WorldWideScience

Sample records for weather conditions building

  1. Weather Conditions, Weather Information and Car Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan Perrels

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic safety is the result of a complex interaction of factors, and causes behind road vehicle crashes require different measures to reduce their impacts. This study assesses how strongly the variation in daily winter crash rates associates with weather conditions in Finland. This is done by illustrating trends and spatiotemporal variation in the crash rates, by showing how a GIS application can evidence the association between temporary rises in regional crash rates and the occurrence of bad weather, and with a regression model on crash rate sensitivity to adverse weather conditions. The analysis indicates that a base rate of crashes depending on non-weather factors exists, and some combinations of extreme weather conditions are able to substantially push up crash rates on days with bad weather. Some spatial causation factors, such as variation of geophysical characteristics causing systematic differences in the distributions of weather variables, exist. Yet, even in winter, non-spatial factors are normally more significant. GIS data can support optimal deployment of rescue services and enhance in-depth quantitative analysis by helping to identify the most appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the supportive role of GIS should not be inferred as existence of highly significant spatial causation.

  2. EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OFEXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-10-31

    Oct 31, 2016 ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies & Management 9(6): 680 ... The frequency of delay, diversion and outright cancellation occasioned by poor weather ... weather condition has significant influence on aviation safety.

  3. Aircraft Path Planning under Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, flight safety is still one of the main issues for all airlines. En route civil airplanes may encounter adverse weather conditions. Some fatal airplane accidents happened because of the weather disturbance. Moreover, we should also design path to avoid the prohibited area. Therefore a good path planning algorithm plays an increasingly important role in air traffic management. An efficient path planning algorithm can help the plane to avoid severe weather conditions, restricted areas and moving obstacles to ensure the safety of the cabin crews and passengers. Here, we build our algorithm based on the A* search algorithm. Moreover, our algorithm can also find the path with least energy costs. As a result, our algorithm can improve the safety operation of the airplanes and reduce the workload of pilots and air traffic controllers.

  4. Synoptic weather conditions during BOBMEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    RSMC), New Delhi analy- sis and forecast charts at various levels and daily analysis of National Centre for Medium Range. Weather Forecasting (NCMRWF) for 925, 850,. 500 and 200hPa level. Weekly mean flow pat- terns at 850hPa are included ...

  5. WEATHER CONDITIONS AND COMPLAINTS IN FIBROMYALGIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLECOURT, ACE; KNIPPING, AA; DEVOOGD, N; VANRIJSWIJK, MH

    1993-01-01

    Patients with musculoskeletal disorders, including fibromyalgia syndrome (FS), often state that weather conditions modulate their complaints. There have been a few studies concerning this issue, but the results appear to be contradictory. We tried to relate the subjective symptoms of pain,

  6. Moisture conditions in buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Growth of mould requires the presence of moisture at a certain high level. In a heated indoor environment such moisture levels occur only if there is a reason for the moisture supply. Such moisture can come from the use of the building, because of malfunctioning constructions, or it can...

  7. Impact of Weather and Occupancy on Energy Flexibility Potential of a Low-energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zilio, Emanuele; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Gianniou, Panagiota

    , using heat storage in the building mass. This study focuses on the influence of weather conditions and internal gains on the energy flexibility potential of a nearly-zero-energy building in Denmark. A specific six hours heating program is used to reach the scope. The main findings showed that the direct...

  8. Present weather and climate: evolving conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerling, Martin P; Dettinger, Michael; Wolter, Klaus; Lukas, Jeff; Eischeid, Jon K.; Nemani, Rama; Liebmann, Brant; Kunkel, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter assesses weather and climate variability and trends in the Southwest, using observed climate and paleoclimate records. It analyzes the last 100 years of climate variability in comparison to the last 1,000 years, and links the important features of evolving climate conditions to river flow variability in four of the region’s major drainage basins. The chapter closes with an assessment of the monitoring and scientific research needed to increase confidence in understanding when climate episodes, events, and phenomena are attributable to human-caused climate change.

  9. Building resilience to weather-related hazards through better preparedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Julia; Golding, Brian; Johnston, David; Ruti, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Recent developments in weather forecasting have transformed our ability to predict weather-related hazards, while mobile communication is radically changing the way that people receive information. At the same time, vulnerability to weather-related hazards is growing through urban expansion, population growth and climate change. This talk will address issues facing the science community in responding to the Sendai Framework objective to "substantially increase the availability of and access to multi-hazard early warning systems" in the context of weather-related hazards. It will also provide an overview of activities and approaches developed in the World Meteorological Organisation's High Impact Weather (HIWeather) project. HIWeather has identified and is promoting research in key multi-disciplinary gaps in our knowledge, including in basic meteorology, risk prediction, communication and decision making, that affect our ability to provide effective warnings. The results will be pulled together in demonstration projects that will both showcase leading edge capability and build developing country capacity.

  10. SOLAR AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrayan Bravo Hidalgo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Air Conditioning with renewable energy is a key issue in the region's energy policy. The high temperatures usually attributed to climate change and the increase of the standard of living in society continues increasing energy demand in order to establish the conditions for thermal comfort in buildings. Solar air conditioning, although it contains a mature technology, its level of market introduction and acceptance by designers of buildings is exhaustive. This paper discusses the feasibility of these projects, identifies non-technological type barriers that hinders such use and implementation of solar energy for air conditioning systems, and finally, it approaches some criteria and recommendations to overcome these obstacles.

  11. MILITARY TEXTILE MATERIALS FOR EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TSOUTSEOS Athanasios

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite the leaps in technology in warfare and modern weaponry, the human soldier remains the most important aspect of a competitive army. Military textile materials are an essential, yet often neglected, factor that protect the soldier and enable his or her actions in varying fields around the globe. The participation of most countries in larger military or peacekeeping organisations like the NATO and the UN involves the extension of the geographical areas of activity in environments varying greatly from the soldiers’ country of origin. Protection from the varying weather conditions and comfort are important factors for the optimal operational ability of a person in humanitarian actions or at combat field. Research in performance textiles has given rise to various forms of multilayered clothing and functional membranes with several commercial tradenames. These performance textiles aim at specialized sports and recreational activities as mountain climbing, hiking and cycling, among others. Additional advancements involve even more specialized function like the incorporation of microelectronics monitoring of vital signals of the human body or for the control of equipment. The incorporation of such technological advancements is a current challenge for the national and international military forces that inherit a set of strict procedures. These procedures involve standardization, detailed technical descriptions, cost and of course customs particular to each force. On the other hand, the advancements cannot be neglected and the numbers of soldiers involved are significant to enable the need for change. Current paper is concentrated on the clothing and fabric developments relating to the protection of the soldiers from extreme weather conditions.

  12. Sustainable resilience in property maintenance: encountering changing weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cox, Rimante Andrasiunaite; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    2014-01-01

    buildings. Background: Current maintenance practice is focused on the technical standard of buildings, with little consideration of sustainability and resilience. There is a need to develop tools for incorporating sustainable resilience into maintenance planning. Approach: The study is primarily theoretical......Purpose: The purpose of the study is to develop a methodological approach for project management to integrate sustainability and resilience planning in property maintenance as an incremental strategy for upgrading existing properties to meet new standards for sustainable and climate resilient......, developing the concept of sustainable resilience for changing weather conditions Results: The paper suggests a decision support methodology that quantifies sustainable resilience for the analytical stages of property maintenance planning. Practical Implications: The methodology is generic and expected users...

  13. Personal warning system for vessels under bad weather conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, K.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many services provide weather forecasts, including severe weather alerts for the marine. It proves that many ships neglect the warnings because they expect to be able to handle the bad weather conditions. In order to identify possible unsafe situations the Coast Guard needs to observe marine vessel

  14. MALAYSIAN WEATHER DATA (TRY) FOR ENERGY SIMULATIONS IN BUILDINGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2001-01-01

    Detailed energy simulations for buildings in Malaysia have become possible after the recent construction of a Malaysian TRY (Test Reference Year) based on 21 years of hourly weather data from Subang Meteorological Station. The climatic parameters contained in the TRY are dry bulb temperature, wet...... bulb temperature, absolute humidity, relative humidity, cloud cover, wind speed, wind direction, sunshine hours, global, diffuse and beam solar radiation. The computer program TSBI3 uses the TRY to perform annual energy simulations for buildings hour by hour. The input and output are very detailed...

  15. Acidic weathering of carbonate building stones: experimental assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kryza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Three types of carbonate rocks, travertine, limestone and marble have been studied to determine their selected technical parameters (water absorption, resistance to salt crystallization damage and reaction to experimentally modelled acid rain weathering imitating the polluted urban atmospheric conditions. The acidic agents present in natural acid rain precipitation, H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, CH3COOH and mixture of all the acids, “Acid mix”, were tested. The initial stages of acid weathering involve, apart from chemical dissolution, particularly intense physical detachment of rock particles (granular disintegration significantly contributing to the total mass loss. Travertine was found to be most prone to salt crystallization damage and to acid weathering, and these features should be taken into account especially in external architectural usage of this stone in cold climate conditions and polluted urban atmosphere.

  16. Weather conditions drive dynamic habitat selection in a generalist predator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunde, Peter; Thorup, Kasper; Jacobsen, Lars B.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the dynamic nature of habitat selection, temporal variation as arising from factors such as weather are rarely quantified in species-habitat relationships. We analysed habitat use and selection (use/availability) of foraging, radio-tagged little owls (Athene noctua), a nocturnal, year......-round resident generalist predator, to see how this varied as a function of weather, season and availability. Use of the two most frequently used land cover types, gardens/buildings and cultivated fields varied more than 3-fold as a simple function of season and weather through linear effects of wind...... with temperature and was proportional to their availability. The study shows that habitat selection by generalist foragers may be highly dependent on temporal variables such as weather, probably because such foragers switch between weather dependent feeding opportunities offered by different land cover types...

  17. Mood effects of weather conditions of the Zagreb population, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momirović, Aleksandar; Resanović, Branislava; Culig, Josip; Herljević, Ivona

    2005-12-01

    The level of information on biometeorologic reports and mood effects of weather conditions on the Zagreb population were assessed in a sample of 782 subjects. Only 103 (13.2%) study subjects had not been informed on biometeorologic reports. Mood effects of weather conditions were reported by more than 76% of study subjects, 18.3% of them reporting meteorosensitivity. Meteorosensitivity showed a female predominance, and increased with age and level of education. 88% of chronic patients reported discomforts caused by changes in atmospheric conditions. Apathy and sleepiness were the most common mood changes associated with weather changes, whereas humid weather was indicated as a weather type that caused most discomforts in study subjects.

  18. Thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors under Danish weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have been carried out with the aim to elucidate the thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors for different weather conditions in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (55.8°N), and for the weather conditions in Sisimiut, Greenland (66.9°N), just north of the arctic circle....... The investigations are based on calculations with a newly developed program. Measured weather data from a solar radiation measurement station at Technical University of Denmark in Kgs. Lyngby Denmark in the period 1990 to 2002 and the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY data file are used in the investigations....... The weather data used for Sisimiut are based on a Test Reference Year, TRY weather data file. The thermal advantages of different tracking strategies is investigated for two flat plate solar collectors with different efficiencies, operated at different temperature levels. The investigations show...

  19. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2018-02-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  20. Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milas, Goran; Šupe-Domić, Daniela; Drmić-Hofman, Irena; Rumora, Lada; Klarić, Irena Martinović

    2017-09-01

    There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.

  1. Mechanism and kinetics of mineral weathering under acid conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anbeek, C.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with the relationships between crystal structure, grain diameter, surface morphology and dissolution kinetics for feldspar and quartz under acid conditions.

    Intensively ground samples from large, naturally weathered mineral fragments are frequently used in

  2. Empirical analysis of extreme weather conditions and aviation safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) which shows that weather condition has significant influence on aviation safety. Baseline studies on flight operation, government intervention in aviation industry, maintenance culture were recommended. Keywords: Fog, Thunderstorm ...

  3. The Conditions of Creation and Prospects of Weather Derivatives Development on the Domestic Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysing the possibility of creations and prospects of weather derivatives development on the domestic market the first of all should be identify the business areas that are strongly exposed for weather risk, which are: energy, agricultural, building and transportation. The specificity of the Polish climate is the high volatility of the major weather factors like temperature or precipitations. Similar to other European countries where weather derivatives markets already exist (e.g.: Germany, France, and United Kingdom. Having in mind dynamic grow of companies with regards to management processes, used technologies and marketing strategies, the exposure for weather risk is getting higher. Therefore, there is a strong pressure for creation of mechanisms and instruments that will allow reducing that kind of risks. Currently in Poland there are no conditions for development of weather derivatives market due to lack of demand. That situation is caused by low level of awareness regarding to possibilities of reducing weather risks. Within a few years the demand for such the instruments will appear ñ together with growing awareness. Once the demand for weather derivative will appear, the existing infrastructure of financial sector is ready for its implementation. Of course it is hard to say what will be the direction of whether derivatives grow on the domestic financial market but taking into consideration its dynamic grow and strong correlations with global markets, there is a small probability that weather derivatives will not appear on the Polish market ñ it is only the matter of time.

  4. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Energy Impacts for Large Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasnik, Michael [Blasnik & Associates, Roslindale, MA (United States); Dalhoff, Greg [Dalhoff & Associates, Verona, WI (United States); Carroll, David [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); Ucar, Ferit [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report estimates energy savings, energy cost savings, and cost effectiveness attributable to weatherizing large multifamily buildings under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program during Program Year 2008.

  5. National Weatherization Assistance Program Impact Evaluation: Energy Impacts for Small Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasnik, Michael [Blasnik & Associates, Roslindale, MA (United States); Dalhoff, Greg [Dalhoff & Associates, Verona, WI (United States); Carroll, David [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States); ucar, Ferit [APPRISE, Inc., Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report estimates energy savings, energy cost savings, and cost effectiveness attributable to weatherizing small multifamily buildings under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Weatherization Assistance Program during Program Year 2008.

  6. Mood Effects of Weather Conditions of the Zagreb Population, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Momirović, Aleksandar; Resanović, Branislava; Čulig, Josip; Herljević, Ivona

    2005-01-01

    The level of information on biometeorologic reports and mood effects of weather conditions on the Zagreb population were assessed in a sample of 782 subjects. Only 103 (13.2%) study subjects had not been informed on biometeorologic reports. Mood effects of weather conditions were reported by more than 76% of study subjects, 18.3% of them reporting meteorosensitivity. Meteorosensitivity showed a female predominance, and increased with age and level of education. 88% of chronic patients reporte...

  7. Uncertainty Comparison of Visual Sensing in Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Wei Lo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on flood-region detection using monitoring images. However, adverse weather affects the outcome of image segmentation methods. In this paper, we present an experimental comparison of an outdoor visual sensing system using region-growing methods with two different growing rules—namely, GrowCut and RegGro. For each growing rule, several tests on adverse weather and lens-stained scenes were performed, taking into account and analyzing different weather conditions with the outdoor visual sensing system. The influence of several weather conditions was analyzed, highlighting their effect on the outdoor visual sensing system with different growing rules. Furthermore, experimental errors and uncertainties obtained with the growing rules were compared. The segmentation accuracy of flood regions yielded by the GrowCut, RegGro, and hybrid methods was 75%, 85%, and 87.7%, respectively.

  8. Impacts of Snowy Weather Conditions on Expressway Traffic Flow Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiancheng Weng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Snowy weather will significantly degrade expressway operations, reduce service levels, and increase driving difficulty. Furthermore, the impact of snow varies in different types of roads, diverse cities, and snow densities due to different driving behavior. Traffic flow parameters are essential to decide what should be appropriate for weather-related traffic management and control strategies. This paper takes Beijing as a case study and analyzes traffic flow data collected by detectors in expressways. By comparing the performance of traffic flow under normal and snowy weather conditions, this paper quantitatively describes the impact of adverse weather on expressway volume and average speeds. Results indicate that average speeds on the Beijing expressway under heavy snow conditions decrease by 10–20 km/h when compared to those under normal weather conditions, the vehicle headway generally increases by 2–4 seconds, and the road capacity drops by about 33%. This paper also develops a specific expressway traffic parameter reduction model which proposes reduction coefficients of expressway volumes and speeds under various snow density conditions in Beijing. The conclusions paper provide effective foundational parameters for urban expressway controls and traffic management under snow conditions.

  9. Suitability of Nigerian Weather Conditions for Cultivation of Microalgae

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work evaluates the suitability of Nigeria weather conditions for cultivation of microalgae species. Meteorological data from different locations were analyzed and compared with optimal conditions for cultivation of various species of microalgae. Average solar radiation in various parts were 1439.9±5µmolm2/s for Jos; ...

  10. Winter weather conditions vs. air quality in Tricity, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzgorska-Lencewicz, Jadwiga; Czarnecka, Małgorzata

    2015-02-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to assess the influence of meteorological conditions on the variability of sulfur dioxide and PM10 particulate matter concentration of pollutants during winter with consideration of an excess of admissible standards. The basis for the analysis were hourly concentrations of PM10 and sulfur dioxide as well as the basic meteorological elements automatically recorded at five stations located in the Tricity agglomeration, and operating within the weather station network belonging to the Agency of Regional Air Quality Monitoring in the Gdańsk Metropolitan Area (ARMAAG). The analysis covers the calendar winters (December-February) in the years 2004/2005 through 2009/2010. The variability of the concentrations of both pollutants under certain weather conditions, i.e. air temperature and relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, as well as wind speed and direction, were evaluated by means of cluster analysis using k-means belonging to a group of non-hierarchical cluster analysis method. The composite effect of meteorological conditions on the variability of sulfur dioxide and PM10 concentrations in isolated clusters were determined by multiple linear regression, using a stepwise procedure, at the significance level α = 0.05 and α = 0.01. The effect of individual weather elements on the pattern of concentration levels was determined using partial regression coefficients. Clusters grouping the highest concentrations of pollutants were characterised, in most cases, by the lowest air temperature and a lower wind speed, and often a higher pressure, and sometimes slightly lower relative air humidity, i.e. the conditions of anticyclonic weather. Weather conditions had a statistically significant effect on the concentrations of both pollutants in all clusters; however, air temperature and wind speed had the crucial role. Thermal conditions were the decisive factor in the winter season 2005/2006 with the most frequent, overnormative daily

  11. Offshore Wind Power Production in Critical Weather Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2012-01-01

    Critical weather conditions, i.e. extreme winds will raise a lot of challenges when it comes to the secure operation of the whole European electric system with the future large scale offshore wind power. This is especially true for Denmark where the target is that wind power should provide 50...

  12. Changing weather conditions and floating plants in temperate drainage ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Zuidam, van B.G.; Zuidam, van J.P.; Nes, van E.H.; Kosten, S.; Heuts, P.G.M.; Roijackers, R.M.M.; Netten, J.J.C.; Scheffer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Dominance of free-floating plants such as duckweed is undesirable as it indicates eutrophication. The objectives of this study are to investigate whether the onset of duckweed dominance is related to weather conditions by analysing field observations, to evaluate the effect of different climate

  13. Weatherization Builds on Delaware's Innovative Past: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10

    Delaware demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  14. Concentrated Solar Air Conditioning for Buildings Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews project to implement the use of solar power to provide air conditioning for NASA buildings. Included is an overall conceptual schematic, and an diagram of the plumbing and instrumentation for the project. The use of solar power to power air conditioning in buildings, particularly in the Southwest, could save a significant amount of money. DOD studies have concluded that air conditioning accounts for 30-60% of total energy expenditures.

  15. Observational Simulation of Icing in Extreme Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, Andrew; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Komar, John; Elfstrom, Garry; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2017-04-01

    Observations and prediction of icing in extreme weather conditions are important for aviation, transportation, and shipping applications, and icing adversely affects the economy. Icing environments can be studied either in the outdoor atmosphere or in the laboratory. There have been several aircraft based in-situ studies related to weather conditions affecting aviation operations, transportation, and marine shipping that includes icing, wind, and turbulence. However, studying severe weather conditions from aircraft observations are limited due to safety and sampling issues, instrumental uncertainties, and even the possibility of aircraft producing its own physical and dynamical effects. Remote sensing based techniques (e.g. retrieval techniques) for studying severe weather conditions represent usually a volume that cannot characterize the important scales and also represents indirect observations. Therefore, laboratory simulations of atmospheric processes can help us better understand the interactions among microphysical and dynamical processes. The Climatic Wind Tunnel (CWT) in ACE at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) has a large semi-open jet test chamber with flow area 7-13 m2 that can precisely control temperatures down to -40°C, and up to 250 km hr-1 wind speeds, for heavy or dry snow conditions with low visibility, similar to ones observed in the Arctic and cold climate regions, or at high altitude aeronautical conditions. In this study, the ACE CWT employed a spray nozzle array suspended in its settling chamber and fed by pressurized water, creating various particle sizes from a few microns up to mm size range. This array, together with cold temperature and high wind speed, enabled simulation of severe weather conditions, including icing, visibility, strong wind and turbulence, ice fog and frost, freezing fog, heavy snow and blizzard conditions. In this study, the test results will be summarized, and their application to aircraft

  16. Offshore Wind Power Production in Critical Weather Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2012-01-01

    Critical weather conditions, i.e. extreme winds will raise a lot of challenges when it comes to the secure operation of the whole European electric system with the future large scale offshore wind power. This is especially true for Denmark where the target is that wind power should provide 50% of the electricity consumption by 2020. In the EU funded project TWENTIES, the demonstration #4 STORM MANAGEMENT aims at demonstrating that adequate coordination mechanisms between offshore wind farms a...

  17. The study on modelled and measured weather data for building energy simulation programs for Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    >B Faizal,

    2013-06-01

    This paper will study the usability of future weather data generated from climate model for Malaysia. Detailed future weather data is required for the building energy assessment as input parameters. The future weather data required is normally achieved from climate prediction models. The purpose of this study is to examine the gaps between weather data generated by climate model and the data measured by weather station in Bayan Lepas, Penang. Furthermore, this studies also to establish the modelled weather data for the use for future building energy simulation program. In order to achieve this purpose, simulated weather data sets HadCM3 were supplied by the Hadley Centre in the UK. The measured weather data was supplied by Malaysian Meteorological Department for Bayan Lepas, Penang. The period of analysed time was 18 years from 1990 to 2007 where the available data overlaps between HadCM3 and measured data. Several major weather variables were used in these studies such as Dry-bulb temperature, Solar radiation and Wind speed. The outcome from this studies shows a good match between HadCM3 data and measured data indicates that HadCM3 model is suitable for the purpose of future building energy simulation for Malaysia.

  18. Simulated building energy demand biases resulting from the use of representative weather stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burleyson, Casey D.; Voisin, Nathalie; Taylor, Z. Todd; Xie, Yulong; Kraucunas, Ian

    2018-01-01

    Numerical building models are typically forced with weather data from a limited number of “representative cities” or weather stations representing different climate regions. The use of representative weather stations reduces computational costs, but often fails to capture spatial heterogeneity in weather that may be important for simulations aimed at understanding how building stocks respond to a changing climate. We quantify the potential reduction in bias from using an increasing number of weather stations over the western U.S. The approach is based on deriving temperature and load time series using incrementally more weather stations, ranging from 8 to roughly 150, to capture weather across different seasons. Using 8 stations, one from each climate zone, across the western U.S. results in an average absolute summertime temperature bias of 7.2°F with respect to a spatially-resolved gridded dataset. The mean absolute bias drops to 2.8°F using all available weather stations. Temperature biases of this magnitude could translate to absolute summertime mean simulated load biases as high as 13.8%, a significant error for capacity expansion planners who may use these types of simulations. Increasing the size of the domain over which biases are calculated reduces their magnitude as positive and negative biases may cancel out. Using 8 representative weather stations can lead to a 20-40% overestimation of peak building loads during both summer and winter. Using weather stations close to population centers reduces both mean and peak load biases. This approach could be used by others designing aggregate building simulations to understand the sensitivity to their choice of weather stations used to drive the models.

  19. Hourly test reference weather data in the changing climate of Finland for building energy simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Jylhä

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic building energy simulations need hourly weather data as input. The same high temporal resolution is required for assessments of future heating and cooling energy demand. The data presented in this article concern current typical values and estimated future changes in outdoor air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and global, diffuse and normal solar radiation components. Simulated annual and seasonal delivered energy consumptions for heating of spaces, heating of ventilation supply air and cooling of spaces in the current and future climatic conditions are also presented for an example house, with district heating and a mechanical space cooling system. We provide details on how the synthetic future weather files were created and utilised as input data for dynamic building energy simulations by the IDA Indoor Climate and Energy program and also for calculations of heating and cooling degree-day sums. The information supplied here is related to the research article titled “Energy demand for the heating and cooling of residential houses in Finland in a changing climate” [1].

  20. Urban weather data and building models for the inclusion of the urban heat island effect in building performance simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palme

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This data article presents files supporting calculation for urban heat island (UHI inclusion in building performance simulation (BPS. Methodology is used in the research article “From urban climate to energy consumption. Enhancing building performance simulation by including the urban heat island effect” (Palme et al., 2017 [1]. In this research, a Geographical Information System (GIS study is done in order to statistically represent the most important urban scenarios of four South-American cities (Guayaquil, Lima, Antofagasta and Valparaíso. Then, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA is done to obtain reference Urban Tissues Categories (UTC to be used in urban weather simulation. The urban weather files are generated by using the Urban Weather Generator (UWG software (version 4.1 beta. Finally, BPS is run out with the Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS software (version 17. In this data paper, four sets of data are presented: 1 PCA data (excel to explain how to group different urban samples in representative UTC; 2 UWG data (text to reproduce the Urban Weather Generation for the UTC used in the four cities (4 UTC in Lima, Guayaquil, Antofagasta and 5 UTC in Valparaíso; 3 weather data (text with the resulting rural and urban weather; 4 BPS models (text data containing the TRNSYS models (four building models.

  1. Urban weather data and building models for the inclusion of the urban heat island effect in building performance simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, M; Inostroza, L; Villacreses, G; Lobato, A; Carrasco, C

    2017-10-01

    This data article presents files supporting calculation for urban heat island (UHI) inclusion in building performance simulation (BPS). Methodology is used in the research article "From urban climate to energy consumption. Enhancing building performance simulation by including the urban heat island effect" (Palme et al., 2017) [1]. In this research, a Geographical Information System (GIS) study is done in order to statistically represent the most important urban scenarios of four South-American cities (Guayaquil, Lima, Antofagasta and Valparaíso). Then, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is done to obtain reference Urban Tissues Categories (UTC) to be used in urban weather simulation. The urban weather files are generated by using the Urban Weather Generator (UWG) software (version 4.1 beta). Finally, BPS is run out with the Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) software (version 17). In this data paper, four sets of data are presented: 1) PCA data (excel) to explain how to group different urban samples in representative UTC; 2) UWG data (text) to reproduce the Urban Weather Generation for the UTC used in the four cities (4 UTC in Lima, Guayaquil, Antofagasta and 5 UTC in Valparaíso); 3) weather data (text) with the resulting rural and urban weather; 4) BPS models (text) data containing the TRNSYS models (four building models).

  2. Information on weather and sea conditions onboard polar cruise ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRÂNDUŞA CHIOTOROIU

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The arctic and Antarctic regions are difficult to navigate because of their severe maritime conditions. Weather forecast, forecast of the sea ice and icebergs dynamics are extremely important when planning ships routes and tourism activities including embarkation/disembarkation from boats or landing operations. New meteorological services have been created in the arctic region for broadcast purposes. The information provided by these services and received onboard ships is presented in this paper. A risk assessment should be considered for Polar Water operations such as maneuvering in ice covered waters, anchoring, shore landings etc.

  3. HOW TO PREDICT CARGO HANDLING TIMES AT THE SEA PORT AFFECTED BY WEATHER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Stanivuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Safe implementation of the decisions regarding the potential uncertainties in port loading operations requires the anticipation of all the aspects of loading. However, loading operations that are designed as new maritime projects have not always been supported by extensive practical experience. This paper discusses the case study of Punta Arenas loading terminal, reviewing potential issues related to building such a terminal and providing answers applicable to similar cases. When planning the construction of loading terminals at places exposed to harsh weather conditions, it is necessary to define economic and weather aspects. Building a loading terminal in Punta Arenas represents a demanding venture due to exceptionally hard weather conditions affecting the area. The quantitative uncertainties in loading operations can be presented by simulations. Probabilistic simulation is a process explicitly presenting the uncertainties by defining the information input as a distribution of probability of error. If the inputs describe an uncertain system, the forecast of future results is necessary. The results are obtained on the basis of the available information that represents the stated distribution. For the purpose of the probability simulation, the Monte Carlo method is often used, and has therefore been chosen for this research. The main results of the research shall be quantified as the probability of failure in the ship loading operation, with the focus on selected input systems, in the context of difficult weather conditions and unfavourable location of the port of loading. These findings are highly useful to the decision-makers since the latter are able to use the simulation results as a backing for decisions related to the ship loading.

  4. BLAME IT ON THE WEATHER: COST AND DESIGN OF MANURE MANAGEMENT UNDER EXTREME WEATHER CONDITIONS ON NORTH CAROLINA SWINE FARMS

    OpenAIRE

    Chvosta, Jan; Zering, Kelly D.; Norwood, F. Bailey

    2004-01-01

    The majority of pig farms in North Carolina use a lagoon-sprayfield system to manage manure. Although economical, the lagoon-sprayfield system is sensitive to weather conditions. This study examines the cost of manure management under extreme weather and scrutinizes National Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) design criteria and regulations.

  5. A Fresh Look at Weather Impact on Peak Electricity Demand and Energy Use of Buildings Using 30-Year Actual Weather Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Chang, Wen-Kuei; Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-05-01

    Buildings consume more than one third of the world?s total primary energy. Weather plays a unique and significant role as it directly affects the thermal loads and thus energy performance of buildings. The traditional simulated energy performance using Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data represents the building performance for a typical year, but not necessarily the average or typical long-term performance as buildings with different energy systems and designs respond differently to weather changes. Furthermore, the single-year TMY simulations do not provide a range of results that capture yearly variations due to changing weather, which is important for building energy management, and for performing risk assessments of energy efficiency investments. This paper employs large-scale building simulation (a total of 3162 runs) to study the weather impact on peak electricity demand and energy use with the 30-year (1980 to 2009) Actual Meteorological Year (AMY) weather data for three types of office buildings at two design efficiency levels, across all 17 ASHRAE climate zones. The simulated results using the AMY data are compared to those from the TMY3 data to determine and analyze the differences. Besides further demonstration, as done by other studies, that actual weather has a significant impact on both the peak electricity demand and energy use of buildings, the main findings from the current study include: 1) annual weather variation has a greater impact on the peak electricity demand than it does on energy use in buildings; 2) the simulated energy use using the TMY3 weather data is not necessarily representative of the average energy use over a long period, and the TMY3 results can be significantly higher or lower than those from the AMY data; 3) the weather impact is greater for buildings in colder climates than warmer climates; 4) the weather impact on the medium-sized office building was the greatest, followed by the large office and then the small

  6. Weather Features Associated with Aircraft Icing Conditions: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Fernández-González

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of aviation weather hazards, the study of aircraft icing is very important because of several accidents attributed to it over recent decades. On February 1, 2012, an unusual meteorological situation caused severe icing of a C-212-200, an aircraft used during winter 2011-2012 to study winter cloud systems in the Guadarrama Mountains of the central Iberian Peninsula. Observations in this case were from a MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler, which acquired atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles continuously every 2.5 minutes. A Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS was also used to study cloud hydrometeors. Finally, ice nuclei concentration was measured in an isothermal cloud chamber, with the goal of calculating concentrations in the study area. Synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions were analysed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. It was demonstrated that topography influenced generation of a mesolow and gravity waves on the lee side of the orographic barrier, in the region where the aircraft experienced icing. Other factors such as moisture, wind direction, temperature, atmospheric stability, and wind shear were decisive in the appearance of icing. This study indicates that icing conditions may arise locally, even when the synoptic situation does not indicate any risk.

  7. Weather features associated with aircraft icing conditions: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, Sergio; Sánchez, José Luis; Gascón, Estíbaliz; López, Laura; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Merino, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    In the context of aviation weather hazards, the study of aircraft icing is very important because of several accidents attributed to it over recent decades. On February 1, 2012, an unusual meteorological situation caused severe icing of a C-212-200, an aircraft used during winter 2011-2012 to study winter cloud systems in the Guadarrama Mountains of the central Iberian Peninsula. Observations in this case were from a MP-3000A microwave radiometric profiler, which acquired atmospheric temperature and humidity profiles continuously every 2.5 minutes. A Cloud Aerosol and Precipitation Spectrometer (CAPS) was also used to study cloud hydrometeors. Finally, ice nuclei concentration was measured in an isothermal cloud chamber, with the goal of calculating concentrations in the study area. Synoptic and mesoscale meteorological conditions were analysed using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. It was demonstrated that topography influenced generation of a mesolow and gravity waves on the lee side of the orographic barrier, in the region where the aircraft experienced icing. Other factors such as moisture, wind direction, temperature, atmospheric stability, and wind shear were decisive in the appearance of icing. This study indicates that icing conditions may arise locally, even when the synoptic situation does not indicate any risk.

  8. Pyrite oxidation under simulated acid rain weathering conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kai; Li, Heping; Wang, Luying; Wen, Xiaoying; Liu, Qingyou

    2017-07-31

    We investigated the electrochemical corrosion behavior of pyrite in simulated acid rain with different acidities and at different temperatures. The cyclic voltammetry, polarization curve, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that pyrite has the same electrochemical interaction mechanism under different simulated acid rain conditions, regardless of acidity or environmental temperature. Either stronger acid rain acidity or higher environmental temperature can accelerate pyrite corrosion. Compared with acid rain having a pH of 5.6 at 25 °C, the prompt efficiency of pyrite weathering reached 104.29% as the acid rain pH decreased to 3.6, and it reached 125.31% as environmental temperature increased to 45 °C. Increasing acidity dramatically decreases the charge transfer resistance, and increasing temperature dramatically decreases the passivation film resistance, when other conditions are held constant. Acid rain always causes lower acidity mine drainage, and stronger acidity or high environmental temperatures cause serious acid drainage. The natural parameters of latitude, elevation, and season have considerable influence on pyrite weathering, because temperature is an important influencing factor. These experimental results are of direct significance for the assessment and management of sulfide mineral acid drainage in regions receiving acid rain.

  9. Modelling Wind Turbine Failures based on Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reder, Maik; Melero, Julio J.

    2017-11-01

    A large proportion of the overall costs of a wind farm is directly related to operation and maintenance (O&M) tasks. By applying predictive O&M strategies rather than corrective approaches these costs can be decreased significantly. Here, especially wind turbine (WT) failure models can help to understand the components’ degradation processes and enable the operators to anticipate upcoming failures. Usually, these models are based on the age of the systems or components. However, latest research shows that the on-site weather conditions also affect the turbine failure behaviour significantly. This study presents a novel approach to model WT failures based on the environmental conditions to which they are exposed to. The results focus on general WT failures, as well as on four main components: gearbox, generator, pitch and yaw system. A penalised likelihood estimation is used in order to avoid problems due to for example highly correlated input covariates. The relative importance of the model covariates is assessed in order to analyse the effect of each weather parameter on the model output.

  10. Frosty Conditions Catalyze Weatherization Solutions: Maine Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10

    Maine demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  11. Passive Design of Buildings for Extreme Weather Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Al-Zubaidy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Buildings account for nearly 40% of the end-use energy consumption and carbonemissions globally. Buildings, once built, are used at least for several decades. The building sectortherefore holds a significant responsibility for implementing strategies to increase energyefficiency and reduce carbon emissions and thus contribute to global efforts directed towardmitigating the adverse effects of climate change. The work presented in this paper is a part ofcontinuing efforts to identify, analyze and promote the design of low energy, sustainable buildingswith special reference to the Kazakhstan locality. Demonstration of improved environmentalconditions and impact on energy savings will be outlined through a case study incorporating apassive design approach and detailed computational fluid dynamics analysis for an existingbuilding complex. The influence of orientation and configuration is discussed with reference toenergy efficiency and associated wind comfort and safety. The effect of these aspects on energyconsumption and comfortable wind environment has been assessed using CFD analysis and provedto be affective. Single building and multiple building configurations have been analyzed andcompared. According to the findings, multiple building configurations have better wind conditionswhen compared with a single standing building. With respect to orientation the former one shouldbe modeled with the fully surrounded side of a “box” opposite to the predominant wind directionwhereas the latter one should be located with the rear side opposite to the wind direction. Thus,results indicated that there is a considerable influence of passive design and orientation on energyefficiency, wind comfort and safety. Careful consideration and application of the findings canpotentially lead to considerable decrease of energy consumption and, therefore, allow savingmoney and the environment at the same time.

  12. SAP FLOW RESPONSE OF CHERRY TREES TO WEATHER CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. JUHÁSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sap flow response of cherry trees to weather condition. Themain goal of our study is to measure water-demand of cherry trees budded ontodifferent rootstocks by sapflow equipment and to study the sap flow response to themeteorological factors. The investigations are carried out in Soroksár in Hungary at‘Rita’ sweet cherry orchard. The pattern of sapflow was analyzed in relation ofsolar radiation, vapour pressure deficit and air temperature. Between solar radiationand sap flow was found a parabolic relation, daily pattern of sapflow is in closerelation (cubic also to vapour pressure deficit. No significant relationship existedbetween sapflow and air temperature. The sapflow performance of sweet cherrytrees on different rootstocks showed typical daily characters.

  13. Identifying crash-prone traffic conditions under different weather on freeways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chengcheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Pan

    2013-09-01

    Understanding the relationships between traffic flow characteristics and crash risk under adverse weather conditions will help highway agencies develop proactive safety management strategies to improve traffic safety in adverse weather conditions. The primary objective is to develop separate crash risk prediction models for different weather conditions. The crash data, weather data, and traffic data used in this study were collected on the I-880N freeway in California in 2008 and 2010. This study considered three different weather conditions: clear weather, rainy weather, and reduced visibility weather. The preliminary analysis showed that there was some heterogeneity in the risk estimates for traffic flow characteristics by weather conditions, and that the crash risk prediction model for all weather conditions cannot capture the impacts of the traffic flow variables on crash risk under adverse weather conditions. The Bayesian random intercept logistic regression models were applied to link the likelihood of crash occurrence with various traffic flow characteristics under different weather conditions. The crash risk prediction models were compared to their corresponding logistic regression model. It was found that the random intercept model improved the goodness-of-fit of the crash risk prediction models. The model estimation results showed that the traffic flow characteristics contributing to crash risk were different across different weather conditions. The speed difference between upstream and downstream stations was found to be significant in each crash risk prediction model. Speed difference between upstream and downstream stations had the largest impact on crash risk in reduced visibility weather, followed by that in rainy weather. The ROC curves were further developed to evaluate the predictive performance of the crash risk prediction models under different weather conditions. The predictive performance of the crash risk model for clear weather was better

  14. Weather conditions and daily television use in the Netherlands, 1996-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.N.; Franses, P.H.B.F.; Vergeer, M.R.M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily television use in the Netherlands for the period 1996–2005. The effects of the weather parameters are considered in the context of mood and mood management theory. It is proposed that inclement and uncomfortable weather

  15. Weather conditions and daily television use in the Netherlands, 1996-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.; Franses, Ph.-H.; Vergeer, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily television use in the Netherlands for the period 1996–2005. The effects of the weather parameters are considered in the context of mood and mood management theory. It is proposed that inclement and uncomfortable weather

  16. Triticale in the years with extreme weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nožinić Miloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other grain crops, the area under triticale in the Republic of Srpska has been expanding every year. Since the introduction of this plant species in the broad production began a few years ago, the finding of the optimal variety agrotechnique in different environmental conditions has great importance. This paper deals with the results of the trials from seven locations in two very extreme vegetation seasons (2002/03, 2006/07. High yield of triticale on the location Banja Luka (150 m alt. with five triticale varieties in four sowing rates in the replication trial in very unfavorable weather conditions in 2003, points to emphasized triticale tolerance to high temperatures and drought. High grain yield of triticale in the trials on the locations Banja Luka, Butmir (460 m alt. and Živince (230 m alt. was obtained in 2007 too, when all vegetation months had higher mean temperature than long term average, what is a unique appearance in the entire 'meteorological history'. In the paper the appearance of the earliest triticale heading is described and explained. It happened at one production trial on Manjača (250 m alt. in the first decade of March in 2007. On the another location on Manjača (450 m alt., in the macrotrial, rye showed much higher tolerance to extreme soil acidity, than triticale. Obtained results and unusual appearances on triticale are helpful for the further research of the stability and adaptability of more important triticale traits. .

  17. Weather conditions influence the number of psychiatric emergency room patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Eva Janina; Lett, Tristram A.; Bakanidze, George; Heinz, Andreas; Bermpohl, Felix; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2017-12-01

    The specific impact of weather factors on psychiatric disorders has been investigated only in few studies with inconsistent results. We hypothesized that meteorological conditions influence the number of cases presenting in a psychiatric emergency room as a measure of mental health conditions. We analyzed the number of patients consulting the emergency room (ER) of a psychiatric hospital in Berlin, Germany, between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014. A total of N = 22,672 cases were treated in the ER over the study period. Meteorological data were obtained from a publicly available data base. Due to collinearity among the meteorological variables, we performed a principal component (PC) analysis. Association of PCs with the daily number of patients was analyzed with autoregressive integrated moving average model. Delayed effects were investigated using Granger causal modeling. Daily number of patients in the ER was significantly higher in spring and summer compared to fall and winter (p emergency room (p emergency room for up to 7 days (p emergency room. In particular, our data indicate lower patient numbers during very cold temperatures.

  18. Poor weather conditions and flight operations: Implications for air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth of aviation industry in Nigeria and the increased adoption of air transportation as one of the best means of transport have been obstructed by various weather hazards. There is a greater need for aviation weather forecasters to deliver quality forecasts. It is therefore necessary to identify the most dangerous and ...

  19. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Goetzler, M. Guernsey, J. Young, J. Fuhrman, O. Abdelaziz, PhD

    2016-07-01

    BTO works with researchers and industry to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. Air conditioning systems in buildings contribute to GHG emissions both directly through refrigerant emissions, as well as indirectly through fossil fuel combustion for power generation. BTO promotes pre-competitive research and development on next-generation HVAC technologies that support the phase down of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and consumption, as well as cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. DOE provides, with this report, a fact-based vision for the future of A/C use around the world. DOE intends for this vision to reflect a broad and balanced aggregation of perspectives. DOE brings together this content in an effort to support dialogue within the international community and help keep key facts and objectives at the forefront among the many important discussions.

  20. Influence of weather conditions on the distribution of persistent contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, M.; Meyer, R.; Wendling, P.

    1998-11-01

    An automated contrail detection algorithm has been applied to AVHRR data to obtain the position of contrails. Nearly simultaneous data from the Europe model of the Deutscher Wetterdienst have been used to find typical weather conditions associated with 742 persistent contrails. Further, a flow pattern analysis identifies in typical regions where the occurrence of contrails was above average. These regions are in the upper atmosphere: (a) ahead of a surface warm front either in moist warm layers before the cirrus clouds arrive or more likely with the cirrus in a warm conveyor belt and (b) ahead of a surface cold front in rapidly moving cold air in the turbulent regions near a band of strong wind (though the speed is not necessarily as high as in a jet). Usually, the atmosphere is baroclinic in the contrail region. Most of the detected contrails occur in divergent flow patterns in the upper troposphere in slowly rising warm or locally turbulent cold air masses. (orig.) 23 refs.

  1. Microbiological composition of untreated water during different weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adna Bešić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Water can support the growth of different microorganisms which may result in contamination. Therefore, the microbiological examination is required for testing the hygienic probity of water. In the study of microbial composition of untreated, natural spring and mineral water differences in the presence and number of bacteria during the two periods, winter and summer, are detectable.Methods: In our study, we analyzed and compared the following parameters, specified in the Rulebook: total bacteria and total aerobic bacteria (ml/22 and 37°C, total Coliform bacteria and Coliforms of fecalorigin (MPN/100ml, fecal streptococci as Streptococcus faecalis  (MPN/100ml, Proteus spp (MPN/100ml, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MPN/100 ml Sulphoreducing Clostridia (cfu / ml. The paper is a retrospective study in which we processed data related to the period of 2005-2009 year. While working, we used the descriptive-analytical comparative statistical treatment.Results: The obtained results show statistically significant differences in the microbial composition of untreated water in the two observed periods,Conclusions: Findings were consequence of different weather conditions in these periods, which imply a number of other variable factors.

  2. The association between weather conditions and stroke admissions in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik, Yunsur; Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Daş, Murat; Ahmedali, Asliddin; Kul, Seval; Bayram, Hasan

    2015-07-01

    Although several factors such as cigarette smoking, blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, physical inactivity and dietary factors have been well documented to increase the risk for stroke, there are conflicting data about the role of meteorological variables in the etiology of stroke. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the association between weather patterns, including daily temperature, humidity, wind speed, and air pressure, and stroke admissions to the Emergency Department of Atatürk Training and Research Hospital in Ankara, Turkey, between January 2009 and April 2010. Generalized additive models with logistic link function were used to investigate the relationship between predictors and days with and without stroke admission at lags 0-4. A total of 373 stroke patients were admitted to the emergency department (ED) between January 2009 and April 2010. Of patients, 297 had ischemic stroke (IS), 34 hemorrhagic stroke (HS), and 42 subarachnoidal hemorrhage (SAH). Although we did not find any association between overall admissions due to stroke and meteorological parameters, univariable analysis indicated that there were significantly more SAH cases on days with lower daily mean temperatures of 8.79 ± 8.75 °C as compared to relatively mild days with higher temperatures (mean temperature = 11.89 ± 7.94 °C, p = 0.021). The multivariable analysis demonstrated that admissions due to SAH increased on days with lower daily mean temperatures for the same day (lag 0; odds ratio (OR) [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI)] = 0.93 [0.89-0.98], p = 0.004) and lag 1 (OR [95 % CI] =0.76 [0.67-0.86], p = 0.001). Furthermore, the wind speed at both lag 1 (OR [95 % CI] = 1.63 [1.27-2.09], p = 0.001) and lag 3 (OR [95 % CI] = 1.43 [1.12-1.81], p = 0.004) increased admissions due to HS, respectively. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that there was an association between ED admissions due to SAH and HS and weather conditions suggesting that

  3. The association between weather conditions and stroke admissions in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çevik, Yunsur; Doğan, Nurettin Özgür; Daş, Murat; Ahmedali, Asliddin; Kul, Seval; Bayram, Hasan

    2015-07-01

    and weather conditions suggesting that meteorological variables may, at least in part, play as risk factors for intracranial hemorrhages.

  4. Quantifying the impact of adverse weather conditions on road network performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, M.; Calvert, S.

    2016-01-01

    Adverse weather conditions regularly lead to severe congestion and large travel time delays on road networks all over the world. Different climate scenarios indicate that in the future adverse weather conditions are likely to become more frequent, last longer and will be more extreme. Although

  5. Weather Correlations to Calculate Infiltration Rates for U. S. Commercial Building Energy Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lisa C; Quiles, Nelson Ojeda; Dols, W Stuart; Emmerich, Steven J

    2018-01-01

    As building envelope performance improves, a greater percentage of building energy loss will occur through envelope leakage. Although the energy impacts of infiltration on building energy use can be significant, current energy simulation software have limited ability to accurately account for envelope infiltration and the impacts of improved airtightness. This paper extends previous work by the National Institute of Standards and Technology that developed a set of EnergyPlus inputs for modeling infiltration in several commercial reference buildings using Chicago weather. The current work includes cities in seven additional climate zones and uses the updated versions of the prototype commercial building types developed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U. S. Department of Energy. Comparisons were made between the predicted infiltration rates using three representations of the commercial building types: PNNL EnergyPlus models, CONTAM models, and EnergyPlus models using the infiltration inputs developed in this paper. The newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus yielded average annual increases of 3 % and 8 % in the HVAC electrical and gas use, respectively, over the original infiltration inputs in the PNNL EnergyPlus models. When analyzing the benefits of building envelope airtightening, greater HVAC energy savings were predicted using the newly developed infiltration inputs in EnergyPlus compared with using the original infiltration inputs. These results indicate that the effects of infiltration on HVAC energy use can be significant and that infiltration can and should be better accounted for in whole-building energy models.

  6. BER analysis of SS-WDM based FSO system for Vellore weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, K.; Charanya, S.; Jain, Mehul; Guha, Debapriya

    2017-11-01

    Spectrum Slicing Wavelength Division Multiplexing (SS-WDM) has been advanced to boost the long distance communication in FSO channel which assists immense bit rate due to its high capacity and efficiency. It is a substitute to WDM systems having multiple coherent lasers with different wavelengths which is expensive. This paper is subjected to investigate the characteristics and quality of communication links of data rate 1.56 GB/s and wavelength of 1550 nm. The SS-WDM technique has been inspected for 4, 8 and 16 channels to increase the performance of communication under various weather conditions. The proposed model is susceptible to system degradation due to turbulences where wind velocity, refractive index and height of buildings have been majorly focused. A case study has been experimented on how the height of buildings around VIT, Vellore campus interfere the transmission of light in free space. Based on the above study, the results shows that the benefits of spectrum slicing wavelength division multiplexing (SS-WDM) have been worked up on for the climatic conditions which enhance performance of system. Moreover, the graphs plotted against bit error rate (BER), attenuation and distance makes the analysis better which highlights the characteristic features of SS-WDM.

  7. Weather conditions and daily television use in the Netherlands, 1996-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Eisinga (Rob); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M. Vergeer (Maurice)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis study examines the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily television use in the Netherlands for the period 1996-2005. The effects of the weather parameters are considered in the context of mood and mood management theory. It is proposed that inclement and

  8. Impact of climate and weather on the activities of the building and construction industry in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, GDT

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a quantitative survey of the impact of the climate and weather on the activities of the building and construction industry in South Africa. Seasonal productivity problems, the seasonal provision of special facilities...

  9. On Possible Influence of Space Weather on Agricultural Markets: Necessary Conditions and Probable Scenarios

    CERN Document Server

    Pustilnik, Lev

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of study of a possible relationship between the space weather and terrestrial markets of agricultural products. It is shown that to implement the possible effect of space weather on the terrestrial harvests and prices, a simultaneous fulfillment of three conditions is required: 1) sensitivity of local weather (cloud cover, atmospheric circulation) to the state of space weather; 2) sensitivity of the area of specific agricultural crops to the weather anomalies (belonging to the area of risk farming); 3) relative isolation of the market, making it difficult to damp the price hikes by the external food supplies. Four possible scenarios of the market response to the modulations of local terrestrial weather via the solar activity are described. The data sources and analysis methods applied to detect this relationship are characterized. We describe the behavior of 22 European markets during the medieval period, in particular, during the Maunder minimum (1650-1715). We demonstrate a reliable m...

  10. Energy Saving Potential of PCMs in Buildings under Future Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Abdullah Ahmed Gassar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption reduction under changing climate conditions is a major challenge in buildings design, where excessive energy consumption creates an economic and environmental burden. Improving thermal performance of the buildings through support applying phase change material (PCM is a promising strategy for reducing building energy consumption under future climate change. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the energy saving potentials in buildings under future climate conditions in the humid and snowy regions in the hot continental and humid subtropical climates of the east Asia (Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong when various PCMs with different phase change temperatures are applied to a lightweight building envelope. Methodology in this work is implemented in two phases: firstly, investigation of energy saving potentials in buildings through inclusion of three types of PCMs with different phase temperatures into the building envelop separately and use weather file in the present (2017; and, secondly, evaluation of the effect of future climate change on the performance of PCMs by analyzing energy saving potentials of PCMs with 2020, 2050 and 2080 weather data. The results show that the inclusion of PCM into the building envelope is a promising strategy to increase the energy performance in buildings during both heating and cooling seasons in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong under future climate conditions. The energy savings achieved by using PCMs in those regions are electricity savings of 4.48–8.21%, 3.81–9.69%, and 1.94–5.15%, and gas savings of 1.65–16.59%, 7.60–61.76%, and 62.07–93.33% in Seoul, Tokyo and Hong Kong, respectively, for the years 2017, 2020, 2050 and 2080. In addition, BioPCM and RUBITHERMPCM are the most efficient for improving thermal performance and saving energy in buildings in the tested regions and years.

  11. Solar energy contribution to the energy demand for air conditioning system in an office building under Tripoli climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musbah Mohamed H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of solar assisted air conditioning in an office building under Tripoli weather conditions is investigated in this paper. A single-effect lithium bromide absorption cycle powered by means of flat-plate solar collectors was modeled in order to predict the potential of the solar energy share. The cooling load profile was generated by using an detailed hourly based program and Typical meteorological year for Tripoli. System performance and solar energy fraction were calculated by varying two major parameters (collector’s slope angle and collector area. The maximum solar fraction of 48% was obtained by means of 1400 m2 of collector surface area. Analysis of results showed that, besides the collector surface area, the main factors affecting the solar fraction were the local weather conditions (intensity of incident solar radiation and the time of day when the plant was operated.

  12. Thermal Performance of Aged and Weathered Spray-On Foam Insulation (SOFI) Materials Under Cryogenic Vacuum Conditions (Cryostat-4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Cryogenics Test Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center conducted long-term testing of SOFI materials under actual-use cryogenic conditions with Cryostat-4. The materials included in the testing were NCFI 24-124 (acreage foam), BX-265 (close-out foam, including intertank flange and bipod areas), and a potential alternate material, NCFI 27-68, (acreage foam with the flame retardant removed). Specimens of these materials were placed at two locations: a site that simulated aging (the Vehicle Assembly Building [VAB]) and a site that simulated weathering (the Atmospheric Exposure Test Site [beach site]). After aging/weathering intervals of 3, 6, and 12 months, the samples were retrieved and tested for their thermal performance under cryogenic vacuum conditions with test apparatus Cryostat-4.

  13. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Unvented, Conditioned Crawlspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research which influenced code requirements by demonstrating that unvented, conditioned crawlspaces use 15% to 18% less energy for heating and cooling while reducing humidity over 20% in humid climates.

  14. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  15. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2015-01-01

    .... Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates...

  16. Weather conditions and daily television use in the Netherlands, 1996-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinga, Rob; Franses, Philip Hans; Vergeer, Maurice

    2011-07-01

    This study examines the impact of daily atmospheric weather conditions on daily television use in the Netherlands for the period 1996-2005. The effects of the weather parameters are considered in the context of mood and mood management theory. It is proposed that inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions are associated with lower human mood, and that watching entertainment and avoiding informational programs may serve to repair such mood. We consequently hypothesize that people spend more time watching television if inclement and uncomfortable weather conditions (low temperatures, little sunshine, much precipitation, high wind velocity, less daylight) coincide with more airtime for entertainment programs, but that they view less if the same weather conditions coincide with more airtime devoted to information fare. We put this interaction thesis to a test using a time series analysis of daily television viewing data of the Dutch audience obtained from telemeters ( T = 3,653), merged with meteorological weather station statistics and program broadcast figures, whilst controlling for a wide array of recurrent and one-time societal events. The results provide substantial support for the proposed interaction of program airtime and the weather parameters temperature and sunshine on aggregate television viewing time. Implications of the findings are discussed.

  17. Phytoplankton diversity in relation to different weather conditions in two urban made lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munay Abdulqadir Omar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists have reported that global warming have significant impact on phytoplankton community, however, the impact of global warming on phytoplankton communities in suburban made lake is less understood. Therefor the objective of this study are to observe the effect of variable weather conditions on the diversity and succession of phytoplankton in mesotrophic lake (Seri Serdang and oligotrophic lake (Engineering Faculty Lake. Samples were collected from surface water and species diversity (Shannon Weaver Diversity Index was calculated. Daily weather and rain fall were recorded. A total of 65 species from five divisions (Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta, Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta and 52 species belonging to six divisions (Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta & Charophyta were recorded from Engineering Faculty Lake and Seri Serdang Lake respectively. Division of Chlorophyta was found most dominant in both lakes during all the weeks (67%. The most dominant species in Faculty Engineering Lake was Microcystis aeruginosa during all weather conditions. Whereas, the most dominant species in Seri Serdang Lake during all weather conditions were Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Planktothrix agardhii. The phytoplankton density was low during dry weather conditions for both lakes. The present finding suggested noticeable correlation between weather changes to the alteration of population density of phytoplankton.

  18. Supracondylar humerus fractures in children: the effect of weather conditions on their risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinikumpu, Juha-Jaakko; Pokka, Tytti; Hyvönen, Hanna; Ruuhela, Reija; Serlo, Willy

    2017-02-01

    Supracondylar humerus fractures are the most common fractures of the elbow in children. Many environmental factors such as weather conditions may affect the risk of these fractures. The purpose of the study was to analyze the effect of weather conditions (temperature, rainfall, wind) on fracture risk in children weather service and the association of weather conditions and fractures were analyzed. A majority (79.7%, N = 181) of the fractures occurred on dry days versus rainy days (20.3%) (P = 0.011), and risk of a fracture was 3.5-fold higher on dry days as compared with rainy days (crude OR 3.5, 3.41-3.59, P weather was warm, instead of cool or hot, when the majority of the fractures (N = 147, 64.8%) occurred (P = 0.008): Warm temperatures (15-24.9 °C) increased the fracture risk 2.6-fold (crude OR 2.64, 2.59-2.70, P change according to the wind speed (P = 0.171). The findings were similar through the school term and summer vacation. Dry and warm weather conditions increase the risk of outdoor supracondylar humerus fractures in children during the time period with the absence of snow cover.

  19. Forest Fires Under Abnormal Weather Conditions in Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Valendik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Occurrence of forest fires and their development to large and catastrophic wildfires are considered for Central Siberia taiga subzones under abnormal drought conditions. The combination of natural conditions that determine the appearance and spread of these fires are given for drought conditions. A map of the large wildfires distribution in the boreal forest subzones of Central Siberia is compiled for 1979 to 2011. A brief analysis is made of dry periods and their relation to the planetary atmospheric processes, as well as the possibility of wildfires escalating in boreal forests and mountain forests of southern Siberia under climate warming.

  20. Atmospheric propagation of high power laser radiation at different weather conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pargmann, Carsten; Hall, Thomas; Duschek, Frank; Handke, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Applications based on the propagation of high power laser radiation through the atmosphere are limited in range and effect, due to weather dependent beam wandering, beam deterioration, and scattering processes. Security and defense related application examples are countermeasures against hostile projectiles and the powering of satellites and aircrafts. For an examination of the correlations between weather condition and laser beam characteristics DLR operates at Lampoldshausen a 130 m long fr...

  1. Thermal performance evaluation of a massive brick wall under real weather conditions via the Conduction Transfer function method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Sassine

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The reliable estimation of buildings energy needs for cooling and heating is essential for any eventual thermal improvement of the envelope or the HVAC equipment. This paper presents an interesting method to evaluate the thermal performance of a massive wall by using the frequency-domain regression (FDR method to calculate CTF coefficients by means of the Fourier transform. The method is based on the EN ISO 13786 (2007 procedure by using the Taylor expansion for the elements of the heat matrix. Numerical results were validated through an experimental heating box with stochastic boundary conditions on one side of the wall representing real weather conditions and constant temperature profile on the other side representing the inside ambiance in real cases. Finally, a frequency analysis was performed in order to assess the validity and accuracy of the method used. The results show that development to the second order is sufficient to predict the thermal behavior of the studied massive wall in the range of frequencies encountered in the building applications (one hour time step. This method is useful for thermal transfer analysis in real weather conditions where the outside temperature is stochastic; it also allows the evaluation of the thermal performance of a wall through a frequency analysis.

  2. Effects of weather and heliophysical conditions on emergency ambulance calls for elevated arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta M; Dobozinskas, Paulius; Sakalyte, Gintare; Lopatiene, Kristina; Mikelionis, Nerijus

    2015-02-27

    We hypothesized that weather and space weather conditions were associated with the exacerbation of essential hypertension. The study was conducted during 2009-2010 in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. We analyzed 13,475 cards from emergency ambulance calls (EACs), in which the conditions for the emergency calls were made coded I.10-I.15. The Kaunas Weather Station provided daily records of air temperature (T), wind speed (WS), relative humidity, and barometric pressure (BP). We evaluated the associations between daily weather variables and daily number of EACs by applying a multivariate Poisson regression. Unfavorable heliophysical conditions (two days after the active-stormy geomagnetic field or the days with solar WS>600 km/s) increased the daily number of elevated arterial blood pressure (EABP) by 12% (RR=1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.21); and WS≥3.5 knots during days of Tweather conditions. These results may help in the understanding of the population's sensitivity to different weather conditions.

  3. QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET ROOT IN RELATION TO WEATHER CONDITIONS AND DIFFERENT ATONIK DOSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I ČERNÝ

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field trial carried out in 1998 and 1999 the effect of weather conditions and different Atonik doses application on sugar beet quality (refined sugar, refined sugar yield was studied. The trial results confirmed statistically high significant effect of weather conditions on above mentioned parameters. More favourable weather conditions in 1999 influenced high significantly increasing of refined sugar (+ 0,67 %, rel. 5,53 % and refined sugar yield (+ 0,67 t.ha-1, rel. 9,75 % comparing to average of both 1998, 1999 years. We found out significant effect of Atonik under its three times application ( 0,25 + 0,6 + 0,6 I.ha -1 on refined sugar (+ 0,48 %, rel. 4,05 % and refined sugar yield (+ 0,96 t.ha-1, rel. 15,86 % on C variant comparing to average values of control variant in total trial period.

  4. Offshore Variability in Critical Weather Conditions in Large-Scale Wind Based Danish Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    , the chances of losing several GW of wind power due to critical weather conditions in a very short time period could potentially jeopardize the whole system’s reliability and stability. Forecasting such events is not trivial and the results so far are not encouraging. When assessing the impact......Offshore wind power has a significant development potential, especially in North Europe. The geographical concentration of offshore wind power leads to increased variability and in the case of critical weather conditions it may lead to sudden and considerable loss of production. In this context...

  5. Effects of Weather and Heliophysical Conditions on Emergency Ambulance Calls for Elevated Arterial Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jone Vencloviene

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that weather and space weather conditions were associated with the exacerbation of essential hypertension. The study was conducted during 2009–2010 in the city of Kaunas, Lithuania. We analyzed 13,475 cards from emergency ambulance calls (EACs, in which the conditions for the emergency calls were made coded I.10–I.15. The Kaunas Weather Station provided daily records of air temperature (T, wind speed (WS, relative humidity, and barometric pressure (BP. We evaluated the associations between daily weather variables and daily number of EACs by applying a multivariate Poisson regression. Unfavorable heliophysical conditions (two days after the active-stormy geomagnetic field or the days with solar WS > 600 km/s increased the daily number of elevated arterial blood pressure (EABP by 12% (RR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.04–1.21; and WS ≥ 3.5 knots during days of T < 1.5 °C and T ≥ 12.5 °C by 8% (RR = 1.08; CI 1.04–1.12. An increase of T by 10 °C and an elevation of BP two days after by 10 hPa were associated with a decrease in RR by 3%. An additional effect of T was detected during days of T ≥ 17.5 °C only in females. Women and patients with grade III arterial hypertension at the time of the ambulance call were more sensitive to weather conditions. These results may help in the understanding of the population’s sensitivity to different weather conditions.

  6. Weather conditions and political party vote share in Dutch national parliament elections, 1971-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinga, Rob; Te Grotenhuis, Manfred; Pelzer, Ben

    2012-11-01

    Inclement weather on election day is widely seen to benefit certain political parties at the expense of others. Empirical evidence for this weather-vote share hypothesis is sparse however. We examine the effects of rainfall and temperature on share of the votes of eight political parties that participated in 13 national parliament elections, held in the Netherlands from 1971 to 2010. This paper merges the election results for all Dutch municipalities with election-day weather observations drawn from all official weather stations well distributed over the country. We find that the weather parameters affect the election results in a statistically and politically significant way. Whereas the Christian Democratic party benefits from substantial rain (10 mm) on voting day by gaining one extra seat in the 150-seat Dutch national parliament, the left-wing Social Democratic (Labor) and the Socialist parties are found to suffer from cold and wet conditions. Cold (5°C) and rainy (10 mm) election day weather causes the latter parties to lose one or two parliamentary seats.

  7. Influence of Met-Ocean Condition Forecasting Uncertainties on Weather Window Predictions for Offshore Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2017-01-01

    The article briefly presents a novel methodology of weather window estimation for offshore operations and mainly focuses on effects of met-ocean condition forecasting uncertainties on weather window predictions when using the proposed methodology. It is demonstrated that the proposed methodology...... to include stochastic variables, representing met-ocean forecasting uncertainties and the results of such modification are given in terms of predicted weather windows for a selected test case....... has the capacity to retain the uncertainties of met-ocean condition forecasting and transfer them into uncertainties of probability of operation failure. In addition to that, improvements to the failure function, used to define operation failure are presented. The failure function is modified...

  8. Investigation of concrete produced using recycled aluminium dross for hot weather concreting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gireesh Mailar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium dross is a by-product obtained from the aluminium smelting process. Currently, this dross is processed in rotary kilns to recover the residual aluminium, and the resultant salt cake is sent to landfills. The present study investigates the utilization of recycled aluminium dross in producing concrete, which is suitable for hot weather concreting condition. The primary objectives of the experimental study are to examine the feasibility of using concrete blended with recycled aluminium dross under hot weather concreting situations and then to evaluate the strength and durability aspects of the produced concrete. From the experimental results it is observed that the initial setting time of the recycled aluminium dross concrete extended by about 30 minutes at 20% replacement level. This property of recycled aluminium dross concrete renders it to be suitable for hot weather concreting conditions. Based on the results obtained, the replacement of cement with 20% of Al dross yields superior mechanical and durability characteristics.

  9. Weather conditions may worsen symptoms in rheumatoid arthritis patients: the possible effect of temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abasolo, Lydia; Tobías, Aurelio; Leon, Leticia; Carmona, Loreto; Fernandez-Rueda, Jose Luis; Rodriguez, Ana Belen; Fernandez-Gutierrez, Benjamin; Jover, Juan Angel

    2013-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) complain that weather conditions aggravate their symptoms. We investigated the short-term effects of weather conditions on worsening of RA and determined possible seasonal fluctuations. We conducted a case-crossover study in Madrid, Spain. Daily cases of RA flares were collected from the emergency room of a tertiary level hospital between 2004 and 2007. 245 RA patients who visited the emergency room 306 times due to RA related complaints as the main diagnostic reason were included in the study. Patients from 50 to 65 years old were 16% more likely to present a flare with lower mean temperatures. Our results support the belief that weather influences rheumatic pain in middle aged patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. WEATHER CONDITIONS FAVOURABLE TO THE INCREASED INCIDENCE OF INFLUENZA VIRUS IN SELECTED REGIONS OF POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIARANEK DOMINIKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human health is affected by a variety of factors. Weather conditions are hardly ever the direct cause of illness, but they may be among the top underlying factors. This paper discusses the variation of incidence of influenza and influenza-like illnesses in Poland depending on the weather conditions prevalent in the 2010/11-2013/14 seasons, as compared to incidence data since 1974. In particular, it focuses on extreme cases and areas of increased rates of said infections. Medical statistics and meteorological data from 16 Polish provinces were used as input to the study. The flu season was defined as the period starting in October and ending in April. All months in the selected seasons were analyzed, with particular attention paid to those which stood out among others due to the high number of cases recorded. Increased incidence of influenza and influenza-like illnesses was evident in periods with severe weather changes.

  11. Optimal Irrigation Water Allocation Using a Genetic Algorithm under Various Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Khanjari Sadati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Growing water scarcity, due to growing populations and varying natural conditions, puts pressure on irrigation systems, which often are the main consumptive water users. Therefore, water resources management to improve the allocation of limited water supplies is essential. In this study, a non-linear programming optimization model with an integrated soil/water balance is developed to determine the optimal reservoir release policies and the optimal cropping pattern around Doroudzan Dam in the South-West of Iran. The proposed model was solved using a genetic algorithm (GA. Four weather conditions were identified by combining the probability levels of rainfall, evapotranspiration and inflow. Moreover, two irrigation strategies, full irrigation and deficit irrigation were modeled under each weather condition. The results indicate that for all weather conditions the total farm income and the total cropped area under deficit irrigation were larger than those under full irrigation. In addition, our results show that when the weather conditions and the availability of water changes the optimal area under corn and sugar beet decreases sharply. In contrast, the change in area cropped with wheat is small. It is concluded that the optimization approach has been successfully applied to Doroudzan Dam region. Thus, decision makers and water authorities can use it as an effective tool for such large and complex irrigation planning problems.

  12. Visualization and quantification of weathering effects on capillary water uptake of natural building stones by using neutron imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raneri, Simona; Barone, Germana; Mazzoleni, Paolo [University of Catania, Department of Biological, Geological and Environment Sciences, Catania (Italy); Rabot, Eva [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CNRS/CEA), Gif-Sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-11-15

    Building stones are frequently subjected to very intense degradation due to salt crystallization, often responsible for strong modifications of their pore network. These effects have a great influence on the mechanical properties and durability of the materials, and on the penetration of water. Therefore, the quantification and visualization of water absorption into the pore network of degraded stones could provide useful information to better understand the weathering process. In this study, neutron radiography has been used (1) to monitor and visualize in two dimensions the capillary water uptake in a Sicilian calcarenite widely used as building and replace stone (namely Sabucina stone) and (2) to quantify the water content distribution, as a function of time and weathering degree. Additionally, traditional experiments based on gravimetric methods have been performed, following the standard recommendations. Results demonstrated a change in the physical properties of Sabucina stones with the intensification of the degradation process, with severe effects on the capillary imbibition dynamics. The water penetration depth at the end of the experiment was substantially higher in the fresh than in the weathered stones. The water absorption kinetics was faster in the weathered samples, and the amount of water absorbed increased with the number of weathering cycles. Good agreement between classical and neutron imaging data has also been evidenced. However, neutron radiography has allowed retrieving additional spatial information on the water absorption process, and to better understand how salt weathering affects the petrophysical properties of the studied stone and how it influences then the stone response against water. (orig.)

  13. Does Life Seem Better on a Sunny Day? Examining the Association between Daily Weather Conditions and Life Satisfaction Judgments

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, Richard E.; Lawless, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Weather conditions have been shown to affect a broad range of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. The current study examines whether these effects extend to life satisfaction judgments. We examine the association between daily weather conditions and life satisfaction in a representative sample of over 1 million Americans from all 50 states who were assessed (in a cross-sectional design) over a 5-year period. Most daily weather conditions were unrelated to life satisfaction judgments, and those...

  14. Role of Winter Weather Conditions and Slipperiness on Tourists’ Accidents in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élise Lépy

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: In Finland, slippery snowy or icy ground surface conditions can be quite hazardous to human health during wintertime. We focused on the impacts of the variability in weather conditions on tourists’ health via documented accidents during the winter season in the Sotkamo area. We attempted to estimate the slipping hazard in a specific context of space and time focusing on the weather and other possible parameters, responsible for fluctuations in the numbers of injuries/accidents; (2 Methods: We used statistical distributions with graphical illustrations to examine the distribution of visits to Kainuu Hospital by non-local patients and their characteristics/causes; graphs to illustrate the distribution of the different characteristics of weather conditions; questionnaires and interviews conducted among health care and safety personnel in Sotkamo and Kuusamo; (3 Results: There was a clear seasonal distribution in the numbers and types of extremity injuries of non-local patients. While the risk of slipping is emphasized, other factors leading to injuries are evaluated; and (4 Conclusions: The study highlighted the clear role of wintery weather conditions as a cause of extremity injuries even though other aspects must also be considered. Future scenarios, challenges and adaptive strategies are also discussed from the viewpoint of climate change.

  15. Vehicle Tracking and Counting System in Dusty Weather with Vibrating Camera Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nastaran Yaghoobi Ershadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic surveillance systems are interesting to many researchers to improve the traffic control and reduce the risk caused by accidents. In this area, many published works are only concerned about vehicle detection in normal conditions. The camera may vibrate due to wind or bridge movement. Detection and tracking of vehicles are a very difficult task when we have bad weather conditions in winter (snowy, rainy, windy, etc. or dusty weather in arid and semiarid regions or at night, among others. In this paper, we proposed a method to track and count vehicles in dusty weather with a vibrating camera. For this purpose, we used a background subtraction based strategy mixed with extra processing to segment vehicles. In this paper, the extra processing included the analysis of the headlight size, location, and area. In our work, tracking was done between consecutive frames via a particle filter to detect the vehicle and pair the headlights using the connected component analysis. So, vehicle counting was performed based on the pairing result. Our proposed method was tested on several video surveillance records in different conditions such as in dusty or foggy weather, with a vibrating camera, and on roads with medium-level traffic volumes. The results showed that the proposed method performed better than other previously published methods, including the Kalman filter or Gaussian model, in different traffic conditions.

  16. The influence of adverse weather conditions on probability of congestion on dutch motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Stralen, W.J.H.; Calvert, S.C.; Molin, E.J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Weather conditions are widely acknowledged to contribute to the occurrence of congestion on motorway traffic by influencing both traffic supply and traffic demand. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper that explicitly integrates supply and demand effects in predicting the influence

  17. The influence of adverse weather conditions on the probability of congestion on Dutch motorways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Stralen, W.; Calvert, S.C.; Molin, E.J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Weather conditions are widely acknowledged to contribute to the occurrence of congestion on motorway traffic by influencing both traffic supply and traffic demand. However, to the best of our knowledge this is the first paper that explicitly integrates supply and demand effects in predicting the

  18. Dynamic fertilizer management triggered by real-time simulations and weather conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoorvogel, J.J.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Serrano, E.

    2006-01-01

    Typically, the guiding principle for fertilizer management is a rather fixed cropping calendar in which applications are given at fixed moments in time or at specific crop development stages. The recommendation is based on average weather and crop development. However, in most conditions the average

  19. Agricultural pests under future climate conditions: downscaling of regional climate scenarios with a stochastic weather generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Stöckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Rotach, M. W.; Calanca, P.; Samietz, J.

    2010-09-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously unaffected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests have been developed, which model the infestation depending on actual weather conditions. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages therefore requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. In particular, pest forecast models are often not based on screen temperature and precipitation alone (i.e., the most generally projected climate variables), but might require input variables such as soil temperature, in-canopy net radiation or leaf wetness. Here, we use a stochastic weather and a re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather data from regional climate change scenarios for 2050 in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios were derived from multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly temperature, precipitation and radiation data were produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather time series were then used for modeling important phases in the lifecycle of codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. First results indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of phases relevant for pest disease control for projected as compared to current climate (e.g. the flight of the codling moth starts about ten days earlier in future climate), continuing an already observed trend towards more favorable conditions for this insect during the last 20 years.

  20. Impact of warmer weather on electricity sector emissions due to building energy use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Paul; Holloway, Tracey; Patz, Jonathan; Harkey, Monica; Ahl, Doug; Abel, David; Schuetter, Scott; Hackel, Scott

    2017-06-01

    Most US energy consumption occurs in buildings, with cooling demands anticipated to increase net building electricity use under warmer conditions. The electricity generation units that respond to this demand are major contributors to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), both of which have direct impacts on public health, and contribute to the formation of secondary pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter. This study quantifies temperature-driven changes in power plant emissions due to increased use of building air conditioning. We compare an ambient temperature baseline for the Eastern US to a model-calculated mid-century scenario with summer-average temperature increases ranging from 1 C to 5 C across the domain. We find a 7% increase in summer electricity demand and a 32% increase in non-coincident peak demand. Power sector modeling, assuming only limited changes to current generation resources, calculated a 16% increase in emissions of NOx and an 18% increase in emissions of SO2. There is a high level of regional variance in the response of building energy use to climate, and the response of emissions to associated demand. The East North Central census region exhibited the greatest sensitivity of energy demand and associated emissions to climate.

  1. Health and safety conditions of building maintenance sites in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research assessed the safety of the environmental conditions of timber buildings as maintenance sites from cultivable microorganisms under various climatic conditions in Nigeria. Several site illnesses leading to poor work and reduced productivity on construction sites have been attributed to unidentified ...

  2. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, K.

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago. The strategy was implemented at a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area. High heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability. Uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies also have a strongly detrimental impact on comfort. Significant changes to the performance of masonry wall assemblies is generally beyond the reach of typical weatherization (Wx) program resources. The Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). This grant provides CEDA the opportunity to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The exterior insulation and over-clad strategy implemented through this project was designed to allow implementation by contractors active in CEDA weatherization programs and using materials and methods familiar to these contractors. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  3. Modelling of secondary sedimentation under wet-weather and filamentous bulking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham

    by the International Water Association on good modelling practice for activated sludge systems with practical findings on the calibration of 1-D SST models for dynamic WWTP simulations under ideal and non-ideal flow (dry- or wet-weather) and settling (good settling and/or bulking) boundary conditions. The Benchmark......, the settling parameters were found to be among the most influential parameters for predicting the WWTP performance in terms of biogas production and quality of treated water. Importantly, it was observed that the choice of 1-D SST type model influences the sensitivity measures of the parameters...... dynamic wet-weather flow conditions. The results of this study illustrated the advantages of second-order 1-D SST models for dynamics WWTP simulations under wider flow and bulking conditions, and furthermore, highlighted the necessity of developing a more mechanistic based flow-dependent hydraulic sub-model...

  4. Constraining the physical-chemical conditions of Pleistocene cavernous weathering in Late Paleozoic granites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Harald G.; Weber, Berthold; Gerdes, Axel

    2010-09-01

    Cavernous weathering such as tafoni, alveoles and honeycomb structures have been recorded from a great variety of bedrocks and landforms. In the present study cavernous weathering from late Variscan granites was discussed as to its physical-chemical regime of formation. U/Pb dating yielded a maximum age of 1.52 ± 0.03 Ma. Supergene U mineralization is accompanied by kaolinite, nontronite and Fe(III) phosphates. Based upon Eh-pH diagrams calculated for U-Fe-P mineralization the physical-chemical conditions may be described as oxidizing with pH values fluctuating around neutral at near-ambient temperatures of 25 °C. Alteration occurs in two stages: dissolution of rock-forming minerals and neoformation of hydrosilicates under mildly acidic conditions, followed by phosphate precipitation under near-neutral conditions.

  5. The influence of weather conditions on road safety : an assessment of the effect of precipitation and temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijleveld, F.D. & Churchill, T.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of changes in extreme weather conditions is often identified as a cause of fluctuations in road safety and the resulting numbers of crashes and casualties. This report focuses on an analysis of the aggregate, accumulated effect of weather conditions (precipitation and temperature) on

  6. Water Age Responses to Weather Conditions in a Hyper-Eutrophic Channel Reservoir in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Du

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Channel reservoirs have the characteristics of both rivers and lakes, in which hydrodynamic conditions and the factors affecting the eutrophication process are complex and highly affected by weather conditions. Water age at any location in the reservoir is used as an indicator for describing the spatial and temporal variations of water exchange and nutrient transport. The hyper-eutrophic Changtan Reservoir (CTR in Southern China was investigated. Three weather conditions including wet, normal, and dry years were considered for assessing the response of water age by using the coupled watershed model Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model Environmental Fluid Hydrodynamic Code (EFDC. The results showed that the water age in CTR varied tremendously under different weather conditions. The averaged water ages at the downstream of CTR were 3 d, 60 d, and 110 d, respectively in the three typical wet, normal, and dry years. The highest water ages at the main tributary were >70 d, >100 d, and >200 d, respectively. The spatial distribution of water ages in the tributaries and the reservoir were mainly affected by precipitation. This paper provides useful information on water exchange and transport pathways in channel reservoir, which will be helpful in understanding nutrient dynamics for controlling algal blooms.

  7. The Civil Palaces in Gravina street, Alicante: building stones and salt weathering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis, M.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study into the architecture and construction of the 18th Century Civil Palaces located in Gravina street (Provincial Museum of Fine Arts of Alicante, the building stones used and the mineral related decay processes that these materials have suffered. The original building stones and other stones used in subsequent restorations in these Civil Palaces are bioclastic limestones and/or calcarenites (San Julian Stone and Bateig Stone. Campello stone and other limestones are also present. Granular disintegration and alveolar weathering are the main forms of deterioration developed on the exterior of these Civil Palaces. These stone decay types are related to salt crystallisation, caused by sea spray salts and/or soil capillary waters. Halite is the most common salt found, probably due to the buildings' proximity to the coast. The halite is also present in indoor efflorescences. Gypsum is present in some efflorescences and ettringite on the inner face of the outdoor cladding stone. The cladding has been destroyed and replaced in the last restoration process.

    En este trabajo se realiza un estudio de la arquitectura, construcción y materiales utilizados en los Palacios Civiles del siglo XVIII, situados en la calle Gravina (actual sede del Museo Provincial de Bellas Artes de Alicante. Las rocas utilizadas en la construcción original así como las utilizadas en sustituciones posteriores en estos Palacios Civiles son calizas bioclásticas y/o calcarenitas (Piedra de San Julián y Piedra Bateig. También están presentes la Piedra de Campello y otras calizas. La disgregación granular y la erosión alveolar son las formas de alteración más abundantes en el exterior de estos Palacios Civiles. Estos tipos de alteración están relacionados con la cristalización de sales, procedentes del spray marino y/o de las aguas capilares del suelo. El NaCl es la sal más abundante debido a la proximidad de la costa. La

  8. Comparing ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills for an asphaltenic, a waxy and a light crude oil as a function of weathering conditions under arctic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan; Villumsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    In situ burning of oil spills in the Arctic is a promising countermeasure. In spite of the research already conducted more knowledge is needed especially regarding burning of weathered oils. This paper uses a new laboratory burning cell (100 mL sample) to test three Norwegian crude oils, Grane...... is dependent on oil composition, ice conditions and weathering degree. In open water, oil spills rapidly become “not ignitable” due to the weathering e.g. high water content and low content of residual volatile components. The slower weathering of oil spills in ice (50 and 90% ice cover) results in longer time...... (asphalthenic), Kobbe (light oil) and Norne (waxy), for ignitability as a function of ice conditions and weathering degree. The crude oils (9 L) were weathered in a laboratory basin (4.8 m3) under simulated arctic conditions (0, 50 and 90% ice cover). The laboratory burning tests show that the ignitability...

  9. Analysis of Highly Wind Power Integrated Power System model performance during Critical Weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    . For this purpose, the power system model has been developed that represents the relevant dynamic features of power plants and compensates for power imbalances caused by the forecasting error during critical weather conditions. The regulating power plan, as an input time series for the developed power system model......Secure power system operation of a highly wind power integrated power system is always at risk during critical weather conditions, e.g. in extreme high winds. The risk is even higher when 50% of the total electricity consumption has to be supplied by wind power, as the case for the future Danish......, is provided by the hour-ahead power balancing model, i.e. Simulation power Balancing model (SimBa. The regulating power plan is prepared from day-ahead power production plan and hour-ahead wind power forecast. The wind power (forecasts and available) are provided by the Correlated Wind power fluctuations (Cor...

  10. Investigation of concrete produced using recycled aluminium dross for hot weather concreting conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Mailar, Gireesh; N, Sujay Raghavendra; B.M, Sreedhara; D.S, Manu; Hiremath, Parameshwar; K., Jayakesh

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium dross is a by-product obtained from the aluminium smelting process. Currently, this dross is processed in rotary kilns to recover the residual aluminium, and the resultant salt cake is sent to landfills. The present study investigates the utilization of recycled aluminium dross in producing concrete, which is suitable for hot weather concreting condition. The primary objectives of the experimental study are to examine the feasibility of using concrete blended with recycled aluminium...

  11. Weather conditions conducive to Beijing severe haze more frequent under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenju; Li, Ke; Liao, Hong; Wang, Huijun; Wu, Lixin

    2017-03-01

    The frequency of Beijing winter severe haze episodes has increased substantially over the past decades, and is commonly attributed to increased pollutant emissions from China’s rapid economic development. During such episodes, levels of fine particulate matter are harmful to human health and the environment, and cause massive disruption to economic activities, as occurred in January 2013. Conducive weather conditions are an important ingredient of severe haze episodes, and include reduced surface winter northerlies, weakened northwesterlies in the midtroposphere, and enhanced thermal stability of the lower atmosphere. How such weather conditions may respond to climate change is not clear. Here we project a 50% increase in the frequency and an 80% increase in the persistence of conducive weather conditions similar to those in January 2013, in response to climate change. The frequency and persistence between the historical (1950-1999) and future (2050-2099) climate were compared in 15 models under Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5). The increased frequency is consistent with large-scale circulation changes, including an Arctic Oscillation upward trend, weakening East Asian winter monsoon, and faster warming in the lower troposphere. Thus, circulation changes induced by global greenhouse gas emissions can contribute to the increased Beijing severe haze frequency.

  12. The Effects of Various Weather Conditions as a Potential Ischemic Stroke Trigger in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Kristy L; Silver, Gena M

    2017-11-16

    Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death in the United States, and is the leading cause of serious, long-term disability worldwide. There are at least 795,000 new or recurrent strokes each year, and approximately 85% of all stroke occurrences are ischemic. Unfortunately, companion animals are also at risk for ischemic stroke. Although the exact incidence of ischemic stroke in companion animals is unknown, some studies, and the veterinary information network (VIN), report that approximately 3% of neurological case referrals are due to a stroke. There is a long list of predisposing factors associated with the risk of ischemic stroke in both humans and canines; however, these factors do not explain why a stroke happens at a particular time on a particular day. Our understanding of these potential stroke "triggers" is limited, and the effect of transient environmental exposures may be one such "trigger". The present study investigated the extent to which the natural occurrence of canine ischemic stroke was related to the weather conditions in the time-period immediately preceding the onset of stroke. The results of the present study demonstrated that the change in weather conditions could be a potential stroke trigger, with the strokes evaluated occurring after periods of rapid, large fluctuations in weather conditions. There are currently no epidemiological data on the seasonal variability of ischemic stroke in dogs, and determining whether canine stroke parallels human stroke would further validate the use of companion dogs as an appropriate naturally occurring model.

  13. Weather conditions and Bell's palsy: five-year study and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milionis Haralampos J

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Climatic or meteorological condition changes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Bell's palsy (BP. We evaluate the influence of meteorological parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure, and their variation and covariation on the incidence of BP and present a review of the literature on the effect of meteorological conditions on facial nerve function. Methods A total of 171 cases of BP admitted to our Department over a five-year period were studied. The meteorological database included daily values of 13 distinct parameters recorded at the meteorological station of the University of Ioannina during this period. A relationship between each meteorological variable and the incidence of BP was investigated by applying (Χ2 test on data from 13 contingency tables. In addition, the influence of different weather types on the incidence of BP was also investigated. For this purpose Cluster Analysis was used to create eight clusters (weather types for the Ioannina prefecture and (Χ2 test was applied on the contingency tables consisting of the days of BP cases for each cluster. Results No significant correlation was found either between BP and each distinct meteorological parameter or between BP and any specific weather. Conclusions Meteorological conditions, such as those dominating in the Northwestern Greece, and/or their changes have little effect on the incidence of BP. Multicenter studies taking into account atmospheric pollution, and climatic differences between countries, are necessary to scrutinize the environmental effects on facial nerve function.

  14. Evaluating Weather Research and Forecasting Model Sensitivity to Land and Soil Conditions Representative of Karst Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Fan, Xingang; Mahmood, Rezaul; Groves, Chris; Polk, Jason S.; Yan, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Due to their particular physiographic, geomorphic, soil cover, and complex surface-subsurface hydrologic conditions, karst regions produce distinct land-atmosphere interactions. It has been found that floods and droughts over karst regions can be more pronounced than those in non-karst regions following a given rainfall event. Five convective weather events are simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model to explore the potential impacts of land-surface conditions on weather simulations over karst regions. Since no existing weather or climate model has the ability to represent karst landscapes, simulation experiments in this exploratory study consist of a control (default land-cover/soil types) and three land-surface conditions, including barren ground, forest, and sandy soils over the karst areas, which mimic certain karst characteristics. Results from sensitivity experiments are compared with the control simulation, as well as with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction multi-sensor precipitation analysis Stage-IV data, and near-surface atmospheric observations. Mesoscale features of surface energy partition, surface water and energy exchange, the resulting surface-air temperature and humidity, and low-level instability and convective energy are analyzed to investigate the potential land-surface impact on weather over karst regions. We conclude that: (1) barren ground used over karst regions has a pronounced effect on the overall simulation of precipitation. Barren ground provides the overall lowest root-mean-square errors and bias scores in precipitation over the peak-rain periods. Contingency table-based equitable threat and frequency bias scores suggest that the barren and forest experiments are more successful in simulating light to moderate rainfall. Variables dependent on local surface conditions show stronger contrasts between karst and non-karst regions than variables dominated by large-scale synoptic systems; (2) significant

  15. Prevalence of hot weather conditions related to sports participation guidelines: a South Australian investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmer, K; King, E; Larsen, T; Farquharson, T; Potter, A; Sharpe, P; de Wit, H

    2006-05-01

    There is scant guidance in the literature on the most appropriate Australian measures of, and thresholds for, extreme heat regarding giving advice on safe sports participation in hot weather. The purpose of this paper is to present a process for investigating two common measures of heat (air temperature, wet bulb globe temperature (WGBT)) in one state in Australia (South Australia), regarding their usefulness in making decisions regarding sports participation in the heat. Commonly reported measures and thresholds of extreme heat were identified from a systematic review of guidelines regarding sports participation in hot weather. Dry air temperature (threshold of 35 degrees C), and WBGT index (threshold of 28 degrees C) were highlighted. Repeated daily measures of dry air temperature by the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) and WBGT index from 12 meteorological recording sites in South Australia (SA) for four consecutive summer periods (2000-2004) were analysed using these thresholds to investigate the prevalence of extremely hot temperatures in SA during these periods. The extremely hot hours-per-day data were standardised using a denominator of per-day-month across the 12 SA recording regions. Across the four summer seasons of data in SA, there were similar standardised numbers of hours-per-day of extremely hot dry air temperature and WBGT index. There was a high correlation between these hours of hot weather measures, highlighting the congruence between hot air and humidity measures. Three distinct regional site groupings were identified, in which there was a different prevalence of extremely hot weather conditions. In SA, dry air temperature is an appropriate and robust measure of extreme heat related to sports participation, this measure providing as much information as WBGT in identifying extremely hot periods of weather. Dry air temperature can be readily measured by sports participants or officials irrespective of the geographical location in SA. Three SA regions

  16. Oxidative weathering chemical migration under variably saturated conditions and supergene copper enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, K.; Brimhall, G.

    1999-04-01

    Transport of oxygen gas from the land surface through an unsaturated zone has a strong influence on oxidative weathering processes. Oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite (FeS{sub 2}), one of the most common naturally occurring minerals, is the primary source of acid drainage from mines and waste rock piles. Here we present a detailed numerical model of supergene copper enrichment that involves the oxidative weathering of pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) and chalcopyrite (CuFeS{sub 2}), and acidification that causes mobilization of metals in the unsaturated zone, with subsequent formation of enriched ore deposits of chalcocite (CuS) and covellite (Cu{sub 2}S) in the reducing conditions below the water table. We examine and identify some significant conceptual and computational issues regarding the oxidative weathering processes through the modeling tool. The dissolution of gaseous oxygen induced by the oxidation reduces oxygen partial pressure, as well as the total pressure of the gas phase. As a result, the gas flow is modified, then the liquid phase flow. Results indicate that this reaction effect on the fluid flow may not be important under ambient conditions, and gas diffusion can be a more important mechanism for oxygen supply than gas or liquid advection. Acidification, mobilization of metals, and alteration of primary minerals mostly take place in unsaturated zone (oxidizing), while precipitation of secondary minerals mainly occurs in saturated zone (reducing). The water table may be considered as an interface between oxidizing and reducing zones. Moving water table due to change of infiltration results in moving oxidizing zone and redistributing aqueous chemical constitutes and secondary mineral deposits. The oxidative weathering processes are difficult to model numerically, because concentrations of redox sensitive chemical species such as O{sub 2}(aq), SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} and HS{sup -} may change over tens of orders of magnitude between oxidizing and reducing

  17. Multi-storey steel framed buildings under natural fire conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, G. van den; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a methodology is presented by which the structural behaviour of composite steel framed building under natural fire conditions can be analysed. As a first step, a fire model is employed in order to predict the temperature development in the fire compartment. Secondly, a thermal

  18. Observed Wind Speed at Weather Station and Heat Transfer Coefficient of External Surface of the Building in Summer and Winter

    OpenAIRE

    小林, 定教; コバヤシ, サダノリ; Sadanori, KOBAYASHI

    1994-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficient of the external surface of the building used for thermal load calculations was proposed by Dr. Watanabe et at. in about 1934. In those days the main purpose of studies focused on heating; recently calculations in respect to cooling have been increasing in importance, calling attention to the heat transfer coefficient in summer in relation to the wind speed. In this paper I studied summer and winter wind speeds based on observation results of a weather station, an...

  19. Analysis of winter weather conditions and their potential impact on wind farm operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovskaia, E.; Treinish, L. A.; Praino, A.

    2009-12-01

    Severe weather conditions have two primary impacts on wind farm operations. The first relates to understanding potential damage to the turbines themselves and what actions are required to mitigate the effects. The second is recognizing what conditions may lead to a full or partial shutdown of the wind farm with sufficient lead time to determine the likely inability to meet energy generation committments. Ideally, wind forecasting suitable for wind farm operations should be of sufficient fidelity to resolve features within the boundary layer that lead to either damaging conditions or useful power generation. Given the complexity of the site-specific factors that effect the boundary layer at the scale of typical land-based wind farm locations such as topography, vegetation, land use, soil conditions, etc., which may vary with turbine design and layout within the farm, enabling reliable forecasts of too little or too much wind is challenging. A potential solution should involve continuous updates of alert triggering criteria through analysis of local wind patterns and probabilistic risk assessment for each location. To evaluate this idea, we utilize our operational mesoscale prediction system, dubbed “Deep Thunder”, developed at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center. In particular, we analyze winter-time near-surface winds in upstate New York, where four similar winds farms are located. Each of these farms were built at roughly the same time and utilize similar turbines. Given the relative uncertainty associated with numerical weather prediction at this scale, and the difference in risk assessment due to the two primary impacts of severe weather, probabilistic forecasts are a prerequisite. Hence, we have employed ensembles of weather scenarios, which are based on the NCAR WRF-ARW modelling system. The set of ensemble members was composed with variations in the choices of physics and parameterization schemes, and source of background fields for initial

  20. Weather conditions associated with autumn migration by mule deer in Wyoming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick D. Rittenhouse

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining ecological integrity necessitates a proactive approach of identifying and acquiring lands to conserve unfragmented landscapes, as well as evaluating existing mitigation strategies to increase connectivity in fragmented landscapes. The increased use of highway underpasses and overpasses to restore connectivity for wildlife species offers clear conservation benefits, yet also presents a unique opportunity to understand how weather conditions may impact movement of wildlife species. We used remote camera observations (19,480 from an existing wildlife highway underpass in Wyoming and daily meteorological observations to quantify weather conditions associated with autumn migration of mule deer in 2009 and 2010. We identified minimal daily temperature and snow depth as proximate cues associated with mule deer migration to winter range. These weather cues were consistent across does and bucks, but differed slightly by year. Additionally, extreme early season snow depth or cold temperature events appear to be associated with onset of migration. This information will assist wildlife managers and transportation officials as they plan future projects to maintain and enhance migration routes for mule deer.

  1. Estimating Rice Yield under Changing Weather Conditions in Kenya Using CERES Rice Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. O. Nyang’au

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of change in weather conditions on the yields of Basmati 370 and IR 2793-80-1 cultivated under System of Rice Intensification (SRI in Mwea and Western Kenya irrigation schemes were assessed through sensitivity analysis using the Ceres rice model v 4.5 of the DSSAT modeling system. Genetic coefficients were determined using 2010 experimental data. The model was validated using rice growth and development data during the 2011 cropping season. Two SRI farmers were selected randomly from each irrigation scheme and their farms were used as research fields. Daily maximum and minimum temperatures and precipitation were collected from the weather station in each of the irrigation schemes while daily solar radiation was generated using weatherman in the DSSAT shell. The study revealed that increase in both maximum and minimum temperatures affects Basmati 370 and IR 2793-80-1 grain yield under SRI. Increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration led to an increase in grain yield for both Basmati and IR 2793-80-1 under SRI and increase in solar radiation also had an increasing impact on both Basmati 370 and IR 2793-80-1 grain yield. The results of the study therefore show that weather conditions in Kenya affect rice yield under SRI and should be taken into consideration to improve food security.

  2. Do Wind Turbines Affect Weather Conditions?: A Case Study in Indiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan F. Henschen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbines are becoming increasingly widespread in the United States as the world looks for cleaner sources of energy. Scientists, policymakers, and citizens have strong opinions regarding the positive and negative effects of wind energy projects, and there is a great deal of misinformation about wind energy circulating on the Web and other media sources. The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of how the rotation of hundreds of turbines can influence local weather conditions within a wind farm and in the surrounding areas. This experiment measures temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity, and evaporation with five weather instruments at Meadow Lake Wind Farm located in White, Jasper, and Benton Counties, Indiana, from November 4 through November 18, 2010. The data show that as wind passes throughout the wind farm, the air warms during the overnight and early morning hours and cools during daytime hours. Observed lower humidity rates and higher evaporation rates downwind also demonstrate that the air dries out as it travels through the wind farm. Further research over multiple seasons is necessary to examine the effects of warmer nighttime temperatures and drier conditions progressively downwind of the installation. Nevertheless, wind turbines did not negatively affect local weather patterns in our small-scale research and may actually prevent frost, which could have important positive implications for farmers by potentially prolonging the growing season.

  3. Variability of seed quality indices in soft spring wheat depending on weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. В. Правдзіва

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study the effect of weather conditions on grain quality in soft spring wheat lines that are undergoing competitive variety trial. To identify indices to be least affected by weather conditions. To investigate the correlation dependence between grain quality indices in the years with contrasting weather conditions and conduct the analysis of variance. Methods. Parameters of grain and flour quality of bread spring wheat lines were determined using conventional methods at the laboratory of grain quality of V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat, NAAS of Ukraine, protein content in flour was measured with the use of the SPECTRAN 119M device. Results. Contrasting weather conditions were considered including arid ones (2013 – that had negative effect on 1000 kernel weight, but at the same time positively influenced the averaged grain quality indices; with excess humidity (2014 – they resulted in decreasing of all technological indices; optimal ones (2015 – allowed to obtain maximum indices of grain and flour quality. Paired coefficients of correlation between different para­meters of grain and flour quality were calculated. The most number of strong and medium correlations was found in a dry year (33.3%, the smallest one – in a wet year (13.0%. Such indices as flour strength, dough dilution and protein content depended on the conditions of the growing year least of all. Grain-unit response was the most considerable to the humid conditions of the year. The analysis of variance showed that climatic conditions had significant effect on the quality indices of grain and flour. At the same time, an important genotypic component was revealed in indices of dough resilience (63%, bread volume and rating (61 and 53% respectively, the flour strength (42%, crude gluten quality (33%, bread porosity (30%. With climate variations, the genotypic conditionality of the content of protein and especially crude gluten was expressed

  4. Adverse weather conditions for European wheat production will become more frequent with climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Miroslav; Rötter, Reimund P.; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Europe is the largest producer of wheat, the second most widely grown cereal crop after rice. The increased occurrence and magnitude of adverse and extreme agroclimatic events are considered a major threat for wheat production. We present an analysis that accounts for a range of adverse weather...... events that might significantly affect wheat yield in Europe. For this purpose we analysed changes in the frequency of the occurrence of 11 adverse weather events. Using climate scenarios based on the most recent ensemble of climate models and greenhouse gases emission estimates, we assessed...... the probability of single and multiple adverse events occurring within one season. We showed that the occurrence of adverse conditions for 14 sites representing the main European wheat-growing areas might substantially increase by 2060 compared to the present (1981–2010). This is likely to result in more frequent...

  5. Morphological and productive traits of red kernel maize in variable weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glamočlija Đorđe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The scientific work presents the results of two year testing of the morphological and production traits of maize variety ZP Rumenka planted in three sowing dates. Investigations were performed on a calcareous chernozem in agro ecological conditions of northeast Srem. Subject of study were three sowing dates: March 31, April 10 and 20th of April. The results show morphological and productive maize traits that have the most important role in the yield formation. The traits are: stalk height (up to tassel, cob length, cob weight, grains per cob, cob share in the total mass and 1.000 grains weight. The values obtained are shown in the two year average and were compared over years of research. Variation caused by sowing period and variable weather conditions, were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and LSD test. The results showed that sowing dates have a significant and very significant impact on the studied traits, which interacting with weather conditions, and particularly water regime, showed great variation. The thermal conditions of this area in a two year average and in each research year have shown that corn can be sown earlier (early April than the most producers do. Any delay in sowing will significantly reduce the level of utilization of genetic yield potential of this variety. The best production results were achieved by sowing at the end of March. Even the very favorable weather conditions in the first year of investigation could not mitigate the consequences of the later planting dates. It should be opted for early sowing of maize considering the fact that the drought becomes common phenomenon in our main agricultural areas.

  6. The Influence of Weather Conditions on Outdoor Physical Activity Among Older People With and Without Osteoarthritis in 6 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Erik J; van der Pas, Suzan; Dennison, Elaine M; Maggi, Stefania; Peter, Richard; Castell, Maria Victoria; Pedersen, Nancy L; Denkinger, Michael D; Edwards, Mark H; Limongi, Federica; Herbolsheimer, Florian; Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Siviero, Paola; Queipo, Rocio; Schaap, Laura A; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2016-12-01

    Older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) often report that their disease symptoms are exacerbated by weather conditions. This study examines the association between outdoor physical activity (PA) and weather conditions in older adults from 6 European countries and assesses whether outdoor PA and weather conditions are more strongly associated in older persons with OA than in those without the condition. The American College of Rheumatology classification criteria were used to diagnose OA. Outdoor PA was assessed using the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data on weather parameters were obtained from weather stations. Of the 2439 participants (65-85 years), 29.6% had OA in knee, hand and/or hip. Participants with OA spent fewer minutes in PA than participants without OA (Median = 42.9, IQR = 20.0 to 83.1 versus Median = 51.4, IQR = 23.6 to 98.6; P Weather conditions are associated with outdoor PA in older adults in the general population. Outdoor PA and weather conditions were more strongly associated in older adults without OA than in their counterparts with OA.

  7. The influence of weather conditions on outdoor physical activity among older people with and without osteoarthritis in six European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Erik J; van der Pas, Suzan; Dennison, Elaine M; Maggi, Stefania; Peter, Richard; Castell, Maria Victoria; Pedersen, Nancy L; Denkinger, Michael D; Edwards, Mark H; Limongi, Federica; Herbolsheimer, Florian; Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Siviero, Paola; Queipo, Rocio; Schaap, Laura A; Deeg, Dorly JH

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Older adults with osteoarthritis (OA) often report that their disease symptoms are exacerbated by weather conditions. This study examines the association between outdoor physical activity (PA) and weather conditions in older adults from six European countries and assesses whether outdoor PA and weather conditions are more strongly associated in older persons with OA than in those without the condition. Methods The American College of Rheumatology classification criteria were used to diagnose OA. Outdoor PA was assessed using the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire. Data on weather parameters were obtained from weather stations. Results Of the 2,439 participants (65-85 years), 29.6% had OA in knee, hand and/or hip. Participants with OA spent fewer minutes in PA than participants without OA (Median=42.9, IQR=20.0-83.1 versus Median=51.4, IQR=23.6-98.6; pWeather conditions are associated with outdoor PA in older adults in the general population. Outdoor PA and weather conditions were more strongly associated in older adults without OA than in their counterparts with OA. PMID:27633622

  8. Atmospheric conditions and weather regimes associated with extreme winter dry spells over the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Florian; Ullmann, Albin; Camberlin, Pierre; Oueslati, Boutheina; Drobinski, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    Very long dry spell events occurring during winter are natural hazards to which the Mediterranean region is extremely vulnerable, because they can lead numerous impacts for environment and society. Four dry spell patterns have been identified in a previous work. Identifying the main associated atmospheric conditions controlling the dry spell patterns is key to better understand their dynamics and their evolution in a changing climate. Except for the Levant region, the dry spells are generally associated with anticyclonic blocking conditions located about 1000 km to the Northwest of the affected area. These anticyclonic conditions are favourable to dry spell occurrence as they are associated with subsidence of cold and dry air coming from boreal latitudes which bring low amount of water vapour and non saturated air masses, leading to clear sky and absence of precipitation. These extreme dry spells are also partly related to the classical four Euro-Atlantic weather regimes are: the two phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Scandinavian "blocking" or "East-Atlantic", and the "Atlantic ridge". Only the The "East-Atlantic", "Atlantic ridge" and the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation are frequently associated with extremes dry spells over the Mediterranean basin but they do not impact the four dry spell patterns equally. Finally long sequences of those weather regimes are more favourable to extreme dry spells than short sequences. These long sequences are associated with the favourable prolonged and reinforced anticyclonic conditions

  9. Model Development for Risk Assessment of Driving on Freeway under Rainy Weather Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Cai

    Full Text Available Rainy weather conditions could result in significantly negative impacts on driving on freeways. However, due to lack of enough historical data and monitoring facilities, many regions are not able to establish reliable risk assessment models to identify such impacts. Given the situation, this paper provides an alternative solution where the procedure of risk assessment is developed based on drivers' subjective questionnaire and its performance is validated by using actual crash data. First, an ordered logit model was developed, based on questionnaire data collected from Freeway G15 in China, to estimate the relationship between drivers' perceived risk and factors, including vehicle type, rain intensity, traffic volume, and location. Then, weighted driving risk for different conditions was obtained by the model, and further divided into four levels of early warning (specified by colors using a rank order cluster analysis. After that, a risk matrix was established to determine which warning color should be disseminated to drivers, given a specific condition. Finally, to validate the proposed procedure, actual crash data from Freeway G15 were compared with the safety prediction based on the risk matrix. The results show that the risk matrix obtained in the study is able to predict driving risk consistent with actual safety implications, under rainy weather conditions.

  10. Determination of available transfer capability considering real-time weather conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, H.; Kim, D.M.; Kim, J.O. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    This paper proposed a scheme for estimating the available transfer capability (ATC) and total transfer capability (TTC) of a transmission system in Korea. Dynamic line rating (DLR) was used to determine thermal limits related to seasonal system conditions. ATC values are an important aspect of ensuring a competitive electricity market. ATC was defined as the measure of the transfer capability remaining in the physical transmission network for further commercial activity above already committed uses. TTC is limited by thermal, voltage, and stability limits and was determined by the minimum value among the 3 limit conditions. DLR was used to calculate heat balance equations along with weather conditions. ATC was calculated by dividing the Korean power system into sections and monitoring selected tie lines. Two assumptions were considered in order to confirm the effect of voltage compensation: (1) that voltage drop was perfectly compensated and TTC was determined by calculating thermal limits; and (2) that voltage drop was not compensated and TTC was determined by considering load ability curves. Results of the simulation conducted under the first assumption showed that low capacity generators with high production costs in the summer months caused congestion in loads located in non-metropolitan areas. The simulation conducted under the second assumption demonstrated that system disruptions can occur when compensation devices are not used during transmission line contingencies. It was concluded that weather conditions play an important role in accurately calculating ATC. 9 refs., 10 tabs., 7 figs.

  11. Performance evaluation of polycrystalline solar photovoltaic module in weather conditions of Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mustapha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many Solar PV modules exhibit significant loss in their expected performance due to variations in weather conditions such as ambient temperature and solar irradiance which result in inaccurate prediction of the module performance in the field. Obviously, the Standard Test Conditions (STC and the Nominal Operating Cell Temperatures (NOCT do not represent real operating conditions of PV module at the site of installation. This paper evaluates the performance of commercially used polycrystalline solar photovoltaic module KD 315 under Maiduguri-Nigeria weather conditions. The model of the PV module was implemented using a MATLAB program and the model parameters are evaluated using daily data of temperature and solar irradiance obtained from Maiduguri for a period of one year. Simulation results confirm that current generated is directly proportional to solar irradiance and is almost independent of temperature. The voltage of the module decreases by about 0.5% per degree centigrade temperature increase. It was found that the power produced by the panel is dependent on the solar irradiance and ambient temperature. The manufacturer’s maximum power of 315 W was achieved during the sunniest month. Thus the photovoltaic module exhibited good performance in the region under study.

  12. A THEORETICAL HEAT ANALYSIS OF BUILDINGS IN SUMMER CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tuğrul OĞULATA

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to achive the bio-climatical comfort is buildings by setting the indoor temperature at certain level at which the people feels himself comfortable. The indoor temperature changing with the summer-winter climate conditions and with the building materials should always be around desirable level. Therefore, the variation of indoor temperature depending on the natural and artifical cooling and heating of building materials, within the range of design, is becoming so important. For this reason, in this investigation, the variation of indoor temperature has been analysed considering the variation of heat gain by convection, radiation and infiltration, the heat capacity of materials used in building including the outdoor and the temperature of outer ambient. In addition to this, the variation of indoor temperature with time has been computed under the condition that whether the cooling source exist or not. For this purpose, the heat gains, the indoor and outer temperature, the capacity of cooling system and solar radiation have been expressed analyticaly by transforming them into Fourier series.

  13. Weather and hydrographic conditions associated with coral bleaching: Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ned P.

    2001-12-01

    Thermograph, current-meter, and coastal-weather data from Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Cays, Bahamas, are used to investigate hydrographic and meteorological conditions preceding and during a bleaching event in August 1990. Shelf water temperatures recorded at three locations rise to just over 30 °C. Weather data provide estimates of local heating and cooling by insolation, net outgoing long-wave radiation, and sensible and latent heat fluxes. Weather data do not indicate a period of unusually clear skies during the days and weeks preceding the bleaching event. Rather, calculations suggest that low wind speeds during late July and early August reduced evaporative cooling. A tidal channel near the bleaching site provided a source of hyperpycnal 31 °C water that had been heated in the shallow waters of Great Bahama Bank. Current-meter data suggest an along-shelf transport of water from the mouth of the tidal channel to the bleaching site. A comparison of wind-stress and water-temperature data suggests that a downwelling pattern contributed to heating at the reef by flooding the shelf with warm surface water. Results suggest that heating at the reef was a combination of local warming, enhanced by reduced evaporation, and advective warming resulting from both an along-shelf transport of bank water and a landward across-shelf transport of warm surface water.

  14. Modeling and optimization of energy generation and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings targeting conceptual building design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahovac, Milica

    2012-11-29

    The thermal conditioning systems are responsible for almost half of the energy consump-tion by commercial buildings. In many European countries and in the USA, buildings account for around 40% of primary energy consumption and it is therefore vital to explore further ways to reduce the HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system energy consumption. This thesis investigates the relationship between the energy genera-tion and storage systems for thermal conditioning of buildings (shorter: primary HVAC systems) and the conceptual building design. Certain building design decisions irreversibly influence a building's energy performance and, conversely, many generation and storage components impose restrictions on building design and, by their nature, cannot be introduced at a later design stage. The objective is, firstly, to develop a method to quantify this influence, in terms of primary HVAC system dimensions, its cost, emissions and energy consumption and, secondly, to enable the use of the developed method by architects during the conceptual design. In order to account for the non-stationary effects of the intermittent renewable energy sources (RES), thermal storage and for the component part load efficiencies, a time domain system simulation is required. An abstract system simulation method is proposed based on seven pre-configured primary HVAC system models, including components such as boil-ers, chillers and cooling towers, thermal storage, solar thermal collectors, and photovoltaic modules. A control strategy is developed for each of the models and their annual quasi-stationary simulation is performed. The performance profiles obtained are then used to calculate the energy consumption, carbon emissions and costs. The annuity method has been employed to calculate the cost. Optimization is used to automatically size the HVAC systems, based on their simulation performance. Its purpose is to identify the system component dimensions that provide

  15. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions: e0141218

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan R Mosedale; Robert J Wilson; Ilya M D Maclean

    2015-01-01

    .... Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates...

  16. Effects of UV-accelerated weathering and natural weathering conditions on anti-fungal efficacy of wood/PVC composites doped with propylene glycol-based HPQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Srimalanon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the mechanical, physical and weathering properties and anti-fungal efficacy of polyvinyl chloride(PVC and wood flour/polyvinyl chloride composites(WPVC. 2-hydroxypropyl-3-piperazinyl-quinoline carboxylic acid methacrylate (HPQM in propylene glycol was used as an anti-fungal agent. Propylene glycol-based HPQM was doped in neat PVC and in WPVC containing 50 and 100 pph wood (WPVC-50 and WPVC-100. The flexural properties of PVC decreased when propylene glycol-based HPQM was added. However, adding this component did not affect the flexural properties of WPVC. Fungal growth inhibition test and dry weight technique were used for evaluation of anti-fungal effectiveness. Aspergillus niger was used as a testing fungus. Adding propylene glycol-based HPQM to WPVC-100 led to the most effective anti-fungal performance. Wood flour acted as an anti-fungal promoter for the WPVC composites. The optimal dosages of propylene glycol-based HPQM in PVC, WPVC-50, and WPVC-100 were 50000, 15000, and 10000 ppm, respectively. UV-accelerated weathering aging and natural weathering conditions were found to affect the flexural properties of PVC and WPVC. The change in the anti-microbial performance of WPVC under natural weathering were slower than those under UV-accelerated weathering aging. The anti-microbial evaluation indicated that the samples doped with less than 20000 ppm propylene glycol-based HPQM had a more pronounced effect than the ones doped with higher dosages.

  17. Atmospheric dispersion characteristics of radioactive materials according to the local weather and emission conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Hye Yeon; Kang, Yoon Hee; Kim, Yoo Keun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sang Keun [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This study evaluated the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material according to local weather conditions and emission conditions. Local weather conditions were defined as 8 patterns that frequently occur around the Kori Nuclear Power Plant and emission conditions were defined as 6 patterns from a combination of emission rates and the total number of particles of the {sup 137}Cs, using the WRF/HYSPLIT modeling system. The highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 0900 LST under the ME4{sub 1} (main wind direction: SSW, daily average wind speed: 2.8 ms{sup -1}), with a wide region of its high concentration due to the continuous wind changes between 0000 and 0900 LST; under the ME3 (NE, 4.1 ms{sup -1}), the highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 1500 and 2100 LST with a narrow dispersion along a strong northeasterly wind. In the case of ME4{sub 4} (S, 2.7 ms{sup -1}), the highest mean concentration of {sup 137}Cs occurred at 0300 LST because {sup 137}Cs stayed around the KNPP under low wind speed and low boundary layer height. As for the emission conditions, EM1{sub 3} and EM2{sub 3} that had the maximum total number of particles showed the widest dispersion of {sup 137}Cs, while its highest mean concentration was estimated under the EM1{sub 1} considering the relatively narrow dispersion and high emission rate. This study showed that even though an area may be located within the same radius around the Kori Nuclear Power Plant, the distribution and levels of {sup 137}Cs concentration vary according to the change in time and space of weather conditions (the altitude of the atmospheric boundary layer, the horizontal and vertical distribution of the local winds, and the precipitation levels), the topography of the regions where {sup 137}Cs is dispersed, the emission rate of {sup 137}Cs, and the number of emitted particles.

  18. Southern giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus nest attendance patterns under extreme weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Uwe Horst; Krüger, Lucas; Petry, Maria Virginia

    2014-08-01

    Differences in nest attendance between genders in seabirds may be related to morphological differences. Southern giant petrel is a dimorphic species with gender-specific foraging behavior. The objective of this study was to investigate sex-related differences in nest attendance during the breeding period of southern giant petrels by presence/absence patterns of both sexes during incubation and compare use of the colony after nest failure. Fourteen birds were tagged with digitally coded radio-transmitters in a colony at Elephant Island, Antarctica, in the beginning of 2009/2010 breeding season. Females were present during 18 periods (min. 3 days, max. 9 days) and males only in five periods (min. 2 days, max. 13 days). The difference in mean number of radio signals per day between females (4330; s.e. 313.5) and males (2691; s.e. 248.6) was highly significant (t = 4.3; d.f. = 199; P weather conditions that year, all tagged birds failed to reproduce. After abandonment of the nests, the presence of both genders decreased drastically, although the tagged individuals stayed in the area. Under severe weather conditions female Southern Giant Petrels continue breeding while males abandon the nest earlier.

  19. Diurnal Thermal Behavior of Photovoltaic Panel with Phase Change Materials under Different Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Han Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power generation efficiency of photovoltaic (PV panels depends on the solar irradiation flux and the operating temperature of the solar cell. To increase the power generation efficiency of a PV system, this study evaluated the feasibility of phase change materials (PCMs to reduce the temperature rise of solar cells operating under the climate in Seoul, Korea. For this purpose, two PCMs with different phase change characteristics were prepared and the phase change temperatures and thermal conductivities were compared. The diurnal thermal behavior of PV panels with PCMs under the Seoul climate was evaluated using a 2-D transient thermal analysis program. This paper discusses the heat flow characteristics though the PV cell with PCMs and the effects of the PCM types and macro-packed PCM (MPPCM methods on the operating temperatures under different weather conditions. Selection of the PCM type was more important than the MMPCM methods when PCMs were used to enhance the performance of PV panels and the mean operating temperature of PV cell and total heat flux from the surface could be reduced by increasing the heat transfer rate through the honeycomb grid steel container for PCMs. Considering the mean operating temperature reduction of 4 °C by PCM in this study, an efficiency improvement of approximately 2% can be estimated under the weather conditions of Seoul.

  20. Extreme weather conditions reduce the CO2 fertilization effect in temperate C3 grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Wolfgang; Lehnert, Lukas; Kammann, Claudia; Müller, Christoph; Grünhage, Ludger; Luterbacher, Jürg; Erbs, Martin; Yuan, Naiming; Bendix, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The increase in atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations from anthropogenic activities is the major driver of global climate change. The rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations may stimulate plant photosynthesis and, thus, cause a net sink effect in the global carbon cycle. As a consequence of an enhanced photosynthesis, an increase in the net primary productivity (NPP) of C3 plants (termed CO2 fertilization) is widely assumed. This process is associated with a reduced stomatal conductance of leaves as the carbon demand of photosynthesis is met earlier. This causes a higher water-use efficiency and, hence, may reduce water stress in plants exposed to elevated CO2 concentrations ([eCO2]). However, the magnitude and persistence of the CO2 fertilization effect under a future climate including more frequent weather extremes are controversial. To test the CO2 fertilization effect for Central European grasslands, a data set comprising 16 years of biomass samples and environmental variables such as local weather and soil conditions was analysed by means of a novel approach. The data set was recorded on a "Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment" (FACE) experimental site which allows to quantify the CO2 fertilization effect under naturally occurring climate variations. The results indicate that the CO2 fertilization effect on the aboveground biomass is strongest under local average environmental conditions. Such intermediate regimes were defined by the mean +/- 1 standard deviation of the long-term average in the respective variable three months before harvest. The observed CO2 fertilization effect was reduced or vanished under drier, wetter and hotter conditions when the respective variable exceeded the bounds of the intermediate regimes. Comparable conditions, characterized by a higher frequency of more extreme weather conditions, are predicted for the future by climate projections. Consequently, biogeochemical models may overestimate the future NPP sink

  1. The hour-to-hour influence of weather conditions on walking and cycling among Dutch older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Richard G; van Lenthe, F J

    2015-09-01

    physical activity (PA) is an important factor to promote healthy ageing. However, older adults are not physically active enough. Socio-ecological models suggest that weather conditions are determinants of PA and may bias relations between other environmental factors and PA. This may especially be the case for the most vulnerable and inactive older persons. Understanding the role of weather conditions is based on daily or seasonal variation in weather, but it can be improved by using hour-to-hour measured weather conditions. to study the hour-to-hour relationships between weather factors and objectively measured walking and cycling in a sample of Dutch older adults. baseline data (2013) of a sub-sample of older adults (3,248 observations clustered in 43 adults) participating in The Neighborhood Walking in Rotterdam Older ADultS (NEW.ROADS) trial were used. Participants wore a GPS logger for 7 consecutive days. Hour-to-hour weather data (temperature, wind speed, rain and sun time) for the city of Rotterdam were retrieved from the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute. Multilevel linear regression models were fitted with minutes walked and minutes cycled as dependent variables and the weather variables as independent variables. the time older adults walked increased with higher temperature, higher wind speed and the absence of rain. The time cycled increased with higher temperature. this study improves the evidence of weather factors as a determinant for walking and cycling in older adults. Studies on the relation between environmental factors and PA should consider adjustment for weather factors. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. An urban model for dolomite precipitation: authigenic dolomite on weathered building stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Navarro, Carlos; Sebastian, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Gallego, Manuel

    1997-03-01

    Formation of authigenic dolomite within alteration crusts developing on limestone surfaces of a historical building is confirmed by XRD, polarising microscopy, and SEM with EDX data. Two different types of authigenic dolomite occur: limpid stoichiometric dolomite and Ca-rich 'protodolomite'. The presence of gypsum, calcite, pollution-derived particles, clay minerals, and organic material within the crusts confirms their recent formation, together with that of dolomite, in a micro-environment of high evaporation and ionic concentrations. Such environments are typically found in many urban centres. On the basis of these findings an 'Urban Model' for dolomite precipitation is proposed. There are two sources of Mg: (1) dissolution of nearby dolostones overlying the limestones, as a result of leaching by atmospheric SO 2, oxidised and hydrolysed as H 2SO 4; and (2) Mg-rich metallic atmospheric particles. Elevated Mg/Ca values are achieved by precipitation of gypsum, which removes Ca from the solution. 'Protodolomite' then precipitates and later recrystallises as limpid dolomite due to changes in the pore fluids, related with the environmental conditions. CO 32- and CO 3H - are provided by leaching of both the limestone support and the nearby dolostones. Additional sources of CO 2 are provided both by the polluted urban atmosphere, rain water, and the degradation of organic material within the crust. Organic matter (fungi and bacteria), pollution-derived particulate matter and clays seem to play a key role in promoting dolomite precipitation in this micro-environment by altering kinetic barriers and providing active sites for dolomite nucleation. Finally, the formation of urban dolomite is compared with Recent dolomites forming in natural environments with alternating evaporative/fresh-water conditions.

  3. Evaluation of operational numerical weather predictions in relation to the prevailing synoptic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytharoulis, Ioannis; Tegoulias, Ioannis; Karacostas, Theodore; Kotsopoulos, Stylianos; Kartsios, Stergios; Bampzelis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    The Thessaly plain, which is located in central Greece, has a vital role in the financial life of the country, because of its significant agricultural production. The aim of DAPHNE project (http://www.daphne-meteo.gr) is to tackle the problem of drought in this area by means of Weather Modification in convective clouds. This problem is reinforced by the increase of population and the water demand for irrigation, especially during the warm period of the year. The nonhydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), is utilized for research and operational purposes of DAPHNE project. The WRF output fields are employed by the partners in order to provide high-resolution meteorological guidance and plan the project's operations. The model domains cover: i) Europe, the Mediterranean sea and northern Africa, ii) Greece and iii) the wider region of Thessaly (at selected periods), at horizontal grid-spacings of 15km, 5km and 1km, respectively, using 2-way telescoping nesting. The aim of this research work is to investigate the model performance in relation to the prevailing upper-air synoptic circulation. The statistical evaluation of the high-resolution operational forecasts of near-surface and upper air fields is performed at a selected period of the operational phase of the project using surface observations, gridded fields and weather radar data. The verification is based on gridded, point and object oriented techniques. The 10 upper-air circulation types, which describe the prevailing conditions over Greece, are employed in the synoptic classification. This methodology allows the identification of model errors that occur and/or are maximized at specific synoptic conditions and may otherwise be obscured in aggregate statistics. Preliminary analysis indicates that the largest errors are associated with cyclonic conditions. Acknowledgments This research work of Daphne project (11SYN_8_1088) is co-funded by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund

  4. Hitchhiking and the 'sunshine driver': further effects of weather conditions on helping behavior'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Nicolas; Stefan, Jordy

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that pleasant weather conditions can improve people's mood and facilitate positive social relationships. The current study tested the effect of sunshine on drivers' willingness to give hitchhikers a ride. Four confederates (2 men, 2 women; M age = 20 yr.) acted as hitchhikers on the roadside in France, on sunny and cloudy days. To minimize the influence of other important variables, hitchhiking was conducted only when it was not raining and only when the external temperatures were between 20 degrees and 24 degrees C. Motorists' behavior in 2,864 hitchhiking events was analyzed. The results showed that both male and female drivers stopped more on sunny days than on cloudy days for both male and female hitchhikers. Perhaps the positive mood induced by the sunshine promotes helping behaviors.

  5. Extreme groundwater levels caused by extreme weather conditions - the highest ever measured groundwater levels in Middle Germany and their management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstorf, Frido; Kramer, Stefanie; Koch, Thomas; Seifert, Sven; Monninkhoff, Bertram; Pfützner, Bernd

    2017-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions during the years 2009 - 2011 in combination with changes in the regional water management and possible impacts of climate change led to maximum groundwater levels in large areas of Germany in 2011. This resulted in extensive water logging, with problems especially in urban areas near rivers, where water logging produced huge problems for buildings and infrastructure. The acute situation still exists in many areas and requires the development of solution concepts. Taken the example of the Elbe-Saale-Region in the Federal State of Saxony-Anhalt, were a pilot research project was carried out, the analytical situation, the development of a management tool and the implementation of a groundwater management concept are shown. The central tool is a coupled water budget - groundwater flow model. In combination with sophisticated multi-scale parameter estimation, a high resolution groundwater level simulation was carried out. A decision support process with a very intensive stakeholder interaction combined with high resolution simulations enables the development of a management concept for extreme groundwater situations in consideration of sustainable and environmentally sound solutions mainly on the base of passive measures.

  6. Sensitivities of crop models to extreme weather conditions during flowering period demonstrated for maize and winter wheat in Austria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eitzinger, J; Thaler, S; Schmid, E

    2013-01-01

    the start of flowering. Two locations in Austria, representing different agro-climatic zones and soil conditions, were included in the simulations over 2 years, 2003 and 2004, exhibiting contrasting weather conditions. In addition, soil management was modified at both sites by following either ploughing...

  7. Impacts of changing fire weather conditions on reconstructed trends in U.S. wildland fire activity from 1979 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Freeborn; W. Matt Jolly; Mark A. Cochrane

    2016-01-01

    One component of climate‐fire interactions is the relationship between weather conditions concurrent with burning (i.e., fire danger) and the magnitude of fire activity. Here daily environmental conditions are associated with daily observations of fire activity within ecoregions across the continental United States (CONUS) by aligning the latter 12 years of a 36 year...

  8. Integrating K-means Clustering with Kernel Density Estimation for the Development of a Conditional Weather Generation Downscaling Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y.; Ho, C.; Chang, L.

    2011-12-01

    In previous decades, the climate change caused by global warming increases the occurrence frequency of extreme hydrological events. Water supply shortages caused by extreme events create great challenges for water resource management. To evaluate future climate variations, general circulation models (GCMs) are the most wildly known tools which shows possible weather conditions under pre-defined CO2 emission scenarios announced by IPCC. Because the study area of GCMs is the entire earth, the grid sizes of GCMs are much larger than the basin scale. To overcome the gap, a statistic downscaling technique can transform the regional scale weather factors into basin scale precipitations. The statistic downscaling technique can be divided into three categories include transfer function, weather generator and weather type. The first two categories describe the relationships between the weather factors and precipitations respectively based on deterministic algorithms, such as linear or nonlinear regression and ANN, and stochastic approaches, such as Markov chain theory and statistical distributions. In the weather type, the method has ability to cluster weather factors, which are high dimensional and continuous variables, into weather types, which are limited number of discrete states. In this study, the proposed downscaling model integrates the weather type, using the K-means clustering algorithm, and the weather generator, using the kernel density estimation. The study area is Shihmen basin in northern of Taiwan. In this study, the research process contains two steps, a calibration step and a synthesis step. Three sub-steps were used in the calibration step. First, weather factors, such as pressures, humidities and wind speeds, obtained from NCEP and the precipitations observed from rainfall stations were collected for downscaling. Second, the K-means clustering grouped the weather factors into four weather types. Third, the Markov chain transition matrixes and the

  9. Modelling the perception of weather conditions by users of outdoor public spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, H.; Oliveira, S.; Alcoforado, M.-J.

    2009-09-01

    Outdoor public spaces play an important role for the quality of life in urban areas. Their usage depends, among other factors, on the bioclimatic comfort of the users. Climate change can modify the uses of outdoor spaces, by changing temperature and rainfall patterns. Understanding the way people perceive the microclimatic conditions is an important tool to the design of more comfortable outdoor spaces and in anticipating future needs to cope with climate change impacts. The perception of bioclimatic comfort by users of two different outdoor spaces was studied in Lisbon. A survey of about one thousand inquires was carried out simultaneously with weather measurements (air temperature, wind speed, relative humidity and solar and long wave radiation), during the years 2006 and 2007. The aim was to assess the relationships between weather variables, the individual characteristics of people (such as age and gender, among others) and their bioclimatic comfort. The perception of comfort was evaluated through the preference votes of the interviewees, which consisted on their answers concerning the desire to decrease, maintain or increase the values of the different weather parameters, in order to improve their comfort at the moment of the interview. The perception of the atmospheric conditions and of the bioclimatic comfort are highly influenced by subjective factors, which are difficult to integrate in a model. Nonetheless, the use of the multiple logistic regression allows the definition of patterns in the quantitative relation between preference votes and environmental and personal parameters. The thermal preference depends largely on the season and is associated with wind speed. Comfort in relation to wind depends not only on the speed but also on turbulence: a high variability in wind speed is generally perceived as uncomfortable. It was also found that the acceptability of warmer conditions is higher than for cooler conditions and the majority of people declared

  10. The Future of Air Conditioning for Buildings - Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, J. [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Fuhrman, J. [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Building Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, works with researchers and industry to develop and deploy technologies that can substantially reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in residential and commercial buildings. Air conditioning (A/C) systems in buildings contribute to GHG emissions both directly through refrigerant emissions, as well as indirectly through fossil fuel combustion for power generation. BTO promotes pre-competitive research and development (R&D) on next-generation HVAC technologies that support the phase down of hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and consumption, as well as cost-effective energy efficiency improvements. Over the past several decades, product costs and lifecycle cooling costs have declined substantially in many global markets due to improved, higher-volume manufacturing and higher energy efficiency driven by R&D investments and efficiency policies including minimum efficiency standards and labeling programs.1 This report characterizes the current landscape and trends in the global A/C market, including discussion of both direct and indirect climate impacts, and potential global warming impacts from growing global A/C usage. The report also documents solutions that can help achieve international goals for energy efficiency and GHG emissions reductions. The solutions include pathways related to low-global warming potential2 (GWP) refrigerants, energy efficiency innovations, long-term R&D initiatives, and regulatory actions. DOE provides, with this report, a fact-based vision for the future of A/C use around the world. DOE intends for this vision to reflect a broad and balanced aggregation of perspectives. DOE brings together this content in an effort to support dialogue within the international community and help keep key facts and objectives at the forefront among the many important discussions.

  11. Can Agrometeorological Indices of Adverse Weather Conditions Help to Improve Yield Prediction by Crop Models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislava Lalić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of adverse weather conditions (AWCs on crop production is random in both time and space and depends on factors such as severity, previous agrometeorological conditions, and plant vulnerability at a specific crop development stage. Any exclusion or improper treatment of any of these factors can cause crop models to produce significant under- or overestimates of yield. The analysis presented in this paper focuses on a range of agrometeorological indices (AMI related to AWCs that might affect real yield as well as simulated yield. For this purpose, the analysis addressed four indicators of extreme temperatures and three indicators of dry conditions during the growth period of maize and winter wheat in Austria, Croatia, Serbia, Slovakia, and Sweden. It is shown that increases in the number and intensity of AWCs cannot be unambiguously associated with increased deviations in simulated yields. The identified correlations indicate an increase in modeling uncertainty. This finding represents important information for the crop modeling community. Additionally, it opens a window of opportunity for a statistical (“event scenario” approach based on correlations between agrometeorological indices of AWCs and crop yield data series. This approach can provide scenarios for certain locations, crop types, and AWC patterns and, therefore, improve yield forecasting in the presence of AWCs.

  12. Climate Change and Crop Exposure to Adverse Weather: Changes to Frost Risk and Grapevine Flowering Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosedale, Jonathan R; Wilson, Robert J; Maclean, Ilya M D

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of grapevines in the UK and many other cool climate regions is expected to benefit from the higher growing season temperatures predicted under future climate scenarios. Yet the effects of climate change on the risk of adverse weather conditions or events at key stages of crop development are not always captured by aggregated measures of seasonal or yearly climates, or by downscaling techniques that assume climate variability will remain unchanged under future scenarios. Using fine resolution projections of future climate scenarios for south-west England and grapevine phenology models we explore how risks to cool-climate vineyard harvests vary under future climate conditions. Results indicate that the risk of adverse conditions during flowering declines under all future climate scenarios. In contrast, the risk of late spring frosts increases under many future climate projections due to advancement in the timing of budbreak. Estimates of frost risk, however, were highly sensitive to the choice of phenology model, and future frost exposure declined when budbreak was calculated using models that included a winter chill requirement for dormancy break. The lack of robust phenological models is a major source of uncertainty concerning the impacts of future climate change on the development of cool-climate viticulture in historically marginal climatic regions.

  13. Study of the relationships between weather conditions and the marathon race, and of meteorotropic effects on distance runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suping, Zhang; Guanglin, Meng; Yanwen, Wang; Ji, Li

    1992-06-01

    The relationships between the results of Beijing International Marathon Races and the corresponding weather conditions are analysed quantitatively. There are obvious interrelationships between the marathon results and weather factors such as air temperature, wet bulb temperature and human biometeorological indices. For example, the correlation coefficient between the average times of the top ten finishers and temperature is r=0.8910. The meteorological conditions are classified into three categories, suitable, moderate and unsuitable for running a marathon race, and the optimum meteorological index is given. Also the concept of a meteorological result, i.e. the part of the actual performances fluctuating with the changes in weather conditions, is presented. This plays an important role in some kinds of sports such as marathon racing. Finally, the results of physiological tests are given, which illustrate the physiological reactions of long- and middle-distance runners to the surrounding temperature.

  14. Forest soil respiration rate and delta13C is regulated by recent above ground weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekblad, Alf; Boström, Björn; Holm, Anders; Comstedt, Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Soil respiration, a key component of the global carbon cycle, is a major source of uncertainty when estimating terrestrial carbon budgets at ecosystem and higher levels. Rates of soil and root respiration are assumed to be dependent on soil temperature and soil moisture yet these factors often barely explain half the seasonal variation in soil respiration. We here found that soil moisture (range 16.5-27.6% of dry weight) and soil temperature (range 8-17.5 degrees C) together explained 55% of the variance (cross-validated explained variance; Q2) in soil respiration rate (range 1.0-3.4 micromol C m(-2) s(-1)) in a Norway spruce (Picea abies) forest. We hypothesised that this was due to that the two components of soil respiration, root respiration and decomposition, are governed by different factors. We therefore applied PLS (partial least squares regression) multivariate modelling in which we, together with below ground temperature and soil moisture, used the recent above ground air temperature and air humidity (vapour pressure deficit, VPD) conditions as x-variables. We found that air temperature and VPD data collected 1-4 days before respiration measurements explained 86% of the seasonal variation in the rate of soil respiration. The addition of soil moisture and soil temperature to the PLS-models increased the Q2 to 93%. delta13C analysis of soil respiration supported the hypotheses that there was a fast flux of photosynthates to root respiration and a dependence on recent above ground weather conditions. Taken together, our results suggest that shoot activities the preceding 1-6 days influence, to a large degree, the rate of root and soil respiration. We propose this above ground influence on soil respiration to be proportionally largest in the middle of the growing season and in situations when there is large day-to-day shifts in the above ground weather conditions. During such conditions soil temperature may not exert the major control on root respiration.

  15. Multivariate analysis comparing microbial air content of an air-conditioned building and a naturally ventilated building over one year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parat, Sylvie; Perdrix, Alain; Fricker-Hidalgo, Hélène; Saude, Isabelle; Grillot, Renee; Baconnier, Pierre

    Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) may be responsible for the production and spread of airborne microorganisms in office buildings. In order to compare airborne microbiological flora in an air-conditioned building with that in a naturally ventilated building, eight sets of measurements were made over a 1-year period. Concurrently with other environmental measurements, air samples were collected in each building, from three offices and from the outdoor air, using the Andersen single-stage sampler. Three different media were used to culture fungi, staphylococci and mesophilic bacteria. Multivariate analysis revealed a group of offices more contaminated than others, and a marked seasonal variation in fungal concentrations. A comparison of mean levels of microorganisms measured in the two buildings showed that the air microbial content was significantly higher and more variable in the naturally ventilated building than in the air-conditioned building. Moreover, in the naturally ventilated building, the interior fungal content was strongly dependent on the outdoor content, while in the air-conditioned building fungal concentrations remained constant despite significant variations measured outside. This was confirmed by a statistical comparison of the correlation coefficients between indoor and outdoor concentrations. No difference was observed regarding gaseous pollutants and temperature, but relative humidity was significantly higher in the air-conditioned building. The effect of HVAC was to prevent the intake of outdoor particles and to dilute the indoor concentrations. These results are consistent with the presence of high-efficiency filters and a steam humidifier in the HVAC system under study.

  16. Relating Building and Classroom Conditions to Student Achievement in Virginia's Elementary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Lanham III, James Warren

    1999-01-01

    The relationships between student achievement and a number of variables relating to building and classroom conditions in Virginia elementary schools were examined. A systematic random sample of 300 schools was selected from all elementary schools in Virginia with grades three and five. Data on building condition, classroom condition, and demographics were collected with "An Assessment of Building and Classroom Conditions in Elementary Schools in Virginia." Building prin...

  17. Examples of weathering and deterioration of Tertiary building stones at St. Michaels Cathedral in Cluj-Napoca (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koch

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available St. Michaels Cathedral is one of the oldest Gothic architectural monuments in Cluj. It is built predominantly of Cenozoic (Eocene limestones which were deposited on a shallow carbonate platform. They are composed of different facies and microfacies types with varying amounts of particles, matrix and cement. Limestones from the Baci quarry (Cluj Limestone, which is situated about 3 km from the centre of Cluj, were commonly used. The weathering features correspond to the microfacies types, to the position of the stones in the walls and to the exposure (east, south, west, and north, which controls the moisture/dry cycles. This interrelationship is documented by macroscopic and microscopic examples of the decay of samples analyzed from the lower part of the walls. General parameters for a correct classification of carbonate rocks and their importance for weathering are discussed. The general mechanisms of weathering (thermal expansion, water uptake, freezing, chemical weathering are described. The migration of moisture (capillarity and the formation of crusts of varying mineralogy on the surface of building stones are documented. Macroscopic description of damage includes the decay into plates and flakes, the formation of crusts, the formation of fractures, and the growth of lichens and microorganisms. The microscopic analysis documents characteristic damage in detail: fractures parallel to the surface of the stone, internal cementation of fossil chambers (micro-nodules, repeated formation of crusts in varying generations, fracturing in intensively lithified, rigid limestones, and settling of lichens in different positions. Furthermore, different historical mortars and modern “concrete-mortars” and their behaviour in comparison to the adjacent limestones are briefly discussed. The possible conservation and restoration of weathered limestones in St. Michaels Cathedral are discussed with regard to the most recent conservation methods. The

  18. Effects of weather conditions on emergency ambulance calls for acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta; Dobozinskas, Paulius; Siurkaite, Viktorija

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between weather conditions and daily emergency ambulance calls for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The study included data on 3631 patients who called the ambulance for chest pain and were admitted to the department of cardiology as patients with ACS. We investigated the effect of daily air temperature (T), barometric pressure (BP), relative humidity, and wind speed (WS) to detect the risk areas for low and high daily volume (DV) of emergency calls. We used the classification and regression tree method as well as cluster analysis. The clusters were created by applying the k-means cluster algorithm using the standardized daily weather variables. The analysis was performed separately during cold (October-April) and warm (May-September) seasons. During the cold period, the greatest DV was observed on days of low T during the 3-day sequence, on cold and windy days, and on days of low BP and high WS during the 3-day sequence; low DV was associated with high BP and decreased WS on the previous day. During June-September, a lower DV was associated with low BP, windless days, and high BP and low WS during the 3-day sequence. During the warm period, the greatest DV was associated with increased BP and changing WS during the 3-day sequence. These results suggest that daily T, BP, and WS on the day of the ambulance call and on the two previous days may be prognostic variables for the risk of ACS.

  19. Effects of weather conditions on emergency ambulance calls for acute coronary syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta; Dobozinskas, Paulius; Siurkaite, Viktorija

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between weather conditions and daily emergency ambulance calls for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The study included data on 3631 patients who called the ambulance for chest pain and were admitted to the department of cardiology as patients with ACS. We investigated the effect of daily air temperature ( T), barometric pressure (BP), relative humidity, and wind speed (WS) to detect the risk areas for low and high daily volume (DV) of emergency calls. We used the classification and regression tree method as well as cluster analysis. The clusters were created by applying the k-means cluster algorithm using the standardized daily weather variables. The analysis was performed separately during cold (October-April) and warm (May-September) seasons. During the cold period, the greatest DV was observed on days of low T during the 3-day sequence, on cold and windy days, and on days of low BP and high WS during the 3-day sequence; low DV was associated with high BP and decreased WS on the previous day. During June-September, a lower DV was associated with low BP, windless days, and high BP and low WS during the 3-day sequence. During the warm period, the greatest DV was associated with increased BP and changing WS during the 3-day sequence. These results suggest that daily T, BP, and WS on the day of the ambulance call and on the two previous days may be prognostic variables for the risk of ACS.

  20. Assessing preferences of beach users for certain aspects of weather and ocean conditions: case studies from Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Xiao Hua

    2013-05-01

    Three well-known Australian beaches, Surfers Paradise Beach (Gold Coast), Narrowneck Beach (Gold Coast) and Bondi Beach (Sydney), were selected for analysis of beach user preferences for certain weather and ocean conditions. Regression methods were used to determine how the numbers of visitors to these beaches are affected by these conditions. Actual visitor numbers were counted at three times during the day over several months at each beach with the aid of web cameras. The corresponding weather and ocean conditions were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology and local government agencies. Weekly and seasonal factors were also considered. The conditions preferred by beach users, as found in this study, are: no precipitation, higher temperatures, light-to-moderate wind speed (less than 30 km/h) and low wave height (up to 1.25 m). This study, the first to provide an analysis of beach user preferences for both weather and ocean conditions, shows that ocean conditions play a significant role in explaining the demand for beach recreation in Australia. It is therefore necessary for tourism management authorities or local governments to provide accurate and timely weather and ocean information to local, domestic and international beach users.

  1. Associations between weather conditions and clinical symptoms in patients with hip osteoarthritis: a 2-year cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorleijn, Desirée M J; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Burdorf, Alex; Rozendaal, Rianne M; Verhaar, Jan A N; Bos, Pieter K; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A

    2014-04-01

    The goal of this study was to assess whether there is an association between ambient weather conditions and patients' clinical symptoms in patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA). The design was a cohort study with a 2-year follow-up and 3-monthly measurements and prospectively collected data on weather variables. The study population consisted of 222 primary care patients with hip OA. Weather variables included temperature, wind speed, total amount of sun hours, precipitation, barometric pressure, and relative humidity. The primary outcomes were severity of hip pain and hip disability as measured with the Western Ontario and McMasters University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain and function subscales. Associations between hip pain and hip disability and the weather variables were assessed using crude and multivariate adjusted linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measurements. On the day of questionnaire completion, mean relative humidity was associated with WOMAC pain (estimate 0.1; 95% confidence interval=0.0-0.2; P=.02). Relative humidity contributed weather variables were not associated with the WOMAC pain or function score. Our results support the general opinion of OA patients that barometric pressure and relative humidity influence perceived OA symptoms. However, the contribution of these weather variables (< or = 1%) to the severity of OA symptoms is not considered to be clinically relevant. Copyright © 2014 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Statistical analysis and modelling of weather radar beam propagation conditions in the Po Valley (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fornasiero

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground clutter caused by anomalous propagation (anaprop can affect seriously radar rain rate estimates, particularly in fully automatic radar processing systems, and, if not filtered, can produce frequent false alarms. A statistical study of anomalous propagation detected from two operational C-band radars in the northern Italian region of Emilia Romagna is discussed, paying particular attention to its diurnal and seasonal variability. The analysis shows a high incidence of anaprop in summer, mainly in the morning and evening, due to the humid and hot summer climate of the Po Valley, particularly in the coastal zone. Thereafter, a comparison between different techniques and datasets to retrieve the vertical profile of the refractive index gradient in the boundary layer is also presented. In particular, their capability to detect anomalous propagation conditions is compared. Furthermore, beam path trajectories are simulated using a multilayer ray-tracing model and the influence of the propagation conditions on the beam trajectory and shape is examined. High resolution radiosounding data are identified as the best available dataset to reproduce accurately the local propagation conditions, while lower resolution standard TEMP data suffers from interpolation degradation and Numerical Weather Prediction model data (Lokal Model are able to retrieve a tendency to superrefraction but not to detect ducting conditions. Observing the ray tracing of the centre, lower and upper limits of the radar antenna 3-dB half-power main beam lobe it is concluded that ducting layers produce a change in the measured volume and in the power distribution that can lead to an additional error in the reflectivity estimate and, subsequently, in the estimated rainfall rate.

  3. Health and safety conditions of building maintenance sites in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    Euros and other moisture-related respiratory diseases cost between 12 and 23 ... Additional information relating to the function of building, the the part building from which sample was taken, and age of buildings were also collected. The samples were sealed in sterile containers before transportation to laboratory. Structured ...

  4. A Systematic Approach to the Study of Accelerated weathering of Building Joint Sealants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher C. White; Donald L. Hunston; Kar Tean Tan; James J. Filliben; Adam L. Pintar; Greg. Schueneman

    2012-01-01

    An accurate service life prediction model is needed for building joint sealants in order to greatly reduce the time to market of a new product and reduce the risk of introducing a poorly performing product into the marketplace. A stepping stone to the success of this effort is the precise control of environmental variables in a laboratory accelerated test apparatus in...

  5. The Influence of Weather Conditions on Joint Pain in Older People with Osteoarthritis: Results from the European Project on OSteoArthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Erik J; Schaap, Laura A; Herbolsheimer, Florian; Dennison, Elaine M; Maggi, Stefania; Pedersen, Nancy L; Castell, Maria Victoria; Denkinger, Michael D; Edwards, Mark H; Limongi, Federica; Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Siviero, Paola; Queipo, Rocio; Peter, Richard; van der Pas, Suzan; Deeg, Dorly J H

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether daily weather conditions, 3-day average weather conditions, and changes in weather conditions influence joint pain in older people with osteoarthritis (OA) in 6 European countries. Data from the population-based European Project on OSteoArthritis were used. The American College of Rheumatology classification criteria were used to diagnose OA in older people (65-85 yrs). After the baseline interview, at 6 months, and after the 12-18 months followup interview, joint pain was assessed using 2-week pain calendars. Daily values for temperature, precipitation, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, and wind speed were obtained from local weather stations. Multilevel regression modelling was used to examine the pain-weather associations, adjusted for several confounders. The study included 810 participants with OA in the knee, hand, and/or hip. After adjustment, there were significant associations of joint pain with daily average humidity (B = 0.004, p weather conditions. Changes in weather variables between 2 consecutive days were not significantly associated with reported joint pain. The associations between pain and daily average weather conditions suggest that a causal relationship exist between joint pain and weather variables, but the associations between day-to-day weather changes and pain do not confirm causation. Knowledge about the relationship between joint pain in OA and weather may help individuals with OA, physicians, and therapists to better understand and manage fluctuations in pain.

  6. [Climate change and hygienic assessment of weather conditions in Omsk and the Omsk Region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudinova, Zh V; Akimova, I S; Klochikhina, A V

    2010-01-01

    The paper deals with trends in climate change in the Omsk Region: the increases in average annual air temperatures and rainfall, which are attended by the higher number of abnormal weather events, as shown by the data of the Omsk Regional Board, Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring. There is information on weather severity in 2008: there was mild weather in spring and severe weather in winter, in January in particular. A survey of physicians has revealed that medical workers are concerned about climate problems and global warming and ascertained weather events mostly affecting the population's health. People worry most frequently about a drastic temperature drop or rise (as high as 71%), atmospheric pressure change (53%), and "when it is too hot in summer (47%).

  7. Variation in the Incidence of Distal Radius Fractures in the US Elderly as Related to Slippery Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giladi, Aviram M.; Shauver, Melissa J.; Ho, Allison; Zhong, Lin; Kim, H. Myra; Chung, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Distal radius fractures (DRFs) are costly and debilitating injuries, especially for the elderly. DRFs often occur from falls and more commonly occur outdoors. Inclement weather, especially in the winter, may increase the risk of fall-related injuries. Small community studies have reported increased risk of DRF due to inclement winter weather; however, larger studies are lacking. Methods We analyzed a sample of 2007 Medicare claims for DRF. Weather data were collected for the date and location of each DRF in our analysis cohort. A novel slipperiness score (0–7, 7 indicates the most slippery weather) was used as a measure of the severity of slippery outdoor conditions. Negative binomial regression models evaluated the correlation between slipperiness and DRF occurrence. Results Risk of DRF was higher in winter months (Incidence Rate Ratio=1.2, 95%CI 1.14–1.26, pWeather events that create slippery walking conditions, most often occurring in winter months, result in an increased risk of DRF in the US elderly. This finding can be used to support resource allocation as well as awareness and prevention campaigns. Level of Evidence IV; retrospective cohort PMID:24469166

  8. Condition and Defect Surveys on Penang Heritage Centre: A Case Study on Georgetown World Heritage Building

    OpenAIRE

    Masyatul Husna Othman; Md Azree Othuman Mydin

    2012-01-01

    Condition and defect surveys are process which appropriate experts investigates the existing condition of a building, carry out necessary tasks, evaluate the data collected, make the recommendations professionally about the remedial and predict performance of the building. This paper focuses on condition and defect surveys on Penang Heritage Centre, Malaysia. This building is listed as one of the buildings under Georgetown World Heritage Site. Penang Heritage Trust is a h...

  9. Effect of weather data aggregation on regional crop simulation for different crops, production conditions, and response variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Gang; Hoffmann, Holger; Bussel, Van L.G.J.; Enders, Andreas; Specka, Xenia; Sosa, Carmen; Yeluripati, Jagadeesh; Tao, Fulu; Constantin, Julie; Raynal, Helene; Teixeira, Edmar; Grosz, Balázs; Doro, Luca; Zhao, Zhigan; Nendel, Claas; Kiese, Ralf; Eckersten, Henrik; Haas, Edwin; Vanuytrecht, Eline; Wang, Enli; Kuhnert, Matthias; Trombi, Giacomo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco; Lewan, Elisabet; Bach, Michaela; Kersebaum, Kurt Christian; Rötter, Reimund; Roggero, Pier Paolo; Wallach, Daniel; Cammarano, Davide; Asseng, Senthold; Krauss, Gunther; Siebert, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the weather data aggregation effect (DAE) on the simulation of cropping systems for different crops, response variables, and production conditions. Using 13 processbased crop models and the ensemble mean, we simulated 30 yr continuous cropping systems for 2 crops (winter wheat and

  10. THE APPLICABILITY OF EXISTING COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY TO AUTOMATE FUZZY SYNTHESIS OF TRAFFIC LIGHT UAV IN ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Lysenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of the analysis of the applicability of known application software systems for automated synthesis of fuzzy control traffic light UAV during its flight in adverse weather conditions. The solution is based on a previously formulated and put into consideration the principle of permissible limited a priori estimation of the uncertainty of aerodynamic characteristics of UAVs.

  11. Distributions of pharmaceuticals in an urban estuary during both dry- and wet-weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotti, M.J.; Brownawell, Bruce J.

    2007-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and selected major human metabolites are ubiquitous in Jamaica Bay, a wastewater-impacted estuary at concentrations in the low ng/L to low ??g/L range. Concentrations throughout the bay are often consistent with conservative behavior during dry-weather conditions, as evidenced by nearly linear concentration-salinity relationships. Deviation from conservative behavior is noted for some pharmaceuticals and attributed to microbial degradation. Caffeine, cotinine, nicotine, and paraxanthine were detected with the greatest analytical signal, although evidence is presented for in situ removal, especially for nicotine and caffeine. There is little evidence for significant removal of carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole, suggesting they are more conservative and useful wastewater tracers. Immediately following heavy precipitation, which induced a combined sewer overflow (CSO) event, the concentrations of all compounds but acetaminophen and nicotine decreased or disappeared. This observation is consistent with a simple model illustrating the effect of precipitation has on pharmaceutical concentration in the wastewater stream, given the balance between dilution from rain and the bypass of treatment. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  12. Complex airborne system with combined action on the conditions of risk weather phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae MARIN

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of the weather phenomena is one of the main concerns of scientists. Initially, theresearches in this area were intended to provide military structures new ways of fighting in wars suchas the wars in Korea or Vietnam and then continued with the development of technologies to combatthe phenomena that affect the normal conditions of agriculture, the environment, etc. -extremephenomena- hail, low precipitation regime, etc. Since the last decade of last century also in Romaniathere were a number of initiatives supported through a national program of research in the fightagainst hail and stimulation of precipitation. In this context, INCAS proposed in 2008 a researchproject to implement a complex airborne system, which carry out actions to limit the effects of extremeweather events on crops and objectives of national and strategic interest, on the basis of informationreceived from a system of sensors located on the air platform and intended for measuring the physicalcharacteristics of the atmosphere. Also, as a long-term effect, the action of the complex airbornesystem may lead to the rainfall regulation and control, with all the implications arising from this(avoiding flooding, providing protection from frost of autumn crop, etc.The aerial platform chosen for this research approach is the aircraft for school and training IAR99SOIM, INCAS being the author of its structural design and also holding the patent for IndustrialDesign nr.00081 registered with OSIM. Project acronym : COMAEROPREC.

  13. Optimal Altitude, Overlap, and Weather Conditions for Computer Vision UAV Estimates of Forest Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Dandois

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecological remote sensing is being transformed by three-dimensional (3D, multispectral measurements of forest canopies by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV and computer vision structure from motion (SFM algorithms. Yet applications of this technology have out-paced understanding of the relationship between collection method and data quality. Here, UAV-SFM remote sensing was used to produce 3D multispectral point clouds of Temperate Deciduous forests at different levels of UAV altitude, image overlap, weather, and image processing. Error in canopy height estimates was explained by the alignment of the canopy height model to the digital terrain model (R2 = 0.81 due to differences in lighting and image overlap. Accounting for this, no significant differences were observed in height error at different levels of lighting, altitude, and side overlap. Overall, accurate estimates of canopy height compared to field measurements (R2 = 0.86, RMSE = 3.6 m and LIDAR (R2 = 0.99, RMSE = 3.0 m were obtained under optimal conditions of clear lighting and high image overlap (>80%. Variation in point cloud quality appeared related to the behavior of SFM ‘image features’. Future research should consider the role of image features as the fundamental unit of SFM remote sensing, akin to the pixel of optical imaging and the laser pulse of LIDAR.

  14. Effects of latitude and weather conditions on phenolic compounds in currant (Ribes spp.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Baoru; Zheng, Jie; Laaksonen, Oskar; Tahvonen, Risto; Kallio, Heikki

    2013-04-10

    Effects of growth latitude and weather conditions on phenolic compounds of currants (Ribes spp.) were investigated. The berries of red currant cultivar 'Red Dutch', white currant 'White Dutch', and green currant 'Vertti' were collected in seven consecutive years from two growth sites (south and north) with a latitudinal distance of 690 km. The contents of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates and flavonol glycosides in 'Vertti' were higher than those in 'White Dutch' by 8 and 5 times, respectively, and by 50 and 3 times than those in 'Red Dutch', respectively. The total content of phenolic compounds was 10-19% higher in the north than in the south (p < 0.05). In 'Red Dutch', anthocyanins were 12% richer in berries from the north compared with those from the south (p < 0.05). The total content of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in 'Vertti' and 'White Dutch' from the north was 30% higher than those from the south (p < 0.05). High radiation and temperature were associated with low contents of the major phenolic compounds in all the cultivars studied. High humidity correlated with low levels of hydroxycinnamic acid conjugates in green and white currants.

  15. INDOOR THERMAL CONDITION OF FACTORY BUILDING IN BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Abdullah Al Sayem Khan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh is a developing country and has a lot of factories for different products for local use and also export to abroad. Garments industries are one of the top most items of exported items. A huge number of populations are working in garments industries. But these factories are not well designed in sense of the thermal environment. Workers experiences sickness related to indoor environment. The productions of these factories are affected due to employees’ health condition. The research is done in two different methods. One is empirical data collection using thermal data loggers and the other is questionnaire survey on the spots for three factory buildings. The field study was conducted in four different months of the same year during winter and summer period. Expected findings of this research are that the indoor environment is not comfortable for works at day time during summer season. This research will help the factory workers in providing a comfortable thermal environment and also help the employers or factory owners to increase their production margin.

  16. Improving vehicle tracking rate and speed estimation in dusty and snowy weather conditions with a vibrating camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghoobi Ershadi, Nastaran

    2017-01-01

    Traffic surveillance systems are interesting to many researchers to improve the traffic control and reduce the risk caused by accidents. In this area, many published works are only concerned about vehicle detection in normal conditions. The camera may vibrate due to wind or bridge movement. Detection and tracking of vehicles is a very difficult task when we have bad weather conditions in winter (snowy, rainy, windy, etc.), dusty weather in arid and semi-arid regions, at night, etc. Also, it is very important to consider speed of vehicles in the complicated weather condition. In this paper, we improved our method to track and count vehicles in dusty weather with vibrating camera. For this purpose, we used a background subtraction based strategy mixed with an extra processing to segment vehicles. In this paper, the extra processing included the analysis of the headlight size, location, and area. In our work, tracking was done between consecutive frames via a generalized particle filter to detect the vehicle and pair the headlights using the connected component analysis. So, vehicle counting was performed based on the pairing result, with Centroid of each blob we calculated distance between two frames by simple formula and hence dividing it by the time between two frames obtained from the video. Our proposed method was tested on several video surveillance records in different conditions such as dusty or foggy weather, vibrating camera, and in roads with medium-level traffic volumes. The results showed that the new proposed method performed better than our previously published method and other methods, including the Kalman filter or Gaussian model, in different traffic conditions.

  17. [Characteristics of Caragana microphylla sap flow and water consumption under different weather conditions on Horqin sandy land of northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Guang-Yang; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Zhang, Tong-Hui; Yun, Jian-Ying; Niu, Li; He, Yu-Hui

    2007-10-01

    Employing heat balance Dynamax packaged sap flow measuring system and automatic weather recording system, the sap flow of artificial Caragana microphylla community on Horqin sandy land of northeast China was monitored consecutively in 2006, and the photosynthetically effective radiation, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity were measured synchronously. According to the manual records of weather conditions, four most representative weather conditions were gathered up to analyze the relationships of C. microphylla sap flow and its single branch water consumption with test meteorological factors. The results showed that under high air temperature and intense radiation on sunny days, the diurnal variation of C. microphylla sap flow appeared a broad peak curve, so as to adapt the circumstance of drought and water shortage via lower transpiration. The diurnal variations of sap flow and its dominant affecting factors differed with weather conditions, and photosynthetically effective radiation was always the dominant factor affecting the sap flow. The variation of the sap flow was the result of comprehensive effects of multi-meteorological factors, and the overall variation trend of water consumption of single branch was declined in the order of sunny days > cloudy days > windy days > rainy days, with the mean value being 459, 310, 281 and 193 mg x d(-1), respectively.

  18. Relationship between fine particulate matter, weather condition and daily non-accidental mortality in Shanghai, China: A Bayesian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Fang, Bo; Wang, Chunfang; Xia, Tian; Bottai, Matteo; Fang, Fang; Cao, Yang

    2017-01-01

    There are concerns that the reported association of ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) with mortality might be a mixture of PM2.5 and weather conditions. We evaluated the effects of extreme weather conditions and weather types on mortality as well as their interactions with PM2.5 concentrations in a time series study. Daily non-accidental deaths, individual demographic information, daily average PM2.5 concentrations and meteorological data between 2012 and 2014 were obtained from Shanghai, China. Days with extreme weather conditions were identified. Six synoptic weather types (SWTs) were generated. The generalized additive model was set up to link the mortality with PM2.5 and weather conditions. Parameter estimation was based on Bayesian methods using both the Jeffreys' prior and an informative normal prior in a sensitivity analysis. We estimate the percent increase in non-accidental mortality per 10 μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 concentration and constructed corresponding 95% credible interval (CrI). In total, 336,379 non-accidental deaths occurred during the study period. Average daily deaths were 307. The results indicated that per 10 μg/m3 increase in daily average PM2.5 concentration alone corresponded to 0.26-0.35% increase in daily non-accidental mortality in Shanghai. Statistically significant positive associations between PM2.5 and mortality were found for favorable SWTs when considering the interaction between PM2.5 and SWTs. The greatest effect was found in hot dry SWT (percent increase = 1.28, 95% CrI: 0.72, 1.83), followed by warm humid SWT (percent increase = 0.64, 95% CrI: 0.15, 1.13). The effect of PM2.5 on non-accidental mortality differed under specific extreme weather conditions and SWTs. Environmental policies and actions should take into account the interrelationship between the two hazardous exposures.

  19. Predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot of peanut using output from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatinwo, Rabiu O; Prabha, Thara V; Paz, Joel O; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2012-03-01

    Early leaf spot of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), a disease caused by Cercospora arachidicola S. Hori, is responsible for an annual crop loss of several million dollars in the southeastern United States alone. The development of early leaf spot on peanut and subsequent spread of the spores of C. arachidicola relies on favorable weather conditions. Accurate spatio-temporal weather information is crucial for monitoring the progression of favorable conditions and determining the potential threat of the disease. Therefore, the development of a prediction model for mitigating the risk of early leaf spot in peanut production is important. The specific objective of this study was to demonstrate the application of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for management of early leaf spot in peanut. We coupled high-resolution weather output of the WRF, i.e. relative humidity and temperature, with the Oklahoma peanut leaf spot advisory model in predicting favorable conditions for early leaf spot infection over Georgia in 2007. Results showed a more favorable infection condition in the southeastern coastline of Georgia where the infection threshold were met sooner compared to the southwestern and central part of Georgia where the disease risk was lower. A newly introduced infection threat index indicates that the leaf spot threat threshold was met sooner at Alma, GA, compared to Tifton and Cordele, GA. The short-term prediction of weather parameters and their use in the management of peanut diseases is a viable and promising technique, which could help growers make accurate management decisions, and lower disease impact through optimum timing of fungicide applications.

  20. The effects of air pollution and weather conditions on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Taner; Astarcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Asarcikli, Lale Dinc; Kilit, Celal; Kafes, Habibe; Parspur, Afsin; Yaymaci, Mehmet; Pinar, Mesut; Tüfekcioglu, Omac; Amasyali, Basri

    2016-03-01

    In this retrospective study, we investigated the association between air pollution and weather conditions with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the city of Kutahya. A total of 402 patients who were admitted with acute ST segment elevation MI and non-ST segment elevation MI were included in the study in 1 year. Daily maximum, minimum, and mean ambient temperature and mean barometric pressure data were obtained from the Kutahya Meteorology Department. Daily air pollution data were obtained from the Web site of National Air Quality Observation Network (http://www.havaizleme.gov.tr). Increase in ambient air temperature in the day of MI and 2 days before the day of MI according to their control days was correlated with increase in number of MI cases. When we grouped the patients according to ages as 30-54, 55-65, and >65 years, we found that there was a relation between sulfur dioxide (SO2) and the occurrence of AMI for the age group of 30-54 for the same day (D0) (P<.017). The number of AMIs was the lowest in fall season, whereas the number of AMIs was the highest in winter season. There was no statistically significant association between the particulates with diameter b=10 μm, SO2 concentrations, air pressure, and the risk of AMI, but there was statistically significant relation between occurrence of MI and SO2 for the patients under age of 55 years. The number of AMIs was the lowest in fall season, whereas the number of AMIs was the highest in winter season. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Integrated population models reveal local weather conditions are the key drivers of population dynamics in an aerial insectivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weegman, Mitch D; Arnold, Todd W; Dawson, Russell D; Winkler, David W; Clark, Robert G

    2017-09-01

    Changes to weather patterns under a warming climate are complex: while warmer temperatures are expected virtually worldwide, decreased mean precipitation is expected at mid-latitudes. Migratory birds depend on broad-scale weather patterns to inform timing of movements, but may be more susceptible to local weather patterns during sedentary periods. We constructed Bayesian integrated population models (IPMs) to assess whether continental or local weather effects best explained population dynamics in an environmentally sensitive aerial insectivorous bird, the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), along a transcontinental gradient from British Columbia to Saskatchewan to New York, and tested whether population dynamics were synchronous among sites. Little consistency existed among sites in the demographic rates most affecting population growth rate or in correlations among rates. Juvenile apparent survival at all sites was stable over time and greatest in New York, whereas adult apparent survival was more variable among years and sites, and greatest in British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Fledging success was greatest in Saskatchewan. Local weather conditions explained significant variation in adult survival in Saskatchewan and fledging success in New York, corroborating the hypothesis that local more than continental weather drives the population dynamics of this species and, therefore, demographic synchrony measured at three sites was limited. Nonetheless, multi-population IPMs can be a powerful tool for identifying correlated population trajectories caused by synchronous demographic rates, and can pinpoint the scale at which environmental drivers are responsible for changes. We caution against applying uniform conservation actions for populations where synchrony does not occur or is not fully understood.

  2. Mass flows of endocrine disruptors in the Glatt River during varying weather conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonkers, Niels; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.; Dammshaeuser, Anna [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Giger, Walter [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)], E-mail: giger@eawag.ch

    2009-03-15

    This study focused on the occurrence and behaviour in wastewater and surface waters of several phenolic endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) including parabens, alkylphenolic compounds, phenylphenol (PhP) and bisphenol A (BPA). Analytical procedures using solid-phase-extraction and LC-MS/MS techniques were applied to samples of influents and effluents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) discharging into the Glatt River (Switzerland) as well as to river water samples. A mass flow analysis provided insight into the main sources and the fate of these contaminants during different weather conditions. Concentrations in influents were in the low {mu}g/L range for most analytes. Removal of parabens in the WWTPs was mostly above 99%. Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (A{sub 9}PEO) removal amounted to 98%, but in some cases nonylphenoxy acetic acid (A{sub 9}PEC) or nonylphenols (NP) were formed. In effluents, concentrations were highest for the A{sub 9}PEC, A{sub 9}PEO and NP. Concentrations in river water were in the high ng/L range for alkylphenolic compounds and in the low ng/L range for BPA, PhP and the parabens. During the sampling period, in which several rain events occurred, both water flows and mass flows varied strongly. Mass flows in WWTP effluents and in the river increased with increasing water flows for most compounds indicating that higher water flows do not lead necessarily to a proportional dilution of the pollutants. Throughout the low water flow period, mass flows predicted from the known inputs were similar to the actual mass flows at the end of the river for most analytes. For none of the EDCs, significant in-stream removal could be observed. In the periods with high water flows, mass flows in the river were much higher than can be explained by the initially defined sources. Discharge of untreated wastewater influent into the river was assessed as an additional source. Adding this source improved the mass balance for some, but not all of the analytes

  3. Aflatoxins contamination of maize in Serbia: the impact of weather conditions in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janić Hajnal, Elizabet; Kos, Jovana; Krulj, Jelena; Krstović, Saša; Jajić, Igor; Pezo, Lato; Šarić, Bojana; Nedeljković, Nataša

    2017-11-01

    In recent years climate changes recorded in temperate regions of Europe have led to aflatoxin (AF) contamination of maize. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of weather conditions on levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) in 180 maize samples collected from the main maize-growing regions (Western Bačka, North Banat, South Banat and Central Serbia) in Serbia after harvest in 2015. The concentrations of AFs were determined by a validated HPLC method with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The presence of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 was detected in 57.2%, 13.9%, 5.6% and 2.8% of maize samples in the concentration ranges of 1.3-88.8 µg kg-1, 0.60-2.8 µg kg-1, 1.8-28.5 µg kg-1 and 2.1-7.5 µg kg-1 respectively. The recorded smaller amount of precipitation and especially higher air temperatures during the summer of 2015 were favourable for AF production, which resulted in 32.2% and 21.1% of samples being unsuitable for human consumption, since AFB1 and the sum of AFs concentrations were above 5.0 and 10.0 µg kg-1 respectively. Furthermore, the findings in this study indicate that the microclimate conditions in the investigated regions had a great influence on the contamination frequency of maize with AFs. The highest percentage of samples unsuitable for human consumption, considering both AFB1 and total AFs content were 72.5% and 51.5% respectively from Central Serbia, whilst the lowest percentages of 15.6% and 6.2% respectively were found in Western Bačka. These findings confirmed that maize should be continuously monitored in order to protect human and animal health from the harmful effects caused by AFs contamination.

  4. Effect of weather conditions on somatic cell score in Sicilian Valle del Belice ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Portolano

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mastitis susceptibility of Valle del Belice ewes from the south of Sicily to temperature, humidity, precipitation, solar radiation, sun hours, air pressure, wind-speed and wind-direction measured by a public weather station was investigated using 65,848 test-day somatic cell score (SCS records of 5,237 ewes. All weather parameters had an effect on SCS in a regression approach. Extreme values of maximum and minimum temperaturehumidity indices resulted in increased SCS. Higher precipitation, solar radiation and sun hours resulted in increased SCS, whereas higher air pressure and wind speed resulted in reduced SCS.

  5. The metal alloys from the XIX century and weathering action in the Mercado do Ver-o-Peso building, northern Brazil: Identification with the usage of laboratory analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palácios, Flávia Olegário, E-mail: flavia.op@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Pará, LCM (Laboratório de Caracterização Mineral), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia e Geoquímica (PPGG) (Brazil); Angélica, Rômulo Simões [Universidade Federal do Pará, LCM (Laboratório de Caracterização Mineral), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Geologia e Geoquímica (PPGG) (Brazil); Sanjad, Thais Alessandra Bastos Caminha [Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA), LACORE (Laboratório de Restauração, Conservação e Reabilitação), Programa de Pós-Graduação em Arquitetura e Urbanismo - PPGAU (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    The fabrication of metallic buildings started in Europe after the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. Metallic constructions became very popular, and started being imported by several countries, due to the facility of constructing or assembling. Belém, a northern Brazilian city, holds a great number of buildings entirely made of iron, including the Ver-o-Peso, a fish market which structures were imported from England by the end of the 19th century. This building represents a unique type of architecture and it's an important part of the city's heritage. However, research so far did not focus on its construction materials. Ver-o-Peso building's metal alloys haven't been thoroughly studied concerning physical, chemical and mineralogical characterizations. This paper aims to identify the types of metal alloys used in the building, and also corrosion products' result from weathering actions. The methods used to characterize the materials were scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Through this research it was possible to identify four types of iron alloys used in the different parts of the building, characterize the paint coats, and determine types of corrosion. The characterization of the materials in the building allows enrolling basis for restoration processes, documenting the types of metal alloy used in architectural heritage from the 19th century, as well as understanding the advances of corrosion. - Highlights: • Ver-o-peso is a heritage building from the 19th century with unidentified alloys. • Alloy and weathering product characterization was done using SEM/EDS and XRD. • Four metal alloy types were described, indicating different types of foundries. • Weathering products showed distinct mineral phases and physical characteristics. • Original paint coats were found among corrosion products.

  6. Convective rain cells: spatio-temporal characteristics, synoptic patterns and a high resolution synoptically conditioned weather generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Nadav; Morin, Efrat

    2014-05-01

    Information on rain cell features was extracted from high-resolution weather radar data for a total of 191,586 radar volume scans from 12 hydrological years. The convective rain cell features (i.e., cell area, rainfall intensity and cell orientation) were obtained using cell segmentation technique and cell tracking algorithm was used to analyze the changes of those features over time. Three synoptic types were defined for the study area (northen Israel), two extratropical winter lows: deep Cyprus low and a shallow low, and a tropical intrusion: Active Red Sea Trough. Empirical distributions were computed to describe the spatiotemporal characteristics of convective rain cells for these synoptic systems. Those empirical distributions were used for the development of the HiReS-WG (high-resolution synoptically conditioned weather generator). This weather generator is a stochastic model that generates high resolution rainfall fields (5 min and 0.25 km2). The WG is composed of four modules: the synoptic generator, the motion vector generator, the convective rain cell generator and the low-intensity rainfall generator. The weather generator was evaluated for annual rain depth, season timing, wet-/dry-period duration, rain-intensity distributions and spatial correlations using 300 years of simulated rainfall data. It was found that the weather generator well-represented the above properties compared to radar and rain-gauge observations from the studied region. The HiReS-WG is a good tool to study catchments' hydrological responses to variations in rainfall, especially small- to medium-size catchments, and it can also be linked to climate models to force the prevailing synoptic conditions.

  7. Aquarius Wind and SSS Retrieved Using the Combined Active-Passive Algorithm under All Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, S. H.; Tang, W.; Fore, A.; Freedman, A. P.; Neumann, G.; Hayashi, A.; Lagerloef, G. S.

    2012-12-01

    data acquired from passes over storms and hurricanes. There is a good agreement between the Aquarius-CAP wind and the NOAA HWind analysis for hurricane Katia in 2011 with the maximum wind speeds differing by less than 3 m/s. The results suggest that Aquarius can provide excellent surface wind speed products for all weathers. For the accuracy assessment of Aquarius-CAP SSS, comparison was made with the Hycom model and the in-situ SSS data collocated by the Aquarius Data Validation System. It is estimated that the monthly average accuracy is about 0.5 psu for the data produced using the current calibration algorithm. It is expected the accuracy will improve over time as the calibration algorithm becomes more mature. We have also examined statistics of the retrieved Aquarius SSS for numerous storms under rainy conditions; the results seem to suggest consistent lower Aquarius salinity than Hycom and in situ SSS.

  8. Long-term weathering effects on the thermal performance of the Solargenics (liquid) solar collector at outdoor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    The test procedures used and the results obtained during the evaluation test program of the Solargenics single-covered liquid solar collector are presented. The tests were performed under outdoor natural conditions at the Solar Test Facility at MSFC, following long-term exposure to natural weathering conditions. The collector was under stagnation conditions from August 26, 1978, to June 13, 1979, for a total of approximately ten months. The Solargenics solar collector is a liquid, single-glazed, flat-plate collector, and is about 240 inches long, 38 inches wide, and 3.8 inches in depth.

  9. Modelling of 10 Gbps Free Space Optics Communication Link Using Array of Receivers in Moderate and Harsh Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Amit; Shaina, Nagpal

    2017-08-01

    Intersymbol interference and attenuation of signal are two major parameters affecting the quality of transmission in Free Space Optical (FSO) Communication link. In this paper, the impact of these parameters on FSO communication link is analysed for delivering high-quality data transmission. The performance of the link is investigated under the influence of amplifier in the link. The performance parameters of the link like minimum bit error rate, received signal power and Quality factor are examined by employing erbium-doped fibre amplifier in the link. The effects of amplifier are visualized with the amount of received power. Further, the link is simulated for moderate weather conditions at various attenuation levels on transmitted signal. Finally, the designed link is analysed in adverse weather conditions by using high-power laser source for optimum performance.

  10. An Analytical Approach for Performance Enhancement of FSO Communication System Using Array of Receivers in Adverse Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, Shaina; Gupta, Amit

    2017-08-01

    Free Space Optics (FSO) link exploits the tremendous network capacity and is capable of offering wireless communications similar to communications through optical fibres. However, FSO link is extremely weather dependent and the major effect on FSO links is due to adverse weather conditions like fog and snow. In this paper, an FSO link is designed using an array of receivers. The disparity of the link for very high attenuation conditions due to fog and snow is analysed using aperture averaging technique. Further effect of aperture averaging technique is investigated by comparing the systems using aperture averaging technique with systems not using aperture averaging technique. The performance of proposed model of FSO link has been evaluated in terms of Q factor, bit error rate (BER) and eye diagram.

  11. Prototype, mesoscale simulator for the study of oil weathering under severe conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pelletier, Emilien; Brochu, C. J

    1987-01-01

    As long-term, open-sea tests on oil weathering could be difficult and experiments in ice in the field even impossible to manage, chose to develop low-cost simulation tank with which to study long-term fate...

  12. Composition of in situ burn residue as a function of weathering conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Ascanius, Birgit Elkjær; Brandvik, Per Johan

    2013-01-01

    removed the light compounds eluting before C13. No effect from the prior weathering time or the different ice coverage was seen in the burn residue composition. The content of selected Poly Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined and it was noted that the concentration of PAHs with more than 4 rings...

  13. Weather conditions and voter turnout in Dutch national parliament elections, 1971-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisinga, R.N.; Grotenhuis, H.F. te; Pelzer, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    While conventional wisdom assumes that inclement weather on election day reduces voter turnout, there is remarkably little evidence available to support truth to such belief. This paper examines the effects of temperature, sunshine duration and rainfall on voter turnout in 13 Dutch national

  14. Classroom Exercises Concerning the Effect of Weather Conditions on Air Quality in Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Fred

    This paper contains sample exercises that investigate weather and air quality relationships for use in college-level introductory courses in climatology and meteorology. The exercises will provide students with an opportunity to apply meteorological principles to a specific geographic location, in an effort to better understand the significant…

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPS AND FARMYARD MANURE FERTILIZATION IN CHANGEABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS ON CONSUMPTION VALUE OF POTATO TUBERS

    OpenAIRE

    ANNA PŁAZA; FELIKS CEGLAREK; MILENA KRÓLIKOWSKA

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research carried out over 1999-2002 with the aims to determine the influence of intercrops and farmyard manure fertilization on consumption value of potato tubers in changeable weather conditions. The following combinations of intercrops fertilization were taken into account: the control plot (without intercrop fertilization), farmyard manure, undersown crop (birdsfoot trefoil, birdsfoot trefoil + Italian ryegrass, Italian ryegrass), stubble crop (oleiferous ...

  16. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  17. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, Cathryn H. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Tanner, George W. [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    2004-08-31

    Cathryn H. Greenberg and George W. Tanner. 2004. Breeding pond selection and movement patterns by eastern spadefoot toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) in relation to weather and edaphic conditions. J. Herp. 38(4):569-577. Abstract: Eastern Spadefoot Toads (Scaphiopus holbrookii) require fish-free, isolated, ephemeral ponds for breeding but otherwise inhabit the surrounding uplands, commonly xeric longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) wiregrass (Aristida beyrichiana). Hence both pond and upland conditions can potentially affect their breeding biology, and population persistence. Hardwood invasion due to fire suppression in sandhills could alter upland and pond suitability by higher hardwood density and increased transpiration. In this paper we explore breeding and neonatal emigration movements in relation to weather, hydrological conditions of ponds, and surrounding upland matrices. We use 9 years of data from continuous monitoring with drift fences and pitfall traps at 8 ephemeral ponds in 2 upland matrices: regularly-burned, savanna-like sandhills (n = 4), and hardwood-invaded sandhills (n = 4). Neither adult nor neonate captures differed between ponds within the 2 upland matrices, suggesting that they are tolerant of upland heterogeneity created by fire frequency. Explosive breeding occurred during 9 periods and in all seasons; adults were captured rarely otherwise. At a landscape-level rainfall, maximum change in barometric pressure, and an interaction between those 2 variables were significant predictors of explosive breeding. At a pond-level, rainfall, change in pond depth during the month prior to breeding, and days since a pond was last dry were significant predictors of adult captures. Transformation date, rather than weather, was associated with neonatal emigrations, which usually were complete within a week. Movement by first-captured adults and neonates was directional, but adult emigrations were apparently not always toward their origin. Our results suggest that

  18. Electrified atmospheric dust during disturbed weather conditions in the Negev desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shai; Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin; Yaniv, Roy

    2017-04-01

    Dust storms over the Negev Desert in southern Israel are common and become frequent during the spring and autumn, depending on synoptic conditions and local effects. These storms are often accompanied by significant dust electrification, most likely due to saltation and triboelectric processes. We present new atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory (WO) in Mizpe-Ramon (30035'N, 34045'E) Israel, during two strong dust storms that occurred over the Negev desert on October 27-28th and December 1st, 2016. The first event generated a local gust front due to strong downdrafts from an active Cumulonimbus cloud (known as Haboob). In the second event, a Cyprus Low with strong synoptic-scale winds lifted the local sand particles at the Negev and lowered the visibility. During the passage of the dust storms above our instruments, very large fluctuations in the electric field (Ez) and current density (Jz) were measured. In the October Haboob event, the Ez data showed a superposition of signatures generated by lightning and by the dust aloft. The Ez values fluctuated between +123 to +2144 and -15336 to +19788 V m-1 for several hour-long episodes. The respective values of the vertical current density [Jz] were between -18 and +18 pA m-2. During the December dust storm we measured Ez values up to +4000 V m-1 lasting for 3.5 hours and another episode with values up to +668 V m-1 lasting for approximately 1.5 hours. These values were accompanied by changes in the Jz values between -16.5 and +17 pA m-2. The electric field and current density variability and amplitude are significantly different from the average fair-weather values measured at the Wise Observatory (Yaniv et al., 2016), which are 180 V m-1 and 2 pA m-1. We will show that these differences in the electrical behavior between these two dust storms may be related to the speed and direction of the wind near the surface.

  19. Seeing is Believing? An Examination of Perceptions of Local Weather Conditions and Climate Change Among Residents in the U.S. Gulf Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wanyun; Goidel, Kirby

    2016-11-01

    What role do objective weather conditions play in coastal residents' perceptions of local climate shifts and how do these perceptions affect attitudes toward climate change? While scholars have increasingly investigated the role of weather and climate conditions on climate-related attitudes and behaviors, they typically assume that residents accurately perceive shifts in local climate patterns. We directly test this assumption using the largest and most comprehensive survey of Gulf Coast residents conducted to date supplemented with monthly temperature data from the U.S. Historical Climatology Network and extreme weather events data from National Climatic Data Center. We find objective conditions have limited explanatory power in determining perceptions of local climate patterns. Only the 15- and 19-year hurricane trends and decadal summer temperature trend have some effects on perceptions of these weather conditions, while the decadal trend of total number of extreme weather events and 15- and 19-year winter temperature trends are correlated with belief in climate change. Partisan affiliation, in contrast, plays a powerful role affecting individual perceptions of changing patterns of air temperatures, flooding, droughts, and hurricanes, as well as belief in the existence of climate change and concern for future consequences. At least when it comes to changing local conditions, "seeing is not believing." Political orientations rather than local conditions drive perceptions of local weather conditions and these perceptions-rather than objectively measured weather conditions-influence climate-related attitudes. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Using discrete online weather forecasts for building services applications and load management; Methoden zum Einsatz diskreter, webbasierter Wetterprognosen in Gebaeudetechnik und Lastmanagement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seerig, Axel; Sagerschnig, Carina [Gruner AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-02-15

    Usually, commercially used hourly weather forecasts of national weather institutes are implemented for predictive control strategies. Energy demand and energy loads are calculated by utilizing adequate models with predicted air temperatures. However, on the internet, numerous providers offer freely available weather forecasts. Mostly forecasts of maximum and minimum outside air temperatures are available for five to nine days in advance. Many applications in building services do require hourly or quarter-hourly data. This paper describes a method for generating weather data of any resolution for freely available weather forecasts issued by online services. Ice storage and load prediction of a building are cited as examples of predictive control strategies using web-based weather forecasts. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Prognosegefuehrte Regelungen verwenden zumeist kostenpflichtige stuendliche Wetterprognosen, die auf der momentan gemessenen Aussentemperatur basieren (z. B. Verschiebemethode) oder stuendliche Prognosen eines nationalen meteorologischen Dienstes fuer den jeweiligen Standort. Mit Hilfe der prognostizierten Werte werden unter Verwendung geeigneter Modelle die jeweils benoetigten Lastgaenge vorausberechnet und weiterverarbeitet. Das Internet hingegen bietet die Moeglichkeit, von vielen Anbietern kostenfrei Wetterprognosen fuer beliebige Standorte zu erhalten. Gewoehnlich sind diese Prognosen zumindest fuer die maximale und minimale Aussentemperatur fuer fuenf bis maximal neun Tage im Voraus verfuegbar. Fuer die meisten Anwendungen in der Gebaeude- und Energietechnik werden jedoch Werte in stuendlicher bzw. viertelstuendlicher Aufloesung benoetigt. Gegenstand dieses Aufsatzes ist die Beschreibung eines Verfahrens zur Erstellung von zeitlich beliebig aufgeloesten Wetterdaten auf Basis von frei verfuegbaren Wetterprognosen aus dem Internet. Als Beispiele fuer den Einsatz der darauf basierenden prognosegefuehrten Regelung

  1. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people.We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire.547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity.In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  2. Comparison of methods used in European countries to assess buildings' condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; De Brito, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of methods used in European countries to assess buildings’ condition. The following methods were compared: a Portuguese method to assess buildings condition, an English housing health and safety rating system, a French method to assess buildings that may be

  3. Variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) affected by weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosztola, Beáta; Sárosi, Szilvia; Németh, Eva

    2010-03-01

    In our study we examined the variability of the essential oil content and composition of chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.) during three years (2005-2007). Twenty-eight populations of wild origin and 4 registered cultivars ('Soroksári 40', 'Lutea', 'Goral' and 'Bona') were evaluated in open field experiments. It could be established that the experimental populations represented different genetic potential for essential oil accumulation and composition. The best populations of wild growing origin from the Somogy-region and four cultivars produced the highest essential oil contents (above 0.6 g/100g) in each year. Additionally, the quality of the characteristic main compound of the oil determining the "chemotype", according to Schilcher, was found to be stable during the three years period. However, the actual chemosyndroms are significantly influenced by the weather conditions. In the three years' experiment, the moderately warm and relatively wet year of 2006 produced the highest contents of essential oil and also that of its alpha-bisabolol component. Although bisabolol oxide A also showed a high variability through the years, its direct connection with weather conditions could not be proved. A moderate variability was established for the proportions of chamazulene, and the lowest one for bisabolol-oxide B. Considerable genotype-weather interaction was supposed, especially for the essential oil content and for the ratio of bisabolol-oxide A.

  4. The effects of a remediated fly ash spill and weather conditions on reproductive success and offspring development in tree swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michelle L; Hopkins, William A; Jackson, Brian P; Hawley, Dana M

    2015-03-01

    Animals are exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors during reproduction that may individually or interactively influence reproductive success and offspring development. We examined the effects of weather conditions, exposure to element contamination from a recently remediated fly ash spill, and the interaction between these factors on reproductive success and growth of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) across nine colonies. Females breeding in colonies impacted by the spill transferred greater concentrations of mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), strontium, and thallium to their eggs than females in reference colonies. Parental provisioning of emerging aquatic insects resulted in greater blood Se concentrations in nestlings in impacted colonies compared to reference colonies, and these concentrations remained stable across 2 years. Egg and blood element concentrations were unrelated to reproductive success or nestling condition. Greater rainfall and higher ambient temperatures during incubation were later associated with longer wing lengths in nestlings, particularly in 2011. Higher ambient temperatures and greater Se exposure posthatch were associated with longer wing lengths in 2011 while in 2012, blood Se concentrations were positively related to wing length irrespective of temperature. We found that unseasonably cold weather was associated with reduced hatching and fledging success among all colonies, but there was no interactive effect between element exposure and inclement weather. Given that blood Se concentrations in some nestlings exceeded the lower threshold of concern, and concentrations of Se in blood and Hg in eggs are not yet declining, future studies should continue to monitor exposure and effects on insectivorous wildlife in the area.

  5. The association between space weather conditions and emergency hospital admissions for myocardial infarction during different stages of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencloviene, J.; Antanaitiene, J.; Babarskiene, R.

    2016-11-01

    A number of studies have established the effects of space weather on the human cardio-vascular system. We investigated whether geomagnetic storms (GS), solar proton events (SPEs), and X-class solar flare affect the risk of emergency hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) separately during declining (2004-2006) and rising (2010-2012) phases of solar activity. The data on hospital admissions for MI were obtained from the computer database of Lithuanian University of Health sciences from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2012. We evaluated the associations between space weather conditions and the daily number of emergency admissions for MI by Poisson regression, controlling for seasonal variation and weekdays. During 2004-2006, an increase in the risk of hospital admission for MI was observed on days of the daily mean proton >10 MeV flux >100 pfu (by 63%, p10 MeV flux >100 pfu (by 52%, p=0.015) and on days of GS and 1-2 days after GS (by 17%, p=0.024). These findings suggest that the impact of hazardous space weather conditions on human health depends of the strength of space storm during the investigated period.

  6. Short-term relationship between hip fracture and weather conditions in two Spanish health areas with different climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenías, José María; Estarlich, Marisa; Crespo, Eusebio; Román-Ortiz, Carmen; Arias-Arias, Angel; Ballester, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate differences in the short-term relationship between weather conditions and the incidence of hip fracture in people aged 65 and over among two regions of Spain. Hip fracture incidence was calculated for the years 2000-2008 for residents of Health Area 14 in Valencian Community (Mediterranean climate) and the "Mancha Centro" Health Area in Castilla-La Mancha (inland climate), Spain. The relationship between hip fracture incidence and weather was analyzed with a case-crossover design and explored in subgroups defined by sex, age, and fracture type. In the inland area, a positive and significant tendency for hip fracture incidence was observed (annual increase: 1.5%) whereas in the Mediterranean area a seasonal increase of 9% was noted in autumn and winter with respect to spring. Weather conditions, especially wind, were significantly associated with hip fracture incidence: days with more frequent windy periods and/or a greater wind velocity were associated with an increase in hip fracture incidence of 51% in the Mediterranean area and 44% in the inland area. Hip fracture incidence exhibits seasonal changes that differ between the Mediterranean and inland areas. The short-term relationship with climate, although similar in both areas, may partly explain these seasonal changes.

  7. The Acoustic Emission in the Nest of the Honey Bee Depending on the Extreme Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaromír Tlačbaba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibroacoustic signals are an important part of communication in the honey bees (Apis mellifera L.. The aim of this study was to observe the acoustic emission that varies in a bee colony during different weather phenomena (strong winds and hailstorms and to estimate the nature and the extent of the reactions of the colony by the analysis of the obtained data. Experiments were carried out in the volume-reduced hives. The specific weather phenomena were followed by significant (P < 0.0001 increasing of the intensity of the acoustic emission in the colony in comparison with acoustic emission before or after the phenomena. Close linear positive relationship was confirmed between the intensity of wind gusts and intensity of acoustic emission (r = 0.72; P < 0.001. With the increase in the maximum gust of 1 km·h−1, the intensity of acoustic emission increased by 0.1466 mV. The character and degree of reaction of the colony can be estimated with analysis of the measured data. Permeability of vibration signals directly induced weather phenomena through the construction of the experimental hive and the stress in the colony are discussed. Observation of the acoustic emission distributed within the colony is one of the methodical alternatives for research of the vibroacoustic communication in the colony.

  8. Evaluation of Driver Visibility from Mobile LIDAR Data and Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jorge, H.; Díaz-Vilariño, L.; Lorenzo, H.; Arias, P.

    2016-06-01

    Visibility of drivers is crucial to ensure road safety. Visibility is influenced by two main factors, the geometry of the road and the weather present therein. The present work depicts an approach for automatic visibility evaluation using mobile LiDAR data and climate information provided from weather stations located in the neighbourhood of the road. The methodology is based on a ray-tracing algorithm to detect occlusions from point clouds with the purpose of identifying the visibility area from each driver position. The resulting data are normalized with the climate information to provide a polyline with an accurate area of visibility. Visibility ranges from 25 m (heavy fog) to more than 10,000 m (clean atmosphere). Values over 250 m are not taken into account for road safety purposes, since this value corresponds to the maximum braking distance of a vehicle. Two case studies are evaluated an urban road in the city of Vigo (Spain) and an inter-urban road between the city of Ourense and the village of Castro Caldelas (Spain). In both cases, data from the Galician Weather Agency (Meteogalicia) are used. The algorithm shows promising results allowing the detection of particularly dangerous areas from the viewpoint of driver visibility. The mountain road between Ourense and Castro Caldelas, with great presence of slopes and sharp curves, shows special interest for this type of application. In this case, poor visibility can especially contribute to the run over of pedestrians or cyclists traveling on the road shoulders.

  9. Compositional differences of phenolic compounds between black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) cultivars and their response to latitude and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Ruusunen, Ville; Laaksonen, Oskar; Tahvonen, Risto; Hellsten, Jorma; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-07-04

    Phenolic compounds in black currants of three Finnish cultivars and their response to growth latitude and weather conditions were analyzed over a six-year period. 'Melalahti' had lower contents of total phenolic compounds (31.4% and 29.2% lower than 'Mortti' and 'Ola', respectively), total anthocyanins (32.6% and 30.5%), and total hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (23.1% and 23.8%) (p 0.05) but increased as the latitude increased in 'Mortti' and 'Ola' (p < 0.05). Temperature and radiation were the major weather variables influencing the composition of phenolic compounds. Delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3-O-rutinoside, and myricetin-3-O-glucoside content showed positive correlations with temperature and radiation in all three cultivars. The study gives important guidelines for the selection of raw materials and growth sites as well as for the berry cultivation for commercial exploitation of black currant berries.

  10. Climate change impacts on mode choices and travelled distances: a comparison of present with 2050 weather conditions for the Randstad Holland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böcker, L.; Prillwitz, J.; Dijst, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the light of climate change, scholars from various disciplines recently addressed the role of weather conditions for travel behaviour. However, existing studies lack assessments of combinations of weather parameters and direct links to projected climate change. With this paper, we investigate

  11. Microclimatic conditions at the external surface of building envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kragh, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    The project is described, the motivation for the research and the microclimate is defined in relation to both building physics research and applications. Air temperatur, air humidity, solar radiation and air velocity are briefly considered, whilst driving rain and long-wave radiation are described in more detail. Convective heat transfer and surface coefficients are discussed, although they are not microclimatic factors, merely resulting from combinations of such factors. They are included as they are important in relation to transfer of heat and moisture at the surface of the building envelope. Driving rain measurement is the main area of interest, including development of measurement equipment. Long-wave irradiation is measured and compared with empirical formulae from the literature. Window convection heat transfer is another main area of interest. Nocturnal convective heat transfer from a double pane glazing is studied and measurement principles are discussed. Finally, a compilation of meteorological data for hygrothermal simulations, including estimation of driving rain, is described. System error estimation in relation to the window convection measurements, design notes on an apparatus for external convection measurement, formulae for conversion of relative humitity and dry-bulb temperature into dew point temperature. (EG) 66 refs.

  12. Mental healthcare in Kenya: Exploring optimal conditions for capacity building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elijah Marangu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The global burden of disease related to mental disorders is on the increase, with the World Health Organization (WHO estimating that over 450 million people are affected worldwide. The Mental Health Global Action Program (mhGAP was launched by the WHO in 2002 in order to address the widening gap in access to mental healthcare in low-income countries. Despite these efforts, access to mental healthcare in low-income countries remains poor and is often described as inadequate, inefficient and inequitable, with an 85% estimated treatment gap in low-income countries, as compared with 35% to 50% in high-income countries.In this article, the authors argue that integrating mental health services into primary healthcare settings through capacity building is vital with regard to achieving mhGAP goals. The article explores the challenges to and potential enablers for the improvement of the delivery of broad-based mental healthcare services in Kenya. The authors propose the integration of the conceptual dimensions of both the cosmopolitanism and capabilities approaches as a combined strategy for dealing with capacity building in heterogeneous settings such as Kenya.

  13. Weather Condition dominates the Regional PM2.5 Pollutions in the Eastern Coastal Provinces of China during winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhe; Jiang, Fei; Chen, Jingming; Jiang, Ziqiang

    2017-04-01

    China has been suffering from severe particulate matter (PM) pollution in recent years. Both pollution area and pollution levels are increasing gradually. The PM pollution episodes not only occur in the traditional developed areas like Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region, but also frequently happen in the whole eastern coastal provinces (ECPs) of China. Based on hourly PM2.5 concentrations during December 2013 February 2014 of 55 cities located in the ECPs, we investigated the spatial and temporal variabilities of PM2.5 concentrations and the corresponding meteorological conditions during winter. The results shown that basically the seasonal mean concentrations over the whole ECPs exceeded the China's national standard of 75 μg/m3, and the most polluted area with mean concentrations greater than 150 μg/m3 were located in the southwest of Hebei and the west of Shandong provinces. From December to February, there was a decrease trend for the PM2.5 pollution in most areas, especially in the YRD region, while the PM2.5 concentrations over north of Hebei province increased. The spatial distributions and monthly variations are strongly related to the weather conditions. Overall, severe PM pollution was corresponding to a stable weather condition, i.e., small Sea Level Pressure (SLP) gradient, lower Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) height and weaker wind fields. Statistics shown that the changes of mean PM2.5 concentrations over the ECPs region usually lagged behind the variations of PBL height and wind speeds about 12 18 hours. The variations of weather conditions could explain about 71% (R2) of the overall changes of PM2.5 concentrations in the ECPs region. This study gives a full insight into the PM2.5 pollution in the area of eastern coastal provinces of China during winter, which would be helpful to predict and control the PM2.5 pollution for this area in the future.

  14. Space Weather Conditions Before, During and After the Comet Siding Spring Encounter with Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, M.; Sanchez-Cano, B.; Witasse, O.; Mays, M. L.

    2017-09-01

    On October 19th 2014, Comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) passed Mars at a distance of 138,000 km. The resultant interaction as the planet passed through the coma and the cometary debris stream produced significant effects in the Mars' upper atmosphere. However, before, during after the closest approach, there were significant space weather events which make the interpretation of the observations difficult. Here we summarise these events such to aid any subsequent attempts at determining the exact nature of the interaction between comet and Mars' upper atmosphere.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS OF EASTERN POLAND ON SWEET CORN YIELDS AND LENGTH OF GROWING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Rosa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the effect of weather components (air temperature, precipitation on the growth, yield and the length of the growing season of sweet corn cultivated in eastern Poland. The results come from a field experiment conducted in 2006–2011. Weather conditions in the successive years of the study significantly modified the yield of ears, weight and number of formatted ears, high of plants and the length of the growing season of sweet corn. Good yielding of sweet corn favoured years with moderate air temperatures in July and uniform distribution of precipitation during the growing season. The highest yield of ears was found in 2011, the lowest in the very difficult in terms of weather 2006. The shortest growing season was characterized corn grown in the years 2006 and 2010 with the high air temperatures in July and August, the longest in the years 2009 and 2011, in which the temperatures in the period June-August were the lowest of all the years of research. Irrespective of the year of study, cv ‘Sheba F1’ was formatted eras with higher weight than cv ‘Sweet Nugget F1’.

  16. A Study of the Relationship between Building Conditions and Student Academic Achievement in Pennsylvania's High School

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, Sean

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between school building conditions and student academic achievement in Pennsylvania's high schools. Research questions analyzed by step-wise multiple regression were: (a) Is there a relationship between overall school building conditions and student academic achievement in Pennsylvania's high schools when socio-economic status (SES) is held constant?; (b) Is there a relationship between the cosmetic conditions of school facilities and student academic ...

  17. Testicular torsion and weather conditions: analysis of 21,289 cases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Korkes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The hypothesis of association between testicular torsion and hyperactive cremasteric reflex, worsened by cold weather, has not been proved. Thirteen studies in the literature evaluated this issue, with inconclusive results. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonality of testicular torsion in a large subset of patients surgically treated in Brazil, and additionally to estimate the incidence of testicular torsion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Brazilian Public Health System Database was assessed from 1992-2010 to evaluate hospital admissions associated with treatment of testicular torsion. Average monthly temperature between 1992-2010 was calculated for each region. RESULTS: We identified 21,289 hospital admissions for treatment of testicular torsion. There was a higher number of testicular torsions during colder months (p = 0.002. To estimate the incidence of testicular torsion, we have related our findings to data from the last Brazilian census (2010. In 2010, testicular torsion occurred in 1.4:100,000 men in Brazil. CONCLUSIONS:Testicular torsion occurred at an annual incidence of approximately 1.4:100,000 men in Brazil in 2010. Seasonal variations do occur, with a significant increase of events during winter. Our findings support the theory of etiological role of cold weather to the occurrence of testicular torsion. Strategies to prevent these events can be based on these findings.

  18. Li-Isotope Fractionation into the Octahedral Framework of Clays: A Way to Understand the Weathering of Basalt in Early Mars Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losa-Adams, E.; Gil-Lozano, C.; Bishop, J. L.; Hoser, A.; Davila, A. F.; Fairen, A. G.; Chevrier, V. F.; Gago-Duport, L.

    2017-10-01

    We track the use of lithium isotopes as a proxy to understand the degree and extent of basalt weathering in aqueous mediums, providing important information about the prevailing conditions during the formation of water bodies in the past of Mars.

  19. Technology-derived storage solutions for stabilizing insulin in extreme weather conditions I: the ViViCap-1 device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Pesach, Gidi; Nagar, Ron

    2017-06-01

    Injectable life-saving drugs should not be exposed to temperatures 30°C/86°F. Frequently, weather conditions exceed these temperature thresholds in many countries. Insulin is to be kept at 4-8°C/~ 39-47°F until use and once opened, is supposed to be stable for up to 31 days at room temperature (exception: 42 days for insulin levemir). Extremely hot or cold external temperature can lead to insulin degradation in a very short time with loss of its glucose-lowering efficacy. Combined chemical and engineering solutions for heat protection are employed in ViViCap-1 for disposable insulin pens. The device works based on vacuum insulation and heat consumption by phase-change material. Laboratory studies with exposure of ViViCap-1 to hot outside conditions were performed to evaluate the device performance. ViViCap-1 keeps insulin at an internal temperature change process and 'recharges' the device for further use. ViViCap-1 performed within its specifications. The small and convenient device maintains the efficacy and safety of using insulin even when carried under hot weather conditions.

  20. Solar chimney: A sustainable approach for ventilation and building space conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal, S.,

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The residential and commercial buildings demand increase with rapidly growing population. It leads to the vertical growth of the buildings and needs proper ventilation and day-lighting. The natural air ventilation system is not significantly works in conventional structure, so fans and air conditioners are mandatory to meet the proper ventilation and space conditioning. Globally building sector consumed largest energy and utmost consumed in heating, ventilation and space conditioning. This load can be reduced by application of solar chimney and integrated approaches in buildings for heating, ventilation and space conditioning. It is a sustainable approach for these applications in buildings. The authors are reviewed the concept, various method of evaluation, modelings and performance of solar chimney variables, applications and integrated approaches.

  1. Chemical Degradation of TMR Multilure Dispensers for Fruit Fly Detection Weathered Under California Climatic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Morse, Joseph G; Grafton-Cardwell, Elizabeth E; Haviland, David R; Kabashima, John N; Faber, Ben A; Mackey, Bruce; Nkomo, Eddie; Cook, Peter J; Stark, John D

    2017-08-01

    Degradation models for multilure fruit fly trap dispensers were analyzed to determine their potential for use in large California detection programs. Solid three-component male lure TMR (trimedlure [TML], methyl eugenol [ME], raspberry ketone [RK]) dispensers impregnated with DDVP (2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate) insecticide placed inside Jackson traps were weathered during summer (8 wk) and winter (12 wk) in five citrus-growing areas. Additionally, TMR wafers without DDVP, but with an insecticidal strip, were compared to TMR dispensers with DDVP. Weathered dispensers were sampled weekly and chemically analyzed. Percent loss of TML, the male lure for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) Mediterranean fruit fly; ME, the male lure for Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), oriental fruit fly; RK, the male lure for Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett), melon fly; and DDVP was measured. Based on regression analyses for the male lures, TML degraded the fastest followed by ME. Degradation of the more chemically stable RK was discontinuous, did not fit a regression model, but followed similar seasonal patterns. There were few location differences for all three male lures and DDVP. Dispensers degraded faster during summer than winter. An asymptotic regression model provided a good fit for % loss (ME, TML, and DDVP) for summer data. Degradation of DDVP in TMR dispensers was similar to degradation of DDVP in insecticidal strips. Based on these chemical analyses and prior bioassay results with wild flies, TMR dispensers could potentially be used in place of three individual male lure traps, reducing costs of fruit fly survey programs. Use of an insecticidal tape would not require TMR dispensers without DDVP to be registered with US-EPA. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis, weather conditions and air pollution in an Italian urban area: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nenna, Raffaella; Evangelisti, Melania; Frassanito, Antonella; Scagnolari, Carolina; Pierangeli, Alessandra; Antonelli, Guido; Nicolai, Ambra; Arima, Serena; Moretti, Corrado; Papoff, Paola; Villa, Maria Pia; Midulla, Fabio

    2017-10-01

    In this study we sought to evaluate the association between viral bronchiolitis, weather conditions, and air pollution in an urban area in Italy. We included infants hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis from 2004 to 2014. All infants underwent a nasal washing for virus detection. A regional agency network collected meteorological data (mean temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity) and the following air pollutants: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, benzene and suspended particulate matter measuring less than 10µm (PM10) and less than 2.5µm (PM2.5) in aerodynamic diameter. We obtained mean weekly concentration data for the day of admission, from the urban background monitoring sites nearest to each child's home address. Overdispersed Poisson regression model was fitted and adjusted for seasonality of the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection, to evaluate the impact of individual characteristics and environmental factors on the probability of a being positive RSV. Of the 723 nasal washings from the infants enrolled, 266 (68%) contained RSV, 63 (16.1%) rhinovirus, 26 (6.6%) human bocavirus, 20 (5.1%) human metapneumovirus, and 16 (2.2%) other viruses. The number of RSV-positive infants correlated negatively with temperature (p weather conditions and concentration of air pollutants seem to influence RSV-related bronchiolitis epidemics in an Italian urban area. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Prevalence rates of health and welfare conditions in broiler chickens change with weather in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Part, Chérie E; Edwards, Phil; Hajat, Shakoor; Collins, Lisa M

    2016-09-01

    Climate change impact assessment and adaptation research in agriculture has focused primarily on crop production, with less known about the potential impacts on livestock. We investigated how the prevalence of health and welfare conditions in broiler (meat) chickens changes with weather (temperature, rainfall, air frost) in a temperate climate. Cases of 16 conditions were recorded at approved slaughterhouses in Great Britain. National prevalence rates and distribution mapping were based on data from more than 2.4 billion individuals, collected between January 2011 and December 2013. Analysis of temporal distribution and associations with national weather were based on monthly data from more than 6.8 billion individuals, collected between January 2003 and December 2013. Ascites, bruising/fractures, hepatitis and abnormal colour/fever were most common, at annual average rates of 29.95, 28.00, 23.76 and 22.29 per 10 000, respectively. Ascites and abnormal colour/fever demonstrated clear annual cycles, with higher rates in winter than in summer. Ascites prevalence correlated strongly with maximum temperature at 0 and -1 month lags. Abnormal colour/fever correlated strongly with temperature at 0 lag. Maximum temperatures of approximately 8°C and approximately 19°C marked the turning points of curve in a U-shaped relationship with mortality during transportation and lairage. Future climate change research on broilers should focus on preslaughter mortality.

  4. Effects of Weather Conditions on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Capacity in Juice of Chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolić Mandica-Tamara

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chokeberries are a subject of numerous studies due to a high phenolic compound content, antioxidant properties and potential positive influence on the health. Effects of weather conditions on fruit quality attributes, phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa juice over three consecutive years were investigated. Total phenolic content and total flavonoids range were from 8834 to 11093 mg/L and from 6993 to 9710 mg/L, respectively. High variations and discrepancy during different growing seasons are due to the different air temperature, sunlight and rainfall rate. The highest concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolics were observed in fruits harvested in 2012, which is most likely due to the favorable weather conditions (temperature and bright sunshine hours. All chokeberry juices possess high antioxidant activity (12.9–14.6 mmol/L; 128–167 mmol/L. Strong correlation implies that flavonoids and non-flavonoids were the major contributors to the antioxidant capacity. This study indicates that although the examined properties vary considerably through the growing seasons (p≤0.05, chokeberry juices can serve as a good source of bioactive phytochemicals in a human diet.

  5. Significance of settling model structures and parameter subsets in modelling WWTPs under wet-weather flow and filamentous bulking conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2014-01-01

    (SSTs) but also on the hydraulic behaviour of SSTs. The present study investigates the impacts of ideal and non-ideal flow (dry and wet weather) and settling (good settling and bulking) boundary conditions on the sensitivity of WWTP model outputs to uncertainties intrinsic to the one-dimensional (1-D......) SST model structures and parameters. We identify the critical sources of uncertainty in WWTP models through global sensitivity analysis (GSA) using the Benchmark simulation model No. 1 in combination with first- and second-order 1-D SST models. The results obtained illustrate that the contribution...... of settling parameters to the total variance of the key WWTP process outputs significantly depends on the influent flow and settling conditions. The magnitude of the impact is found to vary, depending on which type of 1-D SST model is used. Therefore, we identify and recommend potential parameter subsets...

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF INTERCROPS AND FARMYARD MANURE FERTILIZATION IN CHANGEABLE WEATHER CONDITIONS ON CONSUMPTION VALUE OF POTATO TUBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNA PŁAZA

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research carried out over 1999-2002 with the aims to determine the influence of intercrops and farmyard manure fertilization on consumption value of potato tubers in changeable weather conditions. The following combinations of intercrops fertilization were taken into account: the control plot (without intercrop fertilization, farmyard manure, undersown crop (birdsfoot trefoil, birdsfoot trefoil + Italian ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, stubble crop (oleiferous radish, oleiferous radish – mulch. The results pointed that, the conditions of vegetation period, significantly modified the consumption values of potato tubers. The consumption value of potato tubers which were fertilized with intercrops was formed on approximated level, as the potato which was fertilized with farmyard manure. The best consumption features, especially taste, had potatoes which were fertilized with birdsfoot trefoil and with the mixture of birdsfoot trefoil and Italian ryegrass.

  7. Prediction of thermal sensation in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The PMV model agrees well with high-quality field studies in buildings with HVAC systems, situated in cold, temperate and warm climates, studied during both summer and winter. In non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates, occupants may sense the warmth as being less severe than the PMV...... predicts. The main reason is low expectations, but a metabolic rate that is estimated too high can also contribute to explaining the difference. An extension of the PMV model that includes an expectancy factor is introduced for use in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. The extended PMV model...... agrees well with quality field studies in non-air-conditioned buildings of three continents....

  8. Extension of the PMV model to non-air-conditioned building in warm climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The PMV model agrees well with high-quality field studies in buildings with HVAC systems, situated in cold, temperate and warm climates, studied during both summer and winter. In non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates, occupants may sense the warmth as being less severe than the PMV...... predicts. The main reason is low expectations, but a metabolic rate that is estimated too high can also contribute to explaining the difference. An extension of the PMV model that includes an expectancy factor is introduced for use in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. The extended PMV model...... agrees well with quality field studies in non-air-conditioned buildings of three continents....

  9. Condition and Defect Surveys on Penang Heritage Centre: A Case Study on Georgetown World Heritage Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masyatul Husna Othman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Condition and defect surveys are process which appropriate experts investigates the existing condition of a building, carry out necessary tasks, evaluate the data collected, make the recommendations professionally about the remedial and predict performance of the building. This paper focuses on condition and defect surveys on Penang Heritage Centre, Malaysia. This building is listed as one of the buildings under Georgetown World Heritage Site. Penang Heritage Trust is a heritage shop house designed with Southern Chinese Eclectic Style. It has Chinese, European and Indian style influence. Chinese style influence on the carved timber door, air vents, gable and end, air-well and etc. While, European and Indian influences can be seen from the design of the louvered shutters and U/V-shaped terracotta roof tiles.

  10. Measuring ignitability for in situ burning of oil spills weathered under Arctic conditions: From laboratory studies to large-scale field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritt-Rasmussen, Janne; Brandvik, Per Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares the ignitability of Troll B crude oil weathered under simulated Arctic conditions (0%, 50% and 90% ice cover). The experiments were performed in different scales at SINTEF’s laboratories in Trondheim, field research station on Svalbard and in broken ice (70–90% ice cover) in t...... to monitor the ignitability of oil spills.......This paper compares the ignitability of Troll B crude oil weathered under simulated Arctic conditions (0%, 50% and 90% ice cover). The experiments were performed in different scales at SINTEF’s laboratories in Trondheim, field research station on Svalbard and in broken ice (70–90% ice cover...... process, and 70% ice or more reduces the weathering and allows a longer time window for in situ burning. The results from the Barents Sea revealed that weathering and ignitability can vary within an oil slick. This field use of the burning cell demonstrated that it can be used as an operational tool...

  11. Influences of the Indoor Environment on Heat, Air and Moisture Conditions in The Building Component: Boundary Conditions Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Rode, Carsten; Janssen, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in building components assume uniform boundary conditions, both for the temperature and relative humidity of the air in an indoor space as well as for the surface transfer coefficients. Such models cannot accurately predict the HAM...... conditions in the component and on the surface of the component with non-uniform air temperature or relative humidity distributions in an indoor space. Moreover, the heat and moisture surface transfer coefficients strongly depend on the local air velocity, local temperature, water-material interactions...... and water content at the material surface and surface texture of the material. The objective of the present paper is to analyze the influence of the non-uniform local air velocity near the surface of a building component on the HAM conditions in the component. A case study and sensitivity study have been...

  12. Weather forecast

    CERN Document Server

    Courtier, P

    1994-02-07

    Weather prediction is performed using the numerical model of the atmosphere evolution.The evolution equations are derived from the Navier Stokes equation for the adiabatic part but the are very much complicated by the change of phase of water, the radiation porocess and the boundary layer.The technique used operationally is described. Weather prediction is an initial value problem and accurate initial conditions need to be specified. Due to the small number of observations available (105 ) as compared to the dimension of the model state variable (107),the problem is largely underdetermined. Techniques of optimal control and inverse problems are used and have been adapted to the large dimension of our problem. our problem.The at mosphere is a chaotic system; the implication for weather prediction is discussed. Ensemble prediction is used operationally and the technique for generating initial conditions which lead to a numerical divergence of the subsequent forecasts is described.

  13. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON RED BEET YIELD IN VARIOUS ZONES OF THE FORE-CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Gaplaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the researches conducted in conditions of vertical zonality of the Chechen Republic, the high-yielding varieties of red beet in the certain climate and environmental conditions were selected. Moving from the plain zone to the piedmont and the mountain zones, the yield of red beet roots has increased by 1,6-3,4 t/ha regardless of early ripeness of cultivars and hybrids. Application of mathematical modeling allows the selection of the varieties, which are able to realize their yield potential in various conditions.

  14. Impact of air pollution control measures and weather conditions on asthma during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Wang, Wen; Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lin, Weili; Yang, Yuanqin

    2011-07-01

    The alternative transportation strategy implemented during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing provided an opportunity to study the impact of the control measures and weather conditions on air quality and asthma morbidity. An ecological study compared the 41 days of the Olympic Games (8 August-17 September 2008) to a baseline period (1-30 June). Also, in order to emphasize the impact of weather conditions on air quality, a pollution linking meteorological index (Plam) was introduced to represent the air pollution meteorological condition. Our study showed that the average number of outpatient visits for asthma was 12.5 per day at baseline and 7.3 per day during the Olympics—a 41.6% overall decrease. Compared with the baseline, the Games were associated with a significant reduction in asthma visits (RR 0.58, 95%CI: 0.52-0.65). At 16.5 visits per day, asthma visits were also significantly higher, during the pre-Olympic period (RR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.15-1.52). The study also showed that the RR of asthma events on a given day, as well as the average daily peak ozone concentration during the preceding 48-72 h, increased at cumulative ozone concentrations of 70 to 100 ppb and 100 ppb or more compared with ozone concentrations of less than 70 ppb ( P Beijing during the Olympic Games were associated with a prolonged reduction in air pollution and significantly lower rates of adult asthma events. These data provide support for efforts to reduce air pollution and improve health via reductions in motor vehicle traffic.

  15. Elevated corticosterone levels and severe weather conditions decrease parental investment of incubating Adélie penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Anne-Mathilde; Massemin, Sylvie; Handrich, Yves; Raclot, Thierry

    2013-03-01

    Corticosterone, the main stress hormone in birds, mediates resource allocation, allowing animals to adjust their physiology and behaviour to changes in the environment. Incubation is a time and energy-consuming phase of the avian reproductive cycle. It may be terminated prematurely, when the parents' energy stores are depleted or when environmental conditions are severe. In this study, the effects of experimentally elevated baseline corticosterone levels on the parental investment of incubating male Adélie penguins were investigated. Incubation duration and reproductive success of 60 penguins were recorded. The clutches of some birds were replaced by dummy eggs, which recorded egg temperatures and rotation rates, enabling a detailed investigation of incubation behaviour. Corticosterone levels of treated birds were 2.4-fold higher than those of controls 18 days post treatment. Exogenous corticosterone triggered nest desertion in 61% of the treated birds; consequently reducing reproductive success, indicating that corticosterone can reduce or disrupt parental investment. Regarding egg temperatures, hypothermic events became more frequent and more pronounced in treated birds, before these birds eventually abandoned their nest. The treatment also significantly decreased incubation temperatures by 1.3°C and lengthened the incubation period by 2.1 days. However, the number of chicks at hatching was similar among successful nests, regardless of treatment. Weather conditions appeared to be particularly important in determining the extent to which corticosterone levels affected the behaviour of penguins, as treated penguins were more sensitive to severe weather conditions. This underlines the importance of considering the interactions of organisms with their environment in studies of animal behaviour and ecophysiology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of wet-cold weather transportation conditions on thermoregulation and the development of accidental hypothermia in pullets under tropical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, Ndazo S.; Ayo, Joseph O.

    2016-03-01

    The present study examines onboard thermal microclimatic conditions and thermoregulation of pullets exposed to accidental hypothermia during wet-cold weather transportation conditions, and the effect of rewarming on colonic temperature (CT) of the birds immediately after transportation. A total of 2200 pullets were transportation for 5 h in two separate vehicles during the nighttime. The last 3 h of the transportation period was characterized by heavy rainfall. During the precipitation period, each vehicle was covered one fourth way from the top-roof with a tarpaulin. The onboard thermal conditions inside the vehicles during transportation, which comprised ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded, while humidity ratio and specific enthalpy were calculated. The CT of the birds was recorded before and after transportation. During transportation, onboard thermal heterogeneity was observed inside the vehicles with higher ( p < 0.05) values in the front and center, and lower values recorded at the air inlets at the sides and rear planes. The CT values recorded in birds at the front and center planes were between 42.2 and 42.5 °C, indicative of mild hypothermia; while lower CT values between 28 and 38 °C were recorded at the sides and rear planes, indicative of mild to severe hypothermia. Several hours of gradual rewarming returned the CT to normal range. The result, for the first time, demonstrated the occurrence of accidental hypothermia in transported pullets under tropical conditions and a successful rewarming outcome. In conclusion, transportation of pullets during wet weather at onboard temperature of 18-20 °C induced hypothermia on birds located at the air inlets, which recovered fully after several hours of gradual rewarming.

  17. Winter 1994 Weather and Ice Conditions for the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assel, Raymond A.; Janowiak, John E.; Young, Sharolyn; Boyce, Daron

    1996-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes developed their most extensive ice cover in over a decade during winter 1994 [December-February 1993/94 (DJF 94)]. Extensive midlake ice formation started the second half of January, about 2 weeks earlier than normal. Seasonal maximal ice extent occurred in early February, again about 2 weeks earlier than normal. Winter 1994 maximum (normal) ice coverages on the Great Lakes are Lake Superior 96% (75%), Lake Michigan 78% (45%), Lake Huron 95% (68%), Lake Erie 97% (90%), and Lake Ontario 67% (24%). Relative to the prior 31 winters (1963-93), the extent of seasonal maximal ice cover for winter 1994 for the Great Lakes taken as a unit is exceeded by only one other winter (1979); however, other winters for individual Great Lakes had similar maximal ice covers.Anomalously strong anticyclonic circulation over the central North Pacific (extending to the North Pole) and an abnormally strong polar vortex centered over northern Hudson Bay combined to produce a circulation pattern that brought frequent air masses of Arctic and polar origin to the eastern third of North America. New records were set for minimum temperatures on 19 January 1994 at many locations in the Great Lakes region. A winter severity index consisting of the average November-February air temperatures averaged over four sites on the perimeter of the Great Lakes (Duluth, Minnesota; Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan; Detroit, Michigan; and Buffalo, New York) indicates that winter 1994 was the 21st coldest since 1779. The unseasonably cold air temperatures produced much-above-normal ice cover over the Great Lakes and created problems for lake shipping. Numerous fatalities and injuries were attributed to the winter weather, which included several ice and snow storms. The much-below-normal air temperatures resulted in enhanced lake-effect snowfall along downwind lake shores, particularly during early to midwinter, prior to extensive ice formation in deeper lake areas. The low air temperatures

  18. Building

    OpenAIRE

    Seavy, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Building for concrete is temporary. The building of wood and steel stands against the concrete to give form and then gives way, leaving a trace of its existence behind. Concrete is not a building material. One does not build with concrete. One builds for concrete. MARCH

  19. Use of a driving simulator to assess performance under adverse weather conditions in adults with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Gwen M; Summers, C Gail; Ward, Nicholas; Bhargava, Esha; Rakauskas, Michael E; Holleschau, Ann M

    2012-04-01

    Participants with albinism have reduced vision and nystagmus with reduced foveation times. This prospective study evaluated driving in 12 participants with albinism and 12 matched controls. Participants drove a vehicle simulator through a virtual rural course in sunny and foggy conditions. Under sunny conditions, participants with albinism showed a narrower preferred minimum safety boundary during car-following tasks than did controls, but there was no difference under foggy conditions. Their driving did not differ significantly from that of controls when approaching a stop sign or when choosing gap size between oncoming vehicles when crossing an intersection. However, when compared to control drivers, participants with albinism had a decreased minimum safety boundary for car-following that should be included in counseling regarding driving safety.

  20. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The building code of Greenland from 1982 is to be revised in the coming years fulfilling the increased demand of more energy efficient buildings. To establish appropriate levels of energy consumption for heating the weather conditions have to be analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to describe...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...

  1. SYNOPTIC CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH EXTREME WEATHER EVENTS IN THE WESTERN PART OF THE BLACK SEA. A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brînduşa Cristina CHIOTOROIU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The genesis conditions and evolution of two violent storm events are investigated in this paper. They were determined by the same pattern induced by the interaction between a high pressure system dominating Europe and a Mediterranean low pressure field with travelling disturbances moving to the Black Sea. The purpose is to understand what regulates the differences between the duration and intensity of these storms. For their comparison, the NCEP-500/850 and SLP analyses, ALARO model outputs, atmospheric soundings and temporal variations of meteorological parameters recorded by the weather stations have been used. The differences between the two storms consist in the dynamics of the cyclones at sea level and in the upper atmosphere.

  2. Standard Practice for Exposure of Cover Materials for Solar Collectors to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Operational Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1995-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides a procedure for the exposure of cover materials for flat-plate solar collectors to the natural weather environment at temperatures that are elevated to approximate operating conditions. 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors or photovoltaics. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  3. The impact of weather conditions on response of sorghum genotypes to anthracnose (Colletotrichum sublineola) infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainfall is a major climatic factor influencing anthracnose development and in this study, 68 sorghum accessions were evaluated for anthracnose resistance under dry and wet growing conditions at the Texas A&M Agricultural Experiment Station, near College Station, Texas. Accessions, planted in a ran...

  4. An observed database to characterize the weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclogenesis over southern-southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, R.; Porfirio da Rocha, R.

    2012-04-01

    A project to study the climatic, dynamic and synoptic aspects of subtropical cyclones that develop in southern-southeastern coast of Brazil is in development. The weather conditions associated with such cyclones is an important question that must be answered in this project. However, for such characterization it is necessary to use the local meteorological observations of wind, wind gust, rainfall, air temperature, etc. The NCEP (National Center for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis have spatial and time resolutions that provide elements to study the synoptic and dynamics of meteorological events (cyclone, anticyclones, troughs, ridges, monsoons circulations, etc) until the production of complex climatology. However, this analysis has coarse horizontal resolution (~250 Km) that often does not allow the identification of intense meteorological phenomena. A more precise characterization of location and intensity of weather conditions associated with subtropical cyclones would be performed using local observations. Therefore, this work describes the methodology to construct a database of surface weather observations using a relational database management system (RDBMS) MySQL. The data source are SYNOP (Surface Synoptic Observations), METAR (Meteorological Aerodrome Report), NCDC (National Climatic Data Center) and CETESB (Environmental Agency of Sao Paulo State) that are available online through dynamic web page. An iterative algorithm robot was developed to automate the data extraction. Most of the data source are encoded or at non-standard format, hence was developed an algorithm in C++, using the REGEX library, an engine of text pattern search, for decode and handle the exception (erroneous and corrupted data). After the data decoding and formatting it is stored into the MySQL database. The structure of database was divided into categories of tables: a table with the source of data definition, a table with stations information and two sets of tables (for hourly

  5. Recent Advances in Atmospheric, Solar-Terrestrial Physics and Space Weather From a North-South network of scientists [2006-2016] PART B : Results and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amory-Mazaudier, C.; Fleury, R.; Petitdidier, M.; Soula, S.; Masson, F.; Davila, J.; Doherty, P.; Elias, A.; Gadimova, S.; Makela, J.; Nava, B.; Radicella, S.; Richardson, J.; Touzani, A.; Girgea Team

    2017-12-01

    This paper reviews scientific advances achieved by a North-South network between 2006 and 2016. These scientific advances concern solar terrestrial physics, atmospheric physics and space weather. This part B is devoted to the results and capacity building. Our network began in 1991, in solar terrestrial physics, by our participation in the two projects: International Equatorial Electrojet Year IEEY [1992-1993] and International Heliophysical Year IHY [2007-2009]. These two projects were mainly focused on the equatorial ionosphere in Africa. In Atmospheric physics our research focused on gravity waves in the framework of the African Multidisciplinary Monsoon Analysis project n°1 [2005-2009 ], on hydrology in the Congo river basin and on lightning in Central Africa, the most lightning part of the world. In Vietnam the study of a broad climate data base highlighted global warming. In space weather, our results essentially concern the impact of solar events on global navigation satellite system GNSS and on the effects of solar events on the circulation of electric currents in the earth (GIC). This research began in the framework of the international space weather initiative project ISWI [2010-2012]. Finally, all these scientific projects have enabled young scientists from the South to publish original results and to obtain positions in their countries. These projects have also crossed disciplinary boundaries and defined a more diversified education which led to the training of specialists in a specific field with knowledge of related scientific fields.

  6. Evaluation Physiological Characteristics and Grain Yield Canola Cultivars under end Seasonal Drought Stress in Weather Condition of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Seyed Ahmadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate canola cultivars response to physiological characteristics and grain yield end seasonal drought stress in weather condition of Ahvaz, farm experiments were done at research farm of Khuzestan agriculture and natural resources center. During 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 crop years. Farm test comprised drought stress was done as split plot form with randomize complete block design with four replication, treatments consist of drought stress (main factor including 50, 60 and 70 percent of water use content, which was applied from early heading stage until physiological maturity, and three spring canola cultivar including Shirali, Hayola 401 and R.G.S. were considered as sub plots. Measurements include biological yield, grain yield, harvesting index, number of pod per plant 1000 grain weight, number of grain in pod, plant height, and stem diameter, oil and protein percentage. Results showed that drought stress reduced significantly grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and the average of reduction of them during 2 years for per unit reduce moisture from 50% to 70% were 2, 1.35, and 0.81 percent, respectively. During two years, 1000 grain weight, number of pods per plant and number of grain per pod reduced 27, 36 and 20 percent, respectively. Terminal Drought stress reduced significantly plant height, stem diameter, stem number per plant and pod length, this reduced were 12, 46, 36 and 14 percent, respectively. Stem diameter, and stem number per plant reduced more than other characteristics. In this study oil grain decreased 12 % and protein grain increased 18.5% but oil and protein yield decreased 44.9% and 27.1% respectively..Finally, in weather condition of Khuzestan, terminal drought stress on February and March in which has simultaneous with early flowering stage and filling seed, significantly, reduced yield and compounded yield and affects on stem growth and qualities oil and protein negatively. Therefore, with irrigation

  7. Comfort conditions in a bioclimatic building; Condiciones de confort en un edificio bioclimatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monne, C.; Turegano, J. A.

    2004-07-01

    In the present article we show the conditions of comfort reached in the residence of Proyecto Hombre (Turegano y Monne, 1996), designed under bioclimatic concepts, this using the study of the temperatures and relative humidity measured in the building during a period of one year. In the carried out study we distinguish the behaviour of each zone of the building, considering every period of the year, indicating the high level of comfort reached and the obtained thermal stability. (Author)

  8. An open-source automated continuous condition-based maintenance platform for commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Gowri, Krishnan; Hernandez, George

    2016-09-09

    This paper describes one such reference process that can be deployed to provide continuous automated conditioned-based maintenance management for buildings that have BIM, a building automation system (BAS) and a computerized maintenance management software (CMMS) systems. The process can be deployed using an open source transactional network platform, VOLTTRON™, designed for distributed sensing and controls and supports both energy efficiency and grid services.

  9. Case Study of a Nearly Zero Energy Building in Italian Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Saeed Khan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The building sector is an important stakeholder in the energy and environmental scenario of any country. It continues to grow across the world due to factors such as population growth, and economic and infrastructure development. Within the European Union, buildings account for 40% of the total energy requirements and 30% of carbon dioxide emissions. The building sector is keen to improve its sustainability standards and also to help achieve the 20-20-20 targets set by the European Union. The present work aims to design a nearly zero energy sports gymnasium building in Calolziocorte, Italy. Various sustainability techniques are applied in an integrated design project approach using ECOTECT software to undertake the energy modelling exercise. Firstly, the base-case is modelled with conventional building materials and the total energy demand is calculated. Duly considering the local climatic conditions, sustainable materials are chosen for walls, the floor, the roof, and windows and a 38% reduction is noted in the total energy demand of the building compared to the base-case. The impact of louvers as a passive design technique has also been examined on the total energy demand of the building. The monthly load/discomfort analysis is undertaken for various individual functions inside the building to identify the critical areas that consume more energy. The monthly load/discomfort analysis is performed with the proposed materials and the air infiltration rate is improved through the building envelope and 63% reduction is noted in the total energy demand of the building compared to the base-case. A solar access analysis is conducted to understand the on-site energy production and then the building net energy demand is calculated, which is reduced to 90% compared to the base-case.

  10. Relation of weather forecasts to the prediction of dangerous forest fire conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. H. Weidman

    1923-01-01

    The purpose of predicting dangerous forest-fire conditions, of course, is to reduce the great cost and damage caused by forest fires. In the region of Montana and northern Idaho alone the average cost to the United States Forest Service of fire protection and suppression is over $1,000,000 a year. Although the causes of forest fires will gradually be reduced by...

  11. Analysis Thermal Comfort Condition in Complex Residential Building, Case Study: Chiangmai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juangjandee, Warangkana

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing need for complex residential buildings, it appears that people migrate into the high-density urban areas because the infrastructural facilities can be easily found in the modern metropolitan areas. Such rapid growth of urbanization creates congested residential buildings obstructing solar radiation and wind flow, whereas most urban residents spend 80-90% of their time indoor. Furthermore, the buildings were mostly built with average materials and construction detail. This causes high humidity condition for tenants that could promote mould growth. This study aims to analyse thermal comfort condition in complex residential building, Thailand for finding the passive solution to improve indoor air quality and respond to local conditions. The research methodology will be in two folds: 1) surveying on case study 2) analysis for finding the passive solution of reducing humidity indoor air The result of the survey indicated that the building need to find passive solution for solving humidity problem, that can be divided into two ways which raising ventilation and indoor temperature including increasing wind-flow ventilation and adjusting thermal temperature, for example; improving building design and stack driven ventilation. For raising indoor temperature or increasing mean radiant temperature, daylight can be passive solution for complex residential design for reducing humidity and enhance illumination indoor space simultaneous.

  12. Reproductive parameters of tropical lesser noddies respond to local variations in oceanographic conditions and weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticelli, David; Ramos, Jaime A.; Catry, Teresa; Pedro, Patricia; Paiva, Vitor H.

    2014-02-01

    Most attempts to link seabirds and climate/oceanographic effects have concerned the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with comparatively few studies in the tropical Indian Ocean. This paper examines the reproductive response of the lesser noddy Anous tenuirostris to temporal fluctuations in oceanographic and climatic conditions using 8 years of monitoring data from Aride Island (Seychelles), tropical Western Indian Ocean. We tested the hypothesis that breeding parameters (mean hatching date, mean egg size, hatching and fledging successes) and chick growth are influenced by local, seasonal oceanographic conditions as expressed by ocean primary productivity (surface chlorophyll-a concentrations; CC), sea surface temperature (SST) and wind speed. We also examined the relationship between lesser noddy breeding parameters and climate conditions recorded at the basin-wide scale of the Indian Ocean (Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index, DMI). Our findings suggest that birds had a tendency to lay slightly larger eggs during breeding seasons (years) with higher CC during April-June (pre-laying, laying and incubation periods). Hatching date was positively related to SST in April-June, with the regression parameters suggesting that each 0.5 °C increase in SST meant a delay of approx.10 days in hatching date. A negative linear relationship was also apparent between hatching success and SST in June-August (hatching and chick-rearing periods), while the quadratic regression models detected a significant effect of wind speed in June-August on fledging success. Body mass increments of growing chicks averaged over 7-day periods were positively related with (2-week) lagged CC values and negatively related with (2-week) lagged SST values. No significant relationship between DMI and lesser noddy breeding parameters was found, but DMI indices were strongly correlated with local SST. Altogether, our results indicate that the reproduction of this top marine predator is dictated by fluctuations in

  13. Visibility Enhancement of Scene Images Degraded by Foggy Weather Conditions with Deep Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many camera-based advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS have been introduced to assist the drivers and ensure their safety under various driving conditions. One of the problems faced by drivers is the faded scene visibility and lower contrast while driving in foggy conditions. In this paper, we present a novel approach to provide a solution to this problem by employing deep neural networks. We assume that the fog in an image can be mathematically modeled by an unknown complex function and we utilize the deep neural network to approximate the corresponding mathematical model for the fog. The advantages of our technique are as follows: (i its real-time operation and (ii being based on minimal input, that is, a single image, and exhibiting robustness/generalization for various unseen image data. Experiments carried out on various synthetic images indicate that our proposed technique has the abilities to approximate the corresponding fog function reasonably and remove it for better visibility and safety.

  14. The Impact of Local Microclimate Boundary Conditions on Building Energy Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Local environmental boundaries play an important role in determining microclimate conditions affecting thermal-energy behavior of buildings. In this scenario, the purpose of the present work is to investigate how residential buildings are affected by different local microclimate conditions. To this aim, the continuous microclimate monitoring of (i a rural area; (ii a suburban area; and (iii an urban area is carried out, and the comparative analysis of the different boundary conditions is performed. In particular, the effect of the presence of a large lake in the rural area on building energy demand for heating and cooling is evaluated, both in winter and summer. Coupled degree hour method and numerical analysis are performed in order to predict the energy requirement of buildings subject to local microclimate boundary conditions. The main results show higher air temperature and relative humidity values for the rural area. No significant mitigation effect due to the lake presence is found in urban and suburban areas because of the peculiar wind regime of the region. Additionally, the dynamic thermal-energy simulation shows a decrease of 14% and 25% in the heating consumption and an increase of 58% and 194% in cooling requirements of buildings situated in the rural area around the lake compared to the urban and suburban areas, respectively.

  15. Trends of labile trace metals in tropical urban water under highly contrasted weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, J D; Le Coustumer, P; Denis, A; Abuyan, R; Huneau, F; Motelica-Heino, M; Peyraube, N; Celle-Jeanton, H; Perez, T R; Espaldon, M V O

    2015-09-01

    The spatio-temporal trend of trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in a tropical urban estuary under the influence of monsoon was determined using diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) in situ samplers. Three different climatic periods were observed: period 1, dry with dredging activity; period 2, intermediate meaning from dry to wet event; and period 3, wet having continuous rainfall. Conforming to monsoon regimes, these periods correspond to the following: transition from winter to summer, winter, and summer monsoons, respectively. The distinction of each period is defined by their specific hydrological and physico-chemical conditions. Substantial concentrations of the trace metals were detected. The distribution and trend of the trace metals under the challenge of a tropical climate were able to follow using DGT as a sensitive in situ sampler. In order to identify the differences among periods, statistical analyses were performed. This allowed discriminating period 2 (oxic water) as significantly different compared to other periods. The spatio-temporal analysis was then applied in order to distinguish the trend of the trace metals. Results showed that the trend of trace metals can be described according to their response to (i) seasonal variations (Cd and Cr), (ii) spatio-temporal conditions (Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb), and (iii) neither (i) nor (ii) meaning exhibiting no response or having constant change (Zn). The correlation of the trace metals and the physico-chemical parameters reveals that Cd, Co, Cu, and Cr are proportional to the dissolved oxygen (DO), Cd and Ni are correlated pH, and Zn lightly influenced by salinity.

  16. Conditional Monthly Weather Resampling Procedure for Operational Seasonal Water Resources Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, J.; Weerts, A.; Tijdeman, E.; Welles, E.; McManamon, A.

    2013-12-01

    To provide reliable and accurate seasonal streamflow forecasts for water resources management several operational hydrologic agencies and hydropower companies around the world use the Extended Streamflow Prediction (ESP) procedure. The ESP in its original implementation does not accommodate for any additional information that the forecaster may have about expected deviations from climatology in the near future. Several attempts have been conducted to improve the skill of the ESP forecast, especially for areas which are affected by teleconnetions (e,g. ENSO, PDO) via selection (Hamlet and Lettenmaier, 1999) or weighting schemes (Werner et al., 2004; Wood and Lettenmaier, 2006; Najafi et al., 2012). A disadvantage of such schemes is that they lead to a reduction of the signal to noise ratio of the probabilistic forecast. To overcome this, we propose a resampling method conditional on climate indices to generate meteorological time series to be used in the ESP. The method can be used to generate a large number of meteorological ensemble members in order to improve the statistical properties of the ensemble. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated in a real-time operational hydrologic seasonal forecasts system for the Columbia River basin operated by the Bonneville Power Administration. The forecast skill of the k-nn resampler was tested against the original ESP for three basins at the long-range seasonal time scale. The BSS and CRPSS were used to compare the results to those of the original ESP method. Positive forecast skill scores were found for the resampler method conditioned on different indices for the prediction of spring peak flows in the Dworshak and Hungry Horse basin. For the Libby Dam basin however, no improvement of skill was found. The proposed resampling method is a promising practical approach that can add skill to ESP forecasts at the seasonal time scale. Further improvement is possible by fine tuning the method and selecting the most

  17. Avoiding verisimilitude when modelling ecological responses to climate change: the influence of weather conditions on trapping efficiency in European badgers (Meles meles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Michael J; Rahman, M Abidur; Newman, Chris; Buesching, Christina D; Macdonald, David W

    2015-10-01

    The signal for climate change effects can be abstruse; consequently, interpretations of evidence must avoid verisimilitude, or else misattribution of causality could compromise policy decisions. Examining climatic effects on wild animal population dynamics requires ability to trap, observe or photograph and to recapture study individuals consistently. In this regard, we use 19 years of data (1994-2012), detailing the life histories on 1179 individual European badgers over 3288 (re-) trapping events, to test whether trapping efficiency was associated with season, weather variables (both contemporaneous and time lagged), body-condition index (BCI) and trapping efficiency (TE). PCA factor loadings demonstrated that TE was affected significantly by temperature and precipitation, as well as time lags in these variables. From multi-model inference, BCI was the principal driver of TE, where badgers in good condition were less likely to be trapped. Our analyses exposed that this was enacted mechanistically via weather variables driving BCI, affecting TE. Notably, the very conditions that militated for poor trapping success have been associated with actual survival and population abundance benefits in badgers. Using these findings to parameterize simulations, projecting best-/worst-case scenario weather conditions and BCI resulted in 8.6% ± 4.9 SD difference in seasonal TE, leading to a potential 55.0% population abundance under-estimation under the worst-case scenario; 38.6% over-estimation under the best case. Interestingly, simulations revealed that while any single trapping session might prove misrepresentative of the true population abundance, due to weather effects, prolonging capture-mark-recapture studies under sub-optimal conditions decreased the accuracy of population estimates significantly. We also use these projection scenarios to explore how weather could impact government-led trapping of badgers in the UK, in relation to TB management. We conclude that

  18. The role of model and initial condition error in numerical weather forecasting investigated with an observing system simulation experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki C. Privé

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments that explore the roles of model and initial condition error in numerical weather prediction are performed using an observing system simulation experiment (OSSE framework developed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (NASA/GMAO. The use of an OSSE allows the analysis and forecast errors to be explicitly calculated, and different hypothetical observing networks can be tested with ease. In these experiments, both a full global OSSE framework and an ‘identical twin’ OSSE setup are used to compare the behaviour of the data assimilation system (DAS and evolution of forecast skill with and without model error. The initial condition error is manipulated by varying the distribution and quality of the observing network and the magnitude of observation errors. The results show that model error has a strong impact on both the quality of the analysis field and the evolution of forecast skill, including both systematic and unsystematic model error components. With a realistic observing network, the analysis state retains a significant quantity of error due to systematic model error. If errors of the analysis state are minimised, model error acts to rapidly degrade forecast skill during the first 24–48 hours of forward integration. In the presence of model error, the impact of observation errors on forecast skill is small, but in the absence of model error, observation errors cause a substantial degradation of the skill of medium-range forecasts.

  19. Energy efficiency index to artificially conditioned buildings; Indice de eficiencia energetica para edificios climatizados artificialmente

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jota, Patricia Romeiro da Silva; Santos, Carla da Silva; Costa, Kelly Luciene C. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG/CEFET), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa em Energia Inteligente

    2010-07-01

    Conditioning buildings has been growing in number and are responsible for a significant portion of the energy used worldwide. The building energy use can be measured by the index of energy performance and specific fuel consumption (EC). The specific consumption is an index where the energy is normalized by the factors that affect energy use in order to obtain an index to explain variations in consumption. In this paper, we present a methodology to obtain a specific consumption that takes into account one of the factors that most affect energy use in these buildings, that is, the external temperature. The study is based on analysis of consumption of air conditioning system according to temperature. Through this analysis we obtain a function to facilitate the standardization of energy use, depending on the temperature outside. This methodology was tested in previous work on real buildings without stratification of energy, and this work will be presented a case study of a building whose energy measurement is stratified. The proposed index is the ratio between the energy consumption of air conditioning system corrected by the temperature through the function K(T). It was possible to demonstrate the efficiency of the index to eliminate the effect of temperature and thus to evaluate the evolution of specific consumption over the months analyzed. (author)

  20. Quantitative contamination assessment of Escherichia coli in baby spinach primary production in Spain: Effects of weather conditions and agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; Castro-Ibáñez, Irene; Lindqvist, Roland; Gil, María Isabel; Uyttendaele, Mieke; Jacxsens, Liesbeth

    2017-09-18

    A quantitative microbial contamination model of Escherichia coli during primary production of baby spinach was developed. The model included only systematic contamination routes (e.g. soil and irrigation water) and it was used to evaluate the potential impact of weather conditions, agricultural practices as well as bacterial fitness in soil on the E. coli levels present in the crop at harvest. The model can be used to estimate E. coli contamination of baby spinach via irrigation water, via soil splashing due to irrigation water or rain events, and also including the inactivation of E. coli on plants due to solar radiation during a variable time of culturing before harvest. Seasonality, solar radiation and rainfall were predicted to have an important impact on the E. coli contamination. Winter conditions increased E. coli prevalence and levels when compared to spring conditions. As regards agricultural practices, both water quality and irrigation system slightly influenced E. coli levels on baby spinach. The good microbiological quality of the irrigation water (average E. coli counts in positive water samples below 1 log/100mL) could have influenced the differences observed among the tested agricultural practices (water treatment and irrigation system). This quantitative microbial contamination model represents a preliminary framework that assesses the potential impact of different factors and intervention strategies affecting E. coli concentrations at field level. Taking into account that E. coli strains may serve as a surrogate organism for enteric bacterial pathogens, obtained results on E. coli levels on baby spinach may be indicative of the potential behaviour of these pathogens under defined conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Aerosol accumulation intensity and composition variations under different weather conditions in urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberga, Iveta; Bikshe, Janis; Eindorfa, Aiva

    2014-05-01

    During the last decade aerosol (PM10, PM2.5) mass and composition measurements were done in different urban environments - parallel street canyons, industrial sites and at the background level in Riga, Latvia. Effect of meteorological parameters on the accumulation and ventilation intensity was investigated in order to understand microclimatological parameters affecting aerosol pollution level and chemical composition changes. In comparison to industrial sites (shipping activities, bulk cargo, oil and naphtha processing), urban street canyon aerosol mass concentration was significantly higher, for PM10 number of daily limit exceedances are higher by factor 3.4 - 3.9 in street canyons. Exceedances of PM2.5 annual limits were identified only in street canyons as well. Precipitation intensity, wind speed, days with mist highly correlates with aerosol concentration; in average during the year about 1 - 2 % presence of calm wind days, 20 - 30 days with mist facilitate accumulation of aerosols and mitigating growing of secondary aerosols. It has been assessed that about 25 % of daily exceedances in street canyons are connected with sea salt/street sanding factor. Strong dependency of wind speed and direction were identified in winter time - low winds (0.4 - 1.7 m/s) blowing from south, south-east (cross section of the street) contributing to PM10 concentrations over 100 - 150 ug/m3. Seasonal differences in aerosol concentrations were identified as a result of recombination of direct source impact, specific meteorological and synoptical conditions during the period from January until April when usually dominates extremely high aerosol concentrations. While aerosol mass concentration levels in monitoring sites significantly differs, concentrations of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cd, and As) are almost at the same level, even more - concentration of Cd for some years was higher in industrial area where main pollution is caused by oil processing and storage, heavy traffic

  2. The impact of extreme weather conditions on the life of settlers in the Central Russia in X - XVI centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Irina; Nizovtsev, Viacheslav; Erman, Natalia

    2017-04-01

    A special place in the reconstruction of climate dynamics takes an analysis of extraordinary meteorological phenomena. These extreme weather events in the first place impact the functioning of, the rhythm and dynamics of the landscapes and determine not only the features of economy, but also certain aspects of historical development. In the analysis of primary chronicles and published data, along with the direct climatic characteristics (hot, warm, cold, wet, dry, etc.) a lot of attention was paid to abnormal (extreme) natural phenomena and indirect indications of climate variability (floods, crop failures, hunger years, epidemics, etc.). As a result, tables were compiled reflecting climatic basic characteristics and extremes for each year since 900 BC. X-XI centuries was a period of minor climatic optimum - the climate was warmer and drier than the modern one. In addition to higher temperatures (up to 1-3C above than mordern), during this period there were no severe winters. A small amount of summer rainfall has led to a reduction in the number of small water reservoirs and flooding rivers. This is evidenced by Slavic settlements on floodplains of a number of rivers in the Moscow region. It is in this favorable climatic time the way "from the Vikings to the Greeks" was open. Catastrophic natural events had a minimum repeatability. For example, during the X century the Russian chronicles mentioned 41 extreme event, but for the XIII century - 102. Most of the villages and towns were located on the low floodplain terraces of rivers. The main farmland was concentrated there as well. In the "period of contrasts" (XIII - XIV centuries) there was an increase of intra-seasonal climate variability, humidity and widespread reduction in summer temperatures by 1-2C. The number of extreme weather events increased: cold prolonged winters, long rains in summers, cold weather returns in the early summer, early frosts in late summer - early autumn. Such conditions often

  3. The Influence of the Technical Condition of a Building on the Property’s Market Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziembicka Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The housed property’s market value is influenced by a set of characteristic qualities, among which is the technical condition of a building. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of the technical condition of a building on the market price of the dwelling units, depending, among others, on the chosen method and the approach to the assessment of the housing wear degree. The analysis has been performed based on the estimation of the market value of an illustrative dwelling unit located in a building erected with the use of prefabricated large panel technology in selected variants. The study is based on data from the period between January and December 2012, which are related to the sale of rights to dwelling units from the secondary market. The information was obtained from a transactional database based on the Partner Data Exchange system with the Walor software.

  4. Green Technologies for Energy-Efficient Buildings in Cold Climate Conditions of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharovarova, E. P.; Alekhin, V. N.; Maltseva, I. N.

    2017-11-01

    At present, energy preservation is the urgent task. Though Russia have all sufficient resources supplied to European and Asian countries, the abundance of fuel-power resources does not imply extravagance.The major objective of this study is to find out the application of green technologies into the buildings in the cold climate conditions of Russia. The present study describes a green methodology of building design and the approaches of green technologies implementation in Russia. The existing individual house in the village near Ekaterinburg, Russia, was used as an example to show the application of the green methodology suitable for this climatic conditions and to demonstrate the integration of energy-efficient architectural and engineering solutions into the building.

  5. Optimization and Performance Study of Select Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Technologies for Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rajeev

    Buildings contribute a significant part to the electricity demand profile and peak demand for the electrical utilities. The addition of renewable energy generation adds additional variability and uncertainty to the power system. Demand side management in the buildings can help improve the demand profile for the utilities by shifting some of the demand from peak to off-peak times. Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning contribute around 45% to the overall demand of a building. This research studies two strategies for reducing the peak as well as shifting some demand from peak to off-peak periods in commercial buildings: 1. Use of gas heat pumps in place of electric heat pumps, and 2. Shifting demand for air conditioning from peak to off-peak by thermal energy storage in chilled water and ice. The first part of this study evaluates the field performance of gas engine-driven heat pumps (GEHP) tested in a commercial building in Florida. Four GEHP units of 8 Tons of Refrigeration (TR) capacity each providing air-conditioning to seven thermal zones in a commercial building, were instrumented for measuring their performance. The operation of these GEHPs was recorded for ten months, analyzed and compared with prior results reported in the literature. The instantaneous COPunit of these systems varied from 0.1 to 1.4 during typical summer week operation. The COP was low because the gas engines for the heat pumps were being used for loads that were much lower than design capacity which resulted in much lower efficiencies than expected. The performance of equivalent electric heat pump was simulated from a building energy model developed to mimic the measured building loads. An economic comparison of GEHPs and conventional electrical heat pumps was done based on the measured and simulated results. The average performance of the GEHP units was estimated to lie between those of EER-9.2 and EER-11.8 systems. The performance of GEHP systems suffers due to lower efficiency at

  6. Review of in-service moisture and temperature conditions in wood-frame buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel V. Glass; Anton TenWolde

    2007-01-01

    This literature review reports in-service moisture and temperature conditions of floor, wall, and roof members of wood-frame buildings and exposed wood decks and permanent wood foundations. A wide variation exists in reported wood moisture content, spanning a range from as low as 2% to well above 30%. Relevant studies are summarized, and measured values of wood...

  7. Building condition assessment: a performance evaluation tool towards sustainable asset management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abbott, GR

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Health Facilities Audit of hospitals in South Africa, condition assessments have evolved into a technology that adds a new dimension to strategic management and maintenance of buildings and related infrastructure. A five-point colour-coded rating system...

  8. [Sanitary and epidemiological evaluation of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems of public buildings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorianov, V V

    2012-01-01

    The microbial contamination of ventilation and air conditioning systems was examined in the administrative buildings. The author proposes a set of indicators, methods for determining the scope of investigations, as well as sampling tactics and criteria for evaluating the microbial contamination of the ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The content of yeasts and molds in the delivered air has been found to be of importance for evaluating the sanitary-and epidemiological state of ventilation systems.

  9. Analysis of flammability in the attached buildings to containment under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosa, J.C. de la, E-mail: juan-carlos.de-la-rosa-blul@ec.europa.eu [European Commission Joint Research Centre (Netherlands); Fornós, Joan, E-mail: jfornosh@anacnv.com [Asociación Nuclear Ascó-Vandellós (Spain)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Analysis of flammability conditions in buildings outside containment. • Stepwise approach easily applicable for any kind of containment and attached buildings layout. • Detailed application for real plant conditions has been included. - Abstract: Right after the events unfolded in Fukushima Daiichi, the European Union countries agreed in subjecting Nuclear Power Plants to Stress Tests as developed by WENRA and ENSREG organizations. One of the results as implemented in many European countries derived from such tests consisted of mandatory technical instructions issued by nuclear regulatory bodies on the analysis of potential risk of flammable gases in attached buildings to containment. The current study addresses the key aspects of the analysis of flammable gases leaking to auxiliary buildings attached to Westinghouse large-dry PWR containment for the specific situation where mitigating systems to prevent flammable gases to grow up inside containment are available, and containment integrity is preserved – hence avoiding isolation system failure. It also provides a full practical exercise where lessons learned derived from the current study – hence limited to the imposed boundary conditions – are applied. The leakage of gas from the containment to the support buildings is based on separate calculations using the EPRI-owned Modular Accident Analysis Program, MAAP4.07. The FATE™ code (facility Flow, Aerosol, Thermal, and Explosion) was used to model the transport and distribution of leaked flammable gas (H{sub 2} and CO) in the penetration buildings. FATE models the significant mixing (dilution) which occurs as the released buoyant gas rises and entrains air. Also, FATE accounts for the condensation of steam on room surfaces, an effect which acts to concentrate flammable gas. The results of the analysis show that during a severe accident, flammable conditions are unlikely to occur in compartmentalized buildings such as the one used in the

  10. Coping with difficult weather and snow conditions: Reindeer herders’ views on climate change impacts and coping strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna T. Turunen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Winter is a critical season for reindeer herding, with the amount and quality of snow being among the most important factors determining the condition of reindeer and the annual success of the livelihood. Our first aim was to model the future (2035–2064 snow conditions in northern Finland, especially the quantities related to ground ice and/or ice layers within the snow pack, exceptionally deep snow and late snow melt. Secondly, we studied the strategies by which herders cope with the impacts of difficult weather and snow conditions on herding by interviewing 21 herders. SNOWPACK simulations indicate that snow cover formation will be delayed by an average of 19 days and snow will melt 16 days earlier during the period 2035–2064 when compared to 1980–2009. There will be more frequent occurrence of ground ice that persists through the winter and the ice layers in open environments will be thicker in the future. The snow cover will be 26–40% thinner and snow in open environments will be denser. Variability between winters will grow. In interviews, herders indicated that a longer snowless season and thin snow cover would be advantageous for herding due to increased availability of forage, but more frequent icing conditions would cause problems. The most immediate reaction of reindeer to the decreased availability of forage caused by difficult snow conditions is to disperse. This effect is intensified when the lichen biomass on the pastures is low. To cope with the impacts of adverse climatic conditions, herders increase control over their herds, intensify the use of pasture diversity, take reindeer into enclosures and/or start or intensify supplementary feeding. The research also reveals that predators, competing land uses and the high prices of supplementary feed and fuel were the major threats to the herders’ coping capacity. Coping capacity was facilitated by, among other factors, the herders’ experience-based traditional knowledge

  11. Association between weather conditions and the number of patients at the emergency room in an Argentine hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusticucci, Matilde; Bettolli, Laura M.; de los Angeles Harris, M.

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the relationships between hospital emergencies and weather conditions by analysing summer and winter cases of patients requiring attention at the emergency room of a hospital in the city of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hospital data have been sorted into seven different diagnostic groups as follows: (1) respiratory, cardiovascular and chest-pain complaints; (2) digestive, genitourinary and abdominal complaints; (3) neurological and psychopathological disorders; (4) infections; (5) contusion and crushing, bone and muscle complaints; (6) skin and allergies and (7) miscellaneous complaints. In general, there is an increase of 16.7% in winter while, for group 2 and group 6, there are more patients in summer, 54% and 75% respectively. In summer, the total number of patients for group 6 shows a significant positive correlation with temperature and dew-point temperature, and a negative correlation with the sea-level pressure for the same day. In winter, the same relationship exists, however its correlation is not as strong. The lags observed between these three variables: maximum dew-point temperature, maximum temperature, minimum air pressure and the peaks in admissions are 1, 2 and 4 days respectively. In winter, increases in temperature and dew point and decreases in pressure are followed by a peak in admissions for group 2. In winter, there are significantly more cases in group 5 on warm, dry days and on warm, wet days in the summer.

  12. Standard Practice for Exposure of Solar Collector Cover Materials to Natural Weathering Under Conditions Simulating Stagnation Mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1992-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers a procedure for the exposure of solar collector cover materials to the natural weather environment at elevated temperatures that approximate stagnation conditions in solar collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient of less than 1.5 W/(m2 · °C). 1.2 This practice is suitable for exposure of both glass and plastic solar collector cover materials. Provisions are made for exposure of single and double cover assemblies to accommodate the need for exposure of both inner and outer solar collector cover materials. 1.3 This practice does not apply to cover materials for evacuated collectors, photovoltaic cells, flat-plate collectors having a combined back and edge loss coefficient greater than 1.5 W/(m2 ·° C), or flat-plate collectors whose design incorporates means for limiting temperatures during stagnation. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard t...

  13. Weather Conditions Associated with the Release and Dispersal of Zymoseptoria tritici Spores in the Argentine Pampas Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Cordo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The abundance of Zymoseptoria tritici ascospores and conidia in a field was examined throughout two one-year periods (1998-1999 and 1999-2000 establishing the relationship between spore release and weather variables. Radiation, temperature, intensity of rainfall, and relative humidity significantly affected the dispersal of ascospores and pycnidiospores of this pathogen. Spore traps collected both types of spores, at weekly intervals, at two different stages of the wheat crop (vegetative and wheat stubble stages and different distances from the sources. Ascospores were the predominant sources of inoculum in the field. The numbers of ascospores and pycnidiospores declined with the increase of distance from the sources. The release of pycnidiospores was associated with the increase in rainfall intensity 7 days before the released event and the increase in radiation 60 days before the same event. Relative humidity 3 and 15 days before the release event was positively correlated with ascospores release and negatively correlated with radiation and temperature in all the sampling interval. Also for the first time, a positive correlation between radiation and pycnidiospores dispersal is reported. Understanding the relationship between environment conditions and spores dispersal event could improve the control strategies of the disease.

  14. Comparative study of the reliability of MPPT algorithms for the crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules in variable weather conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Dandoussou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystalline silicon photovoltaic modules are widely used as power supply sources in the tropical areas where the weather conditions change abruptly. Fortunately, many MPPT algorithms are implemented to improve their performance. In the other hand, it is well known that these power supply sources are nonlinear dipoles and so, their intrinsic parameters may vary with the irradiance and the temperature. In this paper, the MPPT algorithms widely used, i.e. Perturb and Observe (P&O, Incremental Conductance (INC, Hill-Climbing (HC, are implemented using Matlab®/Simulink® model of a crystalline silicon photovoltaic module whose intrinsic parameters were extracted by fitting the I(V characteristic to experimental points. Comparing the simulation results, it is obvious that the variable step size INC algorithm has the best reliability than both HC and P&O algorithms for the near to real Simulink® model of photovoltaic modules. With a 60 Wp photovoltaic module, the daily maximum power reaches 50.76 W against 34.40 W when the photovoltaic parameters are fixed. Meanwhile, the daily average energy is 263 Wh/day against 195 Wh/day.

  15. The importance of moisture buffering for indoor climate and energy conditions of buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Grau, Karl

    2007-01-01

    A new Nordic test method specifies a test protocol for determination of the so-called Moisture Buffer Value (MBV) of building materials. But how important is moisture buffering to determine the indoor humidity condition of buildings? The paper will present the new MBV-definition. Although...... buffering to save energy by reducing the requirement for ventilation in periods, and still maintain the same quality of the indoor climate? The paper will outline some possibilities for analytical/numerical calculations, and will answer some of the posed questions on the probable benefit of taking moisture...

  16. Air leakage analysis of research reactor HANARO building in typhoon condition for the nuclear emergency preparedness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Goany Up; Lee, Hae Cho; Kim, Bong Seok; Kim, Jong Soo; Choi, Pyung Kyu [Dept. of Emergency Preparedness, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    To find out the leak characteristic of research reactor 'HANARO' building in a typhoon condition MELCOR code which normally is used to simulate severe accident behavior in a nuclear power plant was used to simulate the leak rate of air and fission products from reactor hall after the shutdown of the ventilation system of HANARO reactor building. For the simulation, HANARO building was designed by MELCOR code and typhoon condition passed through Daejeon in 2012 was applied. It was found that the leak rate is 0.1%·day{sup -1} of air, 0.004%·day{sup -1} of noble gas and 3.7×10{sup -5}%·day{sup -1} of aerosol during typhoon passing. The air leak rate of 0.1%·day can be converted into 1.36 m{sup 3}·hr{sup -1} , but the design leak rate in HANARO safety analysis report was considered as 600 m3·hr{sup -1} under the condition of 20 m·sec{sup -1} wind speed outside of the building by typhoon. Most of fission products during the maximum hypothesis accident at HANARO reactor will be contained in the reactor hall, so the direct radiation by remained fission products in the reactor hall will be the most important factor in designing emergency preparedness for HANARO reactor.

  17. Weather Effect on the Solar Adsorption Air-conditioning System using Activated Carbon Fiber/Ethanol as Pair of Refrigeration: A Case Study of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhair M. Abdul Majeed; M.Y. Suliman; K. Sopian

    2014-01-01

    This study indicates the simulation analysis of the solar adsorption cycle using the activated carbon fiber/ethanol as the pair of refrigeration in Malaysia. The heat source used was evacuated tube collectors. The cycle is used for the purpose of air-conditioning for two temperature levels, where the cooling load can be 7°C. TRNSYS simulation software was used to model the system with the weather data of Malaysia. The results showed that the weather has a high effect on the performance of the...

  18. Natural air conditioning and design of building openings in residential building construction in Mexico. Natuerliche Klimatisierung und Gebaeudeoeffnungen im Wohnungsbau Mexikos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Alpuche, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    In this work, recognition about constructional measures are gained, representing a contribution to natural air conditioning in tropical areas, by means of selected examples of traditional residential building in Mexico. With this, it is important to ensure a thermal well-being that fulfills present comfort requirements. Three different climatic zones are investigated. The constructional measures are classified according to the following groups considering the conception of the building opening suitable for the climate: Environment and building openings, position and dimension of the building opening, protecting devices on building offices. Furthermore, it is proven by means of an example of modern single-family houses in Mexico, that the recognition gained in a side range can be also usefully applied in present building construction. This results in recommendations for conceptions of building openings in the sense of a construction that is suitable for the climate and energy saving. (orig./KW).

  19. Influence of environment factors on humidity conditions of selected external wall solutions in a heated building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Contemporary single-family houses in Poland are often built during 3 quarters of a year (spring to autumn) are usually settled in a winter season. It is a special case when exploitation humidity coincides with technological one, causing unfavourable humidity conditions during the first years of exploitation. In consequence, thermal parameters of partitions differ from those assumed in the project. In construction stage the humidity state of a wall stabilizes as a result of water: associated with storage, entered technologically during wall construction and plastering, coming from rainfall. Thermo-insulation materials are built-in at dry state. During erection and exploitation of a building their thermal conductivity is changing depending on humidity conditions. According to building rules, construction humidity should be removed from a partition before the building transfer to usage, because it lowers the thermal partition insulation ability and increases air humidity of building interior. Walls are plastered and insulated in condition of simultaneous presence of atmospheric and technological humidity which cause special humidity condition during first years of exploitation. As a consequence, heating costs are substantially higher. In this article the results of simulation are shown performed with WUFI ®PRO 5 software, which was intended to define the time necessary for reaching the stabilised humidity in selected solutions of two-layer walls applied in a heated building. In the research performed, the partition orientation along geographic directions, short and long wave radiation, and environment humidity (air humidity, driving rain) coincidence with technological humidity in assumed wall solutions were taken into account.

  20. Weathering and dissolution rates among Pb shot pellets of differing elemental compositions exposed to various aqueous and soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamatsu, Takejiro; Murata, Tomoyoshi; Koshikawa, Masami K; Watanabe, Mirai

    2010-07-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the weathering and dissolution rates of Pb shot pellets differing in elemental composition (Pb, Sb, and As) exposed under various aqueous and soil conditions using five commercial shot pellet preparations. Upon immersion in distilled water, the dissolution rates of shot pellets, calculated from the difference in weight before versus after immersion, decreased with increasing Sb + As contents and the dominant precipitate was hydrocerussite. These subsidiary ingredients may be related to the difficulty of metallic Pb oxidation (transformation to PbO). Weight losses standardized by the amount of rainfall upon exposure to rainfall on open grassland and under canopies of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and bamboo-leafed oak (Quercus myrsinaefolia) were 1.11, 1.07, and 7.35 mg g pellets(-1) year(-1) L(-1), respectively, and was also related to Sb + As contents in shot pellets. However, annual dissolution rates of Pb standardized by the amount of rainfall as the soluble fraction at the same sites were 0.72, 0.33, and 0.40 mg Pb g pellets(-1) year(-1) L(-1) in the same order. These trends seemed to be related to the rainfall pH, which induces precipitation of Pb dissolved as PbCO(3) under conditions of higher pH at the Q. myrsinaefolia site or organic matter released from leaves, etc., which can form metal complexes. Dissolution rates of shot pellets buried in soils (Cambisol, Fluvisol, Regosol, Andosol) also seemed to be related to the soil pH and dissolved organic matter contents but were about sixfold faster than those with exposure to rainfall.

  1. AN ANALYSIS OF CHOSEN ASPECTS OF ENVIROMENT-RELATED CONDITIONS FOR BUILDING INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Harasymiuk

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The construction of building projects will always result in a degree of interference in the local environment. Legal regulations intended for the most effective protection of natural resources foresee a range of procedures, without which the initation of building projects is not possible. It concerns all investments, but the regulations especially emphasize these, which may negatively affect the environment. A decision on environment-related conditions, which is foressen in the process, requires the preparation of many specialist documents which constitute attachments to the application of its issuance. One of the problems related to this procedure is the time lag associated with an environmental decision, which is difficult to determine or predict. In the article the periods of waiting for issuing a decision for building investments of a different character were analysed. The reason for this situation was also analyzed.

  2. A Mathematical Model of Hourly Solar Radiation in Varying Weather Conditions for a Dynamic Simulation of the Solar Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehong Sung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of hourly solar radiation with weather variability is proposed based on the simple sky model. The model uses a superposition of trigonometric functions with short and long periods. We investigate the effects of the model variables on the clearness (kD and the probability of persistence (POPD indices and also evaluate the proposed model for all of the kD-POPD weather classes. A simple solar organic Rankine cycle (SORC system with thermal storage is simulated using the actual weather conditions, and then, the results are compared with the simulation results using the proposed model and the simple sky model. The simulation results show that the proposed model provides more accurate system operation characteristics than the simple sky model.

  3. Effect of weather conditions and presence of visitors on adrenocortical activity in captive African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozella, L; Anfossi, L; Di Nardo, F; Pessani, D

    2017-02-01

    A number of potential stressors are present in captive environments and it is critically important to identify them in order to improve health and welfare in ex situ animal populations. In this study, we investigated the adrenocortical activity of a colony of African penguins hosted in an immersive zoo in Italy, with respect to the presence of visitors and local microclimatic conditions, using the non-invasive method of assessing faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGMs). The penguins' exhibit is a large naturalistic outdoor enclosure, which closely reproduces the natural habitat of this species. Data collection took place from the beginning of June to the end of August 2014, during the period of maximum flow of visitors. We carried out 12 sampling periods, each involving 2 consecutive days; during the first day we counted the visitors and we registered the meteorological data, and on the second day, we collected the faecal samples, which amounted to a total of 285 faecal samples. Our results showed that the number of visitors did not influence the adrenocortical activity of the African penguins. Conversely, the local microclimatic conditions did influence the physiological stress on these birds. We found that an increase of the daily mean temperature induced a significant increase in FGM concentrations, although humidity and wind speed had a moderating effect on temperature and reduced the heat-induced stress. Moreover, we calculated two climatic indices, commonly used to assess the thermal discomfort in animals, namely the THI (Temperature-Humidity Index) and WCI (Wind Chill Index), and we detected a positive relationship between their values and the FGM levels, demonstrating that these indices could be useful indicators of weather discomfort in African penguins. Our study shows that the simulating naturalistic conditions could have significant benefits for zoo animals, such as reducing the negative effect of visitors. Nevertheless, it should be taken into account

  4. [Biological contamination in office buildings related to ventilation/air conditioning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bródka, Karolina; Sowiak, Małgorzata; Kozajda, Anna; Cyprowski, Marcin; Irena, Szadkowska-Stańczyk

    2012-01-01

    Indoor air is contaminated with microorganisms coming from both the atmospheric air and sources present in premises. The aim of this study was to analyze the concentrations of biological agents in office buildings, dependending on ventilation/air conditioning system and season. The study covered office buildings (different in the system of ventila-tion/air conditioning). Air samples for assessing the levels of inhalable dust, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, were taken at the selected stationary points of each building during summer and winter. The air was sampled for 6 h, using portable sets consisting of the GilAir 5 pump and the head filled with a filter of fiber glass. The samples for the presence of airborne bacteria and fungi were collected twice during the day using the impaction method. Average concentrations of inhalable dust, bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in office premises were 0.09 mg/m3, 6.00 x 10(2) cfu/m3, 4.59 x 10(1) cfu/m3, 0.42 ng/m3 and 3.91 ng/m3, respectively. Higher concentrations of the investigated agents were found in summer. In premises with air conditioning concentrations of airborne fungi, (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans and inhalable dust were significantly lower in winter. In summer the trend was reverse except for (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans. Concentrations of biological agents were affected by the season and the presence of air conditioning. Concentrations of inhalable dust, bacteria, fungi, endotoxins and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans, observed inside the office buildings, were significantly higher in summer than in winter. The presence of the air conditioning system modified in various ways the levels of biological agents. Its influence was greater on the concentration of fungi and (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans than on that of bacteria and endotoxins.

  5. INFLUENCE OF WEATHER CONDITIONS ON GRAIN YIELD, OIL CONTENT AND OIL YIELD OF NEW OS SUNFLOWER HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Mijić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose of determining the influence of weather conditions on the yield components of sunflower, the results of three-year field trials are analysed in the paper. In the trials sown in Osijek in 2013, 2014 and 2015, there were 15 sunflower hybrids: two foreign hybrids and 13 hybrid combinations of the Agricultural Institute Osijek. In the period before sowing (January – March, the highest amount of precipitation was in 2013 (213.1 mm, then in 2015 (167.9 mm, and the lowest in 2014 (109.5 mm. In the growing period (April – September, the highest amount of precipitation (487.3 mm was in 2014, 475.7 mm in 2013, and in 2015 it was the lowest (251.6 mm. In 2013, during the growing period, the mean monthly air temperature was 19.1°C, in 2015 19.9°C, and in 2014 18.6°C. Of these years, statistically significant at the P=0.05, the highest value of the analysed traits was recorded in 2013: grain yield of 6.47 t ha-1, oil content 51.69% and oil yield 3.05 t ha-1. Grain yield, oil content and oil yield were lower in 2015, and the lowest in 2014. Matej, a newly recognized sunflower hybrid of the Agricultural Institute Osijek had the highest values of grain and oil yield (6.95 and 3.39 t ha-1, and by its oil content of 53.44%, it was in the third place. For high grain and oil yields of sunflower, in addition to the optimal air temperature, the amount and distribution of precipitation before and also during the growing season are very important.

  6. The Prevailing Weather and Traffic Conditions in the Evaluation of a Future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. A view into the Western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Castells i Sanabra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Appendix III of MARPOL's Annex VI sets out the criteria and procedures for designating an emission control area (ECA.These criteria includes: a clear delineation of the proposed ECA; types of emissions proposed for control, land and sea areas at risk; emission quantification and impact assessment; prevailing weather conditions; data and quality on marine traffic; land based measures concurrent with the ECA adoption and the relative costs of reducing emissions from ships. This paper analyses the climate parameter together with traffic conditions: prevailing weather conditions as a parameter to be kept in mind for the adoption of a future ECA in the Mediterranean Sea. Preliminary results would show how marine emissions coming from existing traffic will impact the sea and land ecology in the Mediterranean area.

  7. Energy Consumption and Air-Conditioning Usage in Residential Buildings of Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kubota, Tetsu; Jeong, Sangwoo; Toe, Doris Hooi Chyee; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz

    2011-01-01

    This study provides the detailed information on household energy consumption in residential buildings of Malaysia. A survey was conducted in Johor Bahru in 2009 to analyze electricity consumption due to airconditioning. The results showed that the air-conditioner ownership was 65% and its daily usage time was 6 hours on average. The yearly electricity consumption caused by air-conditioning recorded the largest amount among household appliances. Another survey was carried out in 2004 to reveal...

  8. Passive pre-cooling potential for reducing building air-conditioning loads in hot climates

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhry, H.N.; Hughes, B.R.; Ghani, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    A major source of energy consumption in the building sector is the extensive use of Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) systems to meet the rising demands for indoor comfort. Advancements in reducing cooling loads will have a direct impact on energy consumption in the built environment. The present study investigated the thermal performance of a heat pipe heat exchanger in transferring sensible heat from high-temperature natural air streams. In order to ensure the system's sustai...

  9. Computer system for the assessment of radiation situation in the cases of radiological accidents and extreme weather conditions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talerko, M.; Garger, E.; Kuzmenko, A. [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Radiation situation within the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone (ChEZ) is determined by high radionuclides contamination of the land surface formed after the 1986 accident, as well as the presence of a number of potentially hazardous objects (the 'Shelter' object, the Interim Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Facility ISF-1, radioactive waste disposal sites, radioactive waste temporary localization sites etc.). The air concentration of radionuclides over the ChEZ territory and radiation exposure of personnel are influenced by natural and anthropogenic factors: variable weather conditions, forest fires, construction and excavation activity etc. The comprehensive radiation monitoring and early warning system in the ChEZ was established under financial support of European Commission in 2011. It involves the computer system developed for assessment and prediction of radiological emergencies consequences in the ChEZ ensuring the protection of personnel and the population living near its borders. The system assesses radiation situation under both normal conditions in the ChEZ and radiological emergencies which result in considerable radionuclides emission into the air (accidents at radiation hazardous objects, extreme weather conditions). Three different types of radionuclides release sources can be considered in the software package. So it is based on a set of different models of emission, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides: 1) mesoscale model of radionuclide atmospheric transport LEDI for calculations of the radionuclides emission from stacks and buildings; 2) model of atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides due to anthropogenic resuspension from contaminated area (area surface source model) as a result of construction and excavation activity, heavy traffic etc.; 3) model of resuspension, atmospheric transport and deposition of radionuclides during grassland and forest fires in the ChEZ. The system calculates the volume and surface

  10. Solar Absorption Refrigeration System for Air-Conditioning of a Classroom Building in Northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Tanmay; Varun; Kumar, Anoop

    2015-10-01

    Air-conditioning is a basic tool to provide human thermal comfort in a building space. The primary aim of the present work is to design an air-conditioning system based on vapour absorption cycle that utilizes a renewable energy source for its operation. The building under consideration is a classroom of dimensions 18.5 m × 13 m × 4.5 m located in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh in India. For this purpose, cooling load of the building was calculated first by using cooling load temperature difference method to estimate cooling capacity of the air-conditioning system. Coefficient of performance of the refrigeration system was computed for various values of strong and weak solution concentration. In this work, a solar collector is also designed to provide required amount of heat energy by the absorption system. This heat energy is taken from solar energy which makes this system eco-friendly and sustainable. A computer program was written in MATLAB to calculate the design parameters. Results were obtained for various values of solution concentrations throughout the year. Cost analysis has also been carried out to compare absorption refrigeration system with conventional vapour compression cycle based air-conditioners.

  11. Errata, nursing homes. Budget percentiles for baseline and redesigned commercial type buildings: cities with try weather tapes; based on resource utilization factors (RUF); based on price weighting factors (PWF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-22

    Corrected data are presented for the P50 Redesign figure for nursing homes in the following documents in the series entitled Budget Percentiles for Baseline and Redesigned Commercial Type Buildings: For Cities with TRY Weather Tapes, Based on Price Weighing Factors (PWF), and Based on Resource Utilization Factors (RUF). (MCW)

  12. What is the weather like today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Sladjana

    2017-04-01

    Meteorology is the study of all changes in the atmosphere that surround the Earth. In this project, students will design and build some of the instruments that meteorologists use and make two school Weather Stations and placed them in different school yards so that results of weather parameters date can be follow during three months and be compared. Poster will present a procedure and a preparation how to work with weather stations that contain 1. Barometer (Air pressure) 2. Rain Gauge (Precipitation) 3. Thermometer (Temperature ) 4. Wind Vane (Wind Direction) By collecting their own data, the students found out more about weather through a process similar to the one that professional meteorologists used. Finally students compared differences between two school weather station and used these results to presented how different places had different climate and how climate changed during the months in a year. This was opportunity for cooperation between students from different schools and different grades when older students from secondary school helped younger student to make their weather station and shared knowledge and experience while they followed weather condition during the project .

  13. Building materials as intrinsic sources of sulphate: A hidden face of salt weathering of historical monuments investigated through multi-isotope tracing (B, O, S)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kloppmann, W., E-mail: w.kloppmann@brgm.fr [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Bromblet, P.; Vallet, J.M. [CICRP, 21, rue Guibal, F-13003 Marseille (France); Verges-Belmin, V. [LRMH, 29, rue de Paris, F-77420 Champs sur Marne (France); Rolland, O. [Independent restorer, 3, rue du Gue, 37270 Montlouis s/Loire (France); Guerrot, C. [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); Gosselin, C. [BRGM, BP 6009, F-45060 Orleans cedex 2 (France); LRMH, 29, rue de Paris, F-77420 Champs sur Marne (France)

    2011-04-01

    Sulphate neoformation is a major factor of degradation of stone monuments. Boron, sulphur and oxygen isotope signatures were investigated for five French historical monuments (Bourges, Chartres and Marseille cathedrals, Chenonceau castle, and Versailles garden statues) to investigate the role of intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plasters and mortars) in stone degradation, compared to the influence of extrinsic sources such as atmospheric pollution. Gypsum plasters and gypsum-containing mortars fall systematically in the {delta}{sup 34}S and {delta}{sup 18}O range of Paris Basin Eocene evaporites indicating the origin of the raw materials (so-called 'Paris plaster'). Black crusts show the typical S and O isotope signatures observed elsewhere in Europe that can be attributed to atmospheric pollution, together with a marine component for Marseille. Boron isotopes for black crusts indicate coal combustion as principal boron source. Mortar isotope compositions discriminate three types, one similar to gypsum plasters, one strongly depleted in {sup 34}S, attributed to pyrite oxidation, and a third one close to atmospheric sulphates. The isotopic composition of sulphates and boron of most degraded building stones of the different monuments is well explained by the identified sulphate sources. In several cases (in particular for Chenonceau and Bourges, to some extent for Chartres), the impact of gypsum plaster as building and restoration material on the degradation of the stones in its vicinity was clearly demonstrated. The study illustrates the usefulness of multi-isotope studies to investigate stone degradation factors, as the combination of several isotope systematics increases the discriminatory power of isotope studies with respect to contaminant sources. - Research Highlights: {yields} Insight in stone weathering mechanisms by multi-isotope fingerprinting (B, S, O). {yields} Intrinsic sulphate sources (gypsum plaster, mortar) contribute to stone degradation

  14. Impact of tephra falls on Andean communities: The influences of eruption size and weather conditions during the 1999-2001 activity of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pennec, Jean-Luc; Ruiz, Gorki A.; Ramón, Patricio; Palacios, Enrique; Mothes, Patricia; Yepes, Hugo

    2012-03-01

    Repeated ash fall events have occurred during the 1999-ongoing eruption of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, notably during the late 1999 and August 2001 eruptive phases. While the eruptive styles were similar, these two phases had different impacts on nearby rural and urban Andean populations: ash falls in late 1999 had limited effects on human health and farming, whereas the 2001 phase resulted in medical problems, death of animals in livestock, and damages to houses and crops. Here we investigate the origin of this difference by estimating the size of the August 2001 event (VEI, magnitude, intensity), and by comparing monitoring information of the 1999 and 2001 phases (duration, explosion rate, column height, SO2 output rate). The results show that both phases ranked at VEI 3, although the longer 1999 phase was likely larger than the 2001 phase. Mass magnitude (M) and intensity (I) indexes calculated for the 2001 phase reach M ≈ 2.7 and I ≈ 6.5 when based on ash fall layer data, but increase to M ≈ 3.2 and I ≈ 7.0 when ballistic products are included. We investigated the influence of rain fall and wind flow regimes on ash dispersion, sedimentation and remobilization. The analysis indicates that the harmful effect of the 2001 phase resulted from unfavorable conditions that combined volcanological and seasonal origins, including: a) a low elevation of the ash plume above rural regions owed to a usually bent-over column, b) ash sedimentation in a narrow area west of the volcano under sub-steady wind directions, c) anticipated ash settling by frequent rain flushing of low intensity, and d) formation of a wet cohesive ash coating on buildings and harvests. Conversely, the stronger 1999 phase injected a large amount of ash at higher elevation in the dry season; the ash was widely disseminated across the whole Ecuadorian territory and beyond, and was frequently removed by rain and winds. In summary, our study illustrates the influences of eruption size and weather

  15. Preliminary Results Of Hydrodynamic Responses To Ship Movements And Weather Conditions Along The Coastal Walls Of Shallow Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Dursun; Alpar, Bedri; Cagatay, Namık; Ozeren, Sinan; Sarı, Erol; Eris, Kadir; Vardar, Denizhan; Arslan, Tugce; Basegmez, Koray

    2016-04-01

    Water-level variations in coastal areas and shallow channels take place under the influence of more complex factors, compared to those in deeper areas. Atmospheric pressure, wind, and wave interactions with bottom morphological characteristics are some important natural features while human-induced factors are usually maritime traffic and manoeuvres the ships. While weather conditions cause long-term changes in water level, water level interactions in near shore areas, can occur very quickly depending on the ship manoeuvres and squat characteristics, and these rapid changes can lead to unpredictable water level lowering. Such rapid changes may cause various dangerous incidents and ship accidents, particularly in areas where rapid water oscillations occur. Improper calculations of propulsion power or orientation of the ship body, especially in the areas where geological and morphological characteristics permit fast water movements, are the most important additional causes of accidents due to sudden water level decreases. For an example, even though a 200-m-long vessel can complete its 35° rotation in a circular area with radius of 250 m, if it is calm and sufficiently deep, this diameter increases 5 times at the shallow waters also depending on the hydrodynamic flow conditions. In 2005, "Gerardus Mercator" has bumped into the inside bottom wall of the channel with a low speed (4 knots) turn of when she had just made a 200° turn. Seven years later the cruise ship "Costa Concordia" struck a rock, before she drifted and grounded, in the calm seas of the coast of Isola del Giglio in Italy, due to a combined effects of waves generated by side waves of ship manoeuvres, atmospheric pressure and squat specifications as well. The waves reflected from the seawalls complicate the navigation problems which should be examined in detail. Thus, three prototype models with various angular seawall features were prepared, simple in shape with perpendicular and sloped seawalls with

  16. Fuzzy logic control of air-conditioning system in residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hamid Attia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been a rising concern in reducing the energy consumption in building. Heating ventilation and air condition system is the biggest consumer of energy in building. In this study, fuzzy logic control of the air conditioning system of building for efficient energy operation and comfortable environment is investigated. A theoretical model of the fan coil unit (FCU and the heat transfer between air and coolant fluid is derived. The controlled variables are the room temperature and relative humidity and control consequents are the percentage of chilled and hot water flow rates at summer and the percentage of hot water and steam injected flow rates at winter. A computer simulation has been conducted and fuzzy control results are compared with that of conventional Proportional-Integral-Derivative control. It was found that the proposed control strategy satisfies the space load and at the same time to achieve the comfort zone, as defined by the ASHRAE code. Meanwhile PID control fails to adjust the room temperature at part-load operations. It has been demonstrated that fuzzy controller operation is more efficient and consumes less energy than PID control.

  17. Aesthetic and energy consequences of air conditioning systems in building design integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Mila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are among the top of energy consumers. It is estimated that over 50% of the overall produced energy is consumed in buildings, mainly on heating and cooling. Application of air conditioning systems saw an important expansion in the past decade. These systems are used, not only for cooling but for heating, or supplemental heating, as well (as heat pumps. While there is virtually no alternative to their usage as cooling systems, heating applications should be reconsidered in a more subtle manner to maintain the principles of energy efficiency. Mass consumption of air conditioners has as an effect a significant rise in consumption of energy, mainly during the summer. Aesthetic consequences are another important problem. Since the placement of these appliances is not regulated by law, and left to the citizens they are commonly self-initiated and misaligned which undermines aesthetic values. Additional problem is placement of air conditioning systems on protected objects (religious institutions, object under protection which undermines not only aesthetic, but historical value as well. On the other hand, many new buildings represent a positive example, since this problem is adhered from the very start of conceptual design, and these appliances are covered with adequate architectural solutions. This paper will try to cover positive and negative examples of Serbia, Montenegro, and some other Balkan and Western Europe's countries. It will also give recommendations in solving the negative energy and aesthetic consequences of these problems. Non-controlled application of air conditioning systems is becoming a health problem. Large differences between the interior and exterior temperature leads to an array of health problems registered by many medical reports. Improper maintenance of air conditioning systems could lead to bacterial propagation which could seriously damage health.

  18. The effect of environmental conditions on sodium chloride damage: A step in the development of an effective weathering test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Groot, C.J.W.P.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory weathering tests are important in the field of restoration as they provide a means of estimating, in a relatively short time, the longer-term performance of conservation materials when applied in practice. Accelerated tests to simulate the damage caused to porous materials by soluble

  19. Stochastic convective rain‐field simulation using a high‐resolution synoptically conditioned weather generator (HiReS‐WG)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peleg, Nadav; Morin, Efrat

    2014-01-01

    ...‐intensity rainfall generator. The HiReS‐WG was applied to a study region on the northwestern Israeli coastline in the Eastern Mediterranean, for which 12 year weather radar and synoptic data were extensively analyzed to derive probability...

  20. Air conditioning in high rise buildings; conditionnement d'air dans les immeubles de grande hauteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This book brings together the 103 presentations given at the 2. conference of the international institute of refrigeration (IIF/IIR) about air conditioning in high rise office buildings. The main themes are: design of air conditioning equipment for high buildings; air quality and thermal comfort inside these buildings; constraints and possible improvements of the refrigeration equipment used; energy conservation; fire protection and smokes detection. All themes are presented both on the technical and economical points of view and concern more particularly the buildings of Chinese cities. This publication is available both on the book and CD-Rom forms. (J.S.)

  1. Weather and road capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces s...

  2. THE USE OF AIR LAYERS IN BUILDING ENVELOPES FOR ENERGY SAVING DURING AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since there are no large natural energy resources in Belarus, energy savings ought to be a point of the special attention. With this regard it is important to develop modern ways of savings during the process of air conditioning inside new buildings with an air layer in the enclosure, especially in translucent ones. The system of ventilation of air layers in the enclosure of a building has been introduced in which air movement is caused by the gravitational and aerodynamic forces. It makes it possible to arrange further ventilation – a natural, forced or a hybrid one. With the purpose of increasing and streamlining natural draught the partitions are used separating the different parts of air layers. For natural ventilation with the use of gravitational forces the holes in the upper and lower parts of the partitions between adjacent air layers are applied. Natural ventilation in the holes of the partitions is regulated by movable shutters, blinds or other adjusting devices. For combined or forced air exchange between adjacent zones of air layers fans are used pumping air from the air layer zones with a higher temperature to zones of air layers with lower temperature and vice versa. When air exchange is forced, in order to intensify the infiltration of air into zones of air layers jets are laid on a hard surface. In order to cool a multi-layered enclosure of a building, where the movement of air between the air layers (that have been formed by internal partitions is being fulfilled by a natural, forced or combined mode, a part of the air or the total air processed inside the building (i.e. conditioned or non-conditioned air cooler as compared with the outside one is being sent to these strata. Combined or forced flow of the air processed inside the building into the air layers is done through the ducts associated with the output channels of the air conditioners. The internal partitions are equipped with the air valve hole.

  3. Thermoregulatory responses and blood parameters of locally adapted ewes under natural weather conditions of Brazilian semiarid region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirton Peixoto Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the natural weather conditions on respiratory rate, rectal temperature and hematologic parameters such as glucose, total cholesterol, triacylglycerol, total protein, albumin, globulin, red blood cells, microhematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, serum triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 levels was evaluated in red (RMN and white (WMN coat colored Morada Nova ewes, of different class of body condition score (CBCS, during the dry (from july to december and wet (from january to june seasons, which exhibited different (P<0.05 air temperature, relative humidity and radiant thermal load averages. Tukey’s test was used and the difference considered was to P<0.05. Significant greater averages of respiratory rate were observed in the dry period compared to the rainy period (42.26±8.96 and 36.89±8.20 breaths min-1, respectively, mainly in the RMN (45.54±8.23 breaths min-1 compared with the WMN (39.27±8.57 breaths min-1. No differences were observed in rectal temperature measurements between the dry and the wet periods (38.59±0.58 and 38.60±0.56 oC, respectively, but the WMN had higher values than the RMN (38.77±0.54 and 38.40±0.54 oC, respectively. The glucose and total cholesterol were higher in the wet season, with no variation due to breed variety and CBCS. The triacylglycerol did not change between breed varieties and seasons. The albumin was similar between varieties and in different seasons, being different in CBCS. Total protein and globulin serum were higher during the wet season, but total protein was higher and globulin was lower in better CBCS. T3 and T4 levels were higher in the rainy season (0.25±0.07 and 6.74±11.37 ?g dL-1, for T3 and T4, respectively than in the dry season (0.18±0.08 and 6.31±1.64 ?g dL-1, for T3 and T4, respectively. The red blood cells showed no difference, but microhematocrit was higher in WMN and in the better CBCS and mean corpuscular volume was higher in the dry season. The concentration

  4. Evaluation of Two CEDA Weatherization Pilot Implementations of an Exterior Insulation and Over-Clad Retrofit Strategy for Residential Masonry Buildings in Chicago

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhauser, Ken [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    This project examines the implementation of an exterior insulation and over-clad strategy for brick masonry buildings in Chicago—a free-standing two story two-family dwelling and a larger free-standing multifamily building. The test homes selected for this research represent predominant housing types for the Chicago area, in which high heating energy use typical in these buildings threaten housing affordability, and uninsulated mass masonry wall assemblies are uncomfortable for residents. In this project, the Community and Economic Development Association of Cook County, Inc. (CEDA) has secured a Sustainable Energy Resources for Consumers (SERC) innovation grant sponsored by DOE to pursue a pilot implementation of innovative approaches to retrofit in masonry wall enclosures. The retrofit measures are evaluated in terms of feasibility, cost and performance. Through observations of the strategies implemented, the research described in this report identifies measures critical to performance as well as conditions for wider adoption. The research also identifies common factors that must be considered in determining whether the exterior insulation and over-clad strategy is appropriate for the building.

  5. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Integrated Concrete: An Assessment of Nanoparticle Release When Exposed to UV Radiation and Wet Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-23

    These applications exploit titanium dioxide’s self-cleaning property to prevent the growth of organic material and abate air pollutants like...weatherization protocol for carbon 24 nanotubes developed by NanoRelease (32). This protocol is patterned after the ISO 4892-2/2013 standard...skin physiology 14:92 41. Ryman-Rasmussen JP, Tewksbury EW, Moss OR, Cesta MF, Wong BA, Bonner JC. 2009. Inhaled multiwalled carbon nanotubes

  6. Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. Matthew; Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Yokuda, Satoru T.

    2011-05-31

    The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests

  7. Modeling of an Air Conditioning System with Geothermal Heat Pump for a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to address climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions attaches great importance to research aimed at using renewable energy. Geothermal energy is an interesting alternative concerning the production of energy for air conditioning of buildings (heating and cooling, through the use of geothermal heat pumps. In this work a model has been developed in order to simulate an air conditioning system with geothermal heat pump. A ground source heat pump (GSHP uses the shallow ground as a source of heat, thus taking advantage of its seasonally moderate temperatures. GSHP must be coupled with geothermal exchangers. The model leads to design optimization of geothermal heat exchangers and to verify the operation of the geothermal plant.

  8. Summarized Data of Test Space Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Inspections from the Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the characteristics of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system(s) in the entire BASE building including types of ventilation, equipment configurations, and operation and maintenance issues

  9. AUTOMATED SYSTEM OF OPERATIONAL CONTROL HEATING AND AIR CONDITIONING OF BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRENKO A. O.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Health and human performance largely determined by the conditions of climate and air quality in residential, administrative and residential and public buildings. At that, in turn, is influenced by the external environment and the climate, and the geometric dimensions of the room, and thermal performance building envelopes, and the location of the premises (Orientation, and many other factors. The result is the formation of complex systems, which control decision-making in conditions of multifactor [1]. In hygienic purposes it is necessary to strive to create the best indoor microclimate conditions, regardless of changes in the factors that affect the climate in residential, administrative and residential and public buildings. Develop systems to ensure the necessary microclimate parameters – it is a complex and important task, which will depend entirely comfortable and cozy environment for the person. The problem of the present time, there is a steady increase in the energy consumption of these systems, due to the rise in price of non-renewable energy sources, and our job is, to simulate the work of software systems necessary microclimate for the changes in the factors that affect it and to minimize the use of non-renewable energy sources. Analysis of recent research and publications. Domestic and foreign hygienists [2, 3, 4] to establish a connection between the climate in the room and in the workplace and the state of human health. Formation of the indoor climate of residential, administrative and residential and public buildings is influenced by many factors that have already noted earlier [5, 6]. Study of the processes of influence of various factors on human health is of great complexity. If we consider each process separately, and in this case they are not currently amenable to theoretical description clearer. To simulate the effect of these factors studies were conducted, which showed that, with sufficient

  10. Method for Cost-Benefit Analysis of Improved Indoor Climate Conditions and Reduced Energy Consumption in Office Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoras Dorosevas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Indoor climate affects health and productivity of the occupants in office buildings, yet in many buildings of this type indoor climate conditions are not well-controlled due to insufficient heating or cooling capacity, high swings of external or internal heat loads, improper control or operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC equipment, etc. However, maintenance of good indoor environmental conditions in buildings requires increased investments and possible higher energy consumption. This paper focuses on the relation between investment costs for retrofitting HVAC equipment as well as decreased energy use and improved performance of occupants in office buildings. The cost-benefit analysis implementation algorithm is presented in this paper, including energy survey of the building, estimation of occupants dissatisfied by key indoor climate indicators using questionnaire survey and measurements. Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS analysis is used in the proposed method for data processing. A case study of an office building is presented in order to introduce an application example of the proposed method. Results of the study verify the applicability of the proposed algorithm and TOPSIS analysis as a practical tool for office building surveys in order to maximize productivity by means of cost efficient technical building retrofitting solutions.

  11. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  12. The influence of regional urbanization and abnormal weather conditions on the processes of human climatic adaptation on mountain resorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonova, M.; Golitsyn, G.; Senik, I.; Safronov, A.; Babyakin, A.; Efimenko, N.; Povolotskaya, N.; Topuriya, D.; Chalaya, E.

    2012-04-01

    This work is a further development in the study of weather pathogenic index (WPI) and negative influence of urbanization processes on the state of people's health with adaptation disorder. This problem is socially significant. According to the data of the WHO, in the world there are from 20 to 45% of healthy people and from 40 to 80% of people with chronic diseases who suffer from the raised meteosensitivity. As a result of our researches of meteosensitivity of people during their short-duration on mountain resorts there were used negative adaptive reactions (NAR) under 26 routine tests, stress-reactions under L.H. Garkavi's hemogram, vegetative indices, tests of neuro-vascular reactivity, signs of imbalance of vegetative and neurohumoral regulation according to the data of biorhythm fractal analysis and sudden aggravations of diseases (SAD) as an indicator of negative climatic and urbanization influence. In 2010-2011 the Caucasian mountain resorts were having long periods of climatic anomalies, strengthening of anthropogenic emissions and forest fires when record-breaking high waves of NAR and SAD were noticed. There have also been specified indices ranks of weather pathogenicity from results of comparison of health characteristics with indicators of synoptico-dynamic processes according to Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF); air ionization N+, N-, N+/N- spectra of aerosol particles (the size from 500 to 20000 nanometers) and concentrations of chemically active gases (O3, NO, NO2, ), volatile phytoorganic substances in the surface atmosphere, bactericidal characteristics of vegetation by criterion χ2 (not above 0,05). It has allowed us to develop new physiological optimum borders, norm and pessimum, to classify emergency ecologo-weather situations, to develop a new techniques of their forecasting and prevention of meteopathic reactions with meteosensitive patients (Method of treatment and the early (emergency) and planned prevention meteopatic reactions

  13. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  14. Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings in humid subtropical climate zone in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Zhang, Guoqiang

    2008-05-01

    A thermal comfort field study has been carried out in five cities in the humid subtropical climate zone in China. The survey was performed in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings during the summer season in 2006. There were 229 occupants from 111 buildings who participated in this study and 229 questionnaire responses were collected. Thermal acceptability assessment reveals that the indoor environment in naturally ventilated buildings could not meet the 80% acceptability criteria prescribed by ASHRAE Standard 55, and people tended to feel more comfortable in air-conditioned buildings with the air-conditioned occupants voting with higher acceptability (89%) than the naturally ventilated occupants (58%). The neutral temperatures in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings were 28.3 degrees C and 27.7 degrees C, respectively. The range of accepted temperature in naturally ventilated buildings (25.0-31.6 degrees C) was wider than that in air-conditioned buildings (25.1-30.3 degrees C), which suggests that occupants in naturally ventilated buildings seemed to be more tolerant of higher temperatures. Preferred temperatures were 27.9 degrees C and 27.3 degrees C in naturally ventilated and air-conditioned buildings, respectively, both of which were 0.4 degrees C cooler than neutral temperatures. This result suggests that people of hot climates may use words like "slightly cool" to describe their preferred thermal state. The relationship between draught sensation and indoor air velocity at different temperature ranges indicates that indoor air velocity had a significant influence over the occupants' comfort sensation, and air velocities required by occupants increased with the increasing of operative temperatures. Thus, an effective way of natural ventilation which can create the preferred higher air movement is called for. Finally, the indoor set-point temperature of 26 degrees C or even higher in air-conditioned buildings was confirmed as making

  15. Effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range behaviour of slow-growing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadig, L M; Rodenburg, T B; Ampe, B; Reubens, B; Tuyttens, F A M

    2017-06-01

    Free-range use by broiler chickens is often limited, whereas better use of the free-range area could benefit animal welfare. Use of free-range areas could be stimulated by more appropriate shelter or environmental enrichment (by decreasing birds' fearfulness). This study aimed to assess the effects of shelter type, early environmental enrichment and weather conditions on free-range use. Three production rounds with 440 slow-growing broiler chickens (Sasso T451) were carried out. Birds were housed indoors in four groups (two with males, two with females) from days 0 to 25, during which two of the groups received environmental enrichment. At day 23 birds' fearfulness was assessed with a tonic immobility (TI) test (n=100). At day 25 all birds were moved (in mixed-sex groups) to mobile houses, and provided with free-range access from day 28 onwards. Each group could access a range consisting for 50% of grassland with 21 artificial shelters (ASs, wooden A-frames) and for 50% of short rotation coppice (SRC) with willow (dense vegetation). Free-range use was recorded by live observations at 0900, 1300 and 1700 h for 15 to 21 days between days 28 and 63. For each bird observed outside the shelter type (AS or SRC), distance from the house (0 to 2, 2 to 5, >5 m) and its behaviour (only rounds 2 and 3) were recorded. Weather conditions were recorded by four weather stations. On average, 27.1% of the birds were observed outside at any given moment of observation. Early environmental enrichment did not decrease fearfulness as measured by the TI test. It only had a minor effect on the percentage of birds outside (0.4% more birds outside). At all distances from the house, SRC was preferred over AS. In AS, areas closer to the house were preferred over farther ones, in SRC this was less pronounced. Free-range use increased with age and temperature and decreased with wind speed. In AS, rainfall and decreasing solar radiation were related to finding more birds outside, whereas the

  16. Effect of C60 fullerenes on the accumulation of weathered p,p'-DDE by plant and earthworm species under single and multispecies conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsey, Jason W; White, Jason C

    2013-04-01

    The use of engineered nanomaterials has increased dramatically in recent years, but an understanding of nanomaterial fate and effects in the environment is lacking. In particular, the interaction of nanomaterials with coexisting organic contaminants and the subsequent implications for sensitive biota is almost completely unknown. Here, the effect of C60 fullerenes on the accumulation of weathered dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; DDT metabolite) by Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin) and Eisenia fetida (earthworm) was determined under single and multispecies conditions. The plants, in the presence or absence of earthworms, were grown in soil containing weathered DDE (200 ng/g) and 0 or 1,670 mg/kg C60 fullerenes. Plants and earthworms were added either simultaneously or sequentially (earthworms after plants). Neither DDE nor C60 had an impact on survival or biomass of plants and earthworms, although fullerenes significantly decreased (29.6-39.0%) the relative root mass. Under single or multispecies conditions, C60 had little impact on DDE bioaccumulation by either species. The DDE concentrations in non-fullerene-exposed shoots, roots, and earthworms were 181, 7,400, and 8,230 ng/g, respectively. On fullerene exposure, the DDE content was nonsignificantly lower at 163, 7280, and 7540 ng/g, respectively. In the presence of the earthworms, C60 significantly decreased the shoot DDE content (28.6%), but no impact on root concentrations was observed. Root DDE content was unaffected by the presence of fullerenes and decreased by 21.6 to 37.5% during coexposure with earthworms. Earthworm DDE content was decreased by plant presence. Earthworms added to soils after plant harvest accumulated more DDE but were unaffected by the C60 exposure. Additional work is necessary, but these findings suggest that fullerenes may have minimal impact on the bioaccumulation of weathered cocontaminants in soil. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  17. The effect of extreme spring weather on body condition and stress physiology in Lapland longspurs and white-crowned sparrows breeding in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Jesse S; Pérez, Jonathan H; Chmura, Helen E; Sweet, Shannan K; Meddle, Simone L; Hunt, Kathleen E; Gough, Laura; Boelman, Natalie; Wingfield, John C

    2016-10-01

    Climate change is causing rapid shifts in temperature while also increasing the frequency, duration, and intensity of extreme weather. In the northern hemisphere, the spring of 2013 was characterized as extreme due to record high snow cover and low temperatures. Studies that describe the effects of extreme weather on phenology across taxa are limited while morphological and physiological responses remain poorly understood. Stress physiology, as measured through baseline and stress-induced concentrations of cortisol or corticosterone, has often been studied to understand how organisms respond to environmental stressors. We compared body condition and stress physiology of two long-distance migrants breeding in low arctic Alaska - the white-crowned sparrow (Zonotrichia leucophrys) and Lapland longspur (Calcarius lapponicus) - in 2013, an extreme weather year, with three more typical years (2011, 2012, and 2014). The extended snow cover in spring 2013 caused measureable changes in phenology, body condition and physiology. Arrival timing for both species was delayed 4-5days compared to the other three years. Lapland longspurs had reduced fat stores, pectoralis muscle profiles, body mass, and hematocrit levels, while stress-induced concentrations of corticosterone were increased. Similarly, white-crowned sparrows had reduced pectoralis muscle profiles and hematocrit levels, but in contrast to Lapland longspurs, had elevated fat stores and no difference in mass or stress physiology relative to other study years. An understanding of physiological mechanisms that regulate coping strategies is of critical importance for predicting how species will respond to the occurrence of extreme events in the future due to global climate change. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Differences in volatile profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in two distinct regions of China and their responses to weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Dong; Reeves, Malcolm J; Duan, Chang-Qing

    2015-04-01

    Volatile compounds are considered important for plants to communicate with each other and interact with their environments. Most wine-producing regions in China feature a continental monsoon climate with hot-wet summers and dry-cold winters, giving grapes markedly different growing environments compared to the Mediterranean or oceanic climates described in previous reports. This study focused on comparing the volatile profiles of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon berries from two regions with distinct climate characteristics: Changli has a warm and semi-humid summer, and Gaotai has a cool-arid summer and a cold winter. The relationship between meteorological metrics and the concentrations of grape volatiles were also examined. In harvested grapes, benzyl alcohol, phenylethyl alcohol, 1-hexanol and 1-octen-3-ol were more abundant in the Changli berries, while hexanal, heptanal, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine, and (E)-β-damascenone presented higher levels in the Gaotai berries. The fluctuation in the accumulation of volatile compounds observed during berry development was closely correlated with variations in short-term weather (weather in a week), especially rainfall. The concentration of some volatiles, notably aliphatic aldehydes, was significantly related to diurnal temperature differences. The variability during berry development of concentrations for compounds such as C6 volatile compounds, 2-methoxy-3-isobutylpyrazine and (E)-β-damascenone strongly depended upon weather conditions. This work expands our knowledge about the influence of continental monsoon climates on volatile compounds in developing grape berries. It will also improve the comprehension of the plant response to their surrounding environments through the accumulation of volatiles. The results will help growers to alter viticultural practices according to local conditions to improve the aromatic quality of grapes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Model of pre-harvest quality of pineapple guava fruits (Acca sellowiana (O. berg burret as a function of weather conditions of the crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Parra-Coronado

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Weather conditions influence the quality parameters of pineapple guava fruit during growth and development. The aim of this study was to propose a model of pre-harvest fruit quality as a function of weather conditions in the cultivation area. Twenty trees were flagged per farm in 2 localities of the Department of Cundinamarca, Colombia: Tenjo (2,580 m.a.s.l.; 12.5 °C; relative humidity between 74 and 86%; mean annual precipitation 765 mm and San Francisco de Sales (1,800 m.a.s.l.; 20.6 °C; relative humidity between 63 and 97%; mean annual precipitation 1,493 mm. Measurements were performed every 7 days during 2 harvest periods starting on days 96 (Tenjo and 99 (San Francisco de Sales after anthesis and until harvest. The models were obtained using Excel® Solver, and a set of data was obtained for the 2 different cultivar periods and each study site. The results showed that altitude, growing degree days, and accumulated precipitation are the weather variables with the highest influence on the physicochemical characteristics of the fruit during growth. The models of fresh weight, total titratable acidity, and skin firmness better predict the development of fruit quality during growth and development. Equations were obtained for increases of length and diameter as a function of fruit weight and for days from anthesis as a function of growing degree days and altitude. The regression analysis parameters showed that the models adequately predicted the fruit characteristics during growth for both localities, and a cross-validation analysis showed a good statistical fit between the estimated and observed values.

  20. Energy conservative building air conditioning system controlled and optimized using fuzzy-genetic algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameshwaran, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai (India); Karunakaran, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University Tiruchirappalli-Thirukkuvalai Campus (India); Kumar, C. Vinu Raja [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai (India); Iniyan, S. [Institute for Energy Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai (India)

    2010-05-15

    In this work, the combined effect of the energy conservative variable refrigerant volume (VRV) system and the variable air volume (VAV) system was experimentally investigated using genetic fuzzy optimization method that yielded better thermal comfort, indoor air quality (IAQ) requirements without compromising on the energy savings potential. The proposed system was tested using the demand controlled ventilation (DCV) combined with the economizer cycle ventilation (ECV) techniques and examined for a year-round building air conditioning (A/C) application. The supply air temperature (SAT) set points were varied under three distinct strategies and the optimal solutions obtained for the fuzzy systems designed resulted in an enhanced energy conservative potential. The test results of the proposed system were compared with the conventional fan coil A/C system. Based on the three strategies of the supply air temperature, the proposed system yielded an improved per day energy savings potential of 54% in summer and 61% in winter design conditions. Furthermore, for the strategies considered the proposed system achieved an annual energy conservative potential of 36% and exhibited more possible ways to achieve thermal comfort, IAQ and energy conservation. (author)

  1. Power Prediction and Technoeconomic Analysis of a Solar PV Power Plant by MLP-ABC and COMFAR III, considering Cloudy Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khademi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of power generated by photovoltaic (PV panels in different climates is of great importance. The aim of this paper is to predict the output power of a 3.2 kW PV power plant using the MLP-ABC (multilayer perceptron-artificial bee colony algorithm. Experimental data (ambient temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity was gathered at five-minute intervals from Tehran University’s PV Power Plant from September 22nd, 2012, to January 14th, 2013. Following data validation, 10665 data sets, equivalent to 35 days, were used in the analysis. The output power was predicted using the MLP-ABC algorithm with the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, the mean bias error (MBE, and correlation coefficient (R2, of 3.7, 3.1, and 94.7%, respectively. The optimized configuration of the network consisted of two hidden layers. The first layer had four neurons and the second had two neurons. A detailed economic analysis is also presented for sunny and cloudy weather conditions using COMFAR III software. A detailed cost analysis indicated that the total investment’s payback period would be 3.83 years in sunny periods and 4.08 years in cloudy periods. The results showed that the solar PV power plant is feasible from an economic point of view in both cloudy and sunny weather conditions.

  2. The impact of weather conditions on dynamics of Hylocomium splendens annual increment and net production in forest communities of forest-steppe zone in Khakassia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Goncharova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of annual increments of green moss Hylocomium splendens (Hedw. Schimp. in B.S.G. in the Khakassia forest-steppe zone has been studied. The values of the moss linear and phytomass increments were investigated in different habitats for 6 years. The aboveground annual production of the H. splendens in phytocenosis was estimated. Linear increments of the H. splendens growing under the tree canopy and opening between trees were not significantly different. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are significantly higher than in the openings between trees. The density of moss mats, proportion between leaves and stems were calculated. It was revealed that climatic factors have a different degree and duration influence on the moss increments in different habitats. Linear increments of H. splendens in different habitats synchronously respond to weather factor changes. The air temperature was the most important at the beginning and the end of the vegetation period; the amount of precipitation was more important in the middle of the growth period. Phytomass increments of H. splendens in different habitats respond differently to influence of weather conditions. Phytomass increments under the tree canopy are not sensitive to air temperature, and more sensitive to precipitations in the middle of growth period than one of opening between trees. The specificity of the climatic factors’ influence on the biomass growth depends on habitat conditions.

  3. Daylighting for energy conservation in an existing building under tropical climate conditions: a case study of Lai Sue Thai building Ramkhamhaeng University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerdlekha Tanachaikhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daylighting using skylight has been shown to have a high potential in reducing electrical lighting energy, and could provide a more pleasant atmosphere of a daylit space. However, in hot climates, the main constraint of daylighting is the solar heat gain that contributes to major heat load for an air-conditioning system. If the balance between the beneficial light gain used to offset lighting energy requirement and heat gain from daylight is well considered, significant energy savings can be obtained. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of daylighting for energy conservation in the tropics through theoretical analysis (simulation study and experimental observation. Lai Sue Thai Building (an existing and educational building located at Ramkhamkaeng University was selected as a case study. From analysis, use of daylight could reduce electrical energy in this building by up to 76% compared to the initial condition where fully lighting was supplied. Window orientation would also play an important role. Moreover, heat gain through windows due to daylighting can be controlled by overhangs and the appropriate Window-to-Wall ratio that would be about 30% for this building. An experimental study was also carried out to validate the results in a selected room. About 49% and 37% of Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE were observed in light and heat measurements, respectively

  4. Sea Buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) Berries in Nordic Environment: Compositional Response to Latitude and Weather Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2016-06-22

    Flavonol glycosides (FGs) in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) berries of varieties 'Tytti' and 'Terhi', cultivated in northern Finland (68°02' N) for six years and southern Finland (60°23' N) for seven years, were investigated and compared by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The average total content of 23 identified glycosides of isorhamnetin and quercetin was 103 ± 23 and 110 ± 21 mg/100 g fresh berries in 'Terhi' and 'Tytti', respectively. The total contents of FGs, flavonol diglycosides, and triglycosides in both varieties were higher in the north than in the south, whereas total flavonol monoglycoside content behaved vice versa (p < 0.05). Among the 89 weather variables studied, the sum of the daily mean temperatures that are 5 °C or higher from the start of growth season until the day of harvest was the most important variable which associated negatively with the accumulation of FGs in berries. Such influence was much stronger in berries from the north than from the south.

  5. Application of a solar refrigeration system by absorption for the air conditioning of buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machielsen, Cees H. M [Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg (Netherlands); Hagendijk, Andre E [Consultancy and Research (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Sofri project, a cooperation between Ceeran Ltd and The Delft University of Technology. The main objective of this project is to develop the necessary knowledge and experience to commercialize solar-assisted air conditioning and dehumidification systems in the Dutch Caribbean. The project is motivated by the present needs of the Dutch Caribbean for renewable energy sources and the fact that the Caribbean has a high and uniform insolation throughout the year. Furthermore, hotels and offices in this area use more than 40% of their energy for air-conditioning purposes. Therefore solar-assisted air conditioning systems are a logic approach in reducing the energy demand and to lower the peak electricity reducing the energy demands for the local power station. Ceeran Ltd has the objective to reach full commercialization of the proposed technologies in the Dutch Caribbean. The research is concentrated on liquid absorption machines and solar collection systems such as flat plates with selective surfaces, heat pipe evacuated tubes flat plate collectors, and Compound Parabolic Concentrators. The first demonstration unit is planned to be installed in an office building in Curacao. The installation consists of a 35 kW LiBr/H{sub 2}O absorption machine driven by 100 m{sup 2} flat pate collectors with a gas backup system. The system will provide comfort air-conditioning for this these type of office buildings during daytime. [Spanish] Este documento describe el proyecto SOFRI, una cooperacion entre Ceeran, Ltd, y la Universidad Tecnologica del Delft. El principal objetivo de este proyecto es el de desarrollar el conocimiento necesario y la experiencia para comercializar los sistemas de aire acondicionado y deshumidificacion ayudados por la energia solar en el Caribe Holandes. Este proyecto ha sido motivado por las actuales necesidades del Caribe Holandes de fuentes de energia renovable y por el hecho de que el Caribe tiene una alta y uniforme insolacion

  6. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  7. Application of solar energy in heating and cooling of residential buildings under Central Asian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy for almost all the processes developing in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The total duration of sunshine in Tajikistan ranges from 2100 to 3170 hours per year. Solar collectors can be mounted on the roof of a house after its renovation and modernization. One square meter of surface area in Central Asia accounts for up to 1600 kW/h of solar energy gain, whilst the average gain is 1200 kW/h. Active solar thermal systems are able to collect both low- and high-temperature heat. Active systems require the use of special engineering equipment for the collection, storage, conversion and distribution of heat, while a low-grade system is based on the principle of using a flat solar collector. The collector is connected to the storage tank for storing the heated water, gas, etc. The water temperature is in the range 50-60 °C. For summer air conditioning in hot climates, absorption-based solar installations with open evaporating solution are recommended. The UltraSolar PRO system offers an opportunity to make a home independent of traditional electricity. Combining Schneider Electric power generation and innovative energy storage technology results in an independent power supply. Traditional power supply systems can be short-lived since they store energy in lead-acid batteries which have a negligible lifetime. Lead-acid batteries operate in a constant charge-discharge mode, require specific conditions for best performance and can fail suddenly. Sudden failure of lead acid batteries, especially in winter in the northern part of Tajikistan, completely disables the heating system of a building. Instead, it is recommended to use industrial lithium-ion batteries, which have a significantly longer life and reliability compared to lead-acid type. UltraSolar PRO are ideal and provide a complete package, low noise and compact lithium-ion power supply.

  8. Analyzing screen heat insulation and its effect on energy consumption while heating building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytchikov Yuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to screen heat insulation and its effect on energy consumption while heating building envelopes in conditions of intermittent heating. It also describes the non-stationary process of heat transfer through heat insulated outer walls. The authors introduce calculation results of specific energy consumption for heating insulated and non-insulted outer walls. The paper proves that energy consumption for heating insulated outer walls depends on the thickness of non-aerated air-space insulation The research shows positive effects of using thermal protection systems with screen thermal insulation in outer building envelopes in conditions of intermitten heating.

  9. Verification of an ENSO-Based Long-Range Prediction of Anomalous Weather Conditions During the Vancouver 2010 Olympics and Paralympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ruping; Joe, Paul I.; Doyle, Chris; Whitfield, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review of the anomalous weather conditions during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games and the efforts to predict these anomalies based on some preceding El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals are presented. It is shown that the Olympic Games were held under extraordinarily warm conditions in February 2010, with monthly mean temperature anomalies of +2.2 °C in Vancouver and +2.8 °C in Whistler, ranking respectively as the highest and the second highest in the past 30 years (1981-2010). The warm conditions continued, but became less anomalous, in March 2010 for the Paralympic Games. While the precipitation amounts in the area remained near normal through this winter, the lack of snow due to warm conditions created numerous media headlines and practical problems for the alpine competitions. A statistical model was developed on the premise that February and March temperatures in the Vancouver area could be predicted using an ENSO signal with considerable lead time. This model successfully predicted the warmer-than-normal, lower-snowfall conditions for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics.

  10. buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Hui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the formation of the blasting seismic wave transmission is a complex mechanical process. Blasting seismic wave in different geological structure formation of the interface, diffraction, reflection, projection as the incident Angle is different, all kinds of waveform transformation, formation of different types, different amplitude, frequency and phase of various wave superimposition of random composite wave. Blasting seismic wave propagation distance (horizontal distance and height difference, and the performance of the explosive, explosive charge, charge structure, priming method, congestion state what international airport, the plane and direction, topography and geological conditions will affect the blasting vibration effect. In engineering by empirical formula to estimate main parameters of blasting seismic wave and the structure of the empirical formula is the result of the use of theoretical analysis, by blasting of similar rate to determine the parameters in the formula is made up of many engineering measured data from statistical analysis, or directly by the measured parameters of the blasting seismic wave is given. In this paper, through various points were set in the prison line large speed is the most value, using the mathematical statistics regression analysis method, attenuation coefficient is obtained, and then back to the formula of single ring allows maximum dose safety distance calculated.

  11. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid climates--why are we not getting it right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhar, S C

    2016-02-01

    While there are plenty of anecdotal experiences of overcooled buildings in summer, evidence from field studies suggests that there is indeed an issue of overcooling in tropical buildings. The findings suggest that overcooled buildings are not a consequence of occupant preference but more like an outcome of the HVAC system design and operation. Occupants' adaptation in overcooled indoor environments through additional clothing cannot be regarded as an effective mitigating strategy for cold thermal discomfort. In the last two decades or so, several field studies and field environmental chamber studies in the tropics provided evidence for occupants' preference for a warmer temperature with adaptation methods such as elevated air speeds. It is important to bear in mind that indoor humidity levels are not compromised as they could have an impact on the inhaled air condition that could eventually affect perceived air quality. This review article has attempted to track significant developments in our understanding of the thermal comfort issues in air-conditioned office and educational buildings in hot and humid climates in the last 25 years, primarily on occupant preference for thermal comfort in such climates. The issue of overcooled buildings, by design intent or otherwise, is discussed in some detail. Finally, the article has explored some viable adaptive thermal comfort options that show considerable promise for not only improving thermal comfort in tropical buildings but are also energy efficient and could be seen as sustainable solutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Tools for Performance Simulation of Heat, Air and Moisture Conditions of Whole Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woloszyn, Monika; Rode, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    Humidity of indoor air is an important factor influencing the air quality and energy consumption of buildings as well as durability of building components. Indoor humidity depends on several factors, such as moisture sources, air change, sorption in materials and possible condensation. Since all...

  13. Physicochemical risk factors for building-related symptoms in air-conditioned office buildings: Ambient particles and combined exposure to indoor air pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Kenichi; Ikeda, Koichi; Kagi, Naoki; Yanagi, U; Osawa, Haruki

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological study to examine the correlation between indoor air quality (IAQ) and building-related symptoms (BRSs) of office workers in air-conditioned office buildings. We investigated 11 offices during winter and 13 offices during summer in 17 buildings with air-conditioning systems in Tokyo, Osaka, and Fukuoka, and we included 107 office workers during winter and 207 office workers during summer. We conducted environmental sampling for evaluating IAQ and concurrently administered self-reported questionnaires to collect information regarding work-related symptoms. Multivariate analyses revealed that upper respiratory symptoms showed a significant correlation with increased indoor temperature [odds ratio (OR), 1.55; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.18] and increased indoor concentration of suspended particles released from the ambient air pollution via air-conditioning systems (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.08-1.59) during winter. In particular, smaller particles (particle size>0.3μm), which possibly penetrated through the filter media in air-conditioning systems from ambient air, were correlated with upper respiratory symptoms. The use of high-efficiency particulate air filters in air-conditioning systems and their adequate maintenance may be an urgent solution for reducing the indoor air concentration of submicron particles. Several irritating volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethylbenzene, toluene, and xylenes) that were positively correlated with the indoor air concentration among their VOCs, were associated with upper respiratory symptoms, although their indoor air concentrations were lower than those specified by the indoor air quality guideline. A new approach and strategy for decreasing the potential combined health risks (i.e., additive effect of risks) associated with multiple low-level indoor pollutants that have similar hazardous properties are required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  14. Natural Weathering Rates of Silicate Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. F.

    2003-12-01

    Silicates constitute more than 90% of the rocks exposed at Earth's land surface (Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971). Most primary minerals comprising these rocks are thermodynamically unstable at surface pressure/temperature conditions and are therefore susceptible to chemical weathering. Such weathering has long been of interest in the natural sciences. Hartt (1853) correctly attributed chemical weathering to "the efficacy of water containing carbonic acid in promoting the decomposition of igneous rocks." Antecedent to the recent interest in the role of vegetation on chemical weathering, Belt (1874) observed that the most intense weathering of rocks in tropical Nicaragua was confined to forested regions. He attributed this effect to "the percolation through rocks of rain water charged with a little acid from decomposing vegetation." Chamberlin (1899) proposed that the enhanced rates of chemical weathering associated with major mountain building episodes in Earth's history resulted in a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 that led to periods of global cooling. Many of the major characteristics of chemical weathering had been described when Merrill (1906) published the groundbreaking volume Rocks, Rock Weathering, and Soils.The major advances since that time, particularly during the last several decades, have centered on understanding the fundamental chemical, hydrologic, and biologic processes that control weathering and in establishing quantitative weathering rates. This research has been driven by the importance of chemical weathering to a number environmentally and economically important issues. Undoubtedly, the most significant aspect of chemical weathering is the breakdown of rocks to form soils, a process that makes life possible on the surface of the Earth. The availability of many soil macronutrients such as magnesium, calcium, potassium, and PO4 is directly related to the rate at which primary minerals weather. Often such nutrient balances are upset by anthropogenic

  15. Future weather dataset for fourteen UK sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunde

    2016-09-01

    This Future weather dataset is used for assessing the risk of overheating and thermal discomfort or heat stress in the free running buildings. The weather files are in the format of .epw which can be used in the building simulation packages such as EnergyPlus, DesignBuilder, IES, etc.

  16. Humidity Build-Up in a Typical Electronic Enclosure Exposed to Cycling Conditions and Effect on Corrosion Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conseil, Helene; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2016-01-01

    The design of electronic device enclosures plays a major role in determining the humidity build-up inside the device as a response to the varying external humidity. Therefore, the corrosion reliability of electronic devices has direct connection to the enclosure design. This paper describes...... the internal humidity build-up in a typical enclosure prescribed for electronic applications as a function of external humidity conditions and enclosure-related parameters. Investigated parameters include external temperature and humidity conditions, the temperature and time of the internal heating cycle......, thermal mass, and port/opening size. The effect of the internal humidity build-up on corrosion reliability has been evaluated by measuring the leakage current (LC) on interdigitated test comb patterns, which are precontaminated with sodium chloride and placed inside the enclosure. The results showed...

  17. Evapotranspiration and land surface process responses to afforestation in western Taiwan: A comparison between dry and wet weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongqiang Liu; L.B. Zhang; L. Hao; Ge Sun; S.-C. Liu

    2016-01-01

    An afforestation project was initiated in the western plain of Taiwan to convert abandoned farming lands into forests to improve the ecological and environmental conditions. This study was conducted to understand the potential impacts of this land cover change on evapotranspiration (ET) and other land surface processes and the...

  18. Investigating the association between weather conditions, calendar events and socio-economic patterns with trends in fire incidence: an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jonathan; Higgs, Gary; Rohde, David; Chhetri, Prem

    2011-06-01

    Fires in urban areas can cause significant economic, physical and psychological damage. Despite this, there has been a comparative lack of research into the spatial and temporal analysis of fire incidence in urban contexts. In this paper, we redress this gap through an exploration of the association of fire incidence to weather, calendar events and socio-economic characteristics in South-East Queensland, Australia using innovative technique termed the quad plot. Analysing trends in five fire incident types, including malicious false alarms (hoax calls), residential buildings, secondary (outdoor), vehicle and suspicious fires, results suggest that risk associated with all is greatly increased during school holidays and during long weekends. For all fire types the lowest risk of incidence was found to occur between one and six a.m. It was also found that there was a higher fire incidence in socially disadvantaged neighbourhoods and there was some evidence to suggest that there may be a compounding impact of high temperatures in such areas. We suggest that these findings may be used to guide the operations of fire services through spatial and temporal targeting to better utilise finite resources, help mitigate risk and reduce casualties.

  19. Assessing School Council Contribution to the Enabling Conditions for Instructional Capacity Building: "An Urban District in Kentucky"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Wade Kenneth; Keedy, John L.

    2006-01-01

    This study identified the enabling conditions related to building instructional capacity created by the councils in three high-performance schools in an urban district. The authors collected the data through observation, interview, and document mining. School-level data were sorted inductively into themes through constant comparative analysis.…

  20. [On the issue of optimization of adaptation process to new environment taking into consideration climate and weather conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, A V; Koldunov, I N; Rakhmanov, R S

    2014-01-01

    There are revealed the features in the registration of newly diagnosed morbidity in cases in the organized team out of number of persons constantly living in the conditions of Baltic Sea (Kaliningrad region), as well as in those coming from other parts of the Russian Federation. This stipulates the elaboration of measures for prevention of disadaptational shifts in the organism related with adaptational processes as well as the process of acclimatization.

  1. Evaluation of Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning (HVAC System Performance in an Administrative Building in Tehran (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mari Oriyad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the factors influencing on indoor air quality of the buildings is performance of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. These systems supply clean and odorless air, with temperature, humidity, and air velocity within comfort ranges for the residents. The aim of this study was to evaluate performance HVAC system in an administrative building in Tehran. .Material and Method: A questionnaire, developed in their research was used to assess the building occupants’ perception about the performance of HVAC system. To evaluate the performance of HVAC systems, air velocities were measured in the diffusers using a thermal anemometer. Moreover, CO2 concentration, air temperature and relative humidity were measured in the whole floors of the building. Air distribution inside the building was evaluated using smoke test. .Results: Most of the studied people complained about the direction of airflow, thermal conditions and cigarette odor. The highest level of carbon dioxide was measured at 930 ppm inside the restaurant. The maximum and minimum air temperatures and relative humidity were measured 28.3-13.8° C and 28.4-23% respectively. Smoke test showed that the air distribution/direction wasn’t suitable in one third of air diffusers. .Conclusion: Improper air distribution / direction was the main problem with the studied HVAC system which could be corrected by adjusting and balancing of the system.

  2. User's Guide and Download for IECCU- Indoor Environmental Concentrations in Buildings with Conditioned and Unconditioned Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    This program serves two purposes: (1) as a general-purpose indoor exposure model in buildings with multiple zones, multiple chemicals and multiple sources and sinks, and (2) as a special-purpose concentration model

  3. A study of the passive cooling potential in simulated building in Latvian climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prozuments, A.; Vanags, I.; Borodinecs, A.; Millers, R.; Tumanova, K.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper authors point out that overheating in buildings during summer season is a major problem in moderate and cold climates, not only in warm climate zones. Mostly caused by solar heat gains, especially in buildings with large glazed areas overheating is a common problem in recently constructed low-energy buildings. At the same time, comfort demands are increasing. While heating loads can be decreased by improving the insulation of the building envelope, cooling loads are also affecting total energy demand. Passive cooling solutions allow reduction of heat gains, and thus reducing the cooling loads. There is a significant night cooling potential with low temperatures at night during summer in moderate and cold climates. Night cooling is based on cooling of buildings thermal mass during the night and heat accumulation during the day. This approach allows to provide thermal comfort, reducing cooling loads during the day. Authors investigate thermal comfort requirements and causes for discomfort. Passive cooling methods are described. The simulation modeling is carried out to analyze impact of constructions and building orientation on energy consumption for cooling using the IDA-ICE software. Main criteria for simulation analysis are energy consumption for cooling and thermal comfort.

  4. The influence of weather conditions on the course of pollen seasons of alder (Alnus spp., hazel (Corylus spp. and birch (Betula spp. in Lublin (2001-2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dąbrowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The start and rate of florescence of Alnus, Corylus and Betula are dependent on meteorological conditions. In the present paper we have analysed the effect of mean, maximum and minimum temperature, relative air humidity and precipitation on the onset of the pollen season as well as on its length and annual count of pollen grains in alder, hazel and birch. The measurement of pollen fall was done by the gravimetric methods with the use of Durham sampler. Correlation coefficients were calculated between the determined characteristics of the pollen season and weather conditions. In the six-year research period 2001-2006 it was observed that low temperatures in January produced a delayed start of the pollen season in alder, hazel and birch. The beginning of flowering in these taxa was also influenced by thermal conditions prevailing directly before the season (ca. 10 days. The pollen season of the trees in question tended to be prolonged alongside with the increase in relative air humidity, but it was shortened due to higher temperatures. The volume of alder and hazel pollen release increased together with the rise in relative air humidity and precipitation. The annual counts of birch pollen increased along with rising temperature and decreasing relative air humidity and precipitation in the season.

  5. Technology data characterizing space conditioning in commercial buildings: Application to end-use forecasting with COMMEND 4.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sezgen, O.; Franconi, E.M.; Koomey, J.G.; Greenberg, S.E.; Afzal, A.; Shown, L.

    1995-12-01

    In the US, energy consumption is increasing most rapidly in the commercial sector. Consequently, the commercial sector is becoming an increasingly important target for state and federal energy policies and also for utility-sponsored demand side management (DSM) programs. The rapid growth in commercial-sector energy consumption also makes it important for analysts working on energy policy and DSM issues to have access to energy end-use forecasting models that include more detailed representations of energy-using technologies in the commercial sector. These new forecasting models disaggregate energy consumption not only by fuel type, end use, and building type, but also by specific technology. The disaggregation of space conditioning end uses in terms of specific technologies is complicated by several factors. First, the number of configurations of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and heating and cooling plants is very large. Second, the properties of the building envelope are an integral part of a building`s HVAC energy consumption characteristics. Third, the characteristics of commercial buildings vary greatly by building type. The Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI`s) Commercial End-Use Planning System (COMMEND 4.0) and the associated data development presented in this report attempt to address the above complications and create a consistent forecasting framework. This report describes the process by which the authors collected space-conditioning technology data and then mapped it into the COMMEND 4.0 input format. The data are also generally applicable to other end-use forecasting frameworks for the commercial sector.

  6. STUDY ON OCEANGRAFHIC AND WEATHER CONDITIONS RELATED TO THE ABUNDANCE OF SMALL PELAGIC FISHERY IN NATUNA SEA USING REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Prayogo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian waters have abundance of natural resources; the potential of small pelagic fish in Natuna Sea and SouthChina Sea have not been optimized yet explores. Unfortunately, it was caused by lacking in the data of environmentalconditions that have been changed and the information of appropriate fishing ground. Hence, dynamical oceanographicinformation and weather condition is necessary to optimize small pelagic fish exploitation.Research location in Natuna Sea and its surrounding with geographical position is 08°N–03°S; 103°–111°E. Theoceanographic condition representative by monthly SST, Chl-a, SSH that derived from satellite data and Dipole ModeIndex for 2002-2007 from FRCGC website. Monthly wind data is variable for weather condition. Small pelagic fishabundance representative by annual fish production (2002-2005 and monthly Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE ofGoldstripe sardinella, Bigeye scad and Indian scad (2006. It was data collected from Directorate General of CaptureFisheries (Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries and daily fishing operation (2007 used to calculate match-up ratiothat was collected from Pemangkat fishing port in West Kalimantan. Research process consists of image processing,descriptive correlation analysis and GIS analysis to predict fishing ground map and match-up ratio calculation.Result of this research is the annual fish catch production of Bigeye scad and Indian scad (2002-2005 is tend toincrease and the monthly CPUE of both species is high during SE Monsoon (May-Sep that is condition contrarily in NWMonsoon (Nov-Apr. Meanwhile, the annual fish catch production of Goldstripe sardinella production is tend to decreasefrom 2002-2005, it has CPUE is high in early SE Monsoon (May. During the SE Monsoon (May-Sep when DM Index ispositive (+ the Indian scad and Bigeye scad production is high, for Goldstripe sardinella the fish production is highwhen DM Index is positive (+ in May. The accuracy of prediction map of

  7. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-09-01

    This report covers an assessment of 182 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. commercial buildings to identify and provide analysis on 17 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, description of technical maturity, description of non-energy benefits, description of current barriers for market adoption, and description of the technology’s applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  8. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schmidt, Justin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  9. Attraction and mortality of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) to STATIC Spinosad ME weathered under operational conditions in California and Florida: a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Roger I; Souder, Steven K; Hoffman, Kevin; Mercogliano, Juan; Smith, Trevor R; Hammond, Jack; Davis, Bobbie J; Brodie, Matt; Dripps, James E

    2014-08-01

    Studies were conducted in 2013-2014 to quantify attraction, feeding, and mortality of male oriental fruit flies, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), to STATIC Spinosad ME a reduced-risk male annihilation treatment (MAT) formulation consisting of an amorphous polymer matrix in combination with methyl eugenol (ME) and spinosad compared with the standard treatment of Min-U-Gel mixed with ME and naled (Dibrom). Our approach used a behavioral methodology for evaluation of slow-acting reduced-risk insecticides. ME treatments were weathered for 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d under operational conditions in California and Florida and shipped to Hawaii for bioassays. In field tests using bucket traps to attract and capture wild males, and in toxicity studies conducted in 1-m(3) cages using released males of controlled ages, STATIC Spinosad ME performed equally as well to the standard formulation of Min-U-Gel ME with naled for material aged up to 28 d in both California and Florida. In laboratory feeding tests in which individual males were exposed for 5 min to the different ME treatments, mortality induced by STATIC Spinosad ME recorded at 24 h did not differ from mortality caused by Min-U-Gel ME with naled at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d in California and was equal to or higher for all weathered time periods in Florida during two trials. Spinosad has low contact toxicity, and when mixed with an attractant and slow release matrix, offers a reduced-risk alternative for eradication of B. dorsalis and related ME attracted species, without many of the potential negative effects to humans and nontargets associated with broad-spectrum contact insecticides such as naled.

  10. Variable strength of forest stand attributes and weather conditions on the questing activity of Ixodes ricinus ticks over years in managed forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Lauterbach

    Full Text Available Given the ever-increasing human impact through land use and climate change on the environment, we crucially need to achieve a better understanding of those factors that influence the questing activity of ixodid ticks, a major disease-transmitting vector in temperate forests. We investigated variation in the relative questing nymph densities of Ixodes ricinus in differently managed forest types for three years (2008-2010 in SW Germany by drag sampling. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to examine the relative effects of habitat and weather and to consider possible nested structures of habitat and climate forces. The questing activity of nymphs was considerably larger in young forest successional stages of thicket compared with pole wood and timber stages. Questing nymph density increased markedly with milder winter temperatures. Generally, the relative strength of the various environmental forces on questing nymph density differed across years. In particular, winter temperature had a negative effect on tick activity across sites in 2008 in contrast to the overall effect of temperature across years. Our results suggest that forest management practices have important impacts on questing nymph density. Variable weather conditions, however, might override the effects of forest management practices on the fluctuations and dynamics of tick populations and activity over years, in particular, the preceding winter temperatures. Therefore, robust predictions and the detection of possible interactions and nested structures of habitat and climate forces can only be quantified through the collection of long-term data. Such data are particularly important with regard to future scenarios of forest management and climate warming.

  11. Effects of latitude and weather conditions on contents of sugars, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Tuomasjukka, Saska; Ou, Shiyi; Kallio, Heikki

    2009-04-08

    The genetic background determined the composition of black currants and the compositional response to weather conditions. The variety Melalahti had higher values for glucose and sugar/acid ratio and lower contents of fructose, citric acid, quinic acid, and vitamin C than the varieties Mortti and Ola (p<0.05). In comparison to black currants grown in northern Finland (latitude 66 degrees 34' N), the berries grown in southern Finland (latitude 60 degrees 23' N) had higher contents of fructose, glucose, sucrose, and citric acid (by 8.8, 6.1, 10.0, and 11.7%, respectively) and lower contents of malic acid, quinic acid, and vitamin C (by 31.1, 23.9, and 12.6%) (p<0.05). Fructose, glucose, and citric acid in Melalahti were not influenced by the weather, whereas their concentrations in Mortti and Ola correlated positively with the average temperature in February (Pearson's correlation coefficients = 0.53-0.79, p<0.01) and July (Pearson's correlation coefficients = 0.63-0.87, p<0.01) and negatively with the percentage of the days with a relative humidity of 10-30% from the start of the growth season until the day of harvest (Pearson's correlation coefficients = from -0.47 to -0.76, p<0.01). Positive correlations existed between fructose and glucose (Pearson's correlation coefficients = 0.95-0.96, p<0.01), citric acid and fructose (Pearson's correlation coefficients = 0.57-0.75, p<0.01), as well as between citric acid and glucose (Pearson's correlation coefficients = 0.56-0.70, p<0.01) in the three varieties because of the closely related metabolic pathways.

  12. Variable strength of forest stand attributes and weather conditions on the questing activity of Ixodes ricinus ticks over years in managed forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Ralf; Wells, Konstans; O'Hara, Robert B; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Renner, Swen C

    2013-01-01

    Given the ever-increasing human impact through land use and climate change on the environment, we crucially need to achieve a better understanding of those factors that influence the questing activity of ixodid ticks, a major disease-transmitting vector in temperate forests. We investigated variation in the relative questing nymph densities of Ixodes ricinus in differently managed forest types for three years (2008-2010) in SW Germany by drag sampling. We used a hierarchical Bayesian modeling approach to examine the relative effects of habitat and weather and to consider possible nested structures of habitat and climate forces. The questing activity of nymphs was considerably larger in young forest successional stages of thicket compared with pole wood and timber stages. Questing nymph density increased markedly with milder winter temperatures. Generally, the relative strength of the various environmental forces on questing nymph density differed across years. In particular, winter temperature had a negative effect on tick activity across sites in 2008 in contrast to the overall effect of temperature across years. Our results suggest that forest management practices have important impacts on questing nymph density. Variable weather conditions, however, might override the effects of forest management practices on the fluctuations and dynamics of tick populations and activity over years, in particular, the preceding winter temperatures. Therefore, robust predictions and the detection of possible interactions and nested structures of habitat and climate forces can only be quantified through the collection of long-term data. Such data are particularly important with regard to future scenarios of forest management and climate warming.

  13. Humidity conditions in renovated high-rise buildings with three ventilation solutions. Luftfugtighed i renoverede hoejhuse med tre ventilationsloesninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, O.

    1989-01-01

    In connection with the renovation of two high-rise apartment buildings using different methods of ventilation The Danish Building Research Institute examined humidity conditions before and after renovation took place. Air velocities in the living area of one of the buildings were also examined. The methods of ventilation were those which occurs naturally through leaks and open windows only - with mechanical injection in living area and mechanical exhaust from kitchen and bathroom in addition to 20 cm2 outdoor air valve in living area facade and, thirdly, with sealed facades, windows and doors and a 30 cm2 valve in the facade of each room. Air velocity conditions were measured in three flats where mechanical injection and exhaust were established and where part of the indoor air was taken in unheated through valves in the facade. Significant variations were found in relation to the three ventilation methods. Significant variations in humidity conditions were found in relation to the three ventilation solutions. In the building with mechanical injection and exhaust the air humidity conditions were measured as satisfactory. Only in a few flats did the air humidity exceed the limit which might cause condensed moisture on normal double-glazed windows and above the value of about 45 per cent RF at 21 deg. C, often recommended as the upper limit in the coldest season to combat house dust mites. In the building with the original ventilation, with re-sealed facade and installation of a 30 cm2 valve in the facade of each room too high air humidities were measured in many of the flats. The mechanically injected air flow, and the air entering through the outdoor valves did not in general create too high air velocities in the living areas. (AB).

  14. Explaining the road accident risk: weather effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergel-Hayat, Ruth; Debbarh, Mohammed; Antoniou, Constantinos; Yannis, George

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to highlight the link between weather conditions and road accident risk at an aggregate level and on a monthly basis, in order to improve road safety monitoring at a national level. It is based on some case studies carried out in Work Package 7 on "Data analysis and synthesis" of the EU-FP6 project "SafetyNet-Building the European Road Safety Observatory", which illustrate the use of weather variables for analysing changes in the number of road injury accidents. Time series analysis models with explanatory variables that measure the weather quantitatively were used and applied to aggregate datasets of injury accidents for France, the Netherlands and the Athens region, over periods of more than 20 years. The main results reveal significant correlations on a monthly basis between weather variables and the aggregate number of injury accidents, but the magnitude and even the sign of these correlations vary according to the type of road (motorways, rural roads or urban roads). Moreover, in the case of the interurban network in France, it appears that the rainfall effect is mainly direct on motorways--exposure being unchanged, and partly indirect on main roads--as a result of changes in exposure. Additional results obtained on a daily basis for the Athens region indicate that capturing the within-the-month variability of the weather variables and including it in a monthly model highlights the effects of extreme weather. Such findings are consistent with previous results obtained for France using a similar approach, with the exception of the negative correlation between precipitation and the number of injury accidents found for the Athens region, which is further investigated. The outlook for the approach and its added value are discussed in the conclusion. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Artificial Weathering as a Function of CO2 Injection in Pahang Sandstone Malaysia: Investigation of Dissolution Rate in Surficial Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalilavi, Madjid; Zoveidavianpoor, Mansoor; Attarhamed, Farshid; Junin, Radzuan; Mohsin, Rahmat

    2014-01-01

    Formation of carbonate minerals by CO2 sequestration is a potential means to reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Vast amount of alkaline and alkali earth metals exist in silicate minerals that may be carbonated. Laboratory experiments carried out to study the dissolution rate in Pahang Sandstone, Malaysia, by CO2 injection at different flow rate in surficial condition. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and weight losses measurement were performed to analyze the solid and liquid phase before and after the reaction process. The weight changes and mineral dissolution caused by CO2 injection for two hours CO2 bubbling and one week' aging were 0.28% and 18.74%, respectively. The average variation of concentrations of alkaline earth metals in solution varied from 22.62% for Ca2+ to 17.42% for Mg2+, with in between 16.18% observed for the alkali earth metal, potassium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is performed to determine significant differences of the element concentration, including Ca, Mg, and K, before and after the reaction experiment. Such changes show that the deposition of alkali and alkaline earth metals and the dissolution of required elements in sandstone samples are enhanced by CO2 injection.

  16. Comparative long-term trend analysis of daily weather conditions with daily pollen concentrations in Brussels, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; De Smedt, Tom; Delcloo, Andy; Simons, Koen; Hoebeke, Lucie; Verstraeten, Caroline; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2017-10-01

    A clear rise in seasonal and annual temperatures, a gradual increase of total radiation, and a relative trend of change in seasonal precipitation have been observed for the last four decades in Brussels (Belgium). These local modifications may have a direct and indirect public health impact by altering the timing and intensity of allergenic pollen seasons. In this study, we assessed the statistical correlations (Spearman's test) between pollen concentration and meteorological conditions by using long-term daily datasets of 11 pollen types (8 trees and 3 herbaceous plants) and 10 meteorological parameters observed in Brussels between 1982 and 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of change in the annual cycle of the same selected pollen types by the Mann-Kendall test. We revealed an overall trend of increase in daily airborne tree pollen (except for the European beech tree) and an overall trend of decrease in daily airborne pollen from herbaceous plants (except for Urticaceae). These results revealed an earlier onset of the flowering period for birch, oak, ash, plane, grasses, and Urticaceae. Finally, the rates of change in pollen annual cycles were shown to be associated with the rates of change in the annual cycles of several meteorological parameters such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall.

  17. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  18. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  19. On Study of Building Smart Campus under Conditions of Cloud Computing and Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao

    2017-12-01

    two new concepts in the information era are cloud computing and internet of things, although they are defined differently, they share close relationship. It is a new measure to realize leap-forward development of campus by virtue of cloud computing, internet of things and other internet technologies to build smart campus. This paper, centering on the construction of smart campus, analyzes and compares differences between network in traditional campus and that in smart campus, and makes proposals on how to build smart campus finally from the perspectives of cloud computing and internet of things.

  20. Occupant performance and building energy consumption with different philosophies of determining acceptable thermal conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn; Andersen, Rune Vinther; Jensen, Kasper Lynge

    2009-01-01

    configurations, especially in the tropical climate, the estimated performance differed only modestly between configurations. However, energy consumption was always lower in buildings without mechanical cooling, particularly so in the tropical climate. The findings indicate that determining acceptable indoor......Based on building energy and indoor environment simulations, this study uses a recently developed method relying on Bayesian Network theory to estimate and compare the consequences for occupant performance and energy consumption of applying temperature criteria set according to the adaptive model...... thermal environments with the adaptive comfort model may result in significant energy savings and at the same time will not have large consequences for the mental performance of occupants....

  1. Temporal variability of the quality of Taraxacum officinale seed progeny from the East-Ural radioactive trace: is there an interaction between low level radiation and weather conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozolotina, Vera N; Antonova, Elena V

    2017-03-01

    The multiple stressors, in different combinations, may impact differently upon seed quality, and low-level doses of radiation may enhance synergistic or antagonistic effects. During 1991-2014 we investigated the quality of the dandelion (Taraxacum officinale s.l.) seed progeny growing under low-level radiation exposure at the East-Ural Radioactive Trace (EURT) area (result of the Kyshtym accident, Russia), and in plants from areas exposed to background radiation. The viability of the dandelion seed progeny was assessed according to chronic radiation exposure, accounting for the variability of weather conditions among years. Environmental factors (temperature, precipitation, and their ratio in different months) can modify the radiobiological effects. We found a wide range of possible responses to multiple stressors: inhibition, stimulation, and indifferent effects in different seasons. The intraspecific variability of the quality of dandelion seed progeny was greatly increased under conditions of low doses of chronic irradiation. Temperature was the most significant factor for seed progeny formation in the EURT zone, whereas the sums of precipitation and ratios of precipitation to temperature dominantly affected organisms from the background population.

  2. The association between air pollution and weather conditions with increase in the number of admissions of asthmatic patients in emergency wards: a case study in Kermanshah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamutian, Razieh; Najafi, Farid; Soltanian, Mohammad; Shokoohizadeh, Mohamad Javad; Poorhaghighat, Saeedeh; Dargahi, Abdollah; Sharafi, Kiomars; Afshari, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Industrialization and urbanization had a devastating impact on public health and caused an increase in health related morbidity and mortality. In fact, asthma is a chronic condition which is considered as one of the significant challenges of public health. In this study, we investigated the association of air pollution and weather conditions with excess emergency ward admissions of asthmatic patients in Kermanshah hospitals. This was an ecological study. The total number of hospital admissions to emergency wards from all related and major hospitals of Kermanshah was collected from September 2008 through August 2009. In addition, data on air pollution as well as meteorological data were collected from the Environmental Protection Agency and Meteorological Organization of Kermanshah. To determine the association between the number of hospitalization due to asthma with those parameters, Poisson regression was used. The results of Poisson regression revealed a significant association between carbon monoxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and temperature with emergency room visits due to asthma in Kermanshah. No associations were found for sulfur dioxide or for particulate matter. This study provides further evidence for the significant effect of monoxide carbon on asthma; and it suggests that temperature may have a role in the exacerbation of asthma. However, due to the multi-factorial nature of asthma, other factors also play a major role in the development and exacerbation of this illness.

  3. Do weather conditions correlate with findings in failed, provision-filled nest cells of Megachile rotundata (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae) in western North America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts-Singer, Theresa L; James, Rosalind R

    2008-06-01

    Cavity-nesting alfalfa leafcutting bees, Megachile rotundata (F.) (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae), are excellent pollinators of alfalfa, Medicago savita L., for seed production. In commercial settings, artificial cavities are placed in field domiciles for nesting and, thereby, bee populations are sustained for future use. For this study, cells from leafcutting bee nests were collected in late summer from commercial seed fields. Over 3 yr (2003-2005), 39 samples in total of approximately equal to 1,000 cells each were taken from several northwestern U.S. states and from Manitoba, Canada. X-radiography of 500 cells from each sample was used to identify "pollen balls" (i.e., cells in which the pollen-nectar provision remained, but the egg or larva, if present, was not detectable on an x-radiograph). Most U.S. samples seemed to have higher proportions of pollen ball cells than Manitoba samples. Pollen ball cells were dissected to determine the moisture condition of the mass provision and true contents of each cell. Most pollen ball cells from Manitoba samples contained fungus, the frequency of which was positively correlated with cool, wet weather. In the United States, most pollen ball cells had moist provisions, and many of them lacked young brood. Correlation analysis revealed that pollen ball cells occurred in greater proportions in fields with more hot days (above 38 degrees C). Broodless pollen ball cells occurred in greater proportions under cool conditions, but dead small larvae (second-third instars) seemed to occur in greater proportions under hot conditions. Pollen ball cells with unhatched eggs and first instars (in the chorion) occurred in lesser proportions under hot conditions.

  4. Application of Absorption Systems Powered by Solar Ponds in Warm Climates for the Air Conditioning in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing importance of a significant reduction of CO2 emissions in the atmosphere asks the scientific community to find other solutions than fossil fuels with respect to the air conditioning of indoor environments. Nowadays, a priority is represented by the energy expenses reduction, in which residential buildings report one of the highest energy consumption levels among developed countries. The application of alternative energies in residential buildings is an issue debated in the European Commission for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions with the objective to obtain 20% of the demand from renewable sources. This paper suggests the application of the solar energy stored in solar ponds to air-condition small residential buildings, through the use of absorption machines. A feasibility analysis was carried out in some places characterized by climates that are suitable to make the solution here suggested sustainable from an energetic point of view. Buildings characterized by different boundary surface/volume ratios were examined and the energy saving, the amount of CO2 that was not emitted in the environment and the return of investments with respect to a more traditional solution were evaluated.

  5. Byggmeister Test Home: Cold Climate Multifamily Masonry Building Condition Assessment and Retrofit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykowska, H.; Ueno, K.; Van Straaten, R.

    2012-09-01

    This report describes a retrofit project undertaken by Building Science Corporation and partner Byggmeister on a multifamily brick row house located in Jamaica Plain, MA. This project studied the row house to determine the right combination of energy efficiency measures that are feasible, affordable, and suitable for this type of construction and acceptable to homeowners.

  6. Thermo-active building systems and sound absorbers: Thermal comfort under real operation conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Köhler, Benjamin; Rage, Nils; Chigot, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Radiant systems are established today and have a high ecological potential in buildings while ensuring thermal comfort. Free-hanging sound absorbers are commonly used for room acoustic control, but can reduce the heat exchange when suspended under an active slab. The aim of this study is to evalu...

  7. ELEVATED TEMPERATURE AND ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT AFFECT CONDITION OF REEF BUILDING CORALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract and Poster for the EPA Science Forum.Reef-building corals are declining throughout the world, even at locations with low human populations. Declines have been linked to global changes in land use and climate change. EPA's Office of Research and Development is inv...

  8. Byggmeister Test Home. Cold Climate Multifamily Masonry Building Condition Assessment and Retrofit Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wytrykowska, H. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Ueno, K. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States); Van Straaten, R. [Building Science Corporation (BSC), Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This report describes a retrofit project undertaken by Building Science Corporation and partner Byggmeister on a multifamily brick row house located in Jamaica Plain, MA. This project studied the row house to determine the right combination of energy efficiency measures that are feasible, affordable, and suitable for this type of construction and acceptable to homeowners.

  9. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaddour Mehiriz

    Full Text Available The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities' preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities' capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change.

  10. REVIEW OF RESEARCH AT VIRGINIA TECH ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCHOOL BUILDING CONDITION AND STUDENT AND TEACHER PERFORMANCE AND ATTITUDES

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, James Scott

    2014-01-01

    The research study is a review of research at Virginia Tech on the relationship between school building condition and student and teacher performance and attitudes. There have been several reviews or synthesis studies of the research in the field of school facilities over the last 65 years. One institution, Virginia Tech has produced several research studies in this area of scholarly work over the past two decades. With this large corpus of research directly related to Cash's theoretical mod...

  11. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  12. Putting Weather into Weather Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2001-12-01

    Just as weather forecasting has a colorful and often farsighted history within geophysics, financial mathematics has a long and turbulent history within mathematics. Thus it is no surprise that the intersection of real physics and real financial mathematics provides a rich source of problems and insight in both fields. This presentation targets open questions in one such intersection: quantifying ``weather risk.'' There is no accepted (operational) method for including deterministic information from simulation models (numerical weather forecasts, either best guess or by ensemble forecasting methods), into the stochastic framework most common within financial mathematics. Nor is there a stochastic method for constructing weather surrogates which has been proven successful in application. Inasmuch as the duration of employable observations is short, methods of melding short term, medium-range and long term forecasts are needed. On these time scales, model error is a substantial problem, while many methods of traditional statistical practice are simply inappropriate given our physical understanding of the system. A number of specific open questions, along with a smaller number of potential solutions, will be presented. >http://www.maths.ox.ac.uk/~lenny/WeatherRisk

  13. Limiting conditions for decay in wood systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul I. Morris; Jerrold E. Winandy

    2002-01-01

    Hygrothermal models can predict temperature and moisture conditions in wall components subjected to real weather data, but specific data and a fundamental understanding of how temperature and wood moisture content dictate the progression of decay under these conditions is required for modellers to predict consequences of decay on building performance. It is well...

  14. Roadway weather information system and automatic vehicle location (AVL) coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    Roadway Weather Information System and Automatic Vehicle Location Coordination involves the : development of an Inclement Weather Console that provides a new capability for the state of Oklahoma : to monitor weather-related roadway conditions. The go...

  15. Weather Information Services supporting Civilian UAS Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We build a system that supports the weather information needs of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) planning to fly in the National Airspace System (NAS). This weather...

  16. Hybrid ventilation in residential buildings – the proposal of research for the Polish climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostka Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the geographic location and the influence of the polar maritime and polar continental air masses we observe a large variety and variability of external air parameters in Poland. Both during the whole year and also in shorter, even several-day periods. The parameters of outside air indicate that combination of mechanical and natural ventilation in detached buildings can be cost-effective and allows keeping the thermal comfort and good indoor air quality.

  17. Chemical weathering of flat continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffre, Pierre; Goddéris, Yves; Ladant, Jean-Baptiste; Carretier, Sébastien; Moquet, Jean-Sébastien; Donnadieu, Yannick; Labat, David; Vigier, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    Mountain uplift is often cited as the main trigger of the end Cenozoic glacial state. Conversely, the absence of major uplift is invoked to explain the early Eocene warmth. This hypothesis relies on the fact that mountain uplift increases the supply of "fresh" silicate rocks through enhanced physical erosion, and boosts CO2 consumption by chemical weathering. Atmospheric CO2 —and therefore climate— then adjust to compensate for the changes in weatherability and keep the geological carbon cycle balanced (Walker's feedback). Yet, orography also strongly influences the global atmospheric and oceanic circulation. Consequently, building mountains does not only change the weathering regime in the restricted area of the orogen, but also modifies the worldwide distribution of the weathering flux. We conduct a numerical experiment in which we simulate the climate of the present day world, with all mountain ranges being removed. Up-to-date weathering and erosion laws (West, 2012; Carretier et al., 2014) are then used to quantify the global weathering for a "flat world". Specifically, the parameters of the weathering law are first carefully calculated such that the present day distribution of the weathering fluxes matches the riverine geochemical data. When removing mountains, we predict a warmer and wetter climate, especially in geographic spots located in the equatorial band. The calculated response of the global weathering flux ranges from an increase by 50% to a decrease by 70% (relative to the present day with mountains). These contrasted responses are pending on the parameterisation of the weathering model, that makes it more sensitive to reaction rate (kinetically-limited mode) or to rock supply by erosion (supply-limited mode). The most likely parameterisation —based on data-model comparison— predicts a decrease of CO2 consumption by weathering by 40% when mountains are removed. These results show that (1) the behaviour of the weathering engine depends on the

  18. Gene expression of indoor fungal communities under damp building conditions: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Bridget; Dannemiller, Karen; Peccia, Jordan

    2018-03-03

    Dampness and visible mold growth in homes is associated with negative human health outcomes but causal relationships between fungal exposure and health are not well established. The purpose of this study was to determine if dampness in buildings impacts fungal community gene expression and how, in turn, gene expression may modulate human health impacts. A metatranscriptomic study was performed on house dust fungal communities to investigate the expression of genes and metabolic processes in chamber experiments at water activity levels of 0.5, 0.85 and 1.0. Fungi at water activities as low as 0.5 were metabolically active, focusing their transcriptional resources on primary processes essential for cell maintenance. Metabolic complexity increased with water activity where communities at 1.0 displayed more diverse secondary metabolic processes. Greater gene expression at increasing water activity has important implications for human health: fungal communities at 1.0 a w up-regulated a greater number of allergen, mycotoxin, and pathogenicity encoding genes versus communities at 0.85 and 0.5 a w . In damp buildings, fungi may display increases in secondary metabolic processes with the potential for greater per cell production of allergens, toxins, and pathogenicity. Assessments in wet versus dry buildings that do not account for this elevated health impact may not accurately reflect exposure. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. New Concept for Museum Storage Buildings – Evaluation of Building Performance Model for Simulation of Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik; Knudsen, Lise Ræder; Kollias, Christos Georgios

    2016-01-01

    is close to be CO2 neutral. The analysis shows very good agreement between simulations and measurements, meaning that the proposed methods can be used for designing museum storage buildings. The analysis also shows, that the weather conditions of previous years, affect the indoor environment...

  20. Weather, Climate, and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Information from the American Institute of Medical Climatologists on human responses to weather and climatic conditions, including clouds, winds, humidity, barometric pressure, heat, cold, and other variables that may exert a pervasive impact on health, behavior, disposition, and the level of efficiency with which individuals function is reviewed.…

  1. Weathering the storm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, B.

    2007-06-15

    Although growth of 50% over 10 years is forecast for the coal industry in Canada, operators face a skills shortage and have to overcome harsh weather conditions to move their coal. The papers reviews the industry and reports on recent developments. 6 figs.

  2. Using weather forecasts for predicting forest-fire danger

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Gisborne

    1925-01-01

    Three kinds of weather control the fluctuations of forest-fire danger-wet weather, dry weather, and windy weather. Two other conditions also contribute to the fluctuation of fire danger. These are the occurrence of lightning and the activities of man. But neither of these fire-starting agencies is fully effective unless the weather has dried out the forest materials so...

  3. The influence of ethephon application to processing tomato plants on yield structure in relation to weather conditions during the growing period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jędrszczyk Elżbieta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of ethephon application (Agrostym 480 SL on the yield and yield structure of five processing tomato cultivars (Rumba, Hubal, Sokal F1 , Mieszko F1 and Polset F1 . The experiment was carried out in the open field in the years 2009-2011 in Mydlniki near Kraków, Poland. Two weeks before harvesting, half of the plants of each cultivar were treated with Agrostym 480 SL (3 dm3 ha-1 and the other half were left as a control without spraying. Marketable yield included properly shaped and welldeveloped light red and red fruits. Non-marketable yield included pink and turning fruits, mature green and breaker fruits, and diseased fruits. A generalized linear model (GLM for Poisson distribution with the log link function was used to determine the relationship between the years of the study and cultivar and selected values of the yield structure. The yield structure of tomato depended significantly on the weather conditions during the growing period in different years of the study, on the cultivar, and on the use of ethephon. Ethephon had a particularly beneficial effect on yield structure in the years with an unfavourable distribution of precipitation. Ethephon application in the years 2009 and 2010 had a beneficial effect on the health of tomato plants.

  4. A novel algorithm for monitoring reservoirs under all-weather conditions at a high temporal resolution through passive microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuai; Gao, Huilin

    2016-08-01

    Flood mitigation in developing countries has been hindered by a lack of near real-time reservoir storage information at high temporal resolution. By leveraging satellite passive microwave observations over a reservoir and its vicinity, we present a globally applicable new algorithm to estimate reservoir storage under all-weather conditions at a 4 day time step. A weighted horizontal ratio (WHR) based on the brightness temperatures at 36.5 GHz is introduced, with its coefficients calibrated against an area training data set over each reservoir. Using a predetermined area-elevation (A-H) relationship, these coefficients are then applied to the microwave data to calculate the storage. Validation results over four reservoirs in South Asia indicate that the microwave-based storage estimations (after noise reduction) perform well (with coefficients of determination ranging from 0.41 to 0.74). This is the first time that passive microwave observations are fused with other satellite data for quantifying the storage of individual reservoirs.

  5. Synoptic weather conditions during BOBMEX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We document the flow features, which are associated with the important synoptic systems that affected the Bay of Bengal (BoB) and its neighbourhood and controlled the convective activity there during BOBMEX. The monsoon during July and August, 1999 was subdued. It was slightly more active in the initial phase of ...

  6. High Energy-Efficient Windows with Silica Aerogel for Building Refurbishment: Experimental Characterization and Preliminary Simulations in Different Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the potential of high energy-efficient windows with granular silica aerogel for energy saving in building refurbishment. Different glazing systems were investigated considering two kinds of granular silica aerogel and different glass layers. Thermal transmittance and optical properties of the samples were measured and used in building simulations. The aerogel impact on heat transfer is remarkable, allowing a thermal transmittance of 1.0–1.1 W/(m2·K with granular aerogel in interspace only 15 mm in thickness. A 63% reduction in U-value was achieved when compared to the corresponding conventional windows, together with a significant reduction (30% in light transmittance. When assembled with a low-e glass, the U-value reduction was lower (31%, but a moderate reduction in light transmittance (about 10% was observed for larger granules. Energy simulations for a case study in different climate conditions (hot, moderate, and cold showed a reduction in energy demand both for heating and cooling for silica aerogel glazing systems, when compared to the conventional ones. The new glazings are a suitable solution for building refurbishment, thanks to low U-values and total solar transmittance, also in warm climate conditions.

  7. Limitations and Challenges of Building Democracy in the Conditions of Multiethnic Society in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenč Jozef

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some politicians in Europe ever more frequently claim that multiculturalism has failed. Others assert that it is primarily the current model of democracy which is in crisis. On the other hand Africa is generally perceived as a continent without experience with either democratic tradition or even liberal concept of multiculturalism. But is that really the case? What do we know about the diversity of the African continent in Central Europe? A potential positive example of successful democratisation and multiculturalism forming processes in Africa could be presented by Zambia. Where are then the limitations and challenges in the process of building a democratic system within the framework of African multiculturalism?

  8. A Low-energy Building under Arctic Conditions - Experiences After Five Years of Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Vladyková, Petra; Kotol, Martin

    2011-01-01

    , advanced windows, a ventilation system with heat recovery, and a solar collector that supplies a significant proportion of the domestic hot water. A very ambitious target was set for the annual energy consumption for heating, which was less than half of the value for permissible heat consumption according...... matches the expectations regarding low energy consumption and a high indoor climatic standard. The house did not meet the anticipated low target for energy consumption, and some reasons have been found which could explain why. Insufficient air-tightness of the building envelope, malfunction of some...

  9. Space Weather: Terrestrial Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkkinen Tuija

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Space weather effects arise from the dynamic conditions in the Earth’s space environment driven by processes on the Sun. While some effects are influenced neither by the properties of nor the processes within the Earth’s magnetosphere, others are critically dependent on the interaction of the impinging solar wind with the terrestrial magnetic field and plasma environment. As the utilization of space has become part of our everyday lives, and as our lives have become increasingly dependent on technological systems vulnerable to space weather influences, understanding and predicting hazards posed by the active solar events has grown in importance. This review introduces key dynamic processes within the magnetosphere and discusses their relationship to space weather hazards.

  10. Considering the Specific Impact of Harsh Conditions and Oil Weathering on Diversity, Adaptation, and Activity of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Strategies of Bioremediation of Harsh Oily-Polluted Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfa Al Disi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Weathering processes change properties and composition of spilled oil, representing the main reason of failure of bioaugmentation strategies. Our purpose was to investigate the metabolic adaptation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at harsh conditions to be considered to overcome the limitations of bioaugmentation strategies at harsh conditions. Polluted soils, exposed for prolonged periods to weathered oil in harsh soils and weather conditions, were used. Two types of enrichment cultures were employed using 5% and 10% oil or diesel as sole carbon sources with varying the mineral nitrogen sources and C/N ratios. The most effective isolates were obtained based on growth, tolerance to toxicity, and removal efficiency of diesel hydrocarbons. Activities of the newly isolated bacteria, in relation to the microenvironment from where they were isoalted and their interaction with the weathered oil, showed individual specific ability to adapt when exposed to such factors, to acquire metabolic potentialities. Among 39 isolates, ten identified ones by 16S rDNA genes similarities, including special two Pseudomonas isolates and one Citrobacter isolate, showed particularity of shifting hydrocarbon-degrading ability from short chain n-alkanes (n-C12–n-C16 to longer chain n-alkanes (n-C21–n-C25 and vice versa by alternating nitrogen source compositions and C/N ratios. This is shown for the first time.

  11. Moulding Interpersonal Relations through Conditional Clauses: Consensus-Building Strategies in Written Academic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchal, Krystyna

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on the interpersonal potential of the conditional clause as a rhetorical device for establishing a dialogue between the author and the reader of an academic text in search for shared understanding and consensus. It presents a corpus-based analysis of functions conditional clauses play in linguistics research articles in an…

  12. The relationship between measured moisture conditions and fungal concentrations in water-damaged building materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasanen, A L; Rautiala, S; Kasanen, J P; Raunio, P; Rantamäki, J; Kalliokoski, P

    2000-06-01

    We determined the moisture levels, relative humidity (RH) or moisture content (MC) of materials, and concentrations of culturable fungi, actinomycetes and total spores as well as a composition of fungal flora in 122 building material samples collected from 18 moisture problem buildings. The purpose of this work was to clarify if the is any correlation between the moisture parameters and microbial levels or generic composition depending on the type of materials and the time passed after a water damage. The results showed an agreement between the concentrations of total spores and culturable fungi for the wood, wood-based and gypsum board samples (r > 0.47). The concentrations of total spores and/or culturable fungi correlated with RH of materials particularly among the wood and insulation materials (r > 0.79), but not usually with MC (r fungi (r > 0.51), while such a relationship could not be observed for the samples taken from dry damage. A wide range of fungal species were found in the samples from ongoing damage, whereas Penicillia and in some cases yeasts dominated the fungal flora in the dry samples. This study indicates that fungal contamination can be evaluated on the basis of moisture measurements of constructions in ongoing damage, but the measurements are not solely adequate for estimation of possible microbial growth in dry damage.

  13. Field study of thermal comfort in non-air-conditioned buildings in a tropical island climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shilei; Pang, Bo; Qi, Yunfang; Fang, Kun

    2018-01-01

    The unique geographical location of Hainan makes its climate characteristics different from inland areas in China. The thermal comfort of Hainan also owes its uniqueness to its tropical island climate. In the past decades, there have been very few studies on thermal comfort of the residents in tropical island areas in China. A thermal environment test for different types of buildings in Hainan and a thermal comfort field investigation of 1944 subjects were conducted over a period of about two months. The results of the survey data show that a high humidity environment did not have a significant impact on human comfort. The neutral temperature for the residents in tropical island areas was 26.1 °C, and the acceptable temperature range of thermal comfort was from 23.1 °C to 29.1 °C. Residents living in tropical island areas showed higher heat resistance capacity, but lower cold tolerance than predicted. The neutral temperature for females (26.3 °C) was higher than for males (25.8 °C). Additionally, females were more sensitive to air temperature than males. The research conclusions can play a guiding role in the thermal environment design of green buildings in Hainan Province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Air conditioning in high rise buildings; Conditionnement d'air dans les immeubles de grande hauteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    This two-tomes book brings together the 108 presentations given at the first conference of the international institute of refrigeration (IIF/IIR) about air conditioning in high rise office buildings. The main themes are: general design and control systems, including split systems, radiant panels, fluctuating and gravity ventilation etc..; energy consumption, optimization and heat recovery; cold storage for peak shaving, including ice slurry circulation; indoor air quality; fire and smokes protection, protection against chimney effects and lighting spots; use of fuzzy logic and of neural networks. It includes also a description of the high rise building situation and works in progress in China, Japan and in some other countries. (J.S.)

  15. Accelerated laboratory weathering of acrylic lens materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Thomas; Richter, Steffen; Kogler, René; Pasierb, Mike; Walby, Christopher

    2015-09-01

    Flat samples from various poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) formulations were subjected to outdoor weathering in Arizona and Florida, EMMAQUA® accelerated outdoor weathering, and two accelerated laboratory weathering procedures at 3 Sun irradiance which, imitate dry (Arizona) and wet (Florida) conditions. The main mode of degradation is yellowing and not the generation of haze for any weathering procedure within the investigated radiant exposure. Higher UV absorber concentrations lead to smaller changes in optical properties and in the resulting relative concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module efficiencies. Comparison of sample properties after various weathering procedures reveals that the influence of weathering factors other than radiant exposure depends on the sample as well.

  16. Energy efficient PCM-based variable air volume air conditioning system for modern buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parameshwaran, R.; Harikrishnan, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University Chennai, Chennai (India); Kalaiselvam, S. [Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University Chennai, Chennai (India)

    2010-08-15

    This work aims at achieving enhanced energy conservation for space conditioning with the application of a new combined variable air volume (VAV)-based chilled water air conditioning (A/C) system and thermal energy storage (TES) system. The phase change material (PCM) used in this system exhibited good charging and discharging characteristics that directly helped in conserving the overall energy spent on cooling and ventilation. The present system was experimentally investigated for summer and winter climatic conditions under demand controlled ventilation (DCV) and DCV combined with the economizer cycle ventilation (ECV) to substantiate its energy savings capability. Based on the results, in the DCV and combined DCV-ECV modes, this system achieved 28% and 47% of per day average energy conservative potential, respectively, while compared to the conventional chilled water-based A/C system. Similarly, the VAV-TES system yielded an on-peak total energy savings of 38% and 42%, respectively, for the same operating conditions. (author)

  17. CONDITIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY OF INVESTMENT BUILDING PROJECTS BASED ON THE RISK MANAGEMENT CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morozenko Andrey Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    minimization of risky situations requires reduction of the project implementation period; development of domestic methodologies and standards of project risk management tailored to the conditions of our construction industry is a relevant assignment.

  18. Availability of high quality weather data measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Johansen, Jakob Berg; Furbo, Simon

    In the period 2016-2017 the project “Availability of high quality weather data measurements” is carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Technical University of Denmark. The aim of the project is to establish measured high quality weather data which will be easily available...... for the building energy branch and the solar energy branch in their efforts to achieve energy savings and for researchers and students carrying out projects where measured high quality weather data are needed....

  19. Conditioning of sewage sludge via combined ultrasonication-flocculation-skeleton building to improve sludge dewaterability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Cheng; Zhang, Panyue; Wang, Hongjie; Ye, Jie

    2018-01-01

    Strong water trapping ability of polyelectrolyte flocculated sludge and high compressibility of sludge filter cake greatly hindered the further improvement of sludge dewaterability. Ultrasound (US) was used to strip the water from the sludge flocs through sludge disintegration, traditional cationic polyacrylamide (CPAM) was applied to reconstruct the sludge aggregates through flocculation, and rice husk (RH) was utilized to improve the permeability of sludge filter cake as skeleton builders in this paper. The feasibility of combined US-CPAM-RH sludge conditioning was demonstrated, and single and co-conditioning processes were compared to explore the synergetic effect and mechanisms of US-CPAM-RH sludge conditioning. The results indicated that the sludge dewaterability was considerably improved by the combined US-CPAM-RH conditioning compared with that of raw sludge. The optimal ultrasonication condition was 0.3W/ml for 12s with an Ultrasound frequency of 22kHz, and the RH and CPAM dosage was 50.0wt% and 20mg/L, respectively, which resulted in a shortest time to filter (TTF) of 43s and a lowest moisture content of sludge filter cake of 62.22%. The US mainly stripped the extracellular polymeric substances and water from the sludge flocs, leading to an obvious increase of concentration of proteins and polysaccharides in sludge filtrate. The CPAM and RH addition resulted in a remarkable sludge floc growth to a mean diameter d(0.5) of 128.85µm after combined US-CPAM-RH conditioning. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results clearly showed that the combined US-CPAM-RH conditioning formed a more porous structure of sludge filter cake with a porosity increase of 98.80% and a compressibility decrease of 37.81% compared with that of raw sludge. Thus, the US-CPAM-RH co-conditioning could significantly improve the sludge dewaterability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. KZTL Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  1. KZAU Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  2. KZHU Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  3. KZFW Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  4. KZMA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  5. KZSE Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  6. KZLC Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  7. KZME Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  8. KZBW Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  9. KZMP Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  10. KZID Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  11. paza Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  12. Weather change and Mood Disorder

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jun Sato; Hiroyuki Mizoguchi; Kanoko Fukaya

    2011-01-01

      Mood disorder such as depression is serious problem in today's society. Weather change has been known to influence the condition of patients with mood disorder, and the seasonality in the evolvement of depressive symptoms...

  13. A possible association between space weather conditions and the risk of acute coronary syndrome in patients with diabetes and the metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vencloviene, Jone; Babarskiene, Ruta Marija; Kiznys, Deivydas

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia negatively affects cardiovascular variables that are also adversely affected by increased geomagnetic activity. It is likely that geomagnetic storms (GS) could have a stronger negative impact on these patients. We analyzed data on 1548 randomly selected patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who were admitted inpatient treatment in Kaunas city, during 2000-2003. We evaluated the associations of GS, solar proton events (SPE), and high-speed solar wind (HSSW) (solar wind speed ≥600 km/s) with the risk of ACS in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and the metabolic syndrome (MS) by using logistic regression with categorical predictors. During days of HSSW, the risk of ACS in DM patients increased by 1.95 times (OR = 1.95, 95 % CI 1.36-2.79) as compared to days without either of these events or 2 days prior to or after them. In the multivariate model, the risk of ACS in DM patients was associated with days of HSSW and 1-2 days after (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI 1.01-1.93), with days of GS lasting >1 day and occurring on days of HSSW or 1-2 days after (OR = 2.31, 95 % CI 1.28-4.17), and with the onset of SPE (OR = 2.72 (1.09-6.83)). The risk of ACS in MS patients was associated with days of GS and 1-2 days prior or after GS (OR = 1.31 (1.00-1.73)); an additional impact was established if these days coincided with days of HSSW or 1-2 days before (OR = 2.16 (1.39-3.35)). These findings suggest that not only GS but also HSSW and changes in space weather conditions prior to SPE affect the human cardiovascular system.

  14. DOCUMENTATION OF NATIONAL WEATHER CONDITIONS AFFECTING LONG-TERM DEGRADATION OF COMMERCIAL SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND DOE SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL AND HIGH-LEVEL WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. L. Poe, Jr.; P.F. Wise

    1998-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal to construct, operate 2nd monitor, and eventually close a repository at Yucca Mountain in Nye County, Nevada, for the geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). As part of this effort, DOE has prepared a viability assessment and an assessment of potential consequences that may exist if the repository is not constructed. The assessment of potential consequences if the repository is not constructed assumes that all SNF and HLW would be left at the generator sites. These include 72 commercial generator sites (three commercial facility pairs--Salem and Hope Creek, Fitzpatrick and Nine Mile Point, and Dresden and Morris--would share common storage due to their close proximity to each other) and five DOE sites across the country. DOE analyzed the environmental consequences of the effects of the continued storage of these materials at these sites in a report titled Continued Storage Analysis Report (CSAR; Reference 1 ) . The CSAR analysis includes a discussion of the degradation of these materials when exposed to the environment. This document describes the environmental parameters that influence the degradation analyzed in the CSAR. These include temperature, relative humidity, precipitation chemistry (pH and chemical composition), annual precipitation rates, annual number of rain-days, and annual freeze/thaw cycles. The document also tabulates weather conditions for each storage site, evaluates the degradation of concrete storage modules and vaults in different regions of the country, and provides a thermal analysis of commercial SNF in storage.

  15. 49 CFR 195.224 - Welding: Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Weather. 195.224 Section 195.224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.224 Welding: Weather. Welding must be protected from weather conditions that...

  16. Effect of Thermal Bridges in Insulated Walls on Air-Conditioning Loads Using Whole Building Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Zedan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal bridges in building walls are usually caused by mortar joints between insulated building blocks and by the presence of concrete columns and beams within the building envelope. These bridges create an easy path for heat transmission and therefore increase air-conditioning loads. In this study, the effects of mortar joints only on cooling and heating loads in a typical two-story villa in Riyadh are investigated using whole building energy analysis. All loads found in the villa, which broadly include ventilation, transmission, solar and internal loads, are considered with schedules based on local lifestyles. The thermal bridging effect of mortar joints is simulated by reducing wall thermal resistance by a percentage that depends on the bridges to wall area ratio (TB area ratio or Amj/Atot and the nominal thermal insulation thickness (Lins. These percentage reductions are obtained from a correlation developed by using a rigorous 2D dynamic model of heat transmission through walls with mortar joints. The reduction in thermal resistance is achieved through minor reductions in insulation thickness, thereby keeping the thermal mass of the wall essentially unchanged. Results indicate that yearly and monthly cooling loads increase almost linearly with the thermal bridge to wall area ratio. The increase in the villa’s yearly loads varies from about 3% for Amj/Atot = 0.02 to about 11% for Amj/Atot = 0.08. The monthly increase is not uniform over the year and reaches a maximum in August, where it ranges from 5% for Amj/Atot = 0.02 to 15% for Amj/Atot = 0.08. In winter, results show that yearly heating loads are generally very small compared to cooling loads and that heating is only needed in December, January and February, starting from late night to late morning. Monthly heating loads increase with the thermal bridge area ratio; however, the variation is not as linear as observed in cooling loads. The present results highlight the importance of

  17. Thermal responses and its relation with the building outdoor conditions; Respuestas termicas y su relacion con la envolvente del edificio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marincic, Irene [Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora (Mexico); Isalgue, Antoni [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Barcelona (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    In order to understand and to control the indoor thermal behavior in buildings, it is necessary to know the origin of the energies coming into and outside the building, identifying the geometric factors and physical properties, that can modify the thermal balance of the system. In this work, we analyze the thermal behavior of a building experimentally, related with its exterior conditions. Specifically, we analyze the thermal response indoors at different distances from the building envelope, which implies different thermal insulation situations. Supported on temperature measurements in a residential building, which is representative of local construction styles (adjacent other buildings), we analyze the thermal response effects depending on the distances between the considered points and the envelope and on the insulation between both. Applying a methodology based on experimental transfer functions of buildings, the thermal behavior in the temporary and frequency domains is evaluated. With this methodology, it is possible to visualize certain phenomena and to obtain thermal parameters that characterize the dynamic aspects of the thermal response. The main scope is to extract information from the building analysis, in order to extrapolate the behavior conclusions to a proper thermal design of similar constructions. From the thermal responses analysis at different spatial localization, we conclude that the distance from the building envelope (and also its properties) has a great influence on thermal inertia effects, which can modify importantly the thermal response. This phenomena has a parallelism with the skin effect of the magnetic fields penetration in conductors. The spatial localization implies a certain thermal mass involved in each case, which controls the penetration of exterior thermal oscillation. [Spanish] Para poder entender y controlar los comportamientos termicos en el interior de los edificios, es necesario conocer el origen de las energias que

  18. Foul weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    In an effort to cut costs and meet its operations budget for fiscal year 1997 and into the future, the National Weather Service (NWS) will be cutting staff and services throughout the rest of the budget year, which ends in October. After reviewing current programs and identifying ways to reduce operating costs, NWS management announced on March 21 that the Service will accelerate planned cuts in staff and operations at headquarters, regional offices, and central operations and field offices, while “re-engineering certain programs.”

  19. Social responsibility and work conditions: building a reference label, Démarche T®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biquand, Sylvain; Zittel, Benoit

    2012-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is now considered in large and global companies and the recent publication of the ISO 26000 standard clarifies the targets. Based on our consultancy's experience for fifteen years in ergonomics mainly in French small and medium enterprises, we developed a label to coax and value efforts of companies in dealing with health and safety at the work place as required by ISO 26000 paragraph 6.4. The formal approach of ISO describes what should be achieved but gives no cue on how actual conditions of work should be improved. The label, called Démarche T (ie Process W where W stands for work) aims the management of work conditions as a process, giving visibility and credit to companies for their continuous involvement in the matter. We describe the items and processes that are part of our assessment. We first conduct an ergonomic diagnosis including the analysis of records on health, physical and psychological well-being, observations at the workplace and interviews with the workers. This diagnosis is followed by recommendations. The fulfillment of these is assessed yearly. Items under assessment include: - ergonomics, health and safety in the companies statements and their impact in actual project management; - relations with workers through the committee for health and safety; - actual results on health, safety and work conditions. On a local level, we give the companies passing the label a competitive edge in recruiting better candidates motivated by good work conditions, and help them fulfill ISO 26000 requirements, an increasingly decisive advantage to benefit from public regional and European support. Our paper describes the diagnosis and follow-up process.

  20. Theoretical variations of the thermal performance of different solar collectors and solar combi systems as function of the varying yearly weather conditions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The thermal performances of solar collectors and solar combi systems with different solar fractions are studied under the influence of the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY data file, and measured weather data from a solar radiation measurement station situated at the Technical University...... collector or the annual global radiation. Solar combi systems with high efficient solar collectors are more influenced by weather variations from one year to another than systems with low efficient solar collectors. The annual thermal performance of solar collectors cannot be predicted from the global...

  1. Using air-conditioning waste water and stormwater as supply management in a commercial building, case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Silva Bastos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The concept of rational use as applied to water conservation consists in managing water supply and demand by trying to meet lesser quality water demands with alternative or reused water supply. This project attempts to demonstrate the application of a system that uses water drained from air conditioning system evaporators and rainwater as alternative sources. Given that each evaporator produces 4.80 liters of water per hour and considering the average use of an air conditioning system to be approximately 10 hours per day, the daily total of a single evaporator would be 48 liters. This would implicate a daily volume of 4,298 liters for the whole 137 units spread throughout the building, which in time would represent 77.72% of the daily demand of wastewater (5,53 liter/day. For the rainwater collection system, the total accumulated volume corresponds to 10% of the site area multiplied by a factor of 0.05, for a retention time of 1 hour, which will produce a total volume 14.8m³ of water. This system´s primary objective is to significantly reduce the consumption of potable water, which nowadays is used for every single activity, thus contributing to a more sustainable building and minimizing the environmental impact caused by the construction.

  2. Conditions of contract for construction for building and engineering works designed by the employer : general conditions : guidance for the preparation of particular conditions forms of letter of tender, contract agreement and dispute adjudication agreement

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    Conditions of Contract for Construction, which are recommended for building or engineering works designed by the Employer or by his representative, the Engineer. Under the usual arrangements for this type of contract, the Contractor constructs the works in accordance with a design provided by the Employer. However, the works may include some elements of Contractor-designed civil, mechanical, electrical and/or construction works.

  3. Weatherization Apprenticeship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Eric J

    2012-12-18

    Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.

  4. Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecasting mesoscale model for GABLS3: Impact of boundary-layer schemes, boundary conditions and spin-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleczek, M.A.; Steeneveld, G.J.; Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the three-dimensional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale model, specifically the performance of the planetary boundary-layer (PBL) parametrizations. For this purpose, Cabauw tower observations were used, with the study extending beyond the third GEWEX

  5. Spread and establishment of Aedes albopictus in southern Switzerland between 2003 and 2014: an analysis of oviposition data and weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Lukas; Tonolla, Mauro; Müller, Pie

    2016-05-26

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is a highly invasive mosquito species of public health importance. In the wake of its arrival in neighbouring Italy the authorities of the canton of Ticino in southern Switzerland initiated a surveillance programme in 2000 that is still on-going. Here we explored the unique data set, compiled from 2003 to 2014, to analyse the local dynamic of introduction and establishment of Ae. albopictus, its relative density in relation to precipitation and temperature, and its potential distribution at the passage from southern to northern Europe. The presence of Ae. albopictus was recorded by ovitraps placed across Ticino. In addition to presence-absence, the relationship between relative egg densities and year, month, temperature and precipitation was analysed by a generalised linear mixed model. Since its first detection in 2003 at Ticino's border with Italy Ae. albopictus has continuously spread north across the lower valleys, mainly along the trans-European motorway, E35. Detailed local analysis showed that industrial areas were colonised by the mosquito before residential areas and that, afterwards, the mosquito was more present in residential than in industrial areas. Ae. albopictus appeared sporadically and then became more present in the same places the following years, suggesting gradual establishment of locally reproducing populations that manage to overwinter. This trend continues as witnessed by both a growing area being infested and increasing egg counts in the ovitraps. There was a clear South-North gradient with more traps being repeatedly positive in the South and fewer eggs laid during periods of intensive precipitation. In the North, the mosquito appeared repeatedly through the years, but never managed to establish, probably because of unfavourable weather conditions and low road traffic. Given the present results we assume that additional areas may still become infested. While the current study provides good

  6. In-soil radon anomalies as precursors of earthquakes: a case study in the SE slope of Mt. Etna in a period of quite stable weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzini, Fabio; Brai, Maria

    2012-11-01

    In-soil radon concentrations as well as climatic parameters (temperature, atmospheric pressure and relative humidity) were collected in St. Venerina (Eastern Sicily - Italy) from March 19th to May 22nd 2009, close to an active fault system called Timpe Fault System (TFS), which is strictly linked to the geodynamics of Mt. Etna. During the monitoring period no drastic climatic variations were observed and, on the other hand, important seismic events were recorded close to the monitoring site. A seismic swarm composed of 5 earthquakes was observed in the Milo area on March 25th (M(max) = 2.7) at just 5.1 km from the site, and on May 13th an earthquake of 3.6 magnitude was recorded in the territory of St. Venerina, at just 3.2 km from the site; the earthquake was felt by the population and reported by all local and regional media. The in-soil radon concentrations have shown anomalous increases possibly linked to the earthquakes recorded, but certainly not attributable to local meteorology. To verify this assumption the average radon concentration and the standard deviation (σ) have been calculated and the regions of ±1.5σ and ±2σ deviation from the average concentration have been investigated. Moreover, to further minimise the contribution of the meteorological parameters on the in-soil radon fluctuations, a multiple regressions method has been used. To distinguish those earthquakes which could generate in-soil radon anomalies as precursors, the Dobrovolsky radius has been applied. The results obtained suggests that a clear correlation between earthquakes and in-soil radon increases exist, and that the detection of the in-soil radon anomalies becomes surely simpler in particular favourable conditions: weather stability, earthquakes within the Dobrovolsky radius and close to the monitoring area. Moreover, the absence of large variations of the climatic parameters, which could generate incoherent noise components to the radon signal, has made the radon fluctuations

  7. Rainmakers: why bad weather means good productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Staats, Bradley R

    2014-05-01

    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through 4 studies: (a) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan, (b) 2 studies from an online labor market in the United States, and (c) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad-, rather than good-, weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research. (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Carbohydrate control over carotenoid build-up is conditional on fruit ontogeny in clementine fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiroux-Gonord, Florine; Fanciullino, Anne-Laure; Poggi, Isabelle; Urban, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    The final contents of primary and secondary metabolites of the ripe fruit depend on metabolic processes that are tightly regulated during fruit ontogeny. Carbohydrate supply during fruit development is known to influence these processes but, with respect to secondary metabolites, we do not really know whether this influence is direct or indirect. Here, we hypothesized that the sensitivity of clementine fruit metabolism to carbohydrate supply was conditional on fruit developmental stage. We applied treatments increasing fruit load reversibly or irreversibly at three key stages of clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex Tan.) fruit development: early after cell division, at the onset of fruit coloration (color break) and near maturity. The highest fruit load obtained by early defoliation (irreversible) had the highest impact on fruit growth, maturity and metabolism, followed by the highest fruit load obtained by early shading (reversible). Final fruit size decreased by 21 and 18% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Soluble sugars decreased by 18% in the early irreversible treatment, whereas organic acids increased by 46 and 29% in these early irreversible and reversible treatments, respectively. Interestingly, total carotenoids increased by 50 and 18%, respectively. Changes in leaf starch content and photosynthesis supported that these early treatments triggered a carbon starvation in the young fruits, with irreversible effects. Furthermore, our observations on the early treatments challenge the common view that carbohydrate supply influences positively carotenoid accumulation in fruits. We propose that early carbon starvation irreversibly promotes carotenoid accumulation. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2012.

  9. Buildings Sector Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J.; Nicholls, Andrew K.; McDonald, Sean C.; Hollomon, Jonathan B.

    2005-08-01

    A joint NREL, ORNL, and PNNL team conducted market analysis to help inform DOE/EERE's Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program planning and management decisions. This chapter presents the results of the market analysis for the Buildings sector.

  10. Influence of environmental conditions on production of volatiles by Trichoderma atroviride in relation with the sick building syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polizzi, Viviana [Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Food Analysis, Harelbekestraat 72, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Adams, An; De Kimpe, Norbert [Ghent University, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, Coupure links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Picco, Anna Maria [Pavia University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Territorial Ecology and Environment, via S. Epifanio 14, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Adriaens, Els; Lenoir, Joke [Ghent University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Harelbekestraat 72, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah [Ghent University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Laboratory of Food Analysis, Harelbekestraat 72, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2011-04-15

    A Trichoderma atroviride strain was isolated from a water-damaged office and the production of microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) was investigated by means of headspace solid phase microextraction GC-MS. Different growth conditions (substrate, temperature, relative humidity) were selected, resembling indoor parameters, to elucidate a possible relationship between MVOCs, produced by Trichoderma atroviride, and the Sick Building Syndrome. In general, the range of MVOCs and the emitted quantities were larger on malt extract agar (MEA) than on wallpaper and plasterboard. Particular attention was dedicated to the volatile marker 6-pentyl-2-pyrone, a compound produced in high quantities on MEA, and its mucosal irritation potency was shown in a slug mucosal irritation assay. Some compounds characteristic for growth on specific building materials were detected, e.g. 2-ethylcyclopentanone, menthone, iso-menthone and trans-p-menth-2-en-7-ol on plasterboard and 4-heptanone and 1-octen-3-ol on wallpaper. Relative humidity and substrate had a more important effect on MVOC production than temperature. (author)

  11. Comparison of water absorption methods: testing the water absorption of recently quarried and weathered porous limestone on site and under laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozgonyi-Boissinot, Nikoletta; Agárdi, Tamás; Karolina Cebula, Ágnes; Török, Ákos

    2017-04-01

    The water absorption of weathering sensitive stones is a critical parameter that influences durability. The current paper compares different methods of water absorption tests by using on site and laboratory tests. The aims of the tests were to assess the water absorption of un-weathered quarry stones and various weathering forms occurring on porous limestone monuments. For the tests a Miocene porous limestone was used that occurs in Central and Western Hungary and especially near and in Budapest. Besides the Hungarian occurrences the same or very similar porous limestones are found in Austria, Slovakia and in the Czech Republic. Several quarries were operating in these countries. Due to the high workability the stone have been intensively used as construction material from the Roman period onward. The most prominent monuments made of this stone were built in Vienna and in Budapest during the 18th -19th century and in the early 20th century. The high porosity and the micro-fabric of the stone make it prone to frost- and salt weathering. Three different limestone types were tested representing coarse-, medium- and fine grained lithologies. The test methods included Rilem tube (Karsten tube) tests and capillary water absorption tests. The latter methodology has been described in detail in EN 1925:2000. The test results of on-site tests of weathered porous limestone clearly show that the water absorption of dissolved limestone surfaces and crumbling or micro-cracked limestone is similar. The water absorption curves have similar inclinations marking high amount of absorbed water. To the contrary, the white weathering crusts covered stone blocks and black crusts have significantly lower water absorptions and many of these crusts are considered as very tight almost impermeable surfaces. Capillary water absorption tests in the laboratory allowed the determination of maximum water absorption of quarried porous limestone. Specimens were placed in 3 mm of water column and the

  12. To Issue of Mathematical Management Methods Applied for Investment-Building Complex under Conditions of Economic Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, V.; Nikolaeva, O.

    2017-11-01

    In the article the authors consider a cognitive management method of the investment-building complex in the crisis conditions. The factors influencing the choice of an investment strategy are studied, the basic lines of the activity in the field of crisis-management from a position of mathematical modelling are defined. The general approach to decision-making on investment in real assets on the basis of the discrete systems based on the optimum control theory is offered. With the use of a discrete maximum principle the task in view of the decision is found. The numerical algorithm to define the optimum control is formulated by investments. Analytical decisions for the case of constant profitability of the basic means are obtained.

  13. Evaluation of Software Simulation of Road Weather Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    A road weather information system (RWIS) is a combination of technologies that collects, transmits, models, and disseminates weather and road condition information. Sensors measure a range of weatherrelated conditions, including pavement temperatur...

  14. The Support of Air Operations Under Extreme Hot and Cold Weather Conditions (Les Operatons Aeriennes en Environnement Extreme Chaud/Froid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    at the start, 110 kg of which was MAMS fuel and food. The sleds were designed to be used as canoes for crossing open water. Skies were used whenever... cano be of hypothernia and cold injury during thei attempts to verified by extrapolation. A belier approach is to surviv. In addition, the large...Stress (FITS): Guidance for hot weather aircrafts operations. Aviat. Space Environ. Med. 1979; 50(6): 639- 642. 14 - NUNNELEY SAL, MALDONADO R.J

  15. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  16. UTM Weather Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, William N.; Kopardekar, Parimal H.; Carmichael, Bruce; Cornman, Larry

    2017-01-01

    Presentation highlighting how weather affected UAS operations during the UTM field tests. Research to develop UAS weather translation models with a description of current and future work for UTM weather.

  17. Simulation-based coefficients for adjusting climate impact on energy consumption of commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Na; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Hathaway, John E.

    2016-11-23

    This paper presents a new technique for and the results of normalizing building energy consumption to enable a fair comparison among various types of buildings located near different weather stations across the U.S. The method was developed for the U.S. Building Energy Asset Score, a whole-building energy efficiency rating system focusing on building envelope, mechanical systems, and lighting systems. The Asset Score is calculated based on simulated energy use under standard operating conditions. Existing weather normalization methods such as those based on heating and cooling degrees days are not robust enough to adjust all climatic factors such as humidity and solar radiation. In this work, over 1000 sets of climate coefficients were developed to separately adjust building heating, cooling, and fan energy use at each weather station in the United States. This paper also presents a robust, standardized weather station mapping based on climate similarity rather than choosing the closest weather station. This proposed simulated-based climate adjustment was validated through testing on several hundreds of thousands of modeled buildings. Results indicated the developed climate coefficients can isolate and adjust for the impacts of local climate for asset rating.

  18. Building school-wide capacity for improvement: the role of leadership, school organizational conditions and teacher factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoonen, E.E.J.; Thoonen, E.E.J.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Oort, F.J.; Peetsma, T.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Education policies for greater accountability of schools assume that schools are capable of building their capacity for continuous improvement. While policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners acknowledge the importance of building school-wide capacity for continuous improvement, empirical evidence

  19. Facade repair works on building 376

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from 30th October, an anti-carbonatation treatment of concrete facades of building 376 on the Meyrin site. This work will last for six weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period in Route Fermi. Please follow the indications of the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 163976/163183

  20. Facade repair works on building 376

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ST Division proceeds, since 30th October, an anti-carbonatation treatment of concrete facades of building 376 on the Meyrin site. This work will last for six weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period in Route Fermi. Please follow the indications of the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 163976/163183

  1. Facade repair works on building 376

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    ST Division will proceed, as from 30th October, an anti-carbonatation treatment of concrete facades of building 376 on the Meyrin site (see map). This work will last for six weeks depending on the weather conditions and will cause some traffic hold ups during this period in Route Fermi. Please follow the indications of the temporary road signs. Thanking you in advance for your comprehension. ST-CE and ST-FM Groups GSM 163976/163183

  2. Space weather and risk management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lappalainen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The term space weather is used for the solar driven variability in particle and electromagnetic conditions of the near-Earth space that may harm the performance of ground-based and space-borne technology. The European Union (EU and the European Space Agency (ESA have started a common programme called the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security (GMES. Many of the GMES operational services will rely on technology prone to space weather phenomena. For long-term environmental monitoring this is not a problem, but for applications of risk management in emergency situations the impact of space weather should be considered and evaluated. In this paper, we discuss how ESA's previous activity together with European national initiatives in the space weather area can be used to support GMES and how EU could participate in this work in its Framework Programmes and within the European Research Area (ERA.

  3. Suitability of building construction materials in short-term energy storage. Part 3. Technical and economical boundary conditions of using phase change materials; Rakennusmateriaalien soveltuvuus lyhytaikaiseen laemmoenvarastointiin. Osa 3. Faasimuutosrakenteiden kaeytoen tekniset ja taloudelliset reunaehdot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberg, P.; Jokisalo, J.; Siren, K.

    2000-07-01

    In our society, increasing environmental pollution and energy need urge researchers to investigate new possibilities for ecological energy consumption. Increasing heat loads in buildings require air-conditioning to ensure the occupants' indoor comfort. By combining a special phase change material to the building material it is possible to the increase heat capacity of the building construction material. Thus in the summer time heat could be stored in the structures of the building at day time and ventilated out at night time. It is possible to decrease the need for cooling or even remove it completely. In the autumn and spring heat could be utilised for heating the room. This report investigated how a phase change material in a building construction material influences indoor temperatures and energy consumption. The economy of PCM structures was also examined. Furthermore, this report studied the fire safety and thermophysical properties of PCM structures. The influence of PCM structures was studied by modelling a LVIS 2000 type office room with normal structures and PCM structures. Concrete and ACO light aggregate concrete elements as examples of building construction materials and salt hydrates and paraffins as examples of phase change materials were studied. Helsinki and Lisbon weather data were used for calculations of the modelled room. The results showed that it is difficult to achieve an improvement to the heat capacity of concrete with a phase change material. The concrete effectively decreases indoor temperatures even without the phase change material. A phase change material in an ACO light aggregate concrete element works well. The heat storing capacity of the ACO element is worse than the heat storing capacity of concrete because of the bigger portion of air inside the ACO element. The maximum indoor temperature drop was achieved with an ACO element when every third hole was filled with salt hydrate. The indoor temperature drop was 3.2 deg C using

  4. Weather in Your Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  5. Case-study of thermo active building systems in Japanese climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Rongling; Yoshidomi, Togo; Ooka, Ryozo

    2015-01-01

    Thermo active building systems (TABS) have been applied in office buildings as a promising energy efficient solution in many European countries. The utilization of building thermal mass helps to provide high quality thermal environments with less energy consumption. However, the concept of TABS...... is entirely new in Japan. This paper introduces and evaluates TABS under Tokyo weather conditions to clarify the potential of use TABS in Japan. Cooling capacity of thermo active building systems used in an office building was evaluated by means of dynamic simulations. Two central rooms of the office were...

  6. All-Weather Solar Cells: A Rising Photovoltaic Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qunwei

    2017-06-16

    Solar cells have been considered as one of the foremost solutions to energy and environmental problems because of clean, high efficiency, cost-effective, and inexhaustible features. The historical development and state-of-the-art solar cells mainly focus on elevating photoelectric conversion efficiency upon direct sunlight illumination. It is still a challenging problem to realize persistent high-efficiency power generation in rainy, foggy, haze, and dark-light conditions (night). The physical proof-of-concept for all-weather solar cells opens a door for an upcoming photovoltaic revolution. Our group has been exploring constructive routes to build all-weather solar cells so that these advanced photovoltaic technologies can be an indication for global solar industry in bringing down the cost of energy harvesting. How the all-weather solar cells are built without reducing photo performances and why such architectures can realize electricity outputs with no visible-light are discussed. Potential pathways and opportunities to enrich all-weather solar cell families are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to develop undiscovered abilities and to explore wide applications of advanced photovoltaics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Why building capacity is a necessary but insufficient condition for improved waste management in South Africa: The knowledge–behaviour relationship

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Godfrey, Linda K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available ” (Keating, 1993). � The 20th WasteCon Conference and Exhibition 4-8 October 2010 Emperor’s Palace, Gauteng, South Africa Why building capacity is a necessary but insufficient condition for improved waste management in South Africa: The knowledge... management (Godfrey & Oelofse, 2008). Further supporting data � The 20th WasteCon Conference and Exhibition 4-8 October 2010 Emperor’s Palace, Gauteng, South Africa Why building capacity is a necessary but insufficient condition for improved waste...

  8. Assimilating Thor: How Airmen Integrate Weather Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    and its Influence on Europe, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation (FSTC) occasional paper (Manchester, England: FSTC, June 2005), also...Surgeon General Doctor Joseph Lovell, building on earlier studies showing the possible influence of weather and climate on illness and disease ... diseases prevalent in the vicinity.‖ By 1853, the medical corps recorded twice-daily weather reports from 97 locations from shore to shore and

  9. Building School-Wide Capacity for Improvement: The Role of Leadership, School Organizational Conditions, and Teacher Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoonen, Erik E. J.; Sleegers, Peter J. C.; Oort, Frans J.; Peetsma, Thea T. D.

    2012-01-01

    Education policies for greater accountability of schools assume that schools are capable of building their capacity for continuous improvement. While policy-makers, scholars, and practitioners acknowledge the importance of building school-wide capacity for continuous improvement, empirical evidence to this effect remains thin. In this study, we…

  10. Seismic soil–structure interaction analysis of a nuclear power plant building founded on soil and in degraded concrete stiffness condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, Reza V., E-mail: reza.farahani@rizzoassoc.com; Dessalegn, Tewodros M., E-mail: tewodros.dessalegn@rizzoassoc.com; Vaidya, Nishikant R., E-mail: nish.vaidya@rizzoassoc.com; Bazan-Zurita, Enrique, E-mail: enrique.bazanz@rizzoassoc.com

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Three dimensional finite element modeling of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) building founded on soil is described. • A simplified technique to consider degraded stiffness of concrete members in seismic analysis of NPP buildings is presented. • The effect of subsurface profiles on the seismic response of a NPP building is investigated. - Abstract: This study describes three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) modeling and seismic Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) analysis of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Diesel Generator Building (DGB) that is founded on soil in degraded concrete stiffness condition. A new technique is presented that uses two horizontal and vertical FE models to consider the concrete stiffness reduction of NPP buildings subjected to orthogonal ground motion excitations, in which appropriate stiffness reduction factors, based on the input motion orientation, are applied. Seismic SSI analysis is performed for each model separately, and dynamic responses are calculated in the three global directions. The results of the analysis for the two FE models are then combined, using the square-root-of-the-sum-of-squares (SRSS) combination rule. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to investigate the subsurface profile effect on the In-Structure (acceleration) Response Spectra (ISRS) of the building when subjected to site-specific Foundation Input Response Spectra (FIRS) that exhibit high spectral amplifications in the high-frequency range. The sensitivity analysis considers three strain-compatible subsurface profiles that represent Lower-Bound (LB), Best-Estimate (BE), and Upper-Bound (UB) conditions at the DGB site. The sensitivity analysis results indicate that the seismic response of the DGB founded on soil highly depends on the subsurface profile; i.e., each of the LB, BE, and UB subsurface profiles can maximize building seismic response when subjected to FIRS that exhibit high spectral amplifications in the high-frequency range

  11. Comparison of Microclimate Simulated weather data to ASHRAE Clear Sky Model and Measured Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Mahabir S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-01

    In anticipation of emerging global urbanization and its impact on microclimate, a need exists to better understand and quantify microclimate effects on building energy use. Satisfaction of this need will require coordinated research of microclimate impacts on and from “human systems.” The Urban Microclimate and Energy Tool (Urban-MET) project seeks to address this need by quantifying and analyzing the relationships among climatic conditions, urban morphology, land cover, and energy use; and using these relationships to inform energy-efficient urban development and planning. Initial research will focus on analysis of measured and modeled energy efficiency of various building types in selected urban areas and temporal variations in energy use for different urban morphologies under different microclimatic conditions. In this report, we analyze the differences between microclimate weather data sets for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory campus produced by ENVI-met and Weather Research Forecast (WRF) models, the ASHRAE clear sky which defines the maximum amounts of solar radiation that can be expected, and measured data from a weather station on campus. Errors with climate variables and their impact on building energy consumption will be shown for the microclimate simulations to help prioritize future improvement for use in microclimate simulation impacts to energy use of buildings.

  12. Staff management and capacity building under conditions of insecurity: lessons from developing mental health service and research programs in post-conflict Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silove, Derrick; Rees, Susan; Tam, Natalino; Liddell, Belinda; Zwi, Anthony

    2011-07-01

    The task of staff capacity building is particularly important, albeit challenging, in low and middle income countries emerging from prolonged periods of persecution and conflict. Mental health professionals engaged in development and research projects are acutely aware of the impact of past and current conditions including trauma exposure, insecurity, and poverty on the capacity of local workers to acquire and apply skills. In this article we reflect on these challenges by drawing on our experience spanning 10 years of mental health work and capacity building in Timor-Leste. It is important to be proactive in identifying the needs and career objectives of workers early in any development initiative so that an effective program of capacity building can be initiated. Careful consideration needs to be given to ensure a compassionate and considered response to the psychosocial needs of staff, one that takes into account the impact of past trauma, ongoing insecurity and socioeconomic conditions on the capacity of workers to function effectively.

  13. Models calibration for the simulation of energetic consumption in buildings; Calibracao de modelos para a simulacao do consumo energetico de edificacoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamberts, Roberto; Gomez, Luis Alberto [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil

    1995-12-31

    This work describes a process for models calibration in energetic simulation of buildings. The methodology requires one year of hourly monitoring of the building operational data as well as the weather conditions. The simulation results are compared to the end use energetic consumption and the model is adjusted to reduce the differences. A case study is presented 3 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Effects of genotype, latitude, and weather conditions on the composition of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) berry juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jie; Yang, Baoru; Trépanier, Martin; Kallio, Heikki

    2012-03-28

    Sea buckthorn berries (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. mongolica) of nine varieties were collected from three growth locations in five inconsecutive years (n = 152) to study the compositional differences of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, and ascorbic acid in berries of different genotypes. Fructose and glucose (major sugars) were highest in Chuiskaya and Vitaminaya among the varieties studied, respectively. Malic acid and quinic acid (major acids) were highest in Pertsik and Vitaminaya, respectively. Ascorbic acid was highest in Oranzhevaya and lowest in Vitaminaya. Berry samples of nine varieties collected from two growth locations in five years (n = 124) were combined to study the effects of latitude and weather conditions on the composition of H. rhamnoides ssp. mongolica. Sea buckthorn berries grown at lower latitude had higher levels of total sugar and sugar/acid ratio and a lower level of total acid and were supposed to have better sensory properties than those grown at higher latitude. Glucose, quinic acid, and ascorbic acid were hardly influenced by weather conditions. The other components showed various correlations with temperature, radiation, precipitation, and humidity variables. In addition, fructose, sucrose, and myo-inositol correlated positively with each other and showed negative correlation with malic acid on the basis of all the samples studied (n = 152).

  15. Weather Risk Management in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Bobriková

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on valuation of a weather derivative with payoffs depending on temperature. We use historical data from the weather station in the Slovak town Košice to obtain unique prices of option contracts in an incomplete market. Numerical examples of prices of some contracts are presented, using the Burn analysis. We provide an example of how a weather contract can be designed to hedge the financial risk of a suboptimal temperature condition. The comparative comparison of the selected option hedging strategies has shown the best results for the producers in agricultural industries who hedges against an unfavourable weather conditions. The results of analysis proved that by buying put option or call option, the farmer establishes the highest payoff in the case of temperature decrease or increase. The Long Straddle Strategy is the most expensive but is available to the farmer who hedges against a high volatility in temperature movement. We conclude with the findings that weather derivatives could be useful tools to diminish the financial losses for agricultural industries highly dependent for temperature.

  16. Effects of Changing Weather, Oceanographic Conditions, and Land Uses on Spatio-Temporal Variation of Sedimentation Dynamics along Near-Shore Coral Reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimarie Otaño-Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentation is a critical threat to coral reefs worldwide. Major land use alteration at steep, highly erodible semi-arid islands accelerates the potential of soil erosion, runoff, and sedimentation stress to nearshore coral reefs during extreme rainfall events. The goal of this study was to assess spatio-temporal variation of sedimentation dynamics across nearshore coral reefs as a function of land use patterns, weather and oceanographic dynamics, to identify marine ecosystem conservation strategies. Sediment was collected at a distance gradient from shore at Bahia Tamarindo (BTA and Punta Soldado (PSO coral reefs at Culebra Island, Puerto Rico. Sediment texture and composition were analyzed by dry sieving and loss-on-ignition techniques, and were contrasted with environmental variables for the research period (February 2014 to April 2015. Rainfall and oceanographic data were analyzed to address their potential role on affecting sediment distribution with BEST BIO-ENV, RELATE correlation, and linear regression analysis. A significant difference in sedimentation rate was observed by time and distance from shore (PERMANOVA, p < 0.0100, mostly attributed to higher sediment exposure at reef zones closer to shore due to strong relationships with coastal runoff. Sedimentation rate positively correlated with strong rainfall events (Rho = 0.301, p = 0.0400 associated with storms and rainfall intensity exceeding 15 mm/h. At BTA, sediment deposited were mostly composed of sand, suggesting a potential influence of resuspension produced by waves and swells. In contrast, PSO sediments were mostly composed of silt-clay and terrigenous material, mainly attributed to a deforestation event that occurred at adjacent steep sub-watershed during the study period. Spatial and temporal variation of sedimentation pulses and terrigenous sediment input implies that coral reefs exposure to sediment stress is determined by local land use patterns, weather, and

  17. Uncertainty analysis of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Doeswijk, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor climate of many storage facilities for agricultural produce is controlled by mixing ambient air with the air flow through the store room. Hence, the indoor climate is affected by the ambient weather conditions. Given hourly fluctuating energy tariffs, weather forecasts over some days are

  18. Use of METEOSAT images for Tracking Severe Weather Conditions: Application to the Extreme Event of 24 October 2007 in Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Humberto

    Previous studies on severe storms and related flash foods over large urban areas of Southeastern Brazil have proceeded through the analyses of specific individual case studies. These urban areas, especially in austral summer, are prone to severe convective rainfall that affects targets that are difficult to protect, such as vulnerable communities. The synoptic case on 24 October 2007 showed severe thunderstorms with heavy rains produced widespread street flooding and major damage across the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and surrounding locations. The suspected cause determining heavy rains were associated with the intrusion of the cold front towards this urban area, and the interaction that occurred between it and the tropical moist air mass moved from the Amazon deep convection. In this context, METEOSAT Second Generation is an important tool to monitoring the dynamical evolution of cloud structures. This event presented the need to explore possible applications of METEOSAT-9 image analyses in this particular location to account for the possibility of tracking the weather disturbances. One way of supporting the exploratory analyses was by applying the RGB air masses and IR 10.8 images. The results showed that both the RGB air masses and IR 10.8 analyses attain clear and good approach in monitoring and evaluating severe storms that can cause widespread daily rains over the large urban areas located at Southeastern Brazil.

  19. The Effects of Virtual Weather on Presence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wissmath, Bartholomäus; Weibel, David; Mast, Fred W.

    In modern societies people tend to spend more time in front of computer screens than outdoors. Along with an increasing degree of realism displayed in digital environments, simulated weather appears more and more realistic and more often implemented in digital environments. Research has found that the actual weather influences behavior and mood. In this paper we experimentally examine the effects of virtual weather on the sense of presence. Thereby we found individuals (N=30) to immerse deeper in digital environments displaying fair weather conditions than in environments displaying bad weather. We also investigate whether virtual weather can influence behavior. The possible implications of theses findings for presence theory as well as digital environment designers will be discussed.

  20. New Technologies for Weather Accident Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stough, H. Paul, III; Watson, James F., Jr.; Daniels, Taumi S.; Martzaklis, Konstantinos S.; Jarrell, Michael A.; Bogue, Rodney K.

    2005-01-01

    Weather is a causal factor in thirty percent of all aviation accidents. Many of these accidents are due to a lack of weather situation awareness by pilots in flight. Improving the strategic and tactical weather information available and its presentation to pilots in flight can enhance weather situation awareness and enable avoidance of adverse conditions. This paper presents technologies for airborne detection, dissemination and display of weather information developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in partnership with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), industry and the research community. These technologies, currently in the initial stages of implementation by industry, will provide more precise and timely knowledge of the weather and enable pilots in flight to make decisions that result in safer and more efficient operations.

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory remedial investigation/feasibility study: Building 3515 existing conditions exterior elevations [Engineering Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    Building 3515 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), also known as the Fission Product Pilot Plant, is a surplus facility in the main plant area to the east of the South Tank Farm slated for decontamination -and decommissioning (D&D). The building consists of two concrete cells (north and south) on a concrete pad and was used to extract radioisotopes of ruthenium, strontium, cesium, cerium, rhenium and other elements from aqueous fission product waste. Site characterization activities of the building were initiated. The objective of the site characterization was to provide information necessary for engineering evaluation and planning of D&D approaches, planning for personal protection of D&D workers, and estimating waste volumes from D&D activities. This site characterization report documents the investigation with a site description, a summary of characterization methods, chemical and radiological sample analysis results, field measurement results, and waste volume estimates. This reference contains only drawings of the 3515 building.

  2. Non-native Ambrosia pollen in the atmosphere of Rzeszów (SE Poland); evaluation of the effect of weather conditions on daily concentrations and starting dates of the pollen season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, Idalia

    2008-05-01

    The investigated problem was whether and to what an extent the elements of weather conditions were associated with changes in the concentration of Ambrosia pollen in air. The study was carried out in the years 1997-2004 using the volumetric method. Ragweed did not occur in the flora of the town of Rzeszów and its vicinity, but every year its pollen occurred at concentrations considerably exceeding the threshold values for the allergic response. The pollen seasons usually began from near the end of August to the first part of September. The values of daily concentrations varied greatly: days without pollen grains being frequently noted while single grains occurred long before and after the season. The effect of the elements of weather on changes in the concentration of pollen in the air was slight. Taking into account all meteorological parameters, it can be stated that an increase in the number of pollen grains is connected with increased temperature and higher wind speeds, but negatively correlated with humidity and rainfall. These relationships can usually be explained by the effects of the type of weather taking place over the wider region. The analysis of the results showed that pollen was probably transported from distant regions. The mean angle at which the greatest pollen concentrations were recorded corresponded to the SE wind direction. The analysis of synoptic phenomena during the pollen season confirms the thesis about the long-distance transport from the south, southeast and southwest. A close dependence was also found between the starting date of the season and the sum of maximum temperatures and the sum of differences between the maximum and minimum temperatures.

  3. WEATHER INDEX- THE BASIS OF WEATHER DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botos Horia Mircea

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the subject of Weather Derivatives, more exactly their basic element the weather index. The weather index has two forms, the Heating Degree Day (HDD and the Cooling Degree Day (CDD. We will try to explain their origin, use and the relationship between the two forms of the index. In our research we started from the analysis of the weather derivatives and what they are based on. After finding out about weather index, we were interested in understanding exactly how they work and how they influence the value of the contract. On the national level the research in the field is scares, but foreign materials available. The study for this paper was based firstly on reading about Weather Derivative, and then going in the meteorogical field and determining the way by which the indices were determined. After this, we went to the field with interest in the indices, such as the energy and gas industries, and figured out how they determined the weather index. For the examples we obtained data from the weather index database, and calculated the value for the period. The study is made on a period of five years, in 8 cities of the European Union. The result of this research is that we can now understand better the importance of the way the indices work and how they influence the value of the Weather Derivatives. This research has an implication on the field of insurance, because of the fact that weather derivative are at the convergence point of the stock markets and the insurance market. The originality of the paper comes from the personal touch given to the theoretical aspect and through the analysis of the HDD and CDD index in order to show their general behaviour and relationship.

  4. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  5. Mariners Weather Log

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Mariners Weather Log (MWL) is a publication containing articles, news and information about marine weather events and phenomena, worldwide environmental impact...

  6. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  7. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  8. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  9. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  10. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  11. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  12. Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Surface Weather Observation Collection consists primarily of hourly, synoptic, daily, and monthly forms submitted to the archive by the National Weather Service...

  13. Internet Weather Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) National Telecommunications Gateway provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its...

  14. Space Weather, Environment and Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...

  15. Brazilian Space Weather Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Antonio; Takahashi, Hisao; de Paula, Eurico; Sawant, Hanumant; de Campos Velho, Haroldo; Vitorello, Icaro; Costa, Joaquim; Souza, Jonas; Cecatto, José; Mendes, Odim; Gonzalez Alarcon, Walter Demétrio

    forecasts of space weather conditions, and timely hazard alert warnings. The program is expected to be fully operational for the peak activity of the next solar maximum, but for its future growth and development it is essential to have a wide network of international collaborations.

  16. Solar weather monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Hochedez

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Space Weather nowcasting and forecasting require solar observations because geoeffective disturbances can arise from three types of solar phenomena: coronal mass ejections (CMEs, flares and coronal holes. For each, we discuss their definition and review their precursors in terms of remote sensing and in-situ observations. The objectives of Space Weather require some specific instrumental features, which we list using the experience gained from the daily operations of the Solar Influences Data analysis Centre (SIDC at the Royal Observatory of Belgium. Nowcasting requires real-time monitoring to assess quickly and reliably the severity of any potentially geoeffective solar event. Both research and forecasting could incorporate more observations in order to feed case studies and data assimilation respectively. Numerical models will result in better predictions of geomagnetic storms and solar energetic particle (SEP events. We review the data types available to monitor solar activity and interplanetary conditions. They come from space missions and ground observatories and range from sequences of dopplergrams, magnetograms, white-light, chromospheric, coronal, coronagraphic and radio images, to irradiance and in-situ time-series. Their role is summarized together with indications about current and future solar monitoring instruments.

  17. Building a measurement framework of burden of treatment in complex patients with chronic conditions: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eton DT

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available David T Eton,1 Djenane Ramalho de Oliveira,2,3 Jason S Egginton,1 Jennifer L Ridgeway,1 Laura Odell,4 Carl R May,5 Victor M Montori1,61Division of Health Care Policy and Research, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 2College of Pharmacy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 3Medication Therapy Management Program, Fairview Pharmacy Services LLC, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 4Pharmacy Services, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; 5Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton, UK; 6Knowledge and Evaluation Research Unit, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USABackground: Burden of treatment refers to the workload of health care as well as its impact on patient functioning and well-being. We set out to build a conceptual framework of issues descriptive of burden of treatment from the perspective of the complex patient, as a first step in the development of a new patient-reported measure.Methods: We conducted semistructured interviews with patients seeking medication therapy management services at a large, academic medical center. All patients had a complex regimen of self-care (including polypharmacy, and were coping with one or more chronic health conditions. We used framework analysis to identify and code themes and subthemes. A conceptual framework of burden of treatment was outlined from emergent themes and subthemes.Results: Thirty-two patients (20 female, 12 male, age 26–85 years were interviewed. Three broad themes of burden of treatment emerged including: the work patients must do to care for their health; problem-focused strategies and tools to facilitate the work of self-care; and factors that exacerbate the burden felt. The latter theme encompasses six subthemes including challenges with taking medication, emotional problems with others, role and activity limitations, financial challenges, confusion about medical information, and health care delivery obstacles

  18. American Weather Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Patrick

    Weather has shaped United States' culture, national character and folklore; at times it has changed the course of history. The seven accounts compiled in this publication highlight some of the nation's weather experiences from the hurricanes that threatened Christopher Columbus to the peculiar run of bad weather that has plagued American…

  19. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  20. Forecast: Fair Weather and Bright Building Ideas. Building Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Management, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Describes two new southern California schools, each housing grades five through eight and featuring a wall-less pavillion for sports activities and an outdoor amphitheater for large gatherings and performances. (Author)

  1. The new research centre of the Brazilian Petroleum Company in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: The achievements in the thermal performance of air-conditioned buildings in the tropics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandao, Rafael; Marcondes, Monica Pereira; De Benedetto, Gisele S.; Goncalves, Joana Carla Soares; Duarte, Denise Helena Silva; Ramos, Jose Ovidio [Laboratorio de Conforto Ambiental e Eficiencia Energetica (LABAUT), Departamento de Tecnologia da Arquitetura (AUT), Faculdade de Arquitetura e Urbanismo, Universidade de Sao Paulo (FAUUSP), Sao Paulo, Brasil, Rua do Lago, 876, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The study on the thermal performance of the air-conditioned buildings of the new research centre of the Brazilian Petroleum Company, in the tropical climate of Rio de Janeiro, was part of a bigger research and consultancy project involving environmental issues. The architectural design was the subject of a national competition in 2004, encompassing over 100,000 m{sup 2}. According to the design brief, out of the 10 buildings of the new research centre, 7 have to be either completely or partially air-conditioned, due to specific occupation requirements. The challenge for better thermal performance was related to systems' energy efficiency, to the introduction of natural ventilation and to the notion of adaptive comfort, which were verified with the support of thermal dynamic simulations. At the early stages of the assessments, the potential for natural ventilation in the working spaces considering the mixed-mode strategy achieved 30% of occupation hours. However, the development of the design project led to fully air-conditioned working spaces, due to users' references regarding the conventional culture of the office environment. Nevertheless, the overall architectural approach in accordance to the climatic conditions still showed a contribution to the buildings' energy efficiency. (author)

  2. Seasonal Forecasting of Fire Weather Based on a New Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Andrew J.; Field, Robert D.; Spessa, Allan C.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal forecasting of fire weather is examined based on a recently produced global database of the Fire Weather Index (FWI) system beginning in 1980. Seasonal average values of the FWI are examined in relation to measures of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The results are used to examine seasonal forecasts of fire weather conditions throughout the world.

  3. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  4. Technical Evaluation Report on the Fluid Dynamics Panel Specialists’ Meeting on Effects of Adverse Weather on Aerodynamics (Les Effets des Conditions Meteorologiques Adverses sur l’Aerodynamique)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    URDIALES methodology for an aerodynamic acceptance criteria for presented a paper on measurement of water film thickness these fluids. on airfoils in...Thickness on Airfoils Appucations in Heavy Rain Conditions Using Conductance Sensors 1’. PREL, Aerospatiale. France A. FEO. F. ROGLES, I. URDIALES , INTA

  5. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  6. Comparison between physical variables acquired by a new multiparametric platform, ELFO, and data calculated by a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model in different weather conditions at Tiber River mouth (Latium coast, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamano, Simone; Piermattei, Viviana; Marcelli, Marco; Peviani, Maximo

    2010-05-01

    The coastal ecosystem is characterized by high variability physical processes, which are strongly influenced by sudden changes in weather conditions. For this reason instruments able to collect data in a short time or mathematical models able to simulate the same phenomena from experimental data are basic. In this study in situ data are compared with data calculated by three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The multiparametric platform was developed ad hoc by Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology (DECOS, Tuscia University) for coastal monitoring by small vessels (ELFO), and integrates temperature, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and suspended solids measures with bio-optical measures like fluorescence, photosynthetic efficiency and PAR. The hydrodynamic model is the three-dimensional coastal hydrodynamic DELFT3D-FLOW simulating processes of temperature and salinity diffusion and the transport of suspended sediment (cohesive and non cohesive) in the water column. This study analyses the area at mouth of Tiber river investigated by two surveys wiht different weather conditions. Data collected during the first survey were used to calibrate the DELFT3D-FLOW model which computational domain extends from the Argentario headland to Capo Anzio. A microscale wind field (resolution of about 7 km), provided by the atmospheric model COSMO-ME (developed by CNMCA of Aeronautica Militare, Italy), was used to reproduce the hydrodynamic field and the distribution of the physical variables of the whole period. In this way the data calculated by the model can be compared with those collected in situ during the second survey. Moreover dynamic phenomena existed between the two monitoring periods can be investigated.

  7. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  8. Weathering: methods and techniques to measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Arce, P.; Zornoza-Indart, A.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Fort, R.

    2012-04-01

    Surface recession takes place when weathered material is removed from the rocks. In order to know how fast does weathering and erosion occur, a review of several methods, analyses and destructive and non-destructive techniques to measure weathering of rocks caused by physico-chemical changes that occur in bedrocks due to salt crystallization, freezing-thaw, thermal shock, influence of water, wind, temperature or any type of environmental agent leading to weathering processes and development of soils, in-situ in the field or through experimental works in the laboratory are addressed. From micro-scale to macro-scale, from the surface down to more in depth, several case studies on in-situ monitoring of quantification of decay on soils and rocks from natural landscapes (mountains, cliffs, caves, etc) or from urban environment (foundations or facades of buildings, retaining walls, etc) or laboratory experimental works, such as artificial accelerated ageing tests (a.a.e.e.) or durability tests -in which one or more than one weathering agents are selected to assess the material behaviour in time and in a cyclic way- performed on specimens of these materials are summarised. Discoloration, structural alteration, precipitation of weathering products (mass transfer), and surface recession (mass loss) are all products of weathering processes. Destructive (SEM-EDX, optical microscopy, mercury intrusion porosimetry, drilling resistance measurement, flexural and compression strength) and Non-destructive (spectrophotocolorimetry, 3D optical surface roughness, Schmidt hammer rebound tester, ultrasound velocity propagation, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance NMR, X ray computed micro-tomography or CT-scan, geo-radar differential global positioning systems) techniques and characterization analyses (e.g. water absorption, permeability, open porosity or porosity accessible to water) to assess their morphological, physico-chemical, mechanical and hydric weathering; consolidation products or

  9. Dew architectures - Dew annouces the good weather

    OpenAIRE

    Beysens, Daniel; Broggini, Filippo; Milimouk-Melnytchouk, Iryna; Ouazzani, Jalil; Tixier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Dew is a natural phenomenon that occurs under particular weather conditions (clear nocturnal sky, humid air, low wind) and on a surface specially designed for this purpose (high radiative cooling properties, special architectural design). Depending on the weather conditions and the surface characteristics, the water yield can give up to 0.7 litres per square meter and per night. Although the collection of rain water on roof turns out to be relatively simple, dew harves...

  10. What is the effect of the weather on trauma workload? A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, A M; Willett, K

    2015-01-01

    Hospital admission rates for a number of conditions have been linked to variations in the weather. It is well established that trauma workload displays significant seasonal variation. A reliable predictive model might enable targeting of high-risk groups for intervention and planning of hospital staff levels. To our knowledge there have been no systematic reviews of the literature on the relationship between weather and trauma workload, and predictive models have thus far been informed by the results of single studies. We conducted a systematic review of bibliographic databases and reference lists up to June 2014 to identify primary research papers assessing the effect of specified weather conditions including temperature, rainfall, snow, fog, hail, humidity and wind speed on trauma workload, defined as admission to hospital, fracture or a Road Traffic Accident (RTA) resulting in a seriously injured casualty or fatality. 11,083 papers were found through electronic and reference search. 83 full papers were assessed for eligibility. 28 met inclusion criteria and were included in the final review; 6 of these related to the effect of the weather on trauma admissions, one to ambulance call out for trauma, 13 to fracture rate and 8 to RTAs. Increased temperature is positively correlated with trauma admissions. The rate of distal radius fractures is more sensitive to adverse weather than the rate of hip fractures. Paediatric trauma, both in respect of trauma admissions and fracture rate, is more sensitive to the weather than adult trauma. Adverse weather influences both RTA frequency and severity, but the nature of the relationship is dependent upon the timecourse of the weather event and the population studied. Important methodological differences between studies limit the value of the existing literature in building consensus for a generalisable predictive model. Weather conditions may have a substantial effect on trauma workload independent of the effects of seasonal

  11. Study on Solar Radiation Models in South Korea for Improving Office Building Energy Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Han Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hourly global solar radiation in a weather file is one of the significant parameters for improving building energy performance analyses using simulation programs. However, most weather stations worldwide are not equipped with solar radiation sensors because they tend to be difficult to manage. In South Korea, only twenty-two out of ninety-two weather stations are equipped with sensors, and there are large areas not equipped with any sensors. Thus, solar radiation must often be calculated by reliable solar models. Hence, it is important to find a reliable model that can be applied in the wide variety of weather conditions seen in South Korea. In this study, solar radiation in the southeastern part of South Korea was calculated using three solar models: cloud-cover radiation model (CRM, Zhang and Huang model (ZHM, and meteorological radiation model (MRM. These values were then compared to measured solar radiation data. After that, the calculated solar radiation data from the three solar models were used in a building energy simulation for an office building with various window characteristics conditions, in order to identify how solar radiation differences affect building energy performance. It was found that a seasonal solar model for the area should be developed to improve building energy performance analysis.

  12. The impact of the weather conditions on the cooling performance of the heat pump driven by an internal natural gas combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janovcová Martina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market with sources of heat and cold offers unlimited choice of different power these devices, design technology, efficiency and price categories. New progressive technologies are constantly discovering, about which is still little information, which include heat pumps powered by a combustion engine running on natural gas. A few pieces of these installations are in Slovakia, but no studies about their work and effectiveness under real conditions. This article deals with experimental measurements of gas heat pump efficiency in cooling mode. Since the gas heat pump works only in system air – water, air is the primary low – energy source, it is necessary to monitor the impact of the climate conditions for the gas heat pump performance.

  13. Insurance against weather risk : use of heating degree-days from non-local stations for weather derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.

    2003-01-01

    Weather derivatives enable policy-holders to safeguard themselves against extreme weather conditions. The effectiveness and the efficiency of the risk transfer is determined by the spatial risk basis, which is the stochastic dependency of the local weather outcome being insured and the outcome of

  14. Weather and Tourism: Thermal Comfort and Zoological Park Visitor Attendance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Perkins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Weather events have the potential to greatly impact business operations and profitability, especially in outdoor-oriented economic sectors such as Tourism, Recreation, and Leisure (TRL. Although a substantive body of work focuses on the macroscale impacts of climate change, less is known about how daily weather events influence attendance decisions, particularly relating to the physiological thermal comfort levels of each visitor. To address this imbalance, this paper focuses on ambient thermal environments and visitor behavior at the Phoenix and Atlanta zoos. Daily visitor attendances at each zoo from September 2001 to June 2011, were paired with the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET to help measure the thermal conditions most likely experienced by zoo visitors. PET was calculated using hourly atmospheric variables of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and cloud cover from 7 a.m. to 7 p.m. at each zoological park location and then classified based on thermal comfort categories established by the American Society of Heating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE. The major findings suggested that in both Phoenix and Atlanta, optimal thermal regimes for peak attendance occurred within “slightly warm” and “warm” PET-based thermal categories. Additionally, visitors seemed to be averse to the most commonly occurring thermal extreme since visitors appeared to avoid the zoo on excessively hot days in Phoenix and excessively cold days in Atlanta. Finally, changes in the daily weather impacted visitor attendance as both zoos experienced peak attendance on days with dynamic changes in the thermal regimes and depressed attendances on days with stagnant thermal regimes. Building a better understanding of how weather events impact visitor demand can help improve our assessments of the potential impacts future climate change may have on tourism.

  15. Weather during bloom affects pollination and yield of highbush blueberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Isaacs, Rufus

    2010-06-01

    Weather plays an important role in spring-blooming fruit crops due to the combined effects on bee activity, flower opening, pollen germination, and fertilization. To determine the effects of weather on highbush blueberry, Vaccinium corymbosum L., productivity, we monitored bee activity and compared fruit set, weight, and seed number in a field stocked with honey bees, Apis mellifera L., and common eastern bumble bees, Bombus impatiens (Cresson). Flowers were subjected to one of five treatments during bloom: enclosed, open, open during poor weather only, open during good weather only, or open during poor and good weather. Fewer bees of all types were observed foraging and fewer pollen foragers returned to colonies during poor weather than during good weather. There were also changes in foraging community composition: honey bees dominated during good weather, whereas bumble bees dominated during poor weather. Berries from flowers exposed only during poor weather had higher fruit set in 1 yr and higher berry weight in the other year compared with enclosed clusters. In both years, clusters exposed only during good weather had > 5 times as many mature seeds, weighed twice as much, and had double the fruit set of those not exposed. No significant increase over flowers exposed during good weather was observed when clusters were exposed during good and poor weather. Our results are discussed in terms of the role of weather during bloom on the contribution of bees adapted to foraging during cool conditions.

  16. Longing for Clouds - Does Beautiful Weather have to be Fine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt to outline a meteorological aesthetics centered on so-called beautiful weather has to overcome several difficulties: In everyday life, the appreciation of the weather is mostly related to practical interests or reduced to the ideal of stereotypical fine weather that is conceived according to blue-sky thinking irrespective of climate diversity. Also, an aesthetics of fine weather seems, strictly speaking, to be impossible given that such weather conditions usually allow humans to focus on aspects other than weather, which contradicts the autotelic character of beauty. The unreflective equation of beautiful weather with moderately sunny weather and a cloudless sky also collides with the psychological need for variation: even living in a “paradisal” climate would be condemned to end in monotony. Finally, whereas fine weather is related in modern realistic literature to cosmic harmony and a universal natural order, contemporary literary examples show that in the age of the climate change, fine weather may be deceitful and its passive contemplation, irresponsible. This implies the necessity of a reflective aesthetic attitude on weather, as influenced by art, literature, and science, which discovers the poetics of bad weather and the wonder that underlies average weather conditions.

  17. [Effectiveness of the maintenance operations on the air conditioning systems of a university building in relation to the microbiological quality of the air indoor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Filippis, Patrizia; Spinaci, Anna; Coia, Maura; Maggi, Oriana; Panà, Augusto

    2003-01-01

    The microbiological quality of the air indoor is influenced from various factors and one of the most important is represented from the maintenance of the conditioning systems. In this study it has been estimated the effectiveness of an intervention of cleaning and maintenance on the systems of conditioning of an university building executing sampling before and after such intervention. The two results were confronted and it is observed as the maintenance of the air conditioners has influenced on the quality of the air indoor.

  18. Characterisation of weathered clayey soils responsible for shallow landslides

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    C. Meisina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow earth translational slides and earth flows, affecting colluvial soils derived by the weathering of the clayey bedrock, are a recurrent problem causing damage to buildings and roads in many areas of Apennines. The susceptibility assessment, e.g. slope stability models, requires the preliminary characterization of these superficial covers (lithology, geotechnical and hydraulic parameters. The aim of the work is to develop and test a methodology for the identification and mapping of weathered clayey soils responsible for shallow landslides. A test site in Northern Apennines (Province of Pavia was selected. Argillaceous and marly successions characterize the area. Shallow landslides occurred periodically due to high intensity rainfalls. Trench pits were used for the soil profile description (lithology, structure, grade of weathering, thickness and sampling. The main geological, topographic and geomorphologic parameters of shallow landslides were analysed. Field surveys were integrated with some geotechnical laboratory tests (index properties, suction and volumetric characteristic determination, methylene blue adsorption test, linear shrinkage, swell strain. Engineering geological zoning was carried out by grouping the superficial soils on the basis of the following attributes: topographic conditions (slope angle, landslide occurrence, lithology (grain size, geometry (thickness, lithology of the bedrock, hydrogeological and geotechnical characteristics. The resulting engineering-geological units (areas that may be regarded as homogeneous from the geomorphologic and engineering – geological point of view were analysed in terms of shallow slope instability.

  19. Numerical Investigation of Wind Conditions for Roof-Mounted Wind Turbines: Effects of Wind Direction and Horizontal Aspect Ratio of a High-Rise Cuboid Building

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    Takaaki Kono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available From the viewpoint of installing small wind turbines (SWTs on rooftops, this study investigated the effects of wind direction and horizontal aspect ratio (HAR = width/length of a high-rise cuboid building on wind conditions above the roof by conducting large eddy simulations (LESs. The LES results confirmed that as HAR decreases (i.e., as the building width decreases, the variation in wind velocity over the roof tends to decrease. This tendency is more prominent as the angle between the wind direction and the normal vector of the building’s leeward face with longer roof edge increases. Moreover, at windward corners of the roof, wind conditions are generally favorable at relatively low heights. In contrast, at the midpoint of the roof's windward edge, wind conditions are generally not favorable at relatively low heights. At leeward representative locations of the roof, the bottoms of the height range of favorable wind conditions are typically higher than those at the windward representative locations, but the favorable wind conditions are much better at the leeward representative locations. When there is no prevailing wind direction, the center of the roof is more favorable for installing SWTs than the corners or the edge midpoints of the roof.

  20. Can the weather influence arthritis symptoms?

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    Wai Chin Li

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available By reviewing twelve previous studies on the relationship between the weather and arthritis symptoms, this article summarized the major findings on this controversial topic. It has been supported by most of the studies that arthritis symptoms are associated with weather conditions. Factors such as barometric pressure and temperature were generally believed to be related to arthritis symptoms. However, controversies arose at minor levels. Whether the weather-symptom relationship depends on the specific type of arthritis, weather variables, demographic and pathological heterogeneity of the patients is still a matter of debate. This article calls for standardization in future research design, and hope the mechanism underlying the weather-symptom association will be found.