, protocatechuic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids and catechin. Only ellagic and gallic acids could be identified in shells. Seven phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in kernels by means of MS and UV spectral comparison, namely, protocatechuic aldehyde, (epi)gallocatechin, one gallic acid-glucose conjugate, three ellagic acid derivatives, and valoneic acid dilactone.

  2. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro do Prado, A. C.; Monalise Aragao, A.; Fett, R.; Block, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Ca rya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% {+-} 0.06), the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 {mu}mol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction) and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction). The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion. (Author) 28 refs.

  3. Effects of oil content on the sensory, textural, and physical properties of pecan butter (Carya illinoinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Emily A; Kerr, William L

    2017-10-20

    It has been difficult to produce acceptable pecan butters as the high oil content results in a product that flows and separates too easily. The objective of this work was to create pecan butters with varying oil levels (50-70%) and determine which would give the most acceptable product. Consumers rated pecan butters with 55-60% oil the most acceptable, whether roasted or not. Acceptability varied most in terms of texture and spreadability, but not flavor. Under large deformation firmness varied from 51.8 g (70% oil) to 4,880 g (50%) oil, while "spreadability" ranged from 19.2 to 7748 (g/s). Samples with 70% oil had the lowest viscosity and were Newtonian. Pecan butters with 50-55% oil had high viscosity and were shear thinning. Yield stress decreased with oil content, ranging from 0.014 to 500 Pa. The storage modulus (G') increased from ∼7 Pa for samples with 70% oil up to 260,000 Pa for those with 50% oil. In conjunction, tan δ decreased from 1 to 0.07, showing the products take on much more solid-like behavior as oil is removed. In conclusion, the rheological properties of pecan butter were quite sensitive to the amount of oil in the product. Differences in acceptability were primarily due to "texture" and "spreadability," suggesting there is a limited range of firmness and spreadability that consumers will deem acceptable. There has been considerable demand for butters and spreads made from a variety of culinary nuts. Pecans generally have too much oil (∼70%) to make a product with proper consistency and stability. In this study, some of the oil was removed to overcome this problem. It was found that pecan butter with 55-60% oil was most acceptable to consumers and with the level of firmness, yield stress, and spreadability most similar to commercial nut butters. The oil was relatively simple to remove from unroasted nuts, thus manufacturers could easily produce more acceptable pecan butter for the market. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Identification and Characterization of a New Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] Allergen, Car i 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Lee, BoRam; Du, Wen-Xian; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Nadeau, Kari C; Grauke, Larry J; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Fan, Yuting; Yi, Jiang; McHugh, Tara H

    2016-05-25

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many foods from the "big eight" food allergen groups. Here, for the first time, pecan vicilin was found to be a food allergen. Western blot experiments revealed that 30% of 27 sera used in this study and 24% of the sera from 25 patients with double-blind, placebo controlled clinical pecan allergy contained IgE antibodies specific to pecan vicilin. This allergen consists of a low-complexity region at its N-terminal and a structured domain at the C-terminal that contains two cupin motifs and forms homotrimers. The crystal structure of recombinant pecan vicilin was determined. The refined structure gave R/Rfree values of 0.218/0.262 for all data to 2.65 Å. There were two trimeric biological units in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Pecan vicilin is also a copper protein. These data may facilitate the understanding of the nutritional value and the allergenicity relevance of the copper binding property of seed storage proteins in tree nuts.

  5. Sunlight availability and nut production after thinning of pecan trees (Carya illinoensis K. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Arreola-Avila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El volumen de la copa bien iluminada es uno de los principales factores en la productividad de árboles de árboles de nogal pecadero. Cuando las huertas adultas de nogal pecadero con altas densidades de plantación (al menos de 100 árboles por hectárea presentan entrecruzamiento, la penetración de radiación fotosintéticamente activa dentro de la copa del árbol y entre árboles, el crecimiento y la producción de nuez son negativamente afectadas. La investigación fue realizada para estudiar el efecto del aclareo de árboles de nogal pecadero sobre la disponibilidad de la luz y productividad de la huerta es limitada. El objetivo del presente experimento fue determinar el efecto del aclareo de árboles sobre la disponibilidad de radiación fotosintéticamente activa (RFA dentro y entre árboles permanentes, el crecimiento del brote, la densidad foliar, la producción y calidad de la nuez. Este estudio fue llevado a cabo en una huerta adulta de nogal pecadero con aclareo gradual de árboles de 25 a 50 %, durante el periodo 1995-1997. La disponibilidad de RFA dentro y entre árboles, la longitud de brotes, la densidad foliar y la producción por árbol fueron afectadas por los tratamientos de aclareo; sin embargo, la calidad de nuez (porcentaje de almendra por árbol durante el periodo de tres años de estudio, no fue afectada significativamente. Los resultados de este estudio indican que un gradual aclareo de la huerta debe realizarse en el momento apropiado de edad de la misma, para evitar una drástica reducción en la producción de nuez

  6. Biochemical characterization of soluble proteins in pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2008-09-10

    Pecans (cv. Desirable) contained approximately 10% protein on a dry weight basis. The minimum nitrogen solubility (5.9-7.5%) at 0.25-0.75 M trichloroacetic acid represented the nonprotein nitrogen. Among the solvents assessed for protein solubilization, 0.1 M NaOH was the most effective, while borate saline buffer (pH 8.45) was judged to be optimal for protein solubilization. The protein solubility was minimal in the pH range of 3-7 and significantly increased on either side of this pH range. Increasing the NaCl concentration from 0 to 4 M significantly improved ( approximately 8-fold increase) protein solubilization. Following Osborne protein fractionation, the alkali-soluble glutelin fraction (60.1%) accounted for a major portion of pecan proteins followed by globulin (31.5%), prolamin (3.4%), and albumin (1.5%), respectively. The majority of pecan polypeptides were in the molecular mass range of 12-66 kDa and in the pI range of 4.0-8.3. The pecan globulin fraction was characterized by the presence of several glycoprotein polypeptides. Lysine was the first limiting essential amino acid in the defatted flour, globulin, prolamin, and alkaline glutelin fractions. Leucine and tryptophan were the first limiting essential amino acids in albumin and acid glutelin fractions, respectively. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies detected a range of pecan polypeptides in the 12-60 kDa range, of which the globulin fraction contained the most reactive polypeptides.

  7. [Bromatological characteristics of pecan nuts (Carya illinoensis Koch) cultivated in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, V D

    1975-01-01

    The A. studied pecan nuts cultivated in Brazil: two samples represented North American varieties and three others Brazilian hybrids. The comparison between physical classification and chemical composition, specially amino acid contents pointed to non significant differences, all beeing useful for commercial purposes. The A. stresses the importance of the culture of pecan nuts in Brazil.

  8. Contact dermatitis following sustained exposure to pecans (Carya illinoensis): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Kathleen M; Boyd, Jason; Viernes, Jay L

    2006-04-01

    Type I hypersensitivity reactions following ingestion of peanuts and tree nuts are well characterized. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions are less well characterized, yet they remain the second most common reaction pattern to contact with or ingestion of such nuts. We present a case of a patient who experienced an acute vesicular cutaneous reaction after prolonged contact with pecans. This case illustrates the salient features of contact dermatitis and serves as a reminder that contact with allergenic foods can lead to hypersensitivity reactions.

  9. Growing hickories (Carya spp.) for roost trees: A method to support conservation of declining bat populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; Daniel L. Lindner; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2014-01-01

    Bats (Vespertilionidae and Phyllostomidae) are a critically important component of North American ecosystems. These insectivorous mammals provide largely unrecognized ecosystem services to agriculture and forest health and sustain bat-dependent native plant populations. The decline of North American bat populations reflects the recent emergence of the fungal disease...

  10. Weevil - red rot associations in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Clifford H. Foster

    1957-01-01

    The presence of red rot (Fomes pini) in pruned white pine stands has often been attributed to the act of pruning. This assumption may well be true for heavily stocked stands where thinning has been neglected and pruning scars are slow to heal. The question then arises: How do we account for the red rot often found in vigorous unpruned white pine stands? Evidence...

  11. Possibilities of breeding weevil-resistant white pine strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan W. Wright; William J. Gabriel

    1959-01-01

    Eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) is a highly versatile species. It is easily planted, adaptable to a wide variety of soils and climates, and reproduces itself well. Also it grows rapidly and is capable of producing high-quality lumber. These characteristics once entitled white pine to a top position in the forest economy throughout much of the...

  12. Resistance of maize to the maize weevil: I. Antibiosis | Derera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    La progéniture F1 a été comptée à un intervalle de deux jours jusqu'à ce que toute la progéniture ait émergé. Certains hybrides à effects néfastes sur la biologie des charançons (antibiose), comme des hybrides ont été differents significativement pour la mortalité des adultes (0 à 89%), l'émergence de la progéniture (1 à ...

  13. Effects of potassium deficiency, drought and weevils on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    yields, but the mean benefit-cost ratio is still low (1.6) when N and P fertilizer costs ... high. We recommend testing the use of mulch to decrease drought risk and enhance fertilizer use efficiency. ... Bananas are a major food and cash crop in.

  14. Host preference of the bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isabel Ribeiro do Valle Teixeira; Angel Roberto Barchuk; Fernando Sérgio Zucoloto

    2008-01-01

    It is largely known that the range of an insect diet is mostly determined by oviposition behavior, mainly in species with endophytic larvae such as Zabrotes subfasciatus.However, the proximate factors determining host choice and the subsequent steps leading to the expansion or reduction of the host number and occasional host shifts are largelyun known. We analyzed various factors determining host preference of Z. subfasciatus through the evaluation of: (i) oviposition preference of a wild population of Z. subfasciatus on the usual host (bean) and unusual hosts (lentil, chickpea and soy), and the performance of the offspring; (ii) artificial selection for increasing preference for hosts initially less frequently chosen; (iii) comparison of oviposition behavior between two different popula-tions (reared for~30 generations in beans or chickpeas, respectively); (iv) oviposition timing on usual and unusual hosts; and (v) identification of preference hierarchies. We found that when using unusual hosts, there is no correlation between performance and preference and that the preference hierarchy changes only slightly when the population passes through several generations on the less frequently accepted host. We also found a positive response to artificial selection for increasing oviposition on the less preferred host; however, when the host-choice experiment involved two varieties of the usual host, the response was faster than when the choice involved usual and unusual hosts. Finally, beetles reared on an unusual host (chickpea) for 26 generations showed similar good fitness on both usual and unusual hosts,indicating that the use of a new host does not necessarily result in the loss of performance on the original host. Nevertheless, this population showed lower fitness on the usual host than that of the original population, suggesting an underlying partial trade-off phenomenon which may contribute to a broadening of diet of this insect species.

  15. Effect of garlic extraction on injury by cowpea, Curculio Chalcodermes aenus Boheman (Coleoptera: Cucurlionidae), and other pests, to cowpea, Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlic-based oils and extract formulations have been used as insecticides against various insects on numerous crops, but there are contradictions among findings on the insecticidal or repellent properties of garlic-based products. In a field plot test, the effects of garlic extract on control of th...

  16. Antigenic stability of pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] proteins: effects of thermal treatments and in vitro digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, Mahesh; Teuber, Suzanne S; Peterson, W Rich; Roux, Kenneth H; Sathe, Shridhar K

    2006-02-22

    Rabbit polyclonal antibody-based inhibition ELISA as well as immunoblotting analyses of proteins extracted from variously processed pecans (cv. Desirable) indicate that pecan proteins are antigenically stable. Pecan antigens were more sensitive to moist heat than dry heat processing treatments. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis of the native and heat-denatured proteins that were previously subjected to in vitro simulated gastric fluid digestions indicate that stable antigenic peptides were produced. Both enzyme-to-substrate ratio and digestion time were influential in determining the stability of pecan polypeptides. The stable antigenic polypeptides may serve as useful markers in developing assays suitable for the detection of trace amounts of pecans in foods.

  17. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] kernel cake extracts obtained by sequential extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block, Jane Mara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of different Pecan kernel cake extracts (ether, acetone, alcohol and distilled water were estimated and their antioxidant activities were evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and ß-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Color variations of the Pecan kernel cake were determined through an instrumental analysis using the CIE Lab system. Significantly higher levels (p El contenido de taninos condensado y fenoles totales de diferentes extractos de tortas de almendra de pecana (éter, acetona, alcohol y agua destilada fueron estimados y sus actividades antioxidantes fueron evaluadas mediantes los métodos con ABTS, DPPH y el sistema ß-caroteno/ácido linoleico. Las variaciones de color de la torta de almendra de pecana fueron determinadas mediante análisis instrumental usando el sistema CIE Lab. Los contenidos de fenoles totales, taninos condensados y actividad antioxidante, medida mediante los métodos con ABTS Y DPPH (30 min y 24 h, fueron significativamente más altos (p < 0.05 con el extracto de acetona (16.4 mg GAE/g; 31.2 mg CE/g; 235.3 μmol TEAC/g and 68.6 and 100.3 mg TEAC/g, respectivamente. El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación en el sistema ß-caroteno/ ácido linoleico vario desde 37.9 a 93.1% con el extracto de acetona a 300 ppm, mostrando resultados significativamente superiores. Las muestras con una mayor tendencia a tonos rojos presento los niveles más altos de taninos condensados.

  18. Analysis of pecan nut (Carya illinoinensis) unsaponifiable fraction. Effect of ripening stage on phytosterols and phytostanols composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Intidhar; Trabelsi, Hajer; Herchi, Wahid; Martine, Lucy; Albouchi, Ali; Bouzaien, Ghaith; Sifi, Samira; Boukhchina, Sadok; Berdeaux, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Changes in 4-desmethylsterol, 4-monomethylsterol, 4,4-dimethylsterol and phytostanol composition were quantitatively and qualitatively investigated during the ripening of three varieties of Tunisian-grown pecan nuts (Mahan, Moore and Burkett). These components have many health benefits, especially in lowering LDL-cholesterol and preventing heart disease. The phytosterol composition of whole pecan kernel was quantified by Gas Chromatography-Flame Ionisation Detection (GC-FID) and identified by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Fifteen phytosterols and one phytostanol were quantified. The greatest amount of phytosterols (2852.5mg/100g of oil) was detected in Mahan variety at 20 weeks after the flowering date (WAFD). Moore had the highest level of phytostanols (7.3mg/100g of oil) at 20 WAFD. Phytosterol and phytostanol contents showed a steep decrease during pecan nut development. Results from the quantitative characterisation of pecan nut oils revealed that β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, and campesterol were the most abundant phytosterol compounds at all ripening stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. RNA-Seq Analysis of Developing Pecan (Carya illinoinensis) Embryos Reveals Parallel Expression Patterns among Allergen and Lipid Metabolism Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattison, Christopher P; Rai, Ruhi; Settlage, Robert E; Hinchliffe, Doug J; Madison, Crista; Bland, John M; Brashear, Suzanne; Graham, Charles J; Tarver, Matthew R; Florane, Christopher; Bechtel, Peter J

    2017-02-22

    The pecan nut is a nutrient-rich part of a healthy diet full of beneficial fatty acids and antioxidants, but can also cause allergic reactions in people suffering from food allergy to the nuts. The transcriptome of a developing pecan nut was characterized to identify the gene expression occurring during the process of nut development and to highlight those genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and those that commonly act as food allergens. Pecan samples were collected at several time points during the embryo development process including the water, gel, dough, and mature nut stages. Library preparation and sequencing were performed using Illumina-based mRNA HiSeq with RNA from four time points during the growing season during August and September 2012. Sequence analysis with Trinotate software following the Trinity protocol identified 133,000 unigenes with 52,267 named transcripts and 45,882 annotated genes. A total of 27,312 genes were defined by GO annotation. Gene expression clustering analysis identified 12 different gene expression profiles, each containing a number of genes. Three pecan seed storage proteins that commonly act as allergens, Car i 1, Car i 2, and Car i 4, were significantly up-regulated during the time course. Up-regulated fatty acid metabolism genes that were identified included acyl-[ACP] desaturase and omega-6 desaturase genes involved in oleic and linoleic acid metabolism. Notably, a few of the up-regulated acyl-[ACP] desaturase and omega-6 desaturase genes that were identified have expression patterns similar to the allergen genes based upon gene expression clustering and qPCR analysis. These findings suggest the possibility of coordinated accumulation of lipids and allergens during pecan nut embryogenesis.

  20. Pecan walnut (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) oil quality and phenolic compounds as affected by microwave and conventional roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Uslu, Nurhan; Doğu, Süleyman

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the effects of conventional and microwave roasting on phenolic compounds, free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of pecan walnut kernel and oil was investigated. The oil content of pecan kernels was 73.78% for microwave oven roasted at 720 W and 73.56% for conventional oven roasted at 110 °C. The highest free fatty acid content (0.50%) and the lowest peroxide value (2.48 meq O 2 /kg) were observed during microwave roasting at 720 W. The fatty acid profiles and tocopherol contents of pecan kernel oils did not show significant differences compared to raw samples. Roasting process in microwave oven at 720 W caused the reduction of some phenolic compounds, while the content of gallic acid exhibited a significant increase.

  1. INDUCCIÓN DE CRECIMIENTO LATERAL EN NOGAL PECANERO (Carya illinoensis K. Koch. MEDIANTE DESPUNTE DE BROTES EN PRIMAVERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Arreola-Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El nogal pecanero en desarrollo produce brotes apicales vigorosos limitando la inducción y desarrollo de brotes laterales, característica que retrasa la etapa productiva del árbol y estimula un desarrollo considerable de la copa con el consecuente problema de sombreo entre árboles, particularmente en huertas establecidas en altas densidades. Este estudio se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto que tiene la poda de despunte en verde, sobre la reducción del crecimiento de brotes apicales y la generación de brotación lateral, aspectos necesarios para limitar el desarrollo excesivo de la copa de nogales juveniles. De una huerta establecida en alta densidad en Viesca, Coahuila, se seleccionaron árboles de nogal pecanero de cinco años de edad. En la primavera del 2007 se realizaron tres tratamientos que consistieron en despunte en verde a 5, 10 y 15 yemas formadas, sobre brotes en pleno crecimiento activo, se incluyó un testigo sin despuntar. El despunte en verde, a 5 yemas desarrolladas, incrementó el porcentaje de rebrotes laterales en un 55 %. Mientras que en los tratamientos de despunte a 10 y 15 yemas se observaron incrementos de 53 y 50 %, respectivamente. Los tratamientos causaron una disminución en la longitud, número de hojas y área foliar de los nuevos brotes desarrollados (rebrotes en comparación con el testigo.

  2. Influence of gamma irradiation on microbiological and chemical characteristics of shelled and unshelled stored pecan (carya illinoinsis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Wahab, S.A.E.; El Salhy, F.T.A.; Mahmoud, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Shelled and unshelled pecan nuts were treated with 0,1.53 and 5 kGy of gamma irradiation . The irradiated and non-irradiated nuts were stored in polyethylene bags for 0,2,4,6, and 8 months at room temperature. Total bacterial count and total mold and yeast, proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat and ash content), total free amino acids, total fatty acids, reducing and non-reducing sugars, phosphorous and potassium of nuts were evaluated immediately after irradiation and after each storage period . The results indicated that gamma irradiation reduced total bacterial count and total fungal load of pecan. Irradiation doses did not cause any significant changes in proximate composition of pecan.

  3. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 10. Evaluation of Bird and Mammal Utilization of Dike Systems Along the Lower Mississippi River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    Boehmeria cylindrica - + + + + + - - - - Brunnchia cirrhosa - + + + - + + + + + Campsisradicans - - + + - + + + + - Carya illinoensis ...erythrorhizos - - - + + + + + + - Desmanthus illinoensis + + + - - - - Digitaria ischaemum - - - - + - + + + + Digitaria sanguinalis

  4. The Buffalo Creek Archaeological Project. Volume 1: Background and Testing at 3MS346 and 3CG847 Mississippi and Craighead Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    shagbark hickory ( Carya ovata), and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ). These trees dominate the vegetation on well-drained elevated land such as tho-se areas...strongly acidic soil (Steyermark 1959:95, 120). Chinquapin (Castanea ozarkensis), black or sourgum (Nyssa sylvatica), black hickory ( Carya texana...white oak, mockernut hickory ( Carya tomentosa), black hickory, white hickory ( Carya alba), flowering dogwoo-T-,whiT𔃻eFash(Fraxinus americana

  5. Archaeological Testing of the Bauman Site (23STG158) Ste. Genevieve County, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    with exception of the absence of black walnut, hazelnut and acorn remains. Identified remains include those of Carya illinoensis (pecan), Carya spp...spp.), black walnut (Juglans nigra), hickory nut ( Carya spp.), maize (Zea mays), knotweed (Polygonum erectum), and morning glory (Convolvulaceae). While...shagbark group), Carya spp. (kingnut group), and Juglandaceae (Table 24). Differen- " tiations among Carya taxa were made employing Lopinot’s (1983

  6. ON THE TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE OF SOME MECININI (COLEOPTERA, CURCULIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Caldara

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the Code, ten actions are taken to preserve nomenclatural stability of names of taxa currently belonging to Mecinini. Following the provisions of ICZN Article 23.9.1, Cleopomiarus graminis (Gyllenhal, 1813 (formerly Rhynchaenus is made a nomen protectum and Curculio ellipticus Herbst, 1795 is made a nomen oblitum; Rhinusa antirrhini (Paykull, 1800 (formerly Curculio is made a nomen protectum and Curculio noctis herbst, 1795 is made a nomen oblitum; having met the conditions of ICZN article 75.3 the neotypes of the following taxa are designated: Curculio antirrhini Paykull, 1800, Curculio cinctus Rossi, 1790, Curculio curvirostris Rossi, 1790, Curculio linariae Panzer, 1792, Cionus thapsicola Germar, 1821, Mecinus collaris Germar, 1821. Lectotypes of Curculio ellipticus Herbst, 1795, Gymnetron eversmanni Rosenschöld, 1838, Mecinus barbarus Gyllenhal, 1838, and Mecinus longiusculus Boheman, 1845 are also designated. Rhinusa linariae (Panzer, 1792 (formerly Curculio remains the valid name of the taxon since Curculio curvirostris Rossi, 1790 (non Fabricius, 1781 nec Herbst, 1784 is unavailable; Mecinus collaris Germar, 1821 remains the valid name of the taxon since Curculio cinctus Rossi, 1790 (non Drury, 1782 nec Geoffroy, 1785 is unavailable. The following new synonymies are proposed: Mecinus barbarus Gyllenhal, 1838 = Mecinus longiusculus Boheman, 1845 n. syn., = Mecinus teretiusculus Boheman, 1845 n. syn., = Mecinus filiformis Aubé, 1850 n. syn.; Rhinusa florum (Rübsaamen, 1895 = Gymnetron smreczynskii Fremuth, 1972 n. syn.; Rhinusa tetra (Fabricius, 1792 = Cionus thapsicola Germar, 1821 n. syn. Rhinusa eversmanni (Rosenschöld, 1838 is the name proposed for Rhinusa thapsicola sensu auctorum (non Germar, 1821.

  7. Holcophloeus caldarai (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Holcorhinini) a new weevil species from Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovec, Roman; KoŠŤÁl, Michael; BÁborskÁ, Zuzana

    2018-04-05

    Holcophloeus caldarai sp. n. is described as a fifth species of the genus from central Morocco. The new species differs from all other species of the genus and, generally the entire tribe, by unique irregularly star-shaped appressed scales.

  8. A weevil sex pheromone serves as an attractant for its entomopathogenic nematode predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaprepes abbreviatus is an invasive pest of citrus in the United States originating from the Caribbean. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are used as biological control agents in the citrus agroecosystems against D. abbreviatus. EPNs respond to herbivore-induced volatiles from citrus roots to assis...

  9. Frugivorous weevils are too rare cause Janzen-Connelll effects in New Guinea lowland rain forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čtvrtečka, R.; Sam, Kateřina; Brus, E.; Weiblen, G. D.; Novotný, Vojtěch

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 6 (2014), s. 521-535 ISSN 0266-4674 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10486S; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11008 Grant - others:US National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0515678; US National Science Foundation(US) DEB-0816749; Ontario Genomics Institute(CA) 2008-OGI-ICI-03 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Curculionoidea * fruit morphology * Janzen-Connell hypothesis Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.904, year: 2014

  10. Sweet potato weevil (Cylas formicarius) incidence in the humid lowlands of Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, K.S.; Hartemink, A.E.; Eganae, J.F.; Walo, C.; Poloma, S.

    2001-01-01

    Sweet potato is the main staple crop in PNG and this paper presents a study from the humid lowlands of the Morobe Province. Three experiments were carried out at two locations (Hobu and Unitech) to evaluate the effect of inorganic fertiliser inputs and fallow vegetation on the incidence of sweet

  11. Competition between Catolaccus grandis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae and Bracon vulgaris (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, parasitoids of the Boll Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Sousa Ramalho

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The competition between populations of the parasitoids C. grandis and B. vulgaris was studied using larvae of Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire as an alternative host. A series of biological parameters was observed and related to the competitive abilities of both parasitoid species. They were capable of colonizing and maintaining their populations regardless of host location. The population growth of C. grandis and B. vulgaris, based on fecundity was not affected by the competition. The parasitism and survivorship to the adult stage were affected by competition, except when the host was located at the bottom of the rearing cage. C. grandis performed better than B. vulgaris independently of the competition and host location, but it did not exclude the other species.Catolaccus grandis (Burks e Bracon vulgaris Ashmead são os principais parasitóides do bicudo-do-algodoeiro Anthonomus grandis Boheman no Nordeste do Brasil. É importante que se determinem as interações entre esses parasitóides e o seu efeito em programas de controle biológico dessa praga com os mesmos. A competição entre os parasitóides C. grandis e B. vulgaris foi estudada, utilizando-se larvas de Euscepes postfasciatus Fairmaire como hospedeiro alternativo. A fecundidade de C. grandis e B. vulgaris baseada na produção de ovos, não foi afetada pela competição, mas o parasitismo e a produção de adultos desses parasitóides foram afetados pela competição, exceto quando o hospedeiro se encontrava na base da caixa de criação. Independentemente da competição e da localização do hospedeiro, C. grandis apresentou melhor desempenho que B. vulgaris, mas não excluiu as populações da outra espécie de parasitóide.

  12. Selection of Bacillus thuringiensis strains toxic to cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Melisa P; Sauka, Diego H; Onco, María I; Berretta, Marcelo F; Benintende, Graciela B

    Preliminary bioassays with whole cultures (WC) of 124 Bacillus thuringiensis strains were performed with neonate larvae of Anthonomus grandis, a major cotton pest in Argentina and other regions of the Americas. Three exotic and four native strains were selected for causing more than 50% mortality. All of them were β-exotoxin producers. The native strains shared similar morphology of parasporal crystals, similar protein pattern and identical insecticidal gene profiles. These features resembled Lepidoptera-toxic strains. Furthermore, these strains showed a Rep-PCR pattern identical to lepidoptericidal strain HD-1, suggesting that these strains may belong to serovar kurstaki. However, some differences were observed in the plasmid profiles and in the production of β-exotoxin. To determine the culture fractions where the insecticidal metabolites were present, bioassays including resuspended spore-crystal pellets, filtered supernatants (FS) were compared with those of WC. Both fractions tested showed some level of insecticidal activity. The results may suggest that the main toxic factors can be found in FS and could be directly correlated with the presence of β-exotoxin. Based on the bioassays with FS and autoclaved FS, the participation of thermolabile virulence factors such as Cry1I in toxicity is neither discarded. In the selected strains, β-exotoxin would be the major associated virulence factor; therefore, their use in biological control of A. grandis should be restricted. Nevertheless, these strains could be the source of genes (e.g., cry1Ia) to produce transgenic cotton plants resistant to this pest. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Growth rate change driven by external perturbation in the azuki bean weevil

    CERN Document Server

    Fukano, T

    2003-01-01

    In laboratory experiments we obtain that the apparent growth rate of the population becomes larger than one under the normal condition, triggered by the external perturbation as the removal of individuals. The changed growth rate is stable for a while. We also propose a simple model of population dynamics allowing both matching and mis-matching the trend of the external perturbation, and show that the growth rate of the model population is changeable and stable to some extent.

  14. Effects of the Diet on the Microbiota of the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    KAUST Repository

    Montagna, Matteo; Chouaia, Bessem; Mazza, Giuseppe; Prosdocimi, Erica Maria; Crotti, Elena; Mereghetti, Valeria; Vacchini, Violetta; Giorgi, Annamaria; De Biase, Alessio; Longo, Santi; Cervo, Rita; Lozzia, Giuseppe Carlo; Alma, Alberto; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated

  15. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhtar, Muhammad; Rasool, Khawaja G; Parrella, Michael P.; Sheikh, Qaiser I; Pain, Arnab; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente; Aldryhim, Yousif N.; Mankin, R. W.; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S.

    2011-01-01

    of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical

  16. Analyzing the movement of an invasive weevil (Polydrusus sericeus) using stable Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanne Lund; Paula Marquardt; William Jr. Mattson

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the response of insect populations to increasing CO2 and O3, we used ratios of stable carbon isotopes (d 13C) to trace the movement of an invasive insect in mixed tree communities grown under different air quality conditions. Polydrusus sericeus is a non-native...

  17. Growth rate change driven by external perturbation in the azuki bean weevil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, Takao; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2003-01-01

    In laboratory experiments we obtain that the apparent growth rate of the population becomes larger than one under the normal condition, triggered by the external perturbation as the removal of individuals. The changed growth rate is stable for a while. We also propose a simple model of population dynamics allowing both matching and mis-matching the trend of the external perturbation, and show that the growth rate of the model population is changeable and stable to some extent

  18. Aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from gut of red palm weevil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    based techniques using. PCR and sequencing ... pure cultures for definitive molecular identifications. .... chemistry according to manufacturer's recommendations. .... organic matter transformations in the soil feeding termite.

  19. Anoxia tolerance and anaerobic metabolism in two tropical weevil species (Coleoptera, Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölsch, G

    2001-10-01

    Although the two curculionid beetle species Cosmopolites sordidus and Temnoschoita nigroplagiata are found in the same habitat (banana plantation), they differ with respect to their microhabitat preference and thereby in their risk of being submerged after rain. The physiological characteristics of the two species that might be important in this context were investigated. As expected, C. sordidus is more resistant to submergence (faster recovery, lower mortality: 30% after 9 days submergence at 20 degrees C); this can be attributed to a generally lower metabolic rate, higher glycogen reserves (135 micromol glycosyl units x g FW(-1)) and a moderate lactate production under anoxia. In T. nigroplagiata, the glycogen reserves are almost completely depleted after 1 day submergence at 20 degrees C and a higher proportion of this glycogen can recovered as lactate (16%). During submergence, the adenylate energy charge falls in both species to 0.2 or below, whereas the total adenine nucleotide content decreases only slowly, especially in C. sordidus.

  20. BAITS FOR MONITORING WEEVILS IN BANANA PLANTATION OF VARIETY CV. NANICÃO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Corassa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar, 1824 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and Metamasius hemipterus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae are the main beetles associated with banana plants in Brazil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of attractive traps for monitoring these beetles, from May to September 2012 (hot season and October 2012 to April 2013 (rainy season, in the Amazon biome conditions. The experiment was installed in commercial banana plantations that produce the banana variety cv. Nanicão, divided into three plots of 0.5 hectare each, assessing the following treatments: 1 synthetic aggregation pheromone for the species C. sordidus (control; 2 molasses sugarcane and; 3 sugarcane oarlock. It was found that the three baits showed similar behavior in the hot and rainy season, with the highest catch of C. sordidus in the rainy season. The molasses sugarcane and sugarcane oarlock did not show efficiency in the capture of C. sordidus. Attractive bait sugarcane oarlock, in pitfall trap, proved efficient for both monitoring and mass collect M. hemipterus in banana plantations.

  1. Behavior study weevil ultradian sitophilus oryzae (coleoptera: curculionidae) treated with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrenechea, C.D.; Ritacco, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the sublethal dose of beetle Sitophilus oryzae primary pest grain products through the application of ionizing radiation as disinfestation. process. This beetle is a small insect, reddish brown, 3 mm in length that is characterized by the prolongation of his face. It causes severe damages in the material infesting either larval or adult state. They get their power supply of various materials, which include: grains of wheat, corn, rice, noodles and biscuits, among others. The insect under study, is bred in a natural substrate that infests (noodles) preventing the arrival of direct light and environmental conditions while maintaining the temperature ranging between 19 and 23 o O C with 41% relative humidity average. The adults are irradiated in darkness in the irradiation plant located at the Ezeiza Atomic Center (PISI), whose source is approximately 750 kCi 60 Co activity. Mature specimens are irradiated at 2 kGy, with a dose rate of between 260.00 and 286.33 Gy / min and at temperatures ranging between 15.4 and 18.1 o C until the moment. The material is observed 3 times daily stages comprising ultradian (morning, afternoon and evening) observed number of live / dead etolology, taxismo, physiology and restoration post irradiation, these data are compared with untreated. material. Were irradiated until 255 individuals, verifying the LD 50 for the second day post irradiation. It is found that immediately after the application of the method, adults lose the ability to move, being initially temporarily until it becomes final. Insects move only certain parts of the body (legs and antennae, mainly). In some specimens are observed in the mouth secretions transparent and light yellow in the anal region (under study), response evidenced in adult insects control of this species (author)

  2. Flight time and flight age in the sweet potato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Fabricius)(Coleoptera: Brentidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T.; Moriya, S.

    1996-01-01

    We examined daily flight patterns and the correlation between adult age and flight in Cylas formicarius in the laboratory at 25 ± 1 ℃ under a 14L10D photoregime by a simple method of counting the number of adults flying out of a cup. The flight activity of males peaked just after the onset of darkness and gradually decreased toward the onset of light. Only a small proportion of them flew during the photophase. More than 90% of male adults flow at least once within 2 weeks after exodus from the sweet potato tuber. The proportion of males flying per day increased to a maximum 1 week after the exodus, and about 10% of them flow even 30 days after the exodus. On the other hand, flight activity of females was low and the proportion of females flying at least once was about 25%. Females flow from 7 to 24 days after the exodus

  3. Sexual competion of irradiated males of the cowpea weevil, callosobruchus maculatus (F.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M.Y.Y.; Younes, M.W.F.

    1981-01-01

    When unmated males of Callosobruchus maculatus were irradiated with 7.5 or 10 Krad and confined with normal females, 97.90 and 89.32%, respectively, of the eggs did not hatch, compared with 15.49% infertility of the control eggs. Increasing the dose to 12.5 or 15 Krad induced 99.44 and 100%, respectively, sterility in the irradiated (I) males. When males treated with 7.5, 10 or 12.5 Krad were confined with unirradiated (U) males and females (1:1:1 ratio), infertility of the resulting eggs were 60.06, 67.96 and 69.04%, respectively. The competitiveness values of irradiated males with the above doses and ratio were 1.2, 1.6 and 1.8. Thus, males treated with substerilizing doses (7.5, 10 or 12.5 Krad) competed favourably with (U) males, and males treated with the sterilizing dose (15 Krad) were also fully competitive with (U) males. These results indicated that irradiation with 15 Krad, a sterilizing dose, did not decrease sexual competitiveness of irradiated males. (author)

  4. USE OF BOTANICAL INSECTICIDES AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF THE MEXICAN BEAN WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAREN FERREIRA DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal activity of eight botanical species in the behavior and biological development of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae under laboratory conditions. The botanical species were applied on bean grains (Phaseolus vulgaris Linnaeus directly as powder or indirectly within TNT bags. Three laboratory assays were performed. First, a repellent activity test was performed by exposing twenty couples of Z. subfasciatus adults in a choice-test arena. Second, a mortality test was performed for seven days after infestation. Finally, the oviposition and emergency rates of adults (% and the development from egg to adult (in days were evaluated in seven couples (males and females for seven days inside of a vial containing 0.3g of the powder from each botanical species and 10 g of bean grains (3% w.w-1. The study was conducted in a completely randomized design, and the treatments were arranged as a factorial design (2 x 9 with two factors (factor 1= powder and TNT bag application forms and factor 2= eight botanical species and control with eight replications. The powder application form was more efficient in controlling Z. subfasciatus. Azadirachta indica (powder application, Ruta graveolens (powder application, and Piper aduncum (TNT bag reduced the infestation of adults. The species A. inidica, Piper tuberculatum, Trichilia catigua, Pfaffia glomerata, R. graveolens, and Mentha pulegium inhibited the oviposition of the insects regardless of the formulation applied. R. graveolens (powder application caused 100% of mortality. The powder application of R. graveolens and M. pulegium reduced egg viability and insect emergence; therefore, they are very promising alternatives to control Z. subfasciatus in stored grains.

  5. efficacy of rice husk ash against rice weevil and lesser grain borer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-05-05

    May 5, 2017 ... this study was to determine efficacy of RHA from “Mr. Harry” rice variety against Rhyzopertha dominica and. Sitophilus oryzae. ..... Spectroscopy, following lithium metaborate/ ..... feasibility of using RHA to treat grains meant.

  6. Velcro-Like System Used to Fix a Protective Faecal Shield on Weevil Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuhrovec, Jiří; Stejskal, Robert; Trnka, Filip; di Giulio, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    The last instar larva and pupa of Eucoeliodes mirabilis (A. Villa & G. B. Villa, 1835) (Curculionidae: Ceutorhynchini) are described using drawings and SEM images and are compared and keyed with already described larvae of 58 other ceutorhynchinae taxa. The larval body has an effective combination of morphological adaptations that assist a unique biological defensive strategy. All larval stages of E. mirabilis feed ectophytically on leaves of Euonymus europaeus L. (Celastraceae), and the larval body is covered with a thick faecal shield. The fixation of this protective shield on the larval back is performed by a peculiar dorsal microsculpture composed of a dense carpet of microtrichia on the thorax and abdomen, which serves effectively as a velcro system. Because of this strategy, macrosetae on the larval and pupal body of E. mirabilis are completely reduced. Larvae of E. mirabilis also have distinct morphological adaptations for protecting the spiracles against intrusion of faeces and avoiding occlusion of the tracheal system: a) microtrichia around spiracles are slightly shorter, distinctly stronger and are arranged with high-density and in clusters and b) spiracles are protected by an external safety valve. This strategy of E. mirabilis larvae is unique, although somewhat similar to that of Criocerinae and Blepharida-group leave beetles (Galerucinae) (both Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), but with distinctly different morphological adaptations.

  7. Eavesdropping on coconut rhinoceros beetles, red palm weevils, Asian longhorned beetles, and other invasive travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    As global trade increases, invasive insects inflict increasing economic damage to agriculture and urban landscapes in the United States yearly, despite a sophisticated array of interception methods and quarantine programs designed to exclude their entry. Insects that are hidden inside soil, wood, or...

  8. Evaluation of acute and subacute toxicity and mutagenic activity of the aqueous extract of pecan shells [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luiz Carlos Santos; da Silva, Juliana; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Corrêa, Dione Silva; dos Santos, Marcela Silva; Porto, Caroline Dalla Lana; Picada, Jaqueline Nascimento

    2013-09-01

    The infusion of pecan shells has been used to prevent and control hypercholesterolemia, diabetes and toxicological diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate toxicity and mutagenic effects of pecan shells aqueous extract (PSAE). Wistar rats were treated with a single dose of 300 or 2000 mg/kg of PSAE in the acute toxicity test. For the subacute test, the animals received 10 or 100 mg/kg of PSAE for 28 days. The mutagenicity was evaluated using Salmonella/microsome assay in TA1535, TA1537, TA98, TA100 and TA102 S. typhimurium strains in the presence and absence of metabolic activation (S9 mix) and micronucleus test in bone marrow. HPLC analyses indicated the presence of tannins, flavonoids, gallic and ellagic acids. Except for triglycerides, all treated groups presented normal hematological and biochemical parameters. Lower levels of triglycerides and weight loss were observed in the 100 mg/kg group. Mutagenic activities were not detected in S. typhimurium strains and by the micronucleus test. Based on these results, PSAE was not able to induce chromosomal or point mutations, under the conditions tested. The 100mg/kg dose showed significant antihyperlipidemic action, with no severe toxic effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. First report of pecan bacterial leaf scorch caused by Xylella fastidiosa in pecan (Carya illinoinensis) in Arizona, New Mexico, California, and Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecan bacterial leaf scorch (PBLS) is a chronic disease that can cause major yield losses in pecan orchards. In the 2015-16 growing seasons, symptoms consistent with PBLS were observed in commercial pecan cultivars in AZ, NM, CA and TX. Symptoms included tan to light brown necrotic lesions, which ...

  10. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh C. Koch] shell aqueous extract on minimally processed lettuce leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina CAXAMBÚ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pecan nutshell is a residue from food industry that has potential to be used as biopreservative in foods. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of pecan nutshell aqueous extract in vitro and its effectiveness to inhibit spoilage microorganisms on lettuce leaves. The results indicate that the aqueous extract presents inhibitory activity against important foodborne pathogenic bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Enteritidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial activity was not observed against Corynebacterium fimi, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and the phytopathogenic fungi tested. When applied onto lettuce leaves, pecan nutshell extract reduced the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic bacteria in 2 and 4 log CFU/g, respectively, during storage of leafy for 5 days at refrigeration temperature (5 °C. The extract was not effective to inhibit yeast on lettuce leaves. Thus, the aqueous extract of pecan shell showed great potential to be used as a natural preservative in foods, acting mainly in the inhibition of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria.

  11. Evaluación de la calidad durante el almacenamiento de nueces Pecán [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] acondicionadas en diferentes envases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block, Jana Mara

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the quality changes of pecan nuts stored in nylon-polyethylene plastic film under vacuum and in polypropylene plastic recipients at ambient temperature for 150 days were evaluated. The nutritional composition, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of the pecan nuts reveal interesting nutritional characteristics and an oil with high contents of mono-unsaturated fatty acids and γ-tocopherol. During storage, moisture content did not suffer significant changes, but a gradual and significant darkening of the surface of the nuts occurred. The changes in acid value, peroxide value and specific extinction of the extracted oil were significant. The microbiological quality was excellent and the presence of Salmonella sp. was not detected. Through sensory analysis, the shelf-life of the product was determined as 120 days, without significant differences between the two types of packaging used.En el presente trabajo, fueron evaluadas las alteraciones en la calidad de nueces Pecán almacenadas en película plástica de nilón-polietileno al vacío y en recipientes plásticos de polipropileno, en temperatura ambiente, durante 150 días. La composición nutricional, en ácidos grasos (62,5 % de ácido oleico y el contenido de tocoferoles (30 mg/kg de γ-tocoferol de las nueces Pecán, indican características nutricionales interesantes. Durante el almacenamiento de las nueces, el contenido de humedad no sufrió cambios significativos, mas ocurrió un oscurecimiento gradual y significativo de la superficie de las nueces. Las alteraciones en los índices de acidez (0,17 - 0,37 y 0,19 - 0,57 inicial y final para los envases de película plástica y polipropileno, respectivamente, peróxido (1,0 - 2,7 y 1,1 - 4,7 y extinción específica a 232 nm (0,98 - 1,99 y 0,96 - 2,16 y 270 nm (0,11 - 0,33 y 0,04 - 0,15 en el aceite extraído fueron significativas. La calidad microbiológica fue excelente y no fue detectada la presencia de Salmonella sp. A través del análisis sensorial se determinó la vida de anaquel del producto como 120 días, sin diferencias significativas entre los dos tipos de envases utilizados.

  12. Electron-beam irradiation effects on phytochemical constituents and antioxidant capacity of pecan kernels [ Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal-Lozoya, Jose E; Lombardini, Leonardo; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis

    2009-11-25

    Pecans kernels (Kanza and Desirable cultivars) were irradiated with 0, 1.5, and 3.0 kGy using electron-beam (E-beam) irradiation and stored under accelerated conditions [40 degrees C and 55-60% relative humidity (RH)] for 134 days. Antioxidant capacity (AC) using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays, phenolic (TP) and condensed tannin (CT) content, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) phenolic profile, tocopherol content, peroxide value (PV), and fatty acid profiles were determined during storage. Irradiation decreased TP and CT with no major detrimental effects in AC. Phenolic profiles after hydrolysis were similar among treatments (e.g., gallic and ellagic acid, catechin, and epicatechin). Tocopherol content decreased with irradiation (>21 days), and PV increased at later stages (>55 days), with no change in fatty acid composition among treatments. Color lightness decreased, and a reddish brown hue developed during storage. A proposed mechanism of kernel oxidation is presented, describing the events taking place. In general, E-beam irradiation had slight effects on phytochemical constituents and could be considered a potential tool for pecan kernel decontamination.

  13. DISPONIBILIDAD DE LUZ Y PRODUCCIÓN DE NUEZ DESPUÉS DEL ACLAREO DE ÁRBOLES DE NOGAL PECANERO (Carya illinoensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Arreola Ávila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El volumen de la copa bien iluminada es uno de los factores clave en la productividad de árboles de nogal pecanero. Cuando las huertas de nogal pecanero con densidades de plantación al menos de 100 árboles por hectárea presentan problemas de sombreo, la penetración de luz dentro de la copa del árbol y entre árboles, el crecimiento y la producción son negativamente afectadas. La investigación realizada para estudiar el efecto del aclareo de árboles de nogal pecanero sobre la disponibilidad de la luz y productividad de la huerta es limitada. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto del aclareo de árboles sobre la disponibilidad de radiación fotosintéticamente activa (RFA dentro de árboles permanentes, crecimiento del brote, producción y calidad de la nuez. Este estudio se llevó a cabo en una huerta madura de nogal pecanero con aclareo de árboles de 25 a 50 % durante el periodo 2004-2008. La disponibilidad de RFA dentro de árboles, longitud de brotes y la producción de nuez fueron afectadas por los tratamientos de aclareo; sin embargo, la calidad (porcentaje de almendra por árbol durante el periodo de tres años de estudio no fue significativamente afectada. Los resultados de este estudio indican que un gradual aclareo en huertas con problemas de sombreo debe realizarse para recuperar el crecimiento y componentes de producción.

  14. Effects of Permanently Raised Water Tables on Forest Overstory Vegetation in the Vicinity of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Mississippi Valley* Common Name Scientific Name Very Tolerant** Water hickory Carya aquatica Pecan C. illinoensis Buttonbush Cephalanthus occidentalis...Table I (Concluded) Common Name Scientific Name Intolerant* Ironwood Carpinus caroliniana Bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis Shellbark

  15. Final Environmental Assessment of Military Housing Privatization Barksdale Air Force Base, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    loblolly pine (Pinus taeda), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua), water oak (Quercus nigra), red oak (Quercus sp...blackjack oak (Q. marilandica), mockernut hickory ( Carya tomentosa), pignut hickory (C. glabra), blackgum (Nyssa sylvatica), winged elm (Ulmus alata

  16. Lower Mississippi River Environmental Program. Report 11. Forest Vegetation of the Leveed Floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    styraciflua, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Carya illinoensis and Quercus CC .-. sp. may occur but are rare and were not sampled in this study. 88. The subtype... illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch Carya laciniosa (Michaux f.) Loudon Juglans nigra L. BETULACEAE Carpinus caroliniana Walter Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch...between Baton Rouge and Memphis include Quercus nuttallii and Ulmus crassifolia. Acer saccharinum, Carya cordiformis, Carya laciniosa, and Juglans nigra

  17. General Classification Handbook for Floodplain Vegetation in Large River Systems. Chapter 1 of Book 2, Collection of Environmental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    tuberculatus WM Amorpha A. fruiticosa WMS Betula B. nigra FF, LF Bidens B. cernua, B. frondosa SMA Carex C. spp.1 SM Carya C. cordiformis, C. illinoensis LF...include pecan ( Carya ), hickory ( Carya ), river birch (Betula), sycamore (Platanus), and red/black oak (Quercus). This general class is most com- mon...near the edge of the floodplain, or out of the floodplain. This general class typi- cally consists of red or white oak (Quercus), hickory ( Carya

  18. Archeological Survey of Undeveloped Portions of Eaker Air Force Base, Mississippi County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-25

    Swamp (Quercus bicolor) T I White (Quercus alba)11 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Plum (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw...Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Sheilbark ( Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeamn (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree(Gymnocladus dioica

  19. Structural Relationships Of Selected Tree Species at Several Mid-Latitude Deciduous Forest Sites in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    are included in the deciduous analyses. They are mockernut hickory { Carya tomentosa), American elm {Ulmus americana), pecan { Carya illinoensis ), and...alba, white ash (Fraxinus americana), and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ). A number of these trees have plaques indicating the dates of planting (late 1700s

  20. Cultural Resources of the Ohio River Floodplain in Illinois,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-10-15

    americana), hickories, .nd sweet gum, with occasional black walnut (Juailapns _igrij), butternut (Iluglans cinerea), and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) on better...Quercius velutina), shingle oak (Quercus imbricaria), and various hickories, particularly the more xeric species such as black hickory ( Carya texana...where soil is thin or exposure hazardous. Stands of various hickories ( Carya ) are interspersed. Smaller trees might include dogwood (Cornus spp.) and

  1. A Cultural Resources Survey of Steele, New Franklin, and Main Ditches, and National Register of Historic Places Significance Testing of Sites 2PM574, 575, 577, and 23PM578, Pemiscot County Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-15

    White (Quercus alba) 1 1 Pecan ( Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Plum (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red... Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellbark (Car.ya laciniosa) T Hornbeam ( Ostrya virgin/iana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree(Gymnocladus dioica)T "Locust, ? T Black (Robinia

  2. Environmental Impact Research Program. Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Section 4.7.1, US Army Corps of Engineers Wildlife Resources Management Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    Palmetto Sabal spp. Pawpaw Asimina triloba Pecan Carya illinoensis Persimmon Diospyros virginiana Pine Pinus app. Loblolly pine P. taeda Red mulberry...grandifotia Bitter pecan Carya aquatica Blackberry Rubus app. Black cherry Prunus serotina Blackgum Nyssa sylvatica Black walnut Jugtans nigra Blueberry...americana Hickory Carya Spp. Bitternut hickory C. cordiformis Shagbark hickory C. ovata Shellbark hickory C. Zaciniosa Hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana

  3. Vegetation in the Flood Plain Adjacent to the Mississippi River between Cairo, Illinois, and St. Paul, Minnesota, and in the Flood Plain of the Illinois River between Grafton, Illinois, and Chicago, and the Possible Impacts That Will Result from the Construction of L & D 26 and the Associated Increase in Barge Traffic,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-20

    and pecan ( Carya illinoensis ). In the southernmost region of the study area (i.e., Alexander and Union counties, Illinois), swamp cottonwood is a...ash (Fraxinus lanceolata), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), box elder (Acer negundo), and red mulberry (Morus rubra). Shrubs occurring in the Silver Maple...americana), green ash (Fraxinus lanceolata), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), sugarberry (Celtis laevigata), and red mulberry (Morus rubra). Also

  4. Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markó, V.; Blommers, L.H.M.; Bogya, S.; Helsen, H.H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis

  5. THE EFFECTS ACTIVE PRINCIPLES FROM MEDICINAL AND FLAVOR PLANTS IN NON CHEMICAL CONTROL AGAINST BEAN WEEVIL, ACANTHOSCELIDES OBTECTUS SAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ECOBICI Maria Monica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reduced toxicity in humans and livestock, and also because they does not develop strength to insects or let toxic residues, the use of vegetal insecticides is of great interest both from an economic and ecological point of view (Golob and contributors, 1999, Multon, 1988.

  6. Recombinant Cry1Ia protein is highly toxic to cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman) and fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, E S; Aguiar, R W D S; Martins, N F; Melatti, V M; Falcão, R; Gomes, A C M M; Ribeiro, B M; Monnerat, R G

    2008-05-01

    To evaluate the activity of cry1Ia gene against cotton pests, Spodoptera frugiperda and Anthonomus grandis. Had isolated and characterized a toxin gene from the Bacillus thuringiensis S1451 strain which have been previously shown to be toxic to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. The toxin gene (cry1Ia) was amplified by PCR, sequenced, and cloned into the genome of a baculovirus. The Cry1Ia protein was expressed in baculovirus infected insect cells, producing protein inclusions in infected cells. The Cry1Ia protein has used in bioassays against to S. frugiperda and A. grandis. Bioassays using the purified recombinant protein showed high toxicity to S. frugiperda and A. grandis larvae. Molecular modelling of the Cry1Ia protein translated from the DNA sequence obtained in this work, showed that this protein possibly posses a similar structure to the Cry3A protein. Ultrastructural analysis of midgut cells from A. grandis incubated with the Cry1Ia toxin, showed loss of microvilli integrity. The results indicate that the cry1Ia is a good candidate for the construction of transgenic plants resistant to these important cotton pests.

  7. Boll weevils: field and laboratory assessment of mating ability and sperm content after irradiation with or without diflubenzuron treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavaso, E.J.; Earle, N.W.; Hollier, D.D.

    1977-01-01

    Sperm depletion did not occur within the 1st week after irradiated males and females of Anthonomus grandis Boheman were released together into isolated field plots. Also, survival and mating ability did not differ as a result of treatment. The treatments were: irradiation of 4-day-old adults plus diflubenzuron (N-(4-chlorophenyl). N 1 -(2,6-difluorobenzoyl) urea)), fractionated irradiation of pupae, and fractionated irradiation of adults plus diflubenzuron

  8. Life history and larval morphology of Eurhinus magnificus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a new weevil to the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ulmer, Bryan J.; Duncan, Rita E.; Prena, Jens; Peña, Jorge E.

    2007-01-01

    Eurhinus magnificus Gyllenhal has been collected in south Florida, presumably introduced through trade with countries in its native range. Very little information has been published on the biology or taxonomy of this insect. We conducted studies to investigate various aspects of its life history and host plant associations. The pre-imaginal life stages of E. magnificus are described for the first time. Dimensions of the adult, egg, larval, and pupal stages are also provided; head capsule meas...

  9. The seed coat of Phaseolus vulgaris interferes with the development of the cowpea weevil [Callosobruchus maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Luciana B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We have confirmed here that the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. do not support development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F., a pest of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp] seeds. Analysis of the testa (seed coat of the bean suggested that neither thickness nor the levels of compounds such as tannic acid, tannins, or HCN are important for the resistance. On the other hand, we have found that phaseolin (vicilin-like 7S storage globulin, detected in the testa by Western blotting and N-terminal amino acid sequencing, is detrimental to the development of C. maculatus. As for the case of other previously studied legume seeds (Canavalia ensiformis and Phaseolus lunatus we suggest that the presence of vicilin-like proteins in the testa of P. vulgaris may have had a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to the seeds of leguminous plants.

  10. Radiobiological studies on eggs of the rice weevil (Tribolium confusum) after exposure to heavy primary particles of the cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geyer, B.

    1982-01-01

    The thesis explains the radiation effects observed during the holometabolism of Tribolium confusum after exposure of the eggs to heavy primary particles of cosmic radiation, i.e. to atomic nuclei of relatively high energy with a mass greater than helium atoms. The first section describes the technical layout of the BIOSTACK experiment and the fixation of the Tribolium eggs and the positioning of the nuclear track detectors. This part is followed by the description of methods used to detect the eggs hit by the heavy nuclei, and their isolation and subsequent growth. Terrestrial irradiation of eggs with x-rays served as a control, as well as unirradiated egg cultures. The amount of larvae produced from incubated eggs hit by heavy nuclei was 66%, that of eggs exposed to cosmic background radiation was 69%, and that produced by the control culture kept on the earth was 87%. Investigations of egg samples during various stages of embryogenesis showed differences in the histological findings of the various groups, especially between the two groups of the BIOSTACK experiment. The letality of larvae in the period from emergence up to pupal stage was relatively high (50%) in the group hit by heavy nuclei, especially when compared to the other BIOSTACK experimental group, where this percentage was 10%, and to the terrestrial control group (3%). Also, vitality of larvae of the first group was considerably reduced. In the pupal stage, the letality observed in all three test groups was relatively low with 2-4%. From the animals produced from eggs hit by heavy nuclei, only 25% were still alive after 4 months, from the other space flight group these were 75%, and from the terrestrial control group 93%. Also, the animals from the first group showed a significant increase in bodily anomalies. (orig./MG) [de

  11. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption.

  12. Histone and Ribosomal RNA Repetitive Gene Clusters of the Boll Weevil are Linked in a Tandem Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histones are the major protein component of chromatin structure. The histone family is made up of a quintet of proteins, four core histones (H2A, H2B, H3 & H4) and the linker histones (H1). Spacers are found between the coding regions. Among insects this quintet of genes is usually clustered and ...

  13. Composition and T oxicity of E ssential O il of Illicium simonsii Maxim (Illiciaceae Fruit against the Maize Weevils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hua Jiang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The e ssential oil of Illicium simonsii f ruit w as obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. A total of 40 components of the essential oil were identified. The principal compounds in I. simonsii fruit essential oil were β-caryophyllene (10.30%, δ-cadinene (9.52%, methyl eugenol ( 8 .94, β-elemene (5.84%, and α-amorphene (5.20%. The essential oil possess ed strong fumigant toxicity against S itophilus zeamais adults with a LC 50 value of 14.95 mg/ L air. The essential oil also show ed contact toxicity against S. zeamais adults with a LD 50 value of 112.74 µg/adult.

  14. Sterling C. Robertson Dam and Limestone Lake on the Navasota River, Texas (Leon, Limestone and Robertson Counties).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    flatsedge (Cyperus s p.) , and Spanish mulberry (Callicarpa americana). Common bottomland forest species included pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), post...ona-wiibT Bull Briar Smilax glauca Cat Greenbriar Salix nigra Black Willow Carya illinoensis Pecan Carya texana Black Hickory Q-erustlefata Post Oak... illinoensis ), post oak (Quercus stellata). hackberry (Ce/is sp.), elm (Ulmus sp.), and holly. Species common in the prairie site included Croton sp., prairie

  15. Cultural Resources Survey and Testing Along Ditch 19 and Extensive Testing of 23DU289, Dunklin and Stoddard Counties, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    Carya illinoensis ) 1 1 Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) T 2 2 Pl.um (Prunus sp.) T Red Haw (Crataegus sp.) T 1 11 Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) T...2 Cherry (Prunus sp.) T Cottonwood (Populus sp.) 1 3 Dogwood (Cornus sp.) 1 Hackberry (Celtus occidentalis) 12 9 Hickory, ( Carya sp.) 5 4 Shellhark... Carya laciniosa) T Hornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) 2 Kentucky Coffee Tree( Gymnoeladus dioica)T Locust, T Black (Robinia pseudo-acacia) T Honey

  16. Ultrasonic-assisted extraction combined with sample preparation and analysis using LC-ESI-MS/MS allowed the identification of 24 new phenolic compounds in pecan nut shell [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) C. Koch] extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Josiane; Alves, Victor Rodrigues; Müller, Carmen Maria Olivera; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Vitali, Luciano; Pedrosa, Rozangela Curi; Block, Jane Mara

    2018-04-01

    Ultrasonic-assisted extraction combined with statistical tools (factorial design, response surface methodology and kinetics) were used to evaluate the effects of the experimental conditions of temperature, solid-to-solvent ratio, ethanol concentration and time for the extraction of the total phenolic content from pecan nut shells. The optimal conditions for the aqueous and hydroalcoholic extract (with 20% v/v of ethanol) were 60 and 80 °C; solid to solvent ratio of 30 mL·g -1 (for both) and extraction time of 35 and 25 min, respectively. Using these optimize extraction conditions, 426 and 582 mg GAE·g -1 of phenolic compounds, from the aqueous and hydroalcoholic phases respectively, were obtained. In addition, the analysis of the phenolic compounds using the LC-ESI-MS/MS system allowed the identification of 29 phenolic compounds, 24 of which had not been reported in literature for this raw material yet. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Growdon Gate/Road Relocation and Property Acquisition Environmental Assessment. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    black walnut (Juglans nigra), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), blackberry (Rubus sp.), greenbriar (Smilax sp.), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), giant...Riparian Cedar elm (Ulmus crassifolia), black willow (Salix nigra), hackberry (Celtis laevigata), chinaberry (Melia azedarach), pecan ( Carya ... illinoensis ), Canada wildrye (Elymus candensis), poison ivy (Rhus radicans), greenbrier (Smilax spp.), and giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida) Urban

  18. Environmental and Cultural Impact. Proposed Tennessee Colony Reservoir, Trinity River, Texas. Volume IV. Appendix F.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Some other species in this area are hackberry (Celtis laevigata), water oak (Quercus nigra), pecan ( Carya illinoensis ), and American elm (Ulmus...Some upland hickory species ( Carya ) will also be encountered. These areas should be maintained as such in order to prevent erosion of the future

  19. La Farge Lake, Kickapoo River, Vernon County, Wisconsin, Final Environmental Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-02-18

    alternifolia (Wingstem), Asimina. triloba (Paw Paw), Aster vimineus, Buchloe dactylodes (Buffalo Grass), Carya glabra (Sweet Pg-ut), illinoensis (Pecan...black oak (Quercus velutina), white oak (Quercus alba), and hickory ( Carya cordiformes) generally occupy the drier uplands and slopes with south and

  20. Determination of the Heterotic groups of Maize inbred lines and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is a major maize (Zea mays L) storage insect pest in the tropics. Fifty-two inbred lines developed for weevil resistance were crossed to two testers, A and B, to determine their heterotic groups and inheritance of resistance to maize weevil. For 10 testcrosses selected for ...