WorldWideScience

Sample records for weevil curculio caryae

  1. Lipid composition of the pecan weevil,Curculio caryae (Horn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, R D; Thompson, A C; Gueldner, R C; Mody, N V; Neel, W W

    1973-11-01

    The lipids of larvae, male adults, and female adults of the pecan weevil,Curculio caryae (Horn), were studied, and special attention was given the fatty acid composition. The larvae contained an unusually high amount of lipid material (40.6%), most of it concentrated in the neutral lipid fraction. Male and famale adults contained more conventional quantities, 5.8 and 8.2%, respectively. Oleic acid was the major fatty acid in the total and neutral lipids of all stages; linoleic acid was the most abundant in the phospholipid fractions.

  2. Hydrocarbons from males, females, and larvae of pecan weevil: Curculio caryae (Horn).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, N V; Hedin, P A; Neel, W W; Miles, D H

    1975-02-01

    As part of a program to identify as many as possible of the components of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), the hydrocarbons from males, females, and larvae were isolated by solvent extraction and column chromatography and subjected to gas lipuid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. n-Alkanes from C14-C32 in the larvae and unsaturated and branched chain hydrocarbons from C20-C32 in males and females were found. There are no significant differences between the hydrocarbons of the male and female pecan weevils.

  3. Biological Control of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M T; Georgis, R; Nyczepir, A P; Miller, R W

    1993-03-01

    Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) strain A11, S. feltiae (Filipjev) strain SN, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar strains HP88 and Georgia were tested for their efficacy as biological control agents of the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), in pecan orchard soil-profile containers under greenhouse conditions. Percentage C. caryae parasitism by S. carpocapsae and H. bacteriophora strain HP88 and Georgia was consistently poor when applied either prior to or following C. caryae entry into the soil, suggesting that these nematode species and (or) their enterobacteria are poor biological control agents of weevil larvae. Soil taken 21 days following application of S. carpocapsae or H. bacteriophora strain HP88 induced a low rate of infection of Galleria mellonella larvae, whereas soil that had been similarily treated with H. bacteriophora strain Georgia induced a moderate rate of infection. Percentage C. caryae parasitism by S. feltiae was consistently low when applied following C. caryae entry into the soil and was inconsistent when applied as a barrier prior to entry of weevil larvae into the soil. Soil taken 21 days following application of S. feltiae induced a high rate of infection of G. mellonella larvae.

  4. Virulence of entomopathogenic nematodes to pecan weevil larvae, Curculio caryae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, D I

    2001-02-01

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecans in the Southeast. Entomopathogenic nematodes have been shown to be pathogenic toward the larval stage of this pest. Before this research, only three species of nematodes had been tested against pecan weevil larvae. In this study, the virulence of the following nine species and 15 strains of nematodes toward fourth-instar pecan weevil was tested: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Baine, HP88, Oswego, NJ1, and Tf strains), H. indica Poinar, Karunakar & David (original and Homl strains), H. marelatus Liu & Berry (IN and Point Reyes strains), H. megidis Poinar, Jackson & Klein (UK211 strain), H. zealandica Poinar (NZH3 strain), Steinernema riobrave Cabanillas, Poinar & Raulston (355 strain), S. carpocapsae (Weiser) (All strain), S. feltiae (Filipjev) (SN strain), and S. glaseri (Steiner) (NJ43 strain). No significant difference in virulence was detected among nematode species or strains. Nematode-induced mortality was not significantly greater than control mortality (in any of the experiments conducted) for the following nematodes: H. bacteriophora (Baine), H. zealandica (NZH3), S. carpocapsae (All), S. feltiae (SN), S. glaseri (NJ43), and S. riobrave (355). All other nematodes caused greater mortality than the control in at least one experiment. Heterorhabditis megidis (UK211) but not H. indica (original) displayed a positive linear relationship between nematode concentration and larval mortality. Results suggested that, as pecan weevil larvae age, they may have become more resistant to infection with entomopathogenic nematodes.

  5. Effect of Soil Moisture and a Surfactant on Entomopathogenic Nematode Suppression of the Pecan Weevil, Curculio caryae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Brown, Ian; Gardner, Wayne A; Hubbard, Robert K; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-12-01

    Our overall goal was to investigate several aspects of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, suppression with entomopathogenic nematodes. Specifically, our objectives were to: 1) determine optimum moisture levels for larval suppression, 2) determine suppression of adult C. caryae under field conditions, and 3) measure the effects of a surfactant on nematode efficacy. In the laboratory, virulence of Heterorhabditis megidis (UK211) and Steinernema carpocapsae (All) were tested in a loamy sand at gravimetric water contents of negative 0.01, 0.06, 0.3, 1.0, and 15 bars. Curculio caryae larval survival decreased as moisture levels increased. The nematode effect was most pronounced at -0.06 bars. At -0.01 bars, larval survival was caryae populations. Overall, our results indicated no effect of a surfactant (Kinetic) on C. caryae suppression with entomopathogenic nematodes. In a greenhouse test, C. caryae larval survival was lower in all nematode treatments compared with the control, yet survival was lower in S. carpocapsae (Italian) and S. riobrave (7-12) treatments than in S. carpocapsae (Agriotos), S. carpocapsae (Mexican), and S. riobrave (355) treatments (survival was reduced to approximately 20% in the S. riobrave [7-12] treatment). A mixture of S. riobrave strains resulted in intermediate larval survival. In field experiments conducted over two consecutive years, S. riobrave (7-12) applications resulted in no observable control, and, although S. carpocapsae (Italian) provided some suppression, treatment effects were generally only detectable one day after treatment. Nematode strains possessing both high levels of virulence and a greater ability to withstand environmental conditions in the field need to be developed and tested.

  6. Histopathological Investigations on Rickettsiella-like sp. and Nonoccluded Viruses Infecting the Pecan Weevil Curculio caryae, the Squash Beetle Epilachna borealis, and the Mexican Bean Beetle Epilachna varivestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark; Tompkins; Neel; Schroder; Schaefer

    1997-03-01

    Electron microscopic observations of abnormal specimens of pecan weevils, Curculio caryae, squash beetles, Epilachna borealis, and Mexican bean beetles, Epilachna varivestis, obtained from insect-rearing facilities and from field collections revealed that rickettsia-like organisms (RLOs) and viruses caused disease in these species. Several pleomorphic forms of the RLOs which were similar to those of Rickettsiella sp. were found in tissues of the fat body, hypodermis, tracheal matrix, muscle, and midgut of each insect species. In addition, RLOs also were found in heart and silk gland tissues of the pecan weevil. Stalked knobs or "pili" were found on the cell membranes of the RLOs in the infected tissues of the pecan weevil and the squash beetle. Crystals often associated with Rickettsiella infections were not observed. Virus-like particles of 18-42 nm were found in various tissues of the three species examined.

  7. Recycling Potential and Fitness of Steinernematid Nematodes Cultured in Curculio caryae and Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Dutcher, James D; Hatab, Moeen

    2005-03-01

    The recycling potential of entomopathogenic nematodes in the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, following inundative applications is an important factor in considering whether nematodes could be incorporated into a C. caryae management strategy. Our objective was to determine the recycling potential and fitness of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. riobrave cultured in C. caryae. To estimate fitness and quality, we reared nematodes in larvae of C. caryae and in the commonly used standard host, the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella. Nematode lipid content, infectivity (power to invade), virulence (power to kill), and reproductive capacity (yield per insect) in C. caryae larvae were compared with G. mellonella data. Lipid content was higher in S. carpocapsae cultured in C. caryae than in G. mellonella, but S. riobrave lipid content was not affected by host source. Host source did not affect subsequent infectivity or virulence to C. caryae (P > 0.05) but did affect reproductive capacity (P < 0.0001). Both nematode species produced more progeny in C. caryae when they were first cultured in G. mellonella than when they were first passed through C. caryae. In terms of potential to recycle under field conditions, we predict that nematodes resulting from one round of recycling in C. caryae larvae would be equally capable of infecting and killing more weevils, but the potential to continue recycling in C. caryae would diminish over time due to reduced reproduction in that host.

  8. Community structure of acorn weevils (Curculio): inferences from multispecies occupancy models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Govindan, Byju N; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    .... Specifically, mast production and acorn weevil (Curculio L., 1758) occupancy were estimated annually from 2006 to 2008 for individual host trees in a sample of 74 northern red oaks (Quercus rubra L.), 100 white oaks (Quercus alba L...

  9. "Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri," a novel clade of bacterial endocellular symbionts from weevils of the genus Curculio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Koga, Ryuichi; Nikoh, Naruo; Meng, Xian Ying; Kimura, Nobutada; Fukatsu, Takema

    2010-01-01

    Here we investigated the bacterial endosymbionts of weevils of the genus Curculio. From all four species of Curculio weevils examined, a novel group of bacterial gene sequences were consistently identified. Molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the sequences formed a distinct clade in the Gammaproteobacteria, which was not related to previously known groups of weevil endosymbionts such as Nardonella spp. and Sodalis-allied symbionts. In situ hybridization revealed that the bacterium was intracellularly harbored in a bacteriome associated with larval midgut. In adult females, the bacterium was localized in the germalia at the tip of each overiole, suggesting vertical transmission via ovarial passage. Diagnostic PCR surveys detected high prevalence of the bacterial infection in natural host populations. Electron microscopy identified the reduced cell wall of the bacterial cells, and the bacterial genes exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition and accelerated molecular evolution, which are suggestive of a long-lasting endosymbiotic association. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the novel endocellular bacteria represent the primary symbiont of Curculio weevils and proposed the designation "Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri." In addition to "Ca. Curculioniphilus," we identified Sodalis-allied gammaproteobacterial endosymbionts from the chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis, which exhibited partial infection frequencies in host insect populations and neither AT-biased nucleotide composition nor accelerated molecular evolution. We suggest that such Sodalis-allied secondary symbionts in weevils might provide a potential source for symbiont replacements, as has occurred in an ancestor of Sitophilus grain weevils.

  10. Controlling pecan weevil with beneficial fungi: the impact of fungal species and fertilizer regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn), is a key pest of pecan. Prior research indicated the potential for using entomopathogenic fungi to suppress pecan weevil in the soil. We compared the efficacy of two fungal species, Beauveria bassiana (GHA strain) and Metarhizium brunneum (F52), in their a...

  11. Field efficacy against the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum and short-term persistence of entomopathogenic nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Batalla-Carrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae is a pest affecting hazelnut orchards in Europe, with an important economical repercussion. Its potential control, short-term field persistence and the vertical distribution of native entomopathogenic nematode strains were tested in Muntanyes de Prades, Tarragona (NE Iberian Peninsula over two consecutive years. Steinernema feltiae strain D114, Steinernema sp. strain D122 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain DG46 were used in summer and spring applications at a dosage of 5·105 IJs m-2. The three nematode species reduced the hazelnut weevil population, ranging from 32% to 88% efficacy, without significant differences in efficacy or between the two applications. Persistence evaluation was carried out during 9 weeks for S. feltiae (D114, Steinernema sp. (D122 and H. bacteriophora (DG46 and showed all species capable of lasting for this period. Nematodes and larval vertical distribution was assessed. Most of the hazelnut weevil stayed within the first 25 cm although some were found as deep as 40 cm. Entomopathogenic nematodes were found along all 40 cm depth. This study proves the suitability of entomopathogenic nematodes to control the hazelnut weevil.

  12. Susceptibility of the filbertworm (Cydia latiferreana, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and filbert weevil (Curculio occidentalis, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruck, Denny J; Walton, Vaughn M

    2007-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the susceptibility of the two primary direct insect pests of hazelnuts in Oregon to three species of entomopathogenic nematodes. The entomopathogenic nematodes (Heterorhabditis marelatus Pt. Reyes, Steinernema carpocapsae All and Steinernema kraussei L137) were used in laboratory soil bioassays to determine their virulence against filbertworm, Cydia latiferreana (Walsingham) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and filbert weevil, Curculio occidentalis (Casey) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). All three nematode species were infective in laboratory bioassays. Infectivity ranged from 73-100% and 23-85% for filbertworm and filbert weevil, respectively. Field results were similar to those found in the laboratory with filbertworm larvae being more susceptible to nematode infection.

  13. “Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri,” a Novel Clade of Bacterial Endocellular Symbionts from Weevils of the Genus Curculio ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Hosokawa, Takahiro; Koga, Ryuichi; Nikoh, Naruo; Meng, Xian Ying; Kimura, Nobutada; Fukatsu, Takema

    2010-01-01

    Here we investigated the bacterial endosymbionts of weevils of the genus Curculio. From all four species of Curculio weevils examined, a novel group of bacterial gene sequences were consistently identified. Molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the sequences formed a distinct clade in the Gammaproteobacteria, which was not related to previously known groups of weevil endosymbionts such as Nardonella spp. and Sodalis-allied symbionts. In situ hybridization revealed that the bacterium was intracellularly harbored in a bacteriome associated with larval midgut. In adult females, the bacterium was localized in the germalia at the tip of each overiole, suggesting vertical transmission via ovarial passage. Diagnostic PCR surveys detected high prevalence of the bacterial infection in natural host populations. Electron microscopy identified the reduced cell wall of the bacterial cells, and the bacterial genes exhibited AT-biased nucleotide composition and accelerated molecular evolution, which are suggestive of a long-lasting endosymbiotic association. On the basis of these results, we conclude that the novel endocellular bacteria represent the primary symbiont of Curculio weevils and proposed the designation “Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri.” In addition to “Ca. Curculioniphilus,” we identified Sodalis-allied gammaproteobacterial endosymbionts from the chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis, which exhibited partial infection frequencies in host insect populations and neither AT-biased nucleotide composition nor accelerated molecular evolution. We suggest that such Sodalis-allied secondary symbionts in weevils might provide a potential source for symbiont replacements, as has occurred in an ancestor of Sitophilus grain weevils. PMID:19880647

  14. The overwintering biology of the acorn weevil, Curculio glandium in southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaka, Hiroko; Sinclair, Brent J

    2014-08-01

    The acorn weevil, Curculio glandium, is a widespread predator of acorns in eastern North America that overwinters in the soil as a larva. It is possible that low temperatures limit its northern geographic range, so we determined the cold tolerance strategy, seasonal variation in cold tolerance, and explored the physiological plasticity of overwintering larvae. Weevil larvae were collected from acorns of red and bur oak from Pelee Island, southwestern Ontario in fall 2010 and 2011. C. glandium larvae are freeze avoidant and larvae collected from bur oak acorns had lower supercooling points (SCPs: -7.6±0.36°C, LT50: -7.2°C) than those collected from red oak acorns (SCPs: -6.1±0.40°C, LT50: -6.1°C). In the winter of 2010-2011, SCPs and water content decreased, however these changes did not occur in 2011-2012, when winter soil temperatures fluctuated greatly in the absence of the buffering effect of snow. To examine whether larvae utilize cryoprotective dehydration, larvae from red oak acorns were exposed to -5°C in the presence of ice for seven days. These conditions decreased the SCP without affecting water content, suggesting that SCP and water content are not directly coupled. Finally, long-term acclimation at 0°C for six weeks slightly increased cold tolerance but also did not affect water content. Thus, although larval diet affects cold tolerance, there is limited plasticity after other treatments. The soil temperatures we observed were not close to lethal limits, although we speculate that soil temperatures in northerly habitats, or in years of reduced snow cover, has the potential to cause mortality in the field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evidence for reversible change in intensity of prolonged diapause in the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Morio; Toyama, Masatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis undergoes a prolonged larval diapause that is completed by repeated exposure to chilling and warming. We examined the possible reversibility of diapause intensity in response to temperature changes. All larvae were subjected to an initial chilling followed by incubation at 20°C to force pupation of the 1-year-type larvae that require only one winter for diapause completion. We then exposed the larvae remaining in prolonged diapause to a second chilling at 5°C for different lengths of time, preceded or not preceded by incubation at 20°C (moderately high) and/or 25°C (high) and followed by a final post-chilling reincubation at 20°C. Many of the prolonged-diapausing larvae subjected only to a brief second chilling were re-activated upon reincubation. However, short exposure to 25°C before this second chilling dramatically decreased the percentage of larvae completing diapause. When larvae were exposed to 25°C for a short period, then incubated at 20°C and subjected to the brief second chilling, many were re-activated during reincubation. The chilling time required for most of the larvae to complete diapause decreased after pre-chilling incubation at 20°C and increased after incubation at 25°C. These results demonstrate that diapause intensity in C. sikkimensis changes reversibly in response to changes in ambient temperature. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Influence of fruit size of Camellia meiocarpa on growth of oil tea weevil, Curculio chinensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-wen; He, Li-hong; Ma, Ling; Xia, Jiao; Zeng, Ai-ping

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between mature larval mass of oil tea weevil (Curculio chinensis) and fruit volume of its host plant oil tea (Camellia meiocarpa) was fitted with Logistic equation in order to understand the restriction of host fruit size on large larval growth and development of the weevil. The results showed that the larval mass increased with the increasing host fruit volume, which was in good conformity with the Logistic model. The weevil larval growth followed the principle of diminishing marginal utility, and it could be divided into two periods, the fast-growing period (3.216 cm3, one larva per fruit; >4.747 cm3, two larvae per fruit). The minimum fruit size threshold was 1500 cm3 for one larva per fruit, and 2.539 cm3 for two larvae per fruit. The temporal pattern that the mature larvae exited from their host fruits was established, the number of larvae escaping from their host fruits decreased daily after the fruit collection, and the larval escaping peak largely appeared from 6:00 to 10:00 AM with 43.9% of total escaping number, and especially from 7:00 to 8:00 AM with 21.1% of total escaping number. The bigger the larvae, the earlier exited from their host fruits. The restriction of fruit size on growth and development of oil tea weevil was observed, and it should be a behavioral adaptation strategy to increase the offspring' s fitness for the parental weevil adults to oviposit on the bigger fruits.

  17. Glacial bottleneck and postglacial recolonization of a seed parasitic weevil, Curculio hilgendorfi, inferred from mitochondrial DNA variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, K; Kato, M; Murakami, N

    2008-07-01

    Climatic changes during glacial periods have had a major influence on the recent evolutionary history of living organisms, even in the warm temperate zone. We investigated phylogeographical patterns of a weevil Curculio hilgendorfi (Curculionidae), a host-specific seed predator of Castanopsis (Fagaceae) growing in the broadleaved evergreen forests in Japan. We examined 2709 bp of mitochondrial DNA for 204 individuals collected from 62 populations of the weevil. Four major haplogroups were detected, in southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands and in central and southern parts of the Ryukyu Islands. The demographic population expansion was detected for the two groups in the main islands but not for the Ryukyu groups. The beginning time of the expansion was dated to 39,000-59,000 years ago, which is consistent with the end of the last glacial period. Our data also demonstrated that the southwestern population of the main islands has experienced a more severe bottleneck and more rapid population growth after glacial ages than the northeastern population. At least three refugial areas in the main islands were likely to have existed during the last glacial periods, one of which had not previously been recognized by analyses of intraspecific chloroplast DNA variation of several plant species growing in the broadleaved evergreen forests. Our results represent the first phylogeographical and population demographic analysis of an insect species associated with the broadleaved evergreen forests in Japan, and reveal more detailed postglacial history of the forests.

  18. Evaluation of Pathogenicity of the Fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Hazelnut Weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae) Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yunqing; Liu, Ting; Zhao, Yixin; Geng, Wanting; Chen, Longtao; Liu, Jianfeng

    2016-12-01

    The nut weevil (Curculio nucum) is one of the most important and widespread pests in hazelnut orchards. In order to screen entomopathogenic fungal strains with high virulence against C. nucum, the growth rate, sporulation, and cumulative mortality of different Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana strains were investigated, and the process by which M. anisopliae CoM 02 infects C. nucum larvae was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the growth rate and sporulation of different fungal strains significantly differed. Thirteen days after inoculation with M. anisopliae CoM 02, the cumulative mortality of C. nucum larvae reached 100 %, which was considerably higher than that of the other five strains. As the most virulent of the six test strains, the cadaver rate, LT50, and LT90 of M. anisopliae CoM 02 were 93.4 %, 7.05 and 11.90 days, respectively. Analysis of the infection process by scanning electron microscopy showed that the spore attachment, hyphal germination, hyphal rapid growth, and sporulation of M. anisopliae CoM 02 occurred on the 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 11th day after inoculation, respectively, indicating that the infection cycle takes approximately 11 days. This finding suggests that the highly virulent M. anisopliae plays an important role in the biocontrol of C. nucum in China.

  19. Effect of temperature on the termination of prolonged larval diapause in the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Morio

    2005-12-01

    Adults of the chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis emerged over a 3-year period under laboratory and quasi-field conditions due to a prolonged diapause that occurred at the mature larval stage. Variable proportions of the larvae remained in diapause after a single cold (5 degrees C) treatment of 120 days. Extension of the chilling period to as long as 540 days did not increase the percentage of diapause termination, and excessively long chilling actually reduced the percentage. Chilling was not indispensable to the termination of larval diapause. Diapause intensity was very high and variable, and more than 1000 days at 20 degrees C was necessary to reactivate all diapause larvae. When the diapause larvae were exposed to cycles of low (5 degrees C for 120 days) and high (20 degrees C for 240 days) temperatures, the percentage of diapause termination reached 100% after two or three such cycles. Thus, the prolonged diapause of C. sikkimensis has characteristics similar to the common short winter diapause in other insects, but has unique characteristics that ensure polymodal reactivation over several years.

  20. Thermal response and reversibility of prolonged larval diapause in the chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Morio; Ihara, Fumio; Toyama, Masatoshi; Mishiro, Koji

    2010-06-01

    Curculio sikkimensis undergoes prolonged larval diapause that is terminated by chilling and warming cycles. To examine the effects of warming temperatures and their duration on diapause termination, we exposed diapause larvae that had not been reactivated after chilling at 5 degrees C to 20 or 25 degrees C and chilled them again before incubation at 20 degrees C. With increasing warming duration at 20 degrees C, diapause termination after chilling increased and shorter chilling durations became effective. In contrast, few or no larvae warmed at 25 degrees C terminated diapause after chilling, irrespective of the warming duration. To investigate the effect of warming temperature on diapause intensity, larvae with diapause weakened by initial incubation at 20 degrees C after the first chilling were subsequently incubated at 15, 20, or 25 degrees C, then chilled at 5 degrees C before incubation at 20 degrees C. Diapause termination increased significantly after the larvae were treated at 15 or 20 degrees C but decreased significantly after they were treated at 25 degrees C. The intensification of prolonged diapause at 25 degrees C was reversed when the larvae were transferred to 20 degrees C. Diapause intensity in C. sikkimensis therefore decreases at 20 degrees C, increases at 25 degrees C, and can be reversed by alternately exposing diapause larvae to 20 and 25 degrees C. In C. sikkimensis, prolonged diapause does not always proceed in one direction, and its intensity fluctuates in response to ambient temperature conditions. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Infectivity of Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae to Larvae and Adults of the Hazelnut Weevil, Curculio nucum: Differential Virulence and Entry Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalla-Carrera, Laia; Morton, Ana; Shapiro-Ilan, David; Strand, Michael R; García-Del-Pino, Fernando

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the existing susceptibility differences of the hazelnut weevil, Curculio nucum L. (Coleoptera:, Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic nematodes by assessing the main route of entry of the nematodes, Steinernema carpocapsae strain B14 and S. feltiae strain D114, into larvae and adult insects, as well as host immune response. Our results suggested that S. carpocapsae B14 and S. feltiae D114 primarily entered adult insects and larvae through the anus. Larvae were more susceptible to S. feltiae D114 than S. carpocapsae B14 and adults were highly susceptible to S. carpocapsae B14 but displayed low susceptibility to S. feltiae D114. Penetration rate correlated with nematode virulence. We observed little evidence that hazelnut weevils mounted any cellular immune response toward S. carpocapsae B14 or S. feltiae D114. We conclude the differential susceptibility of hazelnut weevil larvae and adults to S. carpocapsae B14 and S. feltiae D114 primarily reflected differences in the ability of these two nematodes to penetrate the host.

  2. The resistance of hazel (Corylus avellana L. to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L., Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Part I. Evaluation of the resistance of several cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Piskornik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the course of 5 year investigations (1981-1985 considerable differences were found in the resistance of 24 hazel cultivars to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L.. The resistance was determined on the basis of the percentage of nuts damaged by larvae in the total yield. Six classes of resistance were established, from class I - very resistant cultivars, to class VI - very susceptible cultivars. In feeding experiments a positive correlation, significant at the 1% and 5% level was found between the frequency of beetle feeding on hazel fruitlets during the time of oviposition (July, and the class of resistance of cultivars; a negative correlation between these parameters was found in August, i.e. during hatching and development of larvae in the nuts. In July the beetles fed more readily and more frequently on nuts of susceptible cultivars, whereas they avoided them in August, i.e. in the period when larvae developed in many fruits of these cultivars.

  3. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Hasan, Mahbub; Miyanoshita, Akihiro; Imamura, Taro; Hayashi, Toru

    2006-02-01

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  4. Assessment of electron beam-induced DNA damage in larvae of chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) using comet assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todoriki, Setsuko [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)]. E-mail: setsuko@nfri.affrc.go.jp; Hasan, Mahbub [Laboratory for Stored Product Protection, Department of Zoology, Rajshahi University, Rajshahi 6205 (Bangladesh); Miyanoshita, Akihiro [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Imamura, Taro [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Hayashi, Toru [Radiation and Information Technology Laboratory, National Food Research Institute, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    Effect of electron beam treatment on DNA damage in mature larvae of chestnut weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Heller) was assessed using single-cell gel electrophoresis (DNA comet assay). Electrons at acceleration voltages of 0 (control), 300, 750, 1000, and 1500 kV at radiation doses of 1 and 4 kGy were used. Electron beam-treated chestnut larvae showed typical DNA fragmentation, compared with cells from non-treated ones which showed a more intact DNA. Investigations using the comet assay showed that the parameters including tail length, tail moment, olive tail moment as well as the quota of DNA damage at both the doses were significantly larger than the control batch larvae. Thus, this technique could contribute to analytical identification of an effective disinfestation and quarantine treatment.

  5. The role of seed size, phenology, oogenesis and host distribution in the specificity and genetic structure in seed weevils (Curculio spp.) in mixed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias-LeClaire, Harold; Bonal, Raúl; García-López, Daniel; Espelta, Josep Maria

    2017-11-23

    Synchrony between seed growth and oogenesis are suggested to largely shape trophic breadth of seed-feeding insects and ultimately contribute to their co-existence by means of resource partitioning or in the time when infestation occurs. Here we investigated: i) the role of seed phenology and sexual maturation of females in the host specificity of seed-feeding weevils (Curculio spp) predating in hazel and oak mixed forests and ii) the consequences that trophic breadth and host distribution have in the genetic structure of the weevil populations. DNA analyses were used to establish unequivocally host specificity and to determine the population genetic structure. We identified four species with different specificity, namely C. nucum females matured earlier and infested a unique host (hazelnuts) while three species (C. venosus, C. glandium, C. elephas) predated upon the acorns of the two oaks (Q. ilex and Q. humilis). The high specificity of C. nucum coupled with a more discontinuous distribution of hazel trees resulted in a significant genetic structure among sites. Also, the presence of an excess of local rare haplotypes indicated that C. nucum populations went through genetic expansion after recent bottlenecks. Conversely, these effects were not observed in the more generalist C. glandium predating upon oaks. Ultimately, co-existence of weevil species in this multi-host-parasite system is influenced by both resource and time partitioning. To what extent the restriction in gene flow among C. nucum populations may have negative consequences for their persistence in a time of increasing disturbances (e.g. drought in Mediterranean areas) deserves further research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of Pecan Weevil With Microbial Biopesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Cottrell, Ted E; Bock, Clive; Mai, Kim; Boykin, Debbie; Wells, Lenny; Hudson, William G; Mizell, Russell F

    2017-09-23

    The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of pecans Carya illinoinensis ([Wangenh.] K. Koch) (Fagales: Juglandaceae). Control recommendations rely on broad spectrum chemical insecticides. Due to regulatory and environmental concerns, effective alternatives for C. caryae control must be sought for pecan production in conventional and organic systems. We explored the use of microbial biopesticides for control of C. caryae in Georgia pecan orchards. Three experiments were conducted. The first investigated an integrated microbial control approach in an organic system at two locations. Three microbial agents, Grandevo (based on byproducts of the bacterium Chromobacterium subtsugae Martin, Gundersen-Rindal, Blackburn & Buyer), the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), and entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, were applied to each treatment plot (0.6 ha) at different times during the season. A second experiment compared the effects of S. carpocapsae and B. bassiana applied as single treatments relative to application of both agents (at different times); survival of C. caryae was assessed approximately 11 mo after larvae were added to pots sunk in an organic pecan orchard. In a conventional orchard (with 1.0 ha plots), the third experiment compared Grandevo applications to a commonly used regime of chemical insecticides (carbaryl alternated with a pyrethroid). All experiments were repeated in consecutive years. The combined pest management tactic (experiment 1) reduced C. caryae infestation relative to non-treated control plots in both locations in 2014 and one of the two locations in 2015 (the other location had less than 1% infestation). In experiment 2, no differences among combined microbial treatments, single-applied microbial treatments or different numbers of application were observed, yet all microbial treatments reduced C. caryae survival relative to the control. In the third

  7. Curculio Curculis lupus: biology, behavior and morphology of immatures of the cannibal weevil Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Augusto Souza de Medeiros

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Weevils are one of the largest groups of living organisms, with more than 60,000 species feeding mostly on plants. With only one exception, their described larvae are typical plant-feeders, with mouthparts adapted to chewing plant material. Here we describe the second case of a weevil with early-instar larvae adapted to killing conspecifics. We have studied the life history of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943 (Curculioninae: Derelomini sensu Caldara, Franz & Oberprieler (2014, a species whose immatures feed internally on palm flowers and fruits. We provide detailed descriptions of all immature stages, including the extremely modified first-instar larva. Unlike other weevils and later instars, this stage exhibits a flat body with very long ventropedal lobe setae, a large and prognathous head with a gula, and falciform mandibles, each with a serrate retinaculum, that are used to fight with and eventually kill other first-instar larvae. We also provide biological notes on all stages and the results of behavioral tests that showed that larval aggression occurs only among early life stages. Finally we show that adult size is highly dependent on timing of oviposition. This specialized killer first instar probably evolved independently from the one other case known in weevils, in Revena rubiginosa (Conoderinae: Bariditae sensu Prena, Colonnelli & Hespenheide (2014. Interestingly, both lineages inhabit the same hosts, raising the possibility that both intra- and inter-specific competition shaped those phenotypes. Given the scarcity of knowledge on early larval stages of concealed insect herbivores, it is possible that our findings represent an instance of a much broader phenomenon. Our observations also allowed us to conclude that Anchylorhynchus eriospathae and A. hatschbachi G. G. Bondar, 1943 are actually the same species, which we synonymize here by considering the latter as a junior synonym (new synonymy.

  8. Curculio Curculis lupus: biology, behavior and morphology of immatures of the cannibal weevil Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Bruno Augusto Souza; Bená, Daniela de Cássia; Vanin, Sergio Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Weevils are one of the largest groups of living organisms, with more than 60,000 species feeding mostly on plants. With only one exception, their described larvae are typical plant-feeders, with mouthparts adapted to chewing plant material. Here we describe the second case of a weevil with early-instar larvae adapted to killing conspecifics. We have studied the life history of Anchylorhynchus eriospathae G. G. Bondar, 1943 (Curculioninae: Derelomini sensuCaldara, Franz & Oberprieler (2014)), a species whose immatures feed internally on palm flowers and fruits. We provide detailed descriptions of all immature stages, including the extremely modified first-instar larva. Unlike other weevils and later instars, this stage exhibits a flat body with very long ventropedal lobe setae, a large and prognathous head with a gula, and falciform mandibles, each with a serrate retinaculum, that are used to fight with and eventually kill other first-instar larvae. We also provide biological notes on all stages and the results of behavioral tests that showed that larval aggression occurs only among early life stages. Finally we show that adult size is highly dependent on timing of oviposition. This specialized killer first instar probably evolved independently from the one other case known in weevils, in Revena rubiginosa (Conoderinae: Bariditae sensuPrena, Colonnelli & Hespenheide (2014)). Interestingly, both lineages inhabit the same hosts, raising the possibility that both intra- and inter-specific competition shaped those phenotypes. Given the scarcity of knowledge on early larval stages of concealed insect herbivores, it is possible that our findings represent an instance of a much broader phenomenon. Our observations also allowed us to conclude that Anchylorhynchus eriospathae and A. hatschbachi G. G. Bondar, 1943 are actually the same species, which we synonymize here by considering the latter as a junior synonym (new synonymy).

  9. Repeated cycles of chilling and warming effectively terminate prolonged larval diapause in the chestnut weevil, Curculio sikkimensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Morio

    2006-05-01

    Curculio sikkimensis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) requires one or more years to complete its life cycle, owing to prolonged larval diapause. To compare the effects of temperature cycles and total periods of chilling on the termination of prolonged diapause, larvae were subjected to different chilling (5 degrees C) and warming (20 degrees C) cycles ranging from 30 to 720 days, and all cycles were repeated until the sum of chilling and warming periods reached 720 days. The prolonged diapause of C. sikkimensis was more effectively terminated by repeated cycles of chilling and warming than by prolonging the continuous chilling period. However, extremely short temperature cycles were not highly effective in enhancing diapause termination, even when such cycles were repeated many times. To examine the role of warming periods on diapause termination, diapause larvae were subjected to a sequence of chilling (120 days at 5 degrees C) and warming (240 days at 20 degrees C) with a warming period (0-120 days at 20 degrees C) inserted in the chilling period. Diapause larvae that were not reactivated in the first chilling period required exposure to a certain period of warming before they were able to complete diapause development in the subsequent chilling. Thus, C. sikkimensis appears to spread its reactivation times over several years in response to seasonal temperature cycles.

  10. The phylogeny of acorn weevils (genus Curculio) from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences: the problem of incomplete data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph; Vogler, Alfried P

    2004-08-01

    We considered the contribution of two mitochondrial and two nuclear data sets for the phylogenetic reconstruction of 22 species of seed beetles in the genus Curculio (Coleoptera: Cuculionidae). A phylogenetic tree from representatives found on various hosts was inferred from a combined data set of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I, mitochondrial cytochrome b, nuclear elongation factor 1alpha, and nuclear phosphoglycerate mutase, used for the first time as a molecular marker. Separate parsimony analyses of each data set showed that individual gene trees were mainly congruent and often complementary in the support of clades but the analysis was complicated by failure of PCR amplification of nuclear genes for many taxa and hence missing data entries. When the four gene partitions were combined in a simultaneous analysis despite the missing data, this increased the resolution and taxonomic coverage compared to the individual source trees. Alternative approaches of combining the information via supertree methodology produced a comparatively less resolved tree, and hence seem inferior to combining data matrices even in cases where numerous taxa are missing. The molecular data suggest a classification of the European species into two species groups that are in accordance with morphological characteristics but the data do no support any of the previously recognised American species groups.

  11. The resistance of hazel (Corylus avellana to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L.- Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Part II. The physicochemical characteristics of the pericarp and dynamics of nut development and cultivar resistance to the pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Piskornik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Significant differences were found among the 22 studied hazel cultivars (Corylus avellana L. in their resistance to hazelnut weevil (Curculio nucum L. which is the main pest of this crop in Europe. The study investigated the relationships between the resistance of the cultivars to the pest and the physicochemical properties of the pericarp, i.e. the lignification dynamics, changes in thickness and hardness during nut development and the rate of nutlet development. Correlation analysis showed that there was no dependence between the physicochemical properties of the pericarp and the resistance of the hazel cultivars to the hazelnut weevil. Nut development dynamics were also found to be unrelated to resistance to the pest. Laboratory feeding experiments showed that during the initial feeding phase and at the time the insect searches for an oviposition site, it seems to prefer cultivars with the largest nutlets. However, in the period of intensive oviposition, traits other than nutlet size seem to be decisive for the beetles choice of cultivar.

  12. Evaluación de daño de gorgojos en poblaciones de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. con alto número de raíces laterales Evaluation of root curculio/weevil damage in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. populations with large numbers of lateral roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Odorizzi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available El aumento del número de raíces laterales a través del mejoramiento puede ser importante para reducir el daño provocado por el complejo de gorgojos de la alfalfa. El objetivo fue evaluar, en cuatro ambientes (siembras de otoño y primavera con y sin riego, el comportamiento de 10 poblaciones seleccionadas por alto número de raíces laterales. Los caracteres evaluados fueron: categoría (Cat de daño de gorgojos (de 1 = sin daño a 5 = daño severo, rendimiento promedio de forraje (BP, número de raíces secundarias (NRLR y diámetro de raíces laterales (DRLR. Las poblaciones s755, s545 y s614 presentaron los mayores valores de DRLR y NRLR, el menor daño de gorgojos (Cat 2+3 y la mayor variabilidad para los caracteres estudiados. Las poblaciones s545 y s616 exhibieron el mayor DRLR y el menor NRLR, respectivamente. Las condiciones de riego propiciaron un menor daño, y fueron menos afectadas en estos ambientes las poblaciones s545, s614 y s617; por el contrario, las poblaciones s461, s755, s463 resultaron las más afectadas. Los daños más severos (Cat 4+5 se observaron en secano y las poblaciones s618 y s616 fueron las más afectadas; sólo bajo estas condiciones el mayor daño se correlacionó con menor BP.Increasing the number of lateral roots through breeding may be important to reduce the damage caused by the root curculio complex in alfalfa in Argentina. The objective was to evaluate the performance of ten alfalfa experimental populations selected for their large number of lateral roots under four environmental conditions (fall and spring planting with or without irrigation. The evaluated traits were curculio damage (Categories (Cat 1 = no damage to 5 = very severe damage, dry matter yield (BP, number of secondary roots (NRLR, and diameter of lateral roots (DRLR. Populations s755, s545 and s614 had the highest values for DRLR and NRLR, the least damage from weevil (Cat 2 +3, and the largest variability (mean square for all the

  13. The Temporal and Spatial Distribution of Filbert Weevil Infested Acorns in an Oak Woodland in Marin County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernard R. Lewis

    1991-01-01

    Two-hundred shoots contained within randomly selected locations from each of thirty-six coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia, trees were sampled to determine the abundance and spatial distribution of acorns infested by the filbert weevil, Curculio occidentis in northern California during 1989. The seasonal abundance of infested acorns...

  14. Behavioral Response of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Synthetic Fruit Volatile Lures and the Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Akotsen-Mensah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is a key pest of stone and pome fruits in North America. The behavioral response of adults of different physiological states (sex, age, diet, and mating status to three commercially available synthetic lures, benzaldehyde (BZ and plum essence (PE, the male-produced aggregation pheromone, grandisoic acid (GA, or their combinations, was studied in the laboratory. Four choice olfactometer bioassays demonstrated significant attraction of both sexes to PE lure. Both BZ and GA lures were not attractive to plum curculio when tested as commercially formulated. PE had higher release rate (1.51 mg/hr than BZ (0.36 mg/hr and GA (ca. 0.04 mg/hr, suggesting that the higher attractiveness of PE may be due to its relatively higher release rates. Tests with combined lures showed a neutral effect of combining GA with PE and an inhibitory effect of combining BZ with PE. The physiological conditions of the weevils had no significant effect on their response to the lures. Olfactometer tests with pure 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB confirmed that this compound was inhibitory to plum curculio. These results are discussed in relation to the contrasting field reports which implicated BZ + GA as an effective attractant for plum curculio.

  15. Acorn fall and weeviling in a northern red oak seedling orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; Scott E. Schlarbaum

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, we determined levels of damage by acorn weevils (Curculio spp.) and patterns of acorn fall in a northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) seedling orchard in eastern Tennessee. The mean (±SE) production of acorns among 43 selected trees was 5,930 ± 586 acorns per tree with a maximum production level of 16,969 acorns for one tree...

  16. Resource limitation in natural populations of phytophagous insects. A long-term study case with the chestnut weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debouzie, Domitien; Desouhant, Emmanuel; Oberli, Frantz; Menu, Frédéric

    2002-03-01

    The chestnut weevil, Curculio elephas (Gyll.), is a non-outbreaking species whose populations and food resources, the European chestnut, Castanea sativa, can be precisely defined. Thirteen and 17 generations of this insect were studied in two isolated sites. Field observations and experiments allowed us to estimate the absolute abundance, availability and use of chestnuts for weevil oviposition, and the number of weevil females emerging per site. Unavailable chestnuts were defined as the fruits either infested first by the chestnut moth ( Cydia splendana) larvae (because of competition between the two species) or those avoided by chestnut weevil females when selecting their egg-laying sites, independently of chestnut moth presence. From a third to a half of the chestnuts were not available on the average for weevil infestation. Only one-fourth, on the average, of those available for oviposition were actually used by chestnut weevil females. Regardless of year and site, the number of available chestnuts per weevil female was higher than that of weevil-infested fruits per female, considering global food resources independently of their temporal variation in quality. However, realized fecundity of weevil females was positively correlated with the mean number of available chestnuts per female. We concluded that food resources can be limiting without being fully exploited by females because of temporal variation in chestnut quality.

  17. Alfalfa Weevil in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Edward W.

    1989-01-01

    The alfalfa weevil is a major pest throughout Utah. It is a beetle with one generation per year. Eggs hatch in the spring, and the grub-like immature weevils (larvae) feed by chewing on the alfalfa foliage. In high numbers, alfalfa weevils can cause severe damage to Utah alfalfa. In any given year, however, the weevils are few enough in number in many fields to cause only minor damage.

  18. Ecomorphological adaptation of acorn weevils to their oviposition site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Joseph; Vogler, Alfried P

    2004-09-01

    Comparisons between closely related species in different habitats provide a window into understanding how biotic factors shape evolutionary pathways. Weevils in the genus Curculio have radiated extensively across the Palearctic, where similar ecomorphs have evolved independently on different hosts. We examined ecological and morphological data for 31 Curculio species using multivariate statistics to determine which morphological traits covary and which correlate with the host seed size. A subset of 15 taxa for which phylogenetic relationships were known were used for comparative analyses and inferring historical patterns of trait evolution. The morphological analyses suggest rostrum size increased proportionately to body size in both males and females and that both rostrum and body size correlate with host seed size but that rostrum shape does not correlate with any of the seed traits used in the analyses. Host shifts from small seeds to considerably larger seeds or vice versa have occurred several times independently and historical trait evolution indicates that these host shifts were accompanied by morphological changes in rostrum size. These patterns suggest that seed size is an important selective agent for changes in rostrum length along with body size and thus may be a key factor promoting morphological differentiation in the genus Curculio.

  19. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus

  20. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745–1808 in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Alonso-Zarazaga

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculio sticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapion varipes (Germar, 1817 is declared a nomen protectum over Curculio flavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacer curculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae, Bruchus undatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculio fulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribus roboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae, and Brachycerus cristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculio caninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitona lineatus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Curculio innocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinus barcelonicus (Herbst, 1797. Bruchus rufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchus rufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonus incisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonus illigeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonus vulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonus canaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792 (a primary homonym of Curculio canaliculatus Olivier, 1791. Cossonus canaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonus incisus. Salpingus fulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingus planirostris (Fabricius, 1787, a primary homonym of Curculio planirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomus erinaceus (Fabricius, 1802 (from Curculio, Bronchus ferus (Gyllenhal, 1840 (from Hipporhinus, Bronchus glandifer (Fabricius, 1792 (from Curculio, Bronchus nivosus (Sparrman, 1785 (from Curculio, Bronchus sparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833 (from Hipporhinus, Coelocephalapion

  1. Behavioral Responses of Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Different Enantiomer Concentrations and Blends of the Synthetic Aggregation Pheromone Grandisoic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Virginia; Chouinard, Gérald; Lucas, Éric; Cormier, Daniel; Leskey, Tracy C; Wright, Starker E; Zhang, Aijun; Pichette, André

    2015-04-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important pest of fruit in North America. Males produce an aggregation pheromone (grandisoic acid) that attracts both sexes of the northern univoltine and the southern multivoltine strains. Grandisoic acid ((1R,2S)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)-cyclobutaneacetic acid) is a chiral molecule containing one chiral center. A synthetic racemic mixture will contain two optical isomers that are mirror images of each other with equal amounts of (+)- and (-)-enantiomeric isomers. Male plum curculio only produce the (+) enantiomer. Some enantiomers can have antagonistic effects on the attraction of weevils to pheromones. An understanding of the effect of both enantiomers on the behaviour of plum curculio is needed to develop more efficient trap baits. Behavioural bioassays were conducted in a dual-choice still-air vertical olfactometer using a quantity of 1.5 ml of both (+) and (-) synthetic enantiomers and the racemic mixture of grandisoic acid with live female responders to determine which concentration and enantiomeric purity is the most attractive and if there is an antagonistic effect of the unnatural (-) enantiomer. Results indicated that plum curculio were attracted to low concentrations of the (+) enantiomer at 72% enantiomeric excess, but that strains were attracted to different concentrations of the (+) enantiomer (2×10(-7) mg/ml for univoltine, 2×10(-9) mg/ml for multivoltine). © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. NOTES ON THE TAXONOMY OF TWO LITTLE KNOWN TAXA OF CURCULIO LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Caldara

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two actions preserve taxal nomenclatural stability within Curculionidae in accordance with the Code. Following the provisions of ICZN Article 23.9.1 Curculio pellitus (Boheman, 1843 (formerly Balaninus becomes a nomen protectum and Curculio gulosus Fabricius, 1792 a nomen oblitum; Curculio villosus Fabricius, 1781 becomes a nomen protectum and Curculio cerasorum Fabricius, 1775 a nomen oblitum. Having met the conditions of ICZN Article 74 and Article 75, the lectotypes of Curculio gulosus Fabricius, 1792 and Curculio cerasorum Fabricius, 1775, and the neotype of Curculio villosus Fabricius, 1781 are designated. The following new synonymy is proposed: Curculio pellitus (Boheman, 1843 = Curculio gulosus Fabricius 1792 n. syn. and the synonymy Curculio villosus Fabricius, 1781 = Curculio cerasorum Fabricius, 1775 is confirmed

  3. Interactions between Camellia japonica and its Seed Predator Curculio camelliae : II. Stability and Dynamics in Camellia-Curculio Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    MOTOHARU, OKAMOTO; Osaka Museum of Natural History

    1989-01-01

    Seeds of Camellia japonica are heavily attacked by Curculio camelliae. To evaluate the efficacy of fruit wall thickness against the curculio attack, correlations of fruit wall thickness with the ratio of seed survival (RSS) and with the ratio of oviposition success of the curculio beetles (ROS) were investigated on fruits collected at Camellia stands in Kinki District. While ROS exhibited negative correlations with the thickness of fruit wall in every stand, RSS showed different modes in acco...

  4. Diversification of endosymbiosis: replacements, co-speciation and promiscuity of bacteriocyte symbionts in weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Notsu, Yutaka; Sota, Teiji; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-07-01

    The processes and mechanisms underlying the diversification of host-microbe endosymbiotic associations are of evolutionary interest. Here we investigated the bacteriocyte-associated primary symbionts of weevils wherein the ancient symbiont Nardonella has experienced two independent replacement events: once by Curculioniphilus symbiont in the lineage of Curculio and allied weevils of the tribe Curculionini, and once by Sodalis-allied symbiont in the lineage of grain weevils of the genus Sitophilus. The Curculioniphilus symbiont was detected from 27 of 36 Curculionini species examined, the symbiont phylogeny was congruent with the host weevil phylogeny, and the symbiont gene sequences exhibited AT-biased nucleotide compositions and accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Curculioniphilus symbiont was acquired by an ancestor of the tribe Curculionini, replaced the original symbiont Nardonella, and has co-speciated with the host weevils over evolutionary time, but has been occasionally lost in several host lineages. By contrast, the Sodalis-allied symbiont of Sitophilus weevils exhibited no host-symbiont co-speciation, no AT-biased nucleotide compositions and only moderately accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Sodalis-allied symbiont was certainly acquired by an ancestor of the Sitophilus weevils and replaced the original Nardonella symbiont, but the symbiotic association must have experienced occasional re-associations such as new acquisitions, horizontal transfers, replacements and/or losses. We detected Sodalis-allied facultative symbionts in populations of the Curculionini weevils, which might represent potential evolutionary sources of the Sodalis-allied primary symbionts. Comparison of these newcomer bacteriocyte-associated symbiont lineages highlights potential evolutionary trajectories and consequences of novel symbionts after independent replacements of the same ancient symbiont.

  5. Diversification of endosymbiosis: replacements, co-speciation and promiscuity of bacteriocyte symbionts in weevils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Notsu, Yutaka; Sota, Teiji; Fukatsu, Takema

    2013-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms underlying the diversification of host–microbe endosymbiotic associations are of evolutionary interest. Here we investigated the bacteriocyte-associated primary symbionts of weevils wherein the ancient symbiont Nardonella has experienced two independent replacement events: once by Curculioniphilus symbiont in the lineage of Curculio and allied weevils of the tribe Curculionini, and once by Sodalis-allied symbiont in the lineage of grain weevils of the genus Sitophilus. The Curculioniphilus symbiont was detected from 27 of 36 Curculionini species examined, the symbiont phylogeny was congruent with the host weevil phylogeny, and the symbiont gene sequences exhibited AT-biased nucleotide compositions and accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Curculioniphilus symbiont was acquired by an ancestor of the tribe Curculionini, replaced the original symbiont Nardonella, and has co-speciated with the host weevils over evolutionary time, but has been occasionally lost in several host lineages. By contrast, the Sodalis-allied symbiont of Sitophilus weevils exhibited no host–symbiont co-speciation, no AT-biased nucleotide compositions and only moderately accelerated molecular evolution. These results suggest that the Sodalis-allied symbiont was certainly acquired by an ancestor of the Sitophilus weevils and replaced the original Nardonella symbiont, but the symbiotic association must have experienced occasional re-associations such as new acquisitions, horizontal transfers, replacements and/or losses. We detected Sodalis-allied facultative symbionts in populations of the Curculionini weevils, which might represent potential evolutionary sources of the Sodalis-allied primary symbionts. Comparison of these newcomer bacteriocyte-associated symbiont lineages highlights potential evolutionary trajectories and consequences of novel symbionts after independent replacements of the same ancient symbiont. PMID:23446834

  6. Energy storage and C:N:P variation in a holometabolous insect (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) larva across a climate gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Zhou, Xuan; Small, Gaston E; Sterner, Robert; Kang, HongZhang; Liu, Chungjiang

    2013-04-01

    Increasing empirical evidence has documented variability in elemental composition within species. However, the extent, causes, and pattern of variability in consumer stoichiometry across a large geographical scale are not well understood. Here, we investigated this issue using a holometabolous insect, weevils (Curculio davidi Fairmaire). Larvae of this species store energy needed for diapause, and variable energy requirements across the geographic range of this species could lead to differences in body elemental composition. Our results showed that variability was high (assessed as the coefficient of variation (CV)) in larval body nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) (CV, 10% for N and 13% for P) compared to emerging adults (CV, 5% for N and 8% for P). Temperature-related factors explained more variation than other climatic factors and food for carbon (C), N and P in weevil. In warmer regions, larval C concentration was higher, while N and P were lower. The high C content of weevil larvae relative to both their food source and their adult stage was attributed to energy storage. Across the climatic gradient of its geographic range, larval body C content increased with mean annual temperature and decreased with average diurnal temperature range. This finding implies that temperature-related C storage drives the high variability in elemental composition of larvae across the climate gradient, and also effectively dampens the stoichiometric imbalance between consumers and food resources while serving as an energy reservoir for overwintering and metamorphosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. NOTES ON THE TAXONOMY OF TWO LITTLE KNOWN TAXA OF CURCULIO LINNAEUS, 1758 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Caldara; Michael Košťál; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    Two actions preserve taxal nomenclatural stability within Curculionidae in accordance with the Code. Following the provisions of ICZN Article 23.9.1 Curculio pellitus (Boheman, 1843) (formerly Balaninus) becomes a nomen protectum and Curculio gulosus Fabricius, 1792 a nomen oblitum; Curculio villosus Fabricius, 1781 becomes a nomen protectum and Curculio cerasorum Fabricius, 1775 a nomen oblitum. Having met the conditions of ICZN Article 74 and Article 75, the lectotypes of Curculio gulosus F...

  8. Ionizing irradiation quarantine treatment against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J

    2003-10-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a quarantine pest of many temperate fruits, such as pomes, Malus spp.; stone fruits, Prunus spp.; and blueberries, Vaccinium spp.; in North America east of the Rocky Mountains and a small area in Utah. There are two strains, a northern univoltine one that undergoes obligate diapause as an adult and a southern multivoltine strain that usually has facultative diapause. Current quarantine treatments for shipment to areas that do not have the pest include methyl bromide fumigation and cold storage for several weeks. The cold storage treatment may not be effective against northern strain adults in diapause. The objective of this research was to develop an irradiation quarantine treatment against plum curculio. The estimated dose to kill southern strain plum curculio adults in one day is approximately 4 kGy. Diapausing northern strain plum curculios were prevented from reproducing with 40 Gy. Reproduction of southern strain plum curculios was prevented with a target dose of 80 Gy, and the dose recommended as a quarantine treatment, that would prevent adults from reproducing, is 92 Gy, the maximum absorbed dose measured when a target dose of 80 Gy was sought. At that dose, oviposition may still occur for up to 1 wk and some of the eggs may hatch, but there is no development beyond the first instar. Hosts of the plum curculio would tolerate that dose well. Immature plum curculios were prevented from reproducing with lower doses.

  9. Elemental stoichiometry and compositions of weevil larvae and two acorn hosts under natural phosphorus variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Huawei; Du, Baoming; Liu, Chunjiang

    2017-04-01

    To understand how different trophic organisms in a parasite food chain adapt to the differences in soil nutrient conditions, we investigated stoichiometric variation and homeostasis of multiple elements in two acorn trees, Quercus variabilis and Quercus acutissima, and their parasite weevil larvae (Curculio davidi Fairmaire) at phosphorus (P)-deficient and P-rich sites in subtropical China where P-rich ores are scattered among dominant P-deficient soils. Results showed that elemental stoichiometry and compositions of both acorns and weevil larvae differed significantly between P-deficient and P-rich sites (p organisms and provide possible stoichiometric responses of both plants and animals to P loading, a worldwide issue from excess release of P into the environment.

  10. Entomogenous nematodes: a field study for biological control of Curculio elephas Gyl. (Coleoptera Curculionidae); Nematodi entomoparassiti: una prova di impiego in campo della lotta contro il balanino del castagno, Curculio elephas Gyl. (Coleoptera Curculionidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapagnani, M.R.; Caffarelli, V.; Letardi, A.; Barlattani, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Lazzari, L.; Ruggeri, L. [BIOERRE, Crespellano, Bologna (Italy); Lelli, L.

    1999-02-01

    Biological control of chestnut weevil (Curculio elephas Gyl.) using entomogenous nematodes (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae) was investigated under field conditions. Experiments of infectivity, soil persistence and mobility of the infective juveniles stage of the nematodes were carried out through laboratory tests. Experimental results on developing infectivity process if entomogenous nematodes, have shown both inhibition at low temperature (average value 12 C) and mechanic barrier of weevil pupal envelope. Use of dispersal media as water or peat, was not relevant on experimental results. Further researches are required to test low temperature-resistant strain. [Italiano] Vengono riportati i risultati di uno studio di lotta biologica contro il balanino del castagno (Curculio elephas Gyl.) realizzato utilizzando ceppi di nematodi entomoparassiti (Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae). Sono stati monitorati, in campo, l`andamento dell`infestazione del balanino del castagno, l`efficacia del trattamento e l`andamento della temperatura sia climatica che nel terreno a due diverse profondita`. Nel corso dello studio e` stata controllata periodicamente, con prove di laboratorio, la persistenza nel terreno e la capacita` infettiva dei nematodi utilizzati. Lo studio ha messo in evidenza la difficolta` da parte dei nematodi di esplicare la propria azione di entomoparassiti in condizioni di temperatura media attorno ai 12 C e di superare la barriera fisica operata dalla celletta entro cui si impupa il balanino. Il mezzo utilizzato per la dispersione dei nematodi (acqua o torba) risulta essere indifferente rispetto al risultato ottenuto. L`esperienza ha evidenziato l`interesse, in questo tipo di lotta, alla sperimentazione di ceppi di nematodi resistenti alle basse temperature.

  11. Description and key to larvae of Curculio spp. of eastern United States and Canada (coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1985-01-01

    A general description of Curculio larvae is given. Ke y characters are presented to separate 15 of the 16 described species of eastern North America. A brief key for separating Curculio larvae from Conotrachelus and lepidopterous larvae is presented.

  12. On the true identity of Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhao Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Basing on the study of the type specimen of Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758 preserved in the Linnean Collection in London, and here designated as the lectotype, it was found that this name was misapplied to another close species of the genus Rhinoncus Schoenherr, 1825 starting from the Paykull 1792 misidentification. As a consequence, the following new synonymies are established: Rhinoncus pericarpius (Linnaeus, 1758 [= Curculio castor Fabricius, 1792, syn. n.; = Curculio interstitialis Reich, 1787, syn. n.; = Curculio scabratus Fabricius, 1792, syn. n.; = Curculio fruticulosus Herbst, 1795, syn. n.; = Curculio interstitialis Reich, 1797, syn. n.; = Rhynchaenus seniculus Gravenhorst, 1807, syn. n.; = Campylirhynchus quadricornis (Gyllenhal, 1813 sensu Dejean, 1821: 85 [misidentification] not Rhynchaenus quadricornis Gyllenhal, 1813, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus flavipes Stephens, 1831, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus rufipes Stephens, 1831, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus granulipennis Gyllenhal, 1837, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus pyrrhopus Boheman, 1845 sensu Hatch & Kincaid,1958: 20 [misidentification] not Rhinoncus pyrrhopus Boheman, 1845, syn. n.]; and Rhinoncus leucostigma (Marsham, 1802 [ = Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758 sensu Paykull, 1792 [misidentification] not Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758, syn. n.; = Cryptorhis herbstii Billberg, 1820: 43 [replacement name for Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus sensu Paykull, 1792], syn. n.; = Rhinoncus spartii Stephens, 1831, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus sanguinipes Reitter, 1916, syn. n.; = Rhinoncus pericarpius ssp. montanus Hoffmann, 1960, syn. n.]. Lectotypes are designated for Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758 and Curculio leucostigma Marsham, 1802. A neotype is selected for Curculio interstitialis Reich, 1797.

  13. New bacterial products for control of pecan pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecans are economically the most important native nut crop in the USA. Among the major concerns are the pecan weevil (Curculio caryae), pecan aphids, and diseases such as pecan scab, Venturia effusa. These pests are generally controlled with broad spectrum chemicals. The chemical pesticides can be...

  14. Tropical insect diversity: evidence of greater host specialization in seed-feeding weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peguero, Guille; Bonal, Raúl; Sol, Daniel; Muñoz, Alberto; Sork, Victoria L; Espelta, Josep M

    2017-08-01

    Host specialization has long been hypothesized to explain the extraordinary diversity of phytophagous insects in the tropics. However, addressing this hypothesis has proved challenging because of the risk of over-looking rare interactions, and hence biasing specialization estimations, and the difficulties to separate the diversity component attributable to insect specialization from that related to host diversity. As a result, the host specialization hypothesis lacks empirical support for important phytophagous insect clades. Here, we test the hypothesis in a radiation of seed-feeding insects, acorn weevils (Curculio spp.), sampled in temperate and tropical regions (California and Nicaragua, respectively) with an equivalent pool of oak host species. Using DNA sequences from three low-copy genes, we delimited to species level 778 weevil larvae extracted from host seeds and assessed their phylogenetic relationships by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference. We then reconstructed the oak-weevil food webs and examined differences in alpha, beta and gamma diversity using Hill numbers of effective species. We found a higher alpha, beta and gamma diversity of weevils in Nicaragua compared to California despite similar richness of host species at both local and regional level. By means of Bayesian mixed models, we also found that tropical weevil species were highly specialized both in terms of host range and interaction strength, whereas their temperate congeners had a broader taxonomic and phylogenetic host spectrum. Finally, in Nicaraguan species, larval body size was highly correlated with the size of the acorns infested, as would be expected by a greater host specialization, whereas in California this relationship was absent. Altogether, these lines of evidence support the host specialization hypothesis and suggest contrasting eco-evolutionary dynamics in tropical and temperate regions even in absence of differences in host diversity. © 2017 by the Ecological

  15. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of Chinese Hickory (Carya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... The kernel of Carya cathayensis Sarg. is a special local product and is widely used as a kind of food in. China. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of the kernel including the ability to inhibit the autooxidation of linoleic acid, the reducing capacity, and the scavenging activity on the free radicals.

  16. A multilayer micromechanical model of the cuticle of Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew Jansen, M; Singh, Sudhanshu S; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Franz, Nico M

    2016-08-01

    Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a weevil species common throughout the southwestern United States that uses its rostrum - a very slender, curved, beak-like projection of the head - to excavate tunnels in plant organs (such as acorns) for egg laying (oviposition). Once the apical portion of the rostrum has been inserted into the preferred substrate for oviposition, the female begins rotating around the perimeter of the hole, elevating her head by extending the fore-legs, and rotating the head in place in a drilling motion. This action causes significant elastic deformation of the rostrum, which will bend until it becomes completely straight. To better understand the mechanical behavior of the cuticle as it undergoes deformation during the preparation of oviposition sites, we develop a comprehensive micro/macro model of the micromechanical structure and properties of the cuticle, spanning across all cuticular regions, and reliably mirroring the resultant macroscale properties of the cuticle. Our modeling approach relies on the use of multi-scale, hierarchical biomaterial representation, and employs various micromechanical schemata - e.g., Mori-Tanaka, effective field, and Maxwell - to calculate the homogenized properties of representative volume elements at each level in the hierarchy. We describe the configuration and behavior of this model in detail, and discuss the theoretical implications and limitations of this approach with emphasis on future biomechanical and comparative evolutionary research. Our detailed account of this approach can thereby serve as a methodological template for exploring the biomechanical behavior of new insect structures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. On the true identity of Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Junhao Huang; Enzo Colonnelli

    2014-01-01

    Basing on the study of the type specimen of Curculio pericarpius Linnaeus, 1758 preserved in the Linnean Collection in London, and here designated as the lectotype, it was found that this name was misapplied to another close species of the genus Rhinoncus Schoenherr, 1825 starting from the Paykull 1792 misidentification. As a consequence, the following new synonymies are established: Rhinoncus pericarpius (Linnaeus, 1758) [= Curculio castor Fabricius, 1792, syn. n.; = Curculio interstitialis ...

  18. Tempo-Spatial Dynamics of Adult Plum Curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Based on Semiochemical-Baited Trap Captures in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Cumplido, Johnattan; Leskey, Tracy C; Holdcraft, Robert; Zaman, Faruque U; Hahn, Noel G; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar

    2017-06-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), has become an important pest of highbush blueberries in the northeastern United States. Here, we conducted experiments in 2010-2013 to compare the efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for C. nenuphar versus conventional (beating cloth) sampling methods in blueberries, and to understand the seasonal abundance and distribution of C. nenuphar adults within and among blueberry fields using these traps. Black pyramid traps baited with the C. nenuphar aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid and the fruit volatile benzaldehyde caught three to four times more adults than unbaited traps without causing an increase in injury to berries in neighboring bushes. Numbers of adult weevils caught in traps correlated with those on bushes (beating cloth samples), indicating that trap counts can predict C. nenuphar abundance in the field. Early in the season, traps placed 20 m from field edges near a forest caught higher C. nenuphar numbers than traps placed at farther distances, suggesting movement of overwintered weevils from outside fields. Using a trapping network across multiple fields in an organic farm, we found evidence of C. nenuphar aggregation in "hotspots"; early in the season, C. nenuphar numbers in traps were higher in the middle of fields, and there was a correlation between these numbers and distance from the forest in 2013 but not in 2012. These results show that semiochemical-baited traps are effective in capturing C. nenuphar adults in blueberries, and that these traps should be placed in the interior of fields preferably, but not exclusively, near wooded habitats to maximize their efficacy. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Variation in C:N:S stoichiometry and nutrient storage related to body size in a holometabolous insect (Curculio davidi) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Small, Gaston E; Zhou, Xuan; Wang, Donger; Li, Hongwang; Liu, Chunjiang

    2015-01-01

    Body size can be an important factor controlling consumer stoichiometry. In holometabolous insects, body size is typically associated with nutrient storage. Consumer stoichiometry is known to vary within species across a range of body sizes; however, the contribution of nutrient storage to this variation is not well understood. We used the fifth-instar larvae of the oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculio davidi Fairmaire), which is characterized by a high capacity for nutrient storage, to investigate the effect of shifts in nutrient storage with body mass on variations in larva stoichiometry. Our results showed that weevil larvae with larger body mass had a lower carbon (C) content, reflecting decreases in the sequestration rate of C-rich lipids. Larger larvae had elevated concentrations of nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), and protein. The similar patterns of variation in elemental composition and macromolecule storage with body weight indicate that the shift in nutrient storage is the main factor causing the variation in larval stoichiometry with body weight. This finding was further supported by the low variation in residual larval biomass C, N, and S concentrations after lipid extraction. These results help decipher the physiological mechanism of stoichiometric regulation in growing organisms. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Entomological Society of America.

  20. Endosymbiont diversity among sibling weevil species competing for the same resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merville, Adrien; Venner, Samuel; Henri, Hélène; Vallier, Agnès; Menu, Frédéric; Vavre, Fabrice; Heddi, Abdelaziz; Bel-Venner, Marie-Claude

    2013-02-04

    Whereas the impact of endosymbionts on the ecology of their hosts is well known in some insect species, the question of whether host communities are influenced by endosymbionts remains largely unanswered. Notably, the coexistence of host species competing with each other, which is expected to be stabilized by their ecological differences, could be facilitated by differences in their endosymbionts. Yet, the composition of endosymbiotic communities housed by natural communities of competing host species is still almost unknown. In this study, we started filling this gap by describing and comparing the bacterial endosymbiotic communities of four sibling weevil species (Curculio spp.) that compete with each other to lay eggs into oak acorns (Quercus spp.) and exhibit marked ecological differences. All four species housed the primary endosymbiont Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri, yet each of these had a clearly distinct community of secondary endosymbionts, including Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, and two Wolbachia strains. Notably, three weevil species harbored their own predominant facultative endosymbiont and possessed the remaining symbionts at a residual infection level. The four competing species clearly harbor distinct endosymbiotic communities. We discuss how such endosymbiotic communities could spread and keep distinct in the four insect species, and how these symbionts might affect the organization and species richness of host communities.

  1. Endosymbiont diversity among sibling weevil species competing for the same resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas the impact of endosymbionts on the ecology of their hosts is well known in some insect species, the question of whether host communities are influenced by endosymbionts remains largely unanswered. Notably, the coexistence of host species competing with each other, which is expected to be stabilized by their ecological differences, could be facilitated by differences in their endosymbionts. Yet, the composition of endosymbiotic communities housed by natural communities of competing host species is still almost unknown. In this study, we started filling this gap by describing and comparing the bacterial endosymbiotic communities of four sibling weevil species (Curculio spp.) that compete with each other to lay eggs into oak acorns (Quercus spp.) and exhibit marked ecological differences. Results All four species housed the primary endosymbiont Candidatus Curculioniphilus buchneri, yet each of these had a clearly distinct community of secondary endosymbionts, including Rickettsia, Spiroplasma, and two Wolbachia strains. Notably, three weevil species harbored their own predominant facultative endosymbiont and possessed the remaining symbionts at a residual infection level. Conclusions The four competing species clearly harbor distinct endosymbiotic communities. We discuss how such endosymbiotic communities could spread and keep distinct in the four insect species, and how these symbionts might affect the organization and species richness of host communities. PMID:23379718

  2. Adaptive divergence of scaling relationships mediates the arms race between a weevil and its host plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2006-01-01

    Coevolution of exaggerated morphologies between insects and plants is a well-known but poorly understood phenomenon in evolutionary biology. In the antagonistic interaction between a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), and its host plant, Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica), we examined the evolutionary trajectory of an exaggerated offensive trait of the weevil (rostrum length) in terms of scaling relationship. Sampling throughout Japan revealed that the ratio of the rostrum length to overall body size was correlated with the ratio of the pericarp thickness to overall fruit size across the localities. We found a geographical interpopulation divergence in a parameter pertaining to the allometric equation of rostrum length (the coefficient a in y=axb, where y and x denote rostrum and body lengths, respectively), and the pattern of geographical differentiation in the allometric coefficient was closely correlated with the variation in the pericarp thickness of Japanese camellia. Our results provide a novel example of a geographically diverged scaling relationship in an insect morphology resulting from a coevolutionary arms race with its host plant. PMID:17148283

  3. Phylogeographical patterns of a generalist acorn weevil: insight into the biogeographical history of broadleaved deciduous and evergreen forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kyoko; Kato, Makoto; Murakami, Noriaki

    2009-05-16

    Climatic changes during glacial periods have had a major influence on the recent evolutionary history of living organisms, even in temperate forests on islands, where the land was not covered with ice sheets. We investigated the phylogeographical patterns of the weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Curculionidae), a generalist seed predator of Fagaceae plants living in both deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan. Its genetic structure was compared to that of another host-specific seed predator, C. hilgendorfi, inhabiting only evergreen forests. We examined 921 bp of mitochondrial DNA for 115 individuals collected from 33 populations of C. sikkimensis from 11 plant species of three genera, Quercus, Lithocarpus, and Castanopsis. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that a large proportion (almost 50%, P ages, in the southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands, although these two types of forests are presently distributed in cool and warm temperate zones of Japan, respectively.

  4. Complex selection on life-history traits and the maintenance of variation in exaggerated rostrum length in acorn weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, Raul; Espelta, Josep Maria; Vogler, Alfried P

    2011-12-01

    Trophic interactions can trigger the development of exaggerated specialized characters and promote morphological diversification. For example, acorn weevils (genus Curculio) present strikingly long rostrums, which are used by females to perforate oviposition holes through the seed coat. Species exhibiting longer rostrums are known to exploit larger acorns, and therefore rostrum length is thought to be subject to selection to match the preferred acorn type. However, rostrum length is strongly correlated with body size, and morphological divergence could result from either selection on rostrum length for optimal food exploitation or from other pressures acting on body size. We collected infested acorns at oak forests where the large Curculio elephas and the small-bodied Curculio glandium co-occur. There were no interspecific differences in adult female body size to rostrum length allometric relationships, and rostrum length is equally correlated with body size in either species. MtDNA-based species identification showed that C. glandium larvae were present within acorns of all sizes, whereas C. elephas larvae were restricted to acorns above a minimum size, irrespective of oak species. Hence, exploitation of large acorns can hardly have triggered rostrum enlargement, as the small sized C. glandium adults (with short rostrums) could perforate and oviposit in both small and large acorns. Rather, increased rostrum length is probably a by-product of the larger body sizes of individuals emerging from bigger acorns, which allow increased larval size and enhance larval survival likelihood. Summarizing, when exaggerated feeding traits co-vary with other body features, interspecific morphological variability may result from contrasting selective pressures acting on these correlated characters.

  5. Phylogeographical patterns of a generalist acorn weevil: insight into the biogeographical history of broadleaved deciduous and evergreen forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kato Makoto

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climatic changes during glacial periods have had a major influence on the recent evolutionary history of living organisms, even in temperate forests on islands, where the land was not covered with ice sheets. We investigated the phylogeographical patterns of the weevil Curculio sikkimensis (Curculionidae, a generalist seed predator of Fagaceae plants living in both deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan. Its genetic structure was compared to that of another host-specific seed predator, C. hilgendorfi, inhabiting only evergreen forests. Results We examined 921 bp of mitochondrial DNA for 115 individuals collected from 33 populations of C. sikkimensis from 11 plant species of three genera, Quercus, Lithocarpus, and Castanopsis. An analysis of molecular variance revealed that a large proportion (almost 50%, P Conclusion Our results suggest that geology and historical environment have contributed to shaping the present genetic structure of C. sikkimensis. The geographical patterns of genetic differentiation in the Chugoku-Shikoku region observed in the two types of Fagaceae-associated Curculio in this study have also been observed in several plant species growing in warm and cool temperate zones of Japan. The occurrence of this common pattern suggests that deciduous oak and evergreen forests of Japan survived together, or adjacent to each other, in small refugia during glacial ages, in the southwestern and northeastern parts of the main islands, although these two types of forests are presently distributed in cool and warm temperate zones of Japan, respectively.

  6. Response of banana cultivars to banana weevil attack

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to keep banana plantations free of destructive levels of banana weevil. Gold et al (1997) have reported that moderate and intensive sanitation significantly lowered both weevil population and damage due to banana weevil. New pheromone traps (Cosmo-lures) that can trap many times more weevils compared to traditional ...

  7. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack by plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Clayton T; Leskey, Tracy C; Forsline, Philip L

    2007-10-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is an important apple, Malus domestica Borkh., pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple germplasm has never been rigorously evaluated. Thus, studies were conducted to assess the susceptibility of a number of exotic and domestic Malus accessions housed at the USDA Plant Genetic Resources Unit (PGRU) "core" collection in Geneva, NY. Contrary to earlier published reports and promising data from a field assessment in 2005, these results suggest that there is probably little potential for genetic resistance to plum curculio among the Malus germplasm collection evaluated. More specifically, four Malus hybrid selections that have previously been released with claims of plum curculio resistance were shown to be susceptible to plum curculio attack. Because there are additional accessions housed at PGRU outside of the core collection that are currently classified as resistant, further studies are necessary to evaluate the true resistance qualities of these releases. It is also important to clarify such discrepancies in both the USDA online Germplasm Resources Information Network and in the horticultural literature. Although other Malus species exhibited some variability in fruit susceptibility, none could be classified as being truly resistant to plum curculio attack by any definition that would have relevance to commercial production and sale of apples.

  8. Behavioral and Electroantennogram Responses of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Selected Noxious Plant Extracts and Insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe, A.; Stelinski, L. L.; Nortman, D. R.; Bryan, W. W.; Whalon, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa—kaolin, H. lupulus—kaolin, and X. strumarium—kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract—kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls.

  9. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BEAN WEEVIL (Acanthoscelides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    and 13.1mg of iron respectively; indication that insects are rich sources of Fe. Like other insects weevils are good sources of calcium, occasioned by their possession of exoskeleton which is composed of calcium (Ebong, 1993). (d). Table III reports the level of toxicants in bean weevil. The milligram per 100g dry matter of the.

  10. Enhancing banana weevil ( Cosmopolites sordidus ) resistance by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review, the current status of banana weevil resistance, sources of resistance and resistance mechanisms is assessed. Further, current efforts and future prospects for identifying resistance genes outside the genus Musa with potential to control banana weevil in a transgenic approach are outlined and discussed.

  11. EFFECT OF MULCHING ON BANANA WEEVIL MOVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    pheromone-baited traps. Three treatments were used to create different mulching levels: banana without mulch. (control), banana with thin mulch (< 6 cm thick), and banana with thick mulch (15 cm thick). Pheromone traps were placed in the plots and weevil trap catches were monitored. Weevil catches in pheromone traps ...

  12. Expression, purification and crystallization of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) vicilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, BoRam; Zhang, Renhao; Du, Wen-Xian; Grauke, Larry J; McHugh, Tara H; Zhang, Yu-Zhu

    2014-08-01

    Tree nuts are responsible for many cases of severe food allergies. The 7S seed storage protein vicilin has been identified as a food allergen in many kinds of tree nuts. The vicilin protein consists of an N-terminal low-complexity region with antimicrobial activity and a C-terminal domain that forms a trimeric structure that belongs to the cupin superfamily. In this study, vicilin from pecan (Carya illinoinensis) was isolated and was expressed in bacteria for the first time. The cupin structural core of the protein, residues 369-792, was purified by metal-affinity and gel-filtration chromatography to high purity. Vicilin crystals were obtained and the best crystal diffracted to 2.65 Å resolution in space group P212121.

  13. The structure of rice weevil pectin methylesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, David C; Behnke, Craig A; Pappan, Kirk; Shen, Zicheng; Reese, John C; Reeck, Gerald R; Stenkamp, Ronald E

    2014-11-01

    Rice weevils (Sitophilus oryzae) use a pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11), along with other enzymes, to digest cell walls in cereal grains. The enzyme is a right-handed β-helix protein, but is circularly permuted relative to plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases, as shown by the crystal structure determination reported here. This is the first structure of an animal pectin methylesterase. Diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution some time ago for this crystal form, but structure solution required the use of molecular-replacement techniques that have been developed and similar structures that have been deposited in the last 15 years. Comparison of the structure of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with that from Dickeya dandantii (formerly Erwinia chrysanthemi) indicates that the reaction mechanisms are the same for the insect, plant and bacterial pectin methylesterases. The similarity of the structure of the rice weevil enzyme to the Escherichia coli lipoprotein YbhC suggests that the evolutionary origin of the rice weevil enzyme was a bacterial lipoprotein, the gene for which was transferred to a primitive ancestor of modern weevils and other Curculionidae. Structural comparison of the rice weevil pectin methylesterase with plant and bacterial enzymes demonstrates that the rice weevil protein is circularly permuted relative to the plant and bacterial molecules.

  14. On the identity of some weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius (1745-1808) in the Museum of Zoology of Copenhagen (Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, Curculionoidea, Tenebrionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    The types of thirty-two nominal weevil species described by Johann Christian Fabricius are reviewed and lecto- and paralectotypes are designated for twenty-two of them. A neotype is designated for Curculiosticticus Fabricius, 1777. Protapionvaripes (Germar, 1817) is declared a nomen protectum over Curculioflavipes Fabricius, 1775. Based on a study of syntypes, Rhinomacercurculioides Fabricius, 1781 is confirmed as a member of Mycterus (Mycteridae), Bruchusundatus Fabricius, 1787 is tentatively transferred to Erotylidae, Curculiofulvirostris Fabricius, 1787 and Anthribusroboris Fabricius, 1798 are confirmed as members of Salpingus (Salpingidae), and Brachyceruscristatus Fabricius, 1798 is transferred to Tenebrionidae. Based on lectotype designation, Curculiocaninus Fabricius, 1792 is confirmed as a synonym of Sitonalineatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Curculioinnocuus Fabricius, 1802 as a synonym of Cneorhinusbarcelonicus (Herbst, 1797). Bruchusrufipes Fabricius, 1792 is not considered an available species name, but a later use of Bruchusrufipes Olivier, 1790. Cossonusincisus Pascoe, 1885 is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Cossonusilligeri Champion, 1909 and Cossonusvulneratus Illiger, 1805 from synonymy under Cossonuscanaliculatus (Fabricius, 1792) (a primary homonym of Curculiocanaliculatus Olivier, 1791). Cossonuscanaliculatus Fabricius, 1802 is a secondary homonym of the former and is replaced with Cossonusincisus. Salpingusfulvirostris (Fabricius, 1787) is reinstated as valid from synonymy under Salpingusplanirostris (Fabricius, 1787), a primary homonym of Curculioplanirostris Piller & Mitterpacher, 1783. The following new combinations are proposed: Brachysomuserinaceus (Fabricius, 1802) (from Curculio), Bronchusferus (Gyllenhal, 1840) (from Hipporhinus), Bronchusglandifer (Fabricius, 1792) (from Curculio), Bronchusnivosus (Sparrman, 1785) (from Curculio), Bronchussparrmani (Gyllenhal, 1833) (from Hipporhinus), Coelocephalapionatrirostre (Fabricius, 1802

  15. EFFECT OF MULCHING ON BANANA WEEVIL MOVEMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Hebblethwaite, 1989). Mulching influences weevil movements in banana plantations (Gold et al., 1999), but to what extent this would affect pheromone trap catches of C. sordidus is not known. Mulching may have several effects on efficacy of pheromone ...

  16. Susceptibility of the Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Entomopathogenic Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Mizell, Russell F; Campbell, James F

    2002-09-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Our objective was to determine virulence and reproductive potential of six commercially available nematode species in C. nenuphar larvae and adults. Nematodes tested were Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Hb strain), H. marelatus (Point Reyes strains), H. megidis (UK211 strain), Steinernema riobrave (355 strain), S. carpocapsae (All strain), and S. feltiae (SN strain). Survival of C. nenuphar larvae treated with S. feltiae and S. riobrave, and survival of adults treated with S. carpocapsae and S. riobrave, was reduced relative to non-treated insects. Other nematode treatments were not different from the control. Conotrachelus nenuphar larvae were more susceptible to S. feltiae infection than were adults, but for other nematode species there was no significant insect-stage effect. Reproduction in C. nenuphar was greatest for H. marelatus, which produced approximately 10,000 nematodes in larvae and 5,500 in adults. Other nematodes produced approximately 1,000 to 3,700 infective juveniles per C. nenuphar with no significant differences among nematode species or insect stages. We conclude that S. carpocapsae or S. riobrave appears to have the most potential for controlling adults, whereas S. feltiae or S. riobrave appears to have the most potential for larval control.

  17. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. This is an open access paper. We use the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license that permits unrestricted use, provided that the paper is properly attributed.

  18. Field evaluation of traps and lures for monitoring plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Alabama peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akotsen-Mensah, Clement; Boozer, Robert; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2010-06-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a key pest of peaches, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, in North America. We evaluated the effectiveness of two widely used trap types (pyramid versus Circle traps) and commercially available synthetic lures for monitoring the pest in two peach orchards in Alabama during 2008 and 2009. The lures evaluated alone or in combinations included benzaldehyde (BZ) (a component of fruit odor), plum essence (PE) (a mixture of fruit odor extracted from food grade plum), and grandisoic acid (GA) (a male-produced aggregation pheromone of plum curculio). In general, pyramid traps captured more plum curculio adults than Circle traps, particularly during the first generation. Trap performance was improved numerically by the addition of BZ, PE, or GA alone (single lures) and was significantly enhanced by the addition of the combined BZ + PE lure. In both first and second generations, the combined BZ + PE lure increased plum curculio captures (significant in some trials) over unbaited traps and traps baited with single lures by approximately 1.5-21-fold and had the highest response indices (RIs), which is indicative of high attractiveness. The combined BZ + GA lure and the three-component BZ + PE + GA lure also captured numerically more plum curculio adults than unbaited traps or traps baited with single lures but the differences were rarely significant. Analysis of ratios of interaction suggests the possibility of synergistic interactions between BZ and PE and between BZ and GA; however, additive effects were concluded due to high sample errors. These results are discussed in relation to the physicochemical properties of the lures and the potential of using baited monitoring traps to aid plum curculio management decisions in peach orchards.

  19. An insect pupal cell with antimicrobial properties that suppress an entomopathogenic fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Mizell, Russell F

    2015-01-01

    Soil-dwelling insects have developed various mechanisms to defend against pathogen infection. The pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, spends two to three years in the soil inside an earthen cell. We hypothesized that the cell may possess antimicrobial properties. In a laboratory study, we tested the hypothesis using the fungus Beauveria bassiana as a model. B. bassiana is a common endemic pathogen of C. caryae. We compared the number of colony-forming-units on selective media when B. bassiana was exposed to autoclaved soil, non-autoclaved soil, or soil from a C. caryae pupal cell. Soil from C. caryae cells was suppressive to B. bassiana. To our knowledge this is the first report of antimicrobial properties associated with an insect soil cell. The findings expand our knowledge of host-pathogen relationships. Additional research is needed to determine the basis for the suppressive effects observed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Effects of soil moisture and temperature on overwintering survival of Curculio larvae (Coleoptera : Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricca, M.A.; Weckerly, F.W.; Semlitsch, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Few studies to date have investigated factors, other than mast crop size, that influence the dynamics of Curculio populations.W e examined the effects of varying levels of soil moisture (0.35, 0.4 and 0.5 g water/g soil) and temperature (8, 14 and 20 C) on over wintering survival of Curculio larvae collected from Quercus michauxii acorns. Survival of larvae, analyzed using log-linear analysis, was adversely affected by soil moisture but not by soil temperature. Larvae that overwinter in drier soil may have higher probabilities of successfully metamorphosing.

  1. Potential of two entomopathogenic nematodes for suppression of plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar, Coleoptera: Curculionidae) life stages in northern climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H G; Alston, D G

    2008-10-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of pome and stone fruits in North America. We evaluated the potential efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematode species for suppression of plum curculio in northern regions, targeting life stages that reside in soil during spring and summer. A strain of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora isolated from soil infested with plum curculio in northern Utah and a commercially available strain of Steinernema feltiae known to tolerate cool temperatures were tested in the laboratory against three life stages of plum curculio. Bioassays used the southern strain of plum curculio because availability of the northern strain from the field was inadequate. H. bacteriophora was more virulent than S. feltiae to all plum curculio life stages. Adults and pupae were more susceptible than larvae. Temperature bioassays were conducted with a surrogate host: last instars of Galleria mellonella. The two nematodes exhibited different, but overlapping, thermal activity ranges. Both species performed best at 20 degrees C: virulence and reproductive potential was higher; however, H. bacteriophora was superior to S. feltiae at 30 degrees C and vice versa at 10 degrees C. The reproductive potential of H. bacteriophora was > 2.5 times greater than for S. feltiae, and H. bacteriophora required fewer individuals to initiate a successful host infection. S. feltiae was a better fit for temperatures expected in northern climates, but H. bacteriophora was more virulent to plum curculio and produced more infective juveniles that may benefit nematode recycling and continuation and spread of insect suppression in the field.

  2. Response of banana cultivars to banana weevil attack

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pesticides can effectively control banana weevil but these are unaffordable by resource ... use of weevil resistant cultivars. Chemical control is effective but expensive to small holder farmers, contaminates the environment, and is poisonous to both humans and their ..... Banana Weevil and Nematode Damage Assessment in.

  3. Precise and low-cost monitoring of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pest activity in pyramid traps with cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, R D; Gage, S H; Whalon, M E

    2014-04-01

    Incorporating camera systems into insect traps potentially benefits insect phenology modeling, nonlethal insect monitoring, and research into the automated identification of traps counts. Cameras originally for monitoring mammals were instead adapted to monitor the entrance to pyramid traps designed to capture the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Using released curculios, two new trap designs (v.I and v.II) were field-tested alongside conventional pyramid traps at one site in autumn 2010 and at four sites in autumn 2012. The traps were evaluated on the basis of battery power, ease-of-maintenance, adaptability, required-user-skills, cost (including labor), and accuracy-of-results. The v.II design fully surpassed expectations, except that some trapped curculios were not photographed. In 2012, 13 of the 24 traps recorded every curculio entering the traps during the 18-d study period, and in traps where some curculios were not photographed, over 90% of the omissions could be explained by component failure or external interference with the motion sensor. Significantly more curculios entered the camera traps between 1800 and 0000 hours. When compared with conventional pyramid traps, the v.I traps collected a similar number of curculios. Two observed but not significant trends were that the v.I traps collected twice as many plum curculios as the v.II traps, while at the same time the v.II traps collected more than twice as many photos per plum curculio as the v.I traps. The research demonstrates that low-cost, precise monitoring of field insect populations is feasible without requiring extensive technical expertise.

  4. Phenology and infestation patterns of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on four highbush blueberry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Sridhar; Kyryczenko-Roth, Vera; Barry, James D

    2004-12-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a well known pest in apple and peach orchards, but it also is capable of having an economic impact in highbush blueberries. Host phenology and plum curculio oviposition patterns were determined on four highbush blueberry cultivars differing in fruit maturation period. Numbers of oviposition scars were higher on early- ('Weymouth') and mid-season ('Duke' and 'Bluecrop') blueberries than on late-season 'Elliott' in 2001, 2002, and 2003. In 2002, eggs were first present on the three earliest cultivars 21 d before those on 'Elliott', whereas eggs were found on 'Elliott' >40 d after the last sample with eggs for the other three cultivars. The pattern of host phenology and infestation levels suggested that plum curculio oviposition synchronizes well with the availability of suitable fruit for oviposition on early and mid-season cultivars compared with a late-season cultivar of highbush blueberries. The implications of a transition to use of reduced-risk insecticides are discussed in relation to plum curculio management.

  5. Insects in IBL-4 pine weevil traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    I. Skrzecz

    2003-01-01

    Pipe traps (IBL-4) are used in Polish coniferous plantations to monitor and control the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.). This study was conducted in a one-year old pine plantation established on a reforested clear-cut area in order to evaluate the impact of these traps on non-target insects. Evaluation of the catches indicated that species of

  6. Three Boll Weevil Diapause Myths in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonmus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), originated in Mesoamerica but its contemporary distribution extends from the United States Cotton Belt to Argentina, throughout which it is a serious pest of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. While research on the boll weev...

  7. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  8. Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background One of the major recent advances in evolutionary biology is the recognition that evolutionary interactions between species are substantially differentiated among geographic populations. To date, several authors have revealed natural selection pressures mediating the geographically-divergent processes of coevolution. How local, then, is the geographic structuring of natural selection in coevolutionary systems? Results I examined the spatial scale of a "geographic selection mosaic," focusing on a system involving a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae), and its host plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica). In this system, female weevils excavate camellia fruits with their extremely-long mouthparts to lay eggs into seeds, while camellia seeds are protected by thick pericarps. Quantitative evaluation of natural selection demonstrated that thicker camellia pericarps are significantly favored in some, but not all, populations within a small island (Yakushima Island, Japan; diameter ca. 30 km). At the extreme, camellia populations separated by only several kilometers were subject to different selection pressures. Interestingly, in a population with the thickest pericarps, camellia individuals with intermediate pericarp thickness had relatively high fitness when the potential costs of producing thick pericarps were considered. Also importantly, some parameters of the weevil - camellia interaction such as the severity of seed infestation showed clines along temperature, suggesting the effects of climate on the fine-scale geographic differentiation of the coevolutionary processes. Conclusion These results show that natural selection can drive the geographic differentiation of interspecific interactions at surprisingly small spatial scales. Future studies should reveal the evolutionary/ecological outcomes of the "fine scale geographic mosaics" in biological communities. PMID:19941669

  9. Natural selection drives the fine-scale divergence of a coevolutionary arms race involving a long-mouthed weevil and its obligate host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toju Hirokazu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the major recent advances in evolutionary biology is the recognition that evolutionary interactions between species are substantially differentiated among geographic populations. To date, several authors have revealed natural selection pressures mediating the geographically-divergent processes of coevolution. How local, then, is the geographic structuring of natural selection in coevolutionary systems? Results I examined the spatial scale of a "geographic selection mosaic," focusing on a system involving a seed-predatory insect, the camellia weevil (Curculio camelliae, and its host plant, the Japanese camellia (Camellia japonica. In this system, female weevils excavate camellia fruits with their extremely-long mouthparts to lay eggs into seeds, while camellia seeds are protected by thick pericarps. Quantitative evaluation of natural selection demonstrated that thicker camellia pericarps are significantly favored in some, but not all, populations within a small island (Yakushima Island, Japan; diameter ca. 30 km. At the extreme, camellia populations separated by only several kilometers were subject to different selection pressures. Interestingly, in a population with the thickest pericarps, camellia individuals with intermediate pericarp thickness had relatively high fitness when the potential costs of producing thick pericarps were considered. Also importantly, some parameters of the weevil - camellia interaction such as the severity of seed infestation showed clines along temperature, suggesting the effects of climate on the fine-scale geographic differentiation of the coevolutionary processes. Conclusion These results show that natural selection can drive the geographic differentiation of interspecific interactions at surprisingly small spatial scales. Future studies should reveal the evolutionary/ecological outcomes of the "fine scale geographic mosaics" in biological communities.

  10. Abiotic factors and trap design modulate the performance of traps used to monitor the plum curculio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamothe, Steve; Chouinard, Gérald; Vincent, Charles

    2008-12-01

    All published studies on effects of abiotic factors on plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Hersbt), adults have taken a retrospective approach. Here, we present the results of experiments where factors and their levels were determined and controlled a priori. We compared the effectiveness of miniature pyramidal traps (45 by 20 by 20 cm) constructed of four kind of materials--wood, geotextile, nylon screening, and corrugated plastic--to monitor overwintered and summer adults of univoltine plum curculio. We also studied the effects of photoperiod, temperature, wind, and rain on pyramidal trap effectiveness. The experiments, which were replicated over time, were done in two controlled chambers that were divided into four sections, corresponding to simulated combinations (wind or no wind/rain or no rain). The temperatures tested (15, 20, and 25 degrees C) were randomly assigned in the chambers. During scotophase, geotextile traps captured significantly more overwintered and summer adults than traps made of other materials. The maximum proportion of captures (for overwintered and summer adults) during photophase was obtained at 25 degrees C, and it was significantly different than captures at 15 and 20 degrees C. During scotophase, significantly more overwintered and summer plum curculios were caught at 20 and 25 degrees C than at 15 degrees C. Our experiments demonstrated that geotextile is a good alternative to wooden pyramidal trap. Our results suggest that captures were higher 1) at night, 2) during warmer periods (20 and 25 degrees C), 3) when wind velocity was low and 4) during or shortly after rainfall, and 5) that photoperiod is a factor having an important predictive value for plum curculio captures.

  11. Response of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to odor-baited traps near woods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, J C; Wright, S E; Prokopy, R J

    2001-12-01

    Response of overwintered plum curculios, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), to odor-baited traps was evaluated from the beginning until nearly the end of emigration from overwintering sites in woods. We evaluated clear sticky Plexiglas panels and black pyramid traps placed close to woods adjacent to apple trees in an unsprayed section of an orchard. Traps were baited with aggregation pheromone (grandisoic acid) alone or in combination with one of six synthetic fruit volatiles (benzaldehvde, decyl aldehyde, E-2-hexenal, ethyl isovalerate, hexyl acetate, or limonene). Unbaited traps served as a control treatment. Plum curculio emigration from woods was divided into early-, mid-, and late-season periods based primarily on phenological stage of apple bud and fruit development (tight cluster to bloom, petal fall, and fruit set, respectively). During both early- and late season, panel and pyramid traps baited with benzaldehyde plus pheromone were significantly more attractive than any other traps (baited or unbaited), except panel traps baited with ethyl isovalerate plus pheromone in early season, which likewise captured significantly more adults than unbaited panel traps. During midseason, no lures were significantly attractive, possibly due to prevailing cool weather, unfavorable for adult activity. Over the entire season, panel or pyramid traps baited with benzaldehyde plus pheromone captured nearly six times as many plum curculios as unbaited traps of each type, whereas traps baited with pheromone alone captured about twice as many as unbaited traps of each type. We provide information on sex ratio, female maturity stage, and mating status, and several weather parameters associated with trap captures. We conclude that panel or pyramid traps, or a combination, baited with benzaldehyde plus pheromone placed at borders of plum curculio overwintering sites can be a valuable tool for monitoring the beginning, peak, and end of adult immigration into apple orchards.

  12. Odor-baited trap trees: a novel management tool for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2008-08-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most important pests of apple (Malus spp.) in eastern and central North America, historically has been managed in New England apple orchards by three full block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include perimeter row sprays, particularly after petal fall, to control immigrating adults. The odor-baited trap tree approach represents a new reduced input strategy for managing plum curculio based on the application of insecticides to a few perimeter-row trap trees rather than the entire perimeter row or full orchard block. Here, we compared the efficacy of a trap tree approach with perimeter row treatments to manage populations after petal fall in commercial apple orchards in 2005 and 2006. Injury was significantly greater in trap trees compared with unbaited perimeter row treated trees in both years of the study. In 2005, heavy rains prevented growers from applying insecticide applications at regular intervals resulting in high injury in nearly all blocks regardless of type of management strategy. In 2006, both the trap-tree and perimeter-row treatments prevented penetration by immigrating populations and resulted in economically acceptable levels of injury. The trap tree management strategy resulted in a reduction of approximately 70% total trees being treated with insecticide compared with perimeter row sprays and 93% compared with standard full block sprays.

  13. Evaluation of reproductive compatibility of interstrain matings among plum curculio populations in the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Pfeiffer, Douglas G

    2008-10-01

    Reproductive compatibility of interstrain matings in plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), was studied during the summers of 2004 and 2006. There was a unidirectional incompatibility in the cross-matings along a rough north to south transect of the range of plum curculio (4 x 4 two-factorial design). There was significantly lower fertility in West Virginia males mated with New York and Virginia females (40 and 29%, respectively), and Florida males had a significantly lower fertility with Virginia and West Virginia females (46 and 37%, respectively), but Florida females were compatible with males of all four populations. Three northern populations were compatible with each other in all cross-mating combinations (New York, Massachusetts, and New Jersey; 3 x 3 two-factorial design). There was a unidirectional reproductive incompatibility in the combination of New Jersey males with Florida females (47%) and a bi-directional incompatibility between Florida and West Virginia reciprocal cross-mating (26 and 21%, respectively). The pattern of the reproductive incompatibility among geographic populations could help us to distinguish plum curculio strains and to clarify their strain distribution range to enrich our knowledge on their population ecology and biosystematics.

  14. and Xylopia aetiopica (Annonaceae) on maize weevil Sitophilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution of different constituents to the toxicity of the essential oil constituents of Vernonia amygdalina (Compositae) and Xylopia aetiopica (Annonaceae) on maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

  15. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis/Wangenh./K. Koch: A new species of the Allochthonous dendroflora in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobinac Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the alien species Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, carya-pecan, (Juglandaceae A. Richard ex Kunth that has not been mentioned so far in the dendroflora of Serbia. One tree was recorded within the first Serbian sugar factory in Čukarica that is now a protected cultural property in the City of Belgrade. The tree is about 35 years old and about 20 m high. The length of the trunk without branches is 6.0 m and the diameter at breast height is 57 cm. Carya-pecan is a native species of the southeastern part of North America, and is grown in Europe for edible fruits and quality wood. The recorded tree in Belgrade is fruitful and characterized by good vitality and rapid growth. Due to its special characteristics, it can have multiple practical application in the territory of Serbia for decoration in urban areas, for forest plantations and in orchards. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  16. Monitoring plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), populations in apple and peach orchards in the mid-Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Wright, Starker E

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), to four trap types in commercial and unsprayed apple and peach orchards. Trap types included black pyramid and clear Plexiglas panel traps deployed outside the orchard 2 m from the border row, and branch-mimicking cylinder and trunk-mounted screen traps attached to trees in the border row. Bait treatments evaluated in conjunction with each trap type included the synthetic fruit volatile benzaldehyde, the aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid (GA), benzaldehyde in combination with GA, and an unbaited control treatment. In commercial apple orchards, significantly more plum curculio were captured in traps baited with benzaldehyde + GA compared with traps baited with other treatments. Furthermore, significantly more plum curculio were captured by screen traps baited with benzaldehyde + GA compared with unbaited control traps. Significantly more plum curculio were captured by screen traps compared with other trap types in an unsprayed apple orchard. Very few captures were recorded in commercial peach orchards. Dissections of trapped females indicate that bivoltine populations are present in the mid-Atlantic. In general, correlations between timing and amount of trap captures and timing and amount of fruit injury inflicted concurrently or 1 wk after trap captures were very weak for all trap types and bait combinations. Our results agree with previous studies in the northeastern United States in which trap captures are increased by presence of semiochemical baits but fail to serve as reliable tools to determine need for and timing of insecticide application against plum curculio.

  17. Iridovirus in the root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Hunter

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (IIV6 was evaluated for mode of transmission and ability to cause infection in the root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.. This is the first evidence of IIV6 infection in D. abbreviatus, which caused both patent and sub-lethal covert infections in both larvae and adults. Adults and larvae were successfully infected with IIV6 by puncture, injection and per os. Transmission of IIV6 was demonstrated between infected and healthy individuals regardless of gender. Virus was detected in egg masses produced by virus-infected females suggesting IIV6 is transmitted transovarially. Virus particles were observed in the cytoplasm of weevil cells, and were shown to infect fat bodies, muscle, and nerve tissues, as visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Patent infections resulted in death of individuals within 3 to 4 days post infection. Individuals with covert infections tested positive for virus infection on day 7 by polymerase chain reaction analysis. Sequencing of PCR amplicons confirmed virus infection. Discovery of new pathogens against root weevils may provide new management tools for development of control strategies based on induced epizootics. This is the first report of a virus infecting D. abbreviatus.

  18. Genotypic variation for maize weevil resistance in eastern and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    The maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky) is the most destructive storage insect pest of maize (Zea mays L.) worldwide, ... heritability (89 – 96%) for weevil resistance that suggested high potential for germplasm improvement through ... emphasizing other traits, including grain yield enhancement (Tollenaar and ...

  19. Response of banana cultivars to banana weevil attack | Kiggundu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    East African Highland Bananas (EAHB) (Musa AAA, 'Matooke' group) are a major staple food in the East African region. However, banana weevil (Cosmopolites sorllidus) is a major production constraint to bananas and may cause damage levels of up to 100%. Pesticides can effectively control banana weevil but these are ...

  20. Contact toxicity of 38 insecticides to pales weevil adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacqueline L. Robertson; Robert L. Lyon; Nancy L. Gillette

    1975-01-01

    The pales weevil, Hylobius pales (Herbst), attacks all pine species in Eastern North America and is considered the most destructive pest of pine reproduction in the Eastern United States (Speers and Rauchenberger 1971). Large numbers of seedlings are damaged or killed by the adult weevils, which feed on the inner bark.

  1. Selection of assessment methods for evaluating banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Oviposition is in the base of the banana mat. The larvae tunnel in the corm and lower pseudostem. Most attack occurs below the soil surface. Pupation is within the plant. Population build-up is slow and weevil problems become increasingly important in ratoon crops. Damage is caused entirely by larval feeding. Weevil ...

  2. Field attraction of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus to Kairomones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Bruck, D.J.; Griepink, F.C.; Kogel, de W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Root weevils in the genus Otiorhynchus are cited as one of the most important pests in the major nursery and small fruit production areas throughout the United States, western Canada, and northern Europe. A major problem in combating weevil attack is monitoring and timing of control measures.

  3. Ovicidal Activity of Organophosphate, Oxadiazine, Neonicotinoid and Insect Growth Regulator Chemistries on Northern Strain Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J.; Middleton, Samantha M.; Wise, John C.

    2008-01-01

    An in vitro method was developed for assessing ovicidal effects of the organophosphate azinphos-methyl, the neonicotioids thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and clothianidin, the oxadiazine indoxacarb and the insect growth regulators novaluron and pyriproxifen on the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The baseline survivorship of this method was 88 percent. Plum curculio eggs were most sensitive to azinphos-methyl. Thiacloprid, clothianidin and the chitin synthesis inhibitor, novaluron, had LC50 values below 100 ppm. Thiamethoxam, indoxacarb and pyriproxifen were not ovicidal at 100 ppm. Octanol-water partitioning coefficients, log Kow, appeared to be an important indicator of ovicidal activity within the neonicotinoids. This new bioassay method eliminates the confounding of the insect-chemical and plant-chemical interactions and the results highlight the utility of a post-infestation curative approach to plum curculio management.

  4. Use of residue profile analysis to identify modes of insecticide activity contributing to control of plum curculio in apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John C; Coombs, Andrea B; Vandervoort, L Christine; Gut, Larry J; Hoffmann, Eric J; Whalon, Mark E

    2006-12-01

    Residue profile analysis techniques were developed, along with laboratory and field-based bioassays to describe the modes of insecticidal activity responsible for the control of the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in apples (Malus spp.). Adult plum curculios were treated in laboratory topical bioassays to determine acute contact activity and lethal time for five insecticides. Azinphosmethyl had the highest levels of toxicity and shortest lethal time values, followed by the neonicotinoids thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid, whereas indoxacarb had the highest LD50 and LT50 values for topical exposure. Field-based residual activity bioassays assessed adult mortality, and fruit and leaf injury from plum curculio exposed to 4 h, 7 d, and 14 d field-aged residues. All compounds caused significant levels of mortality to plum curculio when adults were exposed to fruit clusters 4 h post-application. Thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid showed oviposition deterrence, antifeedant, and repellency effects in the 7- and/or 14 d residual bioassays and protected fruit in the absence of significant lethal activity. Indoxacarb maintained lethal activity throughout the study intervals, with the incidence of plum curculio feeding, suggesting that ingestion is an important mode of entry. For the neonicotinoids thiacloprid, thiamethoxam and imidacloprid plum curculio mortality was highly correlated with fruit and leaf surface residues. As surface residues declined, sublethal effects such as oviposition deterrence and antifeedant effect remained. The value of the plant-insect-chemistry triad model for describing the temporal dimensions of insecticidal modes of activity and understanding a compound's critical performance characteristics is discussed.

  5. Effectiveness of odor-baited trap trees for plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) monitoring in commercial apple orchards in the northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, Jaime C; Agnello, Arthur M; Tuttle, Arthur; Leskey, Tracy C; Faubert, Heather; Koehler, Glen; Los, Lorraine; Morin, Glenn; Leahy, Kathleen; Cooley, Daniel R; Prokopy, Ronald J

    2011-10-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern and central North America. For effective management of this insect pest in commercial apple (Malus spp.) orchards in the northeastern United States and Canada, one of the greatest challenges has been to determine the need for and timing of insecticide applications that will protect apple fruit from injury by adults. In a 2004-2005 study, we assessed the efficacy and economic viability of a reduced-risk integrated pest management strategy involving an odor-baited trap tree approach to determine need for and timing of insecticide use against plum curculio based on appearance of fresh egg-laying scars. Evaluations took place in commercial apple orchards in seven northeastern U.S. states. More specifically, we compared the trap-tree approach with three calendar-driven whole-block sprays and with heat-unit accumulation models that predict how long insecticide should be applied to orchard trees to prevent injury by plum curculio late in the season. Trap tree plots received a whole-plot insecticide spray by the time of petal fall, and succeeding sprays (if needed) were applied to peripheral-row trees only, depending on a threshold of one fresh plum curculio egg-laying scar out of 25 fruit sampled from a single trap tree. In both years, level of plum curculio injury to fruit sampled from perimeter-row, the most interior-row trees and whole-plot injury in trap tree plots did not differ significantly from that recorded in plots subject to conventional management or in plots managed using the heat-unit accumulation approach. The amount of insecticide used in trap tree plots was reduced at least by 43% compared with plots managed with the conventional approach. Advantages and potential pitfalls of the bio-based trap tree approach to plum curculio monitoring in apple orchards are discussed.

  6. Impact of temperature on plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) responses to odor-baited traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Zhang, Aijun

    2007-04-01

    In 2005, captures of overwintered adult plum curculios, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in standard black masonite pyramid traps deployed in apple (Malus spp.) orchards from half-inch green until fruit reached 7 mm and baited with known attractants did not result in significant captures compared with unbaited traps as they had in 2003 and 2004. These baits included the synthetic aggregation pheromone, grandisoic acid (GA) alone, a six-component synthetic host plant volatile combination (6-Tree) identified from foliar and woody tissues of a Stanley plum tree in combination with GA (6-Tree+GA), and the synthetic fruit volatile benzaldehyde (BEN) in combination with GA (BEN+GA). In 2005, the average daily temperature was below 13 degrees C, much cooler than in 2003 and 2004. We hypothesized that plum curculio could not discriminate between baited and unbaited traps because of reduced release rates of odor-bait stimuli due to their temperature-driven release system. From data collected from 2003 to 2005, we found that plum curculio captures in traps baited with GA alone, 6-Tree+GA, and BEN+GA were significantly related to temperature. We created a predictive model to determine the level of activity, i.e., trap captures in baited traps compared with unbaited traps, we would expect to observe at a particular temperature for these same odor stimuli. Our models predicts that at temperatures between approximately 11 to 13 degrees C we would expect to see no difference between captures in baited and unbaited traps. For captures in odor-baited traps to reach twice those in unbaited traps, our model predicts that temperatures must reach 19.2 degrees C for GA alone, 18.5 degrees C for 6-Tree+GA, and 15.8 degrees C for BEN+GA.

  7. Odor-baited trap trees: a new approach to monitoring plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, Ronald J; Chandler, Bradley W; Dynok, Sara A; Piñero, Jaime C

    2003-06-01

    We compared a trap approach with a trap-tree approach to determine the need and timing of insecticide applications against overwintered adult plum curculios, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst.), in commercial apple orchards in Massachusetts in 2002. All traps and trap trees were baited with benzaldehyde (attractive fruit odor) plus grandisoic acid (attractive pheromone). Sticky clear Plexiglas panel traps placed at orchard borders, designed to intercept adults immigrating from border areas by flight, captured significantly more adults than similarly placed black pyramid traps, which are designed to capture adults immigrating primarily by crawling, or Circle traps wrapped around trunks of perimeter-row trees, which are designed to intercept adults crawling up tree trunks. None of these trap types, however, exhibited amounts of captures that correlated significantly with either weekly or season-long amounts of fresh ovipositional injury to fruit by adults. Hence, none appears to offer high promise as a tool for effectively monitoring the seasonal course of plum curculio injury to apples in commercial orchards in Massachusetts. In contrast, baiting branches of selected perimeter-row trees with benzaldehyde plus grandisoic acid led to significant aggregation (14-15-fold) of ovipositional injury, markedly facilitating monitoring of the seasonal course of injury to apples. A concurrent experiment revealed that addition of other synthetic fruit odor attractants to apple trees baited with benzaldehyde plus grandisoic acid did not enhance aggregation of ovipositional injury above that of this dual combination. We conclude that monitoring apples on odor-baited trap trees for fresh ovipositional injury could be a useful new approach for determining need and timing of insecticide application against plum curculio in commercial orchards.

  8. Olfactometer responses of plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to host plant volatiles, synthetic grandisoic acid, and live conspecifics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit, but will also attack other fruits. Males produce the aggregation pheromone grandisoic acid; emitting only the (+)- enantiomer which is attractive to both sexes of the univoltine an...

  9. Tempo-spatial dynamics of adult plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on semiochemical-baited trap captures in blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), has become an important pest of highbush blueberries in the northeastern USA. Here, we conducted experiments in 2010-2013 to compare the efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for C. nenuphar versus conventional (beating cloth) sampling methods in blu...

  10. Effect of mediterranean forest parasite with Curculio sp. on nutritional value of acorn for Iberian pig feeding and fat characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daza, A; López-Bote, C J; Tomás Barberán, F A; Espin, J C; López Carrasco, C; Olivares, A; Rey, A I

    2007-06-01

    Sixteen Iberian barrows of the same age with an average initial live weight of 100.1kg were randomly distributed in two groups of eight pigs each. One group was fed healthy acorns and the other group received acorns infested of Curculio sp. The subcutaneous backfat from pigs fed healthy acorns had higher C18:1n-9, MUFA and C20:5n-3 and lower C18:0 and SFA proportions than that from the pigs fed acorns infested with Curculio. The consumption of acorns infested with Curculio sp. led to a reduction of C18:1n-9, MUFA, C18:2n-6, C18:3n-3, C22:5n-3 and PUFA proportions in neutral lipids from Longissimus dorsi muscle with respect to consumption of healthy acorns, whereas in polar lipids it produced a reduction in C18:1n-9, MUFA and C18:4n-3 proportions and an increase in C18:2n-6, C20:4n-6, n-6 and C20:5n-3 proportions and of n-6/n-3 ratio with respect to the healthy acorns consumption. The pigs fed healthy acorns had higher intramuscular fat percentage in Longissimus dorsi than pigs fed with acorns infested with Curculio (9.95 vs 7.09% SEM=0.60).

  11. Impact of insecticide and fungicide residue contact on plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), mobility and mortality: implications for pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskey, Tracy C; Wright, Starker E; Saguez, Julien; Vincent, Charles

    2013-04-01

    An evaluation was made of the effects of seven neurotoxic insecticides (esfenvalerate, indoxacarb, clothianidin, thiacloprid, azinphosmethyl, phosmet and imidacloprid), one insect growth regulator (novaluron) and two fungicides (myclobutanin and mancozeb), with water as the control, on the horizontal mobility of plum curculios exposed to dried pesticide residues. Mobility was recorded over a 2 h period using ethological tracking software. Mortality was recorded immediately after horizontal mobility experiments and 24 h later. Esfenvalerate had the greatest impact on mobility. Immediately after exposure to this compound, plum curculios moved significantly greater distances and for a significantly longer period of time compared with all other compounds. After 24 h, esfenvalerate also led to high mortality rates (>86.0%). Exposure to azinphosmethyl and phosmet also led to high rates of mortality, although the impact on mobility was less pronounced. Exposure to indoxacarb, thiacloprid, imidacloprid, novaluron, myclobutanin and mancozeb had no impact on mobility and resulted in little to no mortality. Clothianidin affected mobility after a 2 h exposure period, and high mortality (60%) was recorded after 24 h. The results indicate that, in the context of a treated orchard, plum curculios exposed to dried pesticide residues may be capable of foraging before succumbing to toxicant exposure, while exposure to pesticides such as esfenvalerate may rapidly incapacitate adult plum curculios. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A contribution to the study of biology of Curculio elephas Gyll. (Coleoptera, Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drekić Milan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the insects that feeds on pedunculate oak acorns and reduces its seed yield is Curculio elephas Gyll. The study of Curculio elephas Gyll is necessary because of the severe damages caused by this insect and also owing to its insufficiently investigated biology. The research was conducted in the common oak seed orchard at Banov Brod, forest estate „Sremska Mitrovica“, and in the entomological laboratory. The adults emerge from the soil chambers from mid July till the beginning of September. The presence of adults, as determined by crown fogging, ranged from the end of July till the beginning of September with the highest number in mid August. After emerging from the soil, females are already fertile with the developed eggs in the ovaries. They start egg laying after 1 to 8 days and they lay from one to seven eggs per day. Egg laying period lasts from 7 to 20 days. Fertility of C. elephas females ranges from 5 to 40 eggs, while their fecundity ranges from 19 to 45 eggs. At the end of the larval stage, larvae bore into the soil and stay there from one to three years. The species hibernates only in the larval stage. C. elephas has a one-year life cycle, while a minor part of the population has a two or three-year life cycle.

  13. Response of Adult Plum Curculios (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to Contrasting Shades in Field and Laboratory Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, R D; Whalon, M E; Iamurri, J L

    2015-04-01

    The responses of adult plum curculios, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), to visual stimuli were assessed in field and laboratory conditions to evaluate the hypothesis that adult captures should increase when traps visually contrast with a lighter horizon, such as the sky. Release-recapture field studies tested whether adult responses to traps were influenced by the trap's visual contrast with background on the horizon. Results at four sites showed that significantly more adults were captured in traps with woodlots behind them, refuting the hypothesis. Laboratory tests in environmental conditions of 315 lux or less observed the movement of adults between intervals. These showed that significantly more females and males relocated in areas marked with black. This effect occurred when adults were presented with black surfaces, stripes, or lines. The black shade used correlated with lower reflected lux (curculio movement. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Curative activity of insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in tart cherries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2009-10-01

    Tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency, fruit were infested with plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and treated with insecticides to target late instars, neonates, and eggs. The organophosphates azinphos-methyl and phosmet and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam reduced larval emergence rates by >90% for all life stage targets; after >30 d, few surviving larvae were found inside fruit. Acetamiprid and thiacloprid also had curative activity and yielded >75% reductions in emergence and few surviving larvae in the fruit after >30 d. The juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen reduced larval emergence, but 66% of fruit that was treated to target late-instars still had live larvae inside of them after >30 d. Novaluron, chlorantraniliprole, and esfenvalerate had no curative activity. Indoxacarb had limited curative activity, and all targeted life stages had larval emergence. Internal and external residues were analyzed and are discussed in relation to their penetration and curative potential. The curative activity of azinphos-methyl has played an important role in meeting federal standards for infestation-free tart cherries at processing. Regulatory changes are eliminating the use of this compound, and new integrated pest management programs for plum curculio will need to address the loss of azinphos-methyl's curative activity.

  15. Reproductive development of northern and southern strains of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Coombs, Andrea B; Whalon, Mark E

    2004-02-01

    Laboratory-reared southern and field-collected northern strains of plum curculio, Conotrachelles nenuphar (Herbst), were sampled to examine the relationship between degree-day (DD) accumulation and female reproductive development, as measured by mating status, oocyte size, and number of oocytes. The overall goal was to generate an objective degree-day model for predicting damage potential that could be applied to various host commodities rather than relying on separate biofix models for each crop. Adult beetles were dissected to measure mating status, maximum oocyte size, and number of oocytes. Southern strain beetles reared at 25 degrees C initiated mating 9 d after eclosion and did not require mating to induce oocyte development. By 20 d posteclosion, unmated females had significantly higher egg loads compared with mated females of the same age. Logistic regression analysis suggests that southern and northern strain beetles had a stable maximum oocyte length of 62 and 72 microm, respectively. Northern strain females mated after overwintering; with approximately 95% of the female population mated after 134 DD (base 10 degrees C), which is before fruit set in many host crops. Oocyte size was the only measured parameter of field reproductive progress that could be linked with confidence to degree-day accumulation. The other two parameters do not share an exclusive relationship with degree-days. Rapid assessment of field-caught female reproductive status could assist in determining the potential for plum curculio damage in high-value commodities and allow for more informed control decisions.

  16. [Effects of understory removal on soil greenhouse gas emissions in Carya cathayensis stands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Juan; Chen, Xue-shuang; Wu, Jia-sen; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-03-01

    CO2, N2O and CH4 are important greenhouse gases, and soils in forest ecosystems are their important sources. Carya cathayensis is a unique tree species with seeds used for high-grade dry fruit and oil production. Understory vegetation management plays an important role in soil greenhouse gases emission of Carya cathayensis stands. A one-year in situ experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal on soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions in C. cathayensis plantation by closed static chamber technique and gas chromatography method. Soil CO2 flux had a similar seasonal trend in the understory removal and preservation treatments, which was high in summer and autumn, and low in winter and spring. N2O emission occurred mainly in summer, while CH4 emission showed no seasonal trend. Understory removal significantly decreased soil CO, emission, increased N2O emission and CH4 uptake, but had no significant effect on soil water soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon. The global warming potential of soil greenhouse gases emitted in the understory removal. treatment was 15.12 t CO2-e . hm-2 a-1, which was significantly lower than that in understory preservation treatment (17.04 t CO2-e . hm-2 . a-1).

  17. Sampling plantations to determine white-pine weevil injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Talerico; Robert W., Jr. Wilson

    1973-01-01

    Use of 1/10-acre square plots to obtain estimates of the proportion of never-weeviled trees necessary for evaluating and scheduling white-pine weevil control is described. The optimum number of trees to observe per plot is estimated from data obtained from sample plantations in the Northeast and a table is given. Of sample size required to achieve a standard error of...

  18. Discrimination of occupied host fruit by plum curculio females (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkewich, S L; Prokopy, R J; Green, T A

    1987-08-01

    Larval survival of plum curculios (PCs),Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), was found to decrease with increasing egg density per fruit. Subsequently, we assayed PCs for propensity to avoid egg-laying at sites (immature plums) already occupied by conspecific eggs. Laboratory choice tests showed PCs made an equal number of visits to and ovipositions in fruit with a single oviposition as in clean fruit. Although there was a trend toward more visits to fruit which contained four or eight oviposition wounds and eggs or eight artificial punctures than to clean fruit, PCs oviposited less frequently into these than clean fruit. Results suggest that wounding of fruit may enhance the ability of ovipositing PCs to locate fruit, but at the same time may furnish cues allowing some degree of discrimination against heavily infested fruit for oviposition.

  19. Chapter 9 - Assessment and etiology of hickory (Carya spp.) decline in the midwest and northeastern regions (Project NC-EM-07-01)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Juzwik; Ji-Hyun Park; Linda Haugen

    2014-01-01

    Hickory decline, particularly decline in bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis) and to a lesser extent in shagbark hickory (C. ovata), has recently been noted in Iowa, Maryland, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and Wisconsin (Steinman 2004).

  20. Characterization of Carya illinoiensis and Juglans regia oils obtained by different extraction systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tainara Costa-Singh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It is extremely important to evaluate the extraction processes of vegetable oils used in food, considering that the nuts are rich sources of triacylglycerols. Thus, the present study aimed at comparing the methods of solvent extraction and extraction by pressing of the lipid fractions of walnut (Juglans regia and pecan nut (Carya illinoensis, in order to elucidate their influence on the content of bioactive substances. The samples were analyzed regarding fatty acid profile, tocopherols, phytosterols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds, presenting relevant quantities of these bioactive substances. It was found that the extraction of oils by pressing minimized degradation of tocopherol when compared to solvent extraction. However, solvent extraction is more efficient to extract bioactive compounds such as phytosterols, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds.

  1. Diapause in the Boll Weevil (Coleopetra: Curculionidae) : Life-Stage Sensitivity to Enviromental Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso; Jefferey L. Willers

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the diapause response in naturally occurring boll weevils under field and simulated field environments of north Mississippi. Squares containing early-stage weevils were collected in July, August, and September and subsamples from each group were installed into similar dynamic environments in the laboratory. In this manner, some weevils experienced...

  2. Biological role of Nardonella endosymbiont in its weevil host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kuriwada

    Full Text Available Weevils constitute the most species-rich animal group with over 60,000 described species, many of which possess specialized symbiotic organs and harbor bacterial endosymbionts. Among the diverse microbial associates of weevils, Nardonella spp. represent the most ancient and widespread endosymbiont lineage, having co-speciated with the host weevils for over 125 million years. Thus far, however, no empirical work on the role of Nardonella for weevil biology has been reported. Here we investigated the biological role of the Nardonella endosymbiont for the West Indian sweet potato weevil, Euscepes postfasciatus. This insect is an experimentally tractable pest insect that can easily be reared on a natural diet of sweet potato root as well as on an agar-based artificial diet. By larval feeding on an antibiotic-containing artificial diet, Nardonella infection was effectively eliminated from the treated insects. The antibiotic-treated insects exhibited significantly lighter body weight and lower growth rate than the control insects. Then, the antibiotic-treated insects and the control insects were respectively allowed to mate and oviposit on fresh sweet potatoes without the antibiotic. The offspring of the antibiotic-treated insects, which were all Nardonella-negative, exhibited significantly lighter body weight, smaller body size, lower growth rate and paler body color in comparison with the offspring of the control insects, which were all Nardonella-positive. In conclusion, the Nardonella endosymbiont is involved in normal growth and development of the host weevil. The biological role of the endosymbiont probably underlies the long-lasting host-symbiont co-speciation in the evolutionary course of weevils.

  3. Triaspis curculiovorus sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) from Japan, Parasitizing Acorn Weevils

    OpenAIRE

    Jeno, PAPP; Kaoru, MAETO; Zoological Department, Hungarian Natural History Museum; Hokkaido Research Center, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute

    1992-01-01

    Triaspis curculiovorus sp. n. from Japan is described and illustrated with taxonomic remarks and a list of the Triaspis species of the eastern Palaearctic Region. The new species is a parasitoid of Curculio larvae infesting Quercus acorns.

  4. Insecticide activity of clove essential oil on bean weevil and maize weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Jairoce

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bean weevil and maize weevil can cause considerable damage to stored grains. These insects are mainly controlled with synthetic chemical insecticides, which may bring serious problems to human and environmental health. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of the essential oil of clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L. Merrill & Perry (Myrtaceae (origin: Bahia, season Sep.2014-Feb.2015] in the control of S. zeamais and A. obtectus under laboratory conditions. The essential oil was extracted through the classic hydrodistillation process and its chemical components were identified via gas chromatography. Oil efficiency was tested at the doses of 35, 17.9, 8.9, 3.6, 1.8, 0.4 and 0.2 μL g-1 (derived from a pilot study for insect control and the LC50 was determined. The results showed that eugenol was the major compound. The essential oil caused mortality of 100% for both species 48 h after treatment with the concentrations of 17.9 and 35 μL g-1. The LC50 for A. obtectus was 9.45 μL g-1, against 10.15 μL g-1 for S. zeamais. The use of clove essential oil represents a promising alternative to be used under storage conditions for the integrated management of stored grains pests.

  5. Pollination of Anthurium (Araceae) by derelomine flower weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Nico M

    2007-03-01

    Cyclanthura flower weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Derelomini) are identified for the first time as pollinators of multiple species of Anthurium (Araceae) in Costa Rica. The weevils are present on the inflorescences in small numbers during the pistillate and staminate phase of anthesis, and consume plant tissues and pollen. The individuals of one species of Cyclanthura can visit several Anthurium species within the same locality. They also engage in reproductive activities and are likely to oviposit into the flowers. The mating strategies suggest that sperm precedence selects males that are able to secure their position as the last partner prior to oviposition.

  6. Infectivity and reproductive potential of the Oswego strain of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora associated with life stages of the clover root curculio, Sitona hispidulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loya, Lane J; Hower, Arthur A

    2003-05-01

    The infectivity and reproductive potential of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Oswego strain), at different concentrations, was studied. Seventy to 80.0% mortality to late instar larvae of the clover root curculio, Sitona hispidulus, and 40.0-76.0% mortality to pupae, was observed at concentrations of 15-100 infective juveniles. There were no significant differences in mortality among nematode concentrations. LC(50) levels of 4.0 and 21.4 nematodes were determined for clover root curculio larvae and pupae, respectively. Nematodes did not cause significant mortality to adult or first instar clover root curculio. H. bacteriophora was able to complete its development and reproduce in 74.0-95.0% of clover root curculio late instar larvae and pupae. Reproductive potential in curculio larvae and pupae ranged from 0 to 7040 infective juveniles per host. Larvae exposed to 100 nematodes had a reproductive potential significantly higher than in those larvae exposed to 15 and 50 nematodes. Reproductive potential in pupae decreased with an increased nematode dose, indicating potential crowding effects. Host larval and pupal mass were positively correlated with nematode progeny production.

  7. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fett, Roseane

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and β-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% ± 0.06, the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 μmol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction. The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion.La composición nutricional de la cáscara de nuez Pecana [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] y los contenidos de fenoles totales y de taninos condensados de la infusión de la cáscara de nuez Pecana se determinaron en este trabajo. La actividad antioxidante de la infusión se evaluó a través de los sistemas ABTS, DPPH y β-caroteno/ácido linoleico. La cáscara presentó un contenido elevado de fibras (48% ± 0,06, el contenido de fenoles totales varió de 116 a 167 mg GAE/g y el de taninos condensados se encontró entre 35 y 48 mg CE/g. La actividad antioxidante varió entre 1112 y 1763 μmol TEAC/g en el sistema ABTS. Por el método DPPH, la actividad antioxidante fue de 305 a 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutos de reacción y de 482 a 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h de reacción. El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación que se obtuvo en el sistema β -caroteno/ácido linoleico varió de 70 a 96%. Los resultados indicaron un elevado contenido de fenoles y una elevada actividad antioxidante para la infusión de la cáscara de nuez Pecana.

  8. Dispersal and overwintering behavior of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in southern Quebec

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, G.

    1988-01-01

    Two techniques for applying the isotope {sup 65}Zn to the body surface of plum curculio (PC), Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), are described. Mortality increased with both increase in radioactivity and duration of exposure. A mixture of radioisotope and paint was applied to the elytra of >5000 beetles to study their dispersal and overwintering behavior in the field. In fall, labeled PC were released in orchards, woodlots, and field microplots. From orchards, PC migrated massively towards high tree silhouettes and hibernated in woodlots. The following spring, they reinfested the orchards. In a field choice experiment, comprising four microhabitats, 86% of labeled beetles hibernated in those with a thick litter layer. Few PC (<1%) hibernated within the soil in field conditions. Survival was clearly related to the preferred microhabitat type. Females dispersed further than males. Within woodlots PC migrated south, which confirmed the southern migratory tendency observed in all of the other field experiments. Adults were most active between sunset and sunrise. In spring, following their migration to the orchard, PC were found on the ground under the apple trees. Highest mean PC activity was recorded at fruit set.

  9. Laboratory evaluation of flight performance of the plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H; Kaufmann, C; Scherm, H

    2006-12-01

    Flight performance of laboratory-reared adults of the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was investigated under controlled conditions by using a flight mill system. Across all insects tested (n=198), median values of total distance traveled, total flight time, and maximum uninterrupted flight time were 122.7 m day(-1), 23.5 min day(-1), and 2.0 min, respectively. The latter result indicates that flight occurred primarily in short bursts. Although females had a significantly higher body mass than males, there were no significant differences in flight performance between the two sexes. Flight during the first 24-h test period (especially the first 6 h) was dominated by escape behavior, i.e., elevated levels of activity presumably associated with attempts by the insects to regain freedom of movement; during the second 24 h, flight activity was very limited throughout the late morning and afternoon, increased around sunset, and remained high during the night. All flight performance variables decreased linearly and significantly with insect age over the age range tested (2-16 d after emergence). Nutritional status also had a significant effect, whereby insects that had been provided with apples as a food source for 2 d after emergence showed considerably improved flight performance compared with those that had been given no food or only water during the same period. There was no significant effect of mating status on flight performance of male or female insects.

  10. Pyriproxyfen activates reproduction in prediapause northern strain plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; VanderJagt, Joshua; Whalon, Mark E

    2007-09-01

    Field-collected, prediapause northern strain plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), adults were treated with the juvenile hormone analogue pyriproxyfen to assess effects on reproductive development. Adults of this pest have an obligate winter reproductive diapause and do not reach reproductive maturity until after spring emergence. Topical (1.0 microL) doses of 10, 1.0 and 0.1 microg microL(-1) pyriproxyfen induced oocyte development and reproductive maturation in all treated females as assessed by dissection. There was no increased mortality in treated beetles, and control insects showed no reproductive maturation. Treatment of prediapause males and females with 1.0 microg microL(-1) of topical pyriproxyfen or exposure to residues on fruit induced successful egg laying and F1 emergence; F1 pupation success in topical treatments and residue exposure was 47 and 59% respectively. Filial adults require re-exposure to initiate reproductive development. Treatment protocols with pyriproxyfen will allow researchers to culture the northern strain, instead of relying exclusively on the non-diapausing southern strain. 2007 Society of Chemical Industry

  11. Novel life stage targets against plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in apple integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John C; Kim, Ki; Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Gökçe, Ayhan; Whalon, Mark E

    2007-08-01

    In this study the authors employed the plant-insect-chemistry (PIC) triad to investigate two novel life stage targets against the plum curculio (PC), Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in apple integrated pest management (IPM). Laboratory treated apple bioassays were used to determine if the insect growth regulator (IGR) insecticides novaluron and tebufenozide have physiological effects on PC larvae following adult exposure. Curative activity bioassays were conducted for IGR, neonicotinoid, oxidiazine and organophosphate insecticides on PC larvae post-infestation, and fruit penetration profiles of insecticides were developed. The results revealed that novaluron exhibits activity on PC larvae via vertical transmission following exposure of mated females to treated substrate. Surface treatments of azinphos-methyl, thiacloprid and thiamethoxam to preinfested fruit resulted in significant reductions in larval emergence. For all compounds, 50% or more of the total recovered active ingredient was from apple skin, and for azinphos-methyl, indoxacarb and thiamethoxam it was greater than 80%. For azinphos-methyl, novaluron, methoxyfenozide and thiacloprid, however, active ingredient was recovered from every section of the apple, from skin to core. Implications for twenty-first century IPM are discussed. Copyright (c) 2007 Society of Chemical Industry

  12. Comparing the emergence of northern strain plum Curculio larvae from multiple fruit varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selby, R D; Whalon, M E

    2014-08-01

    Increasing restrictions on chemical pesticide use in orchards have encouraged the use of alternative strategies to control the northern strain of the plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst). Some of these strategies target larvae as they emerge from fruit, so existing models for larval emergence from fruit were evaluated for accuracy while examining the effect of multiple larvae and fruit type on emergence timing. Larval head width growth rate was established and used to gauge larval development. Larval emergence timing, quantified as degree-days (base 11.1 degrees C), was recorded in tart cherries on trees, and emergence timing was recorded in multiple apple varieties both in cyclical field conditions and in constant laboratory conditions. Ovipositing females and fruit were isolated, so larvae in a fruit were all siblings. Adult emergences from pupation in soil were recorded in the laboratory and compared with existing model predictions. Model predictions did not accurately reflect the timing of larval or adult emergence, and future incorporation of factors that could improve models are discussed. Colder conditions and changing host fruit type had no significant effect on larval emergence timing but changing host fruit type correlated with a shorter pupation interval. Results suggested that females preferred to oviposit on multiple fruit rather than lay multiple eggs in one fruit. Higher numbers of larvae per fruit did not significantly alter the timing of first larval emergence, although more larvae per fruit resulted in a significantly longer emergence period in apples.

  13. Sequencing and characterizing odorant receptors of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Robert F.; Hughes, David T.; Luetje, Charles W.; Millar, Jocelyn G.; Soriano-Agatón, Flor; Hanks, Lawrence M.; Robertson, Hugh M.

    2012-01-01

    Odorant receptors (Ors) are a unique family of ligand-gated ion channels and the primary mechanism by which insects detect volatile chemicals. Here, we describe 57 putative Ors sequenced from an antennal transcriptome of the cerambycid beetle Megacyllene caryae (Gahan). The male beetles produce a pheromone blend of nine components, and we functionally characterized Ors tuned to three of these chemicals: receptor McOr3 is sensitive to (S)-2-methyl-1-butanol; McOr20 is sensitive to (2S,3R)-2,3-hexanediol; and McOr5 is sensitive to 2-phenylethanol. McOr3 and McOr20 are also sensitive to structurally-related chemicals that are pheromones of other cerambycid beetles, suggesting that orthologous receptors may be present across many cerambycid species. These Ors are the first to be functionally characterized from any species of beetle and lay the groundwork for understanding the evolution of pheromones within the Cerambycidae. PMID:22504490

  14. Cloning and bioinformatics analysis of CcPILS gene of Hickory (Carya cathayensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenbin; Yuan, Huwei; Gao, Liuxiao; Guo, Haipeng; Qiu, Lingling; Xu, Dongbin; Yan, Daoliang; Zheng, Bingsong

    2017-04-01

    PILS is a key auxin efflux carrier protein in the auxin signal transduction. A CcPILS gene related to hickory (Carya carthayensis) grafting process was obtained by RACE techniques. The full length of CcPILS gene was1541bp contained a 1263bp length open reading flame (ORF). The CcPILS encoded 294 amino acids with molecular weight of 46 kDa, PI 5.38 and localized at endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The gene contained a central hydrophilic loop separating two hydrophobic domains of about five transmembrane regions each. The gene of CcPILS belonged to Clade III sub-family of PILS and its sequence had high homology with Arabidopsis. Real Time RT-PCR analysis showed that the gene expressions were weakly induced in bud, inflorescence, fruit, leaf and stem, while strongly in root. The expression levels were strongly induced and reached a peak at the third day of grafting in scion and rootstock of hickory, which were 1.45 and 3.45 times higher, respectively, compared to that of control. The results indicated that CcPILS may be involved in regulating the expression of genes related to auxin signal transduction during hickory graft process.

  15. White-pine weevil control with knapsack mistblower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur R. Hastings; John H. Risley

    1962-01-01

    Tests made in New York State in 1956-60 indicate that the portable knapsack mistblower has considerable promise for practical control of the white-pine weevil, now the major insect enemy of white pine in the Northeast. Lindane and malathion, alone and with Aroclor 5460, were the toxicants used in the tests.

  16. Effects of potassium deficiency, drought and weevils on banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Gold (1996) concluded from a literature review that phytophagous insects are sensitive to nutritional changes .... Corm damage due to weevils was assessed using the method described by Gold et al. ..... high K fertilizer recovery efficiency of 75% that have been found in some other banana fertilizer studies (Lopez and.

  17. Effect of radio frequency treatments on cowpea weevil adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried pulses (chickpeas, lentils and dried peas) are valuable export commodities in the US Pacific Northwest. Postharvest infestation by stored product insect pests such as the cowpea weevil may cause importing countries to require phytosanitary treatments before shipment. Typically, chemical fumiga...

  18. Control damage by seedling debarking weevil. Technical note No. 271

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eidt, D.C.; Weaver, C.A.A.

    1993-01-01

    Technical note describing a method of controlling the damage to seedlings by the seedling debarking weevil by using nematodes. Information is given on the damage involved, the nematodes to be used, treatment methods, planting procedures, benefits and costs, and results of earlier trials.

  19. Biological effects of plant extracts against the rice weevil Sitophilus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The extract of C. odorata was moderately toxic to S. oryzae but that of K. senegalensis was highly toxic to the weevils, evoking 100% mortality in maize treated with the highest dosage after 72 h of exposure. Grains treated with extract of the two plant materials caused a highly significant reduction in the number of progeny ...

  20. Cultural control of banana weevils in Ntungamo, southwestern Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okech, S.H.; Gold, C.S.; Bagamba, F.; Masanza, M.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Ssennyonga, J.

    2005-01-01

    The International Institute of Tropical Agriculture and the Uganda National Banana Research Programme tested and evaluated selected cultural management options for the banana weevil through on-farm farmer participatory research in Ntungamo district, Uganda between 1996 and 003. A farmer adoption

  1. A screening method for banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... The banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar) is a serious pest in most banana-growing areas of the world. Host-plant resistance is considered to be the most feasible and sustainable method for its control. However, a quick and effective method for screening banana genotypes for resistance against.

  2. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), movement relative to pheromone-baited traps. Three treatments were used to create different mulching levels: banana without mulch (control), banana with thin mulch (< 6 cm thick), and banana with thick mulch (15 cm thick). Pheromone traps

  3. The palm weevil Rhynchophorus vulneratus is eradicated from Laguna Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Hoddle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In October 2010, Rhynchophorus vulneratus, originally identified as the red palm weevil, R. ferrugineus, was discovered infesting Canary Island date palms in Laguna Beach, California. The red palm weevil has caused extensive mortality of palms in the Mediterranean, the Middle East and North Africa, and its discovery in California caused concern for the state's ornamental palm and date industries and the many palms in Southern California landscapes. A rapid, coordinated effort led to the deployment of traps baited with the weevil's aggregation pheromone, coordinated pesticide applications to privately owned palms and destruction of palms at advanced stages of infestation. Research confirmed the chemical components of the aggregation pheromone, assessed the efficacy of trapping strategies and resolved the taxonomic identity, native range and putative region of origin for the population detected in Laguna Beach. The last confirmed detection of a live R. vulneratus was Jan. 20, 2012. USDA-APHIS declared this weevil eradicated from California on Jan. 20, 2015. The estimated cost of the eradication was $1,003,646.

  4. 3 using odor-baited trap trees as sentinels to monitor plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, Ronald J; Jacome, Isabel; Gray, Eliza; Trujillo, Guadalupe; Ricci, Mareana; Piñero, Jaime C

    2004-04-01

    In commercial orchards in Massachusetts in 2003, we conducted experiments aimed at developing guidelines for use of perimeter-row trap trees baited with grandisoic acid plus benzaldehyde as sentinels in a practical approach to determining need and timing of insecticide applications against overwintered plum curculios, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst). Evaluations were based on percentages of sampled fruit injured by plum curculio. Trap trees baited with grandisoic acid released at approximately 1 mg/d plus benzaldehyde released at approximately 40 mg/d performed as well as or better than trap trees baited with greater or lesser amounts of these attractants in combination. The distance over which a trap tree baited with such odor was effective in aggregating damage to fruit extended to at least 31-33 m (maximum evaluated) along a perimeter row. Trap trees at corners of orchard blocks were as effective as perimeter-row trap trees midway between corner trees. Within the canopy of a trap tree, damage did not tend significantly to be localized in the vicinity of the odor source but tended to be rather evenly distributed among various sectors of the canopy. Finally, among three candidate thresholds evaluated as a trigger for insecticide application, a threshold of one freshly injured fruit proved better than thresholds of two or four freshly injured fruit out of 50 fruit sampled on a trap tree in assuring that orchard-wide damage would remain below a preset economic injury level of 1%. Our findings lead us to suggest that after a whole-orchard application of insecticide to apple trees in Massachusetts orchards shortly after petal fall, subsequent applications of insecticide against plum curculio can be confined to peripheral-row trees and be driven by a provisional threshold of one freshly injured fruit out of 50 fruit sampled on a perimeter-row trap tree baited with the above-mentioned odor.

  5. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiroesele, Bamphitlhi; Thomas, Kesegofetse; Seketeme, Seipati

    2014-12-31

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F₁ progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils' damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.

  6. Distribución espacial y variaciones temporales de curculio elephas gyllenhal en bellotas de quercus rotundifolia Lam.

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, A.; Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Villagrán Pinteño, Miguel; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    2005-01-01

    En las dehesas españolas las especies arbóreas más frecuentes pertenecen al género Quercus L.Sus frutos son atacados por varios insectos carpófagos, entre los que hay que destacar a Curculio elephas, un pequeño curculiónido cuyas larvas se alimentan y desarrollan dentro de las bellotas. En este trabajo se ha realizado un seguimiento, durante tres años, de C. elephasen frutos de encina, Q. rotundifolia Lam. Los resultados obtenidos indican que: 1) la distribución espacial de esta ...

  7. Mycorrhization of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) with black truffles: Tuber melanosporum and Tuber brumale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marozzi, Giorgio; Sánchez, Sergio; Benucci, Gian Maria Niccolò; Bonito, Gregory; Falini, Leonardo Baciarelli; Albertini, Emidio; Donnini, Domizia

    2017-04-01

    Pecan, Carya illinoinensis, is an economically important nut producing tree that can establish ectomycorrhizal symbiosis with a high diversity of fungi. In the southern USA, truffles (Tuber spp.) sometimes fruit prolifically in cultivated pecan orchards and regularly associate with pecan roots as ectomycorrhizae (ECMs). It has been demonstrated that some valuable European truffle species (e.g., Tuber borchii and Tuber aestivum) can form ECMs with pecan seedlings in nursery conditions. Thus, pecan may represent an attractive alternative host to forest trees for truffle growers given the potential for co-cropping truffles and pecans. To further explore the capacity of pecan to host truffle symbionts, pecan seedlings were inoculated with species of black truffles that are economically important in Europe, T. melanosporum and T. brumale. Ectomycorrhizae were characterized molecularly and their morphology was described in detail. Mycorrhization rates on pecan roots were assessed over a 2-year period. Tuber melanosporum and T. brumale produced well-formed ECMs with a level of root colonization in the first year of 37.3 and 34.5%, respectively. After 24 months, the level of mycorrhization increased for T. brumale (49.4%) and decreased for T. melanosporum (10.5%) inversely to that of non-target ECM greenhouse contaminants (e.g., Sphaerosporella brunnea, Trichophaea woolhopeia, Pulvinula constellatio). To assess whether mating types segregated in T. melanosporum as been reported for other host species, we amplified the mating-type locus from single T. melanosporum ECM belonging to different seedlings over a 2-year period. The two mating idiomorphs were nearly equally represented along the 2-year time span: MAT 1-1-1 decreased from 59.4% in the first year to 48.5% in the second year after inoculation. Data reported in this study add to knowledge on the mycorrhization of pecan trees with commercial truffles and has application to truffle and nut co-cropping systems.

  8. Bioassay approaches to assessing behavioral responses of plum curculio adults (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to host fruit odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopy, R J; Cooley, S S; Phelan, P L

    1995-08-01

    We evaluated several approaches to developing a simple, sensitive, and reliable laboratory bioassay of responses of overwintered adult plum curculios (PCs),Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), to host fruit odor or its attractive components. A high proportion of assayed PCs responded positively to odor of wild plums under no-choice, moving-air conditions in a wind tunnel and under dual-choice, still-air conditions in enclosed Petri dishes. Positive response to controls lacking host odor, however, was much greater in the wind tunnel, arguing in favor of bioassays under dual-choice conditions in still air to provide greater PC discrimination. Response to host odor (from wild plums or hexane extract of wild plums or Liberty apples) in Petri dish bioassay chambers proved greatest: (1) during the scotophase of PCs under total dark or dim red light conditions, (2) when Petri dishes were completely enclosed, (3) when PCs were starved for 24 or 48 hr, and (4) when PCs were tested within seven weeks after apple tree petal fall. Neither the sex of a PC nor the direction in which a PC was obliged to move to find the source of host odor (upward through a port in the Petri dish lid or downward through a port in the base) had a substantial effect on level of response to host odor or discrimination of host odor from a nonodorous control. We conclude that an enclosed Petri dish bioassay chamber of the type described here should be a valuable asset in the process of chemically identifying components of host fruit odor attractive to PCs.

  9. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Nematodes to Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar: Effects of Strain, Temperature, and Soil Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro-Ilan, David I; Leskey, Tracy C; Wright, Starker E

    2011-09-01

    The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, is a major pest of stone and pome fruit (e.g., apples, pears, peaches, cherries, etc.). Entomopathogenic nematodes (Steinernema spp. and Heterorhabditis spp.) may be used to control the larval stage of C. nenuphar following fruit drop. Indeed, certain entomopathogenic nematodes species have previously been shown to be highly effective in killing C. nenuphar larvae in laboratory and field trials. In field trials conducted in the Southeastern, USA, Steinernema riobrave has thus far been shown to be the most effective species. However, due to lower soil temperatures, other entomopathogenic nematode strains or species may be more appropriate for use against C. nenuphar in the insect's northern range. Thus, the objective of this study was to conduct a broad screening of entomopathogenic nematodes. Under laboratory conditions, we determined the virulence of 13 nematode strains (comprising nine species) in two different soils (a loam and clay-loam) and three different temperatures (12°C, 18°C, and 25°C). Superior virulence was observed in S. feltiae (SN strain), S. rarum (17 C&E strain), and S. riobrave (355 strain). Promising levels of virulence were also observed in others including H. indica (HOM1 strain), H. bacteriophora (Oswego strain), S. kraussei, and S. carpocapsae (Sal strain). All nematode treatments were affected by temperature with the highest virulence observed at the highest temperature (25°C). In future research, field tests will be used to further narrow down the most suitable nematode species for C. nenuphar control.

  10. Estudio sobre la distribución de frutos afectados por Curculio elephas (Gyllenhal) (Col., Curculionidae) en alcornoque (Quercus suber Linné)

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Villagrán Pinteño, Miguel; Martín Santana, Pedro; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    1997-01-01

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio acerca de la distribución de frutos atacados por Curculio elephas (Gyllenhal) (Col., Curculionidae) en alcornoque {Quercus suber Linné), en relación con las diferentes orientaciones. Los resultados indican que este insecto coloniza de forma homogénea la copa del árbol.

  11. Field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi and nematodes targeting caged last-instar plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Michigan cherry and apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereault, R J; Whalon, M E; Alston, D G

    2009-08-01

    The plum curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst) is a key pest of pome and stone fruit in eastern North America. We tested the efficacy of five pathogens over the course of three seasons in 10 Michigan apple and cherry orchards, with introductions of larvae to caged pots containing pathogen-treated soil. The nematode Steinernema riobrave was the most effective pathogen in the 2 yr it was tested, but only in soils with the highest sand content (81-88%) and when it was applied 1 h or 5 d after last instars of plum curculio. S. carpocapsae in an organic formulation was less effective, but significantly reduced plum curculio emergence in 1 yr of the study when applied 3 d before C. nenuphar larvae were introduced. Beauveria bassiana was effective in only 1 of the 3 yr it was tested, only in soils with lower sand content, and only when it was introduced within 1 h of plum curculio larvae. Metarhizium anisopliae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora were ineffective. Michigan orchards may require sprinkler irrigation coupled with precise timing recommendations and oviposition monitoring to enhance entomopathogen application efficacy against soil-dwelling last instars.

  12. The influence of silvicultural practices on genetic improvement: height growth and weevil resistance in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Thomas Ledig; D.M. Smith

    1981-01-01

    When grown in a common environment, the progeny of white pine (Pinus strobus L.) from weeviled stands improved by selection thinning outperformed the progeny of wolfy dominants from untreated stands in both height and weevil resistance. Within families, weevils tended to attack the tallest trees. Among families the relationship was not as strong and...

  13. Effect of Carya illinoinensis, Quercus rubra and Smilax glyciphylla extracts, pectin, and papain on the dental biofilm microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elda P. Segura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Dental caries is an infectious disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaque and intraoral biofilms, which are made up of mixed-species microbial communities, and their uncontrolled outgrowth can lead to oral disease. Aims: To analyze new biological materials (papain, pectin, three plant extracts and their combinations, for prevention, control, and treatment of oral bacteria and biofilm in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Papain, citric pectin, extracts of Carya illinoinensis, Quercus rubra, and Smilax glyciphylla were applied. In vitro test was performed by means of the spectrophotometric assay and CFU evaluation after treatments application. In vivo tests were performed to evaluate the number of microorganisms presented in dental biofilm: before and 1.5 h after brushing with different treatments; after 10 days of brushing with various treatments in 10 groups of patients, signing an informed consent approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the Autonomous University of Coahuila. Results: In vitro, the plant extracts inhibited the growth of Streptococcus sp. as well as a mixture of microorganisms that form dental biofilms. Papain activity was inhibited by plant extracts. In vivo, brushing of teeth with selected plant extracts reduced the number of bacteria in the dental plaques. Conclusions: The extracts of Quercus rubra, Carya illinoinensis and Smilax glyciphylla and papain (with or without pectin had an inhibitory effect on the dental biofilm formation. In vitro test demonstrated the bacteriostatic effect of plant extracts or their mixture.

  14. Airborne pollen of Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus in the metropolitan area of Monterrey Nuevo Leon, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Estrada, Alejandra; Alvarado-Vázquez, Marco Antonio; Torres-Cepeda, Teresa Elizabeth; Foroughbakhch-Pournavab, Rahim; Hernández-Piñero, Jorge Luis

    2008-01-01

    The concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere over the metropolitan area of Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico, was analyzed throughout a year from March 2003-February 2004, focused on the genus Carya, Celtis, Cupressus, Fraxinus and Pinus owing to their interest as etiological pollinosis agents in diverse regions of the world. A 7-day Hirst type volumetric spore and pollen trap was located on a building roof of the city at 15 m from ground level for continuous sampling. The total quantity of pollen recorded for the study period was 21,083 grains/m(3), corresponding to 49.75 % of the taxa of interest. February and March were the months with higher pollen amounts in the air with 7,525 and 2,781 grains/m(3), respectively, and amounted to 49 % of total year through pollen. Fraxinus was the genus which contributed to the largest amount of pollen with 28 % of total grains (5,935 grains/m(3)) followed by Cupressus with 13 % (2,742 grains/ m(3)). Celtis, Pinus and Carya contributed with 5.3 % , 2.7 % , and 0.6 % of total pollen, respectively. These results indicate that Fraxinus and Cupressus are present in the area in sufficient quantity to indicate likely involvement in the origin of allergic disorders in the human population.

  15. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hölscher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by NMR spectroscopy. One new compound, 2-methoxy-4-phenylphenalen-1-one, was found exclusively in the corm material of “Bluggoe” that had been fed on by the weevils.

  16. Bio-ecological studies of the mango stone weevil in southern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to suggest that flowers may provide food and breeding sites. Infestation by the weevil did not affect fruit quality despite the high potential to disrupt the export trade in mangoes. The low quarantine rejection threshold of one fruit in 40 set in the export market suggests that solution to the problem posed by the weevil requires ...

  17. Polygalacturonase from Sitophilus oryzae: Possible horizontal transfer of a pectinase gene from fungi to weevils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicheng Shen

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Endo-polygalacturonase, one of the group of enzymes known collectively as pectinases, is widely distributed in bacteria, plants and fungi. The enzyme has also been found in several weevil species and a few other insects, such as aphids, but not in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, or Caenorhabditis elegans or, as far as is known, in any more primitive animal species. What, then, is the genetic origin of the polygalacturonases in weevils? Since some weevil species harbor symbiotic microorganisms, it has been suggested, reasonably, that the symbionts' genomes of both aphids and weevils, rather than the insects' genomes, could encode polygalacturonase. We report here the cloning of a cDNA that encodes endo-polygalacturonase in the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L., and investigations based on the cloned cDNA. Our results, which include analysis of genes in antibiotic-treated rice weevils, indicate that the enzyme is, in fact, encoded by the insect genome. Given the apparent absence of the gene in much of the rest of the animal kingdom, it is therefore likely that the rice weevil polygalacturonase gene was incorporated into the weevil's genome by horizontal transfer, possibly from a fungus.

  18. Temperature influences on diapause induction and survival in the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has been the most important pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) wherever it occurs. Although eradication programs in the U.S. have reduced the range of this pest, the weevil remains an intractable problem in subtropical Tex...

  19. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzaara, W; Gold, C S; Dicke, M; van Huis, A

    2005-07-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to such environments in response to volatiles produced by the host plant, by the weevil, or by the weevil plant complex. We evaluated predator responses towards volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue (synomones) and the synthetic banana weevil aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+ in a two-choice olfactometer. The beetle D. abdominale was attracted to fermenting banana pseudostem tissue and Cosmolure+, whereas the ant P. megacephala was attracted only to fermented pseudostem tissue. Both predators were attracted to banana pseudostem tissue that had been damaged by weevil larvae irrespective of weevil presence. Adding pheromone did not enhance predator response to volatiles from pseudostem tissue fed on by weevils. The numbers of both predators recovered with pseudostem traps in the field from banana mats with a pheromone trap were similar to those in pseudostem traps at different distance ranges from the pheromone. Our study shows that the generalist predators D. abdominale and P. megacephala use volatiles from fermented banana pseudostem tissue as the major chemical cue when searching for prey.

  20. Roles of host plants in boll weevil range expansion beyond tropical Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    New findings on boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), biology and ecology have had repercussions on the current level of understanding about short- and long-range boll weevil dispersal, and range expansion from its original tropical Mesoamerican habitat. The w...

  1. Forensic pollen geolocation techniques used to identify the origin of boll weevil reinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, entered the United States of America in the early 20th century and became a major pest in cotton, Gossypium spp. Shortly after the passage of Tropical Storm Erin on 16 August 2007 through the South Texas/Winter Garden boll weevil eradication zone, over 150 boll ...

  2. Screening Sitka spruce for resistance to weevil damage in British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    René I. Alfaro; John N. King

    2012-01-01

    The white pine weevil, Pissodes strobi (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), has serious impacts on Sitka (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carrière), Engelmann (P. engelmannii Parry ex Engelm.), and white spruce (P. glauca (Moench) Voss) plantations in British Columbia (BC), Canada. This weevil attacks...

  3. Value loss from weevil-caused defects in eastern white pine lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Carl H. Stoltenberg

    1957-01-01

    Owners of eastern white pine stands suffer financially in several ways from attacks by the white-pine weevil (Pissodes strobi). Crooks, forks, and other weevil-caused tree-bole deformities increase bucking, logging, and sawing costs, and they reduce recoverable volumes. The injuries also reduce the average value of the lumber recovered. It is only with this reduction...

  4. Effect of mulching on banana weevil movement relative to pheromone traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2008-01-01

    Banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus) is a major pest in East Africa causing yield losses of up to 14 metric tonnes per hectare annually. A study was conducted in Uganda to determine the effect of mulching on banana (Musa spp. L.) weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae),

  5. effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar). (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to its aggregation pheromone was influenced by age, female mating status and weevil density. Laboratory bioassays were conducted using a double pitfall olfactometer, while a bucket ...

  6. Effect of age, female mating status and density on the banana weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory and field experiments were conducted to determine whether the response of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to its aggregation pheromone was influenced by age, female mating status and weevil density. Laboratory bioassays were conducted using a double ...

  7. Olfactory responses of the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, to tree odours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2002-01-01

    A Y-tube olfactometer and a still-air olfactometer were developed to determine the attractiveness of several host plants for the vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.); Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Odours of weevil-damaged yew (Taxus baccata) and spindle trees (Euonymus fortunei) are attractive to

  8. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae, Using Natural Plant Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for all parameters measured. Peppermint also showed significant reduction in the F1 progeny of the cowpea weevils but with less effect on weevils than garlic and chilies. The results indicate that these plant products have the potential to protect cowpea seeds from cowpea weevils’ damage compared to when the seeds are left or stored unprotected. They should, therefore, be included in pest management strategies for cowpea weevil in grains stored on-farm in rural tropical and subtropical regions.

  9. A model for long-distance dispersal of boll weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, John K.; Eyster, Ritchie S.; Allen, Charles T.

    2011-07-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis (Boheman), has been a major insect pest of cotton production in the US, accounting for yield losses and control costs on the order of several billion US dollars since the introduction of the pest in 1892. Boll weevil eradication programs have eliminated reproducing populations in nearly 94%, and progressed toward eradication within the remaining 6%, of cotton production areas. However, the ability of weevils to disperse and reinfest eradicated zones threatens to undermine the previous investment toward eradication of this pest. In this study, the HYSPLIT atmospheric dispersion model was used to simulate daily wind-aided dispersal of weevils from the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) of southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. Simulated weevil dispersal was compared with weekly capture of weevils in pheromone traps along highway trap lines between the LRGV and the South Texas / Winter Garden zone of the Texas Boll Weevil Eradication Program. A logistic regression model was fit to the probability of capturing at least one weevil in individual pheromone traps relative to specific values of simulated weevil dispersal, which resulted in 60.4% concordance, 21.3% discordance, and 18.3% ties in estimating captures and non-captures. During the first full year of active eradication with widespread insecticide applications in 2006, the dispersal model accurately estimated 71.8%, erroneously estimated 12.5%, and tied 15.7% of capture and non-capture events. Model simulations provide a temporal risk assessment over large areas of weevil reinfestation resulting from dispersal by prevailing winds. Eradication program managers can use the model risk assessment information to effectively schedule and target enhanced trapping, crop scouting, and insecticide applications.

  10. Phenylphenalenones Accumulate in Plant Tissues of Two Banana Cultivars in Response to Herbivory by the Banana Weevil and Banana Stem Weevil

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Hölscher; Andreas Buerkert; Bernd Schneider

    2016-01-01

    Phenylphenalenone-type compounds accumulated in the tissues of two banana cultivars—Musa acuminata cv. “Grande Naine” (AAA) and Musa acuminata × balbisiana Colla cv. “Bluggoe” (ABB)—when these were fed on by the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus (Germ.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)) and the banana stem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)). The chemical constituents of the banana material were separated by means of chromatographic techniques and identified by N...

  11. Iridovirus infection of cell cultures from the Diaprepes root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Hunter

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We here report the development and viral infection of a Diaprepes root weevil cell culture. Embryonic tissues of the root weevil were used to establish cell cultures for use in screening viral pathogens as potential biological control agents. Tissues were seeded into a prepared solution of insect medium and kept at a temperature of 24°C. The cell culture had primarily fibroblast-like morphology with some epithelial monolayers. Root weevil cells were successfully infected in vitro with a known insect virus, Invertebrate Iridescent Virus 6. Potential uses of insect cell cultures and insect viruses are discussed.

  12. Pre-dispersal strategies by Quercus schottkyana to mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Xia; William L. Harrower; Roy Turkington; Hong-Yu Tan; Zhe-Kun Zhou

    2016-01-01

    We investigated how pre-dispersal strategies may mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns in a population of Quercus schottkyana, a dominant oak in Asian evergreen broad-leaved forests, and assess if weevil infestation contributes to low seedling recruitment. We counted the number of acorns produced, daily from the end of August to mid-late November for 9 years from 2006?2014. We also recorded the rate of acorn infestation by weevils and acorn germination rates of weekly collectio...

  13. Curculio elephas (Gyllenhal)(Col:curculionidae) y Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller)(Lep.: tortricidae) en encina (Quercus rotundifolia Lam.): Infestación y relaciones interespecíficas

    OpenAIRE

    Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Villagrán Pinteño, Miguel; Martín Santana, Pedro; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    1999-01-01

    Se estudia la infestación y distribución de frutos afectados por Curculio elephas (Gyllenhal) (Col.: Curculionidae) y Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller) (Lep.: Tortricidae) en encina. Los resultados muestran que, en ambas especies, la distribución es homogénea en la copa. También, se analizan las relaciones interespecíficas en la colonización de frutos ; encontrándose una mayor selectividad en el caso de C. fagiglandana.

  14. Harmonic radar: assessing the impact of tag weight on walking activity of Colorado potato beetle, plum curculio, and western corn rootworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiteau, G; Vincent, C; Meloche, F; Leskey, T C

    2010-02-01

    The impact of electronic dipole tags on the walking activity of three insects was determined using video tracking software. Results varied within and between the three species studied. The heaviest tag mounted on the pronotum of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), reduced its mean horizontal speed slightly but significantly. The mean horizontal speed of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), was significantly reduced by a light tag but not by heavier tags. The mean horizontal speed of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte), increased slightly when a tag was attached. A tag mounted to the dorsum of the Colorado potato beetle and the plum curculio slightly changed their climbing speed. Changes in the walking speed were variable but remained well within the range of values recorded in the literature. The impact of the additional tag weight was within the range of constraints to movement (e.g., slopes, barriers, etc.) normally experienced by insects in their environment. The results confirm that tags presently available will have minimal impact on the walking behavior of Colorado potato beetle, provide an estimate of the optimal tag weight for the plum curculio and show that a lighter tag and a better attachment method are required for the western corn rootworm. Because of the ability of insects to adapt to a wide range of landscapes and to their own body weight changes, the additional tag weight had a limited impact compared with the value of the ecological information gathered using this technology.

  15. [Biological characteristics of the egg phase of citrus root weevils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Jerson V C; Parra, José R P

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work was to study some characteristics of the egg phase of three species of citrus root weevils. The insects were collected from citrus plants in Itapetininga, SP, and brought to the Laboratório de Biologia de Insetos of ESALQ/USP, in Piracicaba, SP, where the species Naupactus cervinus (Boheman), Naupactus versatilis (Hustache) and Parapantomorus fluctuosus (Boheman) were kept. Duration and viability of the egg phase were evaluated, and the lower temperature threshold and thermal constant (K) were calculated for these species. The species of citrus root weevils showed different duration of egg phases. The egg phase ranged from 40.4 to 13.8 N. cervinus, from 38.7 to 20.0 days for N. versatilis, and from 35.0 to 13.8 days for P. fluctuosus, depending upon temperature. The temperature thresholds of this stage were 8.1, 8.3, and 9.9 masculineC at thermal constant was 385.7, 397.7 and 294.1 degree-days, for N. cervinus, N. versatilis and P. fluctuosus respectively. The duration of the egg phases of N. cervinus and N. versatilis were similar at the same temperatures and P. fluctuosus had a faster development than Naupactus spp. in all temperatures tested.

  16. Pollination of Anthurium (Araceae by derelomine flower weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico M Franz

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyclanthura flower weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Derelomini are identified for the first time as pollinators of multiple species of Anthurium (Araceae in Costa Rica. The weevils are present on the inflorescences in small numbers during the pistillate and staminate phase of anthesis, and consume plant tissues and pollen. The individuals of one species of Cyclanthura can visit several Anthurium species within the same locality. They also engage in reproductive activities and are likely to oviposit into the flowers. The mating strategies suggest that sperm precedence selects males that are able to secure their position as the last partner prior to oviposition. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (1: 269-277. Epub 2007 March. 31.Por primera vez se informa que algunos curculiónidos de flores de Cyclanthura (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Derelomini polinizan varias especies de Anthurium (Araceae en Costa Rica. Los curculiónidos están presentes en las inflorescencias en pequeñas cantidades durante la fase pistilada y estaminada de la antesis, y consumen tejidos de la planta y polen. Los individuos de una especie de Cyclanthura pueden visitar varias especies de Anthurium en la misma localidad ; también se ocupan en actividades reproductivas y probablemente ovipositan en las flores. Las estrategias de apareamiento sugieren que la competencia a nivel de gametos selecciona favorablemente al último macho en la secuencia de apareamiento de la hembra, pues éste deposita su semen justo antes de que ella oviposite.

  17. Host-plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tol, R.W.H.M.; van Dijk, N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. Assessment of reproductive performance shows

  18. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and

  19. Effects of covering highland banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) oviposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of covering post-harvest banana stumps with soil on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) oviposition levels was investigated at three locations, Sendusu, Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) and Ntungamo district of southwestern Uganda. In the first experiment

  20. Behavioral and Reproductive Response of White Pine Weevil (Pissodes strobi to Resistant and Susceptible Sitka Spruce (Picea sitchensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne A. Robert

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available White pine weevil (Pissodes strobi, Peck. is a native forest insect pest in the Pacific Northwest of North America that attacks species of spruce (Picea spp. and pine (Pinus spp.. Young Sitka spruce [Picea sitchensis (Bong. Carr.] trees are particularly susceptible to weevil attack. Pockets of naturally occurring Sitka spruce resistance have been identified in high weevil hazard areas in coastal British Columbia. In this study, we characterize behavioral, physiological and reproductive responses of weevils to an extremely resistant Sitka spruce genotype (H898 in comparison to a highly susceptible genotype (Q903. The experiments relied on a large number of three-year-old clonally propagated trees and were therefore restricted to two contrasting Sitka spruce genotypes. When exposed to resistant trees, both male and female weevils were deterred during host selection and mating, females showed delayed or reduced ovary development, and successful reproduction of weevils was prevented on resistant trees.

  1. Olfactory responses of banana weevil predators to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and synthetic pheromone

    OpenAIRE

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van, A.

    2005-01-01

    As a response to attack by herbivores, plants can emit a variety of volatile substances that attract natural enemies of these insect pests. Predators of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) such as Dactylosternum abdominale (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) and Pheidole megacephala (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), are normally found in association with weevil-infested rotten pseudostems and harvested stumps. We investigated whether these predators are attracted to...

  2. Control of Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus Maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), Using Natural Plant Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bamphitlhi Tiroesele; Kesegofetse Thomas; Seipati Seketeme

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the effects of natural products on the reproduction and damage of Callosobruchus maculatus, the cowpea weevil, on cowpea seeds at Botswana College of Agriculture in Gaborone, Botswana. The cowpea variety Blackeye was used in the study. Fifty grams of each plant product (garlic, peppermint and chilies) was added to 500 g of the cowpea seeds. Findings of this experiment revealed that chilies and garlic had negative effects on cowpea weevils for al...

  3. Micromorphology of the elytral cuticle of beetles, with an emphasis on weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Thomas; Riedel, Alexander; Greven, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    The elytral cuticle of 40 beetle species, comprising 14 weevils (Curculionoidea) and 26 representatives of other taxa, is examined. All weevils and 18 other species have an endocuticle with prominent macrofibers, which corresponds to a modified pseudo-orthogonal cuticle. Angles between successive layers of macrofibers range between 30° and 90°, but are constantly less than 60° in weevils. In all Curculionoidea, as well as in one buprestid and one erotylid species exo- and endocuticle are densely interlocked. In the weevil Sitophilus granarius, transmission electron microscopy revealed vertical microfibrils extending from the exocuticle between the macrofibers of the underlaying endocuticle. Vertical microfibrils connecting successive macrofiber layers of the endocuticle were observed in S. granarius and Trigonopterus nasutus. Distinct cuticular characters are traced on a beetle phylogeny: the angles between unidirectional endocuticle layers; the presence and the shape of endocuticular macrofibers; and the interlocking of exo- and endocuticle. While character traits seem to be more or less randomly distributed among Coleoptera, the Curculionoidea have a uniform groundplan: The "weevil-specific" combination of characters includes 1) interlocking of exo- and endocuticle, 2) an endocuticle with distinct ovoid macrofibers embedded in a matrix and 3) comparatively small angles between successive endocuticular layers. Thus, phylogenetic constraints appear equally important to functional factors in the construction of the weevil elytron. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Survival and preference of cotton boll weevil adults for alternative food sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pimenta

    Full Text Available Abstract Plants that have potential as alternative food source (floral nectar, pollen and plant tissues to the boll weevil during the intercropping season were evaluated considering the prevalent conditions of Cerrado in the Central Brazil. Initially, we tested the nutritional adequacy for the survival of the insect of flower resource (pollen and nectar provided by eight plant species (fennel, mexican sunflower, castor bean, okra, hibiscus, sorghum, pigeonpea and sunn hemp. Subsequently, we tested if the resources provided by the selected plants continued to be exploited by the boll weevil in the presence of cotton plant, its main food source average longevity of boll weevil adults was significantly longer when they were fed on hibiscus’ flowers (166.6 ± 74.4 and okra flowers (34.7 ± 28.9 than when they fed on flowers of other six species. Subsequently, the preference of the boll weevil in the use of resources was compared between okra or hibiscus and cotton plants, in dual choice experiments. Boll weevils preferred plants of the three species in the reproductive stages than those in vegetative stages. Although the cotton plant in the reproductive stage was the most preferred plant of all, boll weevils preferred flowering okra and hibiscus than cotton at the vegetative stage.

  5. Ecology and phenology of the boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on an unusual wild host, Hibiscus pernambucensis, in southeastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzaluz, I O; Jones, R W

    2001-12-01

    The phenology and ecology of Hibiscus pernambucensis Arruda and its interaction and importance in maintaining populations of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, were studied over a period of 3 yr in the Soconusco Region of the state of Chiapas, Mexico. H. pernambucensis is a small tree of Neotropical distribution, restricted to lowland areas, and generally associated with halophytic vegetation. This species is found exclusively along the shores of brackish estuaries, in or near mangrove swamps in southeastern Mexico. In this region, H. pernambucensis has a highly seasonal flowering pattern in which the greatest bud production occurs shortly after the start of the rainy season in May and the highest fruit production occurs in July and August. Boll weevil larvae were found in buds of H. pernambucensis during all months but February and densities of buds and weevils were highest from May through September. The percentage of buds infested with boll weevil larvae rarely exceeded 30%. Because plant densities and reproductive output of H. pernambucensis is relatively low and, consequently, the number of oviposition and larval development sites for boll weevils is limited, the importance of this plant as a source of boll weevils with potential of attacking commercial cotton is minimal in comparison with the quantity produced in cultivated cotton. However, the plant could be important as a reservoir of boll weevils in areas of boll weevil quarantine and eradication programs. The factors and circumstances that may have led to this apparent recent host shift of the boll weevil in this region are discussed.

  6. Field evaluation of reduced insecticide spray programs for managing plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Alabama peaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akotsen-Mensah, Clement; Boozer, Robert T; Fadamiro, Henry Y

    2011-06-01

    Plum curculio (PC), Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst.), is an important pest of peaches in the southeastern United States. Commercially acceptable control of this insect is typically achieved by weekly or biweekly application of broad-spectrum conventional insecticides, resulting in 6-12 sprays per season. Experiments were conducted in a peach orchard in Alabama during 2007-2009 to compare the conventional calendar-based insecticide spray program involving weekly applications of phosmet with three different reduced spray programs using three targeted (well-timed) insecticide sprays (TIS) of phosmet, permethrin or thiamethoxam applied in an alternated fashion. All three TIS programs significantly reduced PC damage at harvest compared with the untreated control in two of the three years (2008 and 2009). Fruit damage due to stink bugs, which are emerging pests of peaches in the region, was also significantly reduced in the TIS programs in both years. In a separate trial in which one of the TIS programs (three targeted sprays of phosmet) was evaluated in a larger peach block in 2009, percentage fruit damage due to PC increased from < 1% in June to ~4% in late July. All the TIS programs evaluated provided effective control of PC and represent potential alternatives to the conventional weekly spray program in peaches with concomitant reduction in insecticide usage and associated costs. However, an additional spray may be necessary for effective control of PC and stink bugs in late-season peach varieties. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Impact of trap architecture, adjacent habitats, abiotic factors, and host plant phenology on captures of plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, Gérald; Chouinard, Gérald; Vincent, Charles; Cormier, Daniel

    2007-06-01

    Pyramid traps, 2.44 m and 3.66 m in height, were compared with standard-sized pyramid traps, 1.22 m in height, to assess the impact of trap architecture on captures of adult plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in two apple (Malus spp.) orchards and a blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) planting. The effects of adjacent habitat (organic orchard versus wooded areas), abiotic factors, and phenological stages of apple also were assessed to determine whether these variables influenced trap captures. Standard-sized pyramidal traps captured significantly more adults than larger trap variants. In the apple orchards, most adults (70-80%) were captured before petal fall with the exception of blocks adjacent to the organic orchard (25%). Significantly more adults were captured along the edge of an apple orchard (managed using an integrated pest management strategy) facing an organic apple orchard (76%) than along the edge facing wooded areas (24%). There was a significant positive correlation between daily trap captures and mean daily temperatures before petal fall in apple orchards.

  8. Lethality of reduced-risk insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in blueberries, with emphasis on their curative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R; Wise, John C; Polk, Dean; Leskey, Tracy C; Vandervoort, Christine

    2013-12-01

    Historically, management of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), in highbush blueberries has focused on post-bloom broad-spectrum insecticide applications targeting the adults. Here, the efficacy of different classes of insecticides against various stages of C. nenuphar was compared, and a prebloom treatment with the chitin synthesis inhibitor novaluron in combination with a post-bloom insecticide application was tested. Novaluron decreased the number of oviposition scars and eggs on fruit and reduced larval emergence by >60% when applied prebloom. Post-bloom applications of the oxadiazine indoxacarb and the organophosphate phosmet, but not the neonicotinoid acetamiprid, showed significant adulticidal activity. The neonicotinoids acetamiprid and thiamethoxam and phosmet showed significant curative activity on C. nenuphar larvae when applied topically to infested fruit, whereas the pyrethroid fenpropathrin, indoxacarb and novaluron were weaker curative agents. Residue profiles showed that acetamiprid and phosmet residues had the highest levels while fenpropathrin and novaluron had the lowest levels of fruit penetration. In blueberries, novaluron showed anti-ovipositional/ovicidal activity, indoxacarb and phosmet showed adulticidal activity, while the neonicotinoids and phosmet showed best curative (larvicidal) control on C. nenuphar. A prebloom novaluron application in combination with a post-bloom treatment with an adulticidal/larvicidal insecticide is recommended for optimal multi-life-stage management of C. nenuphar. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. [Changes in soil organic carbon and soil microbial functional diversity of Carya cathayensis plantations under intensive managements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Sen; Qian, Jin-Fang; Tong, Zhi-Peng; Huang, Jian-Qin; Zhao, Ke-Li

    2014-09-01

    The change characteristics of soil organic carbon and microbial function diversity in Chinese hickory Carya cathayensis stands with different intensive-management durations (5, 10, 15 and 20 years) were studied. The results showed that soil total organic carbon (TOC), microbial biomass carbon (MBC), water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) decreased significantly, while the stability of soil C pool increased significantly after the conversion from evergreen and deciduous broadleaf forest to intensively-managed forest (IMF). TOC, MBC and WSOC in the hickory forest soil decreased by 28.4%, 34.1% and 53.3% with 5-year intensive management, and by 38.6%, 48.9% and 64.1% with 20-year intensive management, respectively. The proportions of carboxyl C, phenolic C and aromatic C in the hickory forest soil all increased significantly, and the aromaticity of soil organic C increased by 23.0%. Soil microbial functional diversity decreased greatly af- ter intensive management of Chinese hickory forest. Significant differences in average well color development (AWCD) were found between the 0- and 5-year treatments and the 10-, 15- and 20- year treatments. The microbial diversity indexes (H) and evenness indexes (E) in the 0- and 5-year treatments were much greater than in the 10- and 20-year treatments. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant correlations among soil TOC, WSOC, MBC, AWCD, H and E.

  10. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of the Graft Unions in Hickory (Carya cathayensis Provides Insights into Response Mechanisms to Grafting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daoliang Yan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Hickory (Carya cathayensis, a tree with high nutritional and economic value, is widely cultivated in China. Grafting greatly reduces the juvenile phase length and makes the large scale cultivation of hickory possible. To reveal the response mechanisms of this species to grafting, we employed a proteomics-based approach to identify differentially expressed proteins in the graft unions during the grafting process. Our study identified 3723 proteins, of which 2518 were quantified. A total of 710 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs were quantified and these were involved in various molecular functional and biological processes. Among these DEPs, 341 were up-regulated and 369 were down-regulated at 7 days after grafting compared with the control. Four auxin-related proteins were down-regulated, which was in agreement with the transcription levels of their encoding genes. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG analysis showed that the ‘Flavonoid biosynthesis’ pathway and ‘starch and sucrose metabolism’ were both significantly up-regulated. Interestingly, five flavonoid biosynthesis-related proteins, a flavanone 3-hyfroxylase, a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, a dihydroflavonol-4-reductase, a chalcone synthase, and a chalcone isomerase, were significantly up-regulated. Further experiments verified a significant increase in the total flavonoid contents in scions, which suggests that graft union formation may activate flavonoid biosynthesis to increase the content of a series of downstream secondary metabolites. This comprehensive analysis provides fundamental information on the candidate proteins and secondary metabolism pathways involved in the grafting process for hickory.

  11. Tri-Party Underground Symbiosis between a Weevil, Bacteria and a Desert Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Oren; Helman, Yael; Friedman, Ariel-Leib-Leonid; Behar, Adi; Rachmilevitch, Shimon

    2013-01-01

    Inhabitants of arid ecosystems face severe nitrogen and water limitations. Inventive adaptations by organisms occupying such habitats are essential for survival. This study describes a tri-party symbiotic interaction between a plant (Salsola inermis), a beetle (Conorhynchus pistor), and a bacterium (Klebsiella pneumonia). The weevil survives by living within a mud structure affixed to the plant roots, thus benefiting from increased carbon and water, and refuge from predators and parasites. Active nitrogen-fixing bacteria harbored within the weevil's gut mediate this interaction, by supplying nitrogen to the system, which eventually promotes seed development. We studied the correlation between the weevil's existence and (i) root carbon and nitrogen content, (ii) soil water content and (iii) seed weight. Roots hosting weevils contained more nitrogen, heavier seeds and less carbon. In addition, water content was higher around the roots than in open spaces a short distance from the plant stem. Bacterial studies and nitrogen-fixation analyses, including molecular and chemical assays, indicated atmospheric nitrogen fixation in the larval stage and identified the bacterium. The coexistence of weevil and bacterial behavior coinciding with the plant's life cycle was revealed here by a long period of field observations. Out of over 60,000 known weevils, this is the only report of a weevil living most of its life underground without harming plants. The unique tri-party interaction described herein shows the important ecological role of desert plant roots and provides an example of a sustainable consortium of living organisms coping with the challenging desert environment. PMID:24244267

  12. Leptographium bhutanense sp. nov., associated with the root collar weevil Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii on Pinus wallichiana in Bhutan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.D.; Jacobs, K.; Kirisits, T.; Chhetri, D.B.; Wingfield, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Leptographium spp. are commonly associated with bark beetles and weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and some are important tree pathogens. In a recent survey of diseases and insect pests of conifer trees in Bhutan, the root collar weevil, Hylobitelus chenkupdorjii was found girdling young

  13. Chemical variability and leaf damage among lychee varieties, host of the Sri Lanka weevil, Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marchall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical Variability and leaf damages among lychee varieties, host of the Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall. Jerome Niogret, Nancy Epsky, Paul Kendra, Peter Teal The Sri Lanka weevil Myllocerus undercimpustulatus undatus Marshall is serious economic pest in India and P...

  14. Effects of Temperature and Adult Diet on Development of Hypertrophied Fat Body in Prediapausing Boll Weevil (Coleoptera Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the effects of temperature and adult diet on the development of hypertrophied fat bodies in prediapausing adult boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman. Simulation models derived from this work are used to estimate the minimal ages at which male and female boll weevils exhibit diapause morphology, based on conditions...

  15. Behavioural responses of the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus, to semiochemicals from conspecifics, Otiorhynchus salicicola, and host plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    The vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus is a parthenogenetic reproducing species which forages for suitable host plants at night, but is found congregated in dark places during the day. Frass of this weevil species is suspected to contain attractive compounds that are host-plant related. Using a

  16. Phoretic uropodine mites (Acari: Mesostigmata associated with the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R. Farmahiny Farahani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During an investigation on phoretic mite associates of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, in Sistan and Balouchestan Province of Iran, two uropodine species were collected and identified as Centrouropoda almerodai (Uropodidae and Uroobovella marginata (Dinychidae. This is the first record of the genus Centrouropoda from Iran and the first record of phoretic mites associated with this weevil from the country.

  17. Descripción del ciclo biológico de "Curculio elephas" Gyllenhal (1836) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) en un encinar del sur de España

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Pino, Agustina; Soria Iglesias, Francisco Javier; Villagrán Pinteño, Miguel; Ocete Rubio, María Elvira

    2005-01-01

    Curculio elephas Gyllenhal (1836) es un fitófago que ataca los frutos de frondosas, siendo, especialmente, dañino en especies del género Quercus sp. y Castanea sativa. El ciclo biológico de este insecto ha sido descrito en castañares por muchos autores, no así en encinares, a pesar de los daños que produce en los frutos. Las larvas de este curculiónido durante su desarrollo consumen parte del embrión de la bellota, por lo que ésta pierde peso y calidad, cualidades que son importantes tanto pa...

  18. Have stump piles any effect on the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L. incidence and seedling damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tree stumps are being increasingly used for bioenergy purposes, which may have significant effects on pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L. populations and the level of damage they can cause to seedlings. Pine weevils are attracted by the smell of fresh stumps in clear-cut areas, and have been shown to cause serious damage to planted coniferous seedlings in European forests. This study was conducted to measure the incidence of pine weevil and damage caused to Norway spruce (Picea abies seedlings in a field experiment including single stump pile plots (SSP, multiple stump pile plots (MSP and control plots in North Karelia, Finland. Pine weevils were significantly more abundant in MSP stump plots (22% higher than in SSP plots, and are 23% more abundant compared to the control plots. The extent of seedling damage was significantly lower in the SSP (by 67% and MSP plots (by 58% than in the controls. Seedlings damage increased significantly with the distance from the stump pile. Stump harvesting practices should be updated and, in particular, multiple stump piles should be avoided in the clearcut area. However, future studies will be required to explore the environmental and physical factors in the stump-removal area influencing pine weevil abundance.

  19. Consequences of habitat fragmentation for the prairie-endemic weevil Haplorhynchites aeneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Emily C; Berlocher, Stewart H; Tooker, John F; Hanks, Lawrence M

    2011-12-01

    Widespread destruction of tallgrass prairies in the midwestern United States has fragmented plant communities with the result that populations of endemic animal species have become geographically isolated from one another. The goal of the research summarized here was to evaluate the potential for conserving endemic prairie species of herbivorous insects by managing their host plants. Our study species was the weevil Haplorhynchites aeneus (Boehman), adults of which feed on pollen of plants in the genus Silphium (Asteraceae: Heliantheae). The female weevils clip the peduncles of flower heads and oviposit into the heads, where the larvae feed on the ovules. The research was conducted in 12 prairie sites in eastern Illinois. An allozyme analysis revealed that most populations of H. aeneus at the various prairie sites were genetically differentiated from one another, but the degree of differentiation was not associated with geographic distance between sites. Adult H. aeneus fed and oviposited on the plant species Silphium laciniatum L., S. integrifolium Michx., and S. terebinthinaceum Jacq, which differ in bloom phenology. There was no evidence of genetic differentiation of weevil populations with respect to host plant species, and adult weevils strongly preferred S. terebinthinaceum. We conclude that the oligophagous nature of the weevil assures its survival in small prairie remnants even where some of the host plant species are absent. Although H. aeneus can have a significant impact on reproduction of host plants by clipping flower heads, the perennial nature of Silphium species prevents their local extinction.

  20. RESPUESTAS MORFOGÉNICAS EN LA PROPAGACIÓN in vitro DE NOGAL PECANERO (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh] K. Koch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmín A. Ávila-Treviño

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Las respuestas embriogénicas y organogénicas en nogal (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh] K. Koch se observaron bajo el cultivo in vitro de segmentos de hojas, yemas axilares y embriones cigóti- cos. El necrosamiento se controló empleando carbón activado (CA: 1 %, polivinilpirrolidona (0.1 %, nitrato de plata (AgNO3: 1 %, ácido cítrico (150 mg·L-1 y ácido ascórbico (100 mg·L-1, con presencia de luz y en oscuridad. Se utilizó el medio básico de Murashige y Skoog suplementado con 0.40 mg·L-1 de tiamina, 100 mg·L-1 de myo-inositol, 3 % de sacarosa, incorporando 2,4-D para hojas, tidiazurón (TDZ para embriones, y las combinaciones de benciladenina (BA, kinetina (KIN, ácido naftalenacético (ANA y ácido indolbutírico (AIB para yemas axilares. El necrosamiento de tejidos se redujo en 75 % y 83 % adicionando CA y AgNO3, respectivamente. El 33 % y 66 % de los callos embriogénicos se indujeron a partir de hojas, utilizando 1 y 3 mg·L-1 de 2,4-D. La mayor producción de callos (58 % a partir de embriones se obtuvo con la concentración de 3 mg·L-1 de TDZ. En yemas axilares, la combinación de KIN (3.0 μM, BA (1.0 μM y AIB (0.3 μM incrementó el número de hojas y plántulas, y longitud de brotes.

  1. Flora and Fauna on Backs of Large Papuan Moss-Forest Weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gressitt, J L; Sedlacek, J; Szent-Ivany, J J

    1965-12-31

    Large, living, flightless weevils feeding on leaves of woody plants high moss forest on various New Guinea mountain ranges have plant growth on their backs. Fungi and algae have been found on 11 species of Gymnopholus, lichens on six species, and liverworts on one species. In other genera of weevils, on the same mountains, there are additional specific associations with fungi, algae, lichens, and liverworts. The fungi and lichens, at least, are inhabited by oribatid mites of a new family, which may spread the plants from beetle to beetle. Also, nematodes, rotifers, psocids, and diatoms occur among the plants. Specialized scales or hairs, and a secretion, in depressions on the weevils' backs, appear to be associated with cpcouragement of the plant growth. Mutualistic symbiotic relationships seem to be clearly indicated.

  2. Additive photonic colors in the Brazilian diamond weevil: entimus imperialis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, S.; Vigneron, J.-P.; Colomer, J.-F.; Vandenbem, C.; Deparis, O.

    2012-10-01

    Structurally colored nano-architectures found in living organisms are complex optical materials, giving rise to multiscale visual effects. In arthropods, these structures often consist of porous biopolymers and form natural photonic crystals. A signature of the structural origin of coloration in insects is iridescence, i.e., color changes with the viewing angle. In the scales located on the elytra of the Brazilian weevil Entimus imperialis (Curculionidae), three-dimensional photonic crystals are observed. On one hand, each of them interacts independently with light, producing a single color which is observed by optical microscopy and ranges from blue to orange. On the other hand, the color perceived by the naked eye is due to multi-length-scale light effects involving different orientations of a single photonic crystal. This disorder in crystal orientations alters the light propagation in such a way that the crystal iridescence is removed. Entimus imperialis is therefore a remarkable example of additive photonic colors produced by a complex multi-scale organic architecture. In order to study this specific natural photonic structure, electron microscopy is used. The structure turns out to be formed of a single type of photonic crystal with different orientations within each scale on the elytra. Our modeling approach takes into account the disorder in the photonic crystals and explains why the structure displays bright colors at the level of individual scales and a non-iridescent green color in the far-field.

  3. Wireless sensor network based on UAV for weevils surveillance in Saudí Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Donadios Garriga, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Red Palm Weevil o Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is an invasive spice that had become a catastrophic plague for lots of palm trees in Saudi Arabia, but all around the world too. Nowadays, the surveillance of the plague is done using tramps placed near the palm trees, and one person comes to the tramp and counts manually the number of weevils into the tramp. This project is aimed to improve the actual surveillance method. To realize it we have been created a Wireless Sensor Network and differen...

  4. Root weevils of artificial forests in Ukraine steppe area (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cleonini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volovnik S. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven species of root weevils (Cleonini: were found in man-made forests in the steppe of Ukraine. They are Asproparthenis punctiventris, Bothynoderes affinis, Bothynoderes declivis, Cleonis pigra, Cyphocleonus dealbatus, Pachycerus segnis, Temnorhinus strabus. All these species were registered in open habitats, namely forest borders, glades, sides of the roads, slopes, and connected with plants from Asteraceae, Chenopodiacea, Boraginaceae. If beet plantations situated near artificial forests then A. punctiventris, B. affinis, B. declivis could damage them in case of mass reproduction. C.dealbatus is a potential pest of the ornamental camoniles. Literary data as to real damage caused to artificial forests by root weevils need to be proved.

  5. Efficacy of rice husk ash against rice weevil and lesser grain borer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine efficacy of RHA from “Mr. Harry” rice variety against Rhyzopertha dominica and Sitophilus oryzae. Low (RHAL) and high (RHAH) application rates of RHA, corresponding to 0.5 and 1 g kg-1, respectively, were evaluated against both weevils on wheat. Insecto®, a commercial DE, ...

  6. Studies on food preferences of maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. to different crops in Chitwan, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheela Devi Sharma

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Food preference by the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky was studied on seven different crops and varieties including maize, wheat and rice. They were maize cultivars namely Arun-2, Manakamana-4, Deuti, buckwheat local cultivar, wheat cultivar namely Annapurna-1, polished rice-Radha 4 and unshelled rice cultivar Mansuli under storage condition at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal from June 2013 to February 2014 . The hosts were tested using completely randomized design with three replications and were laid in free-choice and no-choice conditions. The maximum number of grain loss was recorded in wheat followed by polished rice respectively. Similarly, the highest weight loss was recorded in polished rice followed by Wheat in both conditions. F1 progeny emergence of weevil was highest in wheat followed by polished rice in free-choice and in no choice conditions, the highest progeny were emerged from polished rice followed by wheat. The lowest numbers of weevils emerged from rice in both conditions. Maximum germination losses were recorded in wheat (24.33% and lowest in Arun-2 (9.67. The rice showed a relatively higher preference to maize weevil under storage condition.

  7. Diapause in the Boll Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): Seasonal Occurrence in Mississippi Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terence L. Wagner; Eric J. Villavaso

    1999-01-01

    This study examines the diapause response among boll weevils collected as immatures in squares at different times of the summer and held under simulated field photoperiods and temperatures of northern Mississippi. The percentage of adults exhibiting prediapause increased seasonally, starting with the 1st generation in July and achieving a maximal rate of 96.7% late in...

  8. Starvation-induced morphological responses of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Status of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, as a pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the United States has diminished because of progress by eradication programs. However, this pest remains of critical importance in South America, and intractable populations in extreme South Texas ...

  9. Host plant odours enhance the responses of adult banana weevil to the synthetic aggregation pheromone Cosmolure+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2007-01-01

    Attraction of adult banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus to volatiles from banana pseudostem tissue and the synthetic pheromone Cosmolure+ presented singly or in combination, was studied in the laboratory and in the field. Olfactometric studies in the laboratory showed that 50 g of fermented banana

  10. Weevils of the genus Ceutorhynchus Germ associated with oilseed rape in northern Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sivčev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Our research of the genus Ceutorhynchus associated with oilseed rape was conducted in northern parts of Serbia (Stari Žednik, Subotica. A specific assemblage of eight weevil species was found. The most numerous were stem weevils Ceutorhynchus napi with 81% of all trapped specimens, followed by C. pallidactylus with 18%. The remaining six weevil specimens were C. obstrictus, C.erysimi, C. minutus, C. picitarsis, C. sulcicollis and C. typhae, comprising 1% of all trapped insects. Stem weevils C. napi and C. pallidactylus began to immigrate into the oilseed rape fields in autumn, as early as November 10 (BBCH 17-18. The maximum flight was recorded at the beginning of oilseed rape stem elongation (BBCH 22-25 on March 23. A new generation of C. pallidactylus emerged from oilseed rape fields in June (BBCH 76-88, while individual specimens occurred during the autumn. The majority of C. napi emerged in March next year, sporadically until May 7. As a consequence of C. napi dominance insecticide treatment should be performed earlier than usual, i.e. when C. pallidactilus is the primary target.

  11. Dispersal of the cotton boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in South America: evidence of RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scataglini, M A; Confalonieri, V A; Lanteri, A A

    2000-01-01

    RAPD technique provides useful information on the geographic origin and dispersal of the boll weevil Anthonomus grandis in South America. Nine populations from Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Mexico and USA were analyzed. Weevils were captured on native plants (Misiones province, Argentina) and on cotton cultures, except the sample from the United States (USDA laboratory-reared colony). A sample of the 'Peruvian square weevil', A. vestitus, from Ecuador, was included in the analysis in order to compare interspecific variation. The four primers used in the analysis revealed 41 'anonymous loci'. The neighbor-joining tree based on Nei's distances and values of Nm (migrants per generation), indicate that genetic similarity between samples from Tecomán (Mexico) and Puerto Iguazú (Argentina), is higher than among remaining South American populations. This result supports an hypothesis of natural occurrence of the boll weevil in South America, prior to extensive cotton cultivation. Population outbreaks of the species would be associated with increase of agricultural lands.

  12. Genetics of resistance to stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Zunjare

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stored grain weevil (Sitophilus oryzae has emerged as important storage grain pest of maize, causing substantial economic losses. Owing to high costs and environmental hazards of pesticides, host plant resistance holds promise for effective control of weevils. In the present study, a set of experimental maize hybrids generated using line × tester mating design were evaluated against S. oryzae. Significant variation for grain weight loss (GWL (6.0–49.1%, number of insect progeny emerged (NIP (17.8–203.3, grain hardness (GH (263.1–495.4 N, and pericarp thickness (PT (60.3–161.0 μm was observed. Strong positive association was observed between GWL and NIP. GH and PT did not show any correlation with GWL and NIP. Additive and non-additive gene actions were important for both GWL and NIP. Promising inbreds and experimental crosses identified can be effectively utilized in the resistance breeding programme. In majority of promising crosses having desirable SCA effects, one of the parents had desirable GCA effects, indicating that selection of inbred parents based on per se performance for generating resistant crosses may be possible. The commercial hybrid checks were highly susceptible compared to experimental hybrids. The inbreds and experimental hybrids identified hold promise in developing weevil resistant maize cultivars offering sustainable solution to management of weevils in maize.

  13. Host plant preference and performance of the vine weevil Otiorhynchus sulcatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Dijk, van N.; Sabelis, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    1. The relationship between reproductive performance and preference for potential host plants of the vine weevil is investigated, as shown in tests on contact (or feeding) preference, presented herein, and tests on olfactory preference, published elsewhere. 2. Assessment of reproductive performance

  14. Olfactory antennal responses of the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus) to plant volatiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Visser, J.H.

    2002-01-01

    Electroantennograms (EAGs) were recorded from the vine weevil, Otiorhynchus sulcatus F. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to a broad range of volatile plant compounds. The response profile is restricted to a small number of volatiles that evoke substantial EAGs. Large EAG responses were particularly found

  15. Radio Frequency Heat Treatments to Disinfest Dried Pulses of Cowpea Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explore the potential of radio frequency (RF) heat treatments as an alternative to chemical fumigants for disinfestation of dried pulses, the relative heat tolerance and dielectric properties of different stages of the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus) was determined. Among the immature st...

  16. Phylogeography of specialist weevil Trichobaris soror: a seed predator of Datura stramonium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-la-Mora, Marisol; Piñero, Daniel; Núñez-Farfán, Juan

    2015-12-01

    Can the genetic structure of a specialist weevil be explained by the geological history of their distribution zone? We analyze the genetic variation of the weevil Trichobaris soror, a specialist seed predator of Datura stramonium, in order to address this question. For the phylogeographic analysis we used the COI gene, and assessed species identity in weevil populations through geometric morphometric approach. In total, we found 53 haplotypes in 413 samples, whose genetic variation supports the formation of three groups: (1) the Transmexican Volcanic Belt (TVB group), (2) the Sierra Madre Sur (SMS group) and (3) the Balsas Basin (BB group). The morphometric analysis suggests that BB group is probably not T. soror. Our results have two implications: first, the phylogeographic pattern of T. soror is explained by both the formation of the geological provinces where it is currently distributed and the coevolution with its host plant, because the TVB and SMS groups could be separated due to the discontinuity of altitude between the geological provinces, but the recent population expansion of TVB group and the high frequency of only one haplotype can be due to specialization to the host plant. Second, we report a new record of a different species of weevil in BB group parasitizing D. stramonium fruits.

  17. Effect of crop sanitation on banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) populations and associated damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.

    2003-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious pest of bananas. However, its ecology is not well elucidated especially in East Africa where plantations are up to 50 years old and are under various management and cropping systems. No single

  18. Attractant compositions for weevils of the genus Otiorhynchus and uses thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruck, D.J.; Tol, van R.W.H.M.; Griepink, F.C.

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to formulations of volatile organic compounds having effects on Otiorhynchus weevils e.g., Otiorhynchus sulcatus. In some embodiments, volatile organic compounds selected from (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-2-pentenol, methyl eugenol and a combination thereof are effective for

  19. Sensitivity of the quarantine pest rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus to postharvest irradiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus (Olivier), is a new quarantine pest of Hawaii sweetpotatoes. Currently, sweetpotatoes can be exported from Hawaii to the U.S. mainland using a postharvest irradiation treatment of 150 Gy to control three other regulated insect pests. Studies were conducted...

  20. New initiatives for managment of red palm weevil threats to historical Arabian date palms

    Science.gov (United States)

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil(RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of inf...

  1. Improving Cry8Ka toxin activity towards the cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomes José E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis is a serious insect-pest in the Americas, particularly in Brazil. The use of chemical or biological insect control is not effective against the cotton boll weevil because of its endophytic life style. Therefore, the use of biotechnological tools to produce insect-resistant transgenic plants represents an important strategy to reduce the damage to cotton plants caused by the boll weevil. The present study focuses on the identification of novel molecules that show improved toxicity against the cotton boll weevil. In vitro directed molecular evolution through DNA shuffling and phage display screening was applied to enhance the insecticidal activity of variants of the Cry8Ka1 protein of Bacillus thuringiensis. Results Bioassays carried out with A. grandis larvae revealed that the LC50 of the screened mutant Cry8Ka5 toxin was 3.15-fold higher than the wild-type Cry8Ka1 toxin. Homology modelling of Cry8Ka1 and the Cry8Ka5 mutant suggested that both proteins retained the typical three-domain Cry family structure. The mutated residues were located mostly in loops and appeared unlikely to interfere with molecular stability. Conclusions The improved toxicity of the Cry8Ka5 mutant obtained in this study will allow the generation of a transgenic cotton event with improved potential to control A. grandis.

  2. Pre-dispersal strategies by Quercus schottkyana to mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Harrower, William L; Turkington, Roy; Tan, Hong-Yu; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2016-11-22

    We investigated how pre-dispersal strategies may mitigate the effects of weevil infestation of acorns in a population of Quercus schottkyana, a dominant oak in Asian evergreen broad-leaved forests, and assess if weevil infestation contributes to low seedling recruitment. We counted the number of acorns produced, daily from the end of August to mid-late November for 9 years from 2006-2014. We also recorded the rate of acorn infestation by weevils and acorn germination rates of weekly collections. Annual acorn production was variable, but particularly low in 2011 and 2013. There was no trade-off between acorn production and acorn dry mass. However, acorns produced later in the season were significantly heavier. For most years: (i) the rate of weevil infestation was negatively density dependent (a greater proportion of acorns died with increased acorn density), (ii) the percentage germination of acorns was positively density dependent (proportionately more acorns germinated with increased density), and (iii) as the season progressed, the percentage of infested acorns declined while germination rates increased. Finally, (iv) maximum acorn production, percentage infestation and percentage germination were asynchronous. Although pre-dispersal mortality is important it is unlikely to be the primary factor leading to low recruitment of oak seedlings.

  3. On-farm management practices against rice root weevil (Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Pandey

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice is the staple food of over half the world's population and occupies almost one-fifth of the global cropland under cereals. The rice root weevil, Echinocnemus oryzae Marshall, (Coleoptera: Curculionidae has posed a problem in paddy cultivation areas in India. The damage by this root weevil results in a significant decrease in root and shoot biomass and ultimately the yield of rice plants. Studies were conducted to test the effective management practices of rice root weevil using a seedling treatment with chlorpyriphos alone and in combination with a soil application of chlorpyriphos, fipronil and cartap hydrochloride during 2013 and 2014. The benefit:cost (B:C ratio was also determined from the marketable yield and cost of treatments incurred in the technology to justify the economic viability of the appropriate technology management against E. oryzae. Reductions in tillers/hill (35.2% and 26.27% and, in panicles/hill (44.0% and 31.96% were observed during 2013 and 2014, respectively. The least number of root weevils (3.67 and 3.13 were observed in comparison to no root weevil management practice (23.53 and 32.53 during 2013 and 2014, respectively, from the treatment of seedlings prior to transplanting with chlorpyriphos at 3 mL/L of water followed by soil application with cartap hydrochloride at 20 kg/ha. The highest numbers of tillers/hill (25.00 and 23.60, numbers of panicles/hill (20.00 and 19.40, yield (5.41 t/ha and 4.57 t/ha and B:C ratio (1.75 and 1.48 were also observed from the same treatment during 2013 and 2014, respectively.

  4. Feasibility study on estimation of rice weevil quantity in rice stock using near-infrared spectroscopy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puttinun Jarruwat

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thai rice is favored by large numbers of consumers of all continents because of its excellent taste, fragrant aroma and fine texture. Among all Thai rice varieties, Thai Hommali rice is the most preferred. Classification of rice as premium quality requires that almost all grain kernels of the rice be perfectly whole with only a small quantity of foreign particles. Of all the foreign particles found in rice, rice weevils can wreck severest havoc on the quality and quantity of rice such that premium grade rice is transformed into low grade rice. It is widely known that rice millers adopt the "overdose" fumigation practice to control the birth and propagation of rice weevils, the practice of which inevitably gives rise to pesticide residues on rice which end up in the body of consumers. However, if population concentration of rice weevils could be approximated, right amounts of chemicals for fumigation would be applied and thereby no overdose is required. The objective of this study is thus to estimate the quantity of rice weevils in both milled rice and brown rice of Thai Hommali rice variety using the near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS technique. Fourier transforms near infrared (FT-NIR spectrometer was used in this research and the near-infrared wavelength range was 780–2500 nm. A total of 20 levels of rice weevil infestation with an increment of 10 from 10 to 200 mature rice weevils were applied to 1680 rice samples. The spectral data and quantity of weevils are analyzed by partial least square regression (PLSR to establish the model for prediction. The results show that the model is able to estimate the quantity of weevils in milled Hommali rice and brown Hommali rice with high $R_{\\rm val}^{2}$ of 0.96 and 0.90, high RPD of 6.07 and 3.26 and small bias of 2.93 and 2.94, respectively.

  5. Evaluation of the efficacy of Steinernema carpocapsae against the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in Phoenix canariensis

    OpenAIRE

    Llácer, Elena; Martínez de Altube, María del Mar; Jacas Miret, Josep Anton

    2009-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), is an important pest of palms. It has recently colonized the Mediterranean Basin, where it is a serious problem on ornamental Phoenix canariensis (Chabaud) palms. The efficacy of Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) in a chitosan formulation (Biorend R®) against this weevil in a semi-field trial including both preventative and curative assays has been studied. Our results prove the p...

  6. Crop vulnerability: Carya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long established native tree populations reflect local adaptations. Representation of diverse populations in accessible ex situ collections that link information on phenotypic expression to information on spatial and temporal origination is the most efficient means of preserving and exploring genet...

  7. Interception of weevils on cut flowers from South Africa by Korea plant quarantine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonhoon Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, a total of 31 samples belonging to superfamily Curculionoidea (Coleoptera were intercepted from the cut flowers imported from South Africa at the Korean quarantine border. These samples were identified based on the available literature, and they were confirmed as 11 species belonging to four families. However, only three species were identified at the species level. The others were only classified into seven genera and one tribe level. Until now, there have been very few studies about weevils distributed in Africa. Consequently, there is a lack of available information for species identification of intercepted weevils at the quarantine border. This study aims to raise public awareness regarding the introduction of unwanted insect pests from the international trade of plants and/or plant products. It also suggests the need for international cooperation and taxonomic networking for the identification of intercepted pests. Keywords: Curculionoidea, cut flower, interception, plant quarantine, taxonomic networking system

  8. Resistance of maize to the maize weevil: II. Non-preference | Derera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The maize weevil preferred 'SR52', a local commercial hybrid that we used as the susceptible check (6.62% weight loss), and other local hybrids (6.02 to 6.80% weight loss), to 'Oaxaca 179' (the resistant check), which incurred a weight loss of 3.50%. Four percent of the experimental hybrids incurred less than 2.0% grain ...

  9. Uninjured trees - a meaningful guide to white-pine weevil control decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William E. Waters

    1962-01-01

    The white-pine weevil, Pissodes strobi, is a particularly insidious forest pest that can render a stand of host trees virtually worthless. It rarely, if ever, kills a tree; but the crooks, forks, and internal defects that develop in attacked trees over a period of years may reduce the merchantable volume and value of the tree at harvest age to zero. Dollar losses are...

  10. Diaprepes root weevil, a new California pest, will raise costs for pest control and trigger quarantines

    OpenAIRE

    Jetter, Karen M.; Godfrey, Kris

    2009-01-01

    This study presents an economic analysis of cost increases for citrus, avocado and nursery producers should the Diaprepes root weevil become established in California. First identified in Southern California in 2005, Diaprepres would mainly affect orange, grapefruit, lemon and avocado crops. The primary impacts would be increased production costs for pest treatments and increased harvesting costs to conform to quarantine regulations, in particular to ship ornamental plants out of infested reg...

  11. Olfactory cues are subordinate to visual stimuli in a neotropical generalist weevil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Otálora-Luna

    Full Text Available The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects.

  12. Explaining Andean potato weevils in relation to local and landscape features: a facilitated ecoinformatics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Parsa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pest impact on an agricultural field is jointly influenced by local and landscape features. Rarely, however, are these features studied together. The present study applies a "facilitated ecoinformatics" approach to jointly screen many local and landscape features of suspected importance to Andean potato weevils (Premnotrypes spp., the most serious pests of potatoes in the high Andes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated a comprehensive list of predictors of weevil damage, including both local and landscape features deemed important by farmers and researchers. To test their importance, we assembled an observational dataset measuring these features across 138 randomly-selected potato fields in Huancavelica, Peru. Data for local features were generated primarily by participating farmers who were trained to maintain records of their management operations. An information theoretic approach to modeling the data resulted in 131,071 models, the best of which explained 40.2-46.4% of the observed variance in infestations. The best model considering both local and landscape features strongly outperformed the best models considering them in isolation. Multi-model inferences confirmed many, but not all of the expected patterns, and suggested gaps in local knowledge for Andean potato weevils. The most important predictors were the field's perimeter-to-area ratio, the number of nearby potato storage units, the amount of potatoes planted in close proximity to the field, and the number of insecticide treatments made early in the season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results underscored the need to refine the timing of insecticide applications and to explore adjustments in potato hilling as potential control tactics for Andean weevils. We believe our study illustrates the potential of ecoinformatics research to help streamline IPM learning in agricultural learning collaboratives.

  13. Bioactivity of short-chain aliphatic ketones against adults of the granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio; Rotundo, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    The granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius (L.), is one of the most damaging pests of stored grains, causing severe quantitative and qualitative losses. Sustainable control means, alternative to the commonly used fumigants and broad-spectrum contact insecticides, are urgently needed owing to legislative limits, the development of resistant insect strains and increasing consumer demand for safe food. Short-chain aliphatic ketones, known to be emitted by cereal grains and previously identified as repellents to adult granary weevils, were evaluated for their ability to disrupt insect orientation towards wheat grains and as possible natural fumigants. In behavioural bioassays, 2-pentanone, 2-hexanone, 2-heptanone and 2,3-butanedione significantly reduced insect orientation towards odours of wheat grains, with 2-hexanone and 2-heptanone being the most active. In fumigation tests, all compounds were effective in killing weevil adults, but they performed differently according to chemical structure, speed of action and presence of wheat grains. In the presence of grains, the highest fumigant toxicity was shown by 2-pentanone (LC(50) = 8.4 ± 1.0 mg L(-1)) after 24 h exposure, and by 2-pentanone (LC(50) = 4.5 ± 0.3 mg L(-1)), 2-heptanone (LC(50) = 7.1 ± 0.3 mg L(-1) ) and 2-hexanone (LC(50) = 8.1 ± 0.6 mg L(-1)) 1 week after the treatment end. Short-chain aliphatic ketones have potential for applications in IPM programmes for the granary weevil because of their behaviour-altering activity and fumigant toxicity. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Field evaluation of Bt cotton crop impact on nontarget pests: cotton aphid and boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujii, E R; Togni, P H B; de A Ribeiro, P; de A Bernardes, T; Milane, P V G N; Paula, D P; Pires, C S S; Fontes, E M G

    2013-02-01

    Bt cotton plants expressing Cry1Ac protein have high specificity for the control of lepidopteran larvae. However, studies conducted in several countries have shown these plants have a differential impact on nontarget herbivores. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization rates and population abundance of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in plots of Bt (Nuopal) and non-Bt cotton (Delta Opal) in an experimental field in Brasilia, DF, Brazil. No difference was observed in the preference and colonization by winged aphids to plants from the two treatments. There was no significant difference in abundance of wingless aphids or in the production of winged aphids between treatments. Apparently, the parameters that control factors such as fecundity, survival, and dispersal were similar on both Bt and non-Bt plants. Monitoring of plants for coccinellids, a specialist predator of aphids, and ants that act on the dispersal of aphids among plants showed no significant difference between Bt and non-Bt plants, supporting the inference above. Regarding the effect on boll weevil, there was also no significant difference between treatments in the total number of fruiting structures attacked in each plot, the percentage of fruiting structures attacked per plant or on the number of weevils emerging from fruits with boll weevil damage from egg-laying, when damaged fruit samples were held in the laboratory. Based on these results, we conclude that there is no impact of Bt cotton crop expressing Cry1Ac on the nontarget herbivores tested under field conditions.

  15. Multi-trophic effects of ungulate intraguild predation on acorn weevils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, Raúl; Muñoz, Alberto

    2007-06-01

    Predators and parasitoids may contribute to controlling the population sizes of phytophagous insects, and this has been shown to benefit plants. Phytophagous insects may also be killed by other herbivores (intraguild predation), usually larger-sized vertebrates that ingest insects accidentally while feeding on common food sources. We studied the intraguild predation on acorn weevils by ungulates and assessed the consequences for weevil populations. Infested acorns are prematurely abscised and the weevil larvae finish their development inside the acorns after being dropped. Our results show that weevil larvae were killed by ungulates eating the infested acorns on the ground. Ungulates did not discriminate between infested and sound acorns, and the probability of a larva being incidentally eaten was inversely related to acorn availability. Thus, predation risk was enhanced by the premature drop of infested acorns when acorn availability on the ground was low. Predation rates on infested acorns were much higher where ungulates were present, and acorn infestation rates were significantly lower. However, ungulates did not provide the oaks any net benefit, since the reduction of infestation rates was not enough to compensate for the large amounts of sound acorns eaten by ungulates. Seed predation is usually studied as a progressive loss of seeds by pre- and post-dispersal predators, but the interactions between them are usually not considered. We show that intraguild predation on insects by large ungulates had an effect on the structure of the foraging guild, as the proportion of acorns predated by insects decreased; however, replicating the same experimental design in different ecological scenarios would increase the strength of these results. In conclusion, the present study shows the importance of considering the multi-trophic interactions between seed predators in order to have a complete picture of granivory.

  16. Biochemical properties of digestive carbohydrases from the sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Ahsaei

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet weevil, Lixus incanescens B., is one of the most important pests of sugar beet plant in Iran. The petioles and leaves of sugar beet are attacked by larvae and adults of the sugar beet weevil. Chemical application is currently used for controlling the pest. Digestion in the alimentary canal of the sugar beet weevil is facilitated by some carbohydrases. Results of the in vitro studies indicated the presence of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase in the digestive tract of the pest. Highest activities of alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase were at pH 5, pH 5 and pH 4, respectively. No significant alpha-glucosidase and alpha-galactosidase activity was detected in the pest's digestive system. Optimum temperatures for alpha-amylase, beta-glucosidase and beta-galactosidase activity were determined at 45, 50 and 40 oC, respectively. alpha-amylase was more stable under acidic condition (pH 4 to pH 6 than under highly acidic and alkaline condition. Na+ and K+ increased alpha-amylase activity, but sodium dodecyl sulfate significantly decreased amylase activity. Also, the activity of alpha-amylase was inhibited by the other compounds such as MgCl2, CaCl2 and EDTA. Zymogram analysis using native-PAGE revealed one band of alpha-amylase activity in Lixus incanescens. High activity of carbohydrases in the digestive system of adults was determined and further researches are needed to be applied to design new strategies for controlling the sugar beet weevil based on natural carbohydrase inhibitors.

  17. Olfactory Cues Are Subordinate to Visual Stimuli in a Neotropical Generalist Weevil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Lapointe, Stephen L.; Dickens, Joseph C.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical root weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus is a major pest of multiple crops in the Caribbean Islands and has become a serious constraint to citrus production in the United States. Recent work has identified host and conspecific volatiles that mediate host- and mate-finding by D. abbreviatus. The interaction of light, color, and odors has not been studied in this species. The responses of male and female D. abbreviatus to narrow bandwidths of visible light emitted by LEDs offered alone and in combination with olfactory stimuli were studied in a specially-designed multiple choice arena combined with a locomotion compensator. Weevils were more attracted to wavelengths close to green and yellow compared with blue or ultraviolet, but preferred red and darkness over green. Additionally, dim green light was preferred over brighter green. Adult weevils were also attracted to the odor of its citrus host + conspecifics. However, the attractiveness of citrus + conspecific odors disappeared in the presence of a green light. Photic stimulation induced males but not females to increase their speed. In the presence of light emitted by LEDs, turning speed decreased and path straightness increased, indicating that weevils tended to walk less tortuously. Diaprepes abbreviatus showed a hierarchy between chemo- and photo-taxis in the series of experiments presented herein, where the presence of the green light abolished upwind anemotaxis elicited by the pheromone + host plant odor. Insight into the strong responses to visual stimuli of chemically stimulated insects may be provided when the amount of information supplied by vision and olfaction is compared, as the information transmission capacity of compound eyes is estimated to be several orders of magnitude higher compared with the olfactory system. Subordination of olfactory responses by photic stimuli should be considered in the design of strategies aimed at management of such insects. PMID:23341926

  18. Genetic, ecological, behavioral and geographic differentiation of populations in a thistle weevil: implications for speciation and biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Isabelle; Singer, Michael C; Magalhães, Sara; Courtiol, Alexandre; Dubois, Yvain; Carbonell, David; Justy, Fabienne; Beldade, Patrícia; Parmesan, Camille; Michalakis, Yannis

    2008-02-01

    Because weevils are used as biocontrol agents against thistles, it is important to document and understand host shifts and the evolution of host-specificity in these insects. Furthermore, such host shifts are of fundamental interest to mechanisms of speciation. The mediterranean weevil Larinus cynarae normally parasitizes either one of two thistle genera, Onopordum and Cynara, being locally monophagous. In Sardinia, however, both host genera are used. We used three types of data to help understand this complex host use: (i) weevil attack rates on the two host genera among 53 different populations in Sardinia and nearby Corsica, (ii) host preference in a lab setting, and (iii) genetic (allozyme) differentiation among weevil populations exploiting the same or different hosts. Using a subset of populations from northern Sardinia, we attempted to relate interpopulation differences in host preference to gene flow among populations by comparing pairwise differences in oviposition preference (Qst) and in allozyme frequencies (Fst). Overall, Qst and Fst were positively correlated. Fst was positively correlated with geographic distance among pairs of populations using the same host, but not among different-host population pairs. As mating occurs on the hosts, this result suggests reinforcement. Genetic evidence indicates Cynara as the ancestral host of the weevils from both islands and our current studies suggest repeated attempts to colonize Onopordum, with a successful shift in Corsica and a partial shift in Sardinia. This scenario would explain why in Sardinia the level of attack was higher on Cynara than on Onopordum and why, when given a choice in the laboratory, Sardinian weevils preferred Cynara even when sampled from Onopordum. The lability of host shifts in L. cynarae supports caution in using these or related weevils as biocontrol agents of exotic thistles.

  19. THE USE OF GRIGNARD REAGENT IN PHEROMONE SYNTHESIS FOR PALM WEEVIL (Rhynchorus, Sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsito Warsito

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In an integrated controlling system of palm weevil, using of synthetic feromoid is strickly needed. The research is aimed to synthesize pheromone which secreted by the weevil, e.g. 4-methyl-5-nonanol (R. ferrugineus and 3-methyl-4-octanol (R. schach through Grignard reagent which formed in situ. The synthesis was proceded by retrosynthesis to determine the precursor, valeraldehyde. The precursor was reacted with Grignard reagent of sec-amyl magnesium bromide (R. ferrugenieus and sec-butyl magnesium bromide (R. shach which made in situ. Characterization of the synthetic molecular pheromone was performed by Gas Chromatography-mass spectroscopy and Fourier Transformed Infra Red. The bioassay of the molecule was carried out by olfactometer. The result showed that the conversion of the reactions were 51.28% (4-methyl-5-nonanol and 85.90% (3-methyl-4-octanol. The character of physico-chemical and bioactivity of the synthetic pheromone are identic with natural pheromones.   Keywords: palm weevil, pheromone, grignard reagent

  20. Genetical genomics identifies the genetic architecture for growth and weevil resistance in spruce.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilga Porth

    Full Text Available In plants, relationships between resistance to herbivorous insect pests and growth are typically controlled by complex interactions between genetically correlated traits. These relationships often result in tradeoffs in phenotypic expression. In this study we used genetical genomics to elucidate genetic relationships between tree growth and resistance to white pine terminal weevil (Pissodes strobi Peck. in a pedigree population of interior spruce (Picea glauca, P. engelmannii and their hybrids that was growing at Vernon, B.C. and segregating for weevil resistance. Genetical genomics uses genetic perturbations caused by allelic segregation in pedigrees to co-locate quantitative trait loci (QTLs for gene expression and quantitative traits. Bark tissue of apical leaders from 188 trees was assayed for gene expression using a 21.8K spruce EST-spotted microarray; the same individuals were genotyped for 384 SNP markers for the genetic map. Many of the expression QTLs (eQTL co-localized with resistance trait QTLs. For a composite resistance phenotype of six attack and oviposition traits, 149 positional candidate genes were identified. Resistance and growth QTLs also overlapped with eQTL hotspots along the genome suggesting that: 1 genetic pleiotropy of resistance and growth traits in interior spruce was substantial, and 2 master regulatory genes were important for weevil resistance in spruce. These results will enable future work on functional genetic studies of insect resistance in spruce, and provide valuable information about candidate genes for genetic improvement of spruce.

  1. Effects of the diet on the microbiota of the red palm weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Montagna

    Full Text Available Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  2. Steinernematids and Heterorhabditids as Biological Control Agents for Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus Oliv.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Hanounik

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical insecticides have long, been considered as the primary method or insect control, but their use has been associated with suppression of non-target species, emergence of resistant strains, contamination of food crops and water. These concerns enhanced the enforcement of strict governmental regulations which limited the use of such chemicals and stimulated the search for alternative biological control methods. Entomopathogenic nematodes in the families Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae received a considerable attention. These nematodes seek and rapidly kill a wide range of insects, including the red palm weevil. They are safe to plants and mammals, exempt from registration requirements, easy to apply by sprayers or drip irrigation systems and compatible with many chemicals. Application of genetically enhanced strains of Steinemematids and Heterorhahditids to larvae of red palm weevils resulted in 95 – 100% mortalities in the laboratory and 50% in the field. Additional work is needed to improve virulence, mass production technologies, tolerance to adverse conditions, formulations, and release strategies of entomopathogenic nematodes before they can be commercialized as biological control agents for red palm weevils and other cryptic insects attacking aerial plant parts in the region.

  3. EFFECT OF FENNEL WATER EXTRACTS ON REDUCTION OF FEEDING OF PEA LEAF WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the effect of aqueous extracts from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seeds at 2%, 5%, 10% and 20% concentrations on the feeding of peal leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L. on broad bean (Vicia faba L.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Feeding intensity assessment was conducted by dipping leaves of broad bean in respective solutions of the extracts and determining the area of broad bean leaves, eaten by pea leaf weevil beetle in the 12 hour intervals. In addition, absolute deterrence index and palatability index were calculated. As a result of the observation no significant limiting effect of fennel seed aqueous extracts on the feeding of the pea leaf weevil females was shown. All of the used fennel extracts had inhibitory effect on the feeding of male S. linetaus and the strongest effect of extracts was observed in the first 36 hours of the experiment. The high values of the palatability index (particularly for the females with relatively low absolute deterrence index, indicate limited possibilities of the use of aqueous extracts from fennel seeds for the protection against the feeding of the beetles from the genus Sitona.

  4. Classification of weevils as a data-driven science: leaving opinion behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjarte Jordal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Data and explicit taxonomic ranking criteria, which minimize taxonomic change, provide a scientific approach to modern taxonomy and classification. However, traditional practices of opinion-based taxonomy (i.e., mid-20th century evolutionary systematics, which lack explicit ranking and naming criteria, are still in practice despite phylogenetic evidence. This paper discusses a recent proposed reclassification of weevils that elevates bark and ambrosia beetles (Scolytinae and Platypodinae to the ranks of Family. We demonstrate that the proposed reclassification 1 is not supported by an evolutionary systematic justification because the apparently unique morphology of bark and ambrosia beetles is shared with other unrelated wood-boring weevil taxa; 2 introduces obvious paraphyly in weevil classification and hence violates good practices on maintaining an economy of taxonomic change; 3 is not supported by other taxonomic naming criteria, such as time banding. We recommend the abandonment of traditional practices of an opinion-based taxonomy, especially in light of available data and resulting phylogenies.

  5. Effects of the Diet on the Microbiota of the Red Palm Weevil (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae)

    KAUST Repository

    Montagna, Matteo

    2015-01-30

    Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, also known as the red palm weevil, is regarded as the major pest of palm trees. Although studies of the microbiota associated with this species have been performed in recent years, little attention has been dedicated to the influence of the diet in shaping the host bacterial community. Here, we investigated the influence of food sources (i.e. palm tissues vs apple based substrate) on the microbial diversity associated with RPW, which was compared with the microbiota associated with wild individuals of the sister species Rhynchophorus vulneratus. The bacterial characterization was performed using a culture independent approach, i.e. the 16S rRNA pyrotag, and a culture dependent approach for a subset of the samples, in order to obtain bacterial isolates from RPW tissues. The bacterial community appeared significantly influenced by diet. Proteobacteria resulted to be the most abundant clade and was present in all the specimens of the three examined weevil groups. Within Proteobacteria, Enterobacteriaceae were identified in all the organs analysed, including hemolymph and reproductive organs. The apple-fed RPWs and the wild R. vulneratus showed a second dominant taxon within Firmicutes that was scarcely present in the microbiota associated with palm-fed RPWs. A comparative analysis on the bacteria associated with the palm tissues highlighted that 12 bacterial genera out of the 13 identified in the plant tissues were also present in weevils, thus indicating that palm tissues may present a source for bacterial acquisition.

  6. Damage by the Sitka spruce weevil (Pissodes strobi) and growth patterns for 10 spruce species and hybrids over 26 years in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russel G. Mitchell; Kenneth H. Wright; Norman E. Johnson

    1990-01-01

    Ten species and hybrids of spruce (Picea spp.) were planted and observed annually for 26 years at three coastal locations in Oregon and Washington to evaluate growth rates and susceptibility to the Sitka spruce weevil (= white pine weevil), Pissodes strobi The 10 spruce were: Sitka spruce, Norway spruce, Lutz spruce, black...

  7. Molecular and morphological tools to distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838: a new weevil pest of the endangered Eggers Agave from St Croix, US Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agave Snout Weevil (ASW) or Sisal Weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, is one of the most destructive pests of agave plants, capable of destroying up to 70% of commercial crops, costing millions of dollars in damage to global industries including tequila, mezcal, perfume, henequen, nardo...

  8. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) response to and volitilization rates of grandlure when combined with varying doses of eugenol in the extended-life pheromone lure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll weevil extended-life pheromone lures, impregnated with 25 mg grandlure and 30 mg eugenol, are replacing standard pheromone lures (10 mg grandlure) in boll weevil eradication programs, to increase the changing interval from 2 weeks, to 3 or 4 weeks, which reduces labor and material costs. The a...

  9. Genetic Profiling to Determine Potential Origins of Boll Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Captured in a Texas Eradication Zone: Endemicity, Immigration, or Sabotage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five specimens of adult boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, were captured nearly simultaneously in pheromone traps clustered near Lubbock, TX, in the Southern High Plains/Caprock eradication zone in late summer 2006. No boll weevils had been captured in this zone or neighboring zones to the north earl...

  10. Influence of Rice Seeding Rate on Efficacies of Neonicotinoid and Anthranilic Diamide Seed Treatments against Rice Water Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hamm

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice in the U.S. is frequently seeded at low rates and treated before sowing with neonicotinoid or anthranilic diamide insecticides to target the rice water weevil. A previous study of the influence of seeding rate on rice water weevil densities showed an inverse relationship between seeding rates and immature weevil densities. This study investigated interactive effects of seeding rate and seed treatment on weevil densities and rice yields; in particular, experiments were designed to determine whether seed treatments were less effective at low seeding rates. Four experiments were conducted over three years by varying seeding rates of rice treated at constant per seed rates of insecticide. Larval suppression by chlorantraniliprole was superior to thiamethoxam or clothianidin, and infestations at low seeding rates were up to 47% higher than at high seeding rates. Little evidence was found for the hypothesis that seed treatments are less effective at low seeding rates; in only one of four experiments was the reduction in weevil densities by thiamethoxam greater at high than at low seeding rates. However, suppression of larvae by neonicotinoid seed treatments in plots seeded at low rates was generally poor, and caution must be exercised when using the neonicotioids at low seeding rates.

  11. Plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) adult mortality and associated fruit injury after exposure to field-aged insecticides on tart cherry branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2010-08-01

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were exposed to field-aged residues of thiamethoxam, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, indoxacarb, or azinphos-methyl on tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency. At 1, 3, 7, and 14 d postapplication, fruit were sampled for chemical residues, and bioassays were used to assess beetle mortality and plant tissue injury. Azinphos-methyl had lethal activity within 1 d of exposure at all postapplication intervals and significant fruit protection extended to 14 d postapplication. All of the neonicotinoids had lethal activity at 3 d posttreatment, with acetamiprid activity extending to 7 d. Antifeedant and oviposition deterrent effects were seen with thiamethoxam and thiacloprid; damage incidence was significantly reduced in the absence of significant beetle mortality or intoxication. Thiamethoxam and acetamiprid penetrated into leaf and fruit tissue and were detected in the interior tissues at 14 d postapplication, but interior thiacloprid residues were not detected after day 1. Indoxacarb provided some fruit protection out to 7 d postapplication, and 14-d-old residues intoxicated beetles, but the slow action of this compound allowed significant damage to occur before beetles were incapacitated. Indoxacarb was only detected as a surface residue after the first day postapplication. These data on the plant-insect-chemistry interactions will support use and management decisions as compounds with acute contact activity are phased out.

  12. The effect of short-range host odor stimuli on host fruit finding and feeding behavior of plum curculio adults (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkewich, S L; Prokopy, R J

    1993-04-01

    In laboratory assays, we investigated responses of female plum curculios (PCs),Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst), to host and nonhost fruit or leaf odor when PCs were crawling on experimental tree branchlets or twigs. In choice tests where test specimens were hung from the ends of a wooden crosspiece, PCs made significantly more visits to host plum fruit than to plum leaves, nonhost tomato fruit, wax models of plum fruit, or blanks (wire). In similar tests, PCs made significantly more visits to plum leaves compared to nonhost maple leaves or to blanks. PCs in test chambers that contained host or nonhost odor were significantly more prone to feed on wax plum models in the presence of odor from host fruit or host leaves compared to odor from nonhost fruit or leaves or a water blank. In choice tests offering alternating cluster types on an apple branchlet, PCs visited leaf clusters bearing a host apple fruit more than leaf clusters without a fruit. In tests to assay the distance at which PCs can detect an individual host fruit, PCs crawled from the central stem of an apple branchlet onto a side stem significantly more often when an apple fruit on a side stem was hung 2 cm from the central stem compared to 4 or 8 cm away. Our combined results suggest that PCs use host fruit odor to locate host fruit at close range.

  13. Systemic insecticides for control of black vine weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in container- and field-grown nursery crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Persad, Anand B

    2009-06-01

    Black vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), are serious pests of container- and field-grown nursery crops. Management programs usually target the larval stage in container-grown plants and the adults in field-grown plants. We tested several new systemic insecticides for efficacy against black vine weevil in container-grown Sedum spp. and field-grown Taxus spp. In 2006 and 2007, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and chlorantraniliprole were applied as surface drenches to containerized Sedum plants, and suppression of larval densities and adult feeding were evaluated. Sedum leaf bioassays were used to further examine the influence of clothianidin, dinotefuran, and chlorantraniliprole on adult feeding. In 2006, pots were infested with adult black vine weevil 1 d after treating, and in 2007 pots were infested 1 or 43 d after treating. All three insecticides significantly reduced the numbers of larvae in 2006, but not in 2007, because of low numbers of larvae in the untreated control plants. Dinotefuran and clothianidin reduced feeding by adult black vine weevil on containerized Sedum plants, resulting in more blossoms, fewer damaged leaves, and a lower percentage of leaves damaged compared with control plants. In bioassays with detached leaves, all three insecticides reduced feeding compared with control plants. Efficacy and timing of clothianidin, imidacloprid, and acephate soil drenches and imidacloprid and acephate soil injections were evaluated for black vine weevil control over a 1-yr period in field-grown Taxus plants. All insecticide treatments significantly reduced the numbers of larvae in field-grown Taxus plants compared with control plants; and all but the spring acephate drench improved the appearance of the Taxus (foliar rating) plants compared with untreated plants. All of the tested insecticides showed potential for preventing infestations of black vine weevil larvae and reducing feeding by the adults in ornamental plants.

  14. Influence of stem diameter on the survival and growth of containerized Norway spruce seedlings attacked by pine weevils (Hylobius spp.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorsen, Aake; Mattsson, Staffan; Weslien, Jan [Forestry Research Inst. of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2001-07-01

    Pine weevils (Hylobius spp.) feeding on stem bark of young conifer seedlings pose a serious threat to forest regeneration-planting programmes in Nordic countries. This study was designed to determine the threshold diameter for planted, untreated containerized seedlings, above which pine weevils cause little or no damage. The effects of sublethal weevil damage on seedling growth were also assessed. In total, 5320 containerized spruce seedlings were planted on scarified and unscarified plots on three sites in southern Sweden. Seedlings in six size classes, which differed with regard to age (1.5-3.5 yrs) and cultivation density (28-446 seedlings m{sup -2}) were grown using the Combicell system. None of the seedlings was treated with insecticides, except for those in the smallest class, where both untreated and treated seedlings were used. Inspections were made periodically during the first 3 yrs and after both 5 and 7 yrs. A statistically significant relationship was found between seedling losses due to pine weevil attack and seedling stem-base diameter at the time of planting out, on both scarified and unscarified plots. For seedlings with a stem-base diameter of around 10 mm, mortality due to pine weevil attack on scarified plots was low enough to be considered negligible. This threshold diameter was several millimetres greater for seedlings planted on unscarified plots. An analysis of the relationship between the extent of weevil damage and seedling growth rate showed that among surviving seedlings, those that grew fast tended to show low levels of damage. On unscarified plots, the mortality rate amongst seedlings treated once with a permethrin insecticide was only one-third that of untreated seedlings. On scarified plots, the corresponding difference was somewhat smaller. Repeated insecticide treatment resulted in a pronounced reduction in seedling mortality on the unscarified plots, whereas the effect was weaker on scarified plots.

  15. Is the Invasive Species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Argentine Stem Weevil) a Threat to New Zealand Natural Grassland Ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, Barbara I P; Barton, Diane M; Philip, Bruce A; Ferguson, Colin M; Goldson, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil) is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with a common host of this species, hybrid ryegrass (L. perenne X L. multiflorum). Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than hybrid ryegrass, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zelandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in ryegrass in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No eggs were found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with new generation weevils that had emerged during the experiment. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have little overall impact, but a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants.

  16. Market analysis of food products for detection of allergenic walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Calleja, Inés María; de la Cruz, Silvia; González, Isabel; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2015-06-15

    Two real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays for detection of walnut (Juglans regia) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis) traces in a wide range of processed foods are described here. The method consists on a real-time PCR assay targeting the ITS1 region, using a nuclease (TaqMan) probe labeled with FAM and BBQ. The method was positive for walnut and pecan respectively, and negative for all other heterologous plants and animals tested. Using a series of model samples with defined raw walnut in wheat flour and heat-treated walnut in wheat flour with a range of concentrations of 0.1-100,000 mg kg(-1), a practical detection limit of 0.1 mg kg(-1) of walnut content was estimated. Identical binary mixtures were done for pecan, reaching the same limit of detection of 0.1 mg kg(-1). The assay was successfully trialed on a total of 232 commercial foodstuffs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chitinolitic activity in proteic extracts of Bacillus thuringiensis toxic to boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, T.S; Rocha, T.L. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, E.A.R [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil); Grossi-de-Sa, M.F. [Universidade Catolica de Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a spore forming bacteria, which produces Cry proteins toxic towards several insect orders. Bt S 811 strain produces at least three Cry toxins: Cry1Ab, Cry1Ia12, and Cry8, and shown toxicity to insects from Coleoptera order. In order to characterize the production of theses toxins, and check its activity against Boll weevil larvae, proteic extracts from Bt cells and supernatant proteins from the bacterial culture, were obtained at different stages of cell cycle; 8, 16, 24, and 32 hours after inoculation (HAI). Proteins from 32 HAI of the supernatant, and 8 HAI of the cellular fractions, shown highest activity towards the Boll weevil larvae. Western blotting assays using anti-Cry8 and anti-Cry1I were carried out to analyse these toxins in the Bt proteic extracts. The existence of a Cry8 was detected at 8 HAI in the cellular fraction, what allow associate this molecule with the toxicity of this fraction. However, toxicity observed at 32 HAI in the supernatant fraction, was not possible to be associated with Cry8 or Cry1Ia toxins, indicating that there are another protein(s) responsible for the toxicity. A protein homo log to Cry1Ab was identified by 'Peptide Mass Fingerprint' at 32 HAI of the supernatant fraction and a chitin binding protein was identified by 2DE/MS/MS in this same stage and chitinolitic activity was also observed by enzymatic assay. All our data suggest a possible synergism between Cry toxins and a chitinase in the activity of this strain towards Boll weevil.

  18. Reproductive Plasticity of an Invasive Insect Pest, Rice Water Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunshang; Ao, Yan; Jiang, Mingxing

    2017-10-16

    Reproductive plasticity is a key determinant of species invasiveness. However, there are a limited number of studies addressing this issue in exotic insects. The rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), which is native to North America, is one of the most invasive insect pests in east Asia. In this study, we investigated the reproductive status of first-generation females (progeny of overwintered weevils) from five geographic regions in southern and northern China in the field, and reproductive status and ovipositional features of females provided with suitable host plants in the laboratory after collection. Under field conditions, a proportion of females oviposited, while the rest remained in diapause from all three southern regions investigated, but reproductive development did not take place in females from the two northern regions, where the weevil produces only one generation per year. However, when fed host plants in the laboratory, females from all regions laid eggs. They typically had a very short ovipositional period (3-6 d on average on rice at a temperature of 27°C), laid a low number of eggs, and did not die soon after oviposition; this was different from common reproductive females. We concluded that first-generation L. oryzophilus females, which largely enter diapause after emergence, are highly plastic in their reproductive performance and are ready to reproduce under favorable conditions. Our results indicate the significance of their reproductive plasticity for geographic spread and population development. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Deleterious effects of plant cystatins against the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiggundu, Andrew; Muchwezi, Josephine; Van der Vyver, Christell; Viljoen, Altus; Vorster, Juan; Schlüter, Urte; Kunert, Karl; Michaud, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The general potential of plant cystatins for the development of insect-resistant transgenic plants still remains to be established given the natural ability of several insects to compensate for the loss of digestive cysteine protease activities. Here we assessed the potential of cystatins for the development of banana lines resistant to the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus, a major pest of banana and plantain in Africa. Protease inhibitory assays were conducted with protein and methylcoumarin (MCA) peptide substrates to measure the inhibitory efficiency of different cystatins in vitro, followed by a diet assay with cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks to monitor the impact of two plant cystatins, oryzacystatin I (OC-I, or OsCYS1) and papaya cystatin (CpCYS1), on the overall growth rate of weevil larvae. As observed earlier for other Coleoptera, banana weevils produce a variety of proteases for dietary protein digestion, including in particular Z-Phe-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin L-like) and Z-Arg-Arg-MCA-hydrolyzing (cathepsin B-like) proteases active in mildly acidic conditions. Both enzyme populations were sensitive to the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64 and to different plant cystatins including OsCYS1. In line with the broad inhibitory effects of cystatins, OsCYS1 and CpCYS1 caused an important growth delay in young larvae developing for 10 days in cystatin-infiltrated banana stem disks. These promising results, which illustrate the susceptibility of C. sordidus to plant cystatins, are discussed in the light of recent hypotheses suggesting a key role for cathepsin B-like enzymes as a determinant for resistance or susceptibility to plant cystatins in Coleoptera. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Systemic insecticides reduce feeding, survival, and fecundity of adult black vine weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on a variety of ornamental nursery crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reding, Michael E; Ranger, Christopher M

    2011-04-01

    Systemic activity of the neonicotinoids clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam and the anthranilic diamide chlorantraniliprole was tested against adult black vine weevils, Otiorhynchus sulcatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), on Astilbe, Euonymus, Heuchera, Rhododendron, Sedum, and Taxus. Insecticide treatments were applied to the soilless substrate of containerized plants. Bioassays were conducted 12 or 13, 26, and 42 d after treatment (DAT) and ran for 7 d; and feeding, mortality, and weight gain or loss by weevils were evaluated. Foliage was removed from test plants and then placed in arenas with adult black vine weevils. The neonicotinoids reduced feeding and weight gain by adult black vine weevils on most plant species with residual activity 42 DAT on some plant species. At 12 DAT, mortality was caused by the three neonicotinoids on Astilbe and by thiamethoxam on Sedum; and at 26 DAT dinotefuran caused mortality on Astilbe. Chlorantraniliprole reduced feeding on Taxus at 12 DAT, with no activity detected in other bioassays. Another set of bioassays was conducted to examine survival and fecundity of adult black vine weevils during prolonged feeding on Heuchera and Taxus systemically treated with dinotefuran or thiamethoxam. Bioassay procedures were similar to those described above, except they ran continuously for 56 d. Prolonged feeding on dinotefuran and thiamethoxam treated Heuchera and Taxus resulted in high mortality of adult black vine weevils and reduced fecundity. These studies show that the systemic activity of neonicotinoids is influenced by plant species and that systemic neonicotinoids have the potential to suppress black vine weevil populations in containerized nursery crops.

  1. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of the banana weevilCosmopolites sordidus to host plant volatiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budenberg, W J; Ndiege, I O; Karago, F W; Hansson, B S

    1993-02-01

    Male and femaleCosmopolites sordidus were attracted to freshly cut banana rhizome and pseudostem in a still-air olfactometer. Females responded similarly to odors from a comparatively resistant and from a susceptible cultivar of banana, when presented as either freshly cut tissue or as Porapak-trapped volatiles. Females were also attracted to rotting banana pseudostem and to volatiles collected from it. Males and females gave similar responses to host tissue in both the behavioral bioassay and to collected volatiles in EAG recordings. Weevils did not respond, either behaviorally or electrophysiologically, to a synthetic mixture of mono- and sesqiterpenes, which made up over 9% of the volatiles collected from pseudostem.

  2. [Life table of natural population of banana pseudostem weevil, Odoiporus longicollis Oliver, in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yongyue; Liang, Guangwen; Zeng, Ling

    2002-12-01

    The active factor life tables of natural population of banana pseudostem weevil were built, and the controlling effect of active factors was evaluated by using exclusion index of population control (EIPC). The results showed that the population trend indices in growing and harvested banana trunks were 4,3481 and 3,6628, and the EIPC of predation and others were 1,9256 and 2,3577, respectively. The EIPC of natural death were 1,3607 and 1,3554, and that of parasitism and disease in growing and harvested banana trunks were 1,1988 and 1,1668, respectively. The factor of predation and others was important.

  3. Enhancing dissemination of Beauveria bassiana with host plant base incision trapfor the management of the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinzaara, W.; Emudong, P.; Nankinga, C.; Tushemereirwe, W.; Kagezi, G.H.; Gold, C.S.; Dicke, M.; Huis, van A.; Karamura, E.

    2015-01-01

    The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important pest of highland banana in East and central Africa. It causes yield loss of up to 100% in heavily infested fields. Studies were carried out in Uganda to evaluate the efficacy of the the plant base incision

  4. Mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata) and weevil (Rhinoncomimus latipes) response to varying moisture and temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott H. Berg; Judith Hough-Goldstein; Ellen C. Lake; Vincent D' Amico

    2015-01-01

    The combined effects of herbivory and water stress on growth and reproduction of mile-a-minute weed (Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross) were investigated in greenhouse trials over two years, with well-watered or water-limited plants either exposed or not exposed to herbivory by the mile-a-minute weevil (Rhinoncomimus latipes...

  5. Pissodes castaneus (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the bark pine weevil: a pest or a biological indicator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson Tadeu Iede; Wilson Reis Filho; Susete Rocio C. Penteado; Scheila Messa. Zaleski

    2011-01-01

    The risk of introduction of exotic forest pests is a global problem, evidenced by records of interceptions even in countries that have a quite effective system of plant protection. The banded pine weevil, Pissodes castaneus, is native to Europe and North Africa and was introduced into Argentina and Uruguay and recently into Brazil where it was first...

  6. Establishment and dispersal of the biological control weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes on mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen C. Lake; Judith Hough-Goldstein; Kimberley J. Shropshire; Vincent D' Amico

    2011-01-01

    Mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross (Polygonaceae), is an annual vine from Asia that has invaded the eastern US where it can form dense monocultures and outcompete other vegetation in a variety of habitats. The host-specific Asian weevil Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was first...

  7. Oviposition Decision of the Weevil Exapion ulicis on Ulex europaeus Depends on External and Internal Pod Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Sébastien Pierre

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding mechanisms underlying insects’ host choice and plant susceptibility is important to the study of plant-insect interactions in general, and in the context of plant invasions. This study investigates the oviposition and feeding choices of the specialist weevil Exapion ulicis on the invasive plant species Ulex europaeus, gorse. To do so, we studied the oviposition and feeding preferences of the weevil in choice experiments, using pods and flowers, respectively, from gorses grown in a common garden. The plants used came from regions with different infestation histories: Brittany and Scotland belong to the native range, where the weevil is present, while Reunion and New Zealand belong to the invasive range, where the weevil was not initially introduced with gorse. Results of these experiments suggest that the oviposition choice of E. ulicis females is driven by cues located at the surface of pods and inside them, including pod size and pod seed content. Feeding-choice experiments showed a different pattern of preference compared to oviposition. Taken together with previous studies, our results reveal that E. ulicis uses several traits to choose its host, including whole-plant traits, flower traits and pod traits.

  8. Evidence for the presence of a female produced sex pheromone in the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behavior-modifying chemicals such as pheromones and kairomones have great potential in pest management. Studies reported here investigated chemical cues involved in mating and aggregation behavior of banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus, a major insect pest of banana in every country where bananas a...

  9. The life history and immature stages of the weevil Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Coleoptera: Curculiondidae) on Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal; M.Tracy Johnson; Paul. Hanson

    2012-01-01

    We describe and illustrate the life history and immature stages of Anthonomus monostigma Champion (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Anthonomini). This weevil is a fruit borer in Miconia calvescens DC (Melastomataceae), a Neotropical tree that is invasive in Pacific islands. The larva has three instars, and development from egg to...

  10. Bean [alpha]-Amylase Inhibitor Confers Resistance to the Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) in Transgenic Peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, H. E.; Gollasch, S.; Moore, A.; Tabe, L. M.; Craig, S.; Hardie, D. C.; Chrispeels, M. J.; Spencer, D.; Higgins, TJV.

    1995-04-01

    Bruchid larvae cause major losses of grain legume crops through-out the world. Some bruchid species, such as the cowpea weevil and the azuki bean weevil, are pests that damage stored seeds. Others, such as the pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum), attack the crop growing in the field. We transferred the cDNA encoding the [alpha]-amylase inhibitor ([alpha]-AI) found in the seeds of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) into pea (Pisum sativum) using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Expression was driven by the promoter of phytohemagglutinin, another bean seed protein. The [alpha]-amylase inhibitor gene was stably expressed in the transgenic pea seeds at least to the T5 seed generation, and [alpha]-AI accumulated in the seeds up to 3% of soluble protein. This level is somewhat higher than that normally found in beans, which contain 1 to 2% [alpha]-AI. In the T5 seed generation the development of pea weevil larvae was blocked at an early stage. Seed damage was minimal and seed yield was not significantly reduced in the transgenic plants. These results confirm the feasibility of protecting other grain legumes such as lentils, mungbean, groundnuts, and chickpeas against a variety of bruchids using the same approach. Although [alpha]-AI also inhibits human [alpha]-amylase, cooked peas should not have a negative impact on human energy metabolism.

  11. Effects of crop sanitation on banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera : Curculionidae), populations and crop damage in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanza, M.; Gold, C.S.; Huis, van A.; Ragama, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Crop sanitation, i.e. destruction of crop residues, has been hypothesized to lower banana weevil damage by removing adult refuges and breeding sites. Although it has been widely recommended to farmers, limited data are available to demonstrate the efficacy of this method. The effects of crop

  12. Abundance and frequency of the Asiatic oak weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and defoliation on American, Chinese, and hybrid chestnut ( Castanea )

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley E. Case; Albert (Bud) Mayfield; Stacy L. Clark; Scott E. Schlarbaum; Barbara C. Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    The Asiatic oak weevil, Cyrtepistomus castaneus Roelofs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a nonnative defoliator of trees in the Fagaceae family in the United States but has not been studied on Castanea species in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Planted trees of Castanea dentata (...

  13. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-03-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil.

  14. Volatiles from a mite-infested spruce clone and their effects on pine weevil behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kännaste, Astrid; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2009-10-01

    Induced responses by Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings to feeding damage by two mite species were studied by analyzing the volatiles emitted during infestation. Four specimens of a Norway spruce (Picea abies L.) clone were infested with mites of Nalepella sp., another four with Oligonychus ununguis, and four were kept mite-free as controls. After a year of infestation, spruce volatiles were collected, analyzed, and identified using SPME-GC-MS. In addition, enantiomers of chiral limonene and linalool were separated by two-dimensional GC. Methyl salicylate (MeSA), (-)-linalool, (E)-beta-farnesene, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene were the main volatiles induced by both species of mites, albeit in different proportions. The ability of the main compounds emitted by the mite-infested spruces to attract or repel the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.), was tested. (E)-beta-farnesene was found to be attractive in the absence of spruce odor, whereas methyl salicylate had a deterrent effect in combination with attractive spruce odor. The other tested compounds had no significant effects on the behavior of the weevils.

  15. Aprovechamiento de residuos agroforestales, con particular interés en los originados en explotaciones de Nuez Pecán (Carya illinoinensis), por medio del cultivo de Hongos Saprófitos Saludables Ibéricos

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcariz Fermoselle, María Virginia

    2016-01-01

    El presente proyecto de investigación tuvo como objetivo estudiar el potencial de aprovechamiento de residuos agroforestales, con particular interés en los restos generados en explotaciones de nuez pecán (Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch) en la Península Ibérica. Primero se estudiaron las características de los tres residuos lignocelulósicos: cáscara de nuez pecán (CP), pericarpio de nuez pecán (PP) y astillas de ramas de podas de nuez pecán (AP). Posteriormente se procedió a evaluar su po...

  16. Is the invasive species Listronotus bonariensis (Kuschel (Coleoptera: Curculionidae (Argentine stem weevil a threat to New Zealand natural grassland ecosystems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ingeborg Patricia Barratt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Listronotus bonariensis (Argentine stem weevil is a stem-boring weevil that has become a major pasture pest in New Zealand, and cool climate turf grass in Australia. This species is also frequently found in native tussock grassland in New Zealand. Laboratory and field trials were established to determine the risk posed to both seedlings and established plants of three native grass species compared to what happens with the most common host of this species, Lolium perenne (ryegrass. Adult weevil feeding damage scores were higher on Poa colensoi and Festuca novae-zelandiae than Chionochloa rigida. Oviposition was lower on P. colensoi than L. perenne, and no eggs were laid on F. novae-zealandiae. In field trials using the same four species established as spaced plants L. bonariensis laid more eggs per tiller in L. perenne in a low altitude pasture site than in ryegrass in a higher altitude site. No were eggs found on the three native grass species at the tussock sites, and only low numbers were found on other grasses at the low altitude pasture site. Despite this, numbers of adult weevils were extracted from the plants in the field trials. These may have comprised survivors of the original weevils added to the plants, together with naturally occurring individuals arising from the next field generation. Irrespective, higher numbers were recovered from the tussock site plants than from those from the pasture site. It was concluded that L. bonariensis is likely to have a greater impact on native grass seedling survival than on established plants.

  17. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  18. Insects of bur oak acorns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester P. Gibson

    1971-01-01

    During 1961-1969, the insects found damaging acorns of bur oak, Quercus macrocarpa Michauxii, in their order of importance were the weevils: Curculio pardalis (Chittenden), C. strictus (Casey), C. sulcatulus (Casey), C. iowensis (Casey), C. proboscideus...

  19. Rational Practices to Manage Boll Weevils Colonization and Population Growth on Family Farms in the Semiárido Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Robério C. S.; Colares, Felipe; Torres, Jorge B.; Santos, Roberta L.; Bastos, Cristina S.

    2014-01-01

    Because boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. develops partially protected inside cotton fruiting structures, once they become established in a field, they are difficult to control, even with nearly continuous insecticide spray. During two cotton-growing seasons in the Semiárido region of Pernambuco State, Brazil, we tested the use of kaolin sprays to disrupt plant colonization through visual cue interference, combined with removal of fallen fruiting bodies to restrain boll weevil population growth after colonization. Kaolin spray under non-choice trials resulted in 2.2×, 4.4×, and 8.6× fewer weevils, oviposition and feeding punctures on kaolin-treated plants, respectively, despite demonstrating no statistical differences for colonization and population growth. Early season sprays in 2010 occurred during a period of rainfall, and hence, under our fixed spraying schedule no significant differences in boll weevil colonization were detected. In 2011, when kaolin sprays were not washed out by rain, delayed boll weevil colonization and reduction on attacked fruiting bodies were observed in eight out of 12 evaluations, and kaolin-treated plots had 2.7× fewer damaged fruiting bodies compared to untreated plots. Adoption of simple measures such as removal of fallen fruiting bodies and prompt reapplication of kaolin sprays after rainfall show promise in reducing boll weevil infestation. PMID:26462942

  20. Effects of Insect Predation on Hypocotyl Survival and Germination Success of Mature Quercus variabilis Acorns

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroshi, FUKUMOTO; Hisashi, KAJIMURA; Laboratory of Forest Protection, School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University:Research Fellow of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

    2000-01-01

    The rates of hypocotyl and radicle survival and of germination success were investigated in mature acorns of Quercus variabilis Blume in relation to endosperm loss due to seed insects. The acorns were damaged by curculio weevils (Coleoptera : Curculionidae) and moths, including tortricid moths (Lepidoptera : Tortricidae); the former were more abundant than the latter. Acorns damaged by curculio weevils showed a significantly lower germination rate when there was a large endosperm loss than th...

  1. Effect of Irrigation on Within-Grove Distribution of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorous ferrugineus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Aldryhim

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The red palm weevil (RPW Rhynchophorous ferrugineus (Oliv. is the most important pest attacking date palm trees. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of drip and flood irrigation on the within-grove distribution of RPW. The current study was started with the first appearance of the infestation to almost disappearance of the infestation. Results showed that more infested trees were detected in plots with flood irrigation. The number of infested trees in these plots represented 89% of the total infested trees. This study suggested that irrigation management and soil moisture are key factors in the dispersion of the RPW infestation and could be used as one of the integrated pest management tools.

  2. Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus seed coat phaseolin is detrimental to the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moraes R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of phaseolin (a vicilin-like 7S storage globulin peptides in the seed coat of the legume Phaseolus lunatus L. (lima bean was demonstrated by N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Utilizing an artificial seed system assay we showed that phaseolin, isolated from both cotyledon and testa tissues of P. lunatus, is detrimental to the nonhost bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus (F (cowpea weevil with ED50 of 1.7 and 3.5%, respectively. The level of phaseolin in the seed coat (16.7% was found to be sufficient to deter larval development of this bruchid. The expression of a C. maculatus-detrimental protein in the testa of nonhost seeds suggests that the protein may have played a significant role in the evolutionary adaptation of bruchids to legume seeds.

  3. Attraction of Coffee Bean Weevil, Araecerus fasciculatus, to Volatiles from the Industrial Yeast Kluyveromyces lactis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuai; Mei, Xiang-Dong; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Li, Yao-Fa; She, Dongmei; Zhang, Tao; Ning, Jun

    2017-02-01

    The coffee bean weevil (CBW), Araecerus fasciculatus (De Geer, 1775) (Coleoptera: Anthribidae) is an important pest of stored products such as grains, coffee beans, cassava, and traditional Chinese medicine materials. In China, CBW causes large losses of Daqu, a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter, and, unfortunately, the use of conventional insecticides against CBW is not suitable in Daqu storage. We found CBW to be highly attracted to fermenting yeast cultures, such as Kluyveromyces lactis. Eight volatile compounds, produced by fermenting cultures and not by sterile samples, were identified by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Five of these substances elicited significant responses in Y-tube behavioral bioassays. Field trapping experiments revealed 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate to be crucial for attraction of CBW. Results show that yeast volatiles play an important role in host location, and that 2-phenylethanol and 2-phenylethyl acetate could be utilized as potential attractants in monitoring and control systems against this important pest.

  4. Four photoreceptor classes in the open rhabdom eye of the red palm weevil, Rynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilić, Marko; Pirih, Primož; Belušič, Gregor

    2016-03-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW) is a severe palm pest with high dispersal capability. Its visual sense allows it to navigate long distances and to discriminate among differently colored traps. We investigated the RPW compound eyes with anatomical and electrophysiological methods. The ommatidia are composed of eight photoreceptor cells in an open rhabdom arrangement with six peripheral and two central photoreceptors. The photoreceptor signals are relatively slow and noisy. The majority of recorded photoreceptors have broad spectral sensitivity with a peak in the green, at 536 nm. Three minor classes of photoreceptors have narrower spectral sensitivities with maxima in the UV (366 nm), green (520 nm) and yellow (564 nm). Sensitivity below 350 nm is very low due to filtering by the UV-absorbing cornea. The set of photoreceptors represents the retinal substrate for putative trichromatic color vision.

  5. Treatment of bare root spruce seedlings with permethrin against pine weevil before lifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torstensson, Lennart; Boerjesson, Elisabet [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Microbiology; Arvidsson, Bernt [Svenska Skogsplantor AB, Joenkoeping (Sweden)

    1999-07-01

    The possibility of applying permethrin on coniferous bare root seedlings to protect them against pine weevil (Hylobius abietis L.) in the transplant lines may avoid or diminish problems connected with dipping or spraying plant bundles with the insecticide after lifting. Spraying 0.5 or 1% permethrin solution on bare root spruce seedlings in the transplant lines resulted in initial amounts of about 0.35 and 0.74 {mu}g permethrin mm{sup -2} bark on the lower part of the plant stem. This amount diminished during the first month to a level that remained stable for a period of at least 1. 5 yrs. The permethrin that reached the soil was degraded with a half-life of 3-4 months. The trans isomer was degraded more rapidly than the cis isomer.

  6. Lures for red palm weevil trapping systems: aggregation pheromone and synthetic kairomone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Sandra; Melita, Ourania; Michaelakis, Antonios; Milonas, Panagiotis; Minuz, Roxana; Riolo, Paola; Abbass, Mohamed Kamal; Lo Bue, Paolo; Colazza, Stefano; Peri, Ezio; Soroker, Victoria; Livne, Yaara; Primo, Jaime; Navarro-Llopis, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    The optimisation of the lure is essential for the implementation of trapping systems to control insect pests. In this work, the response of the red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, to increasing emission rates of its aggregation pheromone (ferrugineol) and the efficacy of a convenient synthetic kairomone based on fermentation odours (ethyl acetate and ethanol) have been evaluated in different years and locations along the Mediterranean basin. In general, although capture data and emission had noticeable variability among locations, significantly fewer RPW were captured in pyramidal Picusan® traps with the lowest ferrugineol emission rates tested (0.6-3.8 mg day-1 ). Captures increased rapidly with ferrugineol emission up to 4-5 mg day-1 ; then, higher emission rates did not improve or reduce captures, up to the highest emission rate tested of 50.9 mg day-1 . Thus, there is no evidence of an optimum release rate corresponding to a maximum of RPW catches. Traps baited with the synthetic kairomone (1:3 ethyl acetate/ethanol) captured 1.4-2.2 times more total weevils than traps baited only with ferrugineol. Moreover, in most of the locations, the synthetic blend was at least as effective as the local coattractants used (plant material + molasses). Ferrugineol emission rate can vary in a wide range without significantly affecting RPW response. Coattractants based on fermenting compounds, ethyl acetate and ethanol, are able to improve the attractant level of ferrugineol and could be employed to replace non-standardised natural kairomones in RPW trapping systems after further optimisation of their proportions and doses. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Revision and phylogeny of the Caribbean weevil genus Apotomoderes Dejean, 1834 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Franz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The weevil genus Apotomoderes Dejean, 1834 (Curculionidae: Entiminae: Geonemini is revised, including a redescription of the only previously known species, A. lateralis (Gyllenhal, 1834, and descriptions of five new species: A. anodontos sp. n., A. menocrater sp. n., A. sotomayorae sp. n., A. chariedris sp. n., and A. hadroprion sp. n. The monophyly of Apotomoderes is supported by multiple synapomorphic character states including the two-segmented labial palps, a postocular constriction on the head, a sexually dimorphic, globular pronotum in males, and the presence of setae in the dorsal subapical region of the aedeagus. In addition, all species of Apotomoderes except A. anodontos have a large, knife-like cuticular tooth on the profemur and a toothed ridge along the anteromesal margin of the protibia. Illustrations of external and internal morphological traits are provided, along with a key to the six constituent species. A cladistic analysis of 12 taxa (6 outgroup, 6 ingroup and 22 characters yielded a single most parsimonious cladogram (L=33, CI=75, RI=90 with the topology (A. anodontos, (A. menocrater, (A. sotomayorae, (A. lateralis, (A. chariedris, A. hadroprion. A species of Artipus Sahlberg (Naupactini was placed as the most immediate relative of Apotomoderes; however, the state of phylogenetic knowledge of Caribbean entimine weevil is still too incomplete to warrant any higher level rearrangements. All species of Apotomoderes occur on Hispaniola with the exception of A. sotomayorae which is endemic to Mona Island, Puerto Rico. A historical biogeographic reconstruction yielded the taxon-area cladogram (southwestern Dominican Republic, (eastern Dominican Republic, Mona Island, suggesting two successive eastbound colonization events in the Miocene/Pliocene, originating from the southern Hispaniola peninsula. Reliable host plant records are unavailable although adults of A. menocrater have been found on allspice (Pimenta Lindley; Myrtaceae

  8. Identification of relevant non-target organisms exposed to weevil-resistant Bt sweetpotato in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukarwa, R J; Mukasa, S B; Odongo, B; Ssemakula, G; Ghislain, M

    2014-06-01

    Assessment of the impact of transgenic crops on non-target organisms (NTO) is a prerequisite to their release into the target environment for commercial use. Transgenic sweetpotato varieties expressing Cry proteins (Bt sweetpotato) are under development to provide effective protection against sweetpotato weevils (Coleoptera) which cause severe economic losses in sub-Saharan Africa. Like any other pest control technologies, genetically engineered crops expressing insecticidal proteins need to be evaluated to assess potential negative effects on non-target organisms that provide important services to the ecosystem. Beneficial arthropods in sweetpotato production systems can include pollinators, decomposers, and predators and parasitoids of the target insect pest(s). Non-target arthropod species commonly found in sweetpotato fields that are related taxonomically to the target pests were identified through expert consultation and literature review in Uganda where Bt sweetpotato is expected to be initially evaluated. Results indicate the presence of few relevant non-target Coleopterans that could be affected by Coleopteran Bt sweetpotato varieties: ground, rove and ladybird beetles. These insects are important predators in sweetpotato fields. Additionally, honeybee (hymenoptera) is the main pollinator of sweetpotato and used for honey production. Numerous studies have shown that honeybees are unaffected by the Cry proteins currently deployed which are homologous to those of the weevil-resistant Bt sweetpotato. However, because of their feeding behaviour, Bt sweetpotato represents an extremely low hazard due to negligible exposure. Hence, we conclude that there is good evidence from literature and expert opinion that relevant NTOs in sweetpotato fields are unlikely to be affected by the introduction of Bt sweetpotato in Uganda.

  9. Exaggerated trait allometry, compensation and trade-offs in the New Zealand giraffe weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina J Painting

    Full Text Available Sexual selection has driven the evolution of exaggerated traits among diverse animal taxa. The production of exaggerated traits can come at a cost to other traits through trade-offs when resources allocated to trait development are limited. Alternatively some traits can be selected for in parallel to support or compensate for the cost of bearing the exaggerated trait. Male giraffe weevils (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during contests for mates. Here we characterise the scaling relationship between rostrum and body size and show that males have a steep positive allometry, but that the slope is non-linear due to a relative reduction in rostrum length for the largest males, suggesting a limitation in resource allocation or a diminishing requirement for large males to invest increasingly into larger rostra. We also measured testes, wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia size and found no evidence of a trade-off between these traits and rostrum length when comparing phenotypic correlations. However, the relative length of wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia all increased with relative rostrum length suggesting these traits may be under correlational selection. Increased investment in wing and leg length is therefore likely to compensate for the costs of flying with, and wielding the exaggerated rostrum of larger male giraffe weevils. These results provide a first step in identifying the potential for trait compensation and trades-offs, but are phenotypic correlations only and should be interpreted with care in the absence of breeding experiments.

  10. Exaggerated Trait Allometry, Compensation and Trade-Offs in the New Zealand Giraffe Weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painting, Christina. J.; Holwell, Gregory I.

    2013-01-01

    Sexual selection has driven the evolution of exaggerated traits among diverse animal taxa. The production of exaggerated traits can come at a cost to other traits through trade-offs when resources allocated to trait development are limited. Alternatively some traits can be selected for in parallel to support or compensate for the cost of bearing the exaggerated trait. Male giraffe weevils (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis) display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during contests for mates. Here we characterise the scaling relationship between rostrum and body size and show that males have a steep positive allometry, but that the slope is non-linear due to a relative reduction in rostrum length for the largest males, suggesting a limitation in resource allocation or a diminishing requirement for large males to invest increasingly into larger rostra. We also measured testes, wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia size and found no evidence of a trade-off between these traits and rostrum length when comparing phenotypic correlations. However, the relative length of wings, antennae, fore- and hind-tibia all increased with relative rostrum length suggesting these traits may be under correlational selection. Increased investment in wing and leg length is therefore likely to compensate for the costs of flying with, and wielding the exaggerated rostrum of larger male giraffe weevils. These results provide a first step in identifying the potential for trait compensation and trades-offs, but are phenotypic correlations only and should be interpreted with care in the absence of breeding experiments. PMID:24312425

  11. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönnicke, M. G.; Cusatis, C.; Rigon, L.; Menk, R.-H.; Arfelli, F.; Foerster, L. A.; Rosado-Neto, G. H.

    2010-08-01

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures ( Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  12. EVALUATION OF NATURAL ENEMIES IN CONTROLLING OF THE BANANA WEEVIL BORER Cosmopolites sordidus Germar IN WEST SUMATRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahsol Hasyim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar, is an important pest of highland banana and plantain in Africa, but it exists in low densities in presumed area of origin in Southeast Asia such as in Indonesia. This suggests a possible existence of effective co-evolved natural enemies in the origin area of Indonesia, especially West Sumatra. The objectives of this study were: (1 to evaluate banana weevil pest status at selected sites in West Sumatra, (2 to survey parasitoids and predators, and (3 to determine the control potential of the most important natural enemies. Surveys were undertaken in March 2002-August 2003 in five locations in West Sumatra, i.e., Bukittinggi, Sitiung, Pariaman, Pasaman, and Batusangkar. Five farms per site were selected randomly among all farms that contained banana stands of > 0.5 ha. Sampling for banana weevil adults and damage, and for predators was done throughout small banana stands and within a 20 m x 40 m (0.08 ha subplot on larger farms. Field-collected larvae were taken to the laboratory and reared on corm pieces (3 cm x 3 cm x 3 cm until pupation. Larvae were collected from pseudostem as well as corm residues. To estimate the abundance of non-social predators, i.e., those other than ants, 10 residues each on each farm were examined from plants that had been harvested 1-4 weeks, 5-8 weeks or 9 or more weeks before our visit to the site. Samples of the different morphospecies were saved in alcohol for later identification. The result showed that the banana weevil incidence was found to be low,  0.6-1.7 adults per trap. Plant damage indices were below 2.2%. We collected and reared 24,360 eggs and 3118 larvae, but no parasitism was detected. Phorids (Megaselia sp. and drosophilids were recovered from larval rearings, but most likely were scavengers. A complex of predators was detected, the most important of which was the histerid beetles,  Plaesius javanus Erichson. In laboratory tests, adults and larvae

  13. External and internal structure of weevils (Insecta: Coleoptera) investigated with phase-contrast X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoennicke, M.G., E-mail: mhonnicke@bnl.go [NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States); Cusatis, C. [LORXI, Departamento de Fisica-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil); Rigon, L. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Menk, R.-H. [Sincrotrone Trieste SCPa, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Arfelli, F. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste (Italy); Dipartamento di Fisica-Universita di Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Foerster, L.A.; Rosado-Neto, G.H. [Departamento de Zoologia-UFPR, Curitiba (Brazil)

    2010-08-21

    Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are identified by the external structure (dorsal, ventral and lateral features) and also by internal structure. The genitalia can be used to distinguish the sex and to identify the insects when the external structure appears identical. For this purpose, a destructive dissecting microscopy procedure is usually employed. In this paper, phase contrast X-ray imaging (radiography and tomography) is employed to investigate the internal structure (genitalia) of two entire species of weevils that presents very similar external structures (Sitophilus oryzae and Sitophilus zeamais). The detection of features, which looks like the genital structure, shows that such non-destructive technique could be used as an alternative method for identification of insects. This method is especially useful in examining the internal features of precious species from museum collections, as already described in the recent literature.

  14. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae) Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fatiha Righi Assia; Kada Righi; Khelil Anouar; Pujade-Villar Juli

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.). This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit...

  15. Insecticidal activity of floral, foliar, and root extracts of Tagetes minuta (Asterales: Asteraceae) against adult mexican bean weevils (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    David K. Weaver; Carl D. Wells; Florence V. Dunkel; Wolfgang Bertsch; Sharlene E. Sing; Shobha Sriharan

    1994-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine speed of action and toxicities of extracts of Tagetes minuta L., a source of naturally occurring insecticidal compounds. LC50 values for male and female Mexican bean weevils, Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman), were determined for floral, foliar, and root extracts of T. minuta. The 24-h LC50 values ranged from 138 μ g/cm2 for males...

  16. Evaluation of plant resistance in field pea by host plant choice behaviour of pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Mendesil Amosa, Esayas

    2015-01-01

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important grain legume crop due to its nutritional value and role in improving soil fertility in cropping systems. Insect pests are one of the main production constraints for field pea, with pea weevil (PW), (Bruchus pisorum L.) being an economically important pest of field pea worldwide. Current PW control practices rely on chemical insecticides, which are unaffordable for most small-scale farmers in developing countries such as Ethiopia, where PW is estab...

  17. Oviposition Preference of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Among Host and Non-host Plants and its Implication for Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendesil, Esayas; Rämert, Birgitta; Marttila, Salla; Hillbur, Ylva; Anderson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1) and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np) formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior of the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  18. Oviposition preference of pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. among host and non-host plants and its implication for pest management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esayas Mendesil eAmosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. is a major insect pest of field pea, Pisum sativum L. worldwide and current control practices mainly depend on the use of chemical insecticides that can cause adverse effects on environment and human health. Insecticides are also unaffordable by many small-scale farmers in developing countries, which highlights the need for investigating plant resistance traits and to develop alternative pest management strategies. The aim of this study was to determine oviposition preference of pea weevil among P. sativum genotypes with different level of resistance (Adet, 32410-1 and 235899-1 and the non-host leguminous plants wild pea (Pisum fulvum Sibth. et Sm. and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L., in no-choice and dual-choice tests. Pod thickness and micromorphological traits of the pods were also examined. In the no-choice tests significantly more eggs were laid on the susceptible genotype Adet than on the other genotypes. Very few eggs were laid on P. fulvum and L. sativus. In the dual-choice experiments Adet was preferred by the females for oviposition. Furthermore, combinations of Adet with either 235899-1 or non-host plants significantly reduced the total number of eggs laid by the weevil in the dual-choice tests. Female pea weevils were also found to discriminate between host and non-host plants during oviposition. The neoplasm (Np formation on 235899-1 pods was negatively correlated with oviposition by pea weevil. Pod wall thickness and trichomes might have influenced oviposition preference of the weevils. These results on oviposition behavior the weevils can be used in developing alternative pest management strategies such as trap cropping using highly attractive genotype and intercropping with the non-host plants.

  19. Genetic variability and resistance of cultivars of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] to cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Nova, M X; Leite, N G A; Houllou, L M; Medeiros, L V; Lira Neto, A C; Hsie, B S; Borges-Paluch, L R; Santos, B S; Araujo, C S F; Rocha, A A; Costa, A F

    2014-03-31

    The cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus Fabr.) is the most destructive pest of the cowpea bean; it reduces seed quality. To control this pest, resistance testing combined with genetic analysis using molecular markers has been widely applied in research. Among the markers that show reliable results, the inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) (microsatellites) are noteworthy. This study was performed to evaluate the resistance of 27 cultivars of cowpea bean to cowpea weevil. We tested the resistance related to the genetic variability of these cultivars using ISSR markers. To analyze the resistance of cultivars to weevil, a completely randomized test design with 4 replicates and 27 treatments was adopted. Five pairs of the insect were placed in 30 grains per replicate. Analysis of variance showed that the number of eggs and emerged insects were significantly different in the treatments, and the means were compared by statistical tests. The analysis of the large genetic variability in all cultivars resulted in the formation of different groups. The test of resistance showed that the cultivar Inhuma was the most sensitive to both number of eggs and number of emerged adults, while the TE96-290-12-G and MNC99-537-F4 (BRS Tumucumaque) cultivars were the least sensitive to the number of eggs and the number of emerged insects, respectively.

  20. Use of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIA- NE07 in the control of banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Amador

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the species of banana borers, black weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus is the most economically important pest in Costa Rica and worldwide. The control of C. sordidus in intensive production systems is mainly based on application of insecticides; therefore the search for biological alternatives, such as the use of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN, is needed. The susceptibility of Cosmopolites sordidus to Heterorhabditis atacamensis CIANE07 was evaluated. The effect of inoculating H. atacamensis on larvae and adults of C. sordidus, in vitro and in artificially infected corms, was evaluated. Larvae inoculated with EPN had a mortality of 88% on the second day and 100% on the third day; no mortality was observed in adults. The treatments of 100, 500 and 1000 IJ.larvae-1 showed statistically significant differences from the control and theLD50 was 52 IJ.larvae-1. When the larvae were placed within the corms the LD50 increased to 375 IJ.larvae-1. The results indicate that the strain H. atacamensis CIA-NE07 is capable of locating and infecting weevil larvae within the banana corm and reach infection levels over 80%, 10 days after inoculation at doses of 1000 and 2000 IJ.larvae-1. The entomopathogenic nematodes are a viable alternative to be considered in the Integrated Pest Management programs of black weevil, in crops such us banana and plantain.

  1. Aquatic weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea assembly response to the different ecological conditions in artificial lakes in central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial stagnant aquatic ecosystems such as reservoirs, are suitable for monitoring the succession of biocenoses because they are usually formed by rearrangement of the former current river ecosystems. The weevil assembly, as part of such a dynamic biocenose, develops following host macrophytes. In the frame of weevil fauna studies realized during 2001 and 2002 in wet habitats beside four artificial lakes in Central Serbia (Gruža, Grošnica, Šumarice and Bubanj, the aquatic adults from 13 species, divided into two families, Eryrhinidae (Tanysphyrus lemnae and Notaris scirpi and Curculionidae (Bagous bagdatensis, B. collignensis, B. lutulentus, Pelenomus canaliculatus, P. comari, P. waltoni, Phytobius leucogaster, Rhinoncus castor, R. inconspectus, R. pericarpius and R. perpendicularis, were collected. The quantitative and qualitative picture of the studied aquatic weevil assemblies, as well as indices of similarity among them, are given and related to the dimensions and ecological characteristics of studied aquatic systems (particularly the level of eutrophication. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 1252

  2. Community structure and floristic composition of Quercus fusiformis and Carya illinoinensis forests of the Northeastern Coastal Plain, Coahuila, Mexico Estructura y composición florística de los bosques de Quercus fusiformis y Carya illinoinensis de la planicie costera del noreste, Coahuila, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Encina-Domínguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe community structure and richness in oak and walnut forests occurring along the San Rodrigo, San Diego, Escondido and Arroyo de las Vacas rivers on the Northeastern Coastal Plain (NE Coahuila, Mexico, we established 30 1 000-m² circular plots, where we measured diameter at breast height (DBH and tree heights. Tree regeneration and herb and shrub stratum were assessed in 5 2-m² quadrats per site. A total of 48 species distributed in 29 families were recorded. Families with the largest richness were Poaceae, Asteraceae, and Malvaceae. For the oak forest, tree stratum density and basal area values were 386 stems/ha and 24.36 m²/ha, respectively, whereas for the walnut forest the corresponding values were 302 stems/ha and 21.26 m²/ha. The species with the highest relative importance values were Quercus fusiformis (59.48% and Carya illinoinensis (57.58%. Total tree richness was 14 species, the most common ones being Celtis reticulata and Diospyros texana, followed closely by C. illinoinensis and Q. fusiformis. Anthropogenic impact appears to result in a poor regeneration reflected as a low sapling density, as well as in the reduction and fragmentation of these communities; in turn, this process has led to intrusions of species typical of the xerophytic Tamaulipan Thorn Scrub. Further studies are needed on the regeneration of the dominant species of these forests in order to describe their dynamics and to promote their preservation.Con la finalidad de conocer la estructura y la composición florística de los bosques de encino y nogal situados a lo largo de los ríos San Rodrigo, San Diego, Escondido y Arroyo de las Vacas en la planicie costera nororiental (NE de Coahuila, México, se establecieron 30 parcelas circulares de 1 000 m² en las que se midió el DAP y la altura de las especies arbóreas; además, se evaluó la regeneración de las especies arbóreas y el estrato herbáceo y arbustivo en 5 cuadros de 2 m² por sitio

  3. Molecular and Morphological Tools to Distinguish Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal, 1838 (Curculionidae: Dryophthorinae): A New Weevil Pest of the Endangered Century Plant, Agave eggersiana from St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Lourdes Chamorro; Joshua Persson; Christian W. Torres-Santana; Jeff Keularts; Sonja J. Scheffer; Matthew L. Lewis

    2016-01-01

    The agave snout weevil (AGW) or sisal weevil, Scyphophorus acupunctatus Gyllenhal is here reported for the first time in St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) where it threatens Agave eggersiana Trel., a USVI endemic and endangered century-plant. We provide molecular, morphological, and behavioral characters to successfully distinguish the two known Scyphophorus...

  4. Effects of a non-native biocontrol weevil, Larinus planus, and other emerging threats on populations of the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle, Cirsium pitcheri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Kayri; Jolls, Claudia L.; Marik, Julie E.; Vitt, Pati; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Kind, Darcy

    2012-01-01

    Larinus planus Frabicius (Curculionidae), is a seed-eating weevil that was inadvertently introduced into the US and was subsequently distributed in the US and Canada for the control of noxious thistle species of rangelands. It has been detected recently in the federally threatened Pitcher's thistle (Cirsium pitcheri). We assayed weevil damage in a natural population of Pitcher's thistle at Whitefish Dunes State Park, Door County, WI and quantified the impact on fecundity. We then estimated the impact of this introduced weevil and other emerging threats on two natural, uninvaded populations of Pitcher's thistle for which we have long-term demographic data for 16 yr (Wilderness State Park, Emmet County, MI) and 23 yr (Miller High Dunes, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Porter County, IN). We used transition matrices to determine growth rates and project the potential effects of weevil damage, inbreeding, goldfinch predation, and vegetative succession on Pitcher's thistle population viability. Based on our models, weevil seed predation reduced population growth rate by 10–12%, but this reduction was enough to reduce time to extinction from 24 yr to 13 yr and 8 yr to 5 yr in the MI and IN population, respectively. This impact is particularly severe, given most populations of Pitcher's thistle throughout its range hover near or below replacement. This is the first report of unanticipated ecological impacts from a biocontrol agent on natural populations of Cirsium pitcheri.

  5. Alternative food sources and over wintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) under the tropical conditions of central Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A.; Sujii, Edison R.; Pires, Carmen S.S.; Fontes, Eliana M.G. [EMBRAPA Recursos Geneticos e Biotecnologia (CENARGEN), Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: paulina723@hotmail.com, e-mail: sujii@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: cpires@cenargen.embrapa.br, e-mail: eliana@cenargen.embrapa.br; Diniz, Ivone R. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia], e-mail: irdiniz@unb.br; Medeiros, Maria A. de; Branco, Marina C. [EMBRAPA Hortalicas, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)], e-mail: medeiros@cnph.embrapa.br, e-mail: marina@cnph.embrapa.br; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L. [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia], e-mail: mlea@unb.br

    2010-01-15

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae (50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions. (author)

  6. Components and Insecticidal Activity against the Maize Weevils of Zanthoxylum schinifolium Fruits and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Shan Du

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In our screening program for new agrochemicals from Chinese medicinal herbs and wild plants, Zanthoxylum schinifolium essential oils were found to possess strong insecticidal activity against the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium fruits and leaves were extracted via hydrodistillation and investigated by GC and GC-MS. Estragole (69.52% was the major compound of the essential oil of fresh fruits, followed by linalool (8.63% and limonene (4.34% and 94.33% of the total components were monoterpenoids. The main components of the essential oil of fresh leaves were linalool (12.94%, ar-tumerone (8.95%, limonene (6.45% and elixene (5.43% and only 50.62% were monoterpenoids. However, the essential oil from purchased fruits contained linalool (33.42%, limonene (13.66% and sabinene (5.72%, followed by estragole (4.67%, nerol (4.56% and 4-terpineol (4.27%. Estragole, linalool and sabinene were separated and purified by silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, and further identified by means of physicochemical and spectrometric analysis. The essential oil from the fresh fruits (LD50 = 15.93 μg/adult possessed two times more toxicity to the insects compared with that of fresh leaves (LD50 = 35.31 μg/adult. Estragole, linalool and sabinene exhibited contact activity against S. zeamais with LD50 values of 17.63, 13.90 and 23.98 μg/adult, respectively. The essential oils of Z. schinifolium possessed strong fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais adults with LC50 values of 13.19 mg/L (fresh fruits, 24.04 mg/L (fresh leaves and 17.63 mg/L (purchased fruits. Estragole, linalool and sabinene also exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against the maize weevils with LC50 values of 14.10, 10.46 and 9.12 mg/L, respectively.

  7. Insecticidal activity of 2-tridecanone against the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yussef F.B. Braga

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of 2-tridecanone vapor on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculatus development was determined. Seeds of cowpea were infested with adults and exposed to different doses of 2-tridecanone isolated from Pilocarpus microphyllus Stapf ex Holm, a plant species native from northeastern Brazil. The pure monoterpene was evaluated both undiluted as well as in the dilutions 1:10, 1:100 and 1:1,000 (v/v. The following parameters of the cowpea weevil life cycle were analyzed in response to decreasing doses of 2-tridecanone: number of eggs laid, percentage of egg hatching on seeds, percentage of adult emergence, adult weight at emergence, mean developmental time and number of adults emerged. Vapor of 2-tridecanone caused a significant (P O efeito dos vapores da 2-tridecanona sobre o caruncho do feijão-de-corda (Callosobruchus maculatus foi avaliado. Sementes de feijão-de-corda infestados com insetos adultos foram expostas a diferentes doses de 2-tridecanona isolada de Pilocarpus microphyllus, uma espécie nativa do Nordeste do Brasil. O monoterpeno puro foi utilizado nas diluições 1:10, 1:100 e 1:1000 (v/v. Os parâmetros da biologia do inseto foram analisados em função da resposta a doses decrescentes de 2-tridecanona: número de ovos postos por fêmea, percentagem de eclosão de ovos, percentagem de emergência de adultos, peso dos adultos recém-emergidos, tempo médio de desenvolvimento e número total de ovos emergidos. Diferenças significativas (P < 0.05 entre as doses de 2-tridecanona testadas foram observadas, para quatro dos seis parâmetros biológicos analisados. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que a 2-tridecanona é tóxica para C. maculatus, reduzindo significativamente (P < 0.05 o número de insetos emergidos após a infestação. Esse efeito foi causado principalmente pela significativa redução observada na eclosão dos ovos expostos ao vapor da substância.

  8. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily D. Fountain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk, which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1 these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2 the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3 the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units.

  9. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.

  10. Bulk de novo mitogenome assembly from pooled total DNA elucidates the phylogeny of weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, Conrad P D T; Crampton-Platt, Alex; Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Jordal, Bjarte H; Emerson, Brent C; Vogler, Alfried P

    2014-08-01

    Complete mitochondrial genomes have been shown to be reliable markers for phylogeny reconstruction among diverse animal groups. However, the relative difficulty and high cost associated with obtaining de novo full mitogenomes have frequently led to conspicuously low taxon sampling in ensuing studies. Here, we report the successful use of an economical and accessible method for assembling complete or near-complete mitogenomes through shot-gun next-generation sequencing of a single library made from pooled total DNA extracts of numerous target species. To avoid the use of separate indexed libraries for each specimen, and an associated increase in cost, we incorporate standard polymerase chain reaction-based "bait" sequences to identify the assembled mitogenomes. The method was applied to study the higher level phylogenetic relationships in the weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea), producing 92 newly assembled mitogenomes obtained in a single Illumina MiSeq run. The analysis supported a separate origin of wood-boring behavior by the subfamilies Scolytinae, Platypodinae, and Cossoninae. This finding contradicts morphological hypotheses proposing a close relationship between the first two of these but is congruent with previous molecular studies, reinforcing the utility of mitogenomes in phylogeny reconstruction. Our methodology provides a technically simple procedure for generating densely sampled trees from whole mitogenomes and is widely applicable to groups of animals for which bait sequences are the only required prior genome knowledge. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Efficiency of inert mineral dusts in the control of corn weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F. Jairoce

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Corn weevil (Sitophilus zeamais may cause great losses in the crop and in stored corn grains. This insect is controlled with the use of chemical insecticides, which may cause serious damage to human health. One alternative of control is the use of inert dusts. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of inert dusts in the control of S. zeamais under laboratory conditions. The experiment was conducted in 2014, in a completely randomized design, and the treatments consisted of basalt dust with three different granulometries (A, B and C and diatomaceous earth, each of which at the doses of 2 and 4 kg t-1 and a control (no application. Each treatment had four replicates, and the sample unit consisted of 20 g of corn grains infected with 10 adults of S. zeamais kept in temperature-controlled chamber at 25 °C, 70% RH and photophase of 12 h. The dust efficiency was calculated using the equation of Abbott. The mortality rate was higher with the use of diatomaceous earth, reaching 100% after 5 days of exposure and the percentage of control for basalt dusts, 29 days after treatment, was above 80%.

  12. Blueberry Cultivars Differ in Susceptibility to the Elephant Weevil, Orthorhinus cylindrirostris (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Gregory; Clift, Alan D; Mansfield, Sarah

    2017-10-01

    The accumulated damage from elephant weevil larvae, Orthorhinus cylindrirostris (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces blueberry yield and shortens the productive lifespan of blueberry plants by several years. Selective breeding to develop pest-resistant blueberry cultivars is a possible control option, but the relationship between O. cylindrirostris populations, plant damage, and blueberry yield has not been described. A field survey of 17 blueberry cultivars was conducted on a commercial farm to measure O. cylindrirostris populations (emergence holes and adult numbers) and yield from plants of different ages (2-12 yr). Blueberry plants accumulated damage over time, that is, older plants tended to have more O. cylindrirostris emergence holes than younger plants. All cultivars received some level of O. cylindrirostris attack but this did not always lead to yield losses. Newer cultivars that have been in production since 2000 were less susceptible to O. cylindrirostris than older cultivars. Removal of highly susceptible cultivars from commercial blueberry farms may reduce O. cylindrirostris populations. There is potential for selective breeding to increase plant resistance to O. cylindrirostris if the specific resistance mechanisms can be identified in blueberry. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Later insecticide action of bioproductos from three plants for controlling the brown weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leónides Castellanos González

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The weevils produce serious damages to the stored grains, in particular to the bean. The employment of chemical products in these cases constitutes a risk for the health of people for that it is necessary the search new alternatives, effectives and less toxics Aims: to determine the in vitro mortality on Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say by three bioproducts containing powders of Azadirachta índica Juss. (neem, Melia azedarach L. (paradise y Eucalyptus sp. (eucalipto Settings and Design: Three assay with totally randomized designs were carried out with four treatments and four repetitions (Petri dish. The treatments were constituted by three concentrations (25, 50 and 75% of each bioproduct and a control Methods and Material: For the assays, adults of A. obtectus were fed with beans. The percentage of mortality was determined at the 48, 72 and 168 hours after the treatment with the phytopesticide Statistical analysis used: Data were transformed in arcsen √x, and they were processed by means of a variance analysis, using the statistical package SPSS version 15. The media were compared by the test of Tukey for P <0,05 Conclusions: Although neem, paradise and eucalyptus bioproductos in form of powders to the proportion of 25%, don't always got mortalities higher than 70% at 24 hours against the adults of Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say under laboratory conditions, they overcome this value later, reaching 100% of mortality at 168 hours to all the studied concentrations.

  14. Weapon allometry varies with latitude in the New Zealand giraffe weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painting, C J; Buckley, T R; Holwell, G I

    2014-12-01

    Animal body size commonly shows a relationship with latitude to the degree that this phenomenon is one of the few 'rules' discussed in evolutionary ecology: Bergmann's rule. Although exaggerated secondary sexual traits frequently exhibit interesting relationships with body size (allometries) and are expected to evolve rapidly in response to environmental variation, the way in which allometry might interact with latitude has not been addressed. We present data showing latitudinal variation in body size and weapon allometry for the New Zealand giraffe weevil (Lasiorhynchus barbicornis). Males display an extremely elongated rostrum used as a weapon during fights for access to females. Consistent with Bergmann's rule, mean body size increased with latitude. More interestingly, weapon allometry also varied with latitude, such that lower latitude populations exhibited steeper allometric slopes between weapon and body size. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document a latitudinal cline in weapon allometry and is therefore a novel contribution to the collective work on Bergmann's rule and secondary sexual trait variation. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  15. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by abscisic acid and sugar (Research article). 63 achiasmy. Male-biased recombination in odonates: insights from a linkage map of the damselfly Ischnura elegans (Research note). 115 acorn weevil. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for acorn weevil Curculio bimaculatus Faust (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

  16. Evaluation of Certain Plant Leaf Powders and Aqueous Extracts against Maize Weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Awoke Yohannes; Genet Asayew; Getachew Melaku; Mulugeta Derbew; Sirgota Kedir; Nagappan Raja

    2014-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to evaluate powders and aqueous extracts of Melia azedarach, Mentha piperita, Phytolacca dodecandra, Schinus molle and Xanthium strumarium leaves against maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. Repellent activity of plant powders were evaluated by mixing 0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 g of powder per 100 g of clean uninfested maize seeds individually in separate plastic container. The numbers of insects moving outside the container were recorded at 24 h and 48 h post exposur...

  17. ECOLOGICAL-FAUNISTIC AND ZOOGEOGRAPHICAL CHARACTERISTIC OF BEETLE-WEEVILS OF ISLAND CHECHEN OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. G. Arsanov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Ecological-faunistic investigations of island Chechen are great interest for understanding the law of formation of island biotas and reconstruction of zoogeological history of the Caspian Sea. Faunistic investigations of islands and coastal areas , habitats and others chorologic aspects illuminate the ways of their probable settlement,explains the paradoxes of propagation of some species. Study of relationships with host plants appear the crucial stage of ecological-faunistic investigathions of the weevils.Location. Materials of the work were expeditionary duties of the authors, as well as staff and the students of ecologo-geografical faculty of Dagistan State University and the Institute for Applied Ecology ( Makhachkala from 2009 to 2013 year for the island Chechen.Methods. Charges were made with the help of light traps, soil traps, including trap, enhanced light source .Geografpical coordinates of all locations were recorded using GPS- navigator: T1 - 43°57’58” N 47°38’35” E; T2 - 43°58’17” N 47°42’55”; T3 - 43°59’08” N 47°44’39” E; T4 - 43°57’27” N 47°45’05” E; T5 - 43°58’11” N47°38’46” E.Results. As a result of studies were set the species composition of the faun of the beetle-weevils of the island Chechen, the analyses of the distribution of species by locality; mounted forage plants of the beetles and quantitative distribution of the beetls for families forage plants; conduct the zoogeographical analysis of studied fauna.Main conclusions. The studies on the island of Chechen were collected 187 specimens belonging to 16 species and 14 geniuse; the most common type was Coniatus splendidulus. The food base of the weevil beetles in the island of Chechen are 10 plant families,thelargest number of species focused on Chenopodiаceae, then followed Polygonaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae. Analysis of fauna habitats of the beetle- weevils of the island Chechen allowed to allocate 7

  18. Insecticidal activity of alpha-cypermethrin against small banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in forest plantations and thickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokocka Aleksandra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris plantations and thickets damaged by biotic and abiotic factors are particularly attractive to small-banded pine weevil Pissodes castaneus, whose larvae excavate feeding tunnels in the stems of young trees, causing their death. There are no chemical methods that can be applied to protect forest plantations and thickets against this pest. Therefore, the studies were undertaken aimed at the assessment of the efficacy of alpha-cypermethrin used to reduce the numbers of this pest within restock areas. The scope of work included laboratory and field estimation of insecticidal activity of alpha-cypermethrin.

  19. Susceptibility of different developmental stages of large pine weevil Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to entomopathogenic fungi and effect of fungal infection to adult weevils by formulation and application methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Minshad A; Butt, Tariq M

    2012-09-15

    The large pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, is a major pest in European conifer forests causing millions of Euros of damage annually. Larvae develop in the stumps of recently felled trees; the emerging adults feed on the bark of seedlings and may kill them. This study investigated the susceptibility of different developmental stages of H. abietis to commercial and commercially viable isolates of entomopathogenic fungi, Metarhizium and Beauveria. All the developmental stages of H. abietis can be killed by Metarhizium robertsii, Metarhizium brunneum, and Beauveria bassiana. The most virulent isolate of M. robertsii ARSEF4556 caused 100% mortality of pupae, larvae and adults on day 4, 6 and 12, respectively. This strain was further tested against adult weevils in different concentrations (10(5)-10(8) conidia cm(-2) or ml(-1)) using two types of fungal formulation: 'dry' conidia and 'wet' conidia (suspended in 0.03% aq. Tween 80) applied on different substrates (tissue paper, peat and Sitka spruce seedlings). 'Dry' conidia were more effective than 'wet' conidia on tissue paper and on spruce or 'dry' conidia premixed in peat. The LC(50) value for 'dry' conidia of isolate ARSEF4556 was three folds lower than 'wet' conidia on tissue paper. This study showed that 'dry' conidia are more effective than 'wet' conidia, causing 100% adult mortality within 12 days. Possible strategies for fungal applications are discussed in light of the high susceptibility of larvae and pupae to fungal pathogen. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of toxicity of biorational insecticides against larvae of the alfalfa weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gadi V.P. Reddy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The alfalfa weevil, Hypera postica (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, is a major pest of alfalfa Medicago sativa L. (Fabaceae. While H. postica usually causes the most damage before the first cutting, in summer of 2015 damaging levels of the pest persisted in Montana well after the first harvest of alfalfa. Although conventional insecticides can control H. postica, these chemicals have adverse effects on non-target organisms including pollinators and natural enemy insects. In this context, use of biorational insecticides would be the best alternative options, as they are known to pose less risk to non-target organisms. We therefore examined the six commercially available biorational insecticides against H. postica under laboratory condition: Mycotrol® ESO (Beauveria bassiana GHA, Aza-Direct® (Azadirachtin, Met52® EC (Metarhizium brunneum F52, Xpectro OD® (B. bassiana GHA + pyrethrins, Xpulse OD® (B. bassiana GHA + Azadirachtin and Entrust WP® (spinosad 80%. Concentrations of 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 times the lowest labelled rates were tested for all products. However, in the case of Entrust WP, additional concentrations of 0.001 and 0.01 times the lowest label rate were also assessed. Mortality rates were determined at 1–9 days post treatment. Based on lethal concentrations and relative potencies, this study clearly showed that Entrust was the most effective, causing 100% mortality within 3 days after treatment among all the tested materials. With regard to other biorational, Xpectro was the second most effective insecticide followed by Xpulse, Aza-Direct, Met52, and Mycotrol. Our results strongly suggested that these biorational insecticides could potentially be applied for H. postica control.

  1. Transcriptome analysis in cotton boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis and RNA interference in insect pests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Augusto Pereira Firmino

    Full Text Available Cotton plants are subjected to the attack of several insect pests. In Brazil, the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, is the most important cotton pest. The use of insecticidal proteins and gene silencing by interference RNA (RNAi as techniques for insect control are promising strategies, which has been applied in the last few years. For this insect, there are not much available molecular information on databases. Using 454-pyrosequencing methodology, the transcriptome of all developmental stages of the insect pest, A. grandis, was analyzed. The A. grandis transcriptome analysis resulted in more than 500.000 reads and a data set of high quality 20,841 contigs. After sequence assembly and annotation, around 10,600 contigs had at least one BLAST hit against NCBI non-redundant protein database and 65.7% was similar to Tribolium castaneum sequences. A comparison of A. grandis, Drosophila melanogaster and Bombyx mori protein families' data showed higher similarity to dipteran than to lepidopteran sequences. Several contigs of genes encoding proteins involved in RNAi mechanism were found. PAZ Domains sequences extracted from the transcriptome showed high similarity and conservation for the most important functional and structural motifs when compared to PAZ Domains from 5 species. Two SID-like contigs were phylogenetically analyzed and grouped with T. castaneum SID-like proteins. No RdRP gene was found. A contig matching chitin synthase 1 was mined from the transcriptome. dsRNA microinjection of a chitin synthase gene to A. grandis female adults resulted in normal oviposition of unviable eggs and malformed alive larvae that were unable to develop in artificial diet. This is the first study that characterizes the transcriptome of the coleopteran, A. grandis. A new and representative transcriptome database for this insect pest is now available. All data support the state of the art of RNAi mechanism in insects.

  2. Identification of the Weevil immune genes and their expression in the bacteriome tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moya Andrés

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persistent infections with mutualistic intracellular bacteria (endosymbionts are well represented in insects and are considered to be a driving force in evolution. However, while pathogenic relationships have been well studied over the last decades very little is known about the recognition of the endosymbionts by the host immune system and the mechanism that limits their infection to the bacteria-bearing host tissue (the bacteriome. Results To study bacteriome immune specificity, we first identified immune-relevant genes of the weevil Sitophilus zeamais by using suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH and then analyzed their full-length coding sequences obtained by RACE-PCR experiments. We then measured immune gene expression in the bacteriome, and in the aposymbiotic larvae following S. zeamais primary endosymbiont (SZPE injection into the hemolymph, in order to consider the questions of bacteriome immune specificity and the insect humoral response to symbionts. We show that larval challenge with the endosymbiont results in a significant induction of antibacterial peptide genes, providing evidence that, outside the bacteriome, SZPE are recognized as microbial intruders by the host. In the bacteriome, gene expression analysis shows the overexpression of one antibacterial peptide from the coleoptericin family and, intriguingly, homologs to genes described as immune modulators (that is, PGRP-LB, Tollip were also shown to be highly expressed in the bacteriome. Conclusion The current data provide the first description of immune gene expression in the insect bacteriome. Compared with the insect humoral response to SZPE, the bacteriome expresses few genes among those investigated in this work. This local immune gene expression may help to maintain the endosymbiont in the bacteriome and prevent its invasion into insect tissues. Further investigations of the coleoptericin, the PGRP and the Tollip genes should elucidate the role

  3. Transgenic cotton expressing Cry10Aa toxin confers high resistance to the cotton boll weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Thuanne Pires; Arraes, Fabricio Barbosa Monteiro; Lourenço-Tessutti, Isabela Tristan; Silva, Marilia Santos; Lisei-de-Sá, Maria Eugênia; Lucena, Wagner Alexandre; Macedo, Leonardo Lima Pepino; Lima, Janaina Nascimento; Santos Amorim, Regina Maria; Artico, Sinara; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Mattar Silva, Maria Cristina; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2017-08-01

    Genetically modified (GM) cotton plants that effectively control cotton boll weevil (CBW), which is the most destructive cotton insect pest in South America, are reported here for the first time. This work presents the successful development of a new GM cotton with high resistance to CBW conferred by Cry10Aa toxin, a protein encoded by entomopathogenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) gene. The plant transformation vector harbouring cry10Aa gene driven by the cotton ubiquitination-related promoter uceA1.7 was introduced into a Brazilian cotton cultivar by biolistic transformation. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays revealed high transcription levels of cry10Aa in both T 0 GM cotton leaf and flower bud tissues. Southern blot and qPCR-based 2 -ΔΔCt analyses revealed that T 0 GM plants had either one or two transgene copies. Quantitative and qualitative analyses of Cry10Aa protein expression showed variable protein expression levels in both flower buds and leaves tissues of T 0 GM cotton plants, ranging from approximately 3.0 to 14.0 μg g -1 fresh tissue. CBW susceptibility bioassays, performed by feeding adults and larvae with T 0 GM cotton leaves and flower buds, respectively, demonstrated a significant entomotoxic effect and a high level of CBW mortality (up to 100%). Molecular analysis revealed that transgene stability and entomotoxic effect to CBW were maintained in T 1 generation as the Cry10Aa toxin expression levels remained high in both tissues, ranging from 4.05 to 19.57 μg g -1 fresh tissue, and the CBW mortality rate remained around 100%. In conclusion, these Cry10Aa GM cotton plants represent a great advance in the control of the devastating CBW insect pest and can substantially impact cotton agribusiness. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  5. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  6. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of red palm weevil (Coleopter: Curculionidae) in agricultural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  7. New records of Paracrias Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae as parasitoids on weevil larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae in Brazil, with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Palmieri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Paracrias strii Schauff, 1985 and P. ceratophaga Palmieri & Hansson sp. nov. are first record in Brazil and both are associated with Ceratopus Schoenherr larvae (Coleoptera, Curculionidae reared from syconia of two species of fig-trees. Both Paracrias species are diagnosed and illustrated. Males of P. ceratophaga sp. nov. are described. The association of Paracrias with weevil larvae is briefly discussed.

  8. The distribution of the invasive pest, rice water weevil Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is expanding in Europe: First record in the Balkans, confirmed by CO1 DNA barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report of the invasive rice pest, rice water weevil (Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel) in the Balkans. Adult specimens were collected in flooded rice fields in the principal rice-growing region of Central Macedonia, Greece during July-August, 2016. Morphological identification was...

  9. Pre-release evaluation of Neochetina weevils potential for the management of Eichhornia crassipes [Mart.] Solm. In the Rift valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, F.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at evaluating the host-specificity, potential efficacy and optimum densities of the two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and N. eichhorniae) as water hyacinth control agents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Density-plant damage relationship was monitored for two years (2012 to 2014)

  10. Adaptability of two weevils (Neochetina bruchi and Neochetina eichhorniae) with potential to control water hyacinth in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2015-01-01

    Neochetina weevils have potential as biocontrol agents for water hyacinth, an aquatic weed which seriously affects irrigation water supply in sugarcane, vegetables and other horticultural crop production in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. A study was conducted on (i) the adaptability and duration of

  11. Integrated biological control of water hyacinths, Eichhornia crassipes by a novel combination of grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Valenciennes, 1844), and the weevil, Neochetina spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Rajkumar, Mayalagu; Sun, Jun; Parida, Ajay; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella (Cyprinidae) and weevils Neochetina spp. (Curculionidae) to control the aquatic weed, water hyacinth, is investigated in a square net cage (happas) setting at a farm in Cuddalore District, South India. This novel combination of insects and fish is found to be superior to individual treatments for controlling the weed growth within 110 d. The biomass of the weed, number of plants, percentage of flowered plants and chlorophyll contents were studied. The weed biomass is reduced from 5 kg (day 1) to 0.33 kg (day 110) when exposed to grass carp and weevils. The number of plants is reduced to 0.75 in grass carp and weevil exposed happas, while it is 741.5 in the control. The mean number of leaves per plant is also reduced. In addition, the chlorophyll a and b are significantly reduced in happas exposed to the combination of fish and insects when compared to the other treatments. Based on the results of this study, we consider the combined use of grass carp and weevils to be more efficient and sustainable for managing water hyacinths than the use of these organisms individually.

  12. Dielectric properties of cowpea weevil, black eyed peas and mung beans with respect to the development of radio frequency heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In developing radio frequency (RF) and microwave (MW) disinfestation treatments for chickpeas and lentils, large amounts of product infested with cowpea weevil must be treated to validate treatment efficacy. To accomplish this, black-eyed peas and mung beans are being considered for use as surrogate...

  13. Composition and seasonal phenology of a nonindigenous root-feeding weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) complex in northern hardwood forests in the Great Lakes Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Pinski; W. J. Mattson; K. F. Raffa

    2005-01-01

    Phyllobius oblongus (L.), Polydrusus sericeus (Schaller), and Sciaphilus asperatus (Bonsdorff) comprise a complex of nonindigenous root-feeding weevils in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes region. Little is known about their detailed biology, seasonality, relative abundance, and distribution patterns....

  14. Effects of insecticides and defoliants applied alone and in combination for control of overwintering boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis; Coleoptera: Curculionidae)--laboratory and field studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Shoil M; Sappington, Thomas W; Elzen, Gary W; Norman, John W; Sparks, Alton N

    2004-09-01

    In laboratory, greenhouse and field tests, we determined the effects of combining full rates of the defoliants tribufos and thidiazuron and the herbicide thifensulfuron-methyl with half rates of the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin or azinphos-methyl, and the combination of tribufos and thidiazuron, both in half rates, on mortality of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman and on the quality of defoliation. Tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) and tribufos, 0.235 kg ha(-1) + thidiazuron, 0.125 kg ha(-1) exhibited a slightly toxic effect to boll weevil, while tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) + lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.019 kg ha(-1), tribufos, 0.47 kg ha(-1) + azinphos-methyl, 0.14 kg ha(-1), and tribufos, 0.235 kg ha(-1) + thidiazuron, 0.125 kg ha(-1) + azinphos-methyl, 0.14 kg ha(-l), provided control of boll weevil as good as or better than full-rate azinphos-methyl or lambda-cyhalothrin alone owing to synergistic effects. Thidiazuron or thifensulfuron-methyl alone or in combination with insecticides did not affect boll weevil mortality. Treatment with tribufos + thidiazuron, both at half rate, significantly increased defoliation compared to full rates of tribufos or thidiazuron alone, and provided adequate defoliation for approximately the same cost per hectare.

  15. Identification of genome regions controlling cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance to pea weevil through QTL mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryamanesh, N; Zeng, Y; Byrne, O; Hardie, D C; Al-Subhi, A M; Khan, T; Siddique, K H M; Yan, G

    2013-11-15

    Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum, is one of the limiting factors for field pea (Pisum sativum) cultivation in the world with pesticide application the only available method for its control. Resistance to pea weevil has been found in an accession of Pisum fulvum but transfer of this resistance to cultivated pea (P. sativum) is limited due to a lack of easy-to-use techniques for screening interspecific breeding populations. To address this problem, an interspecific population was created from a cross between cultivated field pea and P. fulvum (resistance source). Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping was performed to discover the regions associated with resistance to cotyledon, pod wall/seed coat and pod wall resistance. Three major QTLs, located on linkage groups LG2, LG4 and LG5 were found for cotyledon resistance explaining approximately 80 % of the phenotypic variation. Two major QTLs were found for pod wall/seed coat resistance on LG2 and LG5 explaining approximately 70 % of the phenotypic variation. Co-linearity of QTLs for cotyledon and pod wall/seed coat resistance suggested that the mechanism of resistance for these two traits might act through the same pathways. Only one QTL was found for pod wall resistance on LG7 explaining approximately 9 % of the phenotypic variation. This is the first report on the development of QTL markers to probe Pisum germplasm for pea weevil resistance genes. These flanking markers will be useful in accelerating the process of screening when breeding for pea weevil resistance.

  16. Assessing the virulence of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with the pine-infesting weevils to scots pine Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jankowiak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The pine-infesting weevils are known to be effective vectors of ophiostomatoid fungi. To understand more about fungal virulence of these fungi, inoculation studies were conducted on Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.. Two-year-old seedlings were wound-inoculated with one of eleven ophiostomatoid fungi associated with pine-infesting weevils. After 11 weeks, a darkened lesion, extending from the point of inoculation, was observed in all species, except for Ophiostoma cf. abietinum Marm. & Butin, Ophiostoma quercus (Georgev. Nannf., and Sporothrix inflata de Hoog. Seedling mortality was observed in seedlings inoculated with Leptographium truncatum (M.J. Wingf. & Marasas M.J. Wingf., Leptographium lundbergii Lagerb. & Melin, Leptographium procerum (W.B. Kendr. M.J. Wingf., Grosmannia radiaticola (J.J. Kim, Seifert & G.H. Kim Zipfel, Z.W. de Beer & M.J. Wingf., Ophiostoma floccosum Math.-Käärik, Ophiostoma minus (Hedgc. Syd. & P. Syd., and Ophiostoma piliferum (Fr. Syd. & P. Syd. Ophiostoma minus and L. truncatum caused the largest lesions and sapwood blue-stain in Scots pine. Grosmannia radiaticola, Ophiostoma piceae (Münch Syd. & P. Syd., O. floccosum, O. piliferum, L. lundbergii,and L. procerum produced significantly smaller lesions and sapwood blue-stain than O. minus and L. truncatum, while O. cf. abietinum, O. quercus and S. inflata did not cause any lesions.

  17. Morphology of salivary gland and distribution of dopamine and serotonin on red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayah, A. S. Nurul; Wahida, O. Nurul; Shafinaz, M. N. Norefrina; Idris, A. G.

    2013-11-01

    The Red Palm Weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier, 1790) is insect pest to plants of the family Palmaceae. No study has been reported on the digestive mechanism of Red Palm Weevil (RPW). Salivary glands are responsible in the feeding regulation of insect while serotonin and dopamine play a significant role in the regulation of this gland. It is great to see the morphology of the salivary gland and how dopamine and serotonin possibly play their role in this gland. Two variation of RPW, striped and spotted RPW were chosen. The morphology of the gland of both RPW variants examined by using light microscopy was found to be a tubular type. Immunohistochemical analysis conducted showed that serotonin and dopamine in both variations did not innervate the glands suggesting they are not act as neurotransmitter. However, it can be detected on few areas within the glands. This suggests that serotonin and dopamine may act as a hormone because there is no evidence on the nerve fibers. The role of these biogenic amines in the salivary gland of RPW needs further investigation. Hopefully the data would help in understanding the mechanism of salivary glands control by biogenic amines in RPW specifically and insects with sucking mouthpart generally.

  18. Fumigant toxicity of volatile natural products from Korean spices and medicinal plants towards the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S E; Lee, B H; Choi, W S; Park, B S; Kim, J G; Campbell, B C

    2001-06-01

    The fumigant toxicity of various volatile constituents of essential oils extracted from sixteen Korean spices and medicinal plants towards the rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae L (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was determined. The most potent toxicity was found in the essential oil from Mentha arvensis L. var piperascens (LC50 = 45.5 microliters litre-1 air). GC-MS analysis of essential oil from M arvensis showed it to be rich in menthol (63.2%), menthone (13.1%) and limonene (1.5%), followed in abundance by beta-pinene (0.7%), alpha-pinene (0.6%) and linalool (0.2%). Treatment of S oryzae with each of these terpenes showed menthone to be most active (LC50 = 12.7 microliters litre-1 air) followed by linalool (LC50 = 39.2 microliters litre-1 air) and alpha-pinene (LC50 = 54.9 microliters litre-1 air). Studies on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity of S oryzae showed menthone to have a nine-fold lower inhibitory effect than menthol, despite menthone being 8.1-fold more toxic than menthol to the rice weevil. Different modes of toxicity of these monoterpenes towards S oryzae are discussed.

  19. Assessment of Insecticidal Efficacy of Diatomaceous Earth and Powders of Common Lavender and Field Horsetail against Bean Weevil Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohinc, T; Vayias, B; Bartol, T; Trdan, S

    2013-12-01

    In the search for an effective and sustainable control method against the bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say), an important insect pest affecting stored common beans and other legumes, three different powders were tested against adult been weevils under laboratory conditions. The three powders were diatomaceous earth (DE) (commercial product SilicoSec®), common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) powder and field horsetail (Equisetum arvense) powder. The substances were tested at five temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C), two relative humidity levels (RH) (55 and 75%), and four concentrations (100, 300, 500, and 900 ppm). The mortality of adults was measured after the 1st, 2nd, 4th, and 7th days of exposure. The efficacy of the powders increased with the temperature, whereas in general, RH did not have a significant effect on the adults' survival. According to common practice of storing common beans, we recommend the use of DE against the pest in question, as this inert powder showed the highest efficacy at lower temperatures and concentrations. Concerning the wider use of common lavender and field horsetail powders, we suggest studying their combined use with other environmentally friendly methods with the aim of achieving the highest synergistic effect possible.

  20. Host plant phenology affects performance of an invasive weevil, Phyllobius oblongus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in a northern hardwood forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, David R; Jordan, Michelle S; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2010-10-01

    We investigated how host plant phenology and plant species affected longevity, reproduction, and feeding behavior of an invasive weevil. Phyllobius oblongus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is common in northern hardwood forests of the Great Lakes Region. Adults emerge in spring, feed on foliage of woody understory plants, and oviposit in the soil. Preliminary data indicate that adults often feed on sugar maple, Acer saccharum Marshall, foliage early in the season, then feed on other species such as raspberry, Rubus spp. Whether this behavior reflects temporal changes in the quality of A. saccharum tissue or merely subsequent availability of later-season plants is unknown. We tested adult P. oblongus in laboratory assays using young (newly flushed) sugar maple foliage, old (2-3 wk postflush) sugar maple foliage, and raspberry foliage. Raspberry has indeterminate growth, thus always has young foliage available for herbivores. Survival, oviposition, and leaf consumption were recorded. In performance assays under no-choice conditions, mated pairs were provided one type of host foliage for the duration of their lives. In behavioral choice tests, all three host plants were provided simultaneously and leaf area consumption was compared. Adults survived longer on and consumed greater amounts of young maple and raspberry foliage than old maple foliage. P. oblongus preferred young maple foliage to old maple foliage early in the season, however, later in the growing season weevils showed less pronounced feeding preferences. These results suggest how leaf phenology, plant species composition, and feeding plasticity in host utilization may interact to affect P. oblongus population dynamics.

  1. Evaluation of Toxicological Effects of an Aqueous Extract of Shells from the Pecan Nut Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch and the Possible Association with Its Inorganic Constituents and Major Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Luiz Carlos S; da Silva, Juliana; Sousa, Karen; Ambrozio, Mariana L; de Almeida, Aline; Dos Santos, Carla Eliete I; Dias, Johnny F; Allgayer, Mariangela C; Dos Santos, Marcela S; Pereira, Patrícia; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Picada, Jaqueline N

    2016-01-01

    Background. Industrial processing of the pecan nut Carya illinoinensis K. Koch generated a large amount of shells, which have been used to prepare nutritional supplements and medicinal products; however, the safe use of shells requires assessment. This study evaluated the toxic, genotoxic, and mutagenic effects of pecan shell aqueous extract (PSAE) and the possible contribution of phenolic compounds, ellagic and gallic acids, and inorganic elements present in PSAE to induce toxicity. Results. Levels of inorganic elements like K, P, Cl, and Rb quantified using the Particle-Induced X-Ray Emission method were higher in PSAE than in pecan shells, while Mg and Mn levels were higher in shells. Mice showed neurobehavioral toxicity when given high PSAE doses (200-2,000 mg kg(-1)). The LD50 was 1,166.3 mg kg(-1). However, PSAE (50-200 mg·kg(-1)) and the phenolic compounds (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) did not induce DNA damage or mutagenicity evaluated using the comet assay and micronucleus test. Treatment with ellagic acid (10-100 mg·kg(-1)) decreased triglyceride and glucose levels, while treatments with PSAE and gallic acid had no effect. Conclusion. Pecan shell toxicity might be associated with high concentrations of inorganic elements such as Mn, Al, Cu, and Fe acting on the central nervous system, besides phytochemical components, suggesting that the definition of the safe dose should take into account the consumption of micronutrients.

  2. The effects of gamma radiation on the reproduction of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera - Bruchidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghogomu, TR.

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Irradiation of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus F. was carried out to study its effects on reproduction. Complete sterility of males and females is obtained when treated as adults with 10 krad. At lower doses the female is more susceptible than the male. The fecundity is affected and at doses above 100 krad death occurs before the female lays all her mature eggs. The sterility induced is observed in the reduction in percentage of egg hatch, but mortality after hatching is negligible. When females are exposed to substerilizing doses as pupae or adults, the fertility on the first day of oviposition is significantly reduced and those treated as adults are the most affected. On the second day there is improvement in fertility.

  3. Biological Control Against the Cowpea Weevil (Callosobruchus Chinensis L., Coleoptera: Bruchidae Using Essential Oils of Some Medicinal Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatiha Righi Assia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is a valuable foodstuff but unfortunately this legume is prone to insect attacks from the chick pea weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis L.. This serious pest damages the chickpea and causes decreases in the yield and in the nutritional quality. Biological control is being used to deal with this problem. We tried different doses of the essential oils of three new medicinal plants, namely Salvia verbenaca L., Scilla maritima L., and Artemisia herba-alba Asso to limit the damage of the chick pea weevil pest, and to protect consumer’s health. To determine the effect and efficiency of the oil, the tests were conducted using the different biological parameters of fertility, longevity, and fecundity, under controlled temperature and relative humidity (28°C and 75%. The effectiveness of organic oils was demonstrated. We tested these oils on the germination of seeds. The obtained results showed that the tested plant oils have a real organic insecticide effect. The essential oil of Artemisia proved most effective as a biocide; achieving a mortality rate of 100%. A significant reduction in longevity was observed under the effect of 30 μl of S. maritima (1.3 days and S. verbenaca (2.8, 4.6 days, respectively, for males and females compared to 8 and 15 days for the control. For fecundity, an inhibition of oviposition was obtained using 30 μl of Salvia and Scilla essential oils. The test on the seed germination using different essential oils, showed no damage to the germinating seeds. The germination rate was 99%. These findings suggest that the tested plants can be used as a bioinsecticide for control of the C. chinensis pest of stored products.

  4. Effect of Selenium, Molybdenum and Zinc on Seedling Growth and Frequency of Grain Weevil (Sitophilus granarius in Triticale Grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Kastori

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different doses (0, 90, 270, 810 kg/ha of selenium, molybdenum and zinc microelements on their translocation and accumulation in grains, seedling growth and grain infestation were examined under field conditions on a calcareous chernozem soil.Thirteen years after the application of selenium, molybdenum and zinc, significant translocation and accumulation of these elements in the grain were established, indicating a long-term effect of these microelements on triticale plants. The highest degree of accumulation in grains and seedling shoots was found for selenium, then molybdenum, while the detected amounts of zinc were significantly lower. The degree of accumulation of all threemicroelements in the grain and seedling shoot increased as doses increased. Translocation index from shoot to grain at the grain-filling phase was the highest when zinc was used, then selenium, and the lowest when molybdenum was applied. The highest translocationindex from the grain during germination into seedling shoots was obtained with zinc, then molybdenum and selenium. Translocation indexes of the investigated elements significantly decreased as the doses of elements increased. Dry weight of seedling shoots decreasedas molybdenum and zinc in grain increased. High selenium concentration moderately stimulated seedling development, pointing out a high tolerance of triticale to higher concentration of this microelement at initial development stages. Infestatation with grain weevil was provoked by high concentrations of these microelements in the grain. High concentrations of zinc and selenium, in particular, significantly decreased the percentage of damaged grains, while molybdenum moderately increased their numbers. The effect of zincand molybdenum may be attributed to their chemical effect, while selenium effect may also be referred to a negative effect of the volatile selenium compound. The effect of selenium, molybdenum and zinc contamination of grains

  5. Male biased gene flow in banana pseudostem weevil (Odoiporus longicollis Oliver) as revealed by analysis of the COI-tRNA(Leu) COII region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Vishvas M; Kumar, Lalitha Sunil

    2015-02-01

    The genetic diversity amongst thirty weevils representing six Indian populations of banana pseudostem weevil, i.e., Odoiporus longicollis (Oliver) was estimated by sequence analysis of the partial COI-tRNA(Leu)-COII region. The sequences exhibited AT bias typical of insect mitochondrial DNA which was highest in the first codon position of COI and in the third codon position of COII. There was no phylogeographic distribution of the populations. The Fu and Li's D and F tests were non-significant for this mitochondrial region. No Wolbachia infection was detected in any of the populations. The genetic differentiation amongst the populations was highly significant (p < 0.001; χ2 = 123.333; df = 75), suggesting restricted gene flow between the populations. This result did not correlate with that obtained with nuclear rDNA markers, i.e., ITS1 and ITS2, suggesting a male biased gene flow between the populations.

  6. Cotton harvest at 40% versus 75% boll-splitting on yield and economic return under standard and proactive boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) spray regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showler, A T; Robinson, J R C

    2008-10-01

    The standard practice of two or three preemptive insecticide applications at the start of pinhead (1-2-mm-diameter) squaring followed by threshold-triggered (when 10% of randomly selected squares have oviposition punctures) insecticide applications for boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), control does not provide reliable protection of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., lint production. This study, conducted during 2004 and 2005, showed that three to six fewer spray applications in a "proactive" approach, in which spraying began at the start of large (5.5-8-mm-diameter) square formation and continued at approximately 7-d intervals while large squares were abundant, resulted in fewer infested squares and 1.4- to 1.7-fold more lint than the standard treatment. Fewer sprays and increased yield made proactive spraying significantly more profitable than the standard approach, which resulted in relatively low or negative economic returns. Harvest at 75% boll-split in the proactive spray regime of 2005 resulted in four-fold greater economic return than cotton harvested at 40% boll-split because of improved protection of large squares and the elimination of late-season sprays inherent to standard spray regime despite the cost of an extra irrigation in the 75% boll-split treatments. The earlier, 40% harvest trigger does not avoid high late-season boll weevil pressure, which exerts less impact on bolls, the predominant form of fruiting body at that time, than on squares. Proactive spraying and harvest timing are based on an important relationship between nutrition, boll weevil reproduction, and economic inputs; therefore, the tactic of combining proaction with harvest at 75% boll-split is applicable where boll weevils are problematic regardless of climate or region, or whether an eradication program is ongoing.

  7. Effects of phosphorus availability and genetic variation of leaf terpene content and emission rate in Pinus pinaster seedlings susceptible and resistant to the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis

    OpenAIRE

    Blanch, J.; Sampedro, L.; Llusia, Joan; Moreira Tomé, X.; Zas Arregui, Rafael; Peñuelas, Josep

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of phosphorus fertilisation on foliar terpene concentrations and foliar volatile terpene emission rates in six half-sib families of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings. Half of the seedlings were resistant to attack of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis L., a generalist phloem feeder, and the remaining seedlings were susceptible to this insect. We hypothesised that P stress could modify the terpene concentration in the needles and thus lead to altered terpene emission patterns ...

  8. Bio-ecology and integrated management of the red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in the region of Valencia (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Dembilio, Óscar; Jacas Miret, Josep Anton

    2012-01-01

    The invasive red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is one of the most destructive pests of palms in the world. It is widely distributed in all continents and has been reported on 26 palm species belonging to 16 different genera. In the Mediterranean basin, R. ferrugineus has become the major pest of palms, mainly Phoenix canariensis hort. ex Chabaud, an endemic palm to the Canary Islands widely used as ornamental. In this manuscript we summarize the r...

  9. Field efficacy of Imidacloprid and Steinernema carpocapsae in a chitosan formulation against the Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Phoenix canariensis

    OpenAIRE

    Dembilio, Óscar; Llácer, Elena; Martínez de Altube, María del Mar; Jacas Miret, Josep Anton

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The invasive red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), has become the major pest of palms in the Mediterranean Basin. Chemical control against this species is difficult because of its cryptic habits and is mainly based on the repeated application of large quantities of synthetic insecticides. The aim of this work has been to evaluate in the field the efficacy of imidacloprid (Confidor 240 OD) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser with chitosan (Biorend R Palm...

  10. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Obata

    Full Text Available Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots. are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  11. A new light on the evolution and propagation of prehistoric grain pests: the world's oldest maize weevils found in Jomon Potteries, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Hiroki; Manabe, Aya; Nakamura, Naoko; Onishi, Tomokazu; Senba, Yasuko

    2011-03-29

    Three Sitophilus species (S. granarius L., S. oryzae L., and S. zeamais Mots.) are closely related based on DNA analysis of their endosymbionts. All are seed parasites of cereal crops and important economic pest species in stored grain. The Sitophilus species that currently exist, including these three species, are generally believed to be endemic to Asia's forested areas, suggesting that the first infestations of stored grain must have taken place near the forested mountains of southwestern Asia. Previous archaeological data and historical records suggest that the three species may have been diffused by the spread of Neolithic agriculture, but this hypothesis has only been established for granary weevils in European and southwestern Asian archaeological records. There was little archeological evidence for grain pests in East Asia before the discovery of maize weevil impressions in Jomon pottery in 2004 using the "impression replica" method. Our research on Jomon agriculture based on seed and insect impressions in pottery continued to seek additional evidence. In 2010, we discovered older weevil impressions in Jomon pottery dating to ca. 10 500 BP. These specimens are the oldest harmful insects in the world discovered at archaeological sites. Our results provide evidence of harmful insects living in the villages from the Earliest Jomon, when no cereals were cultivated. This suggests we must reconsider previous scenarios for the evolution and propagation of grain pest weevils, especially in eastern Asia. Although details of their biology or the foods they infested remain unclear, we hope future interdisciplinary collaborations among geneticists, entomologists, and archaeologists will provide the missing details.

  12. Insect-Induced Conifer Defense. White Pine Weevil and Methyl Jasmonate Induce Traumatic Resinosis, de Novo Formed Volatile Emissions, and Accumulation of Terpenoid Synthase and Putative Octadecanoid Pathway Transcripts in Sitka Spruce1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Barbara; Madilao, Lufiani L.; Ralph, Steven; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Stem-boring insects and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) are thought to induce similar complex chemical and anatomical defenses in conifers. To compare insect- and MeJA-induced terpenoid responses, we analyzed traumatic oleoresin mixtures, emissions of terpenoid volatiles, and expression of terpenoid synthase (TPS) genes in Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) following attack by white pine weevils (Pissodes strobi) or application of MeJA. Both insects and MeJA caused traumatic resin accumulation in stems, with more accumulation induced by the weevils. Weevil-induced terpenoid emission profiles were also more complex than emissions induced by MeJA. Weevil feeding caused a rapid release of a blend of monoterpene olefins, presumably by passive evaporation of resin compounds from stem feeding sites. These compounds were not found in MeJA-induced emissions. Both weevils and MeJA caused delayed, diurnal emissions of (−)-linalool, indicating induced de novo biosynthesis of this compound. TPS transcripts strongly increased in stems upon insect attack or MeJA treatment. Time courses and intensity of induced TPS transcripts were different for monoterpene synthases, sesquiterpene synthases, and diterpene synthases. Increased levels of weevil- and MeJA-induced TPS transcripts accompanied major changes in terpenoid accumulation in stems. Induced TPS expression profiles in needles were less complex than those in stems and matched induced de novo emissions of (−)-linalool. Overall, weevils and MeJA induced similar, but not identical, terpenoid defense responses in Sitka spruce. Findings of insect- and MeJA-induced accumulation of allene oxide synthase-like and allene oxide cyclase-like transcripts are discussed in the context of traumatic resinosis and induced volatile emissions in this gymnosperm system. PMID:15618433

  13. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Soffan

    Full Text Available The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus, which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies.

  14. Silencing the Olfactory Co-Receptor RferOrco Reduces the Response to Pheromones in the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffan, Alan; Antony, Binu; Abdelazim, Mahmoud; Shukla, Paraj; Witjaksono, Witjaksono; Aldosari, Saleh A; Aldawood, Abdulrahman S

    2016-01-01

    The red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), one of the most widespread of all invasive insect pest species, is a major cause of severe damage to economically important palm trees. RPW exhibits behaviors very similar to those of its sympatric species, the Asian palm weevil (R. vulneratus), which is restricted geographically to the southern part of Southeast Asia. Although efficient and sustainable control of these pests remains challenging, olfactory-system disruption has been proposed as a promising approach for controlling palm weevils. Here, we report the cloning and sequencing of an olfactory co-receptor (Orco) from R. ferrugineus (RferOrco) and R. vulneratus (RvulOrco) and examine the effects of RferOrco silencing (RNAi) on odorant detection. RferOrco and RvulOrco encoding 482 amino acids showing 99.58% identity. The injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) from RferOrco into R. ferrugineus pupae significantly reduced RferOrco gene expression and led to the failure of odor-stimulus detection, as confirmed through olfactometer and electroantennography (EAG) assays. These results suggest that olfactory-system disruption leading to reduced pheromone detection holds great potential for RPW pest-control strategies.

  15. Pine weevil feeding on Norway spruce bark has a stronger impact on needle VOC emissions than enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blande, James D. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: James.Blande@uku.fi; Turunen, Katariina [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: ksturune@hytti.uku.fi; Holopainen, Jarmo K. [Department of Environmental Science, University of Kuopio, P.O. Box 1627, FIN-70211 Kuopio (Finland)], E-mail: Jarmo.Holopainen@uku.fi

    2009-01-15

    Plants can respond physiologically to damaging ultraviolet-B radiation by altering leaf chemistry, especially UV absorbing phenolic compounds. However, the effects on terpene emissions have received little attention. We conducted two field trials in plots with supplemented UV-B radiation and assessed the influence of feeding by pine weevils, Hylobius abietis L., on volatile emissions from 3-year old Norway spruce trees (Picea abies L. Karst.). We collected emissions from branch tips distal to the feeding weevils, and from whole branches including the damage sites. Weevil feeding clearly induced the emission of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, particularly linalool and (E)-{beta}-farnesene, from branch tips, and the sums of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes emitted by whole branches were substantially increased. We discovered little effect of UV-B radiation up to 30% above the ambient level on volatile emissions from branch tips distal to damage sites, but there was a possible effect on bark emissions from damage sites. - Chronic exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation has little effect on volatile emissions of Norway spruce.

  16. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy in Early Detection of Red Palm Weevil: (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) Infestation in Date Palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Farooq, W.; G. Rasool, K.; Walid, Tawfik; S. Aldawood, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is one of the leading date producing countries. Unfortunately, this important fruit crop is under great threat from the red palm weevil (RPW) (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), which is a highly invasive pest. Several techniques, including visual inspection, acoustic sensors, sniffer dogs, and pheromone traps have been tried to detect the early stages of a RPW infestation; however, each method has suffered certain logistical and implementation issues. We have applied laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for the early detection of RPW infestation. Through the analysis of the observed LIBS spectra of different infested and healthy samples, we have found presence of Ca, Mg, Na, C, K elements and OH, CN molecules. The spectra also reveal that with the population growth of the pest, the intensity of Mg and Ca atomic lines in LIBS spectra increases rapidly. Similar behavior is observed in the molecular lines of LIBS spectra. The obtained results indicate that the LIBS technique can be used for the early detection of RPW infestation without damaging the date palms.

  17. Integrative Taxonomy, Phylogeny, and New Species of the Weevil Genus Onyxacalles Stüben (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Cryptorhynchinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E. Stüben

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A molecular phylogeny of the western Palearctic weevil genus Onyxacalles Stüben, 1999 is presented, combining two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S in a Bayesian analysis. Based on molecular data, Onyxacalles pyrenaeus Boheman, 1844 is transferred into the genus Kyklioacalles Stüben 1999 (K. fausti group and—in an integrative taxonomy framework—the interaction between morphology and molecular analysis is illustrated. The species of Onyxacalles s. str. are assigned to three new species groups, O. henoni, O. luigionii, and O. portusveneris groups. The distribution of the related species in the Mediterranean area is illustrated with values of COI and 16S p-distances. Three new species are described and distinguished from their related species: Onyxacalles nuraghi Stüben sp.n. from Italy (Sardinia, Onyxacalles torre Stüben and Astrin sp. n. from France (Corsica and Onyxacalles vilae Stüben sp. n. from Croatia (Velebit Mts.. A catalogue of all 20 species of Onyxacalles is given, and a key is finally presented combined with image stacking of the habitus and aedeagus for all species.

  18. Austromonticola, a new genus of broad-nosed weevil (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Entiminae from montane areas of New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel D. J. Brown

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Austromonticola gen. n. is proposed for a group of eight New Zealand alpine broad-nosed weevil species, all of which are here described: A. atriarius sp. n. (type locality: Umbrella Mountains, Central Otago, A. caelibatus sp. n. (type locality: Ohau Range, Mackenzie, A. furcatus sp. n. (type locality: Old Man Range, Central Otago, A. inflatus sp. n. (type locality: Hawkdun Range, Central Otago, A. planulatus sp. n. (type locality: St Marys Range, Central Otago, A. postinventus sp. n. (type locality: Kirkliston Range, South Canterbury, A. mataura sp. n. (type locality: Mt Dick, Otago Lakes and A. rotundus sp. n. (type locality: Old Man Range, Central Otago. All species occur exclusively above 1000 m elevation in the mountains of Central Otago and South Canterbury in the South Island. A phylogeny of the genus, including six outgroups, was inferred from 33 morphological characters. It resolved the genus as monophyletic, and revealed two strongly supported clades within Austromonticola. DNA sequences of four gene regions were obtained from five species. Of these, the 3' end of COI proved to be the most suitable for the identification of specimens. Females of all species have diagnostic secondary sexual structures on the elytra and ventrites. These structures are hypothesised to have evolved to assist with oviposition in and beside cushion plants or by selection for structures to mitigate the costs to females of prolonged mating.

  19. Evaluation of pseudostem trapping as a control measure against banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, C S; Gold, C S; Okech, S H; Nokoe, S

    2002-02-01

    Controlled studies to determine the efficacy of pseudostem trapping in reducing adult populations of the banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar), were conducted under farmer conditions in Ntungamo district, Uganda. Twenty-seven farms were stratified on the basis of C. sordidus population density (estimated by mark and recapture methods) and divided among three treatments: (i) researcher-managed trapping (one trap per mat per month): (ii) farmer-managed trapping (trap intensity at discretion of farmer); and (iii) controls (no trapping). Intensive trapping (managed by researchers) resulted in significantly lower C. sordidus damage after one year. Over the same period, C. sordidus numbers declined by 61% on farms where trapping was managed by researchers, 53% where farmers managed trapping and 38% on farms without trapping; however, results varied greatly among farms and, overall, there was no significant effect of trapping on C. sordidus numbers. Moreover, there was only a weak relationship between the number of C. sordidus removed and the change in population density. Trapping success appeared to be affected by management levels and immigration from neighbouring farms. Although farmers were convinced that trapping was beneficial, adoption has been low due to resource requirements.

  20. Modified alpha-amylase activity among insecticide-resistant and -susceptible strains of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, K V G; Silva, L B; Reis, A P; Oliveira, M G A; Guedes, R N C

    2010-09-01

    Fitness cost is usually associated with insecticide resistance and may be mitigated by increased energy accumulation and mobilization. Preliminary evidence in the maize weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) suggested possible involvement of amylases in such phenomenon. Therefore, alpha-amylases were purified from an insecticide-susceptible and two insecticide-resistant strains (one with fitness cost [resistant cost strain], and the other without it [resistant no-cost strain]). The main alpha-amylase of each strain was purified by glycogen precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography (>or=70-fold purification, cost strain exhibited higher activity towards starch and lower inhibition by acarbose and wheat amylase inhibitors. Opposite results were observed for the alpha-amylase from the resistant cost strain. Although the alpha-amylase from the resistant cost strain exhibited higher affinity to starch (i.e., lower K(m)), its V(max)-value was the lowest among the strains, particularly the resistant no-cost strain. Such results provide support for the hypothesis that enhanced alpha-amylase activity may be playing a major role in mitigating fitness costs associated with insecticide resistance.

  1. The Gut Entomotype of Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae and Their Effect on Host Nutrition Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For invasive insects, the potential roles of gut microbiota in exploiting new food resources and spreading remain elusive. Red palm weevil (RPW, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, is an invasive destructive pest which feeds on nutrient-poor tender tissues and has caused extensive mortality of palm trees. The microbes associated with insects can improve their nutrition assimilation. However, experimental evidence on the interactions between RPW and its gut microbiota is still absent. The aim of this study is to determine the dynamics changes and the bacterial entomotype in the RPW gut and its potential physiological roles. Here, we confirmed RPW harbors a complex gut microbiota mainly constituted by bacteria in the families Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Entomoplasmataceae, and Streptococcaceae. RPW gut microbiota exhibited a highly stable microbial community with low variance in abundance across different life stages and host plants. Furthermore, the abundance of Enterobacteriaceae was markedly increased but that of Acetobacteraceae was reduced significantly after administration of antibiotics. Although no significant effects were found on the body weight gain of RPW larvae, these alterations dramatically decreased the concentration of hemolymph protein and glucose while that of hemolymph triglyceride increased. In the gut of wild-caught RPW larvae, seven bacterial species in the genera Klebsiella, Serratia, Enterobacter, and Citrobacter were shown to have an ability to degrade cellulose. Together, RPW accommodate a stable gut microbiota which can degrade plant polysaccharides and confer their host optimal adaptation to its environment by modulating its metabolism.

  2. Transgenic sugarcane overexpressing CaneCPI-1 negatively affects the growth and development of the sugarcane weevil Sphenophorus levis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Vanessa Karine; Soares-Costa, Andrea; Chakravarthi, Mohan; Ribeiro, Carolina; Chabregas, Sabrina Moutinho; Falco, Maria Cristina; Henrique-Silva, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic sugarcane expressing CaneCPI-1 exhibits resistance to Sphenophorus levis larvae. Transgenic plants have widely been used to improve resistance against insect attack. Sugarcane is an economically important crop; however, great losses are caused by insect attack. Sphenophorus levis is a sugarcane weevil that digs tunnels in the stem base, leading to the destruction of the crop. This insect is controlled inefficiently by chemical insecticides. Transgenic plants expressing peptidase inhibitors represent an important strategy for impairing insect growth and development. Knowledge of the major peptidase group present in the insect gut is critical when choosing the most effective inhibitor. S. levis larvae use cysteine peptidases as their major digestive enzymes, primarily cathepsin L-like activity. In this study, we developed transgenic sugarcane plants that overexpress sugarcane cysteine peptidase inhibitor 1 (CaneCPI-1) and assessed their potential through feeding bioassays with S. levis larvae. Cystatin overexpression in the transgenic plants was evaluated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR, RT-qPCR, and immunoblot assays. A 50% reduction of the average weight was observed in larvae that fed on transgenic plants in comparison to larvae that fed on non-transgenic plants. In addition, transgenic sugarcane exhibited less damage caused by larval attack than the controls. Our results suggest that the overexpression of CaneCPI-1 in sugarcane is a promising strategy for improving resistance against this insect.

  3. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woong Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis, majoram (Origanum majorana, and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  4. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Woong; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Jang, Myeong-Jin; Jung, Chan-Sik; Park, Il-Kwon

    2016-03-16

    To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis), majoram (Origanum majorana), and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  5. Colonization of Artificially Stressed Black Walnut Trees by Ambrosia Beetle, Bark Beetle, and Other Weevil Species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Indiana and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Sharon E; Juzwik, Jennifer; English, James T; Ginzel, Matthew D

    2015-12-01

    Thousand cankers disease (TCD) is a new disease of black walnut (Juglans nigra L.) in the eastern United States. The disease is caused by the interaction of the aggressive bark beetle Pityophthorus juglandis Blackman and the canker-forming fungus, Geosmithia morbida M. Kolarik, E. Freeland, C. Utley & Tisserat, carried by the beetle. Other insects also colonize TCD-symptomatic trees and may also carry pathogens. A trap tree survey was conducted in Indiana and Missouri to characterize the assemblage of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils attracted to the main stems and crowns of stressed black walnut. More than 100 trees were girdled and treated with glyphosate (Riverdale Razor Pro, Burr Ridge, Illinois) at 27 locations. Nearly 17,000 insects were collected from logs harvested from girdled walnut trees. These insects represented 15 ambrosia beetle, four bark beetle, and seven other weevil species. The most abundant species included Xyleborinus saxeseni Ratzburg, Xylosandrus crassiusculus Motschulsky, Xylosandrus germanus Blandford, Xyleborus affinis Eichhoff, and Stenomimus pallidus Boheman. These species differed in their association with the stems or crowns of stressed trees. Multiple species of insects were collected from individual trees and likely colonized tissues near each other. At least three of the abundant species found (S. pallidus, X. crassiusculus, and X. germanus) are known to carry propagules of canker-causing fungi of black walnut. In summary, a large number of ambrosia beetles, bark beetles, and other weevils are attracted to stressed walnut trees in Indiana and Missouri. Several of these species have the potential to introduce walnut canker pathogens during colonization. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of Bait Quantity and Trap Color on the Trapping Efficacy of the Pheromone Trap for the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus

    OpenAIRE

    Abuagla, Abdullah Mohamed; Al-Deeb, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera), is not native to the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Since its arrival in 1985, it has been causing major damage to date palm trees. A primary control strategy has been the use of pheromone baited traps. The objectives of this study were to determine the quantity of bait, and the best trap color, to obtain the maximum catch of R. ferrugineus under field conditions in the UAE. Traps with 100, 300, or 500 g of dat...

  7. Herbivory by an introduced Asian weevil negatively affects population growth of an invasive Brazilian shrub in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stricker, Kerry Bohl; Stiling, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) is often cited to explain why some plants successfully invade natural communities while others do not. This hypothesis maintains that plant populations are regulated by coevolved enemies in their native range but are relieved of this pressure where their enemies have not been co-introduced. Some studies have shown that invasive plants sustain lower levels of herbivore damage when compared to native species, but how damage affects fitness and population dynamics remains unclear. We used a system of co-occurring native and invasive Eugenia congeners in south Florida (USA) to experimentally test the ERH, addressing deficiencies in our understanding of the role of natural enemies in plant invasion at the population level. Insecticide was used to experimentally exclude insect herbivores from invasive Eugenia uniflora and its native co-occurring congeners in the field for two years. Herbivore damage, plant growth, survival, and population growth rates for the three species were then compared for control and insecticide-treated plants. Our results contradict the ERH, indicating that E. uniflora sustains more herbivore damage than its native congeners and that this damage negatively impacts stem height, survival, and population growth. In addition, most damage to E. uniflora, a native of Brazil, is carried out by Myllocerus undatus, a recently introduced weevil from Sri Lanka, and M. undatus attacks a significantly greater proportion of E. uniflora leaves than those of its native congeners. This interaction is particularly interesting because M. undatus and E. uniflora share no coevolutionary history, having arisen on two separate continents and come into contact on a third. Our study is the first to document negative population-level effects for an invasive plant as a result of the introduction of a novel herbivore. Such inhibitory interactions are likely to become more prevalent as suites of previously noninteracting species continue to

  8. Growth and defence in young pine and spruce and the expression of resistance to a stem-feeding weevil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainhouse, D; Staley, J T; Jinks, R; Morgan, G

    2009-01-01

    Defence in young trees has been much less studied than defence in older ones. In conifers, resin within ducts in bark is an important quantitative defence, but its expression in young trees may be influenced by developmental or physical constraints on the absolute size of the resin ducts as well as by differential allocation of resources to growth and resin synthesis. To examine these relationships, we used nitrogen fertilisation of 1- and 2-year-old pine and spruce to produce trees of different sizes and measured the effect on the number and size of resin ducts and the amount of resin they contained. All of these variables tended to increase with stem diameter, indicating a positive relationship between resin-based defence and growth of 1- and 2-year-old trees. In pine, however, the mass of resin flowing from severed ducts was much lower relative to duct area in 1- than in 2-year-old trees, suggesting that the older trees allocated a higher proportion of the carbon budget to resin synthesis. Resin-based defence in 1-year-old pines appears to be both positively related to growth and resource limited. In spruce, resin production was generally lower, and age-related differences were not observed, suggesting that resin-based defence is less important in this species. Bio-assays of 2-year-old trees with the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, emphasised the importance of resin as a defence against this bark feeding insect. Nitrogen fertilisation had a limited influence on resistance expression. One-year-old trees remained susceptible because of their small size, low resin production and limited response to fertilisation. The strong growth response of 2-year-old trees to fertilisation increased resin-based defence, but most spruce trees remained susceptible, while most pines were resistant at all levels of fertilisation.

  9. Locomotory and physiological responses induced by clove and cinnamon essential oils in the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales Correa, Yenis Del Carmen; Faroni, Lêda R A; Haddi, Khalid; Oliveira, Eugênio E; Pereira, Eliseu José G

    2015-11-01

    Plant essential oils have been suggested as a suitable alternative for controlling stored pests worldwide. However, very little is known about the physiological or behavioral responses induced by these compounds in insect populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides. Thus, this investigation evaluated the toxicity (including the impacts on population growth) as well as the locomotory and respiratory responses induced by clove, Syzygium aromaticum L., and cinnamon, Cinnamomum zeylanicum L., essential oils in Brazilian populations of the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. We used populations that are resistant to phosphine and pyrethroids (PyPhR), only resistant to pyrethroids (PyR1 and PyR2) or susceptible to both insecticide types (SUS). The PyPhR population was more tolerant to cinnamon essential oil, and its population growth rate was less affected by both oil types. Insects from this population reduced their respiratory rates (i.e., CO2 production) after being exposed to both oil types and avoided (in free choice-experiments) or reduced their mobility on essential oil-treated surfaces. The PyR1 and PyR2 populations reduced their respiratory rates, avoided (without changing their locomotory behavior in no-choice experiments) essential oil-treated surfaces and their population growth rates were severely affected by both oil types. Individuals from SUS population increased their mobility on surfaces that were treated with both oil types and showed the highest levels of susceptibility to these oils. Our findings indicate that S. zeamais populations that are resistant to traditional insecticides might have distinct but possibly overlapping mechanisms to mitigate the actions of essential oils and traditional insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Characterization of olfactory receptor neurons for pheromone candidate and plant volatile compounds in the clover root weevil, Sitona lepidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kye Chung; McNeill, Mark; Unelius, C Rikard; Oh, Hyun-Woo; Suckling, David M

    2013-12-01

    Antennal olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) for pheromone and plant volatile compounds were identified and characterized in male and female clover root weevil, Sitona lepidus (Gyllenhal), using the single sensillum recording technique with five pheromone-related compounds, and 40 host and non-host plant volatile compounds. Overall, seven different types of olfactory sensilla containing specialized ORNs were identified in each sex of S. lepidus. Among them, three different types of sensilla in the males and two types in the females housed ORNs specialized for pheromone-related compounds. The ORNs in males were specialized for 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione or one or more of four stereoisomers of 5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone. In contrast, female sensilla did not contain ORNs sensitive to 4-methyl-3,5-heptanedione while they contained ORNs sensitive to and specialized for the stereoisomers of (4S,5S)-5-hydroxy-4-methyl-3-heptanone. In addition to the pheromone-related ORNs, four types of olfactory sensilla contained ORNs responsive to plant volatile compounds in male S. lepidus, and five types in females. Most of the ORNs identified in S. lepidus showed a high degree of specificity to specific volatile compounds although some of the active compounds showed overlapping response spectra in the ORNs across different types of sensilla. The most active plant volatile compounds were the four green leaf volatile compounds, (E)-2-hexenol, (Z)-2-hexenol, (Z)-3-hexenol and (E)-2-hexenal, and isomers of two monoterpenols, (±)-linalool and (±)-α-terpineol, all eliciting strong responses from relatively large numbers of ORNs in male and female S. lepidus. Our study indicates that S. lepidus has a set of highly sensitive and selective ORNs for pheromone and plant volatile compounds. Further work is needed to elucidate the behavioral implications of these findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Laboratory and field efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi for the management of the sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (Coleoptera: Brentidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Zhao, Zihua; Humber, Richard A

    2014-10-01

    The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is one of the most important pests of sweet potatoes in the world. With free trade between the United States and the U.S.-controlled Mariana Islands, C. formicarius has spread along with this commodity. Because of the cryptic nature of the larvae and nocturnal activity of the adults, and the cancellation of long-residual pesticides, this pest has become increasingly difficult to control. Therefore, the present study sought to explore and to compare the effectiveness of Metarhizium brunneum F52 (90ml a.i./ha), Beauveria bassiana GHA (40ml a.i./ha), spinosad (90g a.i./ha), azadirachtin (1484ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+M. brunneum (20ml a.i./ha+45ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+azadirachtin (20ml a.i./ha+742ml a.i./ha), B. bassiana+spinosad (20ml a.i./ha+45ml a.i./ha), M. brunneum+azadirachtin (45ml a.i./ha+742ml a.i./ha) and M. brunneum+spinosad (45ml a.i./ha+45 grams a.i./ha) in controlling this pest in both the laboratory and the field. The treatment with B. bassiana+M. brunneum was the most effective in reducing tuber damage by C. formicarius, producing the highest yields. The most adult cadavers were found in plots treated with the combination of two fungi. This combined fungal formulation appears to be appropriate for the practical control of C. formicarius on sweet potatoes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity of lemon grass Cymbopogon citratus powder and methanol extract against rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Osaigbokan Uwamose

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the toxicity potential of lemon grass [Cymbopogon citratus (C. citratus] products against adult rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae. Methods: Lemon grass (C. citratus leaves were sundried for 7 days, pulverized and sieved using 0.5 mm mesh size to obtain fine powders. About 500 g of the powder were dissolved in 1000 mL of 90% methanol to produce the extract. The powder and extract were used for the bioassay. The powder was tested at 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/10 g rice grains, respectively. The toxic potential of the extract of concentration of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/mL were evaluated using the filter paper method. The experiment was setup on a completely randomized design using three replicates per treatment. Results: The results indicated significant difference (F = 7.450; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 in mean percentage mortality after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure with the powder compared with the control. Significantly (F = 5.519; df = 3.15; P < 0.05 higher percentage adult mortality was also observed in the extract after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h exposure compared with the control. The LC50 value of the powder was 4.91 g/10 g of rice while the LT50 was 160.51 h. The LC50 value of the extract was 2.16 mg/20 mL of methanol with an LT50 of 75.10 h. The methanol extract of C. citratus showed the highest mortality compared to the powder which was less toxic. Conclusions: The study showed that C. citratus products are promising insecticides and can be used effectively in the management of Sitophilus oryzae in storage..

  13. Timing and host plant associations in the evolution of the weevil tribe Apionini (Apioninae, Brentidae, Curculionoidea, Coleoptera) indicate an ancient co-diversification pattern of beetles and flowering plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Sven; Friedman, Ariel L L; Astrin, Jonas J; Gottsberger, Brigitte; Letsch, Harald

    2017-02-01

    Host plant shifts of insects can lead to a burst of diversification driven by their arrival in a new adaptive zone. In this context, our study aims to explore timing and patterns in the evolution of the weevil tribe Apionini (Brentidae, Curculionoidea, Coleoptera), particularly in relation to affiliations with their host plants. The classification of Apionini is difficult because of their relatively uniform appearance. Most taxa live mono- or oligophagously on members of Asteraceae or Fabaceae, but many are associated with other plant families, like Lamiaceae, Malvaceae and Polygonaceae. However, a comprehensive hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Apionini is still missing. In the present study, we reconstructed trees and estimated divergence times among tribes. These results were further used to reconstruct the ancestral host plant use in Apionini weevils and to infer if the divergence timing of putative subtribes corresponds with the occurrence and radiation of their specific host plant groups. Phylogenetic analyses confirm the monophyly of most subtribes, with the exceptions of Oxystomatina, Kalcapiina and Aspidapiina. The subribe Aplemonina is inferred to be sister to all remaining Apionini. Divergence time estimates indicate the first occurrence of Apionini in the Upper Cretaceous and a simultaneous occurrence of several families of flowering plants and the occupation by Apionini weevil herbivores. These conspicuous coincidences support either an ancient co-diversification scenario or an escalating diversification in weevils induced by the radiation of flowering plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of insecticidal efficacy of four natural substances against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults: does the combined use of the substances improve their efficacy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Bohinc

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal efficacy of different natural inert dusts (diatomaceous earth, wood ash, quartz sand and the leaf powder of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. against granary weevil (Sitophilus granarius [L.] adults. The efficacy of the substances was tested individually and in combination with each other. The substances were applied at different concentrations, and bioassays were carried out at four different temperatures (20, 25, 30 and 35°C and two different relative humidity (RH levels (55% and 75%. The adult mortality was recorded after the 7th, 14th and 21st days of exposure. The progeny production of individuals exposed to different combinations was also assessed. Wood ash proved to be the most efficient inert dust in our research. We detected 100% mortality in the treatment exposed to a higher concentration (5 w% of wood ash at 35°C and 55% RH after 7 days of exposure. A lower RH level had also a negative impact on the progeny production. We can conclude that wood ash can be efficient in controlling granary weevil adults as a single substance or in combination with other substances. Further surveys should focus on the impact of the wood ash dose rates. Due to the high percentage of area covered with forest in some European countries, the main ingredient is present locally, but additional surveys are needed to help improve the practical use of wood ash.

  15. An Integrated Management Approach for Red Palm Weevil Rhynchophorus Ferrugineus Oliv. a Key Pest of Date Palm in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Abraham

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The date palm, Phoenix doctylifera L., is the most important fruit crop in the Middle East, cultivated since prehistoric times. Since mid-eighties the dreaded pest of palms viz. the red palm weevil. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. has been reported to cause serious damage to date palm in certain pockets of the Gulf region. The pest subsequently spread to most of the date growing centers in the region and attained a key pest status. The unique agroclimatic conditions prevailing in the Middle East and the nature of the crop, coupled with transportation of planting material have helped in the rapid development and spread of the pest in a short period of about a decade Feeding of the soft tissues by this concealed borer often leads to the death of the palm. if timely curative measures are not adopted. However, taking up curative measures in the early stage of attack is often not possible as detection in infestation in the early stage is difficult. Moreover, the presence of neglected date gardens, beheaded palms, retention of unwanted off shoots etc. make the problem intricate. To tackle this problem from various angles and successfully combat the pest, the following Integrated Pest Management (IPM programme is suggested. The major components of the IPM strategy are surveillance, trapping the weevil using pheromones lures, detection of infestation by examining palms. Eliminating hidden breeding sites, clearing abandoned gardens, maintaining crop and field sanitation, preventive chemical treatments, curative chemical control implementing quarantine measures and training and education.

  16. Phylogeography and sister group of Lupangus, a new genus for three new flightless allopatric forest litter weevils endemic to the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Molytinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily V. Grebennikov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports discovery of a new genus Lupangus gen. n. with three new flightless weevils endemic to the forests of the Eastern Arc Mountains in Tanzania: L. asterius sp. n. (East Usambara; the type species, L. jason sp. n. (Uluguru and L. orpheus sp. n. (Udzungwa. Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses using parts of mitochondrial (COI, nuclear ribosomal (28S genes, as well as the nuclear spacer region (ITS2 from 46 terminals grouped together the reciprocally monophyletic Lupangus (3 terminals and Typoderus (3 terminals, with all three clades strongly supported. Phylogenetic analysis of 32 COI-5’ sequences recovered Lupangus species as reciprocally monophyletic, with L. orpheus being the sister to the rest. Internal phylogeny within both L. jason and L. orpheus are geographically structured, while that of L. asterius is not. Temporal analysis of Lupangus evolution using COI-5’ data assessed under slow and fast substitution rate schemes estimated separation of mitochondrial lineages leading to three Lupangus species at about 7–8 Ma and about 1.9–2.1 Ma, respectively. Temporal analyses consistently failed to suggest correlation between the timing of Lupangus evolution and the late Pleistocene climatic fluctuations, thus rejecting the hypothesis of faunal interchanges during the wettest periods of the last million years. Applicability of flightless weevils for dispersal-vicariance analysis is reviewed, and their mostly undocumented and taxonomically entangled diversity in the Tanzanian Eastern Arc Mountains is briefly highlighted.

  17. Purification, partial characterization and role in lipid transport to developing oocytes of a novel lipophorin from the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Ximenes

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid transport in arthropods is achieved by highly specialized lipoproteins, which resemble those described in vertebrate blood. Here we describe purification and characterization of the lipid-apolipoprotein complex, lipophorin (Lp, from adults and larvae of the cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus. We also describe the Lp-mediated lipid transfer to developing oocytes. Lps were isolated from homogenates of C. maculatus larvae and adults by potassio bromide gradient and characterized with respect to physicochemical properties and lipid content. The weevil Lp (465 kDa and larval Lp (585 kDa, with hydrated densities of 1.22 and 1.14 g/mL, contained 34 and 56% lipids and 9 and 7% carbohydrates, respectively. In both Lps, mannose was the predominant monosaccharide detected by paper chromatography. SDS-PAGE revealed two apolipoproteins in each Lp with molecular masses of 225 kDa (apolipoprotein-I and 79 kDa (apolipoprotein-II. The lipids were extracted and analyzed by thin-layer chromatography. The major phospholipids found were phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in adult Lp, and phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin in larval Lp. Hydrocarbons, fatty acids and triacylglycerol were the major neutral lipids found in both Lps. Lps labeled in the protein moiety with radioactive iodine (125I-iodine or in the lipid moiety with fluorescent lipids revealed direct evidence of endocytic uptake of Lps in live oocytes of C. maculatus.

  18. Gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionidae perjudiciales para "frutos rojos" en la Argentina Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae harmful for berry fruits in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Guadalupe Del Rio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se registraron seis especies de gorgojos de rostro corto de la subfamilia Entiminae que causan daños en cultivos de frutos rojos, en la Argentina. Tres de ellas son exóticas y se distribuyen a lo largo de los bosques patagónicos: Otiorhynchus ovatus (Linnaeus, O. rugosostriatus (Goeze y O. sulcatus (Fabricius(Otiorhynchini; otras tres son nativas y habitan en la zona norte y central del país: Hyphantus sulcifrons Boheman (Anypotactini, Naupactusxanthographus (Germary N. cervinus Boheman (Naupactini. Las larvas viven en el suelo y se alimentan de la superficie externa de las raíces de sus plantas hospedadoras, causan daños más importantes que los adultos, los cuales se alimentan principalmente sobre el follaje. Los principales objetivos de esta contribución son: aportar una clave, diagnosis y fotografías de los hábitos de las seis especies para facilitar su correcta determinación; brindar datos sobre su distribución, plantas hospedadoras y biología, y citar la especie O. ovatus por primera vez para la Argentina, asociada con cultivos de arándano y frutilla.Six species of broad nosed weevils of the subfamily Entiminae are recorded as harmful for berries in Argentina. Three of them are exotic and distributed along the Patagonian forests: Otiorhynchus ovatus (Linnaeus, O. rugosostriatus (Goeze and O. sulcatus (Fabricius(Otiorhynchini and three are native and range in the northern and central areas of this country: Hyphantus sulcifrons Boheman (Anypotactini, Naupactusxanthographus (Germarand N. cervinus Boheman (Naupactini. Larvae live in soil and bore externally on the roots of their host plants, causing more damage than adults that usually feed on the leaves. The main objectives of this contribution are: to give a dichotomous key, diagnoses and habitus photographs for the identification of the six species; to provide information on their geographic distributions, host plants and biology; and to bring the first record of O. ovatus for

  19. Oak mast production and animal impacts on acorn survival in the central hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth F. Kellner; Jeffery K. Riegel; Nathanael I. Lichti; Robert K. Swihart

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment we measured mast production in white (Quercus alba) and black (Q. velutina) oak, and quantified the impacts of seed predators on acorn survival over a 3-year period. Specifically, we measured the proportion of acorns of each species infested with weevils (Curculio spp...

  20. Mito-nuclear genetic comparison in a Wolbachia infected weevil: insights on reproductive mode, infection age and evolutionary forces shaping genetic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Maternally inherited endosymbionts like Wolbachia pipientis are in linkage disequilibrium with the mtDNA of their hosts. Therefore, they can induce selective sweeps, decreasing genetic diversity over many generations. This sex ratio distorter, that is involved in the origin of parthenogenesis and other reproductive alterations, infects the parthenogenetic weevil Naupactus cervinus, a serious pest of ornamental and fruit plants. Results Molecular evolution analyses of mitochondrial (COI) and nuclear (ITS1) sequences from 309 individuals of Naupactus cervinus sampled over a broad range of its geographical distribution were carried out. Our results demonstrate lack of recombination in the nuclear fragment, non-random association between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and the consequent coevolution of both genomes, being an indirect evidence of apomixis. This weevil is infected by a single Wolbachia strain, which could have caused a moderate bottleneck in the invaded population which survived the initial infection. Conclusions Clonal reproduction and Wolbachia infection induce the coevolution of bacterial, mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. The time elapsed since the Wolbachia invasion would have erased the traces of the demographic crash in the mtDNA, being the nuclear genome the only one that retained the signal of the bottleneck. The amount of genetic change accumulated in the mtDNA and the high prevalence of Wolbachia in all populations of N. cervinus agree with the hypothesis of an ancient infection. Wolbachia probably had great influence in shaping the genetic diversity of N. cervinus. However, it would have not caused the extinction of males, since sexual and asexual infected lineages coexisted until recent times. PMID:21050430

  1. A novel β-fructofuranosidase in Coleoptera: Characterization of a β-fructofuranosidase from the sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedezzi, Rafael; Fonseca, Fernando P P; Santos Júnior, Célio Dias; Kishi, Luciano T; Terra, Walter R; Henrique-Silva, Flávio

    2014-12-01

    β-fructofuranosidases or invertases (EC 3.2.1.26) catalyze the hydrolysis of sucrose into fructose and glucose. β-fructofuranosidases have been widely described in microorganisms, but were not known in the animal kingdom until very recently. There are studies reporting lepidopteran β-fructofuranosidases, but no β-fructofuranosidase gene sequence or encoding transcript has previously been identified in beetles. Considering the scarcity of functional studies on insect β-fructofuranosidases and their apparent non-occurrence among coleopterans, the aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and characterize a β-fructofuranosidase transcript identified in a cDNA library from the sugarcane weevil, Sphenophorus levis (Curculionidae). To validate that the β-fructofuranosidase sequence (herein denominated Sl-β-fruct) is indeed encoded by the S. levis genome, PCRs were performed using genomic DNA extracted from the larval fat body as well as DNA from the midgut with microbial content. Amplification of Sl-β-fruct gene using larval fat body DNA indicated its presence in the insect's genomic DNA. The Sl-β-fruct gene was cloned in Pichia pastoris to produce the recombinant enzyme (rSl-β-fruct). Molecular weight of the recombinant protein was about 64 kDa, indicating possible glycosylation, since the theoretical weight was 54.8 kDa. The substrate specificity test revealed that rSl-β-fruct hydrolyzes sucrose and raffinose, but not melibiose or maltose, thereby confirming invertase activity. The pH curve revealed greatest activity at pH 5.0, demonstrating rSl-β-fruct to be an acidic β-fructofuranosidase. Quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analyses indicated that the production of mRNA only occurs in the midgut and reaches the greatest expression level in 30-day-old larvae, which is the expected pattern for digestive enzymes. Chromatography of glycosidases from S. levis midguts showed two enzymes acting as β-fructofuranosidase, indicating the presence of a

  2. Presence and significance of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins associated with the Andean weevil Premnotrypes vorax (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SilvioAlejandro López-Pazos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Andean weevil Premnotrypes vorax represents an important cause of damage to Colombian potato crops. Due to the impact of this plague on the economy of the country, we searched for new alternatives for its biological control, based on the entomopathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis. A total of 300 B. thuringiensis strains obtained from potato plantations infested with P. vorax were analyzed through crystal morphology, SDS-PAGE, PCR and bioassays. We used site- directed mutagenesis to modify the Cry3Aa protein. Most of the B. thuringiensis isolates had a bipyramidal crystal morphology. SDS-PAGE analyses had seven strains groups with σ-endotoxins from 35 to 135 kDa. The genes cry 2 and cry 1 were significantly more frequent in the P. vorax habitat (PCR analyses. Three mutant toxins, 1 (D354E, 2 (R345A, ∆Y350, ∆Y351, and 3 (Q482A, S484A, R485A, were analyzed to assess their activity against P. vorax larvae. Toxicity was low, or absent, against P. vorax for isolates, wild type cry 3Aa and cry 3Aa mutants. The genetic characterization of the collection provides opportunities for the selection of strains to be tested in bioassays against other insect pests of agricultural importance, and for designing Cry proteins with improved insecticidal toxicity. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (4: 1235-1243. Epub 2009 December 01.El gorgojo andino Premnotrypes vorax es una causa importante de daño en los cultivos colombianos de este tubérculo. Debido al impacto que esta plaga tiene sobre la economía del país, nos interesamos en buscar alternativas nuevas para el control biológico de P. vorax, basadas en la bacteria entomopatógena Bacillus thuringiensis. Se recolectaron un total de 300 cepas de B. thuringiensis a partir de plantaciones de papa infestadas con P. vorax, las cuales fueron analizadas por medio de la morfología del cristal, SDS-PAGE, PCR y ensayos biológicos. La mayoría de los aislamientos de B. thuringiensis presentaron cristales

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on ground after damage by boll weevil and the efficiency of the equipment used to collect them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this study, we determined the spatial and temporal distribution of fallen cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen damaged by boll weevil and the efficiency and time interval of the equipment used to collect cotton samples. Spatial and temporal distribution of cotton squares and small cotton bolls fallen on the soil damaged by boll weevil among cotton rows was determined in an experimental design of randomized blocks in a factorial arrangement of 4x3, represented by soil surface tracks located at 1-11cm, 12-22cm, 23-33cm, and 34-44cm away from the planting row of cotton plants 70, 85, and 100 days of age. Efficiency and collection time interval of the cotton samples fallen on the soil infested by boll weevil by plastic rakes that were straight or fan-shaped, big broom, collector instrument model CNPA and aspirator of leaves ‘Trapp’ were determined in randomized block design with five treatments, 10 repetitions for each. Results demonstrated that the collection of cotton samples must be performed with greater attention to soil strips located below the cotton top projection and aspirator ‘Trapp’ of leaves was more appropriate for the operation as it used less time of collection with similar efficiency to other available equipment.

  4. Identification of the genes involved in odorant reception and detection in the palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important quarantine pest, by antennal transcriptome analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Antony, Binu

    2016-01-22

    Background The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) is one of the most damaging invasive insect species in the world. This weevil is highly specialized to thrive in adverse desert climates, and it causes major economic losses due to its effects on palm trees around the world. RPWs locate palm trees by means of plant volatile cues and use an aggregation pheromone to coordinate a mass-attack. Here we report on the high throughput sequencing of the RPW antennal transcriptome and present a description of the highly expressed chemosensory gene families. Results Deep sequencing and assembly of the RPW antennal transcriptome yielded 35,667 transcripts with an average length of 857 bp and identified a large number of highly expressed transcripts of odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors/co-receptors (ORs/Orcos), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). In total, 38 OBPs, 12 CSPs, 76 ORs, 1 Orco, 6 SNMPs, 15 GRs and 10 IRs were annotated in the R. ferrugineus antennal transcriptome. A comparative transcriptome analysis with the bark beetle showed that 25 % of the blast hits were unique to R. ferrugineus, indicating a higher, more complete transcript coverage for R. ferrugineus. We categorized the RPW ORs into seven subfamilies of coleopteran ORs and predicted two new subfamilies of ORs. The OR protein sequences were compared with those of the flour beetle, the cerambycid beetle and the bark beetle, and we identified coleopteran-specific, highly conserved ORs as well as unique ORs that are putatively involved in RPW aggregation pheromone detection. We identified 26 Minus-C OBPs and 8 Plus-C OBPs and grouped R. ferrugineus OBPs into different OBP-subfamilies according to phylogeny, which indicated significant species-specific expansion and divergence in R. ferrugineus. We also identified a diverse family of CSP proteins, as well as a coleopteran

  5. Supplementary Material for: Identification of the genes involved in odorant reception and detection in the palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, an important quarantine pest, by antennal transcriptome analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Antony, Binu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Red Palm Weevil (RPW) Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) is one of the most damaging invasive insect species in the world. This weevil is highly specialized to thrive in adverse desert climates, and it causes major economic losses due to its effects on palm trees around the world. RPWs locate palm trees by means of plant volatile cues and use an aggregation pheromone to coordinate a mass-attack. Here we report on the high throughput sequencing of the RPW antennal transcriptome and present a description of the highly expressed chemosensory gene families. Results Deep sequencing and assembly of the RPW antennal transcriptome yielded 35,667 transcripts with an average length of 857 bp and identified a large number of highly expressed transcripts of odorant binding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs), odorant receptors/co-receptors (ORs/Orcos), sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), gustatory receptors (GRs) and ionotropic receptors (IRs). In total, 38 OBPs, 12 CSPs, 76 ORs, 1 Orco, 6 SNMPs, 15 GRs and 10 IRs were annotated in the R. ferrugineus antennal transcriptome. A comparative transcriptome analysis with the bark beetle showed that 25 % of the blast hits were unique to R. ferrugineus, indicating a higher, more complete transcript coverage for R. ferrugineus. We categorized the RPW ORs into seven subfamilies of coleopteran ORs and predicted two new subfamilies of ORs. The OR protein sequences were compared with those of the flour beetle, the cerambycid beetle and the bark beetle, and we identified coleopteran-specific, highly conserved ORs as well as unique ORs that are putatively involved in RPW aggregation pheromone detection. We identified 26 Minus-C OBPs and 8 Plus-C OBPs and grouped R. ferrugineus OBPs into different OBP-subfamilies according to phylogeny, which indicated significant species-specific expansion and divergence in R. ferrugineus. We also identified a diverse family of CSP proteins, as well as a coleopteran

  6. Key to larvae of the South American subfamilies of weevils (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea Clave para larvas de las subfamilias sudamericanas de gorgojos (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA E. MARVALDI

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea from South America are classsified into seven families and 28 subfamilies as follows: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae and Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae and Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae and Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae and Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae, Mesoptiliinae (= Magdalidinae, Molytinae, Baridinae, Lixinae, Conoderinae (= Zygopinae, Cossoninae, Scolytinae and Platypodinae. A dichotomous key for the larval stage is provided for identification of the families and subfamilies of Curculionoidea present in South America. The key is based on external morphological characters and contains data on larval feeding habitsLos gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea de Sudamérica están clasificados en siete familias y 28 subfamilias como se muestra a continuación: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae y Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae y Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae y Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae y Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae, Mesoptiliinae (= Magdalidinae, Molytinae, Baridinae, Lixinae, Conoderinae (= Zygopinae, Cossoninae, Scolytinae y Platypodinae. Se brinda una clave dicotómica para el estado de larva de Curculionoidea en Sudamérica, para su determinación a nivel de familias y subfamilias. La clave está basada sobre caracteres morfológicos externos y se presentan además datos de hábitos alimentarios

  7. Field efficacy of imidacloprid and Steinernema carpocapsae in a chitosan formulation against the red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Phoenix canariensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembilio, Oscar; Llácer, Elena; Martínez de Altube, María del Mar; Jacas, Josep A

    2010-04-01

    The invasive red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), has become the major pest of palms in the Mediterranean Basin. Chemical control against this species is difficult because of its cryptic habits and is mainly based on the repeated application of large quantities of synthetic insecticides. The aim of this work has been to evaluate in the field the efficacy of imidacloprid (Confidor 240 OD) and Steinernema carpocapsae Weiser with chitosan (Biorend R Palmeras) as soil and stipe treatments respectively, alone or in combination, against this pest. All treatments significantly reduced the mean number of immature stages of R. ferrugineus per palm. However, there were no significant differences among the different treatments considered. Efficacies ranged from 83.8 to 99.7% for the mean number of immature stages found in the palms and resulted in a significant increase in palm survival compared with the untreated control (75.0-90.0% versus 16.5% respectively). Both imidacloprid and S. carpocapsae in a chitosan formulation proved highly effective against R. ferrugineus in the field, and their efficacies did not significantly change when used in combination.

  8. Identification of Proteins Modulated in the Date Palm Stem Infested with Red Palm Weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv.) Using Two Dimensional Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasool, Khawaja Ghulam; Khan, Muhammad Altaf; Aldawood, Abdulrahman Saad; Tufail, Muhammad; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Takeda, Makio

    2015-08-17

    A state of the art proteomic methodology using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight (MALDI TOF) has been employed to characterize peptides modulated in the date palm stem subsequent to infestation with red palm weevil (RPW). Our analyses revealed 32 differentially expressed peptides associated with RPW infestation in date palm stem. To identify RPW infestation associated peptides (I), artificially wounded plants (W) were used as additional control beside uninfested plants, a conventional control (C). A constant unique pattern of differential expression in infested (I), wounded (W) stem samples compared to control (C) was observed. The upregulated proteins showed relative fold intensity in order of I > W and downregulated spots trend as W > I, a quite interesting pattern. This study also reveals that artificially wounding of date palm stem affects almost the same proteins as infestation; however, relative intensity is quite lower than in infested samples both in up and downregulated spots. All 32 differentially expressed spots were subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis for their identification and we were able to match 21 proteins in the already existing databases. Relatively significant modulated expression pattern of a number of peptides in infested plants predicts the possibility of developing a quick and reliable molecular methodology for detecting plants infested with date palm.

  9. Effect of complete feed starch banana weevil pea stone on the beans goats system in vivo against carcass weight and carcass part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aswandi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the value of benefits in favor of complete feed production performance and carcass weight of any part of the carcass part-goat nuts. The design used in this study. Random Draft Complete. The material used in this study of 12 male goats Nuts averaging initial body weight (15.58 ± 2.601 kg with a CV: 16.69%, age 10-15 months. At the end of the study 12 goats to know the weight of nuts cut carcass and parts of the carcass. Results of analysis of variance showed that treatment of complete feed on a significantly different (P <0.05 on carcass weight produced goat nuts. Results of analysis of variance showed that treatment of complete feed on a significantly different (P <0.05 against the weight of all the parts ice nuts goat carcass neck, shoulder, breast, leg chump on, ribs, loin, fore shank and the weight of the flank. CF0 and CF3 treatment effects did not provide a very real difference to the weight of carcass parts, but the weight of the carcass are treated CF3 higher than the CF0. This is in line with the expressed [Keywords—  banana weevil stone, complete feed  goat bean

  10. Adaptive Potential for the Invasion of Novel Host Plants in the Bean Weevil: Patterns of the Reproductive Behavior in Populations That Used Different Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Milanović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this work was to examine interpopulation patterns in the reproductive behavior of populations of bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say; Coleoptera: Bruchidae that had different levels of specialization on their native host plant – the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., as well as on a novel host plant – the chickpea (Cicer arietinum Thorn. The obtained pattern of interpopulation mating behavior seemed exactly as if the males on chickpea had evolved a specific odor and/or a courtship ritual that females of populationson bean found repulsive. Unlike females, the males of bean populations seemed to be willing to mate with females from the population on chickpea equally as with their own females. Such an asymmetric pattern of reproductive isolation between populations ofa species has been often considered an initial phase of a process of speciation. Thus, our results could be a good starting point for further, thorough examination of both the role of the level of host specialization in females and the role of biochemical characteristics of male pheromone (and/or their cuticular hydrocarbones in the evolution of pre-reproductive isolation between insect populations.As the results of this study, together those of previous studies on A. obtectus, suggest great evolutionary potential for invasions of and fast specialization on novel host plants, they could provide valuable information for the development of long-term strategiesunder the programmes of Integrated Pest Management.

  11. Molecular characterization of the principal symbiotic bacteria of the weevil Sitophilus oryzae: a peculiar G + C content of an endocytobiotic DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddi, A; Charles, H; Khatchadourian, C; Bonnot, G; Nardon, P

    1998-07-01

    The principal intracellular symbiotic bacteria of the cereal weevil Sitophilus oryzae were characterized using the sequence of the 16S rDNA gene (rrs gene) and G + C content analysis. Polymerase chain reaction amplification with universal eubacterial primers of the rrs gene showed a single expected sequence of 1,501 bp. Comparison of this sequence with the available database sequences placed the intracellular bacteria of S. oryzae as members of the Enterobacteriaceae family, closely related to the free-living bacteria, Erwinia herbicola and Escherichia coli, and the endocytobiotic bacteria of the tsetse fly and aphids. Moreover, by high-performance liquid chromatography, we measured the genomic G + C content of the S. oryzae principal endocytobiotes (SOPE) as 54%, while the known genomic G + C content of most intracellular bacteria is about 39.5%. Furthermore, based on the third codon position G + C content and the rrs gene G + C content, we demonstrated that most intracellular bacteria except SOPE are A + T biased irrespective of their phylogenetic position. Finally, using the hsp60 gene sequence, the codon usage of SOPE was compared with that of two phylogenetically closely related bacteria: E. coli, a free-living bacterium, and Buchnera aphidicola, the intracellular symbiotic bacteria of aphids. Taken together, these results show a peculiar and distinctly different DNA composition of SOPE with respect to the other obligate intracellular bacteria, and, combined with biological and biochemical data, they elucidate the evolution of symbiosis in S. oryzae.

  12. Trials on the Timing of Chemical Control of Lentil weevil, Bruchus lentis Frӧlich (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae in Lentil Field in Gachsaran Region (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Saeidi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The lentil weevil, Bruchus lentis Frӧlich, (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae is the most serious pest of lentil in Iran. Economic losses due to this pest reach up to 40% of the lentil crop. Over a two-year study (2012 and 2013 in Agricultural Research Station of Gachsaran Region, best timing of chemical control of B. lentis was determined. A field experiment with cultivation of lentil Sina variety Lens culinaris Medik was conducted in a randomized complete block design with five treatments and three replications. The treatments consisted of spraying four times (respectively, during the early flowering, 10 days after the first spraying, 10 days after the second spraying; 10 days after the third spraying and control (without spraying. For the spraying from Endosulfan insecticide EC50% at ratio one liter per hectare was used. Three samples were taken from the pods and totally 150 pods from each replicate for contaminations of seeds were investigated. After the determination of the percent of seeds contamination, results were statistically analysed. Based on the results obtained, first spray treatment, with the mean contamination of 15.45% and second spray treatment with the mean contamination of 12.25% had the highest impact on reducing contamination lentil seeds to B. lentis and between them there was no statistically significant difference and were in one group. Therefore, spraying one time during the early flowering until 15 days after it was the best time to control of B. lentis.

  13. Evaluation of freshly prepared juice from garlic (Allium sativum L. as a biopesticide against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwachukwu Ifeanyi Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshly prepared garlic (Allium sativum L. juice, containing the antimicrobial allicin, was evaluated as a possible grain pro-tectant against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.. Each experiment was set out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with four replications, and there was a control treatment. Adult mortality and weight loss percentage were investigated. There was an observed increase in adult mortality following days of exposure in all treatments. Statistically significant (p < 0.05 reduced grain loss was also observed in all the treatments when compared with the control. The juice samples were freshly prepared from an indigenous Nigerian garlic cultivar (GUN and a cultivar purchased from a supermarket in Germany (GAG. These garlic juice samples exhibited lethal effects causing at least 90% adult mortality in contact toxicity tests. The amount of allicin in GUN was 1.88 mg/ml according to High Pressure Liquids Chromatography (HPLC analysis, while the amount of allicin in GAG was 3.50 mg/ml. This study highlights the potential of A. sativum containing allicin for biorational control of maize grains against S. zeamais infestation and damage.

  14. Effects of phosphorus availability and genetic variation of leaf terpene content and emission rate in Pinus pinaster seedlings susceptible and resistant to the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanch, J-S; Sampedro, L; Llusià, J; Moreira, X; Zas, R; Peñuelas, J

    2012-03-01

    We studied the effects of phosphorus fertilisation on foliar terpene concentrations and foliar volatile terpene emission rates in six half-sib families of Pinus pinaster Ait. seedlings. Half of the seedlings were resistant to attack of the pine weevil Hylobius abietis L., a generalist phloem feeder, and the remaining seedlings were susceptible to this insect. We hypothesised that P stress could modify the terpene concentration in the needles and thus lead to altered terpene emission patterns relevant to plant-insect signalling. The total concentration and emission rate ranged between 5732 and 13,995 μg·g(-1) DW and between 2 and 22 μg·g(-1) DW·h(-1), respectively. Storage and emission were dominated by the isomers α- and β-pinene (77.2% and 84.2% of the total terpene amount amassed and released, respectively). In both resistant and susceptible families, P stress caused an increase of 31% in foliar terpene concentration with an associated 5-fold decrease in terpene emission rates. A higher terpene content in the leaves implies that the 'excess carbon', available under limiting growth conditions (P scarcity), is allocated to terpene production. Sensitive families showed a greater increase in terpene emission rates with increasing P concentrations, which could explain their susceptibility to H. abietis. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of pea weevil Bruchus pisorum L. (Coleóptera: Bruchidae to volatiles collected from its host Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ceballos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L. (Coleóptera: Bruchidae is one of the most damaging pests of pea (Pisum sativum L. We investigated the role of pea volatiles on the electrophysiological and behavioral response of B. pisorum using electroantennography (EAG and olfactometry bioassays. Plant volatiles emitted at different phenological stages were collected in situ by headspace on Porapak Q traps and analyzed through gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Most abundant volatiles identified in all phenological stages were terpenes and green leaf volatiles. All tested volatile extracts elicited significant EAG responses in both male and female B. pisorum, with females exhibiting a greater response (1.35 mV than males (1.02 mV to pea-pod volatiles. Volatiles from each phenological stage stimulated an attractant behavioral response of both males and females B. pisorum in olfactometer bioassay. A larger attraction of B. pisorum females was observed to volatiles from pods over other phenological stages (P < 0.001. These results suggest the relative importance of volatiles cues from plant mediating host location by B. pisorum. This work showed that plant volatiles elicited electrophysiological and behavioral responses and that B. pisorum female can discern between phenological stages of P. sativum based on those chemical cues.

  16. Phylogeography of Phytophagous Weevils and Plant Species in Broadleaved Evergreen Forests: A Congruent Genetic Gap between Western and Eastern Parts of Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Aoki

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which characterizes the biodiversity and endemism of the warm-temperate zone. A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. A genetic gap was detected in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region, around the Seto Inland Sea. The patterns of western-eastern differentiation suggest past fragmentation of broadleaved evergreen forests into at least two separate refugia consisting of the southern parts of Kyushu to Shikoku and of Kii to Boso Peninsula. Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods. These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms.

  17. Potential of an indigenous strain of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana as a biological control agent against the Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembilio, Oscar; Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; Santiago-Alvarez, Cándido; Jacas, Josep A

    2010-07-01

    The potential of a strain of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) obtained from a naturally infected Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) pupa as a biological control agent against this weevil was evaluated both in the laboratory and in semi-field assays. Laboratory results indicate that this strain of B. bassiana can infect eggs, larvae and adults of R. ferrugineus (LC(50) from 6.3 x 10(7) to 3.0 x 10(9) conidia per ml). However, mortality was not the only indicator of treatment efficacy because adults of either sex inoculated with the fungus efficiently transmitted the disease to untreated adults of the opposite sex, with male-to-female and female-to-male rates of transmission of 55% and 60%, respectively. In addition, treatment with B. bassiana significantly reduced fecundity (up to 62.6%) and egg hatching (32.8%) in pairing combinations with fungus-challenged males, females or both sexes. Likewise, 30-35% increase in larval mortality was observed in larvae obtained from eggs from fungus-challenged females or from untreated females coupled with inoculated males, resulting in an overall 78% progeny reduction. Semi-field preventive assays on potted 5-year old Phoenix canariensis palms, with efficacies up to 85.7%, confirmed the potential of this strain as a biological control agent against R. ferrugineus. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phylogeography of Phytophagous Weevils and Plant Species in Broadleaved Evergreen Forests: A Congruent Genetic Gap between Western and Eastern Parts of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kyoko; Kato, Makoto; Murakami, Noriaki

    2011-04-21

    The Quaternary climate cycles played an important role in shaping the distribution of biodiversity among current populations, even in warm-temperate zones, where land was not covered by ice sheets. We focused on the Castanopsis-type broadleaved evergreen forest community in Japan, which characterizes the biodiversity and endemism of the warm-temperate zone. A comparison of the phylogeographic patterns of three types of phytophagous weevils associated with Castanopsis (a host-specific seed predator, a generalist seed predator, and a host-specific leaf miner) and several other plant species inhabiting the forests revealed largely congruent patterns of genetic differentiation between western and eastern parts of the main islands of Japan. A genetic gap was detected in the Kii Peninsula to Chugoku-Shikoku region, around the Seto Inland Sea. The patterns of western-eastern differentiation suggest past fragmentation of broadleaved evergreen forests into at least two separate refugia consisting of the southern parts of Kyushu to Shikoku and of Kii to Boso Peninsula. Moreover, the congruent phylogeographic patterns observed in Castanopsis and the phytophagous insect species imply that the plant-herbivore relationship has been largely maintained since the last glacial periods. These results reinforce the robustness of the deduced glacial and postglacial histories of Castanopsis-associated organisms.

  19. Aspectos biológicos de adultos de um parasitóide do bicudo do algodoeiro Biological aspects of a parasitoid of the cotton boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Helena Avelino Araújo

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Bracon sp. é um importante agente de controle biológico de Anthonomus grandis (Boheman. Estudaram-se em laboratório, aspectos biológicos de Bracon sp., utilizando-se como hospedeiro larva do bicudo do algodoeiro, a temperatura de 26 ± 2oC, 70 ± 5% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. O ciclo biológico de Bracon sp. teve duração média de 11,7 dias, o período de incubação de 1 dia, o período médio larval de 3,9 dias, com 4 estádios; a viabilidade larval de 98,7%, o período pré-pupal de 0,6 dia, o período pupal de 6,2 dias, o tempo de pré-oviposição de 4,0 dias. A fêmea colocou, em média, 74 ovos em um período de 27,2 dias, a oviposição média diária de 2,7 ovos/fêmea/dia, o período de pós-oviposição de 3,7 dias e a longevidade de Bracon sp. foi de 34 dias para as fêmeas. A informação da biologia deste braconídeo é necessária para desenvolver estratégias de propagação e colonização do parasitóide.Bracon sp. is an important biological control agent of Anthonomus grandis, the cotton Boll weevil. The objective of this work was to evaluate biological aspects of Bracon sp. using cotton Boll weevil larvae as host, at conditions of 26 ± 2oC, with 70 ± 5% RH and 12h photoperiod. The complete life cycle of Bracon sp. was 11.7 days. The incubation period lasted 1.0 day and the larval period 3.9 days with four stages; the viability of the larvae was 98.7%; prepupal period lasted 0.6 day; and the pupal period lasted 6.2 days. Preoviposition period was 4.0 days, and the females laid an average of 74.0 eggs with in an oviposition period of 27.2 days, while the average daily oviposition rate was 2.7 eggs per female per day, posovipositional lasted 3.7 days, and the longevity of Bracon sp. was 34.0 days in females. The information of the biology of this Braconid is needed to develop parasitoid propagation and colonization strategies.

  20. Host-associated genetic differentiation in a seed parasitic weevil Rhinusa antirrhini (Coleptera: Curculionidae) revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vera, Gerardo; Mitrović, Milana; Jović, Jelena; Tosevski, Ivo; Caldara, Roberto; Gassmann, Andre; Emerson, Brent C

    2010-06-01

    Plant feeding insects and the plants they feed upon represent an ecological association that is thought to be a key factor for the diversification of many plant feeding insects, through differential adaptation to different plant selective pressures. While a number of studies have investigated diversification of plant feeding insects above the species level, relatively less attention has been given to patterns of diversification within species, particularly those that also require plants for oviposition and subsequent larval development. In the case of plant feeding insects that also require plant tissues for the completion of their reproductive cycle through larval development, the divergent selective pressure not only acts on adults, but on the full life history of the insect. Here we focus attention on Rhinusa antirrhini (Curculionidae), a species of weevil broadly distributed across Europe that both feeds on, and oviposits and develops within, species of the plant genus Linaria (Plantaginaceae). Using a combination of mtDNA (COII) and nuclear DNA (EF1-alpha) sequencing and copulation experiments we assess evidence for host associated genetic differentiation within R. antirrhini. We find substantial genetic variation within this species that is best explained by ecological specialisation on different host plant taxa. This genetic differentiation is most pronounced in the mtDNA marker, with patterns of genetic variation at the nuclear marker suggesting incomplete lineage sorting and/or gene flow between different host plant forms of R. antirrhini, whose origin is estimated to date to the mid-Pliocene (3.77 Mya; 2.91-4.80 Mya).

  1. Effects of irradiation on the cowpea weevil (Callosobruchus maculates F. and moisture sorption isotherm of cowpea seed (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Darfour

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cowpeas during storage may be attacked by a number of biological agents (microorganisms, rodents, and insects which results in losses in the quality and quantity of the stored seeds. One of the means of reducing these losses is through the application of radiation processing. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on a major storage insect pest, Callosobruchus maculatus F. and on moisture sorption isotherms of cowpea seeds in storage. The cowpeas were infested with adults C. maculatus and then irradiated at doses of 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 (kGy at a dose rate of 1.074 kGyhr-1. Samples were stored for 1 month under controlled temperature (27.3-30 oC and humidity (70-85 % during which counting of the insects was done every 48 hours and those alive or dead noted. Moisture sorption isotherms of the cowpea samples were equally determined by establishing equilibrium relative humidity (ERH of 55, 65, 75, 85 and 95 % using a formulation of glycerol-water mixture at temperature of 30+-1 and the weight (loss or gain of the samples was determined every 2 days. Irradiation at a dose of 0.25 kGy killed the C. maculatus within eight days and therefore 0.25 kGy would be economically beneficial as a control dose. There was significant difference (p is less than 0.05 in the percent mortality between the irradiated and the non-irradiated weevils, and the percent mortality increased with increase in the radiation dose. At moisture content of 14 % the irradiated cowpea samples were safely stored for one month at an equilibrium relative humidity of 60-75 % at a temperature of 29+-2 oC.

  2. Transmission of entomopathogenic fungi on banana weevil controlTransmissão de fungo entomopatogênico no controle da broca do rizoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Antonio Lema López

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the transmission of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana among adults of banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus in the field. C. sordidus healthy adults were marked and released on the basis of banana plants. Two days later insects marked and inoculated with the entomopathogenic fungus were released in the same area. Pseudostem traps were placed at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days for recover of released insects and to evaluate the mortality. It was observed that 3.7% of the non inoculated insects died due to pathogen infection caracterizing B. bassiana transmission between inoculated and healthy insects due to an increase in natural pre-existing prevalescence that was 0.3% of infected insects.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a transmissão do fungo entomopatogênico (Beauveria bassiana entre adultos da broca do rizoma (Cosmopolites sordidus em condições de campo. Insetos adultos e sadios de C. sordidus foram marcados e liberados na base de touceiras de bananeiras e dois dias após na mesma área foram liberados insetos marcados e inoculados com o fungo B. bassiana. Aos 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias armadilhas de pseudocaule foram utilizadas para a recaptura dos insetos e determinação da mortalidade pelo fungo. Observou-se uma porcentagem de infecção de 3,7% dos insetos sadios recuperados, caracterizando a transmissão de B. bassiana entre insetos inoculados e sadios devido ao aumento da prevalência natural preexistente que era de 0,3 % de insetos doentes.

  3. Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Heike L; Brandes, Haiko; Ulber, Bernd; Becker, Heiko C; Vidal, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.

  4. Evaluation of nine genotypes of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. for larval infestation and performance of rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike L Schaefer

    Full Text Available The rape stem weevil, Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll., is a serious pest of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. crops in Europe causing severe yield loss. In currently used oilseed rape cultivars no resistance to C. napi has been identified. Resynthesized lines of B. napus have potential to broaden the genetic variability and may improve resistance to insect pests. In this study, the susceptibility to C. napi of three cultivars, one breeding line and five resynthesized lines of oilseed rape was compared in a semi-field plot experiment under multi-choice conditions. Plant acceptance for oviposition was estimated by counting the number of C. napi larvae in stems. The larval instar index and the dry body mass were assessed as indicators of larval performance. The extent of larval feeding within stems was determined by the stem injury coefficient. Morphological stem traits and stem contents of glucosinolates were assessed as potential mediators of resistance. The resynthesized line S30 had significantly fewer larvae than the cultivars Express617 and Visby and the resynthesized lines L122 and L16. The low level of larval infestation in S30 was associated with a low larval instar and stem injury index. Low numbers of larvae were not correlated with the length or diameter of stems, and the level of stem glucosinolates. As indicated by the low larval infestation and slow larval development the resistance of S30 to C. napi is based on both antixenotic and antibiotic properties of the genotypes. The resynthesized line S30 should therefore be introduced into B. napus breeding programs to enhance resistance against C. napi.

  5. Inherited influence of low dose gamma radiation on the reproductive potential and spermiogenesis of the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem A. Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The southern cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F is a severe agriculture pest worldwide. In the current work, newly emerged adult males of C. maculatus have been irradiated with a low dose of 20Gy gamma radiation. The inherited deleterious effects on the fecundity, hatchability, adult emergence, and the sterility percent were recorded for the progenies F1 and F2 of the irradiated parental males. The fecundity, hatched larvae, the number of males and females were reduced in both F1 and F2. The sterility percent was high in F1 (70.8% and increased in the F2 (88.3% generation. Histopathological effects were also documented in the testes of F1 and F2 progenies. The spermatids and sperms have exhibited a variety of abnormalities. In the early spermatids, the nebenkern outer cell membrane was ruptured. The spermatid nucleus loses its homogeneous texture and has multiple foci of dense chromatin, as well as, profiles range has little dense material. In some groups, the nucleus had a peculiar ring of chromatin. The sperms had shown a variety of aberrations. The sperms irregularity distributed in lysed cysts by unusual manner. Also, some sperms had remarkably enlarged axoneme and small rounded nucleus. Many of the sperm cells were observed with two axonemes, abnormal mitochondria derivatives, and more than two accessory bodies. These results indicate that the low dose of 20 Gy induces semi-sterility in C. maculatus through generations. The same technique would help to improve using of sterile insect technique for other agriculture pests.

  6. Basic bio-ecological parameters of the invasive red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), in Phoenix canariensis under Mediterranean climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembilio, O; Jacas, J A

    2011-04-01

    The invasive red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera, Curculionidae), is one of the most destructive pests of palms in the world. Since its detection in the Mediterranean Basin, the ornamental Phoenix canariensis Hort. ex Chabaud has become its main host. This study was aimed at determining the life cycle of R. ferrugineus in live P. canariensis palms. Egg lethal temperature threshold and thermal constant were determined in the laboratory and resulted in 13.1°C and 40.4 degree days (DD), respectively. A semi field assay was carried out in a mesh enclosure where living P. canariensis palms were artificially infested with neonate larvae at one-month intervals from June 2008 to May 2009 under natural conditions. Infested palms were dissected at different time intervals. Maximum mortality rates for R. ferrugineus were observed for palms infested either in December or January (100%), whereas those infested from April through September showed maximum survival rates. Mean monthly temperatures below 10.3°C were lethal for neonate larvae, as 4.5°C were for older immature stages. All recovered larvae could be classed according to one of 13 instars. A thermal constant of 666.5 DD was estimated for complete larval development. Pupal develoment required an additional 282.5 DD. Based on these results and on the temperatures from 46 climatic stations selected in the Iberian Peninsula, less than one generation per year can be expected in areas with mean annual temperature below 15°C and more than two where mean annual temperature is above 19°C.

  7. Control of the Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus with kaolin Controle do caruncho-do-feijão Zabrotes subfasciatus com caulim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Yatie Mikami

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae is an important pest of stored beans in tropical regions. The efficiency of kaolin [with or without neem (Azadirachta indica oil] and diatomaceous earth (DE (standard treatment was studied in laboratory aiming to obtain alternatives for chemical control of this insect. Insects were confined in plastic vials containing beans treated with kaolin (2, 4 and 8g kg-1, kaolin + neem [2g kg-1(5% neem oil], diatomaceous earth (1g kg-1 and control. Mortality of adult insects, number of eggs and F1generation beetles emergency were assessed. Kaolin caused mortality of Z. subfasciatus, however higher periods and doses than DE were necessary to promote high mortality (100% or close. Kaolin treatments also affected female behavior because many eggs were placed in the vials walls. Number of emerged adults (F1 was similar between DE and kaolin; hence, kaolin constitutes a promising tool to the management of Z. subfasciatus. The mixture of kaolin and neem oil was not efficient in the control of Z. subfasciatus.O caruncho-do-feijão Zabrotes subfasciatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae é uma importante praga de grãos de feijão armazenado nas regiões tropicais. A eficiência do caulim [com ou sem óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica] e terra diatomácea (TD (tratamento padrão foi estudada em laboratório com o intuito de obter alternativas para o controle químico deste inseto. Insetos foram confinados em frascos de plástico com feijão tratado com caulim (2, 4 e 8g kg-1, caulim + nim [2g kg-1(5% óleo de nim], terra diatomácea (1g kg-1 e controle. Mortalidade de insetos adultos, número de ovos e emergência da geração F1 foram avaliados. Caulim causou a mortalidade de Z. subfasciatus, porém foram necessários maiores períodos e doses que a TD para promover elevada mortalidade (100% ou aproximadamente. Os tratamentos com caulim também afetaram o comportamento da f

  8. Mutantes morfológicos de algodoeiro herbáceo como fonte de resistência ao bicudo Morphological mutants of upland cotton as source of boll weevil resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco das Chagas Vidal Neto

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos de três características morfológicas mutantes de linhagens de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. r. latifolium Hutch., isoladas ou combinadas no mesmo genótipo, como fonte de resistência ao bicudo, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. O experimento foi conduzido em campo, sob infestação natural, com delineamento de blocos ao acaso e arranjo fatorial 2´3 com um tratamento adicional, com quatro repetições. Em teste com chance de escolha, a característica bráctea frego foi a que apresentou maior redução no dano de oviposição pelo bicudo (34,71%, em relação ao equivalente normal. A folha "okra" reduziu o dano apenas quando associada à bráctea frego (40%. A combinação das três características mutantes na mesma planta proporcionou a menor porcentagem de botões com dano de oviposição (23,13%.This work aimed to evaluate the effects of three morphological mutants of upland cotton lines (Gossypium hirsutm L. r. latifolium Hutch., isolated or in combination in the same cotton genotype, as a source of resistance to boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman, 1843 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae. The experiment was carried out in the field, under natural infestation, with a completely randomized block design arranged in a factorial 2´3 plus an additional treatment, with four replications. In a multiple choice test, the character mutant frego bract presented the higher reduction on boll weevil oviposition damage (34.71%, in relation to the normal equivalent. The okra leaf reduced the boll weevil damage only when associated with frego bract (40%. The combination of the three mutant characters in the same plant presented the least square percent with oviposition damage (23.13%.

  9. Efficacy of Topical Application, Leaf Residue or Soil Drench of Blastospores of Isaria fumosorosea for Citrus Root Weevil Management: Laboratory and Greenhouse Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasco B. Avery

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of topical, leaf residue, and soil drench applications with Isaria fumosorosea blastospores (Ifr strain 3581 was assessed for the management of the citrus root weevil, Diaprepes abbreviatus (L.. Blastospores of Ifr were applied topically at a rate of 107 blastospores mL−1 on both the larvae and adults, and each insect stage was incubated in rearing cups with artificial diet at 25 °C, either in the dark or in a growth chamber under a 16 h photophase for 2 weeks, respectively. Percent larval and adult mortality due to the infection of Ifr was assessed after 14 days as compared to untreated controls. Leaf residue assays were assessed by feeding the adults detached citrus leaves previously sprayed with Ifr (107 blastospores mL−1 in Petri dish chambers and then incubating them at 25 °C for 2–3 weeks. Efficacy of the soil drench applications was assessed on five larvae feeding on the roots of a Carrizo hybrid citrus seedling ~8.5–10.5 cm below the sterile sand surface in a single 16 cm × 15.5 cm pot inside a second pot lined with plastic mesh to prevent escapees. Drench treatments per pot consisted of 100 mL of Ifr suspension (107 blastospores mL−1, flushed with 400, 900, or 1400 mL of water compared to 500, 1000, and 1500 mL of water only for controls. The mean concentration of Ifr propagules as colony forming units per gram (CFUs g−1 that leached to different depths in the sand profile per treatment drench rate was also determined. Two weeks post-drenching of Ifr treatments, larvae were assessed for percent mortality, size differences, and effect of treatments in reducing feeding damage to the plant root biomass compared to the controls. Topical spray applications caused 13 and 19% mortality in larvae and adults after 7 days compared to none in the control after 14 days, respectively. Adults feeding on a single Ifr treated leaf for 24 h consumed less than the control, and resulted in 100% mortality 35 days post

  10. Expression, purification and crystallization of pecan (Carya illinoinensis) vicilin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree nuts are responsible for many cases of severe food allergies. Vicilin, the 7S seed storage protein, has been identified as a food allergen in many typss of tree nuts. The vicilin protein consists of an N-terminal low-complexity region with antimicrobial activities and a C-terminal domain that f...

  11. Comportamento de progênies oriundas de raças primitivas de algodão herbáceo frente ao ataque do bicudo Behavior of lines from cotton primitive race stocks to attack of the boll weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Correia Farias

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de obter linhagens resistentes ao bicudo-do-algodoeiro (Anthonomus grandis Boheman, a Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodão vem testando progênies oriundas de raças primitivas de algodoeiro herbáceo (Gossypium hirsutum L. originárias do México e da América Central, que apresentam níveis aceitáveis de resistência ao bicudo. Em 1991 e 1992, as progênies em BC1F5 e BC1F6 oriundas das linhagens Texas 277, Texas 326 e Texas 1180, Texas 297, Texas 339, Texas 766 e Texas 1134, foram avaliadas com relação à resistência ao bicudo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos ao acaso, com seis repetições. A unidade experimental foi constituída por duas fileiras de 5 m, sob um espaçamento de 0,75 m x 0,20 m. As parcelas foram infestadas com adultos do bicudo recém-emergidos, a uma taxa de 10.000 adultos/ha. Aos seis dias após a liberação dos adultos, as parcelas foram pulverizadas com Cipermethrim, sendo realizadas em intervalos semanais. Foram procedidas cinco avaliações através da coleta de 33 botões florais ao acaso, por parcela. Os maiores níveis de resistência ao bicudo foram obtidos pelas progênies Texas 326-95-1, Texas 277-87-5, Texas 1180-99-2, Texas 297 e Texas 339, com redução de ataque de 44,0, 41,2, 32,0, 40,4 e 36,4%, respectivamente, em relação à testemunha CNPA 6H.The goal of the boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis Boheman resistance program of Embrapa-Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Algodão is to obtain cultivars that give 80% suppression when compared to commercial cultivars. The primitive cottons (Gossypium hirsutum L. from Mexico and Central America have been known to show measurable levels of resistance to the boll weevil. In 1991 and 1992, the lines in BC1F5 and BC1F6 from Texas 277, Texas 326, Texas 1180, Texas 297, Texas 339, Texas 766 and Texas 1134 were evaluated to boll weevil resistance. The experiment was carried out at Campina Grande, PB, Brazil. The trial

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-AQ10 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available equence. 668 0.0 3 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...6 2 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 5',

  13. Efeitos de extratos alcoólicos de plantas sobre o caruncho do feijão vigna (Callosobruchus maculatus Effect of alcoholic extract of plants on weevil of cowpea (Callosobruchus maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de A. C. Almeida

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Através de três métodos, extratos vegetais foram aplicados, ao Callosobruchus maculatus na fase adulta, inoculados ou não em uma massa de sementes, e na fase imatura (ovo com o objetivo de se controlar esta praga do feijão armazenado. Utilizaram-se flores, folhas, frutos e caule secos de oito espécies vegetais na obtenção dos extratos, em percolador, com solvente álcool etílico (70%. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente ao acaso, com os tratamentos distribuídos em esquema fatorial, cujos fatores quantitativos foram revelados pela regressão na análise de variância. Mediante os resultados obtidos, concluiu-se que a mortalidade dos insetos está relacionada com o tipo de extrato, os métodos de aplicação e com a dosagem aplicada, sendo os extratos de Callopogonium caeruleum e Piper nigrum os mais eficientes no controle do caruncho de feijão.Vegetable extracts were applied, through three methods, to the Callosobruchus maculatus in the adult phase, inoculated or not in a mass of seeds, in the immature phase (egg with the objective of controlling this pest of the stored beans. Dry flowers, leaves, fruits and dry stems of eight vegetable species were used to obtain the extracts in an extractor, with ethyl alcohol (70%. A completely randomized statistical design was used with the treatments distributed in a factorial scheme, the quantitative factors were analysed by the regression in the variance analysis. From the results obtained, it was concluded that the mortality of the insects is related to the extract type, the application methods and the applied dose, being the extracts of Callopogonium caeruleum and Piper nigrum the most efficient in the control of the weevil of cowpea.

  14. Insecticide Activity of Essential Oils of Mentha longifolia, Pulicaria gnaphalodes and Achillea wilhelmsii Against Two Stored Product Pests, the Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, and the Cowpea Weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khani, Abbas; Asghari, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils extracted from the foliage of Mentha longifolia (L.) (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) and Pulicaria gnaphalodes Ventenat (Asterales: Asteraceae), and flowers of Achillea wilhelmsii C. Koch (Asterales: Asteraceae) were tested in the laboratory for volatile toxicity against two storedproduct insects, the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. InM longifolia, the major compounds were piperitenon (43.9%), tripal (14.3%), oxathiane (9.3%), piperiton oxide (5.9%), and d-limonene (4.3%). In P. gnaphalodes, the major compounds were chrysanthenyl acetate (22.38%), 2L -4L-dihydroxy eicosane (18.5%), verbenol (16.59%), dehydroaromadendrene (12.54%), β-pinen (6.43%), and 1,8 cineol (5.6%). In A. wilhelmsii, the major compounds were 1,8 cineole (13.03%), caranol (8.26%), alpha pinene (6%), farnesyl acetate (6%), and p-cymene (6%). C maculatus was more susceptible to the tested plant products than T castaneum. The oils of the three plants displayed the same insecticidal activity against C. maculatus based on LC50 values (between 1.54µl/L air in P. gnaphalodes, and 2.65 µl/L air in A. wilhelmsii). While the oils of A. wilhelmsii and M. longifolia showed the same strong insecticidal activity against T. castaneum (LC50 = 10.02 and 13.05 µl/L air, respectively), the oil of P. gnaphalodes revealed poor activity against the insect (LC50 = 297.9 µl/L air). These results suggested that essential oils from the tested plants could be used as potential control agents for stored-product insects. PMID:23413994

  15. Potential of seed dusts of Jatropha curcas L., Thevetia peruviana (Pers., and Piper guineense Schumach. against the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky, 1855 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae in storage of corn grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukpai Oninye M.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory evaluation was carried out to determine the efficacy and phytochemical composition of powdered seeds of Physic nut Jatropha curcas, Yellow oleander Thevetia peruviana and West African black pepper Piper guineense at different dosages (2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g for the management of Sitophilus zeamais. Treatments were mixed with 50 g of maize and infested with 10 adult S. zeamais in 200 ml air-tight glass vials and kept under ambient conditions (25-30°C and 70-90 RH for a period of 28 days in August 2015. The trial was laid out in a completely randomized design in four replicates. Results from data analyses showed that treated maize grains in storage recorded significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean mortality levels of adult S. zeamais than the untreated controls. However, there were no significant differences in mean mortality of the weevil at 7, 14, 21 and 28 DAT, except on those stored only for 1 DAT. Batches treated with higher doses (10.0, 7.5, 5.0 g suffered a higher total mortality of adult S. zeamais; this was significantly (P < 0.05 higher compared with treatments using smaller dosages (2.5 and 0.0 g. Phytochemical analysis of treatments revealed high levels of alkaloids, tannins and phenols in all the plant extracts. The flavonoid contents were also high in Piper guineense and Permethrin, but lower in Jatropha curcas and Thevetia peruviana. These compounds are known to possess insecticidal properties that may have been responsible for the mortality of Sitophilus zeamais.

  16. Método de diagnóstico para el monitoreo de resistencia a insecticidas en poblaciones de "picudo del algodonero", Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae A diagnostic test for insecticide resistance monitoring in "cotton boll weevil" Anthonomus grandis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Stadler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available El control de las poblaciones de Anthonomus grandis Boheman, por debajo de su umbral de daño económico durante el ciclo del cultivo del algodón, se realiza en forma efectiva hasta el momento, a través de insecticidas de síntesis. La presión selectiva de las aplicaciones extensivas e intensivas de insecticidas hace imperativa la detección temprana de focos de resistencia a los mismos, en función de un correcto manejo del fenómeno. Se desarrolló un método de diagnóstico de resistencia para A. grandis a partir de la técnica "vial test", que fue adaptada en forma de "kit" para el monitoreo rápido y sencillo de los focos de resistencia en el campo. La toxicidad (CL99, para calcular la concentración discriminante (CD del insecticida y la preparación del "kit", se obtiene a partir de bioensayos de laboratorio con una cepa normal susceptible de A. grandis. Se determinó la vida media de los insecticidas dentro de los viales por CIPAC MT 46, para establecer una fecha de vencimiento del "kit". La CD y el método en su conjunto fueron validados a través de ensayos a campo. El "kit", usado en el monitoreo de resistencia en el campo, fue especialmente diseñado para ser utilizado en las condiciones geográficas, económicas y socio-culturales presentes en la región algodonera argentina. La implementación de esta técnica permitirá conseguir la información necesaria, y así obtener una apropiada alternancia de insecticidas. Como consecuencia, se prevé una reducción de impacto ambiental de las prácticas agronómicas en el control de plagas en algodón.The in-season control of the cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman is done by insecticide application, which so far is the only effective way to reduce boll weevil populations to levels below economic significance. The extensive and intensive control actions with insecticides cause selective pressure on pest populations. Thus, to achieve an accurate insecticide resistance

  17. The theatrical life of things: Plautus and the physical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Sharrock

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the semiotics of props and other physical items in Plautus’ Curculio. The play is over-determined with props: a candle, a door, fragrant wine, water, a ring, which comes in twice (and has a twin, a letter to go with it, a seal with represented elephant-slaying sword, a missing eye, a bad gut, animal names, like the wolfy banker Lyco, and the weevil-parasite Curculio, and a property manager who comes out for a little chat with the audience about the real-life Rome they can see around them. I am particularly concerned with the most powerfully metatheatrical and metapoetic elements, including the preternaturally quiet door, and the ring which has a life of its own weaving through the play and indeed through the comic tradition.

  18. Curculiónidos de Importancia Forestal en México Curculiónidos de Importancia Forestal en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Darío Salas Araiza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Important forest weevils of the Mexican Republic were listed, taking as a base various of the principal insect collections of Mexico, the certificates of entry of the Colección Leopoldo Tinoco Corona of the ICA-UG (Instituto de Ciencias Agrícolas de la Universidad de Guanajuato, and reports in the literature. Cited are 33 genera and 54 species of weevils, standing out, for the number of species and ther wide distribution, the genus Pissodes with six species, and for the number forestal hosts on which they feed, Conotrachelus neomexicanus, with 10 pine species. In oak trees the larva of Curculio occidentalis and Curculio spp. damage almost 50% of the acorns. InProsopis and Acacia trees the genera Sibinia and Pantomorus predominate. Se señalan los curculiónidos de importancia forestal en la República Mexicana, tomando como base los catálogos de algunas de las principales colecciones de insectos de México, los registros de la Colección “Leopoldo Tinoco Corona” del ICA-UG (Instituto de Ciencias Agrícolas de la Universidad de Guanajuato y los reportes de la literatura. Se citan 33 géneros y 54 especies de curculiónidos; destacándose por el número de especies y lo amplio de su distribución el género Pissodes con seis; y por el número de hospederos de los que se alimenta, Conotrachelus neomexicanus con 10 especies de pinos. En encinos, las larvas de Curculio occidentalis y Curculio spp. se alimentan del interior de las bellotas, causando hasta un 50% de daño. En Prosopis y Acacia predominan los géneros Sibinia y Pantomorus.

  19. Key to higher taxa of South American weevils based on adult characters (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea Clave de taxones superiores de gorgojos sudamericanos basada en caracteres de los adultos (Coleoptera, Curculionoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA E. MARVALDI

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea from South America are currently classified in the following families and subfamilies: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae and Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae and Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae and Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae and Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae, Mesoptiliinae (= Magdalidinae, Molytinae, Baridinae, Lixinae, Conoderinae (= Zygopinae, Cossoninae, Scolytinae and Platypodinae. In the present contribution we bring a dichotomous key for the identification of seven families and 28 subfamilies of Curculionoidea from South America, and for 21 tribes of the highly heterogeneous subfamilies Curculioninae and Molytinae. These tribes are Curculionini Anthonomini, Ceutorhynchini, Derelomini, Otidocephalini, Erodiscini, Camarotini, Piazorhinini, Prionobrachiini, Smicronychini, Rhamphini and Tychiini, within Curculioninae; and Hylobiini, Pissodini, Conotrachelini, Cleogonini, Sternechini, Pacholenini, Cholini, Petalochilini and Amalactini, within Molytinae. Most of them have been classified as subfamilies in traditional schemes. The key is mainly based on external morphological characters, but also includes data on genitalia, mouth parts and other biological features. Definitions and illustrations of diagnostic characters used in the key are providedLos gorgojos (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea de América del Sur se clasifican actualmente en las siguientes familias y subfamilias: Nemonychidae (Rhinorhynchinae, Anthribidae (Anthribinae, Belidae (Belinae y Oxycoryninae, Attelabidae (Attelabinae y Rhynchitinae, Brentidae (Apioninae y Brentinae, Caridae (Carinae y Curculionidae (Erirhininae, Dryophthorinae, Entiminae, Aterpinae, Gonipterinae, Rhythirrininae, Thecesterninae, Eugnominae, Hyperinae, Curculioninae, Cryptorhynchinae

  20. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1176 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 2 unordered pieces. 36 2.6 2 BQ476544 |BQ476544.1 curculio2d05.g Curculio glandium cDNA ...Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2d05 3', mRNA sequence. 40 15 1 BQ476270 |BQ476270.1 curculio2e10.b Cur...culio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2e10 5', mRNA sequence. 40 15 1 BQ476190 |BQ476190.1 curculio...1d05.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio1d05

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1238 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available icus clone CH230-91F12, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 2 unordered pieces. 36 2.6 2 BQ476544 |BQ476544.1 curculio2d...05.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2d05 3', mRNA sequence. 40 15 1 BQ476270 |BQ476270.1 curculio...2e10.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2e10 5', mRNA sequence.... 40 15 1 BQ476190 |BQ476190.1 curculio1d05.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1174 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available icus clone CH230-91F12, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 2 unordered pieces. 36 2.6 2 BQ476544 |BQ476544.1 curculio2d...05.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2d05 3', mRNA sequence. 40 15 1 BQ476270 |BQ476270.1 curculio...2e10.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2e10 5', mRNA sequence.... 40 15 1 BQ476190 |BQ476190.1 curculio1d05.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  3. NON PREFERENCE FOR OVIPOSITION AND FEEDING OF Weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA-BRUCHIDAE IN BEAN LINES (Phaseolus vulgaris L. BEARERS OF ARCELIN NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA OVIPOSIÇÃO E ALIMENTAÇÃO DE Zabrotes subfasciatus (BOHEMANN, 1833 (COLEOPTERA: BRUCHIDAE EM CULTIVARES DE FEIJÃO (Phaseolus vulgaris L. PORTADORES DE ARCELINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Divina de Tolêdo Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Arcelin is a seed protein only found in wild beans which gives resistance to bean weevil (Zabrotes subfasciatus Bohemann, 1833. In this study the non preference for oviposition and feeding of the bean weevil was evaluated on a series of near isogenic bean lines: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 and Arc 4. The bean cultivars Porrillo 70 and Goiano Precoce were utilized as susceptible checks. There wasn’t oviposition preference among the six genotypes studied. The near isogenic lines that contain Arcelin 1 and Arcelin 2 were the last in preference for feeding.

    KEY-WORDS: Resistance; non preference.

    A arcelina é uma proteína encontrada somente em feijões silvestres e é o fator que confere resistência ao caruncho Zabrotes subfasciatus (Bohemann, 1833. Procurou-se verificar a não-preferência para oviposição e alimentação de Z. subfasciatus em uma série de linhagens de feijão quase isogênicas contendo diferentes alelos de arcelina: Arc 1, Arc 2, Arc 3 e Arc 4. Os controles suscetíveis utilizados foram Porrillo 70 e Goiano Precoce. Não houve preferência para oviposição entre os seis genótipos estudados. As linhagens quase isogênicas contendo Arcelina 1 e Arcelina 2 foram as menos preferidas para alimentação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; Phaseolus; Zabrotes; não-preferência.

  4. Persistência de óleos essenciais em milho armazenado, submetido à infestação de gorgulho do milho Persistence of essential oils in stored maize submitted to infestation of maize weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Leandro Braga de Castro Coitinho

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Os óleos essenciais e os compostos constituintes têm sido pesquisados quanto a sua atividade inseticida contra pragas de grãos armazenados. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a persistência de óleos essenciais em milho armazenado, submetido à infestação do gorgulho do milho, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae. A persistência dos óleos e do eugenol foi avaliada no período inicial (logo após a impregnação e aos 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias de armazenamento. As mortalidades de S. zeamais, no período inicial, variaram entre 93,8 (Piper hispidinervum, Melaleuca leucadendron e eugenol e 100% (Eugenia uniflora, frutos verdes de Schinus terebinthifolius e Piper marginatum. A partir dos 30 dias, as mortalidades, de modo geral, decresceram, com exceção de P. marginatum (92,2%, que alcançou 53,1% de mortalidade aos 120 dias de armazenamento. De acordo com as equações de regressão ajustadas para o número de S. zeamais emergidos em todo o período de armazenamento, apenas não houve significância para os óleos de S. terebinthifolius, P. marginatum e testemunha. Em relação à média geral, o óleo de P. marginatum foi o mais persistente, proporcionando emergência de apenas 0,30 insetos, diferindo dos óleos restantes, do eugenol e da testemunha. Os demais tratamentos só diferiram em relação à testemunha.The essential oils and constituent compounds have been studied for their insecticidal activity against stored grain pests. In this research, persistence of the essential oils in stored maize subject to infestation by maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais Mots. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae were evaluated. Persistence of oils and eugenol were evaluated in the initial period (after impregnation and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days of storage. Mortalities of S. zeamais in the initial period ranged between 93.8 (Piper hispidinervum, Melaleuca leucadendron and eugenol to 100% (Eugenia uniflora, green fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius and Piper

  5. Evaluación de la toxicidad de proteínas de Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner hacia el gusano blanco de la papa Premnotrypes Vorax Hustache Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner proteins toxicity evaluation against andean Po tato Weevil Premnotrypes Vorax Hustache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez O. Wilson

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio estableció una metodología de bioensayo para determinar la actividad tóxica que las proteínas patrón Cry3Aa, Cry3Ba, Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca y Cry7Aa de B. thuringiensis pudieran tener sobre larvas del gusano blanco de la papa Premnotrypes vorax Hustache, plaga de gran importancia en las diferentes zonas productoras de papa en Colombia. Los bioensayos fueron realizados empleando papa como sustrato alimenticio en forma de tubérculos o como puré y las proteínas mencionadas se emplearon en forma de
    suspensión espora-cristal, solubilizadas y/o procesadas
    enzimáticamente. La metodología de bioensayo más adecuada consistió en cubos de tubérculos de papa impregnados superficialmente con las proteínas de B. thuringiensis. Aunque se observó una ligera mayor actividad de las proteínas Cry3Aa y Cry3Ca esta no superó el 10%. No se obtuvo actividad tóxica de ninguna de las proteínas evaluadas cuando fueron procesadas con la enzima tripsina o solubilizadas a un pH de 4.1. Los resultados indicaron que las proteínas Cry de Bt empleadas no presentan actividad tóxica significativa sobre larvas de P Vorax. Se plantea la hipótesis que esto es debido a que las proteínas provienen de cepas
    aisladas en otras regiones del mundo; por 10 tanto, nuevos
    estudios al respecto deberán evaluar proteínas producidas
    por cepas nativas aisladas de áreas de cultivo donde P vorax se presente como plaga de forma natural.
    The present work stablished a bioassay methodology in order to determine B. thuringiensis Cry3Aa, Cry3Ba, Cry3Bb, Cry3Ca and Cry7 Aa standard proteins toxicity against Andean potato weevil (Premnotrypes vorax Hustache. This insect is a very important pest in almost all potato fields in Colombia. Bioassays were done using natural diet as potato tuber pieces or potatoe flour. Proteins were used as crystals, solubilized or enzimatically processed. Best bioassay used potato pieces superficially

  6. Correlated biogeographic variation of magnesium across trophic levels in a terrestrial food chain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Sun

    Full Text Available Using samples from eastern China (c. 25 - 41° N and 99 - 123° E and from a common garden experiment, we investigate how Mg concentration varies with climate across multiple trophic levels. In soils, plant tissue (Oriental oak leaves and acorns, and a specialist acorn predator (the weevil Curculio davidi, Mg concentration increased significantly with different slopes from south to north, and generally decreased with both mean annual temperature (MAT and precipitation (MAP. In addition, soil, leaf, acorn and weevil Mg showed different strengths of association and sensitivity with climatic factors, suggesting that distinct mechanisms may drive patterns of Mg variation at different trophic levels. Our findings provide a first step toward determining whether anticipated changes in temperature and precipitation due to climate change will have important consequences for the bioavailability and distribution of Mg in food chain.

  7. Correlated Biogeographic Variation of Magnesium across Trophic Levels in a Terrestrial Food Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao; Kay, Adam D.; Kang, Hongzhang; Small, Gaston E.; Liu, Guofang; Zhou, Xuan; Yin, Shan; Liu, Chunjiang

    2013-01-01

    Using samples from eastern China (c. 25 – 41° N and 99 – 123° E) and from a common garden experiment, we investigate how Mg concentration varies with climate across multiple trophic levels. In soils, plant tissue (Oriental oak leaves and acorns), and a specialist acorn predator (the weevil Curculio davidi), Mg concentration increased significantly with different slopes from south to north, and generally decreased with both mean annual temperature (MAT) and precipitation (MAP). In addition, soil, leaf, acorn and weevil Mg showed different strengths of association and sensitivity with climatic factors, suggesting that distinct mechanisms may drive patterns of Mg variation at different trophic levels. Our findings provide a first step toward determining whether anticipated changes in temperature and precipitation due to climate change will have important consequences for the bioavailability and distribution of Mg in food chain. PMID:24223807

  8. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0430 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.7 2 BQ476211 |BQ476211.1 curculio1f...10.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio1f10 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476277 |BQ476277.1 curculio...2f07.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  9. Dicty_cDB: FC-AW08 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available yostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 6163571-6199719 strain AX4, complete sequence. 668 0.0 5 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio...4h01.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 5e-09 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  10. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0557 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 unordered pieces. 40 9.0 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio5c04.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 curculio5a...09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5a09 3', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BZ979340 |B

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSJ346 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.097 4 BQ476381 |BQ476381.1 curculio4b06.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio..., WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 8 ordered pieces. 36 0.19 6 BQ476658 |BQ476658.1 curculio4b06.g Curculio glandium ...cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4b06 3', mRNA sequence. 38 0.21 2 AF462

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-BQ11 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available um chromosome 2 map 6163571-6199719 strain AX4, complete sequence. 626 0.0 5 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h...01.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA se...quence. 54 9e-09 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1685 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available attus norvegicus clone CH230-91F12, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 2 unordered pieces. 36 3.4 3 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio...5c04.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 cur...culio5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-BL19 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 map 6163571-6199719 strain AX4, complete sequence. 660 0.0 3 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Curculio ...glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 7e-09 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio...4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 5'

  15. Dicty_cDB: VSE575 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rchaeoglobus fulgidus section 5 of 172 of the complete genome. 46 0.26 1 BQ476340 |BQ476340.1 curculio...3e06.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 5', mRNA sequen...ce. 46 0.26 1 BQ476622 |BQ476622.1 curculio3e06.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1151 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-91F12, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 2 unordered pieces. 36 3.4 3 BQ476211 |BQ476211.1 curculio...1f10.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio1f10 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14... 1 BQ476277 |BQ476277.1 curculio2f07.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  17. Between-season attraction of cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae adults by its aggregation pheromone Atração de adultos do bicudo do algodoeiro, Anthonomus grandis Boh. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae por seu feromônio de agregação na entressafra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wedson Desidério Fernandes

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the attractiveness of boll weevil adults by its aggregation pheromone under winter field conditions. Two experimental fields were utilized at "Casa Branca", SP, Brazil. For each one, three areas were established near the refuge vegetation, sparated 500 m from each other. Each area was divided in three sub-areas or blocks of 100 m² to receive pheromone applications (2.5 g per block. In addition to the pre-application counting, five additional evaluations were carried out after the pheromone applicaton. Ten randomized sampling points per block were considered in each evaluation process. A. grandis adults responded immediately to the pheromone applications, and were captured for 14 days . The highest level of attractiveness was observed 24 hours after application. The application of the boll weevil aggregation pheromone during winter could increase the predation by natural enemies, due to the increase of prey availability. Chemical control can be recommended 24 hours after pheromone applications in small plots as a between-season strategy for the suppression of boll weevil adults.O presente estudo teve como objetivo investigar a atratividade do bicudo do algodoeiro ao seu feromônio de agregação em período de inverno. Foram utilizados dois campos experimentais no município de Casa Branca, SP. Em cada um destes, foram estabelecidas três áreas separadas de aproximadamente 500 metros, sempre próximas à vegetação de refúgio. Cada área foi dividida em três sub-áreas ou blocos de 100 m² para receber a aplicação do feromônio (2,5 g por bloco. Foi realizada uma contagem de bicudos adultos no solo antes, e mais cinco após a aplicação de feromônio. Em cada bloco, foram observadas dez parcelas aleatórias, para a avaliação dos bicudos. Os adultos de A. grandis foram atraídos imediatamente após a aplicação do feromônio, sendo capturados por mais de 14 dias após. O índice mais

  18. Prolonged diapause of specialist seed-feeders makes predator satiation unstable in masting of Quercus crispula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeto, Kaoru; Ozaki, Kennichi

    2003-11-01

    Quercus crispula (= Q. mongolica var. grosseserrata) is the predominant tree species in cool temperate, mixed broadleaf/conifer forests in northern Japan. We compared 11 years of data on acorn production in a population of Q. crispula, with data on seed-insect populations, to try to answer the following questions: (1) Does Q. crispula show a regular pattern of masting? (2) How long do principal seed predators remain in diapause? (3) How do the seed predators affect the pattern of predator satiation? Q. crispula showed a tendency to alternate bearing, with significant synchrony between individual trees. The principal acorn-feeding insects ( Curculio spp. weevils), which infested 25%-70% of matured acorns, generally exhibited a prolonged diapause of 2 years. No significant negative relationship was found between the rate of injury by the weevils and the density of mature acorns, indicating that simple predator satiation fails due to the synchrony of the life-cycle of acorn-feeding insects and the periodical production of acorns. However, the rate of injury by the weevils was negatively correlated with the relative abundance of mature acorns to the number of weevil larvae that had matured 2 years previously. Thus, the proportion of sound acorns notably increased in a rich crop after a disturbance in alternate bearing. Prolonged diapause of specific seed predators is critical in determining the peak year of sound-seed production.

  19. Insect Immunity Varies Idiosyncratically During Overwintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Laura V; Sinclair, Brent J

    2017-03-20

    Overwintering insects face multiple stressors, including pathogen and parasite pressures that shift with seasons. However, we know little of how the insect immune system fluctuates with season, particularly in the overwintering period. To understand how immune activity changes across autumn, winter, and spring, we tracked immune activity of three temperate insects that overwinter as larvae: a weevil (Curculio sp., Coleoptera), gallfly (Eurosta solidaginis, Diptera), and larvae of the lepidopteran Pyrrharctia isabella. We measured baseline circulating hemocyte numbers, phenoloxidase activity, and humoral antimicrobial activity, as well as survival of fungal infection and melanization response at 12°C and 25°C to capture any potential plasticity in thermal performance. In Curculio sp. and E. solidaginis, hemocyte concentrations remained unchanged across seasons and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria was lowest in autumn; however, Curculio sp. were less likely to survive fungal infection in autumn, whereas E. solidaginis were less likely to survive infection during the winter. Furthermore, hemocyte concentrations and antimicrobial activity decreased in P. isabella overwintering beneath snow cover. Overall, seasonal changes in activity were largely species dependent, thus it may be difficult to create generalizable predictions about the effects of a changing climate on seasonal immune activity in insects. However, we suggest that the relationship between the response to multiple stressors (e.g., cold and pathogens) drives changes in immune activity, and that understanding the physiology underlying these relationships will inform our predictions of the effects of environmental change on insect overwintering success. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Avaliação de acessos de batata-doce para resistência à broca-da-raiz, crisomelídeos e elaterídeos Screening of sweet potato accessions for resistance to the West Indian sweet potato weevil, chrysomelids and elaterids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Humberto França

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados para resistência a danos causados por insetos nas folhas e raízes, no campo, 366 acessos do Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de batata-doce da Embrapa Hortaliças. Os insetos de interesse foram Diabrotica spp., Conoderus sp., Epitrix sp., e a broca-da-raiz da batata-doce, Euscepes postfasciatus. Considerando o estrato raízes, aproximadamente 21% dos acessos avaliados mostraram-se resistentes a crisomelídeos e elaterídeos, tendo sido identificados pelo menos sete clones melhores que a referência padrão de resistência àqueles insetos, a cultivar Brazlândia Roxa. Sete acessos, entre esses o CNPH 005, CNPH 026 e CNPH 258 mostraram-se bastante homogêneos e consistentes em três avaliações. Esses mesmos clones, além dos clones CNPH 088, CNPH 295, CNPH 314 e CNPH 318 mostraram-se entre os mais resistentes à broca-da-raiz, porque tiveram 7% ou menos das suas raízes tuberosas danificadas por Euscepes postfasciatus enquanto as cultivares Brazlândia Branca e Princesa obtiveram, respectivamente, 23,3% e 53,3% de danos. Outros nove acessos foram classificados como mais suscetíveis que essas cultivares. A aplicação desses resultados no manejo integrado de pragas em batata-doce é discutido.Three hundred sixty six sweet potato plant accessions of the Sweet potato Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Hortali��as (Brazil were evaluated in the field for resistance to the Wireworm-Diabrotica-Systena (WDS pest complex: Diabrotica spp., Conoderus sp., Epitrix sp., and West Indian sweet potato weevil, Euscepes postfaciatus. About 21% of all plant accessions showed high resistance to chrysomelids and elaterids. Seven clones, among them CNPH 005, CNPH 026 and CNPH 258 were more resistant than the standard resistant commercial cultivar Brazlândia Roxa. These sweet potato accessions and CNPH 088, CNPH 295, CNPH 314 and CNPH 318, were the most promising sources of resistance against the West Indian sweet potato weevil because they had 7% or less

  1. Do arms races punctuate evolutionary stasis? Unified insights from phylogeny, phylogeography and microevolutionary processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toju, Hirokazu; Sota, Teiji

    2009-09-01

    One of the major controversies in evolutionary biology concerns the processes underlying macroevolutionary patterns in which prolonged stasis is disrupted by rapid, short-term evolution that leads species to new adaptive zones. Recent advances in the understanding of contemporary evolution have suggested that such rapid evolution can occur in the wild as a result of environmental changes. Here, we examined a novel hypothesis that evolutionary stasis is punctuated by co-evolutionary arms races, which continuously alter adaptive peaks and landscapes. Based on the phylogeny of long-mouthed weevils in the genus Curculio, likelihood ratio tests showed that the macroevolutionary pattern of the weevils coincides with the punctuational evolution model. A coalescent analysis of a species, Curculio camelliae, the mouthpart of which has diverged considerably among populations because of an arms race with its host plant, further suggested that major evolutionary shifts had occurred within 7000 generations. Through a microevolutionary analysis of the species, we also found that natural selection acting through co-evolutionary interactions is potentially strong enough to drive rapid evolutionary shifts between adaptive zones. Overall, we posit that co-evolution is an important factor driving the history of organismal evolution.

  2. Invasive oaks escape pre-dispersal insect seed predation and trap enemies in their seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdziewicz, Michał; Bonal, Raul; Espelta, Josep M; Kalemba, Ewa M; Steele, Michael A; Zwolak, Rafał

    2017-10-27

    Species introduced to habitats outside their native range often escape control by their natural enemies. Besides competing with native species, an alien species might also affect the native herbivores by introducing a new source of different quality food. Here, we describe the case of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) invasion in Europe. We collected data on insect (moth Cydia spp. and weevil Curculio spp.) seed predation of northern red oak in its native (USA, North America) and invasive (Poland, Europe) range, as well as for sessile oaks (Q. petrea) in Europe. We also evaluated the quality of acorns as hosts for weevil larvae by collecting infested acorns and measuring weevil developmental success, and quantifying acorn traits such as seed mass, tannins, lipids, and protein concentration. We used DNA barcoding to identify insects to the species level. The predation by moths was similar and very low in both species and in both ranges. However, red oaks escape pre-dispersal seed predation by weevils in Europe. Weevil infestation rates of northern red oak acorns in their invasive range were 10 times lower than that of sessile oaks, and also 10 times lower than that of red oaks in N. America. Furthermore, even when weevils oviposited into northern red oaks, the larvae failed to develop, suggesting that the exotic host created a trap for the insect. This phenomenon might gradually decrease the local abundance of the seed predator, and further aid the invasion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1066 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available culio2d05.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2d05 3', mR...NA sequence. 40 15 1 BQ476270 |BQ476270.1 curculio2e10.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...2e10 5', mRNA sequence. 40 15 1 BQ476190 |BQ476190.1 curculio1d05.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curc...ulio1d05 5', mRNA sequence. 40 15 1 BQ476736 |BQ476736.1 curculio...5h06.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5h06 3', mRNA sequence. 40 15 1 BQ476527 |BQ476527.1 curc

  4. Spatiotemporal variation in acorn production and damage in a Spanish holm oak (Quercus ilex dehesa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perez Izquierdo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. There is a lack of knowledge about spatio-temporal patterns of acorn production in dehesas, especially regarding the influence of different agents causing acorn damage. We examined the spatial and temporal variability on acorn production and damage in four stands within a dehesa farm in 1997, 1998 and 1999.Area of study. The study was carried out in a 1800 ha dehesa farm of Cáceres province, western Spain.Material and Methods. Acorns were sampled by means of seed traps placed in the canopy of six holm oak trees per stand. Acorn collected in it were counted and assessed for damage by Curculio weevils, Cydia moths and the bacterial pathogen Brenneria quercina.Main results. Mean acorn production for the whole study period was 44.60 acorns m-2, which did not vary significantly either among stands or among years. The variability among individual trees was very high (0-300 acorns m-2. The rate of infestation by Curculio was 7.64 ± 10.72 %, by Cydia was 1.76 ± 3.33 %, whereas 10.29 ± 16.12 % of acorns were infested by Brenneria. We found no significant spatial differences, but the rates of acorn loss by insects varied among years. These rates were independent of annual acorn production and there was no correlation among damages by different pests, except between Curculio and Cydia in two crop years.Research highlights. It can be concluded that acorn crops are synchronized at the within-farm level and that the temporal variation in acorn damages can be independent of crop size.Keywords: Acorn production; Brenneria; Curculio; Cydia; dehesa; Quercus ilex; spatio-temporal variation.

  5. Antioxidant Properties of Pecan Nut [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] Shell Infusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinheiro do Prado, A. C.; Monalise Aragao, A.; Fett, R.; Block, J. M.

    2009-07-01

    The nutritional composition of Pecan nut [Ca rya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) C. Koch] shells and the total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of Pecan nut shell infusion were determined and the antioxidant activity of the infusion was evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid systems. The shell presented high fiber content (48% {+-} 0.06), the total phenolic content ranged from 116 to 167 mg GAE/g and the condensed tannin content was between 35 and 48 mg CE/g. The antioxidant activity varied from 1112 and 1763 {mu}mol TEAC/g in the ABTS system. In the DPPH method, the antioxidant activity was from 305 to 488 mg TEAC/g (30 minutes reaction) and from 482 to 683 mg TEAC/g (24 h reaction). The oxidation inhibition percentage obtained in the {beta}-carotene/linoleic acid system varied from 70 to 96%. The results indicated the high phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pecan nut shell infusion. (Author) 28 refs.

  6. Identification and Characterization of a New Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch] Allergen, Car i 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Lee, BoRam; Du, Wen-Xian; Lyu, Shu-Chen; Nadeau, Kari C; Grauke, Larry J; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Shuo; Fan, Yuting; Yi, Jiang; McHugh, Tara H

    2016-05-25

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many foods from the "big eight" food allergen groups. Here, for the first time, pecan vicilin was found to be a food allergen. Western blot experiments revealed that 30% of 27 sera used in this study and 24% of the sera from 25 patients with double-blind, placebo controlled clinical pecan allergy contained IgE antibodies specific to pecan vicilin. This allergen consists of a low-complexity region at its N-terminal and a structured domain at the C-terminal that contains two cupin motifs and forms homotrimers. The crystal structure of recombinant pecan vicilin was determined. The refined structure gave R/Rfree values of 0.218/0.262 for all data to 2.65 Å. There were two trimeric biological units in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Pecan vicilin is also a copper protein. These data may facilitate the understanding of the nutritional value and the allergenicity relevance of the copper binding property of seed storage proteins in tree nuts.

  7. Ciclo biológico, comportamiento y censo del picudo del camu camu, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae en Pucallpa, Perú Biological cycle, behavior and census of camu camu weevil, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, in Pucallpa, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Perez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El picudo, Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien 1995, es una de las plagas mas importantes del camu camu Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh en la Amazonía Peruana. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el ciclo biológico de este insecto bajo condiciones de laboratorio y describir su comportamiento y fluctuación en condiciones de campo en Pucallpa, Ucayali, Perú. El porcentaje de eclosión de larvas fue de 87%, la duración del periodo de incubación de los huevos fue de 5,5±0,9 (4 a 7 días, del estado larval en el fruto 22,2±1,9 (20 a 25 días y en el suelo (fase pre-pupa, 54,4±5,5 (46 a 67 días, del periodo pupal 11,8±0,9 (9 a 13 días y la longevidad del adulto fue de 51,8±18,9 (9 a 75 días. Los adultos se alimentaron de frutos de diferentes diámetros y estados de maduración y de botones florales, ramas tiernas y flores. No se registró la presencia de adultos de C. dubiae en frutos secos, ni en la base del tallo, sino en ritidomas. La mayor actividad de alimentación y de reproducción de los adultos fue entre 18:30 a 22:00 h. Los adultos fueron observados en el cultivo durante todo el año, encontrándose con mayor frecuencia en los meses de enero a marzo en pisos bajos inundables y entre octubre a diciembre en tierra firme no inundable, coincidiendo con la fase de floración y fructificación de la planta.Camu camu weevil Conotrachelus dubiae O'Brien, 1995 is a one of the main pests of camu camu (Myrciaria dubia H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Peruvian Amazonia. The aim of this study was to determine the biological cycle of this insect under laboratory conditions, to describe its behavior and population numbers under field conditions in Pucallpa, Ucayali, Peru. The percentage of hatching was 87%; the egg incubation period was 5.5±0.9 (4 to 7 days; the length of the larval stage inside the fruit was 22.2±1.9 (20 to 25 days, and the length larval stage (pre-pupa underground was 54.4±5.5 (46 to 67 days. The length of pupal period was 11.8

  8. Dicty_cDB: VSI829 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lio4h01.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA... sequence. 54 2e-08 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...ideum chromosome 2 map 6163571-6199719 strain AX4, complete sequence. 846 0.0 5 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curcu

  9. Dicty_cDB: FC-BE10 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available O0200928. 46 0.45 1 BQ476340 |BQ476340.1 curculio3e06.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...ence from clone DKEY-5P1 in linkage group 20. 46 0.45 1 BQ476622 |BQ476622.1 curculio3e06.g Curculio glandiu...m cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 3', mRNA sequence. 46 0.45 1 AC104590 |AC104590.4 Homo sapi

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U16229-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available LedoSEQ5094 Lentinula edodes pBluescript (EcoRI-X... 46 2.2 1 ( BQ476622 ) curculio...3e06.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio gl... 46 2.2 1 ( BQ476340 ) curculio3e06.b Curculio glandium cDNA

  11. Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Leaves and Fruits of Pepper Tree (Schinus molle L. to Control Rice Weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. Bioactividad de aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos del aguaribay (Schinus molle L. en el gorgojo del arroz (Sitophilus oryzae L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Benzi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae L. is a primary insect pest of stored grain. The development of resistance resulted in the application of synthetic insecticides. In recent years many plant essential oils have provided potential alternatives to currently used insect control agents. The Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus molle L. var. areira (L. DC. (Anacardiaceae has different biological properties such as insecticidal activity. In this study, repellent, fumigant activity, nutritional indices, and feeding deterrent action were evaluated on S. oryzae adults. Filter paper impregnation was used to test fumigant toxicity, whereas treated whole wheat was used to evaluate repellent activity and a flour disk bioassay was done to evaluate feeding deterrent action and nutritional index alteration. Leaf essential oils showed repellent effects at both concentrations (0.04 and 0.4% w/w, while fruit essential oils lacked repellent activity. Both plant oils altered nutritional indices. Fruit essential oils had a strong feeding deterrent action (62% while leaves had a slight effect (40.6%. With respect to fumigant activity, neither of the essential oils was found to be toxic.El gorgojo del arroz (Sitophilus oryzae. L. es un insecto-plaga de infestación primaria de granos. El uso de insecticidas sintéticos ha desarrollado fenómenos de resistencia. En los últimos años los aceites esenciales se presentan como una alternativa en el control de insectos-plaga. El aguaribay (Schinus molle L. var. areira (L. DC. (Anacardiaceae es una planta con diferentes propiedades biológicas entre las que se destacan el uso como insecticida. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la actividad fumigante, repelente, los índices nutricionales y la actividad antialimentaria de los aceites esenciales de hojas y frutos de S. molle var. areira en adultos de S. oryzae. Para la actividad fumigante se utilizó la técnica de impregnación de papeles de filtro; para la actividad repelente

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1290 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available C100407 |AC100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.6 2 BQ476211 |BQ476211.1 curculio...1f10.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio1f10 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476277 |BQ476277.1 curc...ulio2f07.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2f07 5', mRN...A sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476738 |BQ476738.1 curculio5h10.g Curculio glandium cDNA Cu...rculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5h10 3', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 dna update 2003.12.10 Homology vs Protein

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0039 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 32.6 Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-91F12, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 2 unordered pieces. 36 2.6 2 BQ476544 |BQ476544.1 curculio...2d05.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2d05 3', mRNA sequence. 4...0 15 1 BQ476270 |BQ476270.1 curculio2e10.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2e10 ...5', mRNA sequence. 40 15 1 BQ476190 |BQ476190.1 curculio1d05.b Curculio glandium ...cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio1d05 5', mRNA sequence. 40 15 1 dna update 2003.12. 9 Homology vs

  14. Acorn selection by Mexican jays: a test of a tri-trophic symbiotic relationship hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, J Andrew; McPherson, Guy R

    1997-03-01

    By caching acorns, jays serve as important dispersal agents for oak (Quercus) species. Yet little is known about which acorn characteristics affect selection by jays. In the traditional model of jay/oak symbiosis, large, brown, ripe acorns free of invertebrate parasites (e.g., Curculio acorn weevils) are selected by jays. Recently, it has been suggested that a tri-trophic relationship between oaks, jays, and weevils may have evolved to counter the negative dietary effects of acorn tannins. Under the tri-trophic model, jays would preferentially select acorns containing weevil larvae. We tested the assumptions that (1) acorns containing curculionid larvae exist in sufficient quantities to support jay populations and (2) jays can detect, and preferentially select, acorns containing weevil larvae, and investigated the cues by which jays select acorns. Captive Mexican jays (Aphelocomaultramarina) were presented Emory oak (Quercusemoryi) acorns in aviary feeding trials. Large, dense, viable acorns free of curculionid larvae were preferentially selected. Contrary to results of previous research, color did not affect selection. Acorn viability increased and curculionid larval occupancy decreased in adjacent savannas and isolated stands relative to existing oak woodland, perhaps favoring oak recruitment into adjacent lower-elevation grasslands. Our results compel us to reject the tri-trophic model for this system, and are consistent with the traditional jay/oak symbiosis model. Relatively long-distance dispersal of viable acorns favors Emory oak replacement, and spatial patterns of acorn viability and curculionid parasitism suggest expansion of Emory oak into adjacent low-elevation semi-arid grasslands.

  15. Spatiotemporal variation in acorn production and damage in a Spanish holm oak (Quercus ilex) dehesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Izquierdo, L.; Pulido, F.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study. There is a lack of knowledge about spatio-temporal patterns of acorn production in dehesas, especially regarding the influence of different agents causing acorn damage. We examined the spatial and temporal variability on acorn production and damage in four stands within a dehesa farm in 1997, 1998 and 1999. Area of study. The study was carried out in a 1800 ha dehesa farm of Caceres province, western Spain. Material and Methods. Acorns were sampled by means of seed traps placed in the canopy of six holm oak trees per stand. Acorn collected in it were counted and assessed for damage by Curculio weevils, Cydia moths and the bacterial pathogen Brenneria quercina. Main results. Mean acorn production for the whole study period was 44.60 acorns m-2, which did not vary significantly either among stands or among years. The variability among individual trees was very high (0-300 acorns m{sup -}2). The rate of infestation by Curculio was 7.64 {+-} 10.72 %, by Cydia was 1.76 {+-}3.33 %, whereas 10.29 {+-} 16.12 % of acorns were infested by Brenneria. We found no significant spatial differences, but the rates of acorn loss by insects varied among years. These rates were independent of annual acorn production and there was no correlation among damages by different pests, except between Curculio and Cydia in two crop years. Research highlights. It can be concluded that acorn crops are synchronized at the within-farm level and that the temporal variation in acorn damages can be independent of crop size. (Author) 49 refs.

  16. Comments on the morphology and biology of Pammene castanicola Trematerra & Clausi, 2009 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae: Grapholitini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausi, Mirella; Leone, Diego; Oreste, Monica; Tarasco, Eustachio

    2016-09-16

    Many insects are reported to damage cultivated chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.; Fagaceae) in Italy, but the most important pests of chestnut fruits are weevils (Curculio elephas Gyll. and Curculio glandium Marsh.; Curculionidae) and tortricid moths (Pammene and Cydia; Tortricidae) (Pollini, 1998, Speranza, 1999). The larvae of the tortricid pests develop internally, tunnelling in the fruits and eating the endocarp (Rotundo et al. 1991), which significantly reduces nut quality and commercial value. The most damaging tortricid moths in the Italian chestnut industry are Pammene fasciana (Linnaeus) (the early chestnut moth), Cydia fagiglandana (Zeller) (the intermediate chestnut moth), and Cydia splendana (Hübner) (the late chestnut moth) (Pedrazzoli et al. 2012). Pammene castanicola Trematerra & Clausi, 2009 was recently described from chestnut woods near Etna Vulcan, Sicily (Trematerra and Clausi 2009), and it is known only from the vicinity of the type locality. It is similar to Pammene fasciana in morphological and biological features, and it was previously misidentified as P. fasciana. We provide observations on the biology and larval development and present detailed descriptions and illustrations of the mature larva of P. castanicola, with comments on the differences between P. castanicola and P. fasciana.

  17. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0210 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC100407 |AC100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.6 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio...5c04.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 cur...culio5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSB436 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available equence from clone DKEY-5P1 in linkage group 20. 46 0.47 1 BQ476340 |BQ476340.1 curculio...3e06.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.47 1 BQ476622 |BQ476622.1 curc...ulio3e06.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 3', mRN

  19. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1758 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ces. 40 15 1 BQ476544 |BQ476544.1 curculio2d05.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...2d05 3', mRNA sequence. 40 15 1 BQ476270 |BQ476270.1 curculio2e10.b Curculio gla...ndium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2e10 5', mRNA sequence. 40 15 1 dna update 2003.12.11 Homolo

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSJ540 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available osome 2 map 6163571-6199719 strain AX4, complete sequence. 668 0.0 6 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Cur...culio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 2e-08 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio...4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 5', mRNA sequence. 54 2

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-BR03 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ain AX4, complete sequence. 644 0.0 3 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Curculi...o glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 6e-09 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio...4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 5', mRNA sequence. 54 7e-07

  2. Dicty_cDB: VSD213 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NCE, 1 ordered piece. 46 0.95 1 BQ476622 |BQ476622.1 curculio3e06.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...3e06 3', mRNA sequence. 46 0.95 1 BQ476340 |BQ476340.1 curculio3e06.b Curculio glandium ...cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.95 1 AP004

  3. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1502 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC100407 |AC100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.6 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio...5c04.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 cur...culio5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  4. Dicty_cDB: SSB115 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 218A13, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 1 ordered piece. 46 0.44 1 BQ476340 |BQ476340.1 curculio3e06.b Curculio glan...dium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.44 1 BQ476622 |BQ476622.1 curculio...3e06.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 3', mRN

  5. Dicty_cDB: FC-BB05 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available strain AX4, complete sequence. 668 0.0 3 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curc...ulio4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 5e-09 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio...4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 5', mRNA sequence. 54 6e

  6. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1585 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e sequence. 628 0.0 5 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 3e-08 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curc...ulio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 5', mRNA sequence. 54 3e-06 2 BQ623728 |BQ6

  7. Dicty_cDB: VSF364 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te sequence. 1027 0.0 2 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Curculio glandium cDN...A Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 4e-08 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio4h01....b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 5', mRNA sequence. 54 3e-06 2 BQ623728 |B

  8. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1161 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available culus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.4 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio5c04.b Curculio gl...andium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 curculio...5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5a09 3', mRN

  9. Dicty_cDB: SSL271 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 of the complete genome. 46 0.31 1 BQ476340 |BQ476340.1 curculio3e06.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...quence 253 from Patent WO0200928. 46 0.31 1 BQ476622 |BQ476622.1 curculio3e06.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curcu...lio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 3', mRNA sequence. 46 0.31 1 BX004766 |BX004766.9 Zebrafish DNA sequenc

  10. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1366 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC100407 |AC100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.6 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio...5c04.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 cur...culio5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  11. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1304 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC100407 |AC100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.6 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio...5c04.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 cur...culio5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  12. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0542 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 2 AC100407 |AC100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.6 2 BQ476211 |BQ476211.1 curculio...1f10.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio1f10 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14... 1 BQ476738 |BQ476738.1 curculio5h10.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  13. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0345 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC100407 |AC100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.6 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio...5c04.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 cur...culio5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  14. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1159 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC100407 |AC100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.4 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio...5c04.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 cur...culio5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  15. Dicty_cDB: SSB215 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 48 1e-06 2 BQ476340 |BQ476340.1 curculio3e06.b Curculio glandium ...cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.38 1 BQ476622 |BQ476622.1 curculio3e0...6.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio3e06 3', mRNA sequence. 46 0.38 1 AC132016 |

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-AK02 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available p 6163571-6199719 strain AX4, complete sequence. 668 0.0 3 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Curculio glan...dium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 2e-08 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 cur...culio4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 5', mR

  17. Dicty_cDB: FC-BB03 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 19 strain AX4, complete sequence. 668 0.0 3 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curcu...lio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 5e-09 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio...4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 5', mRNA sequence. 54

  18. Dicty_cDB: FC-BA22 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ictyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 6163571-6199719 strain AX4, complete sequence. 811 0.0 3 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio...4h01.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 3e-08 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curcu...lio4h01 5', mRNA sequence. 54 3e-06 2 BQ623728 |BQ623728.1 USDA-FP_00819 Ridge pine

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSG491 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ctyostelium discoideum chromosome 2 map 6163571-6199719 strain AX4, complete sequence. 1082 0.0 2 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio...4h01.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio...4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 3e-08 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curcu...lio4h01 5', mRNA sequence. 54 3e-06 2 BQ623728 |BQ623728.1 USDA-FP_00819 Ridge pine

  20. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC0445 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available culus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.6 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio5c04.b Curculio gl...andium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 curculio...5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5a09 3', mRN

  1. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1165 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC100407 |AC100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.4 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio...5c04.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 cur...culio5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  2. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1210 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC100407 |AC100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.4 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio...5c04.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 cur...culio5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  3. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1073 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AC100407 |AC100407.1 Mus musculus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.4 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio...5c04.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 cur...culio5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSK343 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ence. 916 0.0 4 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio4h01.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curcul...io glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 5', mRNA sequence. 54 1e-06 2 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Curcul...io glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 2e-06 2 BQ623728 |BQ623728.

  5. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1367 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available culus clone RP23-134O4, LOW-PASS SEQUENCE SAMPLING. 34 9.6 2 BQ476463 |BQ476463.1 curculio5c04.b Curculio gl...andium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c04 5', mRNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476691 |BQ476691.1 curculio...5a09.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5a09 3', mRN

  6. Dicty_cDB: FC-BM17 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available quence. 682 0.0 2 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Curculio glandium cDNA Curc...ulio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 2e-08 3 BQ476431 |BQ476431.1 curculio4h01.b Curc...ulio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 5', mRNA sequence. 54 3e-06 2 BQ623728 |BQ62372

  7. Microbial Quality of Roasted Larvae of the Palm Weevil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean total viable bacterial and fungal counts were 6.24x104 and 4.1x104 cfu/g respectively. Although these larvae are rich sources of protein, their exposure to dust during hawking in motorized traffic is a major route of contamination with bacterial and fungal pathogens. Keyword: Rhyncophorus phoenicis, Microbial ...

  8. Proximate compositions and grain weevil ( S. zeamais Mot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted at the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka to evaluate seventeen maize varieties (Sammaz – 11, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and 37) developed at Institute for Agricultural Research (IAR) in collaboration with International Institute for Tropical ...

  9. Weevil - red rot associations in eastern white pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander; Clifford H. Foster

    1957-01-01

    The presence of red rot (Fomes pini) in pruned white pine stands has often been attributed to the act of pruning. This assumption may well be true for heavily stocked stands where thinning has been neglected and pruning scars are slow to heal. The question then arises: How do we account for the red rot often found in vigorous unpruned white pine stands? Evidence...

  10. Identification of actively filling sucrose sinks. [Solanum tuberosum; Phaseolus lunatus; Manihot esculenta; Liquidambar styraciflua L. ; Carya illinoinensis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Shijean S.; Xu, Dianpeng; Black C.C. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Certain actively filling plant sucrose sinks such as a seed, a tuber, or a root can be identified by measuring the uridine diphosphate and pyrophosphate-dependent metabolism of sucrose. Sucrolysis in both active and quiescent sucrose sinks was tested and sucrose synthase was found to be the predominant sucrose breakdown activity. Sucrolysis via invertases was low and secondary in both types of sinks. Sucrose synthase activity dropped markedly, greater than fivefold, in quiescent sinks. The test are consistent with the hypothesis that the sucrose filling activity, i.e. the sink strength, of these plant sinks can be measured by testing the uridine diphosphate and pyrophosphate-dependent breakdown of sucrose. Measuring the initial reactions of sucrolysis shows much promise for use in agriculture crop and tree improvement research as a biochemical test for sink strength.

  11. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of Pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. C. Koch] kernel cake extracts obtained by sequential extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Block, Jane Mara

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic and condensed tannin contents of different Pecan kernel cake extracts (ether, acetone, alcohol and distilled water were estimated and their antioxidant activities were evaluated through ABTS, DPPH and ß-carotene/linoleic acid systems. Color variations of the Pecan kernel cake were determined through an instrumental analysis using the CIE Lab system. Significantly higher levels (p El contenido de taninos condensado y fenoles totales de diferentes extractos de tortas de almendra de pecana (éter, acetona, alcohol y agua destilada fueron estimados y sus actividades antioxidantes fueron evaluadas mediantes los métodos con ABTS, DPPH y el sistema ß-caroteno/ácido linoleico. Las variaciones de color de la torta de almendra de pecana fueron determinadas mediante análisis instrumental usando el sistema CIE Lab. Los contenidos de fenoles totales, taninos condensados y actividad antioxidante, medida mediante los métodos con ABTS Y DPPH (30 min y 24 h, fueron significativamente más altos (p < 0.05 con el extracto de acetona (16.4 mg GAE/g; 31.2 mg CE/g; 235.3 μmol TEAC/g and 68.6 and 100.3 mg TEAC/g, respectivamente. El porcentaje de inhibición de la oxidación en el sistema ß-caroteno/ ácido linoleico vario desde 37.9 a 93.1% con el extracto de acetona a 300 ppm, mostrando resultados significativamente superiores. Las muestras con una mayor tendencia a tonos rojos presento los niveles más altos de taninos condensados.

  12. Pecan walnut (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch) oil quality and phenolic compounds as affected by microwave and conventional roasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhaimi, Fahad Al; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Uslu, Nurhan; Doğu, Süleyman

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the effects of conventional and microwave roasting on phenolic compounds, free acidity, peroxide value, fatty acid composition and tocopherol content of pecan walnut kernel and oil was investigated. The oil content of pecan kernels was 73.78% for microwave oven roasted at 720 W and 73.56% for conventional oven roasted at 110 °C. The highest free fatty acid content (0.50%) and the lowest peroxide value (2.48 meq O2/kg) were observed during microwave roasting at 720 W. The fatty acid profiles and tocopherol contents of pecan kernel oils did not show significant differences compared to raw samples. Roasting process in microwave oven at 720 W caused the reduction of some phenolic compounds, while the content of gallic acid exhibited a significant increase.

  13. Harmonic radar: assessing the impact of tag weight on walking behavior of Colorado potato beetle, plum curculio and corn rootworm

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of electronic dipole tags on the walking behavior of three insects was determined using video tracking software. Results varied within and between the three species studied. The mean horizontal speed of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), was reduced by 8 percen...

  14. Assessment of Clover Root Curculio, Sitona puncticollis Stephens (Col.: Curculionidae Injury on Lucerne (Medicago sativa in Pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pourhaji

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is one of the most important crops that are infested by Sitona species in Iran. Adults and larvae of Sitona spp. feed on foliage and root of legumes and cause serious damages on them. Collection of adults of this genus during 2003 -2004 years from alfalfa fields of eleven localities in East Azarbaidjan Province, Sitona puncticollis Stephens was found to be the dominant species. To estimate of damage of this species, 100 pots of common alfalfa cultivar (Ghara yonje were sowed and after 2.5 months. Fifty pots were infested with eggs of S. puncticollis and the rests were maintained as control. After two months, length of stem and roots and their dry and fresh weights were measured in 30 infested and 30 uninfested pots. The data of infested and uninfested pots were compared by T- test. Results showed that there were significant differences (P< 0.01 between all measured traits in infested and uninfested pots.

  15. Unexpected consequences of a drier world: evidence that delay in late summer rains biases the population sex ratio of an insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, Raul; Hernández, Marisa; Espelta, Josep M; Muñoz, Alberto; Aparicio, José M

    2015-09-01

    The complexity of animal life histories makes it difficult to predict the consequences of climate change on their populations. In this paper, we show, for the first time, that longer summer drought episodes, such as those predicted for the dry Mediterranean region under climate change, may bias insect population sex ratio. Many Mediterranean organisms, like the weevil Curculio elephas, become active again after summer drought. This insect depends on late summer rainfall to soften the soil and allow adult emergence from their underground refuges. We found that, as in many protandric species, more C. elephas females emerged later in the season. Male emergence timing was on average earlier and also more dependent on the beginning of late summer rainfall. When these rains were delayed, the observed weevil sex ratio was biased towards females. So far, the effects of global warming on animal sex ratios has been reported for temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles. Our results show that rainfall timing can also bias the sex ratio in an insect, and highlight the need for keeping a phenological perspective to predict the consequences of climate change. We must consider not just the magnitude of the predicted changes in temperature and rainfall but also the effects of their timing.

  16. Dicty_cDB: FC-AP15 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mRNA sequence. 60 3e-05 1 BQ476680 |BQ476680.1 curculio4h01.g Curculio glandium ...cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio4h01 3', mRNA sequence. 54 4e-05 2 CA845440 |CA845440.1 hab99h11.y

  17. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1555 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TD ZM_0.6_1.0_KB Zea mays genomic clone ZMMBTa362D24, DNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476467 |BQ476467.1 curculio5c1...1.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c11 5', mRNA seq

  18. Dicty_cDB: FC-IC1600 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available TD ZM_0.6_1.0_KB Zea mays genomic clone ZMMBTa362D24, DNA sequence. 40 14 1 BQ476467 |BQ476467.1 curculio5c1...1.b Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio5c11 5', mRNA seq

  19. Dicty_cDB: SSC532 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available c, partial sequence, country:Japan:Okinawa. 30 0.21 3 BQ476298 |BQ476298.1 curculio2h12.b Curculio glandium... cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2h12 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.37 1 dna update 2003. 7.28 Homology

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSC244 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available gene for cytochrome c, partial sequence, country:Japan:Okinawa. 30 0.12 3 BQ476583 |BQ476583.1 curculio2h12....g Curculio glandium cDNA Curculio glandium cDNA clone curculio2h12 3', mRNA seque