WorldWideScience

Sample records for weak interaction rates

  1. Weak Interaction Neutron Production Rates in Fully Ionized Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Widom, A.; Swain, J.; Srivastava, Y. N.

    2013-01-01

    Employing the weak interaction reaction wherein a heavy electron is captured by a proton to produce a neutron and a neutrino, the neutron production rate for neutral hydrogen gases and for fully ionized plasmas is computed. Using the Coulomb atomic bound state wave functions of a neutral hydrogen gas, our production rate results are in agreement with recent estimates by Maiani {\\it et al}. Using Coulomb scattering state wave functions for the fully ionized plasma, we find a substantially enha...

  2. Weak Interaction Neutron Production Rates in Fully Ionized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2013-01-01

    Employing the weak interaction reaction wherein a heavy electron is captured by a proton to produce a neutron and a neutrino, the neutron production rate for neutral hydrogen gases and for fully ionized plasmas is computed. Using the Coulomb atomic bound state wave functions of a neutral hydrogen gas, our production rate results are in agreement with recent estimates by Maiani {\\it et al}. Using Coulomb scattering state wave functions for the fully ionized plasma, we find a substantially enhanced neutron production rate. The scattering wave function should replace the bound state wave function for estimates of the enhanced neutron production rate on water plasma drenched cathodes of chemical cells.

  3. Weak interaction rates for Kr and Sr waiting-point nuclei under rp-process conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarriguren, P., E-mail: sarriguren@iem.cfmac.csic.e [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-10-12

    Weak interaction rates are studied in neutron deficient Kr and Sr waiting-point isotopes in ranges of densities and temperatures relevant for the rp process. The nuclear structure is described within a microscopic model (deformed QRPA) that reproduces not only the half-lives but also the Gamow-Teller strength distributions recently measured. The various sensitivities of the decay rates to both density and temperature are discussed. Continuum electron capture is shown to contribute significantly to the weak rates at rp-process conditions.

  4. Contribution of excited states to stellar weak-interaction rates in odd-A nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Sarriguren, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Weak-interaction rates, including beta-decay and electron capture, are studied in several odd-A nuclei in the pf-shell region at various densities and temperatures of astrophysical interest. Special attention is paid to the relative contribution to these rates of thermally populated excited states in the decaying nucleus. The nuclear structure involved in the weak processes is studied within a quasiparticle random-phase approximation with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels on top of a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations. In the range of densities and temperatures considered, it is found that the total rates do not differ much from the rates of the ground state fully populated. In any case, the changes are not larger than the uncertainties due to the nuclear model dependence of the rates.

  5. Expanded calculation of weak-interaction mediated neutrino cooling rates due to $^{56}$Ni in stellar matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2014-01-01

    Accurate estimate of the neutrino cooling rates is required in order to study the various stages of stellar evolution of massive stars. Neutrino losses from proto-neutron stars play a crucial role in deciding whether these stars would be crushed into black holes or explode as supernovae. Both pure leptonic and weak-interaction processes contribute to the neutrino energy losses in stellar matter. At low temperatures and densities, characteristic of the early phase of presupernova evolution, cooling through neutrinos produced via the weak-interaction is important. Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has recently being used for calculation of stellar weak-interaction rates of $fp$-shell nuclide with success. The lepton-to-baryon ratio ($Y_{e}$) during early phases of stellar evolution of massive stars changes substantially alone due to electron captures on $^{56}$Ni. The stellar matter is transparent to the neutrinos produced during the presupernova evolution of massive star...

  6. Electromagnetism in nonleptonic weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ecker, G. E-mail: ecker@doppler.thp.univie.ac.at; Isidori, G.; Mueller, G.; Neufeld, H.; Pich, A

    2000-12-18

    We construct a low-energy effective field theory that permits the complete treatment of isospin-breaking effects in nonleptonic weak interactions to next-to-leading order. To this end, we enlarge the chiral Lagrangian describing strong and {delta}S=1 weak interactions by including electromagnetic terms with the photon as additional dynamical degree of freedom. The complete and minimal list of local terms at next-to-leading order is given. We perform the one-loop renormalization at the level of the generating functional and specialize to K{yields}{pi}{pi} decays.

  7. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  8. Second threshold in weak interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, M.J.G.

    1977-01-01

    The point of view that weak interactions must have a second threshold below 300 – 600 GeV is developed. Above this threshold new physics must come in. This new physics may be the Higgs system, or some other nonperturbative system possibly having some similarities to the Higgs system. The limit of la

  9. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  10. A universe without weak interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-08-01

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical “weakless universe” is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting standard model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the weakless universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multiparameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  11. Weak interactions and photoinitiated unimolecular decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaylichenko, K.; Wittig, C.

    1998-04-01

    Numerical studies have been carried out to examine the applicability of the density of states measured just below dissociation threshold to transition state rate theory. The model system consists of two weakly interacting manifolds of levels, one of which is optically accessible. Both manifolds are coupled to dissociative continua. These studies demonstrate that immediately above reaction threshold, coupling to continua is relatively slow on the time scale of inter-manifold coupling, and it is the mixed manifolds which decay. At higher energies, couplings to continua exceed inter-manifold couplings, and it is the photoexcited bright states which undergo unimolecular decomposition.

  12. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  13. Weak interaction: past answers, present questions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ne' eman, Y.

    1977-02-01

    A historical sketch of the weak interaction is presented. From beta ray to pion decay, the V-A theory of Marshak and Sudarshan, CVC principle of equivalence, universality as an algebraic condition, PCAC, renormalized weak Hamiltonian in the rehabilitation of field theory, and some current issues are considered in this review. 47 references. (JFP)

  14. Weak interactions and gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1979-12-01

    The status of the electroweak gauge theory, also known as quantum asthenodynamics (QAD), is examined. The major result is that the standard WS-GIM model describes the data well, although one should still look for signs of further complexity and better tests of its gauge theory aspect. A second important result is that the measured values of the three basic coupling constants of present-energy physics, g/sub s/, g, and ..sqrt..(5/3)g' of SU(3)/sub c/ x SU(2)/sub 2/ x U(1), are compatible with the idea that these interactions are unified at high energies. Much of the paper deals with open questions, and it takes up the following topics: the status of QAD, the scalar meson spectrum, the fermion spectrum, CP violation, and decay dynamics. 118 references, 20 figures. (RWR)

  15. Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmen, T.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced pr

  16. Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hiesmayr, B C

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...

  17. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Rajasekaran, G

    2014-01-01

    The history of weak interactions starting with Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Discoveries of parity violation, matter-antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted.

  18. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  19. Gamow-Teller strength distributions and stellar weak-interaction rates for ^{76}Ge and ^{82}Se using the deformed pn-QRPA model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Ishfaq, Mavra

    2016-07-01

    We calculate Gamow-Teller strength distributions for β β-decay nuclei ^{76}Ge and ^{82}Se using the deformed pn-QRPA model. We use a deformed Nilsson basis and consider pairing correlations within the deformed BCS theory. Ground state correlations and two-particle and two-hole mixing states were included in our pn-QRPA model. Our calculated strength distributions were compared with experimental data and previous calculation. The total Gamow-Teller strength and centroid placement calculated in our model compares well with the measured value. We calculate β-decay and positron capture rates on ^{76}Ge and ^{82}Se in supernovae environments and compare them to those obtained from experimental data and previous calculation. Our study shows that positron capture rates command the total weak rates at high stellar temperatures. We also calculate energy rates of β-delayed neutrons and their emission probabilities.

  20. Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico

  1. A comparison of weak-turbulence and PIC simulations of weak electron-beam plasma interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ratcliffe, Heather; Rozenan, Mohammed B Che; Nakariakov, Valery

    2014-01-01

    Quasilinear theory has long been used to treat the problem of a weak electron beam interacting with plasma and generating Langmuir waves. Its extension to weak-turbulence theory treats resonant interactions of these Langmuir waves with other plasma wave modes, in particular ion-sound waves. These are strongly damped in plasma of equal ion and electron temperatures, as sometimes seen in, for example, the solar corona and wind. Weak turbulence theory is derived in the weak damping limit, with a term describing ion-sound wave damping then added. In this paper we use the EPOCH particle-in-cell code to numerically test weak turbulence theory for a range of electron-ion temperature ratios. We find that in the cold ion limit the results agree well, but increasing ion temperature the three-wave resonance becomes broadened in proportion to the ion-sound wave damping rate. This may be important in, for example, the theory of solar radio bursts, where the spectrum of Langmuir waves is critical. Additionally we establish...

  2. Quantum Butterfly Effect in Weakly Interacting Diffusive Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aavishkar A.; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Sachdev, Subir; Swingle, Brian

    2017-07-01

    We study scrambling, an avatar of chaos, in a weakly interacting metal in the presence of random potential disorder. It is well known that charge and heat spread via diffusion in such an interacting disordered metal. In contrast, we show within perturbation theory that chaos spreads in a ballistic fashion. The squared anticommutator of the electron-field operators inherits a light-cone-like growth, arising from an interplay of a growth (Lyapunov) exponent that scales as the inelastic electron scattering rate and a diffusive piece due to the presence of disorder. In two spatial dimensions, the Lyapunov exponent is universally related at weak coupling to the sheet resistivity. We are able to define an effective temperature-dependent butterfly velocity, a speed limit for the propagation of quantum information that is much slower than microscopic velocities such as the Fermi velocity and that is qualitatively similar to that of a quantum critical system with a dynamical critical exponent z >1 .

  3. Collective transport of weakly interacting molecular motors with Langmuir kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Sameep; Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Muhuri, Sudipto

    2015-04-01

    Filament-based intracellular transport involves the collective action of molecular motor proteins. Experimental evidences suggest that microtubule (MT) filament bound motor proteins such as kinesins weakly interact among themselves during transport and with the surrounding cellular environment. Motivated by these observations we study a driven lattice gas model for collective unidirectional transport of molecular motors on open filament. This model incorporates short-range next-nearest-neighbour (NNN) interactions between the motors and couples the transport process on filament with surrounding cellular environment through adsorption-desorption Langmuir kinetics (LK) of the motors. We analyse this model within the framework of a mean-field (MF) theory in the limit of weak interactions between the motors. We point to the mapping of this model with the non-conserved version of the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn (KLS) model. The system exhibits rich phase behavior with a variety of inhomogeneous phases including localized shocks in the bulk of the filament. We obtain the steady-state density and current profiles, analyse their variation as a function of the strength of interaction and construct the non-equilibrium MF phase diagram. We compare these MF results with Monte Carlo simulations and find that the MF analysis shows reasonably good agreement with simulation results as long as the motors are weakly interacting. For sufficently strong NNN interaction between the motors, the mean-field results deviate significantly, and for very strong NNN interaction in the absence of LK, the current in the lattice is determined solely by the NNN interaction parameter and it becomes independent of entry and exit rates of motors at the filament boundaries.

  4. Information flow between weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene, Wilhelmstr. 3a, 79098 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2006-05-15

    Weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps can be modeled as ordinary coupled map lattices separated from each other by boundary regions with small coupling parameters. We demonstrate that such weakly interacting lattices can nevertheless have unexpected and striking effects on each other. Under specific conditions, particular stability properties of the lattices are significantly influenced by their weak mutual interaction. This observation is tantamount to an efficacious information flow across the boundary.

  5. Spatial-domain interactions between ultra-weak optical beams

    CERN Document Server

    Khadka, Utsab; Xiao, Min

    2013-01-01

    We have observed the spatial interactions between two ultra-weak optical beams that are initially collinear and non-overlapping. The weak beams are steered towards each other by a spatially varying cross-Kerr refractive index waveguide written by a strong laser beam in a three-level atomic medium utilizing quantum coherence. After being brought together, the weak beams show controllable phase-dependent outcomes. This is the first observation of soliton-like interactions between weak beams and can be useful for all-optically tunable beam-combining, switching and gates for weak photonic signals.

  6. The quenched generating functional for hadronic weak interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallante, E.

    1999-01-01

    The ultraviolet behaviour of the generating functional for hadronic weak interactions with |ΔS| = 1, 2 is investigated to one loop for a generic number of flavours and in the quenched approximation. New quenched chiral logarithms generated by the weak interactions can be accounted for via a redefin

  7. Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...

  8. Moving Beyond Weak Identifiers for Proxemic Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Identification of people and their position is essential in the design of proxemic interactions. The smartphone often plays an important role in positioning systems, due to its mobility, computational power and sensory capabilities. Studies however show that perceived proximity to our phone...

  9. Quantum Butterfly Effect in Weakly Interacting Diffusive Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aavishkar A. Patel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study scrambling, an avatar of chaos, in a weakly interacting metal in the presence of random potential disorder. It is well known that charge and heat spread via diffusion in such an interacting disordered metal. In contrast, we show within perturbation theory that chaos spreads in a ballistic fashion. The squared anticommutator of the electron-field operators inherits a light-cone-like growth, arising from an interplay of a growth (Lyapunov exponent that scales as the inelastic electron scattering rate and a diffusive piece due to the presence of disorder. In two spatial dimensions, the Lyapunov exponent is universally related at weak coupling to the sheet resistivity. We are able to define an effective temperature-dependent butterfly velocity, a speed limit for the propagation of quantum information that is much slower than microscopic velocities such as the Fermi velocity and that is qualitatively similar to that of a quantum critical system with a dynamical critical exponent z>1.

  10. Weak interactions in trapped single radium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wansbeek, L.; Willmann, L. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2007-07-01

    The electroweak theory has been confirmed to great precision in high-energy accelerator experiments. One of the outstanding successful predictions of the theory was the existence of the Z{sup 0} boson, that is mixed with the photon and mediates interactions that do not conserve parity. The mixing angle varies with sca le due to the polarization of the vacuum by particle-antiparticle pairs. This has only poorly been tested. Interference of Z{sup 0} and photon exchange between the electrons and quarks in an atom or ion results in a tiny breakdown of parity selection rules. A high-precision measurement of the electroweak mixing angle at low momentum scales is possible by monitoring quantum jumps in one single trapped Ra ion with precision laser and radiofrequency techniques combined. The proof of principle was recently given in pilot measurements at Seattle with one single Ba ion. A Ra{sup +} experiment can now be envisaged with a precision that, together wit h planned experiments at intermediate energy, can confirm the quantum structure of the electroweak theory over some five orders of magnitude in momentum scale. Such an experiment has been started at the TRI{mu}P facility of the Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut in Groningen, where the needed radioactive Ra isotopes can be produced online. The experiment uses will use a radiofrequency trap and is possible using several all solid state lasers in an elaborate time switching scheme.

  11. The instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the analytical expression of free energy expressed by small parameter r of a weakly interacting Fermi Based on the derived expression, the exact instability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in weak magnetic field at both high and low temperatures are given. From the instability conditions we get the following two results. (1) At the whole low-temperature extent, whether the interactions are repulsive or attractive with (αn + 4εF/3)(n and εF denote the particle-number density and the Fermi energy respectively, c = 4πah2/m, and a is s-wave scattering length) positive, there is a lower-limit magnetic field of instability; in addition, there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the system of attractive interactions with (αn + 4eF/3) negative. (2) At the whole high-temperature extent, the system with repulsive interactions is always stable, but for the system with attractive interactions, the greater the scattering length of attractive interactions |a| is, the stronger the magnetic field is and the larger the particle-number density is,the bigger the possibility of instability in the system will be.

  12. Unified properties of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    When the orbital motion and the spin motion of particles were considered simultaneously,the thermodynamic potential function of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field was derived using the thermodynamics method. Based on the derived expression,the analytical expressions of energy,heat capacity,chemical potential,susceptibility and stability conditions of the system were given,and the effects of the interparticle interactions as well as the magnetic field on the properties of the system were analyzed. It was shown that the magnetic field always causes energy and stability to decrease,while the chemical potential of the system to increase. The repulsive(attractive) interactions always increase(decrease) energy and stability,but decrease(increase) the chemical potential and paramagnetism. The repulsive(attractive) interactions decrease(increase) heat capacity of the system at high temperatures but increase(decrease) it at low temperatures.

  13. Thermal stability conditions of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fudian Men; Hui Liu; Houyu Zhu

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of the results derived from pseudopotential method and ensemble theory,thermal stability of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field is studied by using analytical method of thermodynamics.The exact analytical expressions of stability conditions at different temperatures are given,and the effects of interactions as well as magnetic field on the stability of the system are discussed.It is shown that there is an upper-limit magnetic field for the stability of the system at low temperatures,and there is an attractive dividing value at high temperatures.If attractive interaction is lower than the critical value,the stability of the system has no request for magnetic field,but if attractive interaction is higher than the dividing value,a lower-limit magnetic field exists for the stability of the system.

  14. Relativistic thermodynamic properties of a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui; Fan Zhao-Lan; Zhu Hou-Yu

    2009-01-01

    This paper derives the analytical expression of free energy for a weakly interacting Fermi gas in a weak magnetic field, by using the methods of quantum statistics as well as considering the relativistic effect. Based on the derived expression, the thermodynamic properties of the system at both high and low temperatures are given and the relativistic effect on the properties of the system is discussed. It shows that, in comparison with a nonrelativistic situation,the relativistic effect changes the influence of temperature on the thermodynamic properties of the system at high temperatures, and changes the influence of particle-number density on them at extremely low temperature. But the relativistic effect does not change the influence of the magnetic field and inter-particle interactions on the thermodynamic properties of the system at both high and extremely low temperatures.

  15. Gravitational Interaction of Higgs Boson and Weak Boson Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Xianyu, Zhong-Zhi; He, Hong-Jian

    2013-01-01

    With the LHC discovery of a 125GeV Higgs-like particle, we study gravitational interaction of Higgs boson via the unique dimension-4 operator involving Higgs doublet and scalar curvature, \\xi H^\\dag H R, with nonminimal coupling \\xi. This Higgs portal term can be transformed away in Einstein frame and induces gauge-invariant effective interactions in the Higgs sector. We study the weak boson scattering in Einstein frame, and explicitly demonstrate the longitudinal-Goldstone boson equivalence theorem in the presence of \\xi coupling. With these, we derive unitarity bound on the Higgs gravitational coupling \\xi in Einstein frame, which is stronger than that inferred from the LHC Higgs measurements. We further analyze \\xi-dependent weak boson scattering cross sections at TeV scale, and study the LHC probe of \\xi coupling via weak boson scattering experiments.

  16. Weak interactions of quarks and leptons: experimental status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1984-09-01

    The present experimental status of weak interactions is discussed with emphasis on the problems and questions and on the possible lines of future investigations. Major topics include; (1) the quark mixing matrix, (2) CP violation, (3) rare decays, (4) the lepton sector, and (5) right handed currents. 118 references. (WHK)

  17. The balance of weak and strong interactions in genetic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan F Poyatos

    Full Text Available Genetic interactions are being quantitatively characterized in a comprehensive way in several model organisms. These data are then globally represented in terms of genetic networks. How are interaction strengths distributed in these networks? And what type of functional organization of the underlying genomic systems is revealed by such distribution patterns? Here, I found that weak interactions are important for the structure of genetic buffering between signaling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans, and that the strength of the association between two genes correlates with the number of common interactors they exhibit. I also determined that this network includes genetic cascades balancing weak and strong links, and that its hubs act as particularly strong genetic modifiers; both patterns also identified in Saccharomyces cerevisae networks. In yeast, I further showed a relation, although weak, between interaction strengths and some phenotypic/evolutionary features of the corresponding target genes. Overall, this work demonstrates a non-random organization of interaction strengths in genetic networks, a feature common to other complex networks, and that could reflect in this context how genetic variation is eventually influencing the phenotype.

  18. Search for the Scalar Component of Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Zakoucky, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Weak interactions ar e described by the Standard Model which postulates the basic assumption about the pure " V (ector) - A (xial vector)" character of the interaction. Nevertheless, even after half a century of development of the model and experimental testing of its fundamental i ngredients, experimental data still allow the existence of other types of weak interactions - e.g. scalar interactions are ruled out only on the 7% level. Experimental project WITCH ( W eak I nteraction T rap for CH arged particles) was set up at the isoto pe separator ISOLDE at CERN trying to probe the properties of the weak interaction in order to look for their forbidden (scalar, tensor) components or at least significantly improve their current experimental limits. Experimental setup consisting of a comb ination of 2 Penning traps and retardation spectrometer allows to catch the radioactive nuclei from ISOLDE separator, traps and cools them and lets them decay in rest and then probes the energy spectrum of recoiling nuclei whic...

  19. Weak preservation of local neutral substitution rates across mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karro John E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate at which neutral (non-functional bases undergo substitution is highly dependent on their location within a genome. However, it is not clear how fast these location-dependent rates change, or to what extent the substitution rate patterns are conserved between lineages. To address this question, which is critical not only for understanding the substitution process but also for evaluating phylogenetic footprinting algorithms, we examine ancestral repeats: a predominantly neutral dataset with a significantly higher genomic density than other datasets commonly used to study substitution rate variation. Using this repeat data, we measure the extent to which orthologous ancestral repeat sequences exhibit similar substitution patterns in separate mammalian lineages, allowing us to ascertain how well local substitution rates have been preserved across species. Results We calculated substitution rates for each ancestral repeat in each of three independent mammalian lineages (primate – from human/macaque alignments, rodent – from mouse/rat alignments, and laurasiatheria – from dog/cow alignments. We then measured the correlation of local substitution rates among these lineages. Overall we found the correlations between lineages to be statistically significant, but too weak to have much predictive power (r2 5%. These correlations were found to be primarily driven by regional effects at the scale of several hundred kb or larger. A few repeat classes (e.g. 7SK, Charlie8, and MER121 also exhibited stronger conservation of rate patterns, likely due to the effect of repeat-specific purifying selection. These classes should be excluded when estimating local neutral substitution rates. Conclusion Although local neutral substitution rates have some correlations among mammalian species, these correlations have little predictive power on the scale of individual repeats. This indicates that local substitution rates have changed

  20. [Theoretical studies in weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions. Attachments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, S.

    1999-09-01

    The project covered a wide area of current research in theoretical high-energy physics. This included Standard Model (SM) as well as physics beyond the Standard Model. Specific topics included supersymmetry (SUSY), perturbative quantum chromodynamics (QCD), a new weak interaction for the third family (called topflavor), neutrino masses and mixings, topcolor model, Pade approximation, and its application to perturbative QCD and other physical processes.

  1. Introduction to weak interaction theories with dynamical symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, K.D.; Peskin, M.E.

    1980-07-01

    A straightforward introduction to theories of the weak interactions with dynamical symmetry breaking-theories of technicolor or hypercolor is presented. The intent is to inform experimentalists, but also to goad theorists. The motivation for considering theories of this type is described. The structure that such a theory must possess, including new gauge interactions at mass scales of 1-100 TeV is then outlined. Despite their reliance on phenomena at such enormous energies, these theories contain new phenomena observable at currently accessible energies. Three such effects which are especially likely to be observed are described.

  2. Weak intermolecular interactions in gas-phase NMR

    CERN Document Server

    Garbacz, Piotr; Jackowski, Karol; Moszynski, Robert; Jaszunski, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Gas-phase NMR spectra demonstrating the effect of weak intermolecular forces on the NMR shielding constants of the interacting species are reported. We analyse the interaction of the molecular hydrogen isotopomers with He, Ne, and Ar, and the interaction in the He-CO_2 dimer. The same effects are studied for all these systems in the ab initio calculations. The comparison of the experimental and computed shielding constants is shown to depend strongly on the treatment of the bulk susceptibility effects, which determine in practice the pressure dependence of the experimental values. Best agreement of the results is obtained when the bulk susceptibility correction in rare gas solvents is evaluated from the analysis of the He-rare gas interactions, and when the shielding of deuterium in D_2-rare gas systems is considered.

  3. Why does graphene behave as a weakly interacting system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Barnes, Edwin; Das Sarma, S

    2014-09-05

    We address the puzzling weak-coupling perturbative behavior of graphene interaction effects as manifested experimentally, in spite of the effective fine structure constant being large, by calculating the effect of Coulomb interactions on the quasiparticle properties to next-to-leading order in the random phase approximation (RPA). The focus of our work is graphene suspended in vacuum, where electron-electron interactions are strong and the system is manifestly in a nonperturbative regime. We report results for the quasiparticle residue and the Fermi velocity renormalization at low carrier density. The smallness of the next-to-leading order corrections that we obtain demonstrates that the RPA theory converges rapidly and thus, in contrast to the usual perturbative expansion in the bare coupling constant, constitutes a quantitatively predictive theory of graphene many-body physics for any coupling strength.

  4. Progress at the WITCH experiment towards weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, Michaël

    A measurement of the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation in nuclear $\\beta$- decay is a good probe to search for physics beyond the Standard Model, independent of assumptions like parity, charge and time reversal violation. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for Charged Particles) experiment will measure this correlation with the aim of further constraining the possible existence of scalar currents in the weak interaction or find a positive indication. The setup is located at ISOLDE/CERN and consists of a double Penning trap system combined with a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions from the $\\beta$- decay. The shape of the recoil ion energy spectrum allows to determine the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation coefficient, $a$. Past experiments have allowed to measure this parameter with a precision of 0.5–1 %. The aim of the WITCH experiment is to measure $a$ with a precision of about 0.5 %.\\\\ A first step towards this goal has already been taken in 2006 with the measurement of a recoil ...

  5. A mathematical model for the Fermi weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, L; Guillot, J C

    2006-01-01

    We consider a mathematical model of the Fermi theory of weak interactions as patterned according to the well-known current-current coupling of quantum electrodynamics. We focuss on the example of the decay of the muons into electrons, positrons and neutrinos but other examples are considered in the same way. We prove that the Hamiltonian describing this model has a ground state in the fermionic Fock space for a sufficiently small coupling constant. Furthermore we determine the absolutely continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian and by commutator estimates we prove that the spectrum is absolutely continuous away from a small neighborhood of the thresholds of the free Hamiltonian. For all these results we do not use any infrared cutoff or infrared regularization even if fermions with zero mass are involved.

  6. Induced pseudoscalar coupling of the proton weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Gorringe, T P; Gorringe, Tim; Fearing, Harold W.

    2004-01-01

    The induced pseudoscalar coupling $g_p$ is the least well known of the weak coupling constants of the proton's charged--current interaction. Its size is dictated by chiral symmetry arguments, and its measurement represents an important test of quantum chromodynamics at low energies. During the past decade a large body of new data relevant to the coupling $g_p$ has been accumulated. This data includes measurements of radiative and non radiative muon capture on targets ranging from hydrogen and few--nucleon systems to complex nuclei. Herein the authors review the theoretical underpinnings of $g_p$, the experimental studies of $g_p$, and the procedures and uncertainties in extracting the coupling from data. Current puzzles are highlighted and future opportunities are discussed.

  7. Stroboscopic prethermalization in weakly interacting periodically driven systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canovi, Elena; Kollar, Marcus; Eckstein, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Time-periodic driving provides a promising route toward engineering nontrivial states in quantum many-body systems. However, while it has been shown that the dynamics of integrable, noninteracting systems can synchronize with the driving into a nontrivial periodic motion, generic nonintegrable systems are expected to heat up until they display a trivial infinite-temperature behavior. In this paper we show that a quasiperiodic time evolution over many periods can also emerge in weakly interacting systems, with a clear separation of the timescales for synchronization and the eventual approach of the infinite-temperature state. This behavior is the analog of prethermalization in quenched systems. The synchronized state can be described using a macroscopic number of approximate constants of motion. We corroborate these findings with numerical simulations for the driven Hubbard model.

  8. X-ray study of weak interactions in two flavonoids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak Sharma; Vivek K Gupta; Goutam Brahmachari; Sadhan Mondal; Arindam Gangopadhyay

    2007-10-01

    X-ray diffraction studies were carried out on single crystals of two flavonoids, viz. 5-hydroxy-6,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone, C18H16O6, (I) and 5-hydroxy-3,7,4′-trimethoxyflavone, C18H16O6, (II). Crystal structures of both the flavonoids were solved by direct methods and refined by full-matrix least-squares procedures. In both the molecules, the benzopyran moiety is planar. The dihedral angle between the phenyl ring and the benzopyran portion is 5.50(4)° in (I) and 29.11(5)° in (II). In (I), the crystal packing is influenced by O–H…O hydrogen bonds, and weak C–H…O and $\\pi \\ldots \\pi$ interactions whereas in (II) the crystal structure is stabilized by the presence of four intermolecular short contacts of the type C–H…O. There is also one C–H$\\ldots \\pi$ hydrogen bond with H… centroid distance of < 2.7 Å. The molecules are further stabilized by – interactions.

  9. Light weakly interacting particles. Constraints and connection to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2013-07-15

    The so far unknown particle nature of dark matter is a main motivation for extending the Standard Model of particle physics. A recently promoted approach to solving this puzzle is the concept of hidden sectors. Since the interactions of such sectors with the visible sector are very weak, so are the current experimental bounds. Hidden sectors might even contain sub-GeV scale particles that have so far escaped detection. In this thesis, we study the phenomenology of Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs) as well as their connection to dark matter in different Standard Model extensions. In the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), a light CPodd Higgs, arising from spontaneous breaking of approximate symmetries, represents an example of a WISP. Light gauge bosons of an extra U(1) symmetry in a hidden sector are other well motivated candidates for WISPs and called hidden photons. Such light hidden photons appear naturally in supersymmetry or string theory and might resolve the observed deviation in the muon anomalous magnetic moment from predictions. Moreover, scenarios in which hidden sector dark matter interacts via a light hidden photon with the visible sector exhibit appealing features in view of recent astrophysical anomalies. We study how the coupling of the CP-odd Higgs A{sup 0} to fermions can be constrained by current measurements for the case where the A{sup 0} is lighter than two muons. Analysing measurements of different rare and radiative meson decays, the muon anomalous magnetic moment as well as results from beam dump and reactor experiments, we severely constrain the CP-odd Higgs to be heavier than 210 MeV or to couple to fermions four orders of magnitude weaker than the Standard Model Higgs. These results apply more generally to the coupling of an axion-like particle to matter. Hidden photons can be constrained by experiments since they couple to charged Standard Model particles via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. We derive

  10. The surprising influence of late charged current weak interactions on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohs, E.; Fuller, George M.

    2016-10-01

    The weak interaction charged current processes (νe + n ↔ p +e-; νbare + p ↔ n +e+; n ↔ p +e- +νbare) interconvert neutrons and protons in the early universe and have significant influence on Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) light-element abundance yields, particularly that for 4He. We demonstrate that the influence of these processes is still significant even when they operate well below temperatures T ∼ 0.7 MeV usually invoked for "weak freeze-out," and in fact down nearly into the alpha-particle formation epoch (T ≈ 0.1 MeV). This physics is correctly captured in commonly used BBN codes, though this late-time, low-temperature persistent effect of the isospin-changing weak processes, and the sensitivity of the associated rates to lepton energy distribution functions and blocking factors are not widely appreciated. We quantify this late-time influence by analyzing weak interaction rate dependence on the neutron lifetime, lepton energy distribution functions, entropy, the proton-neutron mass difference, and Hubble expansion rate. The effects we point out here render BBN a keen probe of any beyond-standard-model physics that alters lepton number/energy distributions, even subtly, in epochs of the early universe all the way down to near T = 100 keV.

  11. Weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Nikhil; Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Haxton, W. C.

    2014-06-01

    Background: A model-independent formulation of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-nucleon scattering was recently developed in Galilean-invariant effective field theory. Purpose: Here we complete the embedding of this effective interaction in the nucleus, constructing the most general elastic nuclear cross section as a factorized product of WIMP and nuclear response functions. This form explicitly defines what can and cannot be learned about the low-energy constants of the effective theory—and consequently about candidate ultraviolet theories of dark matter—from elastic scattering experiments. Results: We identify those interactions that cannot be reliably treated in a spin-independent/spin-dependent (SI/SD) formulation: For derivative- or velocity-dependent couplings, the SI/SD formulation generally mischaracterizes the relevant nuclear operator and its multipolarity (e.g., scalar or vector) and greatly underestimates experimental sensitivities. This can lead to apparent conflicts between experiments when, in fact, none may exist. The new nuclear responses appearing in the factorized cross section are related to familiar electroweak nuclear operators such as angular momentum l⃗(i) and the spin-orbit coupling σ⃗(i).l⃗(i). Conclusions: To unambiguously interpret experiments and to extract all of the available information on the particle physics of dark matter, experimentalists will need to (1) do a sufficient number of experiments with nuclear targets having the requisite sensitivities to the various operators and (2) analyze the results in a formalism that does not arbitrarily limit the candidate operators. In an appendix we describe a code that is available to help interested readers implement such an analysis.

  12. Search for a tensor component in the weak interaction Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Soti, Gergely

    The search for physics beyond the standard model can, besides in high-energy experiments such as the ones at the LHC accelerator, also be carried out at lower energies. Measurements of correlation coefficients in neutron and nuclear b decay constitute a reliable and model-independent method for such efforts. The topic of this thesis is the precision measurement of the beta asymmetry parameter A. It was measured in the decay of 67Cu, which proceeds via a pure Gamow-Teller b transition, thus its A parameter is sensitive to possible tensor type currents in the weak interaction. The experiment was performed at the NICOLE setup in ISOLDE (CERN), using the technique of low temperature nuclear orientation. The b particles were observed with custom made planar high purity germanium detectors operating at around 10 K. The beta asymmetry of 68Cu was measured on-line for normalization purposes. Geant4 simulations were used to gain control over systematic effects such as electron scattering on the particle detectors. As...

  13. 20F beta spectrum shape and weak interaction tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytas, Paul; George, Elizabeth; Chuna, Thomas; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar; Hughes, Max; Huyan, Xueying; Minamisono, Kei; Paulauskas, Stanley

    2016-09-01

    Precision measurements of the shape of beta spectra can test our understanding of the weak interaction. We are carrying out a measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of β particles from 20F decay. The primary motivation is to test the so-called strong form of the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis. The measurement should also enable us to place competitive limits on the contributions of exotic tensor couplings in beta decay. We aim to achieve a relative precision better than 3% on the linear contribution to the shape. This represents an order of magnitude improvement compared to previous experiments in 20F. In order to control systematic effects, we are using a technique that takes advantage of high energy radioactive beams at the NSCL to implant the decaying nuclei in scintillation detectors deeply enough that the emitted beta particles cannot escape. The β-particle energy is measured with the implantation detector after switching off the implantation beam. Ancillary detectors are used to identify the 1.633-MeV γ-rays following the 20F β decay for coincidence measurements in order to tag the transition of interest and to reduce backgrounds. We report on the status of the analysis. Supported in part with Awards from the NSCL PAC and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1506084.

  14. Strong and weak interactions in a simple field-theoretical model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hove, Léon van

    2006-01-01

    An exactly renormalizable model of quantum fields, introduced earlier by Th. W. Ruijgrok and the present author, is considered for large but finite cut-off. It gives rise to strong and weak interaction effects. In the limit of infinite cut-off the weak interactions vanish and the strong interactions

  15. Biospecific protein immobilization for rapid analysis of weak protein interactions using self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengali, Aditya N; Tessier, Peter M

    2009-10-01

    "Reversible" protein interactions govern diverse biological behavior ranging from intracellular transport and toxic protein aggregation to protein crystallization and inactivation of protein therapeutics. Much less is known about weak protein interactions than their stronger counterparts since they are difficult to characterize, especially in a parallel format (in contrast to a sequential format) necessary for high-throughput screening. We have recently introduced a highly efficient approach of characterizing protein self-association, namely self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy (SINS; Tessier et al., 2008; J Am Chem Soc 130:3106-3112). This approach exploits the separation-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles to detect weak self-interactions between proteins immobilized on nanoparticles. A limitation of our previous work is that differences in the sequence and structure of proteins can lead to significant differences in their affinity to adsorb to nanoparticle surfaces, which complicates analysis of the corresponding protein self-association behavior. In this work we demonstrate a highly specific approach for coating nanoparticles with proteins using biotin-avidin interactions to generate protein-nanoparticle conjugates that report protein self-interactions through changes in their optical properties. Using lysozyme as a model protein that is refractory to characterization by conventional SINS, we demonstrate that surface Plasmon wavelengths for gold-avidin-lysozyme conjugates over a range of solution conditions (i.e., pH and ionic strength) are well correlated with lysozyme osmotic second virial coefficient measurements. Since SINS requires orders of magnitude less protein and time than conventional methods (e.g., static light scattering), we envision this approach will find application in large screens of protein self-association aimed at either preventing (e.g., protein aggregation) or promoting (e.g., protein crystallization) these

  16. Nuclear structure properties and stellar weak rates for 76Se: Unblocking of the Gamow Teller strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Ishfaq, Mavra; Böyükata, Mahmut; Riaz, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    At finite temperatures (≥ 107K), 76Se is abundant in the core of massive stars and electron capture on 76Se has a consequential role to play in the dynamics of core-collapse. The present work may be classified into two main categories. In the first phase we study the nuclear structure properties of 76Se using the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1). The IBM-1 investigations include the energy levels, B (E 2) values and the prediction of the geometry. We performed the extended consistent-Q formalism (ECQF) calculation and later the triaxial formalism calculation (constructed by adding the cubic term to the ECQF). The geometry of 76Se can be envisioned within the formalism of the potential energy surface based on the classical limit of IBM-1 model. In the second phase, we reconfirm the unblocking of the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength in 76Se (a test case for nuclei having N > 40 and Z < 40). Using the deformed pn-QRPA model we calculate GT transitions, stellar electron capture cross section (within the limit of low momentum transfer) and stellar weak rates for 76Se. The distinguishing feature of our calculation is a state-by-state evaluation of stellar weak rates in a fully microscopic fashion. Results are compared with experimental data and previous calculations. The calculated GT distribution fulfills the Ikeda sum rule. Rates for β-delayed neutrons and emission probabilities are also calculated. Our study suggests that at high stellar temperatures and low densities, the β+-decay on 76Se should not be neglected and needs to be taken into consideration along with electron capture rates for simulation of presupernova evolution of massive stars.

  17. Weak Gravity Conjecture and Holographic Dark Energy Model with Interaction and Spatial Curvature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, we apply the weak gravity conjecture to the holographic quintessence model of dark energy.Three different holographic dark energy models are considered: without the interaction in the non-flat universe; with interaction in the flat universe; with interaction in the non-flat universe. We find that only in the models with the spatial curvature and interaction term proportional to the energy density of matter, it is possible for the weak gravity conjecture to be satisfied. And it seems that the weak gravity conjecture favors an open universe and the decaying of matter into dark energy.

  18. Aspects of Weak Interactions between Folate and Glycine Betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojane, Purva P; Duff, Michael R; Bafna, Khushboo; Rimmer, Gabriella P; Agarwal, Pratul K; Howell, Elizabeth E

    2016-11-15

    Folate, or vitamin B9, is an important compound in one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies have found weaker binding of dihydrofolate to dihydrofolate reductase in the presence of osmolytes. In other words, osmolytes are more difficult to remove from the dihydrofolate solvation shell than water; this shifts the equilibrium toward the free ligand and protein species. This study uses vapor-pressure osmometry to explore the interaction of folate with the model osmolyte, glycine betaine. This method yields a preferential interaction potential (μ23/RT value). This value is concentration-dependent as folate dimerizes. The μ23/RT value also tracks the deprotonation of folate's N3-O4 keto-enol group, yielding a pKa of 8.1. To determine which folate atoms interact most strongly with betaine, the interaction of heterocyclic aromatic compounds (as well as other small molecules) with betaine was monitored. Using an accessible surface area approach coupled with osmometry measurements, deconvolution of the μ23/RT values into α values for atom types was achieved. This allows prediction of μ23/RT values for larger molecules such as folate. Molecular dynamics simulations of folate show a variety of structures from extended to L-shaped. These conformers possess μ23/RT values from -0.18 to 0.09 m(-1), where a negative value indicates a preference for solvation by betaine and a positive value indicates a preference for water. This range of values is consistent with values observed in osmometry and solubility experiments. As the average predicted folate μ23/RT value is near zero, this indicates folate interacts almost equally well with betaine and water. Specifically, the glutamate tail prefers to interact with water, while the aromatic rings prefer betaine. In general, the more protonated species in our small molecule survey interact better with betaine as they provide a source of hydrogens (betaine is not a hydrogen bond donor). Upon deprotonation of the small molecule, the

  19. Weak interaction studies with an on-line Penning trap mass spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Savard, G; Buchinger, F; Crawford, J E; Feng, X; Gulick, S; Hackman, G; Hardy, J C; Lee, J K P; Moore, R B; Sharma, K S; Uusitalo, J

    1999-01-01

    Superallowed beta-decays are a sensitive probe of the fundamental aspects of the weak interaction. Such decays are used to stringently test the CVC hypothesis, deduce a precise value of the weak vector coupling constant, test the unitarity of the CKM matrix and look for deviation from the V-A structure for the weak interaction. The ability to efficiently capture and store short-lived superallowed beta-emitters in ion traps will help to elucidate discrepancies in the most precise unitarity test of the CKM matrix and tighten the present limits on interactions outside the standard V-A form.

  20. Early history of gauge theories and weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straumann, N. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with Weyl`s attempt to unify gravitation and electromagnetism, Weyl`s 1929 classic `Electron and gravitation`, Yang-Mills theory, parity violation and 2-component neutrino, chiral invariance and universal V-A interaction. 3 figs., 38 refs.

  1. Testing Lorentz invariance in the weak interaction using laser-polarized {sup 20}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijck, Elwin A.; Sytema, Auke; Mueller, Stefan E.; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus; Noordmans, Jacob P.; Onderwater, Gerco; Pijpker, Coen; Timmermans, Rob G.E.; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans W. [University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-07-01

    Lorentz invariance is one of the fundamental principles underlying our current understanding of nature. In models aiming to unify the Standard Model with (quantum) gravity this symmetry may be broken. Few tests of Lorentz invariance in the weak interaction have been made. We have performed a novel test of rotational invariance by searching for variations in the decay rate of {sup 20}Na nuclei depending on the nuclear spin orientation with respect to a possible Lorentz symmetry breaking background field. Using optical pumping, the nuclei were alternately polarized in opposite vertical directions, while the absolute orientation of the spins changed with the rotation of the Earth. A polarization-dependent Lorentz symmetry violating effect was searched for, putting a 95% confidence limit on the amplitude of sidereal variations in the decay rate asymmetry at < 3 x 10{sup -3}. This result was analyzed in the framework of a recently developed theory that assumes a Lorentz symmetry breaking background field of tensor nature.

  2. Weak and strong interactions between dark solitons and dispersive waves

    CERN Document Server

    Oreshnikov, Ivan; Yulin, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    The effect of mutual interaction between dark solitons and dispersive waves is investigated numerically and analytically. The condition of the resonant scattering of dispersive waves on dark solitons is derived and compared against the results of numerical simulations. It is shown that the interaction with intense dispersive waves affects the dynamics of the soltons strongly changing their frequencies and accelerating or decelerating the solitons. It is also demonstrated that two dark solitons can form a cavity for dispersive weaves bouncing between the two dark solitons. The differences of the resonant scattering of the dispersive waves on the dark and bright solitons are discussed. In particular we demonstrate that two dark solitons and dispersive wave bouncing in between them create solitonic cavity with convex "mirrors" unlike the concave "mirror" in case of the bright solitons.

  3. Infrared weak corrections to strongly interacting gauge bosons scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Ciafaloni, P

    2009-01-01

    We evaluate the impact of electroweak corrections of infrared origin on longitudinal strongly interacting gauge bosons scattering, calculating all order resummed expressions at the double log level. As a working example, we consider the Standard model with a heavy Higgs. At energies typical of forthcoming experiments (LHC,ILC,CLIC), the corrections are in the 10-40 % range, the relative sign depending on the initial state considered and on whether or not additional gauge bosons emission is included.

  4. Constraining the interacting dark energy models from weak gravity conjecture and recent observations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ximing; Pan, Nana; Gong, Yungui

    2010-01-01

    We examine the effectiveness of the weak gravity conjecture in constraining the dark energy by comparing with observations. For general dark energy models with plausible phenomenological interactions between dark sectors, we find that although the weak gravity conjecture can constrain the dark energy, the constraint is looser than that from the observations.

  5. Introduction to the Standard Model of the Electro-Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Iliopoulos, J

    2016-01-01

    These lectures notes cover the basic ideas of gauge symmetries and the phe- nomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking which are used in the construc- tion of the Standard Model of the Electro-Weak Interactions.

  6. Continuous Choreographies as Limiting Solutions of N-body Type Problems with Weak Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaneira, Reynaldo; Padilla, Pablo; Sánchez-Morgado, Héctor

    2016-10-01

    We consider the limit Nto +∞ of N-body type problems with weak interaction, equal masses and -σ-homogeneous potential, 0absolute minimizer of the action functional among zero mean (travelling wave) loops of class H^1.

  7. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.

    1990-08-29

    This paper deals with research being conducted at the University of Arizona in the theory of strong and weak interactions. Topics in Quantum chromodynamics, quantum electrodynamics, symmetry principle, hadronic structure of the photon and other are discussed. (LSP)

  8. A toy model for weak interaction based on condensed gauge bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Kohyama, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    We construct a toy model for weak interaction based on the assumption that gauge bosons form condensates. We then discuss the model predictions calculated from the effective Feynman rules which are derived through computing the effective action.

  9. Halogen Bonding: An AIM Analysis of the Weak Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU, Jian-Wei; LU, Yun-Xiang; YU, Qing-Sen; ZHANG, Hua-Xin; JIANG, Yong-Jun

    2006-01-01

    A series of complexes formed between halogen-containing molecules and ammonia have been investigated by means of the atoms in molecules (AIM) approach to gain a deeper insight into halogen bonding. The existence of the halogen bond critical points (XBCP) and the values of the electron density (ρb) and Laplacian of electron density (▽2pb) at the XBCP reveal the closed-shell interactions in these complexes. Integrated atomic properties such as charge, energy, polarization moment, volume of the halogen bond donor atoms, and the corresponding changes (△) upon complexation have been calculated. The present calculations have demonstrated that the halogen bond represents different AIM properties as compared to the well-documented hydrogen bond. Both the electron density and the Laplacian of electron density at the XBCP have been shown to correlate well with the interaction energy, which indicates that the topological parameters at the XBCP can be treated as a good measure of the halogen bond strength.In addition, an excellent linear relationship between the interatomic distance d(X…N) and the logarithm of ρb has been established.

  10. Magnetic dynamics of weakly and strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian; Mørup, Steen

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic dynamics of two differently treated samples of hematite nanoparticles from the same batch with a particle size of about 20 nm have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The dynamics of the first sample, in which the particles are coated and dispersed in water, is in accordance.......3(-0.8)(+1.0) x 10(-10) s for a rotation of the sublattice magnetization directions in the rhombohedral (111) plane. The corresponding median superparamagnetic blocking temperature is about 150 K. The dynamics of the second, dry sample, in which the particles are uncoated and thus allowed to aggregate, is slowed...... down by interparticle interactions and a magnetically split spectrum is retained at room temperature. The temperature variation or the magnetic hyperfine field, corresponding to different quantiles in the hyperfine field distribution, can be consistently described by a mean field model...

  11. Weak Interactions Effect on the P-N Mass Splitting and the Principle of Equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Chamoun, N

    2002-01-01

    We estimate the difference of nucleon matrix elements for the product of two weak currents operator in order to evaluate and include weak interactions effect on the individual nucleons contribution to the nucleus mass when analysing Eotvos experimental results. For this we use the Bag model and the constituent quark model as two extreme relativistic and non-relativistic representations of the quarks inside the nucleon. When compared to estimates considering only the binding energy contribution, we find both models agree on lowering the bound of a possible weak interactions violation to the equivalence principle by one order of magnitude from 1e-2 to 1e-3.

  12. Detecting weak interactions between Au- and gas molecules: a photoelectron spectroscopic and ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yi; Huang, Wei; Woodford, Jeffrey; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao Cheng

    2009-07-15

    We show that anion photoelectron spectroscopy can be a very sensitive probe for weak intermolecular interactions between gold anion and a noble-gas atom or other nonreactive molecule. High-level ab initio calculations support the measured trend of relatively weak intermolecular interactions among various gold anion-atom complexes. The interaction between Au(-) and H(2)O is much stronger, comparable to a strong hydrogen bond. The interaction between Au(-) and O(2) is weaker than that between Au(-) and a noble-gas atom (Ar, Kr, or Xe).

  13. New Limits on Interactions between Weakly Interacting Massive Particles and Nucleons Obtained with CsI(Tl) Crystal Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S C; Choi, J H; Kang, W G; Kim, B H; Kim, H J; Kim, K W; Kim, S K; Kim, Y D; Lee, J; Lee, J H; Lee, J K; Lee, M J; Lee, S J; Li, J; Li, J; Li, X R; Li, Y J; Myung, S S; Olsen, S L; Ryu, S; Seong, I S; So, J H; Yue, Q

    2012-01-01

    New limits are presented on the cross section for Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) nucleon scattering in the KIMS CsI(T) detector array at the Yangyang Underground Laboratory. The exposure used for these results is 24524.3 kg\\cdotdays. Nuclei recoiling from WIMP interactions are identified by a pulse shape discrimination method. A low energy background due to alpha emitters on the crystal surfaces is identified and taken into account in the analysis. The detected numbers of nuclear recoils are consistent with zero and 90% confidence level upper limits on the WIMP interaction rates are set for electron equivalent energies from 3 keV to 11 keV. The 90% upper limit of NR event rate for 3.6-5.8 keV corresponding to 2-4 keV in NaI(T) is 0.0098 counts/kg/keV/day which is below the annual modulation amplitude reported by DAMA. This is incompatible with interpretations that enhance the modulation amplitude such as inelastic dark matter models. We establish the most stringent cross section limits on spin-dep...

  14. Weak interaction and nucleus: the relationship keeps on; Interaction faible et noyau: l'histoire continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, J. [Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Frere, J.M.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Volpe, C.; Marteau, J.; Lhuillier, D.; Vignaud, D.; Legac, R.; Marteau, J.; Legac, R

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot-Curie international summer school in 2003 whose theme, that year, was the relationship between weak interaction and nucleus. There were 8 contributions whose titles are: 1) before the standard model: from beta decay to neutral currents; 2) the electro-weak theory and beyond; 3) testing of the standard model at low energies; 4) description of weak processes in nuclei; 5) 20.000 tonnes underground, an approach to the neutrino-nucleus interaction; 6) parity violation from atom to nucleon; 7) how neutrinos got their masses; and 8) CP symmetry.

  15. An Investigation of Human-Computer Interaction Approaches Beneficial to Weak Learners in Complex Animation Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Animation is one of the useful contemporary educational technologies in teaching complex subjects. There is a growing interest in proper use of learner-technology interaction to promote learning quality for different groups of learner needs. The purpose of this study is to investigate if an interaction approach supports weak learners, who have…

  16. Coupling, convergence rates of Markov processes and weak Poincaré inequalities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Fengyu(王凤雨)

    2002-01-01

    Some analytic and probabilistic properties of the weak Poincaré inequality are obtained. In particular, for strong Feller Markov processes the existence of this inequality is equivalent to each of the following: (i)the Liouville property (or the irreducibility); (ii) the existence of successful couplings (or shift-couplings); (iii)the convergence of the Markov process in total variation norm; (iv) the triviality of the tail (or the invariant)σ-field; (v) the convergence of the density. Estimates of the convergence rate in total variation norm of Markov processes are obtained using the weak Poincaré inequality.

  17. n→π* Non-Covalent Interaction is Weak but Strong in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Das, Aloke

    2017-06-01

    n→π* interaction is a newly discovered non-covalent interaction which involves delocalization of lone pair (n) electrons of an electronegative atom into π* orbital of a carbonyl group or an aromatic ring. It is widely observed in materials, biomolecules (protein, DNA, RNA), amino acids, neurotransmitter and drugs. However, due to its weak strength and counterintuitive nature its existence is debatable. Such weak interactions are often masked by solvent effects in condense phase or physiological conditions thereby, making it difficult to prove the presence of such weak interactions. Therefore, we have used isolated gas phase spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations to study n→π* interaction in several molecules where, our molecular systems are free from solvent effects or any external forces. Herein I will be discussing two of the molecular systems (phenyl formate and salicin) where, we have observed the significance of n→π* interaction in determining the conformational specificity of the molecules. We have proved the existence of n→π* interaction for the first time through IR spectroscopy by probing the carbonyl stretching frequency of phenyl formate. Our study is further pursued on a drug named salicin where, we have observed that its conformational preferences is ruled by n→π* interaction even though a strong hydrogen bonding interaction is present in the molecule. Our results show that n→π* interaction, in spite of its weak strength, should not be overlooked as it existence can play an important role in governing the structures of molecules like other strong non-covalent interactions do.

  18. EFFECT OF WEAK INTERACTIONS ON PHENOL ADSORPTION FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY AMINATED POLYMERIC ADSORBENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-ming Zhang; Jin-long Chen; Ai-min Li; Bing-cai Pan; Qun Chen; Ming-yang He; Quan-xing Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption behaviors of phenol from aqueous solutions have been investigated in batch systems at 303 K and 318 K respectively, using hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbent (CHA 111), aminated hypercrosslinked polymeric adsorbents (NDA101, NDA 103, NDA105) and weakly basic polymeric adsorbent (D301) with a view to studying the effect of hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions between adsorbate and the adsorbent. All adsorption isotherms can be well fitted by Langmuir and Freundlich equations. Compared with D301 driven by hydrogen bonding interaction only and CHA111 driven by Van der Waals interaction only, phenol adsorption on aminated adsorbents driven by both hydrogen bonding and Van der Waals interactions were apparently different, i.e., negative effect for NDA105, positive effect for NDA101 and synergistic effect for NDA103. In this synergistic action, some weak interactions would contribute more or less to the adsorption than they work individually.

  19. Weak interactions involving organic fluorine: analysis of structural motifs in Flunazirine and Haloperidol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, M. D.; Row, T. N. Guru

    2001-05-01

    The crystal structure of Flunazirine, an anticonvulsant drug, is analyzed in terms of intermolecular interactions involving fluorine. The structure displays motifs formed by only weak interactions C-H⋯F and C-H⋯π. The motifs thus generated show cavities, which could serve as hosts for complexation. The structure of Flunazirine displays cavities formed by C-H⋯F and C-H⋯π interactions. Haloperidol, an antipsychotic drug, shows F⋯F interactions in the crystalline lattice in lieu of Cl⋯Cl interactions. However, strong O-H⋯N interactions dominate packing. The salient features of the two structures in terms of intermolecular interactions reveal, even though organic fluorine has lower tendency to engage in hydrogen bonding and F⋯F interactions, these interactions could play a significant role in the design of molecular assemblies via crystal engineering.

  20. Why is the correlation between gene importance and gene evolutionary rate so weak?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the few commonly believed principles of molecular evolution is that functionally more important genes (or DNA sequences evolve more slowly than less important ones. This principle is widely used by molecular biologists in daily practice. However, recent genomic analysis of a diverse array of organisms found only weak, negative correlations between the evolutionary rate of a gene and its functional importance, typically measured under a single benign lab condition. A frequently suggested cause of the above finding is that gene importance determined in the lab differs from that in an organism's natural environment. Here, we test this hypothesis in yeast using gene importance values experimentally determined in 418 lab conditions or computationally predicted for 10,000 nutritional conditions. In no single condition or combination of conditions did we find a much stronger negative correlation, which is explainable by our subsequent finding that always-essential (enzyme genes do not evolve significantly more slowly than sometimes-essential or always-nonessential ones. Furthermore, we verified that functional density, approximated by the fraction of amino acid sites within protein domains, is uncorrelated with gene importance. Thus, neither the lab-nature mismatch nor a potentially biased among-gene distribution of functional density explains the observed weakness of the correlation between gene importance and evolutionary rate. We conclude that the weakness is factual, rather than artifactual. In addition to being weakened by population genetic reasons, the correlation is likely to have been further weakened by the presence of multiple nontrivial rate determinants that are independent from gene importance. These findings notwithstanding, we show that the principle of slower evolution of more important genes does have some predictive power when genes with vastly different evolutionary rates are compared, explaining why the principle can be

  1. First results of the CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting sub-eV Particle Search (CROWS)

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, M; Gasior, M; Thumm, M; Rieger, S W

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting sub-eV Particle Search probes the existence of weakly interacting sub-eV particles like axions or hidden sector photons. It is based on the principle of an optical light shining through the wall experiment, adapted to microwaves. Critical aspects of the experiment are electromagnetic shielding, design and operation of low loss cavity resonators, and the detection of weak sinusoidal microwave signals. Lower bounds are set on the coupling constant g=4.5 x 10$^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$ for axionlike particles with a mass of m$_a$=7.2 $\\mu$eV. For hidden sector photons, lower bounds are set for the coupling constant $\\chi$=4.1 x 10$^{^-9}$ at a mass of m$\\gamma$=10.8 $\\mu$eV. For the latter we are probing a previously unexplored region in the parameter space.

  2. The Weak Interaction of Surfactants with Polymer Brushes and Its Impact on Lubricating Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Ran; Ma, Shuanhong; Wei, Qiangbing; Ye, Qian; Yu, Bo; Gucht, Van Der Jasper; Zhou, Feng

    2015-01-01

    We study the weak interaction between polymers and oppositely charged surfactants and its effect on the lubricating behavior and wettability of polymer brush-covered surfaces. For cationic (PMETAC) and anionic (PSPMA) brushes, a gradual transition from ultralow friction to ultrahigh friction was

  3. Linear and weakly nonlinear aspects of free shear layer instability, roll-up, subharmonic interaction and wall influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, A. B.; Thompson, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    The growth of the momentum thickness and the modal disturbance energies are examined to study the nature and onset of nonlinearity in a temporally growing free shear layer. A shooting technique is used to find solutions to the linearized eigenvalue problem, and pseudospectral weakly nonlinear simulations of this flow are obtained for comparison. The roll-up of a fundamental disturbance follows linear theory predictions even with a 20 percent disturbance amplitude. A weak nonlinear interaction of the disturbance creates a finite-amplitude mean shear stress which dominates the growth of the layer momentum thickness, and the disturbance growth rate changes until the fundamental disturbance dominates. The fundamental then becomes an energy source for the harmonic, resulting in an increase in the growth rate of the subharmonic over the linear prediction even when the fundamental has no energy to give. Also considered are phase relations and the wall influence.

  4. Weakly Hydrated Surfaces and the Binding Interactions of Small Biological Solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, J. W.; Tavagnacco, L.; Ehrlich, L.; Chen, M.; Schnupf, U.; Himmel, M. E.; Saboungi, M. L.; Cesaro, A.

    2012-04-01

    Extended planar hydrophobic surfaces, such as are found in the side chains of the amino acids histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, exhibit an affinity for the weakly hydrated faces of glucopyranose. In addition, molecular species such as these, including indole, caffeine, and imidazole, exhibit a weak tendency to pair together by hydrophobic stacking in aqueous solution. These interactions can be partially understood in terms of recent models for the hydration of extended hydrophobic faces and should provide insight into the architecture of sugar-binding sites in proteins.

  5. Relaxation and coarsening of weakly-interacting breathers in a simplified DNLS chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iubini, Stefano; Politi, Antonio; Politi, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation displays a parameter region characterized by the presence of localized excitations (breathers). While their formation is well understood and it is expected that the asymptotic configuration comprises a single breather on top of a background, it is not clear why the dynamics of a multi-breather configuration is essentially frozen. In order to investigate this question, we introduce simple stochastic models, characterized by suitable conservation laws. We focus on the role of the coupling strength between localized excitations and background. In the DNLS model, higher breathers interact more weakly, as a result of their faster rotation. In our stochastic models, the strength of the coupling is controlled directly by an amplitude-dependent parameter. In the case of a power-law decrease, the associated coarsening process undergoes a slowing down if the decay rate is larger than a critical value. In the case of an exponential decrease, a freezing effect is observed that is reminiscent of the scenario observed in the DNLS. This last regime arises spontaneously when direct energy diffusion between breathers and background is blocked below a certain threshold.

  6. Second-order corrections to mean-field evolution of weakly interacting Bosons, II

    CERN Document Server

    Grillakis, M; Margetis, D

    2010-01-01

    We study the evolution of a N-body weakly interacting system of Bosons. Our work forms an extension of our previous paper I, in which we derived a second-order correction to a mean-field evolution law for coherent states in the presence of small interaction potential. Here, we remove the assumption of smallness of the interaction potential and prove global existence of solutions to the equation for the second-order correction. This implies an improved Fock-space estimate for our approximation of the N-body state.

  7. Energetic electron precipitation in weak to moderate corotating interaction region-driven storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegaard, Linn-Kristine Glesnes; Tyssøy, Hilde Nesse; Søraas, Finn; Stadsnes, Johan; Sandanger, Marit Irene

    2017-03-01

    High-energy electron precipitation from the radiation belts can penetrate deep into the mesosphere and increase the production rate of NOx and HOx, which in turn will reduce ozone in catalytic processes. The mechanisms for acceleration and loss of electrons in the radiation belts are not fully understood, and most of the measurements of the precipitating flux into the atmosphere have been insufficient for estimating the loss cone flux. In the present study the electron flux measured by the NOAA POES Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors 0° and 90° detectors is combined together with theory of pitch angle diffusion by wave-particle interaction to quantify the electron flux lost below 120 km altitude. Using this method, 41 weak and moderate geomagnetic storms caused by corotating interaction regions during 2006-2010 are studied. The dependence of the energetic electron precipitation fluxes upon solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices is investigated. Nine storms give increased precipitation of >˜750 keV electrons. Nineteen storms increase the precipitation of >˜300 keV electrons, but not the >˜750 keV population. Thirteen storms either do not change or deplete the fluxes at those energies. Storms that have an increase in the flux of electrons with energy >˜300 keV are characterized by an elevated solar wind velocity for a longer period compared to the storms that do not. Storms with increased precipitation of >˜750 keV flux are distinguished by higher-energy input from the solar wind quantified by the ɛ parameter and corresponding higher geomagnetic activity.

  8. Synergistic foaming and surface properties of a weakly interacting mixture of soy glycinin and biosurfactant stevioside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zhi-Li; Wang, Li-Ying; Wang, Jin-Mei; Yuan, Yang; Yang, Xiao-Quan

    2014-07-16

    The adsorption of the mixtures of soy glycinin (11S) with a biosurfactant stevioside (STE) at the air-water interface was studied to understand its relation with foaming properties. A combination of several techniques such as dynamic surface tension, dilatational rheology, fluorescence spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used. In the presence of intermediate STE concentrations (0.25-0.5%), the weak binding of STE with 11S in bulk occurred by hydrophobic interactions, which could induce conformational changes of 11S, as evidenced by fluorescence and ITC. Accordingly, the strong synergy in reducing surface tension and the plateau in surface elasticity for mixed 11S-STE layers formed from the weakly interacting mixtures were clearly observed. This effect could be explained by the complexation with STE, which might facilitate the partial dissociation and further unfolding of 11S upon adsorption, thus enhancing the protein-protein and protein-STE interfacial interactions. These surface properties were positively reflected in foams produced by the weakly interacting system, which exhibited good foaming capacity and considerable stability probably due to better response to external stresses. However, at high STE concentrations (1-2%), as a consequence of the interface dominated by STE due to the preferential adsorption of STE molecules, the surface elasticity of layers dramatically decreased, and the resultant foams became less stable.

  9. Thermodynamic identities and particle number fluctuations in weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, Fabrizio [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and INFM, Unita di Salerno, I-84081 Baronissi SA (Italy); Navez, Patrick [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Materials Science, Demokritos NCSR, POB 60228, 15310 Athens (Greece); Wilkens, Martin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany)

    1999-08-14

    We derive exact thermodynamic identities relating the average number of condensed atoms and the root-mean-square fluctuations determined in different statistical ensembles for the weakly interacting Bose gas confined in a box. This is achieved by introducing the concept of auxiliary partition functions for model Hamiltonians that do conserve the total number of particles. Exploiting such thermodynamic identities, we provide the first, completely analytical prediction of the microcanonical particle number fluctuations in the weakly interacting Bose gas. Such fluctuations, as a function of the volume V of the box are found to behave normally, in contrast with the anomalous scaling behaviour V{sup 4/3} of the fluctuations in the ideal Bose gas. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  10. Weak interactions from 1950-1960: a quantitative bibliometric study of the formation of a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.

    1986-01-01

    A quantitative technique is illustrated which uses publication statistics from a bibliography of citations in the area of weak interactions to provide a view of trends and patterns in the development of the field during the period from 1950 to 1960. An overview is given of what the physicists working in weak interactions during this period were doing as indicated by an analysis of the subjects of their papers. The dominant problems and concerns are discussed. Focus is then turned to the events surrounding the emergence of the tau/theta particle puzzle, the discovery of parity nonconservation, and the resolution offered by the V-A theory. Displaying the data from the citation index in unusual ways highlights dominant issues of the period, especially the close relationship between theory and experiment in the latter half of the decade. 64 refs., 14 figs. (LEW)

  11. Global Existence of Weak Solutions to a Fractional Model in Magnetoelastic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idriss Ellahiani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with global existence of weak solutions to a one-dimensional mathematical model describing magnetoelastic interactions. The model is described by a fractional Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation for the magnetization field coupled to an evolution equation for the displacement. We prove global existence by using Faedo-Galerkin/penalty method. Some commutator estimates are used to prove the convergence of nonlinear terms.

  12. Randomly organized lipids and marginally stable proteins: a coupling of weak interactions to optimize membrane signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Anne M; Mahling, Ryan; Fealey, Michael E; Rannikko, Anika; Dunleavy, Katie; Hendrickson, Troy; Lohese, K Jean; Kruggel, Spencer; Heiling, Hillary; Harren, Daniel; Sutton, R Bryan; Pastor, John; Hinderliter, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Eukaryotic lipids in a bilayer are dominated by weak cooperative interactions. These interactions impart highly dynamic and pliable properties to the membrane. C2 domain-containing proteins in the membrane also interact weakly and cooperatively giving rise to a high degree of conformational plasticity. We propose that this feature of weak energetics and plasticity shared by lipids and C2 domain-containing proteins enhance a cell's ability to transduce information across the membrane. We explored this hypothesis using information theory to assess the information storage capacity of model and mast cell membranes, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, carboxyfluorescein release assays, and tryptophan fluorescence to assess protein and membrane stability. The distribution of lipids in mast cell membranes encoded 5.6-5.8bits of information. More information resided in the acyl chains than the head groups and in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane than the outer leaflet. When the lipid composition and information content of model membranes were varied, the associated C2 domains underwent large changes in stability and denaturation profile. The C2 domain-containing proteins are therefore acutely sensitive to the composition and information content of their associated lipids. Together, these findings suggest that the maximum flow of signaling information through the membrane and into the cell is optimized by the cooperation of near-random distributions of membrane lipids and proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova.

  13. Deep breathing heart rate variability is associated with inspiratory muscle weakness in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Michel Silva; Arena, Ross; Archiza, Bruno; de Toledo, Carlos Fischer; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2014-03-01

    There is a synchronism between the respiratory and cardiac cycles. However, the relationship of inspiratory muscle weakness in chronic heart failure (CHF) on cardiac autonomic modulation is unknown. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the impact of inspiratory muscle strength on the magnitude of respiratory sinus arrhythmia. Ten CHF (62 ± 7 years--left ventricle eject fraction of 40 ± 5% and New York Heart Association class I-III) and nine matched-age healthy volunteers (64 ± 5 years) participated in this study. Heart rate variability (HRV) was obtained at rest and during deep breathing manoeuvre (DB-M) by electrocardiograph. CHF patients demonstrated impaired cardiac autonomic modulation at rest and during DB-M when compared with healthy subjects (p heart rate was associated with inspiratory muscle weakness in CHF. Based on this evidence, recommendations for future research applications of respiratory muscle training can bring to light a potentially valuable target for rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Experimental design strategy: weak reinforcement leads to increased hit rates and enhanced chemical diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Mateusz; Wassermann, Anne Mai; Glick, Meir; Lounkine, Eugen

    2015-05-26

    High Throughput Screening (HTS) is a common approach in life sciences to discover chemical matter that modulates a biological target or phenotype. However, low assay throughput, reagents cost, or a flowchart that can deal with only a limited number of hits may impair screening large numbers of compounds. In this case, a subset of compounds is assayed, and in silico models are utilized to aid in iterative screening design, usually to expand around the found hits and enrich subsequent rounds for relevant chemical matter. However, this may lead to an overly narrow focus, and the diversity of compounds sampled in subsequent iterations may suffer. Active learning has been recently successfully applied in drug discovery with the goal of sampling diverse chemical space to improve model performance. Here we introduce a robust and straightforward iterative screening protocol based on naı̈ve Bayes models. Instead of following up on the compounds with the highest scores in the in silico model, we pursue compounds with very low but positive values. This includes unique chemotypes of weakly active compounds that enhance the applicability domain of the model and increase the cumulative hit rates. We show in a retrospective application to 81 Novartis assays that this protocol leads to consistently higher compound and scaffold hit rates compared to a standard expansion around hits or an active learning approach. We recommend using the weak reinforcement strategy introduced herein for iterative screening workflows.

  15. Weak Interaction Models with New Quarks and Right-handed Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Kingsley, R. L.; Treiman, S. B.

    1975-06-01

    We discuss various weak interaction issues for a general class of models within the SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory framework, with special emphasis on the effects of right-handed, charged currents and of quarks bearing new quantum numbers. In particular we consider the restrictions on model building which are imposed by the small KL - KS mass difference and by the .I = = rule; and we classify various possibilities for neutral current interactions and, in the case of heavy mesons with new quantum numbers, various possibilities for mixing effects analogous to KL - KS mixing.

  16. Early Career: The search for weakly interacting dark matter with liquid xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Carter [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-02-08

    We report results from a search for weakly interacting dark matter particles obtained with the LUX experiment. LUX was located at a depth of 4850 feet at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota from 2013 through 2016. It found no evidence for dark matter particle interactions and set new constraints on the properties of such particles for masses between 6 GeV and 100 TeV. The work reported here also characterized the performance of such experiments by developing a new calibration technique based upon a tritium beta decay source.

  17. Very High Energy Electron-positron Colliding Beams for the Study of the Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Richter, B

    1976-01-01

    We consider the design of very high energy electron-positron colliding-beam storage rings for use primarily as a tool for investigating the weak interactions. These devices appear to be a very powerful tool for determining the properties of these interactions. Experimental possibilities are described, a cost minimization technique is developed, and a model machine is designed to operate at centre-of-mass energies of up to 200 GeV. Costs are discussed, and problems delineated that must be solved before such a machine can be finally designed.

  18. Lattice-Boltzmann simulation of laser interaction with weakly ionized helium plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huayu; Ki, Hyungson

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a lattice Boltzmann method for laser interaction with weakly ionized plasmas considering electron impact ionization and three-body recombination. To simulate with physical properties of plasmas, the authors' previous work on the rescaling of variables is employed and the electromagnetic fields are calculated from the Maxwell equations by using the finite-difference time-domain method. To calculate temperature fields, energy equations are derived separately from the Boltzmann equations. In this way, we attempt to solve the full governing equations for plasma dynamics. With the developed model, the continuous-wave CO2 laser interaction with helium is simulated successfully.

  19. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I., E-mail: igalsz@northwestern.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3100 (United States)

    2014-01-14

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  20. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  1. Ion-mediated interactions between net-neutral slabs: Weak and strong disorder effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the effective interaction between two randomly charged but otherwise net-neutral, planar dielectric slabs immersed in an asymmetric Coulomb fluid containing a mixture of mobile monovalent and multivalent ions. The presence of charge disorder on the apposed bounding surfaces of the slabs leads to substantial qualitative changes in the way they interact, as compared with the standard picture provided by the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions. While, the latter predict purely attractive interactions between strictly neutral slabs, we show that the combined effects from surface charge disorder, image depletion, Debye (or salt) screening, and also, in particular, their coupling with multivalent ions, give rise to a more diverse behavior for the effective interaction between net-neutral slabs at nano-scale separations. Disorder effects show large variation depending on the properly quantified strength of disorder, leading either to non-monotonic effective interaction with both repulsive and attractive branches when the surface charges are weakly disordered (small disorder variance) or to a dominating attractive interaction that is larger both in its range and magnitude than what is predicted from the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions, when the surfaces are strongly disordered (large disorder variance).

  2. Ion-mediated interactions between net-neutral slabs: Weak and strong disorder effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrat, Malihe; Naji, Ali; Komaie-Moghaddam, Haniyeh; Podgornik, Rudolf

    2015-12-21

    We investigate the effective interaction between two randomly charged but otherwise net-neutral, planar dielectric slabs immersed in an asymmetric Coulomb fluid containing a mixture of mobile monovalent and multivalent ions. The presence of charge disorder on the apposed bounding surfaces of the slabs leads to substantial qualitative changes in the way they interact, as compared with the standard picture provided by the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions. While, the latter predict purely attractive interactions between strictly neutral slabs, we show that the combined effects from surface charge disorder, image depletion, Debye (or salt) screening, and also, in particular, their coupling with multivalent ions, give rise to a more diverse behavior for the effective interaction between net-neutral slabs at nano-scale separations. Disorder effects show large variation depending on the properly quantified strength of disorder, leading either to non-monotonic effective interaction with both repulsive and attractive branches when the surface charges are weakly disordered (small disorder variance) or to a dominating attractive interaction that is larger both in its range and magnitude than what is predicted from the van der Waals and image-induced, ion-depletion interactions, when the surfaces are strongly disordered (large disorder variance).

  3. Weak carbonyl-methyl intermolecular interactions in acetone clusters explored by IR plus VUV spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guan, Jiwen [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Hu, Yongjun, E-mail: yjhu@scnu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Xie, Min [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, College of Biophotonics, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Bernstein, Elliot R. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1872 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbonyl overtone of acetone clusters is observed by IR-VUV spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetone molecules in the dimer are stacked with an antiparallel way. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structure of the acetone trimer and the tetramer are the cyclic structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbonyl groups would interact with the methyl groups in acetone clusters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These weak interactions are further confirmed by H/D substitution experiment. -- Abstract: Size-selected IR-VUV spectroscopy is employed to detect vibrational characteristics in the region 2850 {approx} 3550 cm{sup -1} of neutral acetone and its clusters (CH{sub 3}COCH{sub 3}){sub n} (n = 1-4). Features around 3440 cm{sup -1} in the spectra of acetone monomer and its clusters are assigned to the carbonyl stretch (CO) overtone. These features red-shift from 3455 to 3433 cm{sup -1} as the size of the clusters increases from the monomer to the tetramer. Based on calculations, the experimental IR spectra in the C=O overtone region suggest that the dominant structures for the acetone trimer and tetramer should be cyclic in the supersonic expansion sample. This study also suggests that the carbonyl groups interact with the methyl groups in the acetone clusters. These weak interactions are further confirmed by the use of deuterium substitution.

  4. Sterile neutrino dark matter: A tale of weak interactions in the strong coupling epoch

    CERN Document Server

    Venumadhav, Tejaswi; Abazajian, Kevork N; Hirata, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed study of the weak interactions of standard model neutrinos with the primordial plasma and their effect on the resonant production of sterile neutrino dark matter. Motivated by issues in cosmological structure formation on small scales, and reported X-ray signals that could be due to sterile neutrino decay, we consider $7$ keV-scale sterile neutrinos. Oscillation-driven production of such sterile neutrinos occurs at temperatures $T \\gtrsim 100$ MeV, where we study two significant effects of weakly charged species in the primordial plasma: (1) the redistribution of an input lepton asymmetry; (2) the opacity for active neutrinos. We calculate the redistribution analytically above and below the quark-hadron transition, and match with lattice QCD calculations through the transition. We estimate opacities due to tree level processes involving leptons and quarks above the quark-hadron transition, and the most important mesons below the transition. We report final sterile neutrino dark matter ph...

  5. Thermodynamic stability of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in a harmonic potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Men Fu-Dian; Liu Hui; Zhu Hou-Yu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the theoretical results derived from pseudopotential method and local approximation,this paper studies the thermodynamic stability of a weakly interacting Fermi gas trapped in a harmonic potential by using analytical method of thermodynamics.The effects of the interparticle interactions as well as external potential on the thermodynamic stability of the system are discussed.It is shown that the system is stable as for the complete average,but as for local parts,the system is unstable anywhere.This instability shows that the stability conditions of mechanics cannot be satisfied anywhere,and the stability conditions of thermostatics cannot be satisfied somewhere.In addition,the interactions and external potential have direct effects on the local stability of the system.

  6. Ultra-weak long-range interactions of solitons observed over astronomical distances

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Jae K; Murdoch, Stuart G; Coen, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    We report what we believe is the weakest interaction between solitons ever observed. Our experiment involves temporal optical cavity solitons recirculating in a coherently-driven passive optical fibre ring resonator. We observe two solitons, separated by up to 8,000 times their width, changing their temporal separation by a fraction of an attosecond per round-trip of the 100 m-long resonator, or equivalently 1/10,000 of the wavelength of the soliton carrier wave per characteristic dispersive length. The interactions are so weak that, at the speed of light, they require an effective propagation distance of the order of an astronomical unit to fully develop, i.e. tens of millions of kilometres. The interaction is mediated by transverse acoustic waves generated in the optical fibre by the propagating solitons through electrostriction.

  7. Critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation for weakly interacting bose gas in a potential trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU; Xuecai; YE; Yutang; WU; Yunfeng; XIE; Kang; CHENG; Lin

    2005-01-01

    The critical temperature of Bose-Einstein condensation at minimum momentum state for weakly interacting Bose gases in a power-law potential and the deviation of the critical temperature from ideal bose gas are studied. The effect of interaction on the critical temperature is ascribed to the ratiao α/λc, where α is the scattering length for s wave and λc is de Broglie wavelength at critical temperature. As α/λc<<1/(2π)2, the interaction is negligible. The presented deviation of the critical temperature for three dimensional harmonic potential is well in agreement with recent measurement of critical temperature for 87Rb bose gas trapped in a harmonic well.

  8. The role of multipoles in counterion-mediated interactions between charged surfaces: strong and weak coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanduc, M; Podgornik, R [Department of Theoretical Physics, J Stefan Institute, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Naji, A [Department of Physics, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Jho, Y S; Pincus, P A [Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2009-10-21

    We present general arguments for the importance, or lack thereof, of structure in the charge distribution of counterions for counterion-mediated interactions between bounding symmetrically charged surfaces. We show that on the mean field or weak coupling level, the charge quadrupole contributes the lowest order modification to the contact value theorem and thus to the intersurface electrostatic interactions. The image effects are non-existent on the mean field level even with multipoles. On the strong coupling level the quadrupoles and higher order multipoles contribute additional terms to the interaction free energy only in the presence of dielectric inhomogeneities. Without them, the monopole is the only multipole that contributes to the strong coupling electrostatics. We explore the consequences of these statements in all their generality.

  9. Exact kinetic energy enables accurate evaluation of weak interactions by the FDE-vdW method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Debalina; Pavanello, Michele

    2015-08-28

    The correlation energy of interaction is an elusive and sought-after interaction between molecular systems. By partitioning the response function of the system into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE)-vdW method provides a computationally amenable nonlocal correlation functional based on the adiabatic connection fluctuation dissipation theorem applied to subsystem density functional theory. In reproducing potential energy surfaces of weakly interacting dimers, we show that FDE-vdW, either employing semilocal or exact nonadditive kinetic energy functionals, is in quantitative agreement with high-accuracy coupled cluster calculations (overall mean unsigned error of 0.5 kcal/mol). When employing the exact kinetic energy (which we term the Kohn-Sham (KS)-vdW method), the binding energies are generally closer to the benchmark, and the energy surfaces are also smoother.

  10. Exact kinetic energy enables accurate evaluation of weak interactions by the FDE-vdW method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Debalina; Pavanello, Michele, E-mail: m.pavanello@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    The correlation energy of interaction is an elusive and sought-after interaction between molecular systems. By partitioning the response function of the system into subsystem contributions, the Frozen Density Embedding (FDE)-vdW method provides a computationally amenable nonlocal correlation functional based on the adiabatic connection fluctuation dissipation theorem applied to subsystem density functional theory. In reproducing potential energy surfaces of weakly interacting dimers, we show that FDE-vdW, either employing semilocal or exact nonadditive kinetic energy functionals, is in quantitative agreement with high-accuracy coupled cluster calculations (overall mean unsigned error of 0.5 kcal/mol). When employing the exact kinetic energy (which we term the Kohn-Sham (KS)-vdW method), the binding energies are generally closer to the benchmark, and the energy surfaces are also smoother.

  11. Global Weak Solutions for Kolmogorov-Vicsek Type Equations with Orientational Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Irene M.; Kang, Moon-Jin

    2016-10-01

    We study the global existence and uniqueness of weak solutions to kinetic Kolmogorov-Vicsek models that can be considered as non-local, non-linear, Fokker-Planck type equations describing the dynamics of individuals with orientational interactions. This model is derived from the discrete Couzin-Vicsek algorithm as mean-field limit (Bolley et al., Appl Math Lett, 25:339-343, 2012; Degond et al., Math Models Methods Appl Sci 18:1193-1215, 2008), which governs the interactions of stochastic agents moving with a velocity of constant magnitude, that is, the corresponding velocity space for these types of Kolmogorov-Vicsek models is the unit sphere. Our analysis for L p estimates and compactness properties take advantage of the orientational interaction property, meaning that the velocity space is a compact manifold.

  12. Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium: An investigation of weak interactions in solution using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, D.J.

    1995-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy is ideal for studying weak interactions (formation enthalpy {le}20 kcal/mol) in solution. The metallocene bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium, Cp*{sub 2}Yb, is ideal for this purpose. cis-P{sub 2}PtH{sub 2}complexes (P = phosphine) were used to produce slow-exchange Cp*{sub 2}YbL adducts for NMR study. Reversible formation of (P{sub 2}PtH){sub 2} complexes from cis-P{sub 2}PtH{sub 2} complexes were also studied, followed by interactions of Cp*{sub 2}Yb with phosphines, R{sub 3}PX complexes. A NMR study was done on the interactions of Cp*{sub 2}Yb with H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, Xe, CO, silanes, stannanes, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}, and toluene.

  13. Engineering of weak helper interactions for high-efficiency FRET probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünberg, Raik; Burnier, Julia V; Ferrar, Tony; Beltran-Sastre, Violeta; Stricher, François; van der Sloot, Almer M; Garcia-Olivas, Raquel; Mallabiabarrena, Arrate; Sanjuan, Xavier; Zimmermann, Timo; Serrano, Luis

    2013-10-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based detection of protein interactions is limited by the very narrow range of FRET-permitting distances. We show two different strategies for the rational design of weak helper interactions that co-recruit donor and acceptor fluorophores for a more robust detection of bimolecular FRET: (i) in silico design of electrostatically driven encounter complexes and (ii) fusion of tunable domain-peptide interaction modules based on WW or SH3 domains. We tested each strategy for optimization of FRET between (m)Citrine and mCherry, which do not natively interact. Both approaches yielded comparable and large increases in FRET efficiencies with little or no background. Helper-interaction modules can be fused to any pair of fluorescent proteins and could, we found, enhance FRET between mTFP1 and mCherry as well as between mTurquoise2 and mCitrine. We applied enhanced helper-interaction FRET (hiFRET) probes to study the binding between full-length H-Ras and Raf1 as well as the drug-induced interaction between Raf1 and B-Raf.

  14. The direct and indirect detection of weakly interacting dark matter particles

    CERN Document Server

    Halzen, Francis

    1995-01-01

    An ever-increasing body of evidence suggests that weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) constitute the bulk of the matter in the Universe. Experimental data, dimensional analysis and Standard Model particle physics are sufficient to evaluate and compare the performance of detectors searching for such particles either directly (e.g.\\ by their scattering in germanium detectors), or indirectly (e.g.\\ by observing their annihilation into neutrinos in underground detectors). We conclude that the direct method is superior if the WIMP interacts coherently and its mass is lower or comparable to the weak boson mass. In all other cases, i.e.\\ for relatively heavy WIMPs and for WIMPs interacting incoherently, the indirect method will be competitive or superior, but it is, of course, held hostage to the successful deployment of high energy neutrino telescopes with effective area in the \\sim10^4--10^5~m^2 range and with appropriately low threshold. The rule of thumb is that a kilogram of germanium is roughly equiva...

  15. Subsystem-DFT potential-energy curves for weakly interacting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüns, Danny; Klahr, Kevin; Mück-Lichtenfeld, Christian; Visscher, Lucas; Neugebauer, Johannes

    2015-06-14

    Kohn-Sham density-functional theory (DFT) within the local-density approximation (LDA) or the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA) is known to fail for the correct description of London dispersion interactions. Often, not even bound potential-energy surfaces are obtained for van der Waals complexes, unless special correction schemes are employed. In contrast to that, there has been some evidence for the fact that subsystem-based density functional theory produces interaction energies for weakly bound systems which are superior to Kohn-Sham DFT results without dispersion corrections. This is usually attributed to an error cancellation between the approximate exchange-correlation and non-additive kinetic-energy functionals employed in subsystem DFT. Here, we investigate the accuracy of subsystem DFT for weakly interacting systems in detail, paying special attention to the shape of the potential-energy surfaces (PESs). Our test sets include the extensive S22x5 and S66x8 data sets. Our results indicate that subsystem DFT PESs strongly vary depending on the functional. LDA results are usually quite good, but behave differently from their KS counterparts. GGA results from the popular Perdew-Wang (PW91) set of functionals produce PESs that are often, but not in general overbinding. Results from Becke-Perdew (BP86) GGAs, by contrast, show the typical problems known from the corresponding KS results. We provide some preliminary results for empirical corrections for both PW91 and BP86 in subsystem DFT.

  16. CEPC Precision of Electroweak Oblique Parameters and Weakly Interacting Dark Matter: the Fermionic Case

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Chengfeng; Zhang, Hong-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Future electroweak precision measurements in the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) project would significantly improve the precision of electroweak oblique parameters. We evaluate the expected precision through global fits, and study the corresponding sensitivity to weakly interacting fermionic dark matter. Three models with electroweak multiplets in the dark sector are investigated as illuminating examples. We find that the CEPC data can probe up to TeV scales and explore some regions where direct detection cannot reach, especially when the models respect the custodial symmetry.

  17. Concluding remarks and outlook: Europhysics conference on flavor-mixing in weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Some comments are offered on the present knowledge of the mixing matrix of Kobayashi and Maskawa and of the dynamics of nonleptonic decay. Also, remarks are made concerning CP violation. Plans for research from 1984 to 1989 are listed briefly. The history of studies on weak interactions is briefly reviewed, and several unanswered questions are stated, such as where are the truth particles, how may they be discovered, what is the mass-generating mechanism for the gauge bosons, how many Z/sup 0/'s and W's are there, do neutrinos have mass, and how long do protons live. (LEW)

  18. Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, Alan J.; Asai, M.; balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Beaty, John; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cherry, M.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; DeVaney, D.; DeStefano, PC F.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Hansen, S.; Harris, Harold R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hines, B. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenany, S.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, M.; Moffatt, R. A.; Nelson, R. H.; Novak, L.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Platt, M.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Resch, R. W.; Ricci, Y.; Ruschman, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schmitt, R.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, A.; Seitz, D.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Tomada, A.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-06-01

    We report a first search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the background rejection capabilities of SuperCDMS. An exposure of 577 kg-days was analyzed for WIMPs with mass < 30 GeV/c2, with the signal region blinded. Eleven events were observed after unblinding. We set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1:2 10-42cm2 at 8 GeV/c2. This result is in tension with WIMP interpretations of recent experiments and probes new parameter space for WIMP-nucleon scattering for WIMP masses < 6 GeV/c2.

  19. On the Trail of WIMPs: Direct Detection of Weakly Interacting Massive Particle Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pijushpani Bhattacharjee

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental particle nature of the Dark Matter (DM)that constitutes more than 80% of the gravitating matter inthe Universe is unknown. There is no suitable candidate forthis DM in the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. Theso-called Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), predictedin many scenarios of possible new physics beyond theSM, are currently one of the most favoured candidates of theDM. A number of experiments worldwide are trying to directlydetect these WIMPs in underground laboratories. Herewe discuss the basic ideas behind the WIMP hypothesis andbriefly discuss the latest results of such experiments and futureprospects.

  20. Tripod molecules build molecular networks and open-dimer capsules by weak interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Three tripod molecules, tris(2-methoxy-5-nitrobenzyl)phosphine oxide (1), tris(2-butoxy-3-methyl-5-nitrobenzyl)phosphine oxide (2), and tris(3-nitrobenzyl)amine (TNBA), were synthesized and crystallized. The structures of 1, 2, and their comparison (TNBA) were determined by X-ray crystallography. It is noteworthy that compound 1 interacted with adjacent molecules via π-π stacking and C-H···π interactions to yield an open supramolecular network with the porosity P in 8.9%, whereas compound 2 gathered closely to form an open-dimer capsule by sixfold N-O···π and triple C-H···O interactions, which showed a rare example of a stable in, out-invertomer of phosphine inversion existing in open-dimers. A series of columns were built and arranged side by side by these weak interactions. By contrast, TNBA crystallized to form a 2D network maintained by C-H···O and C-H···πinteractions. It seems minor changes of the chemical structure may cause large differences in the crystal structure and interactions in crystal engineering.

  1. Multi-scale detection of rate changes in spike trains with weak dependencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Michael; Costa, Kauê M; Roeper, Jochen; Schneider, Gaby

    2017-04-01

    The statistical analysis of neuronal spike trains by models of point processes often relies on the assumption of constant process parameters. However, it is a well-known problem that the parameters of empirical spike trains can be highly variable, such as for example the firing rate. In order to test the null hypothesis of a constant rate and to estimate the change points, a Multiple Filter Test (MFT) and a corresponding algorithm (MFA) have been proposed that can be applied under the assumption of independent inter spike intervals (ISIs). As empirical spike trains often show weak dependencies in the correlation structure of ISIs, we extend the MFT here to point processes associated with short range dependencies. By specifically estimating serial dependencies in the test statistic, we show that the new MFT can be applied to a variety of empirical firing patterns, including positive and negative serial correlations as well as tonic and bursty firing. The new MFT is applied to a data set of empirical spike trains with serial correlations, and simulations show improved performance against methods that assume independence. In case of positive correlations, our new MFT is necessary to reduce the number of false positives, which can be highly enhanced when falsely assuming independence. For the frequent case of negative correlations, the new MFT shows an improved detection probability of change points and thus, also a higher potential of signal extraction from noisy spike trains.

  2. Weakly doped InP layers prepared by liquid phase epitaxy using a modulated cooling rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukovskyi, R.; Mykhashchuk, Y.; Kost, Y.; Krukovskyi, S.; Saldan, I.

    2017-04-01

    Epitaxial structures based on InP are widely used to manufacture a number of devices such as microwave transistors, light-emitting diodes, lasers and Gunn diodes. However, their temporary instability caused by heterogeneity of resistivity along the layer thickness and the influence of various external or internal factors prompts the need for the development of a new reliable technology for their preparation. Weak doping by Yb, Al and Sn together with modulation of the cooling rate applied to prepare InP epitaxial layers is suggested to be adopted within the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) method. The experimental results confirm the optimized conditions created to get a uniform electron concentration in the active n-InP layer. A sharp profile of electron concentration in the n+-InP(substrate)/n-InP/n+-InP epitaxial structure was observed experimentally at the proposed modulated cooling rate of 0.3 °С-1.5 °С min-1. The proposed technological method can be used to control the electrical and physical properties of InP epitaxial layers to be used in Gunn diodes.

  3. The CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particle Search (CROWS)

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Michael; Gasior, Marek; Thumm, Manfred

    The subject of this thesis is the design, implementation and first results of the ``CERN Resonant WISP Search'' (CROWS) experiment, which probes the existence of Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles (WISPs) using microwave techniques. Axion Like Particles and Hidden Sector Photons are two well motivated members of the WISP family. Their existence could reveal the composition of cold dark matter in the universe and explain a large number of astrophysical phenomena. Particularly, the discovery of an axion would solve a long standing issue in the standard model, known as the ``strong CP problem''. Despite their strong theoretical motivation, the hypothetical particles have not been observed in any experiment so far. One way to probe the existence of WISPs is to exploit their interaction with photons in a ``light shining through the wall'' experiment. A laser beam is guided through a strong magnetic field in the ``emitting region'' of the experiment. This provides photons, which can convert into hypothetical Axi...

  4. A quantitative analysis of weak intermolecular interactions & quantum chemical calculations (DFT) of novel chalcone derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Bhavin R.; Gandhi, Sahaj A.; Dubey, Rahul P.; Patel, Urmila H.; Barot, Vijay M.

    2016-05-01

    The novel chalcone derivatives have widespread applications in material science and medicinal industries. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to optimized the molecular structure of the three chalcone derivatives (M-I, II, III). The observed discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental (X-ray data) results attributed to different environments of the molecules, the experimental values are of the molecule in solid state there by subjected to the intermolecular forces, like non-bonded hydrogen bond interactions, where as isolated state in gas phase for theoretical studies. The lattice energy of all the molecules have been calculated using PIXELC module in Coulomb -London -Pauli (CLP) package and is partitioned into corresponding coulombic, polarization, dispersion and repulsion contributions. Lattice energy data confirm and strengthen the finding of the X-ray results that the weak but significant intermolecular interactions like C-H…O, Π- Π and C-H… Π plays an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing.

  5. Applications of on-line weak affinity interactions in free solution capillary electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Nissen, Mogens H; Chen, David D Y

    2002-01-01

    The impressive selectivity offered by capillary electrophoresis can in some cases be further increased when ligands or additives that engage in weak affinity interactions with one or more of the separated analytes are added to the electrophoresis buffer. This on-line affinity capillary...... enantiomers and on using capillary electrophoresis to characterize such interactions quantitatively. We describe the equations for binding isotherms, illustrate how selectivity can be manipulated by varying the additive concentrations, and show how the methods may be used to estimate binding constants. On......-line affinity capillary electrophoresis methods are especially valuable for enantiomeric separations and for functional characterization of the contents of biological samples that are only available in minute quantities....

  6. Self-consistent Keldysh approach to quenches in the weakly interacting Bose-Hubbard model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Gullo, N.; Dell'Anna, L.

    2016-11-01

    We present a nonequilibrium Green's-functional approach to study the dynamics following a quench in weakly interacting Bose-Hubbard model (BHM). The technique is based on the self-consistent solution of a set of equations which represents a particular case of the most general set of Hedin's equations for the interacting single-particle Green's function. We use the ladder approximation as a skeleton diagram for the two-particle scattering amplitude useful, through the self-energy in the Dyson equation, for finding the interacting single-particle Green's function. This scheme is then implemented numerically by a parallelized code. We exploit this approach to study the correlation propagation after a quench in the interaction parameter, for one and two dimensions. In particular, we show how our approach is able to recover the crossover from the ballistic to the diffusive regime by increasing the boson-boson interaction. Finally we also discuss the role of a thermal initial state on the dynamics both for one- and two-dimensional BHMs, finding that, surprisingly, at high temperature a ballistic evolution is restored.

  7. 'Trophic whales' as biotic buffers: weak interactions stabilize ecosystems against nutrient enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzmüller, Florian; Eisenhauer, Nico; Brose, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    Human activities may compromise biodiversity if external stressors such as nutrient enrichment endanger overall network stability by inducing unstable dynamics. However, some ecosystems maintain relatively high diversity levels despite experiencing continuing disturbances. This indicates that some intrinsic properties prevent unstable dynamics and resulting extinctions. Identifying these 'ecosystem buffers' is crucial for our understanding of the stability of ecosystems and an important tool for environmental and conservation biologists. In this vein, weak interactions have been suggested as stabilizing elements of complex systems, but their relevance has rarely been tested experimentally. Here, using network and allometric theory, we present a novel concept for a priori identification of species that buffer against externally induced instability of increased population oscillations via weak interactions. We tested our model in a microcosm experiment using a soil food-web motif. Our results show that large-bodied species feeding at the food web's base, so called 'trophic whales', can buffer ecosystems against unstable dynamics induced by nutrient enrichment. Similar to the functionality of chemical or mechanical buffers, they serve as 'biotic buffers' that take up stressor effects and thus protect fragile systems from instability. We discuss trophic whales as common functional building blocks across ecosystems. Considering increasing stressor effects under anthropogenic global change, conservation of these network-intrinsic biotic buffers may help maintain the stability and diversity of natural ecosystems.

  8. Antiparallel Self-Association of a γ,α-Hybrid Peptide: More Relevance of Weak Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Paloth; Kishore, Raghuvansh

    2015-08-01

    To learn how a preorganized peptide-based molecular template, together with diverse weak non-covalent interactions, leads to an effective self-association, we investigated the conformational characteristics of a simple γ,α-hybrid model peptide, Boc-γ-Abz-Gly-OMe. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the existence of a fully extended β-strand-like structure stabilized by two non-conventional C-H⋅⋅⋅O=C intramolecular H-bonds. The 2D (1) H NMR ROESY experiment led us to propose that the flat topology of the urethane-γ-Abz-amide moiety is predominantly preserved in a non-polar environment. The self-association of the energetically more favorable antiparallel β-strand-mimic in solid-state engenders an unusual 'flight of stairs' fabricated through face-to-face and edge-to-edge Ar⋅⋅⋅Ar interactions. In conjunction with FT-IR spectroscopic analysis in chloroform, we highlight that conformationally semi-rigid γ-Abz foldamer in appositely designed peptides may encourage unusual β-strand or β-sheet-like self-association and supramolecular organization stabilized via weak attractive forces.

  9. A Role for Weak Electrostatic Interactions in Peripheral Membrane Protein Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Hanif M; He, Tao; Fuglebakk, Edvin; Grauffel, Cédric; Yang, Boqian; Roberts, Mary F; Gershenson, Anne; Reuter, Nathalie

    2016-03-29

    Bacillus thuringiensis phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (BtPI-PLC) is a secreted virulence factor that binds specifically to phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers containing negatively charged phospholipids. BtPI-PLC carries a negative net charge and its interfacial binding site has no obvious cluster of basic residues. Continuum electrostatic calculations show that, as expected, nonspecific electrostatic interactions between BtPI-PLC and membranes vary as a function of the fraction of anionic lipids present in the bilayers. Yet they are strikingly weak, with a calculated ΔGel below 1 kcal/mol, largely due to a single lysine (K44). When K44 is mutated to alanine, the equilibrium dissociation constant for small unilamellar vesicles increases more than 50 times (∼2.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that interactions between K44 and lipids are not merely electrostatic. Comparisons of molecular-dynamics simulations performed using different lipid compositions reveal that the bilayer composition does not affect either hydrogen bonds or hydrophobic contacts between the protein interfacial binding site and bilayers. However, the occupancies of cation-π interactions between PC choline headgroups and protein tyrosines vary as a function of PC content. The overall contribution of basic residues to binding affinity is also context dependent and cannot be approximated by a rule-of-thumb value because these residues can contribute to both nonspecific electrostatic and short-range protein-lipid interactions. Additionally, statistics on the distribution of basic amino acids in a data set of membrane-binding domains reveal that weak electrostatics, as observed for BtPI-PLC, might be a less unusual mechanism for peripheral membrane binding than is generally thought.

  10. Interaction of weakly bound antibiotics neomycin and lincomycin with bovine and human serum albumin: biophysical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keswani, Neelam; Choudhary, Sinjan; Kishore, Nand

    2010-07-01

    The thermodynamics of interaction of neomycin and lincomycin with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) has been studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), in combination with UV-visible, steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic measurements. Neomycin is observed to bind weakly to BSA and HSA whereas lincomycin did not show any evidence for binding with the native state of these proteins, rather it interacts in the presence of surfactants. The ITC results suggest 1 : 1 binding stoichiometry for neomycin in the studied temperature range. The values of the van't Hoff enthalpy do not agree with the calorimetric enthalpy in the case of neomycin, suggesting conformational changes in the protein upon ligand binding, as well as with the rise in the temperature. Experiments at different ionic strengths, and in the presence of tetrabutyl ammonium bromide and surfactants suggest the predominant involvement of electrostatic interactions in the complexation process of neomycin with BSA and HSA, and non-specific interaction behaviour of lincomycin with these proteins.

  11. Conserving Gapless Mean-Field Theory for Weakly Interacting Bose Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Takafumi

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a conserving gapless mean-field theory for weakly interacting Bose gases. We first construct a mean-field Luttinger-Ward thermodynamic functional in terms of the condensate wave function \\Psi and the Nambu Green’s function \\hat{G} for the quasiparticle field. Imposing its stationarity respect to \\Psi and \\hat{G} yields a set of equations to determine the equilibrium for general non-uniform systems. They have a plausible property of satisfying the Hugenholtz-Pines theorem to provide a gapless excitation spectrum. Also, the corresponding dynamical equations of motion obey various conservation laws. Thus, the present mean-field theory shares two important properties with the exact theory: “conserving” and “gapless.” The theory is then applied to a homogeneous weakly interacting Bose gas with s-wave scattering length a and particle mass m to clarify its basic thermodynamic properties under two complementary conditions of constant density n and constant pressure p. The superfluid transition is predicted to be first-order because of the non-analytic nature of the order-parameter expansion near Tc inherent in Bose systems, i.e., the Landau-Ginzburg expansion is not possible here. The transition temperature Tc shows quite a different interaction dependence between the n-fixed and p-fixed cases. In the former case Tc increases from the ideal gas value T0 as Tc/T0= 1+ 2.33 an1/3, whereas it decreases in the latter as Tc/T0= 1- 3.84a(m p/2π\\hbar2)1/5. Temperature dependences of basic thermodynamic quantities are clarified explicitly.

  12. The weak π − π interaction originated resonant tunneling and fast switching in the carbon based electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of the nonequilibrium Green's functions and the density functional theory, we have investigated the electronic transport properties of C60 based electronic device with different intermolecular interactions. It is found that the electronic transport properties vary with the types of the interaction between two C60 molecules. A fast electrical switching behavior based on negative differential resistance has been found when two molecules are coupled by the weak π − π interaction. Compared to the solid bonding, the weak interaction is found to induce resonant tunneling, which is responsible for the fast response to the applied electric field and hence the velocity of switching.

  13. Continuum dynamics of the intention field under weakly cohesive social interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Merino-Aceituno, Sara; Tardiveau, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the long-time dynamics of an opinion formation model inspired by a work by Borghesi, Bouchaud and Jensen. Firstly, we derive a Fokker-Planck type equation under the assumption that interactions between individuals produce little consensus of opinion (grazing collision approximation). Secondly, we study conditions under which the Fokker-Planck equation has non-trivial equilibria and derive the macroscopic limit (corresponding to the long-time dynamics and spatially localized interactions) for the evolution of the mean opinion. Finally, we compare two different types of interaction rates: the original one given in the work of Borghesi, Bouchaud and Jensen (symmetric binary interactions) and one inspired from works by Motsch and Tadmor (non-symmetric binary interactions). We show that the first case leads to a conservative model for the density of the mean opinion whereas the second case leads to a non-conservative equation. We also show that the speed at which consensus is reached asymptotically ...

  14. Cross-correlation measurement techniques for cavity-based axion and weakly interacting slim particle searches

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Stephen R; Ivanov, Eugene N; Tobar, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs), such as axions, are highly motivated dark matter candidates. The most sensitive experimental searches for these particles exploit WISP-to-photon conversion mechanisms and use resonant cavity structures to enhance the resulting power signal. For WISPs to constitute Cold Dark Matter their required masses correspond to photons in the microwave spectrum. As such, searches for these types of WISPs are primarily limited by the thermal cavity noise and the broadband first-stage amplifier noise. In this work we propose and then verify two cross-correlation measurement techniques for cavity-based WISP searches. These are two channel measurement schemes where the cross-spectrum is computed, rejecting uncorrelated noise sources while still retaining correlated signals such as those generated by WISPs. The first technique allows for the cavity thermal spectrum to be observed with an enhanced resolution. The second technique cross-correlates two individual cavity/amplifier system...

  15. Weak interactions with colliding lepton beams of energy (10/sup 2/-10 /sup 3/) GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, A D; Zakharov, V I

    1971-01-01

    Weak V-A interaction of colliding lepton beams at high energies is considered. It is assumed that the weak coupling constant G is the only parameter inherent to weak leptonic interactions so that terms of higher order become appreciable at total energy 2E=s/sup 1/2/ of order G/sup -1/2/. It is shown that for colliding lepton antilepton beams of 2*250 GeV the contribution of weak interactions to the differential cross section of elastic scattering at angle theta approximately=90 degrees prevails over that of electromagnetic interactions. The estimate of the weak cross section is based on the calculation of the imaginary part of the amplitude which is uniquely determined in the second order in G. Phenomenological description of the real part of the amplitude in the same approximation introduces a single unknown parameter. Provided the validity of dispersion relations with two subtractions is granted this parameter is related to the integral of total cross sections of ll and ll weak interactions. Terms of the th...

  16. Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium: An investigation of weak interactions in solution using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, David Joel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy is ideal for studying weak interactions (formation enthalpy ≤20 kcal/mol) in solution. The metallocene bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium, Cp*2Yb, is ideal for this purpose. cis-P2PtH2complexes (P = phosphine) were used to produce slow-exchange Cp*2YbL adducts for NMR study. Reversible formation of (P2PtH)2 complexes from cis-P2PtH2 complexes were also studied, followed by interactions of Cp*2Yb with phosphines, R3PX complexes. A NMR study was done on the interactions of Cp*2Yb with H2, CH4, Xe, CO, silanes, stannanes, C6H6, and toluene.

  17. FF domains of CA150 bind transcription and splicing factors through multiple weak interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew J; Kulkarni, Sarang; Pawson, Tony

    2004-11-01

    The human transcription factor CA150 modulates human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gene transcription and contains numerous signaling elements, including six FF domains. Repeated FF domains are present in several transcription and splicing factors and can recognize phosphoserine motifs in the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Using mass spectrometry, we identify a number of nuclear binding partners for the CA150 FF domains and demonstrate a direct interaction between CA150 and Tat-SF1, a protein involved in the coupling of splicing and transcription. CA150 FF domains recognize multiple sites within the Tat-SF1 protein conforming to the consensus motif (D/E)(2/5)-F/W/Y-(D/E)(2/5). Individual FF domains are capable of interacting with Tat-SF1 peptide ligands in an equivalent and noncooperative manner, with affinities ranging from 150 to 500 microM. Repeated FF domains therefore appear to bind their targets through multiple weak interactions with motifs comprised of negatively charged residues flanking aromatic amino acids. The RNAPII CTD represents a consensus FF domain-binding site, contingent on generation of the requisite negative charges by phosphorylation of serines 2 and 5. We propose that CA150, through the dual recognition of acidic motifs in proteins such as Tat-SF1 and the phosphorylated CTD, could mediate the recruitment of transcription and splicing factors to actively transcribing RNAPII.

  18. Measurement of the parity nonconserving neutral weak interaction in atomic thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucksbaum, P.H.

    1980-11-01

    This thesis describes an experiment to measure parity nonconservation in atomic thallium. A frequency doubled, flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the 6P/sub 1/2/(F = 0) ..-->.. 7P/sub 1/2/(F = 1) transition at 292.7 nm, with circularly polarized light. An electrostatic field E of 100 to 300 V/cm causes this transition to occur via Stark induced electric dipole. Two field free transitions may also occur: a highly forbidden magnetic dipole M, and a parity nonconserving electric dipole epsilon/sub P/. The latter is presumed to be due to the presence of a weak neutral current interaction between the 6p valence electron and the nucleus, as predicted by gauge theories which unite the electromagnetic and weak interactions. Both M and epsilon/sub P/ interfere with the Stark amplitude ..beta..E to produce a polarization of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state. This is measured with a circularly polarized infrared laser beam probe, tuned to the 7P/sub 1/2/ ..-->.. 8S/sub 1/2/ transition. This selectively excites m/sub F/ = +1 or -1 components of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state, and the polarization is seen as an asymmetry in 8S ..-->.. 6P/sub 3/2/ fluorescence when the probe helicity is reversed. The polarization due to M is ..delta../sub M/ = -2M/(BETAE). It is used to calibrate the analyzing efficiency. The polarization due to epsilon/sub P/ is ..delta../sub P/ = 2i epsilon/sub P//(..beta..E), and can be distinguished from ..delta../sub M/ by its properties under reversal of the 292.7 nm photon helicity and reversal of the laser direction. A preliminary measurement yielded a parity violation in agreement with the gauge theory of Weinberg and Salam.

  19. Forster resonance energy transfer rate in any dielectric nanophotonic medium with weak dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Vos, Willem L.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the ongoing debate about nanophotonic control of Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET), notably by the local density of optical states (LDOS), we study FRET and spontaneous emission in arbitrary nanophotonic media with weak dispersion and weak absorption in the frequency overlap...... to the mirror, typically a few nm. Finally, we discuss the consequences of our results to applications of Forster resonance energy transfer, for instance in quantum information processing....

  20. Second order corrections to mean field evolution for weakly interacting Bosons in the case of 3-body interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xuwen

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the Hamiltonian evolution of N weakly interacting Bosons. Assuming triple collisions with singular potentials, its mean field approximation is given by a quintic Hartree equation. We construct a second order correction to the mean field approximation using a kernel k(t,x,y) and derive an evolution equation for k. We show the global existence for the resulting evolution equation for the correction and establish an apriori estimate comparing the approximation to the exact Hamiltonian evolution. Our error estimate is global and uniform in time. Comparing with the work in [20,11,12] where the error estimate grows in time, our approximation tracks the exact dynamics for all time with an error of the order O(1/$\\sqrt{N}$).

  1. Direct and indirect effects of dispersion interactions on the electric properties of weakly bound complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medveď, Miroslav; Budzák, Šimon; Laurent, Adèle D; Jacquemin, Denis

    2015-03-26

    Direct (electronic) and indirect (geometrical) modifications of the molecular properties of weakly interacting complexes between the push-pull p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) molecule and the nonpolar benzene (Bz) have been studied with a large panel of wave function (WF) and density functional theory (DFT) based methods using carefully selected atomic basis sets. For pABA, both the canonical (pABA-c) and zwitterionic (pABA-z) forms have been investigated. Owing to strongly distinct charge distributions, the two forms of pABA enable us to mimic different interaction modes with Bz. In this work, we assessed the performances of dispersion-corrected DFT methods, as well as of long-range corrected exchange-correlation functionals. It follows from the SAPT analysis that both the structure and the interaction energy of the first complex (pABA-c···Bz) is mainly controlled by dispersion interactions whereas, in the second complex (pABA-z···Bz), electrostatic and induction forces play also an important role. Our results suggest that the (non)linear electric properties of push-pull and zwitterionic molecules can be significantly reduced by the presence of a nonpolar compound. We also show that even for a complex with stability strongly determined by dispersion forces, the direct dispersion contributions to its electric properties can be small. Nevertheless, the intersystem distance is influenced by dispersion forces, which, in turn indirectly tune the induced properties. The zwitterionic derivative appears to be more challenging in the context of molecular properties.

  2. Protein solvent and weak protein protein interactions in halophilic malate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Christine; Faou, Pierre; Zaccai, Giuseppe

    1999-01-01

    With the aim to correlate the solvation, stability and solubility properties of halophilic malate dehydrogenase, we characterized its weak interparticle interactions by small-angle neutron scattering in various solvents. The protein concentration dependence of the apparent radius of gyration and forward scattered intensity extrapolated from Guinier plots, and thus the second virial coefficient, A2, were determined for each solvent condition. In NaCl 1M+2-methylpentane-2,4-diol 30%, a solvent that promotes protein crystallization, A2 is negative, -0.4×10 -4 ml mol g -2 and indicating attractive interactions; in ammonium sulfate 3M, in which the protein precipitates at high concentrations, A2˜0. In 2-5M NaCl, 1-3.5M NaOAc, 1-4.5M KF or 1-2M (NH 4) 2SO 4, in which the protein is very soluble, A2 is positive with a value of the order of 0.4×10 -4 ml mol g -2 which decreases with increasing salt concentration. In MgCl 2 however, A2 increases with increasing salt concentration from 0.2 to 1.3M.

  3. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10-1 mbar methane or 10-5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10-5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water-gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~100 K. Similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.

  4. 卤键弱作用浅谈%Brief discussion on halogen bonding weak interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚琴; 邵群

    2015-01-01

    Halogen bonding, a noncovalent, int ermolecular weak interaction analogues to hydrogen bonding, exists between σ antibonding orbital of halogen atoms and atoms with lone-pair electron and πelectron system, which exerts unique effect in the field of desigh of functional materials and biomedicine. In this paper, the interaction essence of halogen bonding was simply introduced, the developing history of halogen bonding was elaborated and the basic character of halogen bonding was depicted, looking forward to much more comprehension toward halogen bonding.%卤键是与氢键相似的一种分子间非共价作用,存在于卤原子的σ反键轨道与具有孤电子对的原子或π电子体系之间,在功能材料与生物药物设计方面发挥了独特作用。介绍卤键的作用本质,阐述卤键发展简史,并描述卤键的基本特征。

  5. Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang [High Speed Aerodynamics Institute, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China); Luo, Xisheng, E-mail: xluo@ustc.edu.cn [Advanced Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF{sub 6} surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.

  6. A quantitative analysis of weak intermolecular interactions & quantum chemical calculations (DFT) of novel chalcone derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Bhavin R., E-mail: chavdabhavin9@gmail.com; Dubey, Rahul P.; Patel, Urmila H. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat (India); Gandhi, Sahaj A. [Bhavan’s Shri I.L. Pandya Arts-Science and Smt. J.M. shah Commerce College, Dakar, Anand -388001, Gujarat, Indian (India); Barot, Vijay M. [P. G. Center in Chemistry, Smt. S. M. Panchal Science College, Talod, Gujarat 383 215 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The novel chalcone derivatives have widespread applications in material science and medicinal industries. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to optimized the molecular structure of the three chalcone derivatives (M-I, II, III). The observed discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental (X-ray data) results attributed to different environments of the molecules, the experimental values are of the molecule in solid state there by subjected to the intermolecular forces, like non-bonded hydrogen bond interactions, where as isolated state in gas phase for theoretical studies. The lattice energy of all the molecules have been calculated using PIXELC module in Coulomb –London –Pauli (CLP) package and is partitioned into corresponding coulombic, polarization, dispersion and repulsion contributions. Lattice energy data confirm and strengthen the finding of the X-ray results that the weak but significant intermolecular interactions like C-H…O, Π- Π and C-H… Π plays an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing.

  7. Conceptual foundations of the unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Steven

    Our job in physics is to see things simply, to understand a great many complicated phenomena in a unified way, in terms of a few simple principles. At times, our efforts are illuminated by a brilliant experiment, such as the 1973 discovery of neutral current neutrino reactions. But even in the dark times between experimental breakthroughs, there always continues a steady evolution of theoretical ideas, leading almost imperceptibly to changes in previous beliefs. In this talk, I want to discuss the development of two lines of thought in theoretical physics. One of them is the slow growth in our understanding of symmetry, and in particular, broken or hidden symmetry. The other is the old struggle to come to terms with the infinities in quantum field theories. To a remarkable degree, our present detailed theories of elementary particle interactions can be understood deductively, as consequences of symmetry principles and of a principle of renormalizability which is invoked to deal with the infinities. I will also briefly describe how the convergence of these lines of thought led to my own work on the unification of weak and electromagnetic interactions. For the most part, my talk will center on my own gradual education in these matters, because that is one subject on which I can speak with some confidence. With rather less confidence, I will also try to look ahead, and suggest what role these lines of thought may play in the physics of the future…

  8. Correlation of the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) System with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS): Introduction of the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Sean N.; Kallu, Raj R.; Barnard, Chase K.

    2016-11-01

    Underground gold mines in Nevada are exploiting increasingly deeper ore bodies comprised of weak to very weak rock masses. The Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification system is widely used at underground gold mines in Nevada and is applicable in fair to good-quality rock masses, but is difficult to apply and loses reliability in very weak rock mass to soil-like material. Because very weak rock masses are transition materials that border engineering rock mass and soil classification systems, soil classification may sometimes be easier and more appropriate to provide insight into material behavior and properties. The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is the most likely choice for the classification of very weak rock mass to soil-like material because of its accepted use in tunnel engineering projects and its ability to predict soil-like material behavior underground. A correlation between the RMR and USCS systems was developed by comparing underground geotechnical RMR mapping to laboratory testing of bulk samples from the same locations, thereby assigning a numeric RMR value to the USCS classification that can be used in spreadsheet calculations and geostatistical analyses. The geotechnical classification system presented in this paper including a USCS-RMR correlation, RMR rating equations, and the Geo-Pick Strike Index is collectively introduced as the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR). It is the authors' hope that this system will aid in the classification of weak rock masses and more usable design tools based on the RMR system. More broadly, the RMR-USCS correlation and the W-RMR system help define the transition between engineering soil and rock mass classification systems and may provide insight for geotechnical design in very weak rock masses.

  9. Weak minimum aberration and maximum number of clear two-factor interactions in 2m-p Ⅳ designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Guijun; LIU Minqian; ZHANG Runchu

    2005-01-01

    Both the clear effects and minimum aberration criteria are the important rules for the design selection. In this paper, it is proved that some 2m-p Ⅳ designs have weak minimum aberration, by considering the number of clear two-factor interactions in the designs.And some conditions are provided, under which a 2m-p Ⅳ design can have the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions and weak minimum aberration at the same time.Some weak minimum aberration 2m-p Ⅳ designs are provided for illustrations and two nonisomorphic weak minimum aberration 213-6 Ⅳ designs are constructed at the end of this paper.

  10. Spectrofluorimetric Study on the Weak Interaction between ATP and Nα-4-Tosyl-L-arginine Methyl Ester Hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA,Yan-Qing; L(U),Gong-Xuan; LI,Ying; LIU,Shu-Hua; XIAN,Liang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, some new results on the selective weak interaction between Nα-4-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (TAME) and adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) have been reported. Fluorescence spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were used to investigate this kind of weak interaction. In fluorescence experiments, obvious fluorescence quenching phenomena were observed when TAME was added, which indicated the weak interactions between TAME and ATP. It has been identified by fluorescence titration experiments that TAME exhibited high selectivity to ATP over ADP and AMP. FT-IR spectral results showed that an ATP-TAME adduct was formed. The experimental results indicated that the interaction sites were the guanidinium group of TAME main-chain and the γ-phosphate group of ATP, and the interaction took place through hydrogen bonding and electrostatic force. In addition, the effects of metal ions on the weak interaction between ATP and TAME, or between ATP and analogues of L-arginine were studied.

  11. Weak minimum aberration and maximum number of clear two-factor interactions in 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Guijun

    2005-01-01

    [1]Wu, C. F. J., Chen, Y., A graph-aided method for planning two-level experiments when certain interactions are important, Technometrics, 1992, 34: 162-175.[2]Fries, A., Hunter, W, G., Minimum aberration 2к-p designs, Technometrics, 1980, 22: 601-608.[3]Chen, H., Hedayat, A. S., 2n-l designs with weak minimum aberration, Ann. Statist., 1996, 24: 2536-2548.[4]Chen, J., Some results on 2n-к fractional factorial designs and search for minimum aberration designs, Ann.Statist., 1992, 20: 2124-2141.[5]Chen, J., Intelligent search for 213-6 and 214-7 minimum aberration designs, Statist. Sinica, 1998, 8: 1265-1270.[6]Chen, J., Sun, D. X., Wu, C. F. J., A catalogue of two-level and three-level fractional factorial designs with small runs, Internat. Statist. Rev., 1993, 61: 131-145.[7]Chen, J., Wu, C. F. J., Some results on 2n-к fractional factorial designs with minimum aberration or optimal moments, Ann. Statist., 1991, 19: 1028-1041.[8]Cheng, C. S., Mukerjee, R., Regular fractional factorial designs with minimum aberration and maximum estimation capacity, Ann. Statist., 1998, 26: 2289-2300.[9]Cheng, C. S., Steinberg, D. M., Sun, D. X., Minimum aberration and model robustness for two-level fractional factorial designs, J. Roy. Statist. Soc. Ser. B, 1999, 61: 85-93.[10]Draper, N. R., Lin, D. K. J., Capacity consideration for two-level fractional factorial designs, J. Statist. Plann.Inference, 1990, 24: 25-35.[11]Fang, K. T., Mukerjee, R., A connection between uniformity and aberration in regular fractions of two-level factorial, Biometrika, 2000, 87: 193-198.[12]Tang, B., Wu, C. F. J., Characterization of minimum aberration 2n-к designs in terms of their complementary designs, Ann. Statist., 1996, 24: 2549-2559.[13]Chen, H., Hedayat, A. S., 2n-m designs with resolution Ⅲ or Ⅳ containing clear two-factor interactions, J.Statist. Plann. Inference, 1998, 75: 147-158.[14]Tang, B., Ma, F., Ingram, D., Wang, H., Bounds on the maximum numbers of clear two factor

  12. Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles in Non-supersymmetric SO(10) Grand Unified Models

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, Natsumi; Zheng, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    Non-supersymmetric SO(10) grand unified theories provide a framework in which the stability of dark matter is explained while gauge coupling unification is realized. In this work, we systematically study this possibility by classifying weakly interacting DM candidates in terms of their quantum numbers of $\\text{SU}(2)_L \\otimes \\text{U}(1)_Y$, $B-L$, and $\\text{SU}(2)_R$. We consider both scalar and fermion candidates. We show that the requirement of a sufficiently high unification scale to ensure a proton lifetime compatible with experimental constraints plays a strong role in selecting viable candidates. Among the scalar candidates originating from either a 16 or 144 of SO(10), only SU(2)$_L$ singlets with zero hypercharge or doublets with $Y=1/2$ satisfy all constraints for $\\text{SU}(4)_C \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_L \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_R$ and $\\text{SU}(3)_C \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_L \\otimes \\text{SU}(2)_R \\otimes \\text{U}(1)_{B-L}$ intermediate scale gauge groups. Among fermion triplets with zero hypercharge, o...

  13. Improved Limits on Scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles from Reanalysis of 2013 LUX Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4 ×104 kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signal only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 GeV c-2 , these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33 GeV c-2 WIMP mass.

  14. Critical properties of weakly interacting Bose gases as modified by a harmonic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Ayala, I.; Poveda-Cuevas, F. J.; Seman, J. A.; Romero-Rochín, V.

    2017-07-01

    The critical properties of the phase transition from a normal gas to a Bose-Einstein condensate (superfluid) of a harmonically confined Bose gas are addressed with the knowledge of an equation of state of the underlying homogeneous Bose fluid. It is shown that while the presence of the confinement trap arrests the usual divergences of the isothermal compressibility and heat capacities, the critical behavior manifests itself now in the divergence of derivatives of the mentioned susceptibilities. This result is illustrated with a mean-field like model of an equation of state for the homogeneous particle density as a function of the chemical potential and temperature of the gas. The model assumes the form of an ideal Bose gas in the normal fluid while in the superfluid state a function is proposed such that, both, asymptotically reaches the Thomas-Fermi solution of a weakly interacting Bose gas at large densities and low temperatures and, at the transition, matches the critical properties of the ideal Bose gas. With this model we obtain the global thermodynamics of the harmonically confined gas, from which we analyze its critical properties. We discuss how these properties can be experimentally tested.

  15. Optical response of a quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid interacting with a weak probe field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosionis, Spyridon G; Terzis, Andreas F; Sadeghi, Seyed M; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2013-01-30

    We study optical effects in a hybrid system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot and a spherical metal nanoparticle that interacts with a weak probe electromagnetic field. We use modified nonlinear density matrix equations for the description of the optical properties of the system and obtain a closed-form expression for the linear susceptibilities of the quantum dot, the metal nanoparticle, and the total system. We then investigate the dependence of the susceptibility on the interparticle distance as well as on the material parameters of the hybrid system. We find that the susceptibility of the quantum dot exhibits optical transparency for specific frequencies. In addition, we show that there is a range of frequencies of the applied field for which the susceptibility of the semiconductor quantum dot leads to gain. This suggests that in such a hybrid system quantum coherence can reverse the course of energy transfer, allowing flow of energy from the metallic nanoparticle to the quantum dot. We also explore the susceptibility of the metal nanoparticle and show that it is strongly influenced by the presence of the quantum dot.

  16. Precision muon decay measurements and improved constraints on the weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Hillairet, A; Bayes, R; Davydov, Yu I; Depommier, P; Faszer, W; Gagliardi, C A; Gaponenko, A; Gill, D R; Grossheim, A; Gumplinger, P; Hasinoff, M D; Henderson, R S; Hillairet, A; Hu, J; Koetke, D D; MacDonald, R P; Marshall, G M; Mathie, E L; Mischke, R E; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Openshaw, R; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Selivanov, V; Sheffer, G; Shin, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Tacik, R; Tribble, R E

    2011-01-01

    The TWIST collaboration has completed its measurement of the three muon decay parameters $\\rho$, $\\delta$, and $P_\\mu\\xi$. This paper describes our determination of $\\rho$, which governs the shape of the overall momentum spectrum, and $\\delta$, which controls the momentum dependence of the parity-violating decay asymmetry. The results are $\\rho=0.749\\,77\\pm 0.000\\,12(\\text{stat.})\\pm 0.000\\,23(\\text{syst.})$ and $\\delta = 0.750\\,49\\pm 0.000\\,21(\\text{stat.})\\pm 0.000\\,27(\\text{syst.})$. These are consistent with the value of 3/4 given for both parameters in the standard model, and each is over a factor of ten more precise than the measurements published prior to TWIST. Our final results on $\\rho$, $\\delta$, and $P_\\mu\\xi$ have been incorporated into a new global analysis of all available muon decay data, resulting in improved model-independent constraints on the possible weak interactions of right-handed particles.

  17. Microstructure, local dynamics, and flow behavior of colloidal suspensions with weak attractive interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Clara; Oelschlaeger, Claude; Dijkstra, Dick; Ranft, Meik; Willenbacher, Norbert

    2016-09-01

    We present a comprehensive micro- and macrorheological study of the effect of weak depletion attraction (Ψdep ≈ 1-10 kBT) on dense colloidal suspensions stabilized by short-range repulsive interactions. We used aqueous polymer dispersions as model system and demonstrated the unique capabilities of multiple particle tracking (MPT) to disclose structural changes in such technically important systems exhibiting many characteristic features of hard sphere systems. Below the hard sphere freezing point ϕc, viscosity increases monotonically with increasing Ψdep due to the transition from a fluid to a fluid/crystalline and finally to a gel state. Above ϕc, increasing attraction strength first results in a viscosity reduction corresponding to the formation of large, permeable crystals and then in a viscosity increase when a network of dense, small crystals forms. The fraction of the fluid and crystal phase, particle concentration in each phase as well as the modulus of the micro-crystals are obtained, the latter decreases with Ψdep. Above the colloidal glass transition strong heterogeneities and different local particle mobility in the repulsive and attractive arrested states are found. Particles are trapped in the cage of neighboring particles rather than in an attractive potential well. The intermediate ergodic state exhibits uniform tracer diffusivity.

  18. Searching for Tensor Currents in the Weak Interaction Using 8Li β Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkey, M. T.; Savard, G.; Segel, R. E.; Clark, J. A.; Scielzo, N. D.; Gallant, A. T.; Kolos, K.; Padgett, S. W.; Wang, B. S.; Hirsh, T.; Heckmaier, E.; Marley, S. T.; Morgan, G.; Orford, R.; Sharma, K. S.

    2017-01-01

    The weak interaction is framed in the Standard Model with a pure vector-axial vector structure. A high-precision measurement of the β - ν correlation coefficient (aβν) could reveal contributions from tensor or scalar currents and give insight into new physics. We utilize stopped 8Li in the Beta decay Paul Trap (BPT) at Argonne National Lab to measure aβν. The BPT is surrounded on 4 sides with double-sided silicon strip detectors backed by plastic scintillator detectors, which allow the kinematics of the 8Li decay products to be over-constrained. A previous measurement done by our collaboration resulted in the first improvement in over 50 years to the tensor limit of aβν in a nuclear setting and was recently published in PRL. We have since upgraded our system and obtained over ten times our previous statistics. Our goal is to achieve a limit of aβν with an uncertainty of 0.001. Analysis is ongoing. We acknowledge NSERC, Canada, App. No. 216974, the U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 [ANL] and DE-AC52-07NA27344 [LLNL], NSF Grant No. 1144082 and the ANL ATLAS facility

  19. Parity-violating electric-dipole transitions in helium induced by the electron-electron neutral weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, J.G.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nuez-Lagos, R.; Pacheco, A.F.

    1984-04-01

    The parity-violating E1 transitions between the n = 2 levels of atomic helium, induced by the electron-electron neutral weak interaction have been computed by using Coulomb-type wave functions and (up to 84 parameter) Hylleraas wave functions. The parity-violating matrix elements turn out to be of the same order of magnitude as those due to the electron-nucleus weak interaction, thus allowing one to conclude that the relative importance of both effects is to be traced to their corresponding effective coupling constants.

  20. Weak and saturable protein-surfactant interactions in the denaturation of apo-alpha-lactalbumin by acidic and lactonic sophorolipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kell K Andersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are of growing interest as sustainable alternatives to fossil-fuel-derived chemical surfactants, particularly for the detergent industry. To realize this potential, it is necessary to understand how they affect proteins which they may encounter in their applications. However knowledge of such interactions is limited. Here we present a study of the interactions between the model protein apo-alpha-lactalbumin and the biosurfactant sophorolipid (SL produced by the yeast Starmerella bombicola. SL occurs both as an acidic and a lactonic form; the lactonic form (lactSL is sparingly soluble and has a lower critical micelle concentration than the acidic form (acidSL. We show that acidSL affects apo-aLA in a similar way to the related glycolipid biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL, with the important difference that RL is also active below the cmc in contrast to acidSL. Using isothermal titration calorimetry data, we show that acidSL has weak and saturable interactions with apo-aLA at low concentrations; due to the relatively low cmc of acidSL (which means that the monomer concentration is limited to ca. 0-1 mM SL, it is only possible to observe interactions with monomeric acidSL at high apo-aLA concentrations. However, the denaturation kinetics of apo-aLA in the presence of acidSL are consistent with a collaboration between monomeric and micellar surfactant species, similar to RL and nonionic or zwitterionic surfactants. Inclusion of lactSL as mixed micelles with acidSL lowers the cmc and this effectively reduces the rate of unfolding, emphasizing that SL like other biosurfactants is a gentle anionic surfactant. Our data highlight the potential of these biosurfactants for future use in the detergent industry.

  1. Weak and Saturable Protein–Surfactant Interactions in the Denaturation of Apo-α-Lactalbumin by Acidic and Lactonic Sophorolipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Kell K.; Vad, Brian S.; Roelants, Sophie; van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; Otzen, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are of growing interest as sustainable alternatives to fossil-fuel-derived chemical surfactants, particularly for the detergent industry. To realize this potential, it is necessary to understand how they affect proteins which they may encounter in their applications. However, knowledge of such interactions is limited. Here, we present a study of the interactions between the model protein apo-α-lactalbumin (apo-aLA) and the biosurfactant sophorolipid (SL) produced by the yeast Starmerella bombicola. SL occurs both as an acidic and a lactonic form; the lactonic form (lactSL) is sparingly soluble and has a lower critical micelle concentration (cmc) than the acidic form [non-acetylated acidic sophorolipid (acidSL)]. We show that acidSL affects apo-aLA in a similar way to the related glycolipid biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL), with the important difference that RL is also active below the cmc in contrast to acidSL. Using isothermal titration calorimetry data, we show that acidSL has weak and saturable interactions with apo-aLA at low concentrations; due to the relatively low cmc of acidSL (which means that the monomer concentration is limited to ca. 0–1 mM SL), it is only possible to observe interactions with monomeric acidSL at high apo-aLA concentrations. However, the denaturation kinetics of apo-aLA in the presence of acidSL are consistent with a collaboration between monomeric and micellar surfactant species, similar to RL and non-ionic or zwitterionic surfactants. Inclusion of diacetylated lactonic sophorolipid (lactSL) as mixed micelles with acidSL lowers the cmc and this effectively reduces the rate of unfolding, emphasizing that SL like other biosurfactants is a gentle anionic surfactant. Our data highlight the potential of these biosurfactants for future use in the detergent and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27877155

  2. Adaptation of the TH Epsilon Mu formalism for the analysis of the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak and electroweak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The TH epsilon mu formalism, used in analyzing equivalence principle experiments of metric and nonmetric gravity theories, is adapted to the description of the electroweak interaction using the Weinberg-Salam unified SU(2) x U(1) model. The use of the TH epsilon mu formalism is thereby extended to the weak interactions, showing how the gravitational field affects W sub mu (+ or -1) and Z sub mu (0) boson propagation and the rates of interactions mediated by them. The possibility of a similar extension to the strong interactions via SU(5) grand unified theories is briefly discussed. Also, using the effects of the potentials on the baryon and lepton wave functions, the effects of gravity on transition mediated in high-A atoms which are electromagnetically forbidden. Three possible experiments to test the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak interactions, which are technologically feasible, are then briefly outline: (1) K-capture by the FE nucleus (counting the emitted X-ray); (2) forbidden absorption transitions in high-A atoms' vapor; and (3) counting the relative Beta-decay rates in a suitable alpha-beta decay chain, assuming the strong interactions obey the equivalence principle.

  3. High-affinity accumulation of a maytansinoid in cells via weak tubulin interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmacher, Victor S; Audette, Charlene A; Guan, Yinghua; Sidhom, Eriene-Heidi; Shah, Jagesh V; Whiteman, Kathleen R; Kovtun, Yelena V

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule-targeting maytansinoids accumulate in cells and induce mitotic arrest at 250- to 1000-fold lower concentrations than those required for their association with tubulin or microtubules. To identify the mechanisms of this intracellular accumulation and exceptional cytotoxicity of maytansinoids we studied interaction of a highly cytotoxic maytansinoid, S-methyl DM1 and several other maytansinoids with cells. S-methyl DM1 accumulated inside the cells with a markedly higher apparent affinity than to tubulin or microtubules. The apparent affinities of maytansinoids correlated with their cytotoxicities. The number of intracellular binding sites for S-methyl DM1 in MCF7 cells was comparable to the number of tubulin molecules per cell (~ 4-6 × 10(7) copies). Efflux of 3[H]-S-methyl DM1 from cells was enhanced in the presence of an excess of non-labeled S-methyl DM1, indicating that re-binding of 3 [H]-S-methyl DM1 to intracellular binding sites contributed to its intracellular retention. Liposomes loaded with non-polymerized tubulin recapitulated the apparent high-affinity association of S-methyl DM1 to cells. We propose a model for the intracellular accumulation of maytansinoids in which molecules of the compounds diffuse into a cell and associate with tubulin. Affinities of maytansinoids for individual tubulin molecules are weak, but the high intracellular concentration of tubulin favors, after dissociation of a compound-tubulin complex, their re-binding to a tubulin molecule, or to a tip of a microtubule in the same cell, over their efflux. As a result, a significant fraction of microtubule tips is occupied with a maytansinoid when added to cells at sub-nanomolar concentrations, inducing mitotic arrest and cell death.

  4. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics: Progress report, May 1, 1987-April 30, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.

    1988-01-22

    This paper contains progress information on the following topics in High Energy Physics: strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions; aspects of quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays, and structure; the dynamical generation of a mass gap and the role and truthfulness of perturbation theory; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production; and realization of chiral symmetry and temperature effects in supersymmetric theories. (LSP)

  5. Molecular change signal-to-noise criteria for interpreting experiments involving exposure of biological systems to weakly interacting electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Timothy E; Weaver, James C

    2005-05-01

    We describe an approach to aiding the design and interpretation of experiments involving biological effects of weakly interacting electromagnetic fields that range from steady (dc) to microwave frequencies. We propose that if known biophysical mechanisms cannot account for an inferred, underlying molecular change signal-to-noise ratio, (S/N)gen, of a observed result, then there are two interpretation choices: (1) there is an unknown biophysical mechanism with stronger coupling between the field exposure and the ongoing biochemical process, or (2) the experiment is responding to something other than the field exposure. Our approach is based on classical detection theory, the recognition that weakly interacting fields cannot break chemical bonds, and the consequence that such fields can only alter rates of ongoing, metabolically driven biochemical reactions, and transport processes. The approach includes both fundamental chemical noise (molecular shot noise) and other sources of competing chemical change, to be compared quantitatively to the field induced change for the basic case that the field alters a single step in a biochemical network. Consistent with pharmacology and toxicology, we estimate the molecular dose (mass associated with field induced molecular change per mass tissue) resulting from illustrative low frequency field exposures for the biophysical mechanism of voltage gated channels. For perspective, we then consider electric field-mediated delivery of small molecules across human skin and into individual cells. Specifically, we consider the examples of iontophoretic and electroporative delivery of fentanyl through skin and electroporative delivery of bleomycin into individual cells. The total delivered amount corresponds to a molecular change signal and the delivery variability corresponds to generalized chemical noise. Viewed broadly, biological effects due to nonionizing fields may include animal navigation, medical applications, and environmental

  6. Impact of Weak Agostic Interactions in Nickel Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Christina M. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; O’Hagan, Molly [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Bullock, R. Morris [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Appel, Aaron M. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Wiedner, Eric S. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States

    2017-06-08

    To understand how H2 binding and oxidation is influenced by [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ PR2NR'2 catalysts with H2 binding energies close to thermoneutral, two [Ni(PPh2NR'2)2]2+ (R = Me or C14H29) complexes with phenyl substituents on phosphorous and varying alkyl chain lengths on the pendant amine were studied. In the solid state, [Ni(PPh2NMe2)2]2+ exhibits an anagostic interaction between the Ni(II) center and the α-CH3 of the pendant amine, and DFT and variable-temperature 31P NMR experiments suggest than the anagostic interaction persists in solution. The equilibrium constants for H2 addition to these complexes was measured by 31P NMR spectroscopy, affording free energies of H2 addition (ΔG°H2) of –0.8 kcal mol–1 in benzonitrile and –1.6 to –2.3 kcal mol–1 in THF. The anagostic interaction contributes to the low driving force for H2 binding by stabilizing the four-coordinate Ni(II) species prior to binding of H2. The pseudo-first order rate constants for H2 addition at 1 atm were measured by variable scan rate cyclic voltammetry, and were found to be similar for both complexes, less than 0.2 s–1 in benzonitrile and 3 –6 s–1 in THF. In the presence of exogenous base and H2 , turnover frequencies of electrocatalytic H2 oxidation were measured to be less than 0.2 s–1 in benzonitrile and 4 –9 s–1 in THF. These complexes are slower electrocatalysts for H2 oxidation than previously studied [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ complexes due to a competition between H2 binding and formation of the anagostic interaction. However, the decrease in catalytic rate is accompanied by a beneficial 130 mV decrease in overpotential. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence

  7. Multi-scale detection of rate changes in spike trains with weak dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Messer, Michael; Costa, Kauê M.; Roeper, Jochen; Schneider, Gaby

    2015-01-01

    The statistical analysis of neuronal spike trains by models of point processes often relies on the assumption of constant process parameters. However, it is a well-known problem that the parameters of empirical spike trains can be highly variable, such as for example the firing rate. In order to test the null hypothesis of a constant rate and to estimate the change points, a Multiple Filter Test (MFT) and a corresponding algorithm (MFA) have been proposed that can be applied under the assumpt...

  8. Limit on right hand weak coupling parameters from inelastic neutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; De Groot, J G H; Dydak, F; Eisele, F; Flottmann, T; Geweniger, C; Guyot, C; He, J T; Klasen, H P; Kleinknecht, K; Knobloch, J; Królikowski, J; May, J; Merlo, J P; Palazzi, P; Para, A; Peyaud, B; Pszola, B; Rander, J; Ranjard, F; Renk, B; Rothberg, J E; Ruan, T Z; Schlatter, W D; Schuller, J P; Steinberger, J; Taureg, H; Tittel, K; Turlay, René; von Rüden, Wolfgang; Wahl, H; Willutzki, H J; Wotschack, J; Wu, W M

    1982-01-01

    Right handed weak quark current coupled to the usual left handed weak lepton current would be seen in inclusive antineutrino scattering on nuclei as a contribution at large y with the quark (not antiquark) structure function. The authors do not see such a term, and can therefore put an upper limit on the relative strengths of such right handed currents: rho /sup 2/= sigma /sub R// sigma /sub L/ <0.009, 90% confidence. This measurement puts limits on the mixing angle of left- right symmetric models. In distinction to similar limits derived from muon decay or beta decay, our limits are also valid if the right handed neutrino is heavy.

  9. Interaction of a hydophobic weak polyelectrolyte star with an apolar surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudd, O.V.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Birshtein, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider star-like polymers with weak, that is, pH-dependent, hydrophobic polyelectrolyte arms. For low ionic strength conditions, a microphase-segregated quasimicellar structure is found, for which the star features a compact apolar core and a charged and swollen corona. This state is jump-like

  10. Low metabolic rates in salamanders are correlated with weak selective constraints on mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Rebecca A; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondria are the site for the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the final steps of ATP synthesis via cellular respiration. Each mitochondrion contains its own genome; in vertebrates, this is a small, circular DNA molecule that encodes 13 subunits of the multiprotein OXPHOS electron transport complexes. Vertebrate lineages vary dramatically in metabolic rates; thus, functional constraints on mitochondrial-encoded proteins likely differ, potentially impacting mitochondrial genome evolution. Here, we examine mitochondrial genome evolution in salamanders, which have the lowest metabolic requirements among tetrapods. We show that salamanders experience weaker purifying selection on protein-coding sequences than do frogs, a comparable amphibian clade with higher metabolic rates. In contrast, we find no evidence for weaker selection against mitochondrial genome expansion in salamanders. Together, these results suggest that different aspects of mitochondrial genome evolution (i.e., nucleotide substitution, accumulation of noncoding sequences) are differently affected by metabolic variation across tetrapod lineages.

  11. Weak-Line Quasars at High Redshift: Extremely High Accretion Rates or Anemic Broad-Line Regions?

    CERN Document Server

    Shemmer, Ohad; Anderson, Scott F; Brandt, W N; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Fan, Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Netzer, Hagai; Plotkin, Richard M; Richards, Gordon T; Schneider, Donald P; Strauss, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z=3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z=3.49. In both sources we detect an unusually weak broad H_beta line and we place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, H_beta-based black-hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L_Edd=0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Gamma=1.91^{+0.24}_{-0.22} which supports the virial L/L_Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad-emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad-emission line region proper...

  12. Exact results for Casimir interactions between dielectric bodies: The weak-coupling or van der Waals Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A; Wagner, Jef

    2008-01-01

    In earlier papers we have applied multiple scattering techniques to calculate Casimir forces due to scalar fields between different bodies described by delta function potentials. When the coupling to the potentials became weak, closed-form results were obtained. We simplify this weak-coupling technique and apply it to the case of tenuous dielectric bodies, in which case the method involves the summation of van der Waals (Casimir-Polder) interactions. Once again exact results for finite bodies can be obtained. We present closed formulas describing the interaction between spheres and between cylinders, and between an infinite plate and a retangular slab of finite size. For such a slab, we consider the torque acting on it, and find non-trivial equilibrium points can occur.

  13. Search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles with the OSQAR laser-based experiment: results and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Pugnat, P.; Ballou, R.; Schott, M; Husek, T.; Sulc, M.; Deferne, G.; Duvillaret, L.; M. Finger; Flekova, L.(Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic); J. Hosek; Jary, V.(Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic); Jost, R.(Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LIPhy, F-38000, Grenoble, France); Kral, M.; Kunc, S.; Macuchova, K.

    2014-01-01

    7 pages, 7 figures; International audience; Recent theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the Standard Model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for "Light Shining through a Wall" (LSW) from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into "Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles" (WISPs), like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over t...

  14. Global Star Formation Rates and Dust Emission Over the Galaxy Interaction Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Lanz, Lauranne; Brassington, Nicola; Smith, Howard A; Ashby, Matthew L N; da Cunha, Elisabete; Fazio, Giovanni G; Hayward, Christopher C; Hernquist, Lars; Jonsson, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    We measured and modeled the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 28 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared (FIR) for 31 interacting galaxies in 14 systems. The sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey, which probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters at multiple wavelengths with an emphasis on the infrared bands. The subset presented in this paper consists of all galaxies for which FIR Herschel SPIRE observations are publicly available. Our SEDs combine the Herschel photometry with multi-wavelength data from Spitzer, GALEX, Swift UVOT, and 2MASS. While the shapes of the SEDs are broadly similar across our sample, strongly interacting galaxies typically have more mid-infrared emission relative to their near-infrared and FIR emission than weakly or moderately interacting galaxies. We modeled the full SEDs to derive host galaxy star formation rates (SFR), specific star formation rates (sSFR), stellar masses, dust temperatures, dust luminosities, and dust masses. We find increase...

  15. Surface Fluxes and Wind-Wave Interactions in Weak Wind Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    science /abl/cblast LONG-TERM GOALS We will investigate air-sea transfer of momentum, heat, and moisture under weak wind conditions. We will...over the ASIT tower and the wind direction was good for the tower sonic performance (6 days in total). As we found last year that although the momentum...flux derived from the aircraft is flight- direction dependent, which was recently found to be a common problem for all aircraft flux measurements

  16. Effect of extremely weak pulsed magnetic field type Bemer 3000 on ratings of perceived exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Gazurek

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether is an influence of the exposition on different inductions of magnetic fields on rating of perceived exertion during 10 min long standardised physical cycloergometer exercise. The investigation was performed in 40 healthy, non-smoking, fit men, mean age 202. The participants were randomly attributed to 4 groups, each including 10 subjects. The first one (group E18 consisted of subjects exposed to the magnetic field with the intensity of 18 μT, the second one (group E64 exposed to the magnetic field with the intensity of 64 μT. Two control groups were formed to accompany these exposed to the magnetic field. In these placebo groups (S-T subjects were not exposed to the magnetic field (so called false therapy, „sham treatment”. The study consisted of 4 steps: pilot study, the first endurance test, exposure to the magnetic field, the second endurance test. The aim of the pilot study was to define subjective feelings of the participant during the effort, his reaction to the effort and also practical familiarization with the character and rules of the endurance test and Borg scale interpretation during 10 min of endurance cycloergometer test. The first endurance test was performed two days after the pilot study with the same rules and its goal was to measure the level of tiredness according to the Borg scale during 10 min long standardised physical effort. The second endurance test was performed according to the same rules as the first one and its goal was to analyse the effect of 20 exposures to the magnetic field with the intensity of 18 and 64 μT repeated daily on the perception of tiredness increase as expressed in the Borg scale when performing 10 min long standardised physical effort. In subjects exposed to 18 μT magnetic field neither changes in the perception of fatigue nor changes in the heart rate at particular levels of the Borg scale have been observed. When compared with both control

  17. Deep breathing heart rate variability is associated with respiratory muscle weakness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Silva Reis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A synchronism exists between the respiratory and cardiac cycles. However, the influence of the inspiratory muscle weakness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD on cardiac autonomic control is unknown. The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of respiratory muscle strength on autonomic control in these patients. METHODS: Ten chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients (69±9 years; FEV1/FVC 59±12% and FEV1 41±11% predicted and nine age-matched healthy volunteers (64±5 years participated in this study. Heart-rate variability (HRV was obtained at rest and during respiratory sinusal arrhythmia maneuver (RSA-M by electrocardiograph. RESULTS: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients demonstrated impaired cardiac autonomic modulation at rest and during RSA-M when compared with healthy subjects (p<0.05. Moreover, significant and positive correlations between maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP and the inspiratory-expiratory difference (ΔIE (r = 0.60, p<0.01 were found. CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented impaired sympathetic-vagal balance at rest. In addition, cardiac autonomic control of heart rate was associated with inspiratory muscle weakness in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Based on this evidence, future research applications of respiratory muscle training may bring to light a potentially valuable target for rehabilitation.

  18. Weak antilocalization and interaction-induced localization of Dirac and Weyl Fermions in topological insulators and semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing

    2016-11-01

    Weak localization and antilocalization are quantum transport phenomena that arise from the quantum interference in disordered metals. At low temperatures, they can give distinct temperature and magnetic field dependences in conductivity, allowing the symmetry of the system to be explored. In the past few years, they have also been observed in newly emergent topological materials, including topological insulators and topological semimetals. In contrast from the conventional electrons, in these new materials the quasiparticles are described as Dirac or Weyl fermions. In this article, we review our recent efforts on the theories of weak antilocalization and interaction-induced localization for Dirac and Weyl fermions in topological insulators and topological semimetals. Project supported by the National Key R & D Program, China (Grant No. 2016YFA0301700), the Research Grant Council, University Grants Committee, Hong Kong, China (Grant No. 17303714), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574127), and the National Thousand-Young-Talents Program of China.

  19. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  20. Weak competing interactions control assembly of strongly bonded TCNQ ionic acceptor molecules on silver surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changwon; Rojas, Geoffrey A.; Jeon, Seokmin; Kelly, Simon J.; Smith, Sean C.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Yoon, Mina; Maksymovych, Petro

    2014-09-01

    The energy scales of interactions that control molecular adsorption and assembly on surfaces can vary by several orders of magnitude, yet the importance of each contributing interaction is not apparent a priori. Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) is an archetypal electron acceptor molecule and it is a key component of organic metals. On metal surfaces, this molecule also acts as an electron acceptor, producing negatively charged adsorbates. It is therefore rather intriguing to observe attractive molecular interactions in this system that were reported previously for copper and silver surfaces. Our experiments compared TCNQ adsorption on noble metal surfaces of Ag(100) and Ag(111). In both cases we found net attractive interactions down to the lowest coverage. However, the morphology of the assemblies was strikingly different, with two-dimensional islands on Ag(100) and one-dimensional chains on Ag(111) surfaces. This observation suggests that the registry effect governed by the molecular interaction with the underlying lattice potential is critical in determining the dimensionality of the molecular assembly. Using first-principles density functional calculations with a van der Waals correction scheme, we revealed that the strengths of major interactions (i.e., lattice potential corrugation, intermolecular attraction, and charge-transfer-induced repulsion) are all similar in energy. The van der Waals interactions, in particular, almost double the strength of attractive interactions, making the intermolecular potential comparable in strength to the diffusion potential and promoting self-assembly. However, it is the anisotropy of local intermolecular interactions that is primarily responsible for the difference in the topology of the molecular islands on Ag(100) and Ag(111) surfaces. We anticipate that the intermolecular potential will become more attractive and dominant over the diffusion potential with increasing molecular size, providing new design strategies for the

  1. The role of weakly polar and H-bonding interactions in the stabilization of the conformers of FGG, WGG, and YGG: an aqueous phase computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, József; Murphy, Richard F; Lovas, Sándor

    2008-11-01

    The energetics of intramolecular interactions on the conformational potential energy surface of the terminally protected N-Ac-Phe-Gly-Gly-NHMe (FGG), N-Ac-Trp-Gly-Gly-NHMe (WGG), and N-Ac-Tyr-Gly-Gly-NHMe (YGG) tripeptides was investigated. To identify the representative conformations, simulated annealing molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) methods were used. The interaction energies were calculated at the BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. In the global minima, 10%, 31%, and 10% of the stabilization energy come from weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG, and YGG. In the prominent cases 46%, 62%, and 46% of the stabilization energy is from the weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG, and YGG. On average, weakly polar interactions account for 15%, 34%, and 9% of the stabilization energies of the FGG, WGG, and YGG conformers, respectively. Thus, weakly polar interactions can make an important energetic contribution to protein structure and function.

  2. Weak Force

    CERN Multimedia

    Without the weak force, the sun wouldn't shine. The weak force causes beta decay, a form of radioactivity that triggers nuclear fusion in the heart of the sun. The weak force is unlike other forces: it is characterised by disintegration. In beta decay, a down quark transforms into an up quark and an electron is emitted. Some materials are more radioactive than others because the delicate balance between the strong force and the weak force varies depending on the number of particles in the atomic nucleus. We live in the midst of a natural radioactive background that varies from region to region. For example, in Cornwall where there is a lot of granite, levels of background radiation are much higher than in the Geneva region. Text for the interactive: Move the Geiger counter to find out which samples are radioactive - you may be surprised. It is the weak force that is responsible for the Beta radioactivity here. The electrons emitted do not cross the plastic cover. Why do you think there is some detected radioa...

  3. Landau pole in the Standard Model with weakly interacting scalar fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Hamada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider the Standard Model with a new scalar field X which is an nX representation of the SU(2L with a hypercharge YX. The renormalization group running effects on the new scalar quartic coupling constants are evaluated. Even if we set the scalar quartic coupling constants to be zero at the scale of the new scalar field, the coupling constants are induced by the one-loop effect of the weak gauge bosons. Once non-vanishing couplings are generated, the couplings rapidly increase by renormalization group effect of the quartic coupling constant itself. As a result, the Landau pole appears below Planck scale if nX≥4. We find that the scale of the obtained Landau pole is much lower than that evaluated by solving the one-loop beta function of the gauge coupling constants.

  4. Charge transfer rates in organic semiconductors beyond first-order perturbation: from weak to strong coupling regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Guangjun; Wang, Linjun; Yang, Xiaodi; Shuai, Zhigang; Zhao, Yi

    2009-01-14

    Semiclassical Marcus electron transfer theory is often employed to investigate the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors. However, quite often the electronic couplings vary several orders of magnitude in organic crystals, which goes beyond the application scope of semiclassical Marcus theory with the first-order perturbative nature. In this work, we employ a generalized nonadiabatic transition state theory (GNTST) [Zhao et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 110, 8204 (2004)], which can evaluate the charge transfer rates from weak to strong couplings, to study charge transport properties in prototypical organic semiconductors: quaterthiophene and sexithiophene single crystals. By comparing with GNTST results, we find that the semiclassical Marcus theory is valid for the case of the coupling semiconductors with general electronic coupling terms. Taking oligothiophenes as examples, we find that our GNTST-calculated hole mobility is about three times as large as that from the semiclassical Marcus theory. The difference arises from the quantum nuclear tunneling and the nonperturbative effects.

  5. Investigation of allosteric modulation mechanism of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 by molecular dynamics simulations, free energy and weak interaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qifeng; Yao, Xiaojun

    2016-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGlu1), which belongs to class C G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), can be coupled with G protein to transfer extracellular signal by dimerization and allosteric regulation. Unraveling the dimer packing and allosteric mechanism can be of great help for understanding specific regulatory mechanism and designing more potential negative allosteric modulator (NAM). Here, we report molecular dynamics simulation studies of the modulation mechanism of FITM on the wild type, T815M and Y805A mutants of mGlu1 through weak interaction analysis and free energy calculation. The weak interaction analysis demonstrates that van der Waals (vdW) and hydrogen bonding play an important role on the dimer packing between six cholesterol molecules and mGlu1 as well as the interaction between allosteric sites T815, Y805 and FITM in wild type, T815M and Y805A mutants of mGlu1. Besides, the results of free energy calculations indicate that secondary binding pocket is mainly formed by the residues Thr748, Cys746, Lys811 and Ser735 except for FITM-bound pocket in crystal structure. Our results can not only reveal the dimer packing and allosteric regulation mechanism, but also can supply useful information for the design of potential NAM of mGlu1.

  6. Limits on light weakly interacting massive particles from the CDEX-1 experiment with a p -type point-contact germanium detector at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Q.; Zhao, W.; Kang, K. J.; Cheng, J. P.; Li, Y. J.; Lin, S. T.; Chang, J. P.; Chen, N.; Chen, Q. H.; Chen, Y. H.; Chuang, Y. C.; Deng, Z.; Du, Q.; Gong, H.; Hao, X. Q.; He, H. J.; He, Q. J.; Huang, H. X.; Huang, T. R.; Jiang, H.; Li, H. B.; Li, J. M.; Li, J.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Y. L.; Liao, H. Y.; Lin, F. K.; Liu, S. K.; Lü, L. C.; Ma, H.; Mao, S. J.; Qin, J. Q.; Ren, J.; Ren, J.; Ruan, X. C.; Shen, M. B.; Singh, L.; Singh, M. K.; Soma, A. K.; Su, J.; Tang, C. J.; Tseng, C. H.; Wang, J. M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Q.; Wong, H. T.; Wu, S. Y.; Wu, Y. C.; Wu, Y. C.; Xianyu, Z. Z.; Xiao, R. Q.; Xing, H. Y.; Xu, F. Z.; Xu, Y.; Xu, X. J.; Xue, T.; Yang, L. T.; Yang, S. W.; Yi, N.; Yu, C. X.; Yu, H.; Yu, X. Z.; Zeng, X. H.; Zeng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhao, M. G.; Zhou, Z. Y.; Zhu, J. J.; Zhu, W. B.; Zhu, X. Z.; Zhu, Z. H.; CDEX Collaboration

    2014-11-01

    We report results of a search for light dark matter weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) with CDEX-1 experiment at the China Jinping Underground Laboratory, based on 53.9 kg-days of data from a p -type point-contact germanium detector enclosed by a NaI(Tl) crystal scintillator as anti-Compton detector. The event rate and spectrum above the analysis threshold of 475 eVee are consistent with the understood background model. Part of the allowed regions for WIMP-nucleus coherent elastic scattering at WIMP mass of 6-20 GeV are probed and excluded. Independent of interaction channels, this result contradicts the interpretation that the anomalous excesses of the CoGeNT experiment are induced by dark matter, since identical detector techniques are used in both experiments.

  7. Quantitative analysis of weak interactions by Lattice energy calculation, Hirshfeld surface and DFT studies of sulfamonomethoxine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Kinjal D.; Patel, Urmila H.

    2017-01-01

    Sulfamonomethoxine, 4-Amino-N-(6-methoxy-4-pyrimidinyl) benzenesulfonamide (C11H12N4O3S), is investigated by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Pair of N-H⋯N and C-H⋯O intermolecular interactions along with π···π interaction are responsible for the stability of the molecular packing of the structure. In order to understand the nature of the interactions and their quantitative contributions towards the crystal packing, the 3D Hirshfeld surface and 2D fingerprint plot analysis are carried out. PIXEL calculations are performed to determine the lattice energies correspond to intermolecular interactions in the crystal structure. Ab initio quantum chemical calculations of sulfamonomethoxine (SMM) have been performed by B3LYP method, using 6-31G** basis set with the help of Schrodinger software. The computed geometrical parameters are in good agreement with the experimental data. The Mulliken charge distribution, calculated using B3LYP method to confirm the presence of electron acceptor and electron donor atoms, responsible for intermolecular hydrogen bond interactions hence the molecular stability.

  8. Weak and Saturable Protein-Surfactant Interactions in the Denaturation of Apo-α-Lactalbumin by Acidic and Lactonic Sophorolipid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kell K; Vad, Brian S; Roelants, Sophie;

    2016-01-01

    Biosurfactants are of growing interest as sustainable alternatives to fossil-fuel-derived chemical surfactants, particularly for the detergent industry. To realize this potential, it is necessary to understand how they affect proteins which they may encounter in their applications. However...... the cmc in contrast to acidSL. Using isothermal titration calorimetry data, we show that acidSL has weak and saturable interactions with apo-aLA at low concentrations; due to the relatively low cmc of acidSL (which means that the monomer concentration is limited to ca. 0-1 mM SL), it is only possible...

  9. Ultra-cold weakly interacting massive particles: relics of non-standard pre-big-bang-nucleosynthesis cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmini, Graciela B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gondolo, Paolo, E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu, E-mail: paolo@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) constitute one of very few probes of cosmology before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). We point out that in scenarios in which the Universe evolves in a non-standard manner during and after WIMP kinetic decoupling, the horizon mass scale at decoupling can be smaller and the dark matter WIMPs can be colder than in standard cosmology. This would lead to much smaller first objects in hierarchical structure formation. In low reheating temperature scenarios the effect may be large enough to noticeably enhance indirect detection signals in GLAST and other detectors, by up to two orders of magnitude.

  10. New Results from the Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with the CDMS Low Ionization Threshold Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Aramaki, T.; Asai, M.; Baker, W.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Ghaith, M.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Mast, N.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Rogers, H. E.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Underwood, R.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2016-02-01

    The CDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite) uses cryogenic germanium detectors operated at a relatively high bias voltage to amplify the phonon signal in the search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Results are presented from the second CDMSlite run with an exposure of 70 kg day, which reached an energy threshold for electron recoils as low as 56 eV. A fiducialization cut reduces backgrounds below those previously reported by CDMSlite. New parameter space for the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section is excluded for WIMP masses between 1.6 and 5.5 GeV/c^2.

  11. Four-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with weakly invasive contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aita, Hugo; Arrachea, Liliana; Naón, Carlos

    2011-11-30

    We analyze the behavior of the four-terminal resistance, relative to the two-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with an impurity, taking into account the invasiveness of the voltage probes. We consider a one-dimensional Luttinger model of spinless fermions for the wire. We treat the coupling to the voltage probes perturbatively, within the framework of non-equilibrium Green function techniques. Our investigation unveils the combined effect of impurities, electron-electron interactions and invasiveness of the probes on the possible occurrence of negative resistance.

  12. Characterization of a novel weak interaction between MUC1 and Src-SH3 using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekara, Nirosha [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, 5B4.21 WCM Health Science Centre, 8440-112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2R7 (Canada); Sykes, Brian, E-mail: brian.sykes@ualberta.ca [Department of Biochemistry, 4-19B Medical Sciences Bldg., University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H7 (Canada); Hugh, Judith, E-mail: judithh@ualberta.ca [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, 5B4.21 WCM Health Science Centre, 8440-112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2R7 (Canada)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MUC1 binds the Src-SH3 domain potentially triggering Src dependent cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR Spectroscopy was used to monitor MUC1-CD and Src SH3 domain titrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MUC1-CD peptides bind with a low affinity (K{sub d} of 2-3 mM) to a non-canonical site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak interactions may mediate dynamic processes like migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MUC1-CD and Src-SH3 interaction may be a prime target to inhibit cell migration. -- Abstract: Breast cancer causes death through cancer cell migration and subsequent metastasis to distant organs. In vitro, the MUC1 mucin can mediate breast cancer cell migration by binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This migration is dependent on MUC1 cytoplasmic domain (MUC1-CD) activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Src, possibly through competitive displacement of an inhibitory Src intramolecular SH3 binding. Therefore, we characterized the binding site and affinity of the MUC1-CD for Src-SH3 using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to monitor the titration of the {sup 15}N labeled Src-SH3 domain with synthetic native and mutant peptides of MUC1-CD. The results revealed that the dissociation constant (K{sub d}) for the interaction of the native MUC1-CD peptides and Src-SH3 domain was weak with a K{sub d} of 2-3 mM. Notably, the SH3 residues most perturbed upon peptide binding were located outside the usual hydrophobic binding cleft in a previously described alternate binding site on the Src-SH3, suggesting that MUC1-CD binds to a non-canonical site. The binding characteristics outlined here suggest that the interaction between Src-SH3 and MUC1-CD represents a novel weak electrostatic interaction of the type which is increasingly recognized as important in transient and dynamic protein complexes required for cell migration and signal transduction. As such, this

  13. Weak antibody-cyclodextrin interactions determined by quartz crystal microbalance and dynamic/static light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Elisabeth; Dixit, Nitin; Besheer, Ahmed; Kalonia, Devendra; Winter, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    In a quest to elucidate the mechanism by which hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) stabilizes antibodies against shaking stress, two heavily debated hypotheses exist, namely that stabilization is due to HPβCD's surface activity, or due to specific interactions with proteins. In a previous study by Serno et al. (Pharm. Res. 30 (2013) 117), we could refute the first hypothesis by proving that, although HPβCD is slightly surface active, it does not displace the antibody at the air-water interface, and accordingly, its surface activity is not the underlying stabilizing mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of interactions between HPβCD and monoclonal antibodies as the potential stabilization mechanism using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and static as well as dynamic light scattering. In the presence of HPβCD, the adsorption of IgG antibodies in the native state (IgG A) and the unfolded state (IgG A and IgG B) on gold-coated quartz crystals was studied by QCM. Results show that HPβCD causes a reduction in protein adsorption in both the folded and the unfolded states, probably due to an interaction between the protein and the cyclodextrin, leading to a reduced hydrophobicity of the protein and consequently a lower extent of adsorption. These results were supported by investigation of the interaction between the native protein and HPβCD using static and dynamic light scattering experiments, which provide the protein-protein interaction parameters, B22 and kD, respectively. Both B22 and kD showed an increase in magnitude with increasing HPβCD-concentrations, indicating a rise in net repulsive forces between the protein molecules. This is further evidence for the presence of interactions between HPβCD and the studied antibodies, since an association of HPβCD on the protein surface leads to a change in the intermolecular forces between the protein molecules. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the previously observed

  14. Sensory information and encounter rates of interacting species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Hein

    Full Text Available Most motile organisms use sensory cues when searching for resources, mates, or prey. The searcher measures sensory data and adjusts its search behavior based on those data. Yet, classical models of species encounter rates assume that searchers move independently of their targets. This assumption leads to the familiar mass action-like encounter rate kinetics typically used in modeling species interactions. Here we show that this common approach can mischaracterize encounter rate kinetics if searchers use sensory information to search actively for targets. We use the example of predator-prey interactions to illustrate that predators capable of long-distance directional sensing can encounter prey at a rate proportional to prey density to the [Formula: see text] power (where [Formula: see text] is the dimension of the environment when prey density is low. Similar anomalous encounter rate functions emerge even when predators pursue prey using only noisy, directionless signals. Thus, in both the high-information extreme of long-distance directional sensing, and the low-information extreme of noisy non-directional sensing, encounter rate kinetics differ qualitatively from those derived by classic theory of species interactions. Using a standard model of predator-prey population dynamics, we show that the new encounter rate kinetics derived here can change the outcome of species interactions. Our results demonstrate how the use of sensory information can alter the rates and outcomes of physical interactions in biological systems.

  15. Sensory information and encounter rates of interacting species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Andrew M; McKinley, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Most motile organisms use sensory cues when searching for resources, mates, or prey. The searcher measures sensory data and adjusts its search behavior based on those data. Yet, classical models of species encounter rates assume that searchers move independently of their targets. This assumption leads to the familiar mass action-like encounter rate kinetics typically used in modeling species interactions. Here we show that this common approach can mischaracterize encounter rate kinetics if searchers use sensory information to search actively for targets. We use the example of predator-prey interactions to illustrate that predators capable of long-distance directional sensing can encounter prey at a rate proportional to prey density to the [Formula: see text] power (where [Formula: see text] is the dimension of the environment) when prey density is low. Similar anomalous encounter rate functions emerge even when predators pursue prey using only noisy, directionless signals. Thus, in both the high-information extreme of long-distance directional sensing, and the low-information extreme of noisy non-directional sensing, encounter rate kinetics differ qualitatively from those derived by classic theory of species interactions. Using a standard model of predator-prey population dynamics, we show that the new encounter rate kinetics derived here can change the outcome of species interactions. Our results demonstrate how the use of sensory information can alter the rates and outcomes of physical interactions in biological systems.

  16. Supramolecular assembly of 2,4,5-trifluorobenzoate complex based on weak interactions involving fluorine atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Hua Ge; Rui Zhang; Ping Fan; Xiang-Dong Zhang; Li-Juan Wang; Fang-Fang Wang

    2013-01-01

    The complex [Cd(tfbz)2(phen)]2 (1) (tfbz =2,4,5-trifluorobenzoate,phen =1,10-phenanthro-line) was synthesized using trifluorobenzoic acid ligand.The single-crystal structure of 1 has been determined by X-ray crystallography.The packing structure is characterized by the formation of an intricate three-dimensional supramolecular network that depends on the C-H…F,F…F, F(lp)…π (lp =lone pair) interactions.

  17. Four-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with weakly invasive contacts

    OpenAIRE

    Aita, Hugo; Arrachea, Liliana; Naón, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the behavior of the four-terminal resistance, relative to the two-terminal resistance of an interacting quantum wire with an impurity, taking into account the invasiveness of the voltage probes. We consider a one-dimensional Luttinger model of spinless fermions for the wire. We treat the coupling to the voltage probes perturbatively, within the framework of non-equilibrium Green function techniques. Our investigation unveils the combined effect of impurities, electron-electron inte...

  18. Different supramolecular architectures mediated by different weak interactions in the crystals of three N-aryl-2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakuntala, K; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K; Suchetan, P A; Abdoh, M

    2017-10-01

    The synthesis and evaluation of the pharmacological activities of molecules containing the sulfonamide moiety have attracted interest as these compounds are important pharmacophores. The crystal structures of three closely related N-aryl-2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamides, namely N-(2,3-dichlorophenyl)-2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamide, C14H13Cl2NO4S, (I), N-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamide, C14H13Cl2NO4S, (II), and N-(2,4-dimethylphenyl)-2,5-dimethoxybenzenesulfonamide, C16H19NO4S, (III), are described. The asymmetric unit of (I) consists of two symmetry-independent molecules, while those of (II) and (III) contain one molecule each. The molecular conformations are stabilized by different intramolecular interactions, viz. C-H...O interactions in (I), N-H...Cl and C-H...O interactions in (II), and C-H...O interactions in (III). The crystals of the three compounds display different supramolecular architectures built by various weak intermolecular interactions of the types C-H...O, C-H...Cl, C-H...π(aryl), π(aryl)-π(aryl) and Cl...Cl. A detailed Hirshfeld surface analysis of these compounds has also been conducted in order to understand the relationship between the crystal structures. The dnorm and shape-index surfaces of (I)-(III) support the presence of various intermolecular interactions in the three structures. Analysis of the fingerprint plots reveals that the greatest contribution to the Hirshfeld surfaces is from H...H contacts, followed by H...O/O...H contacts. In addition, comparisons are made with the structures of some related compounds. Putative N-H...O hydrogen bonds are observed in 29 of the 30 reported structures, wherein the N-H...O hydrogen bonds form either C(4) chain motifs or R2(2)(8) rings. Further comparison reveals that the characteristics of the N-H...O hydrogen-bond motifs, the presence of other interactions and the resultant supramolecular architecture is largely decided by the position of the substituents on the

  19. Modification of the Brink-Axel Hypothesis for High Temperature Nuclear Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Misch, G Wendell; Brown, B Alex

    2014-01-01

    We present shell model calculations of electron capture strength distributions in A=28 nuclei and computations of the corresponding capture rates in supernova core conditions. We find that in these nuclei the Brink-Axel hypothesis for the distribution of Gamow-Teller strength fails at low and moderate initial excitation energy, but may be a valid tool at high excitation. The redistribution of GT strength at high initial excitation may affect capture rates during collapse. If these trends which we have found in lighter nuclei also apply for the heavier nuclei which provide the principal channels for neutronization during stellar collapse, then there could be two implications for supernova core electron capture physics. First, a modified Brink-Axel hypothesis could be a valid approximation for use in collapse codes. Second, the electron capture strength may be moved down significantly in transition energy, which would likely have the effect of increasing the overall electron capture rate during stellar collapse...

  20. Turn: Weak Interactions and Rotational Barriers in Molecules-Insights from Substituted Butynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omorodion, Oluwarotimi; Bober, Matthew; Donald, Kelling J

    2016-11-10

    The nature of the bonding and a definite preference for an eclipsed geometry in several substituted but-2-ynes, including certain novel derivatives are uncovered and examined. In particular, we consider the molecular species R3C-C≡C-CR3 (where R= H, F, Cl, Br, I, and CN), their R3C-B≡N-CR3 analogues, and a few novel exo-bridge systems with intramolecular hydrogen bonds running parallel to the C-C≡C-C chain. In some cases, the potential energy surfaces are remarkably flat-so flat, in fact, that free rotation is predicted for those molecules at very low temperatures. A systematic investigation of the bonding in the halogenated butynes demonstrates that the eclipsed conformation actually becomes more stable relative to the staggered form as R becomes larger and less electron-withdrawing. The rotational barriers (the differences in energy between the eclipsed and staggered geometries) are magnified significantly, however, in a special case where selected R groups at the ends of the R3C-C≡C-CR'3 molecule form hydrogen bonds parallel to the C-C≡C-C core. In those systems, the hydrogen bonds serve as a weak locking mechanism that favors the eclipsed conformation. A comparison of HF and uncorrected DFT methods versus the MP2(full), CCSD(T), and other dispersion-corrected methods confirms that correlation accounts to a significant extent for barriers in substituted butyne compounds. In the hydrogen-bonded systems, the barriers are comparable to and larger in some cases than the barriers observed for the more extensively studied ethane molecule.

  1. Upgraded LHC experiments as a check of non-perturbative effects of the Electro-Weak Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbuzov Boris A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently reported diphoton excesse at LHC is interpreted to be connected with heavy WW zero spin resonances. The resonances appears due to the wouldbe anomalous triple interaction of the weak bosons, which is defined by coupling constant λ. The γγ 750GeV anomaly is considered to correspond to weak isotopic spin 0 pseudoscalar state. We obtain estimates for the effect, which qualitatively agree with ATLAS data. Effects are predicted in a production of W+W−, (Z, γ(Z, γ via resonance XPS with MPS ≃ 750GeV, which could be reliably checked at the upgraded LHC at √s = 13TeV. In coupling constant of the triple anomalous interaction is estimated to be λ = −0.010 ± 0.005 in an agreement with existing restrictions. Specific predictions of the hypothesis are significant effects in decay channels XPS → γ l+ l−, XPS → l+ l− l+ l− (l = e, μ.

  2. Kinematic Reconstruction of Tau Leptons and Test for Lepton Universality in Charged Weak Interactions with the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Sauerland, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM) postulates the universal coupling of the three lepton families to the weak current. The most precise measurement of lepton universality in W decays comes from the four experiments at the Large Electon-Positron Collider (LEP). If one compares the couplings of muons and tau leptons to the charged weak current, there is a discrepancy of nearly three standard deviations w.r.t. the SM expectation. There are models beyond the SM, which could explain the violation of lepton universality with new physics processes, if it is more than a statistical fluctuation. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) offers a great opportunity to study decays of the charged-weak gauge bosons at very high event rates and at unmatched collision energies. This thesis presents an analysis strategy to test lepton universality with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the LHC. The analysis focusses on the decays of the W boson to particles of the second and third lepton family. For this purpose d...

  3. An experimental test of the local fluctuation theorem in chains of weakly interacting Anosov systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gallavotti, G; Gallavotti, Giovanni; Perroni, Fabio

    1999-01-01

    An experimental test of a large fluctuation theorem is performed on a chain of coupled ``cat maps''. Our interest is focused on the behavior of a subsystem of this chain. A local entropy creation rate is defined and we show that the local fluctuation theorem derived in [G1] is experimentally observable already for small subsystems.

  4. The RNA core weakly influences the interactions of the bacteriophage MS2 at key environmental interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the RNA core on interfacial interactions of the bacteriophage MS2 was investigated. After removal of the RNA core, empty intact capsids were characterized and compared to untreated MS2. Electron density of untreated MS2 and RNA-free MS2 were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based small angle spectroscopy (SAXS). Suspensions of both particles exhibited similar electrophoretic mobility across a range of pH values. Similar effects were observed at pH 5.9 across a range of NaCl or CaCl2 concentrations. We compared key interfacial interactions (particle-particle and particle/air-water interface) between suspensions of each type of particle using time resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS) to observe and quantify aggregation kinetics and axisymmetric drop shape analysis to measure adsorption at the air-water interface. Both suspensions showed insignificant aggregation over 4 h in 600 mM NaCl solutions. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, aggregation of both types of particles was consistent with earlier aggregation studies and was characterized by both reaction-limited and diffusion-limited regimes occurring at similar [Ca2+]. However, the removal of the RNA from MS2 had no apparent effect on the aggregation kinetics of particles. Despite some differences in the kinetics of adsorption to the air-water interface, the changes in surface tension which result from particle adsorption showed no difference between the untreated MS2 and RNA-free MS2. The interactions and structure of particles at the air-water interface were further probed using interfacial dilational rheology. The surface elasticity (E s) and surface viscosity (ηs) at the interface were low for both the untreated virus and the RNA-free capsid. This observation suggests that the factors that impact the adsorption kinetics are not important for an equilibrated interface. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Topics in phenomenology of unified gauge theories of weak, electromagnetic, and strong interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Y.S.

    1982-11-01

    Three phenomenological analyses on the current unification theories of elementary particle interactions are presented. In Chapter I, the neutral current phenomenology of a class of supersymmetric SU(2) x U(1) x U tilde(1) models is analyzed. A model with the simplest fermion and Higgs structure allowing a realistic mass spectrum is considered first. Its neutral current sector is parametrized in terms of two mixing angles and the strength of the new U tilde(1) interactions. Expressions for low-energy model-independent parameters are derived and compared with those of the standard model. Bounds on the neutral gauge boson masses are obtained from the data for various neutrino interactions, eD scattering, and the asymmetry in e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/. In Chapter II, the evolution of fermion mass in grand unified theories is reexamined. In particular, the question of gauge invariance of mass ratios in left-right asymmetric theories is considered. A simple expression is derived for the evolution of the Higgs-fermion-fermion coupling which essentially governs the scale dependence of fermion mass. At the one loop level the expression is gauge invariant and involves only the representation content of left- and right-handed fermions but not that of Higgs. The corresponding expression for supersymmetric theories is also given. In Chapter III, the production and the subsequent decays of a heavy lepton pair L/sup + -/ near the Z peak in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation are considered as a test of the standard model. The longitudinal polarization is derived from the spin-dependent production cross-section, and the decays L ..-->.. ..pi.. nu and L ..-->.. l nu nu are used as helicity analyzers.

  6. Spin dynamics in weakly and strongly interacting NiO nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Lefmann, Kim; Kuhn, Luise Theil;

    2006-01-01

    The spin dynamics of plate-shaped nanoparticles of NiO has been studied by inelastic neutron scattering and Mossbauer spectroscopy. A value of the in-plane anisotropy energy constant significantly larger than the bulk value has been measured. The temperature and field dependence of the energy...... of the antiferromagnetic resonance mode associated with this in-plane anisotropy has been studied. Both Mossbauer spectroscopy and neutron scattering data show that the magnetic fluctuations are strongly affected by the strength of interparticle interactions....

  7. Disclosing the multi-faceted world of weakly interacting inorganic systems by means of NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchigiani, Luca; Macchioni, Alceo

    2016-02-21

    The potential of NMR spectroscopy to investigate inorganic systems assembled by, or whose reactivity is affected by, non-covalent interactions is described. Subjects that have received particular attention in recent years (halogen bonding and Frustrated Lewis Pairs) and more classical subjects that remain under-explored (self-aggregation of ion pairs in low polar solvents, behavior of MAO containing metallocenium ion pairs, and hydrogen bonding/ion pairing effects in Au(i) catalysis) are considered, using an innovative approach, always focusing on the crucial information that can be provided by NMR.

  8. Formation of dilute adhesion domains driven by weak elasticity-mediated interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Dharan, Nadiv

    2016-01-01

    Cell-cell adhesion is established by specific binding of receptor and ligand proteins. The adhesion bonds attract each other and often aggregate into large clusters that are central to many biological processes. One possible origin of attractive interactions between adhesion bonds is the elastic response of the membranes to their deformation by the bonds. Here, we analyze these elasticity-mediated interactions using a novel mean-field approach. Analysis of systems at different densities of bonds, $\\phi$, reveals that the phase diagram exhibits a nearly-universal behavior when the temperature $T$ is plotted vs. the scaled density $x=\\phi \\xi^2$, where $\\xi$ is the linear size of the membrane's region affected by a single bond. The critical point $(\\phi_c,T_c)$ is located at very low densities and slightly below $T_c$ we identify phase coexistence between two low-density phases. Dense domains are observed only when the height by which the bonds deform the membranes, $h_0$, is much larger than their thermal roug...

  9. Electric dipole moment of $^{225}$Ra due to P- and T-violating weak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Yashpal

    2015-01-01

    We report rigorous calculations of electric dipole moment (EDM) in $^{225}$Ra due to parity and time-reversal violating tensor-pseudotensor (T-PT) and nuclear Schiff moment (NSM) interactions between the electrons and nucleus by employing the relativistic all order coupled-cluster (RCC) methods at various levels of approximation. The most accurate EDM ($d_A$) results are obtained as $d_A=-10.04\\times 10^{-20} C_T |e|cm$ and $d_A^{NSM}=-6.79 \\times 10^{-17} S (|e|fm^3)^{-1} |e|cm$ with $C_T$ and $S$ are the T-PT coupling constant and NSM respectively. Due to exhaustive treatment of the electron correlation effects in these calculations, the EDM results for the corresponding T-PT and NSM interactions reduce by about 45\\% and 23\\%, respectively, from the previously known values. Nonetheless they are still found to be 2-3 times larger than the $^{199}$Hg results. Validity of the RCC results are countenanced by comparing our calculations at the zeroth order Dirac-Fock method and all order random-phase approximatio...

  10. Weak interaction corrections to hadronic top quark pair production; Korrekturen der schwachen Wechselwirkung zur hadronischen Topquark-Paarproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuecker, M.

    2007-05-15

    This thesis presents the calculation of the Standard Model weak-interaction corrections of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} to hadronic top-quark pair production. The one-loop weak corrections to top antitop production due to gluon fusion and uark antiquark annihilation are computed. Also the order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} corrections to top antitop production due to quark gluon and antiquark gluon scattering in the Standard Model are calculated. In this complete weak-corrections of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} to gg, q anti q, gq, and g anti q induced hadronic t anti t production the top and antitop polarizations and spin-correlations are fully taken into account. For the Tevatron and the LHC the weak contributions to the cross section, to the transverse top-momentum (p{sub T}) distributions, and to the top antitop invariant mass (M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}) distributions are analyzed. At the LHC the corrections to the distributions can be of the order of -10 percent compared with the leading-order results, for p{sub T}>1500 GeV and M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>3000 GeV, respectively. At the Tevatron the corrections are -4 percent for p{sub T}>600 GeV and M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV. This thesis also considers parity-even top antitop spin correlations of the form d{sigma}(++)+d{sigma}(--)-d{sigma}(+-)-d{sigma}(-+), where the first and second argument denotes the top and antitop spin projection onto a given reference axis. This spin asymmetries are computed as a function of M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}. At the LHC the weak corrections are of order of -10 percent for M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV for all analyzed reference axes. At the Tevatron the corrections are in the range of 5 percent at threshold and -5 percent for M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV. Apart from parity-even spin asymmetries also the Standard Model predictions for parity violating effects in topquark pair production are calculated. This thesis analyzes parity

  11. Drug Interaction Alert Override Rates in the Meaningful Use Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, A.D.; Fletcher, G.S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Interruptive drug interaction alerts may reduce adverse drug events and are required for Stage I Meaningful Use attestation. For the last decade override rates have been very high. Despite their widespread use in commercial EHR systems, previously described interventions to improve alert frequency and acceptance have not been well studied. Objectives (1) To measure override rates of inpatient medication alerts within a commercial clinical decision support system, and assess the impact of local customization efforts. (2) To compare override rates between drug-drug interaction and drug-allergy interaction alerts, between attending and resident physicians, and between public and academic hospitals. (3) To measure the correlation between physicians’ individual alert quantities and override rates as an indicator of potential alert fatigue. Methods We retrospectively analyzed physician responses to drug-drug and drug-allergy interaction alerts, as generated by a common decision support product in a large teaching hospital system. Results (1) Over four days, 461 different physicians entered 18,354 medication orders, resulting in 2,455 visible alerts; 2,280 alerts (93%) were overridden. (2) The drug-drug alert override rate was 95.1%, statistically higher than the rate for drug-allergy alerts (90.9%) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in override rates between attendings and residents, or between hospitals. (3) Physicians saw a mean of 1.3 alerts per day, and the number of alerts per physician was not significantly correlated with override rate (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.41). Conclusions Despite intensive efforts to improve a commercial drug interaction alert system and to reduce alerting, override rates remain as high as reported over a decade ago. Alert fatigue does not seem to contribute. The results suggest the need to fundamentally question the premises of drug interaction alert systems. PMID:25298818

  12. Aliphatic C-H---Anion Hydrogen Bonds: Weak Contacts or Strong Interactions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Pedzisa, Lee [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Electronic structure calculations, MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ, are used to determine C H---Cl hydrogen bond energies for a series of XCH3 donor groups in which the electron-withdrawing ability of X is varied over a wide range of values. When attached to polarizing substituents, aliphatic CH groups are moderate to strong hydrogen bond donors, exhibiting interaction energies comparable to those obtained with O H and N H groups. The results explain why aliphatic C H donors are observed to function as competitive binding sites in solution and suggest that such C H---anion contacts should be considered as possible contributors when evaluating the denticity of an anion receptor.

  13. Second-order corrections to mean field evolution for weakly interacting Bosons. I

    CERN Document Server

    Grillakis, Manoussos G; Margetis, Dionisios

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by the works of Rodnianski and Schlein and Wu, we derive a new nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation that describes a second-order correction to the usual tensor product (mean-field) approximation for the Hamiltonian evolution of a many-particle system in Bose-Einstein condensation. We show that our new equation, if it has solutions with appropriate smoothness and decay properties, implies a new Fock space estimate. We also show that for an interaction potential $v(x)= \\epsilon \\chi(x) |x|^{-1}$, where $\\epsilon$ is sufficiently small and $\\chi \\in C_0^{\\infty}$, our program can be easily implemented locally in time. We leave global in time issues, more singular potentials and sophisticated estimates for a subsequent part (part II) of this paper.

  14. Is the cosmic microwave background telling us that dark matter is weaker than weakly interacting?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan

    2013-10-18

    If moduli, or other long-lived heavy states, decay in the early universe in part into light and feebly interacting particles (such as axions), these decay products could account for the additional energy density in radiation that is suggested by recent measurements of the CMB. These moduli decays will also, however, alter the expansion history of the early universe, potentially diluting the thermal relic abundance of dark matter. If this is the case, then dark matter particles must annihilate with an even lower cross section than required in the standard thermal scenario (sigma v < 3x10^-26 cm^3/s) if they are to make up the observed density of dark matter. This possibility has significant implications for direct and indirect searches for dark matter.

  15. Weak interaction between germanene and GaAs(0001) by H intercalation: A route to exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-11-13

    Epitaxial germanene on a semiconducting GaAs(0001) substrate is studied by ab initio calculations. The germanene-substrate interaction is found to be strong for direct contact but can be substantially reduced by H intercalation at the interface. Our results indicate that it is energetically possible to take the germanene off the GaAs(0001) substrate. While mounted on the substrate, the electronic structure shows a distinct Dirac cone shift above the Fermi energy with a splitting of 175 meV. On the other hand, we find for a free standing sheet a band gap of 24 meV, which is due to the intrinsic spin orbit coupling.

  16. The Interaction between Technical Currency Trading and Exchange Rate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Schulmeister, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the mutually reinforcing interactions between exchange rate dynamics and technical trading strategies. I first show that technical trading systems have been quite profitable during the floating rate period. This profitability stems from the successful exploitation of exchange-rate trends and not from taking winning positions relatively frequently. I then show that technical models exert an excess demand pressure on currency markets. When these models produce trading signal...

  17. Sensitivity of shock boundary-layer interactions to weak geometric perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Eaton, John K.

    2016-11-01

    Shock-boundary layer interactions can be sensitive to small changes in the inlet flow and boundary conditions. Robust computational models must capture this sensitivity, and validation of such models requires a suitable experimental database with well-defined inlet and boundary conditions. To that end, the purpose of this experiment is to systematically document the effects of small geometric perturbations on a SBLI flow to investigate the flow physics and establish an experimental dataset tailored for CFD validation. The facility used is a Mach 2.1, continuous operation wind tunnel. The SBLI is generated using a compression wedge; the region of interest is the resulting reflected shock SBLI. The geometric perturbations, which are small spanwise rectangular prisms, are introduced ahead of the compression ramp on the opposite wall. PIV is used to study the SBLI for 40 different perturbation geometries. Results show that the dominant effect of the perturbations is a global shift of the SBLI itself. In addition, the bumps introduce weaker shocks of varying strength and angles, depending on the bump height and location. Various scalar validation metrics, including a measure of shock unsteadiness, and their uncertainties are also computed to better facilitate CFD validation. Ji Hoon Kim is supported by an OTR Stanford Graduate Fellowship.

  18. A Search for Weakly Interacting Particles with the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruch, Tobias [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-01-01

    Dark matter particles cannot only be detected directly in laboratories, but also indirectly by their annihilation products. Previous predictions of the neutrino flux from WIMP annihilation in the Earth and the Sun have assumed that galactic dark matter is distributed according to the SHM. Although the dark disc has a local density comparable to the dark halo, its higher phase space density at low velocities greatly enhances capture rates in the Sun and Earth. For typical dark disc properties, the resulting muon flux from the Earth is increased by three orders of magnitude over the SHM, while for the Sun the increase is one order of magnitude. This significantly increases the prospects of neutrino telescopes to fix or constrain parameters in WIMP models. The flux from the Earth is extremely sensitive to the detailed properties of the dark disc, while the flux from the Sun is more robust.

  19. Temperature dependence of the effective interdimer exchange interaction in a weakly coupled antiferromagnetic dimer copper compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Rafael; Santana, Vinicius T.; Nascimento, Otaciro R.

    2017-08-01

    We report a variation with temperature T of the effective interdimeric interaction Jeff' in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) copper dimeric organic compound Cu2[TzTs] 4 (N -thiazol-2-yl-toluenesulfonamidate CuII). This T dependence was obtained from measurements of the effects in the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of the proposed quantum phase transition associated with the exchange-narrowing processes. Cu2[TzTs] 4 contains exchange-coupled pairs of CuII spins SA and SB (S =1 /2 ), with intradimeric AFM exchange coupling J0=(-115 ±1 ) cm-1 (Hex=-J0SA.SB ). The variation of the EPR linewidth of single crystals with field orientation around a "magic angle" where the transitions intersect and the integrated signal intensity of the so-called U peak of the powder spectrum were measured as a function of T . Modeling these data using arguments of exchange narrowing in the adiabatic regime considering the angular variation of the single-crystal spectra and a geometric description, we find that the effective interdimeric coupling | Jeff'| associated with the exchange frequency ωex is negligible for T ≪| J0/kB| when the units are uncoupled and | Jeff'|=(0.080 ±0.005 ) cm-1 (| Jeff'/J0|=7.0 × 10-4 ) at 298 K. Within this T interval, two ranges of | Jeff'| with linear temperature variation but different slopes, with a kink at ˜80 K, are observed and discussed. This T dependence arises from the growing population of the triplet state, and its relevance to the properties of various arrays of dimeric units is discussed. Our experimental procedures and results are compared with those of previous works in ion radical salts and dimeric metal compounds. The relation between the effective coupling | Jeff'| and the real interdimeric exchange coupling | J'| related to the chemical paths connecting neighbor units is discussed.

  20. Parametric study of the solar wind interaction with the Hermean magnetosphere for a weak interplanetary magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Varela, J; Moncuquet, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to simulate the interaction of the solar wind with the Hermean magnetosphere when the interplanetary magnetic field is weak, performing a parametric study for all the range of hydrodynamic values of the solar wind predicted on Mercury for the ENLIL + GONG WSA + Cone SWRC model: density from $12$ to $180$ cm$^{-3}$, velocity from $200$ to $500$ km/s and temperatures from $2 \\cdot 10^4$ to $18 \\cdot 10^4$ K, and compare the results with a real MESSENGER orbit as reference case. We use the code PLUTO in spherical coordinates and an asymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field. The study shows for all simulations a stand off distance larger than the Mercury radius and the presence of close magnetic field lines on the day side of the planet, so the dynamic pressure of the solar wind is not high enough to push the magnetopause on the planet surface if the interplanetary magnetic field is weak. The simulations with large dynamic pressure lead to a large compression of the H...

  1. Bayesian Reconstruction of the Velocity Distribution of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles from Direct Dark Matter Detection Data

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Chung-Lin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we extended our earlier work on the reconstruction of the (time-averaged) one-dimensional velocity distribution of Galactic Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) and introduce the Bayesian fitting procedure to the theoretically predicted velocity distribution functions. In this reconstruction process, the (rough) velocity distribution reconstructed by using raw data from direct Dark Matter detection experiments directly, i.e. measured recoil energies, with one or more different target materials, has been used as "reconstructed-input" information. By assuming a fitting velocity distribution function and scanning the parameter space based on the Bayesian analysis, the astronomical characteristic parameters, e.g. the Solar and Earth's orbital velocities, will be pinned down as the output results. Our Monte-Carlo simulations show that this Bayesian scanning procedure could reconstruct the true (input) WIMP velocity distribution function pretty precisely with negligible systematic deviations ...

  2. Search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles with the OSQAR laser-based experiment: results and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugnat, P.; Ballou, R.; Schott, M.; Husek, T.; Sulc, M.; Deferne, G.; Duvillaret, L.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Flekova, L.; Hosek, J.; Jary, V.; Jost, R.; Kral, M.; Kunc, S.; Macuchova, K.; Meissner, K. A.; Morville, J.; Romanini, D.; Siemko, A.; Slunecka, M.; Vitrant, G.; Zicha, J.

    2014-08-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the Standard Model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for "Light Shining through a Wall" (LSW) from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into "Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles" (WISPs), like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over the unprecedented length of $2 \\times 14.3$ m. No excess of events has been detected over the background. The di-photon couplings of possible new light scalar and pseudo-scalar particles can be constrained in the massless limit to be less than $8.0\\times10^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$. These results are very close to the most stringent laboratory constraints obtained for the coupling of ALPs to two photons. Plans for further improving the sensitivity of the OSQAR experiment are presented.

  3. Results and Perspectives for Laboratory Search of Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles with the OSQAR Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pugnat, P.; Schott, M.; Husek, T.; Sulc, M.; Deferne, G.; Duvillaret, L.; Finger, M., Jr.; Finger, M.; Flekova, L.; Hosek, J.; Jary, V.; Jost, R.; Kral, M.; Kunc, S.; Macuchova, K.; Meissner, K.A.; Morville, J.; Romanini, D.; Siemko, A.; Slunecka, M.; Vitrant, G.; Zicha, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent intensive theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the standard model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for Light Shining through a Wall (LSW) from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles (WISPs), like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over the unprecedented length of 2 x 14.3 m. No excess of events has been detected over the background. The di-photon couplings of possible new light scalar and pseudo-scalar particles can be constrained in the massless limit to be less than 8.0 x 10-8 GeV-1. These results are very close to the most stringent laboratory constraints obtained for the coupling of WISPs to two photons. Plans for further improving the sensitivity of the OSQAR experiment are presented.

  4. Weak interactions in clobazam-lactose mixtures examined by differential scanning calorimetry: Comparison with the captopril-lactose system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscani, S. [Departement de Chimie - UMR 6226, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Rennes 1, Batiment 10B, 263 avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Cornevin, L. [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Burgot, G., E-mail: Gwenola.burgot@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, EA 1274 ' Mouvement, sports, sante' , 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); CHGR Rennes, Pole Medico-Technique Pharmacie, F-35703 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of weak interactions in binary systems by DSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy-barrier decrease for lactose dehydration induced by clobazam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recrystallisation of metastable liquid clobazam induced by anhydrous alpha lactose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease of lactose dehydration temperature in binary mixtures with captopril. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of lactose dehydration enthalpy in binary mixtures with captopril. - Abstract: The thermal behaviour of binary mixtures of two drugs (clobazam and captopril, respectively) and a pharmaceutical excipient (lactose monohydrate) was measured with differential scanning calorimetry to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (dehydration and melting enthalpies and dehydration and glass-transition activation energies) which might be affected by intermolecular interactions. A kinetic study showed that lactose dehydration is not a single-step conversion and that clobazam contributed to reduce the energy barrier for the bulk dehydration of the excipient. On the other hand, the physical interactions between metastable liquid clobazam and crystalline anhydrous {alpha}-lactose obtained from monohydrate dehydration gave rise to the recrystallisation of clobazam. In the captopril-lactose system, the liquid captopril influenced the lactose dehydration: a sharp increase of the dehydration enthalpy and a concurrent reduction of the dehydration temperature were observed. Finally, it turned out that solid-phase transitions were enhanced by the contact with a liquid phase.

  5. Preparation of a weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation using click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kailou; Yang, Fan; Xia, Hongjun; Wang, Fei; Song, Qingguo; Bai, Quan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 3-diethylamino-1-propyne was covalently bonded to the azide-silica by a click reaction to obtain a novel dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation with a ligand containing tertiary amine and two ethyl groups capable of electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction functionalities, which can display hydrophobic interaction chromatography character in a high-salt-concentration mobile phase and weak anion exchange character in a low-salt-concentration mobile phase employed for protein separation. As a result, it can be employed to separate proteins with weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction modes, respectively. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange modes with standard proteins, respectively, which can be comparable to that of conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns. Therefore, the synthesized weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column can be used to replace two corresponding conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns to separate proteins. Based on this mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase, a new off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology using only a single dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column was developed. Nine kinds of tested proteins can be separated completely using the developed method within 2.0 h.

  6. Simulations of Winds of Weak-Lined T Tauri Stars. II.: The Effects of a Tilted Magnetosphere and Planetary Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Jatenco-Pereira, V; Gombosi, T I

    2010-01-01

    Based on our previous work (Vidotto et al. 2009a), we investigate the effects on the wind and magnetospheric structures of weak-lined T Tauri stars due to a misalignment between the axis of rotation of the star and its magnetic dipole moment vector. In such configuration, the system loses the axisymmetry presented in the aligned case, requiring a fully 3D approach. We perform 3D numerical MHD simulations of stellar winds and study the effects caused by different model parameters. The system reaches a periodic behavior with the same rotational period of the star. We show that the magnetic field lines present an oscillatory pattern and that by increasing the misalignment angle, the wind velocity increases. Our wind models allow us to study the interaction of a magnetized wind with a magnetized extra-solar planet. Such interaction gives rise to reconnection, generating electrons that propagate along the planet's magnetic field lines and produce electron cyclotron radiation at radio wavelengths. We find that a cl...

  7. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Luminescent Property of a Novel Pt(II) Complex with Weak Metal-metal Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE Cheng-Yang; JIANG Fei-Long; FENG Rui; HONG Mao-Chun

    2008-01-01

    The title complex cis-bis(tetrahydrothiophene)-bis(nitrate) platinum(II), (tht)2Pt(NO3)2, was the reducing product from potassium hexachloroplatinate(IV) K2PtCl6 where the platinum is tetra-valenced. Crystal data for C8H16N2O6PtS2: monoclinic, space group P21/c, a = 9.8833(5), b = 8.6744(4), c = 18.6407(9) (A), β = 114.401(3)°, V = 1455.35(12) (A)3, Z = 4, Mr = 495.44, Dc = 2.261 g/cm3, F(000) = 944, μ = 9.950 mm-1, λ(MoKα) = 0.71073 (A), T = 293(2) K, 2θmax = 54.96o, GOOF = 1.033, R = 0.0350 and wR = 0.0785 for 2572 observed reflections with I > 2σ(I). X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the title complex has interesting weak metal-metal interactions and two molecules linked by metal-metal interaction exist as a group. Luminescent spectrum illuminates red emission of the complex at room temperature.

  8. A Search for Light Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS and Applications to Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Adam J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical evidence indicates that 85% of the matter content of the universe is in the form of non-baryonic dark matter. A large number of experiments are currently undertaking searches for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs), the leading class of particle candidates for dark matter. This thesis describes the results of such a search with the SuperCDMS experiment, which uses Ge detectors cooled to 50 mK to detect ionization and phonons produced by particle interactions. We perform a blind analysis of 577 kg d of exposure on 7 detectors targeting WIMPs with masses < 30GeV/$c^{2}$, where anomalous results have been reported by previous experiments. No significant excess is observed and we set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1.2 x 10$^{-42}$ cm2 at 8 GeV/$c^{2}$ We also set constraints on dark matter interactions independent of the dark matter halo physics, as well as on annual modulation of a dark matter signal. Cryogenic detectors similar to SuperCDMS also have potential applications in neutrino physics. We study several configurations in which dark matter detectors could be used with an intense neutrino source to detect an unmeasured Standard Model process called coherent neutrino scattering. This process may be useful, for example, as a calibration for next-generation dark matter detectors, and for constraining eV-scale sterile neutrinos. In addition, small cryogenic X-ray detectors on sounding rockets with large fields-of-view have the unique ability to constrain sterile neutrino dark matter. We set limits on sterile neutrino dark matter using an observation by the XQC instrument, and discuss prospects for a future observation of the galactic center using the Micro-X instrument.

  9. Kinematic reconstruction of tau leptons and test for lepton universality in charged weak interactions with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerland, Philip

    2011-04-15

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM) postulates the universal coupling of the three lepton families to the weak current. The most precise measurement of lepton universality in W decays comes from the four experiments at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). If one compares the couplings of muons and tau leptons to the charged weak current, there is a discrepancy of nearly three standard deviations w.r.t. the SM expectation. There are models beyond the SM, which could explain the violation of lepton universality with new physics processes, if it is more than a statistical fluctuation. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) offers a great opportunity to study decays of the charged-weak gauge bosons at very high event rates and at unmatched collision energies. This thesis presents an analysis strategy to test lepton universality with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the LHC. The analysis focusses on the decays of the W{sup {+-}} boson to particles of the second and third lepton family. For this purpose detector-simulated proton-proton events are used. The identification and reconstruction of tau leptons is a difficult task at the LHC. The reconstruction is often restricted by the limited precision of the commonly used collinear approximation. The application of a kinematic fit to particular tau-decay modes can improve the experimental resolution and provides an efficient background suppression. The development of such a fit with kinematic constraints derived from the topology of the decay {tau} {yields} 3{pi}{sup {+-}} + {nu}{sub {tau}} is described. The kinematic fit of tau leptons is not limited to the test for lepton universality, but can be deployed by various physics analyses in a broad energy range of the tau leptons. The event topology of W{sup {+-}} decays with leptonic final states is studied. Two event selections are developed: one for the W{sup {+-}} {yields} {tau}{nu} and one for the W{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{nu} decay. A common online

  10. Chirality of weakly bound complexes: The potential energy surfaces for the hydrogen-peroxide−noble-gas interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncaratti, L. F., E-mail: lz@fis.unb.br; Leal, L. A.; Silva, G. M. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Pirani, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210 Salvador (Brazil); Gargano, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Quantum Theory Project, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    We consider the analytical representation of the potential energy surfaces of relevance for the intermolecular dynamics of weakly bound complexes of chiral molecules. In this paper we study the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}−Ng (Ng=He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) systems providing the radial and the angular dependence of the potential energy surface on the relative position of the Ng atom. We accomplish this by introducing an analytical representation which is able to fit the ab initio energies of these complexes in a wide range of geometries. Our analysis sheds light on the role that the enantiomeric forms and the symmetry of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule play on the resulting barriers and equilibrium geometries. The proposed theoretical framework is useful to study the dynamics of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule, or other systems involving O–O and S–S bonds, interacting by non-covalent forces with atoms or molecules and to understand how the relative orientation of the O–H bonds changes along collisional events that may lead to a hydrogen bond formation or even to selectivity in chemical reactions.

  11. pH-dependent drug-drug interactions for weak base drugs: potential implications for new drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Wu, F; Lee, S C; Zhao, H; Zhang, L

    2014-08-01

    Absorption of an orally administered drug with pH-dependent solubility may be altered when it is coadministered with a gastric acid-reducing agent (ARA). Assessing a drug's potential for pH-dependent drug-drug interactions (DDIs), considering study design elements for such DDI studies, and interpreting and communicating study results in the drug labeling to guide drug dosing are important for drug development. We collected pertinent information related to new molecular entities approved from January 2003 to May 2013 by the US Food and Drug Administration for which clinical DDI studies with ARAs were performed. On the basis of assessments of data on pH solubility and in vivo DDIs with ARAs, we proposed a conceptual framework for assessing the need for clinical pH-dependent DDI studies for weak base drugs (WBDs). Important study design considerations include selection of ARAs and timing of dosing of an ARA relative to the WBD in a DDI study. Labeling implications for drugs having DDIs with ARAs are also illustrated.

  12. Ruling out the light weakly interacting massive particle explanation of the Galactic 511 keV line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Ryan J.; Vincent, Aaron C.; BÅ`hm, Céline; McCabe, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    Over the past few decades, an anomalous 511 keV gamma-ray line has been observed from the center of the Milky Way. Dark matter (DM) in the form of light (≲10 MeV ) weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) annihilating into electron-positron pairs has been one of the leading hypotheses of the observed emission. Given the small required cross section, ⟨σ v ⟩˜1 0-30 cm3 s-1 , a further coupling to lighter particles is required to produce the correct relic density. Here, we derive constraints from the Planck satellite on light WIMPs that were in equilibrium with either the neutrino or electron sector in the early universe. For the neutrino sector, we obtain a lower bound on the WIMP mass of 4 MeV for a real scalar and 10 MeV for a Dirac fermion DM particle, at 95% C.L. For the electron sector, we find even stronger bounds of 7 and 11 MeV, respectively. Using these results, we show that, in the absence of additional ingredients such as dark radiation, the light thermally produced WIMP explanation of the 511 keV excess is strongly disfavored by the latest cosmological data. This suggests an unknown astrophysical or more exotic DM source of the signal.

  13. Search for weakly interacting sub-eV particles with the OSQAR laser-based experiment: results and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugnat, P. [CNRS, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LNCMI, Grenoble (France); Ballou, R. [CNRS, Institut Neel, Grenoble (France); Univ. Grenoble Alpes, Institut Neel, Grenoble (France); Schott, M. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Husek, T.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Slunecka, M. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Sulc, M.; Kunc, S. [Technical University of Liberec, Liberec (Czech Republic); Deferne, G.; Siemko, A. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva-23 (Switzerland); Duvillaret, L.; Vitrant, G. [Grenoble INP - Minatec and CNRS, IMEP-LAHC, Grenoble (France); Flekova, L.; Hosek, J.; Jary, V.; Kral, M.; Macuchova, K.; Zicha, J. [Czech Technical University, Prague (Czech Republic); Jost, R.; Romanini, D. [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, LIPhy, Grenoble (France); CNRS, LIPhy, Grenoble (France); Meissner, K.A. [University of Warsaw, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland); Morville, J. [Univ. Claude Bernard Lyon-1, Institut Lumiere Matiere, Villeurbanne (France); CNRS, Institut Lumiere Matiere, Villeurbanne (France)

    2014-08-15

    Recent theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the Standard Model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for ''Light Shining through a Wall'' from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into ''Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles'', like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over the unprecedented length of 2 x 14.3 m. No excess of events has been detected over the background. The di-photon couplings of possible new light scalar and pseudo-scalar particles can be constrained in the massless limit to be less than 8.0 x 10{sup -8} GeV{sup -1}. These results are very close to the most stringent laboratory constraints obtained for the coupling of ALPs to two photons. Plans for further improving the sensitivity of the OSQAR experiment are presented. (orig.)

  14. Early annihilation and diffuse backgrounds in models of weakly interacting massive particles in which the cross section for pair annihilation is enhanced by 1/upsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Profumo, Stefano

    2008-12-31

    Recent studies have considered modifications to the standard weakly interacting massive particle scenario in which the pair annihilation cross section (times relative velocity v) is enhanced by a factor 1/upsilon to approximately 10(-3) in the Galaxy, enough to explain several puzzling Galactic radiation signals. We show that in these scenarios a burst of weakly interacting massive particle annihilation occurs in the first collapsed dark-matter halos. We show that severe constraints to the annihilation cross section derive from measurements of the diffuse extragalactic radiation and from ionization and heating of the intergalactic medium.

  15. Electrophilic Ln(III) cations protected by C-F → Ln interactions and their coordination chemistry with weak σ- and π-donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haolin; Lewis, Andrew J; Carroll, Patrick; Schelter, Eric J

    2013-07-15

    A homoleptic cerium(III) amide complex, Ce(NPh(F)2)3 (1-Ce) (Ph(F) = pentafluorophenyl), in an unusual pseudo-trigonal planar geometry featuring six C-F → Ce interactions was prepared. The C-F → Ln interactions in solution were evident by comparison of the (19)F NMR shifts for the paramagnetic 1-Ce with those of the 4f(0) lanthanum(III) analogue. Coordination of weak σ- and π-donors, including ethers and neutral arene molecules, was achieved by the reversible displacement of the weak C-F → Ce interactions. Computational studies on Ce(NPh(F)2)3 and Ce(NPh(F)2)3(η(6)-C6H3Me3) provide information on the F → Ce interactions and Ce-η(6)-arene bonding.

  16. Weak Interactions and CO_2 Microsolvation in the CIS-1,2-DIFLUOROETHYLENE...CO_2 Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trendell, William; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.

    2017-06-01

    The need for a deep understanding of CO_2 interactions is significant given the importance of supercritical CO_2 (sc-CO_2) as a green solvent. Fluorinated compounds often have higher solubility in sc-CO_2 than their hydrocarbon analogs, and the reasons for this are not well understood. Investigations of dimers of one CO_2 molecule with a simple fluorinated hydrocarbon provide an initial step towards understanding the complex balance of forces that is likely to be present as a larger solvation shell of sc-CO_2 is built. The weakly bound dimer cis-1,2-difluoroethylene...CO_2 is the latest in a series of complexes of CO_2 with fluorinated ethylenes that has recently been studied using chirped-pulse (CP) Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. Unlike all previous members of the series, the observed structure of cis-1,2-difluoroethylene...CO_2 is nonplanar, with CO_2 sitting above the ethylene plane and crossed relative to the C=C bond. This nonplanar arrangement is consistent with predictions made using symmetry adapted perturbation theory (SAPT), where the dispersion energy of the nonplanar structure is significantly more favorable than for a structure where CO_2 lies in the same plane as the ethylene moiety. Observed transitions are doubled as a result of CO_2 tunneling between equivalent positions above and below the ethylene plane, leading to inversion of the μ_c dipole moment component. Observed transitions for the most abundant isotopologue have been fitted to a two state Hamiltonian to give an energy difference between tunneling states of Δ E ≈ 333 MHz, and analysis using Meyer's one dimensional model to determine the barrier to inversion is presently in progress.

  17. Using the DFT-D method to describe dispersion interactions in systems of weakly-bonded Xe-aromatic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriichenko, N. N.; Ermilov, A. Yu.

    2013-08-01

    The optimum version of the DFT-D class of methods (BHHLYP-D2, 6-31G*) is chosen to describe binding in a Xe-phenol system with the aim of subsequent KM/MM calculations for complex Xe-containing protein systems. It is shown that the stability of the Xe-phenol system is due to weak dispersion interactions not described in conventional approaches using the density functional. The MP2 approach using the (aug)-cc-pVTZ basis and Stuttgart pseudopotential, which yield the best reproduction of the characteristics of a Xe2 xenon dimer, is chosen as the reference standard. It is noted that the 2010 DFT-D3 methods underestimate the binding energy by a factor of nearly three, while DFT methods without dispersion corrections do not reproduce the stability of Xe2 and Xe-phenol systems. It is found that in the best version of calculations, BHHLYP-D2, the binding energy in Xe-phenol complex is estimated to be 2.7 kcal/mol versus the 3.1 kcal/mol found using the comparative approach. It is concluded that BHHLYP-D2 adequately reproduces the difference between the two conformers of the Xe-phenol complex and trend toward an increase in binding energy in the series of aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan). DFT-D can also indicate the existence of excess conformers that are missing in systems according to more precise descriptions (MP2/(aug)-cc-pVTZ).

  18. Star formation rates and mass distributions in interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kapferer, W; Schindler, S; Van Kampen, E

    2005-01-01

    We present a systematic investigation of the star formation rate (hereafter SFR) in interacting disk galaxies. We determine the dependence of the overall SFR on different spatial alignments and impact parameters of more than 50 different configurations in combined N-body/hydrodynamic simulations. We also show mass profiles of the baryonic components. We find that galaxy-galaxy interactions can enrich the surrounding intergalatic medium with metals very efficiently up to distances of several 100 kpc. This enrichment can be explained in terms of indirect processes like thermal driven galactic winds or direct processes like 'kinetic' spreading of baryonic matter. In the case of equal mass mergers the direct -kinetic- redistribution of gaseous matter (after 5 Gyr) is less efficient than the environmental enrichment of the same isolated galaxies by a galactic wind. In the case of non-equal mass mergers however, the direct -kinetic- process dominates the redistribution of gaseous matter. Compared to the isolated sy...

  19. Estimates of the rate of convergence of projective and projective-difference methods for weakly solvable parabolic equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagin, V. V.

    1997-04-01

    We consider a weakly solvable parabolic problem in a separable Hilbert space. We seek approximations to the exact solution by projective and projective-difference methods. In this connection the discretization of the problem with respect to the spatial variables is carried out by the semidiscrete method of Galerkin, and with respect to time by the implicit method of Euler. In this paper we establish a coercive mean-square error estimate for the approximate solutions. We illustrate the effectiveness of these estimates with parabolic equations of second order with Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions in projective subspaces of finite element type.

  20. Spin-Spin Interactions in Gauge Theory of Gravity, Violation of Weak Equivalence Principle and New Classical Test of General Relativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-Li; WU Ning; HU Juan-Mei; WU Feng-Min

    2008-01-01

    For a long time, it has been generally believed that spin-spin interactions can only exist in a theory where Lorentz symmetry is gauged, and a theory with spin-spin interactions is not perturbatively renormalizable. But this is not true. By studying the motion of a spinning particle in gravitational field, it is found that there exist spin-spin interactions in gauge theory of gravity. Its mechanism is that a spinning particle will generate gravitomagnetic field in space-time, and this gravitomagnetic field will interact with the spin of another particle, which will cause spin-spin interactions. So, spin-spin interactions are transmitted by gravitational field. The form of spin-spin interactions in post Newtonian approximations is deduced. This result can also be deduced from the Papapetrou equation. This kind of interaction will not affect the renormalizability of the theory. The spin-spin interactions will violate the weak equivalence principle, and the violation effects are detectable. An experiment is proposed to detect the effects of the violation of the weak equivalence principle.

  1. Modeling the intracellular pathogen-immune interaction with cure rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Balram; Dubey, Preeti; Dubey, Uma S.

    2016-09-01

    Many common and emergent infectious diseases like Influenza, SARS, Hepatitis, Ebola etc. are caused by viral pathogens. These infections can be controlled or prevented by understanding the dynamics of pathogen-immune interaction in vivo. In this paper, interaction of pathogens with uninfected and infected cells in presence or absence of immune response are considered in four different cases. In the first case, the model considers the saturated nonlinear infection rate and linear cure rate without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells and without immune response. The next model considers the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells while all other terms are same as in the first case. The third model incorporates innate immune response, humoral immune response and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediated immune response with cure rate and without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells. The last model is an extension of the third model in which the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells has been considered. Positivity and boundedness of solutions are established to ensure the well-posedness of the problem. It has been found that all the four models have two equilibria, namely, pathogen-free equilibrium point and pathogen-present equilibrium point. In each case, stability analysis of each equilibrium point is investigated. Pathogen-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when basic reproduction number is less or equal to unity. This implies that control or prevention of infection is independent of initial concentration of uninfected cells, infected cells, pathogens and immune responses in the body. The proposed models show that introduction of immune response and cure rate strongly affects the stability behavior of the system. Further, on computing basic reproduction number, it has been found to be minimum for the fourth model vis-a-vis other models. The analytical findings of each model have been exemplified by

  2. Twin Interactions in Pure Ti Under High Strain Rate Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ping; Xiao, Dawu; Jiang, Chunli; Sang, Ge; Zou, Dongli

    2017-01-01

    Twin interactions associated with {11 overline{2} 1} (E2) twins in titanium deformed by high strain rate ( 2600 s-1) compression were studied using electron backscatter diffraction technique. Three types of twins, {10 overline{1} 2} (E1), {11 overline{2} 2} (C1), and {11 overline{2} 4} (C3), were observed to interact with the preformed E2 twins in four parent grains. The E1 variants nucleated at twin boundaries of some E2 variants. And the C3 twins were originated from the intersection of C1 and E2. The selection of twin variant was investigated by the Schmid factors (SFs) and the twinning shear displacement gradient tensors (DGTs) calculations. The results show that twin variants that did not follow the Schmid law were more frequently observed under high strain rate deformation than quasi-static deformation. Among these low-SF active variants, 73 pct (8 out of 11) can be interpreted by DGT. Besides, 26 variants that have SF values close to or higher than their active counterparts were absent. Factors that may affect the twin variant selections were discussed.

  3. Relativistic collision rate calculations for electron-air interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G. [EG and G Energy Measurements, Inc., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Roussel-Dupre, R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Space Science and Technologies

    1992-12-16

    The most recent data available on differential cross sections for electron-air interactions are used to calculate the avalanche, momentum transfer, and energy loss rates that enter into the fluid equations. Data for the important elastic, inelastic, and ionizing processes are generally available out to electron energies of 1--10 kev. Prescriptions for extending these cross sections to the relativistic regime are presented. The angular dependence of the cross sections is included where data is available as is the doubly differential cross section for ionizing collisions. The collision rates are computed by taking moments of the Boltzmann collision integrals with the assumption that the electron momentum distribution function is given by the Juettner distribution function which satisfies the relativistic H- theorem and which reduces to the familiar Maxwellian velocity distribution in the nonrelativistic regime. The distribution function is parameterized in terms of the electron density, mean momentum, and thermal energy and the rates are therefore computed on a two-dimensional grid as a function of mean kinetic energy and thermal energy.

  4. Weak hyperon-nucleon interaction in a quark model and application to the pn {yields} {lambda}p scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Kenji; Oka, Makoto [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Takeuchi, Sachiko [Japan College of Social Work, Kiyose, Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-04-01

    The weak {lambda}N {r_reversible} NN (and {sigma}N {r_reversible} NN) transition is studied, in which the quark substructure of the baryons are taken into account. The short-range part of the transition potential is induced by the direct quark (DQ) mechanism, while the long-range part is described by the meson ({pi} and K) exchanges. The transition potential is calculated and is applied to the decay of hypernuclei and the weak {lambda} production in the proton-neutron scattering. We show that the short-range DQ transition plays a significant role in these processes. (author)

  5. Reconstruction of interaction rate in Holographic dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Ankan

    2016-01-01

    The present work is based on the holographic dark energy model with Hubble horizon as the infrared cut-off. The interaction rate between dark energy and dark matter has been reconstructed for two different parameterizations of the deceleration parameter. Observational constraints on the model parameters have been obtained by maximum likelihood analysis using the observational Hubble parameter data (OHD), type Ia supernova data (SNe), baryon acoustic oscillation data (BAO) and the distance prior of cosmic microwave background (CMB) namely the CMB shift parameter data (CMBShift). The nature of the dark energy equation of state parameter has also been studied for the present models. The dark energy equation of state shows a phantom nature at present. Different information criteria and the Bayesian evidence, which have been invoked in the context of model selection, show that the these two models are at close proximity of each other.

  6. Weak Convergence and Weak Convergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narita Keiko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we deal with weak convergence on sequences in real normed spaces, and weak* convergence on sequences in dual spaces of real normed spaces. In the first section, we proved some topological properties of dual spaces of real normed spaces. We used these theorems for proofs of Section 3. In Section 2, we defined weak convergence and weak* convergence, and proved some properties. By RNS_Real Mizar functor, real normed spaces as real number spaces already defined in the article [18], we regarded sequences of real numbers as sequences of RNS_Real. So we proved the last theorem in this section using the theorem (8 from [25]. In Section 3, we defined weak sequential compactness of real normed spaces. We showed some lemmas for the proof and proved the theorem of weak sequential compactness of reflexive real Banach spaces. We referred to [36], [23], [24] and [3] in the formalization.

  7. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Mitchell, Adam E.; Potticary, Ahva L.; Lloyd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  8. On the existence of weak solution to the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem for non-Newtonian shear-dependent fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Hundertmark-Zaušková, A.; Lukáčová-Medviďová, M.; Nečasová, Š. (Šárka)

    2016-01-01

    We study the existence of weak solution for unsteady fluid-structure interaction problem for shear-thickening flow. The time dependent domain has at one part a flexible elastic wall. The evolution of fluid domain is governed by the generalized string equation with action of the fluid forces. The power-law viscosity model is applied to describe shear-dependent non-Newtonian fluids.

  9. Critical Temperature Associated to Symmetry Breaking of Klein--Gordon fields versus Condensation Temperature in a Weakly interacting Bose--Einstein Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Castellanos, Elias

    2012-01-01

    We deduce the relation between the critical temperature associated to the U(1) symmetry breaking of scalar fields with one--loop correction potential immersed in a thermal bath, and the condensation temperature of the aforementioned system in the thermodynamic limit, within the semiclassical approximation for a weakly interacting bosonic gas with a positive coupling constant. Additionally, we show that the shift in the condensation temperature caused by the coupling constant is independent of the thermal bath.

  10. Permanence of a general discrete-time two-species-interaction model with non-monotonic per capita growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Combined with all density-dependent factors, the per capita growth rate of a species may be non-monotonic. One important consequence is that species may suffer from weak Allee effects or strong Allee effects. In this paper, we study the permanence of a discrete-time two-species-interaction model with non-monotonic per capita growth rates for the first time. By using the average Lyapunov functions and extending the ecological concept of the relative nonlinearity, we find a simple sufficient condition for guaranteeing the permanence of systems that can model complicated two-species interactions. The extended relative nonlinearity allows us to fully characterize the effects of nonlinearities in the per capita growth functions with non-monotonicity. These results are illustrated with specific two species competition and predator-prey models of generic forms with non-monotone per capita growth rates.

  11. Atomic homodyne detection of weak atomic transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Mevan; Elliott, D S

    2007-01-26

    We have developed a two-color, two-pathway coherent control technique to detect and measure weak optical transitions in atoms by coherently beating the transition amplitude for the weak transition with that of a much stronger transition. We demonstrate the technique in atomic cesium, exciting the 6s(2)S(1/2) --> 8s(2)S(1/2) transition via a strong two-photon transition and a weak controllable Stark-induced transition. We discuss the enhancement in the signal-to-noise ratio for this measurement technique over that of direct detection of the weak transition rate, and project future refinements that may further improve its sensitivity and application to the measurement of other weak atomic interactions.

  12. CH-{\\pi} interaction-induced deep orbital deformation in a benzene-methane weak binding system

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jianfu

    2015-01-01

    The nonbonding interaction between benzene and methane, called CH-{\\pi} interaction, plays an important role in physical, chemical, and biological fields. CH-{\\pi} interaction can decrease the system total energy and promote the formation of special geometric configurations. This work investigates systemically the orbital distribution and composition of the benzene-methane complex for the first time using ab initio calculation based on different methods and basis sets. Surprisingly, we find strong deformation in HOMO-4 and LUMO+2 induced by CH-{\\pi} interaction, extending the general view that nonbonding interaction does not cause orbital change of molecules.

  13. Calcium interacts with temperature to influence Daphnia movement rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roszell, Jordan; Heyland, Andreas; Fryxell, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting the ecological responses to climate change is particularly challenging, because organisms might be affected simultaneously by the synergistic effects of multiple environmental stressors. Global warming is often accompanied by declining calcium concentration in many freshwater ecosystems. Although there is growing evidence that these changes in water chemistry and thermal conditions can influence ecosystem dynamics, little information is currently available about how these synergistic environmental stressors could influence the behaviour of aquatic organisms. Here, we tested whether the combined effects of calcium and temperature affect movement parameters (average speed, mean turning frequency and mean-squared displacement) of the planktonic Daphnia magna, using a full factorial design and exposing Daphnia individuals to a range of realistic levels of temperature and calcium concentration. We found that movement increased with both temperature and calcium concentration, but temperature effects became considerably weaker when individuals were exposed to calcium levels close to survival limits documented for several Daphnia species, signalling a strong interaction effect. These results support the notion that changes in water chemistry might have as strong an effect as projected changes in temperature on movement rates of Daphnia, suggesting that even sublethal levels of calcium decline could have a considerable impact on the dynamics of freshwater ecosystems. PMID:28083097

  14. A real-time de-noising method applied for transient and weak biomolecular interaction analysis in surface plasmon resonance biosensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Shuyue; Shi, Chunfei; Ou, Huichao; Song, Hong; Wang, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensing technology will likely become a type of label-free technology for transient and weak biomolecular interaction analysis (BIA); however, it needs some improvement with regard to high-speed and high-resolution measurement. We studied a type of real-time de-noising (RD) data processing method for SPR sensorgrams based on moving average; it can immediately distinguish ultra-weak signals during the process of experiment, and can display a low-noise sensorgram in real time. A flow injection analysis experiment and a CM5 sensorchip affinity experiment are designed to evaluate the characteristics of the RD method. High noise suppression ability and low signal distortion risks of the RD method have been proved. The RD method does not significantly distort signals of the sensorgram in the molecular affinity experiment, and K D values of the RD method essentially coincide with those of the raw sensorgram with a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Meanwhile, by the RD method denoising the sensorgram with an ultralow SNR that is closer to the condition of the transient and weak molecular interactions, the kinetic constant can be more accurately analyzed, whereas it cannot be realized for the raw sensorgram. The crucial function and significance of the RD method are primarily embodied in the measurement limit of SPR sensing.

  15. Experimental observation of structures with subtle balance between strong hydrogen bond and weak n → π* interaction: Gas phase laser spectroscopy of 7-azaindole⋯fluorosubstituted pyridines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh K.; Vaishnav, Jamuna K.; Das, Aloke

    2016-09-01

    In this study, interplay between a strong hydrogen bond and a very weak n → π* interaction has been probed through experiment for the first time. We have used resonant 2-photon ionization, Infrared-ultraviolet double resonance spectroscopy, and quantum chemistry calculation to determine the structures of 7-azaindole⋯2,6-difluoropyridine and 7-azaindole⋯2,3,5,6-tetrafluororpyridine complexes, which are stabilized by both hydrogen bonding and n → π* interaction. The structures of the complexes studied in the present work have been compared with the double hydrogen bonded (N-H⋯N and C-H⋯N) planar structure of 7-azaindole⋯2-fluoropyridine. It has been found that the strength of the N-H⋯N hydrogen bond in the 7-azaindole⋯2,6-substituted fluoropyridines is affected due to several factors. The main reason for huge reduction in the strength of this N-H⋯N hydrogen bond in these complexes is due to loss of the C-H⋯N hydrogen bond, through substitution of fluorine atoms in 2 and 6 positions, which induces major structural changes by bending the hydrogen bond and introducing the n → π* interaction. Effect of fluorination as well as presence of the n → π* interaction in these complexes also contributes to the reduction of the strength of the N-H⋯N interaction. Although it is difficult to quantify the role of the n → π* interaction to affect the strength of the hydrogen bond, observation of the structures, where a strong hydrogen bond and a weak n → π* interaction co-exist, is confirmed.

  16. Anomalous time delays of an optical pulse interacting with a micro-resonator: a quantum weak-measurement approach

    CERN Document Server

    Asano, M; Bliokh, Y P; Kofman, A G; Zhao, G; Ikuta, R; Yamamoto, T; Kivshar, Y S; Yang, L; Imoto, N; Ozdemir, S K; Nori, F

    2016-01-01

    We study inelastic resonant scattering of a Gaussian pulse with the parameters close to a zero of the complex scattering coefficient. We demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, that such near-zero scattering can result in anomalously-large time delays and frequency shifts of the scattered pulse. Furthermore, we reveal a close analogy of these anomalous shifts with the spatial and angular Goos-Hanchen optical beam shifts, which are amplified via quantum weak measurements. However, in contrast to other beam-shift and weak-measurement systems, we deal with a one-dimensional scalar wave without any intrinsic degrees of freedom. It is the non-Hermitian nature of the system that produces its rich and non-trivial behaviour. Our results are generic for any scattering problem, either quantum or classical. As an example, we consider the transmission of an optical pulse through a nano-fiber with a side-coupled toroidal micro-resonator. The zero of the transmission coefficient corresponds to the critical coup...

  17. Single Molecule Study of the Weak Biological Interactions Between P53 and DNA%纳米通道单分子检测P53蛋白与DNA的弱相互作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应佚伦; 张星; 刘钰; 薛梦竹; 李洪林; 龙亿涛

    2013-01-01

    Many important cellular events, including protein-DNA interactions, are attributed to weak interactions. Almost all of the known biological functions of P53 depend critically upon its DNA-binding properties via numerous weak interactions. At the single-molecule level, information about the weak interactions between each residue of the P53 DNA binding domain (P53 DBD) and DNA is essential for understanding the biological function of P53 and for anti-cancer drug design. Here, we used the a-hemolysin (α-HL) pore to detect the weak interaction between a peptide of the P53 DBD (P53-P) and a 40-bp double-stranded DNA (B40) that includes the p21 wafl/cipl DNA response element. The weak interactions in the complex of p53-P and B40 (p53-P:B40) produce a unique current trace through an a-HL nanopore with diagnostic ionic current blockages. Each current trace at a particular potential is related to the characterized behavior of captured p53-P:B40. Nanopore analysis indicates that the conformation of B40 might be changed by binding to p53-P, this change is confirmed by the molecule docking simulation. In the presence of the weak interactions between p53-P and B40, the analyte exhibits an increase in the rate constant of association with the nanopore vestibule. This reveals that the analyte-pore interactions could be enhanced by the weak interactions between p53-P and B40. The distorted B40 might be prone to translocate through the narrow constriction in the nanopore at the higher potential (> +120 mV). Moreover, our findings demonstrate that the structure of distorted B40 in p53-P:B40 could be broken by the electric force. Our results support the possibility of identifying the weak interaction between two biomolecules. In addition, the analyte-pore association rate constant could be used to estimate the weak binding energy between different parts of the p53 binding domain and the target sequence. The signatures of the current trace may assist in the prediction of the

  18. Dip-Hump Temperature Dependence of Specific Heat and Effects of Pairing Fluctuations in the Weak-Coupling Side of a P-Wave Interacting Fermi Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inotani, Daisuke; van Wyk, Pieter; Ohashi, Yoji

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the specific heat CV at constant volume in the normal state of a p-wave interacting Fermi gas. Including p-wave pairing fluctuations within the strong-coupling theory developed by Nozières and Schmitt-Rink, we show that, in the weak-coupling side, CV exhibits a dip-hump behavior as a function of the temperature. While the dip is associated with the pseudogap phenomenon near Tc, the hump structure is found to come from the suppression of Fermi quasiparticle scattering into a p-wave molecular state in the Fermi degenerate regime. Since the latter phenomenon does not occur in the ordinary s-wave interacting Fermi gas, it may be viewed as a characteristic phenomenon associated with a p-wave pairing interaction.

  19. Spin-Dependent Weakly-Interacting-Massive-Particle-Nucleon Cross Section Limits from First Data of PandaX-II Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Changbo; Cui, Xiangyi; Zhou, Xiaopeng; Chen, Xun; Chen, Yunhua; Fang, Deqing; Giboni, Karl; Giuliani, Franco; Han, Ke; Huang, Xingtao; Ji, Xiangdong; Ju, Yonglin; Lei, Siao; Li, Shaoli; Liu, Huaxuan; Liu, Jianglai; Ma, Yugang; Mao, Yajun; Ren, Xiangxiang; Tan, Andi; Wang, Hongwei; Wang, Jiming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Qiuhong; Wang, Siguang; Wang, Xuming; Wang, Zhou; Wu, Shiyong; Xiao, Mengjiao; Xie, Pengwei; Yan, Binbin; Yang, Yong; Yue, Jianfeng; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Tao; Zhao, Li; Zhou, Ning; PandaX-II Collaboration

    2017-02-01

    New constraints are presented on the spin-dependent weakly-interacting-massive-particle- (WIMP-)nucleon interaction from the PandaX-II experiment, using a data set corresponding to a total exposure of 3.3 ×104 kg day . Assuming a standard axial-vector spin-dependent WIMP interaction with Xe 129 and Xe 131 nuclei, the most stringent upper limits on WIMP-neutron cross sections for WIMPs with masses above 10 GeV /c2 are set in all dark matter direct detection experiments. The minimum upper limit of 4.1 ×10-41 cm2 at 90% confidence level is obtained for a WIMP mass of 40 GeV /c2 . This represents more than a factor of 2 improvement on the best available limits at this and higher masses. These improved cross-section limits provide more stringent constraints on the effective WIMP-proton and WIMP-neutron couplings.

  20. The role of weak intermolecular C-H…F interactions in supramolecular assembly: Structural investigations on 3,5- dibenzylidene-piperidin-4-one and database analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Rathore; N S Karthikeyan; Y Alekhya; K Sathiyanarayanan; P G Aravindan

    2011-07-01

    The fluorinated and non-fluorinated dibenzylidene-4-piperidones were synthesized and their structures examined using X-ray crystallography. Interestingly, the para-fluorosubstituted dibenzylidene compound, in contrast to other analogs, is characterized by C-H…F bonded one-dimensional packing motif. To evaluate the ability of hydrogen bond donors and acceptors for forming interactions, in general and competitive situation, we have defined statistical descriptors. Analysis of Cambridge Structural Database using these newly defined parameters reveals high propensity of C-H…F interactions in organic crystals. The present structural study suggests much larger role of fluorine driven intermolecular interactions that are even though weak, but possess significant ability to direct and alter the packing.

  1. The structure of the weak neutral current an analysis of the hadronic energy distribution from neutrino and antineutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Deden, H; Baruzzi, V; Beuselinck, R; Bloch, M; Clayton, E F; Cundy, Donald C; Davis, C L; Deutschmann, Martin; Emans, H; Figiel, J; Fritze, P; Geich-Gimbel, C; Grant, A; Grässler, Herbert; Grossmann, P; Haidt, D; Hartmann, R; Hasert, F J; Hulth, P O; Keller, A; Kocher, D J; Kokott, T P; McGow, R; Miller, D B; Morfin, J; Morrison, Douglas Robert Ogston; Mulvey, J H; Myatt, G; Nellen, B; Pagiola, E; Pape, L; Pech, R; Perkins, Donald Hill; Peterson, V; Peyrou, Charles; Pons, R; Porth, Paul; Powell, K J; Radojicic, D; Renton, P B; Sacquin, Yu; Saitta, B; Schmid, P; Schulte, R; Schultze, K; Scott, W G; Seyfert, H; Stenger, V; Tallini, B; Vignaud, D; Wachsmuth, H W; Wernhard, Karl-Ludwig

    1979-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the distribution of hadronic energy in neutrino and antineutrino neutral current interactions occurring in BEBC, filled with a neon-hydrogen mixture and exposed to the CERN-SPS narrow-band neutrino beam. This shows that the contributions by scalar or pseudo-scalar forms of the interaction are consistent with zero and pure V, A and V+A are excluded; there is good agreement with the Weinberg-Salam model. (10 refs).

  2. Resonance energy transfer (RET)-Induced intermolecular pairing force: a tunable weak interaction and its application in SWNT separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyong; Chen, Hui; Wang, Wei Zhi; Ng, Siu Choon; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2011-07-21

    This paper explores evidence of an optically mediated interaction that is active in the separation mechanism of certain selective agents through consideration of the contrasting selective behaviors of two conjugated polymers with distinct optical properties. The involvement of a RET-induced intermolecular pairing force is implied by the different illumination response behaviors. The magnitude of this interaction scales with the external stimulus parameter, the illumination irradiance (I), and thus is tunable. This suggests a facile technique to modify the selectivity of polymers toward specific SWNT species by altering the polymer structure to adjust the corresponding intermolecular interaction. This is the first experimental verification and application of a RET-induced intermolecular pairing force to SWNT separation. With this kind of interaction taken into account, reasonable interpretation of some conflicting data, especially PLE maps, can be easily made. The above conclusion can be applied to other substances as long as they are electrically neutral and there is photon-induced RET between them. The significant magnitude of this interaction makes direct manipulation of molecules/particles possible and is expected to have applications in molecular engineering.

  3. A weak interaction between the U2A' protein and U2 snRNA helps to stabilize their complex with the U2B" protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Boelens, W; Scherly, D; Beijer, R P; Jansen, E J; Dathan, N A; Mattaj, I W; van Venrooij, W J

    1991-01-01

    The U2 snRNP complex contains two specific proteins, U2B" and U2A'. We have analysed the interaction of U2A' with U2B" and with U2 RNA. U2A' can form an weak but detectable RNA-protein complex with U2 RNA and a stable protein complex with U2B". This protein-protein complex binds efficiently and specifically to U2 RNA. Binding experiments with mutant forms of U2A' shows that the region of U2A' essential for binding to U2B" is extensive, being located between amino acid position 1-164. The beha...

  4. Analysis of low efficiency droop of semipolar InGaN quantum well light-emitting diodes by modified rate equation with weak phase-space filling effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Houqiang; Lu, Zhijian; Zhao, Yuji [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    We study the low efficiency droop characteristics of semipolar InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using modified rate equation incoporating the phase-space filling (PSF) effect where the results on c-plane LEDs are also obtained and compared. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of LEDs was simulated using a modified ABC model with different PSF filling (n{sub 0}), Shockley-Read-Hall (A), radiative (B), Auger (C) coefficients and different active layer thickness (d), where the PSF effect showed a strong impact on the simulated LED efficiency results. A weaker PSF effect was found for low-droop semipolar LEDs possibly due to small quantum confined Stark effect, short carrier lifetime, and small average carrier density. A very good agreement between experimental data and the theoretical modeling was obtained for low-droop semipolar LEDs with weak PSF effect. These results suggest the low droop performance may be explained by different mechanisms for semipolar LEDs.

  5. Strengthening institutions or institutionalising weaknesses? : interactions between aid and institutions in Huíla Province, Angola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This research analyses the interaction between aid interventions and local institutions through which people address needs during crisis. These include state and non- state institutions involved in social assistance and in the delivery of basic services such as healthcare. The study focuses on the c

  6. A Comprehensive Analysis of Jet Quenching via a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet-Medium Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Gulhan, Doga Can [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Milhano, José Guilherme [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Pablos, Daniel [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rajagopal, Krishna [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jets in strongly coupled plasma, we explore jet modifications in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Our approach merges the perturbative dynamics of hard jet evolution with the strongly coupled dynamics which dominates the soft exchanges between the fast partons in the jet shower and the strongly coupled plasma itself. We implement this approach in a Monte Carlo, which supplements the DGLAP shower with the energy loss dynamics as dictated by holographic computations, up to a single free parameter that we fit to data. We then augment the model by incorporating the transverse momentum picked up by each parton in the shower as it propagates through the medium, at the expense of adding a second free parameter. We use this model to discuss the influence of the transverse broadening of the partons in a jet on intra-jet observables. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of such observables to the back-reaction of the plasma to the passage of the jet.

  7. A Comprehensive Analysis of Jet Quenching via a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet-Medium Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Gulhan, Doga Can; Milhano, José Guilherme; Pablos, Daniel; Rajagopal, Krishna

    2016-12-01

    Within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jets in strongly coupled plasma, we explore jet modifications in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Our approach merges the perturbative dynamics of hard jet evolution with the strongly coupled dynamics which dominates the soft exchanges between the fast partons in the jet shower and the strongly coupled plasma itself. We implement this approach in a Monte Carlo, which supplements the DGLAP shower with the energy loss dynamics as dictated by holographic computations, up to a single free parameter that we fit to data. We then augment the model by incorporating the transverse momentum picked up by each parton in the shower as it propagates through the medium, at the expense of adding a second free parameter. We use this model to discuss the influence of the transverse broadening of the partons in a jet on intra-jet observables. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of such observables to the back-reaction of the plasma to the passage of the jet.

  8. Equation of state and hybrid star properties with the weakly interacting light U-boson in relativistic models

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Dong-Rui; Wei, Si-Na; Yang, Rong-Yao; Xiang, Qian-Fei

    2016-01-01

    It has been a puzzle whether quarks may exist in the interior of massive neutron stars, since the hadron-quark phase transition softens the equation of state (EOS) and reduce the neutron star (NS) maximum mass very significantly. In this work, we consider the light U-boson that increases the NS maximum mass appreciably through its weak coupling to fermions. The inclusion of the U-boson may thus allow the existence of the quark degrees of freedom in the interior of large mass neutron stars. Unlike the consequence of the U-boson in hadronic matter, the stiffening role of the U-boson in the hybrid EOS is not sensitive to the choice of the hadron phase models. In addition, we have also investigated the effect of the effective QCD correction on the hybrid EOS. This correction may reduce the coupling strength of the U-boson that is needed to satisfy NS maximum mass constraint. While the inclusion of the U-boson also increases the NS radius significantly, we find that appropriate in-medium effects of the U-boson may...

  9. Equation of state and hybrid star properties with the weakly interacting light U-boson in relativistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dong-Rui; Jiang, Wei-Zhou; Wei, Si-Na; Yang, Rong-Yao [Southeast University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Xiang, Qian-Fei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-05-15

    It has been a puzzle whether quarks may exist in the interior of massive neutron stars, since the hadron-quark phase transition softens the equation of state (EOS) and reduce the neutron star (NS) maximum mass very significantly. In this work, we consider the light U-boson that increases the NS maximum mass appreciably through its weak coupling to fermions. The inclusion of the U-boson may thus allow the existence of the quark degrees of freedom in the interior of large mass neutron stars. Unlike the consequence of the U-boson in hadronic matter, the stiffening role of the U-boson in the hybrid EOS is not sensitive to the choice of the hadron phase models. In addition, we have also investigated the effect of the effective QCD correction on the hybrid EOS. This correction may reduce the coupling strength of the U-boson that is needed to satisfy NS maximum mass constraint. While the inclusion of the U-boson also increases the NS radius significantly, we find that appropriate in-medium effects of the U-boson may reduce the NS radii significantly, satisfying both the NS radius and mass constraints well. (orig.)

  10. Weakly asymptotically hyperbolic manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Paul T; Lee, John M; Allen, Iva Stavrov

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of "weakly asymptotically hyperbolic" geometries whose sectional curvatures tend to $-1$ and are $C^0$, but are not necessarily $C^1$, conformally compact. We subsequently investigate the rate at which curvature invariants decay at infinity, identifying a conformally invariant tensor which serves as an obstruction to "higher order decay" of the Riemann curvature operator. Finally, we establish Fredholm results for geometric elliptic operators, extending the work of Rafe Mazzeo and John M. Lee to this setting. As an application, we show that any weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric is conformally related to a weakly asymptotically hyperbolic metric of constant negative curvature.

  11. Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this paper, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage- assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for 10 live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of 170 eVee (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c2.

  12. A Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redi, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-27

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c2.

  13. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize Talk: The Search for Weakly Interacting Massive Particle Dark Matter: Science Motivation and CDMS strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoulet, Bernard

    2013-04-01

    For the last 25 years, Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) have remained one of the favored candidates to explain the ubiquitous dark matter in the universe. We will review the generic aspects of this class of models, and describe the complementarity between three observational approaches: the direct detection of terrestrial interactions of the halo WIMPs, the search for WIMP annihilation products in the cosmos and the attempt to produce these particles at the Large Hadron Collider. After a rapid review of the current status of these three searches, we will focus on the experimental strategy pursued by the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search as one of the leading direct detection effort in the world. We will conclude with the CDMS results obtained so far, in particular for low mass dark matter particles. In an accompanying talk, Blas Cabrera will describe the basic technology that we are using and the promise of our new generation of detectors.

  14. Weak Interactions between Salmonella enterica FlhB and Other Flagellar Export Apparatus Proteins Govern Type III Secretion Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L McMurry

    Full Text Available The bacterial flagellum contains its own type III secretion apparatus that coordinates protein export with assembly at the distal end. While many interactions among export apparatus proteins have been reported, few have been examined with respect to the differential affinities and dynamic relationships that must govern the mechanism of export. FlhB, an integral membrane protein, plays critical roles in both export and the substrate specificity switching that occurs upon hook completion. Reported herein is the quantitative characterization of interactions between the cytoplasmic domain of FlhB (FlhBC and other export apparatus proteins including FliK, FlhAC and FliI. FliK and FlhAC bound with micromolar affinity. KD for FliI binding in the absence of ATP was 84 nM. ATP-induced oligomerization of FliI induced kinetic changes, stimulating fast-on, fast-off binding and lowering affinity. Full length FlhB purified under solubilizing, nondenaturing conditions formed a stable dimer via its transmembrane domain and stably bound FliH. Together, the present results support the previously hypothesized central role of FlhB and elucidate the dynamics of protein-protein interactions in type III secretion.

  15. EPR studies of the Mo-enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas: an application of the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory to a system containing weakly-coupled paramagnetic redox centers with different relaxation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Pablo J; Barrera, Guillermo I; Rizzi, Alberto C; Moura, José J G; Passeggi, Mario C G; Brondino, Carlos D

    2009-10-01

    Electron transfer proteins and redox enzymes containing paramagnetic redox centers with different relaxation rates are widespread in nature. Despite both the long distances and chemical paths connecting these centers, they can present weak magnetic couplings produced by spin-spin interactions such as dipolar and isotropic exchange. We present here a theoretical model based on the Bloch-Wangsness-Redfield theory to analyze the dependence with temperature of EPR spectra of interacting pairs of spin 1/2 centers having different relaxation rates, as is the case of the molybdenum-containing enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas. We analyze the changes of the EPR spectra of the slow relaxing center (Mo(V)) induced by the faster relaxing center (FeS center). At high temperatures, when the relaxation time T(1) of the fast relaxing center is very short, the magnetic coupling between centers is averaged to zero. Conversely, at low temperatures when T(1) is longer, no modulation of the coupling between metal centers can be detected.

  16. Dinuclear Silver(Ⅰ) Complex Based on 1-Picolyl-3-propylbenzimidazolium Salt: Crystal Structure and Weak Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Shan; GE Shu-Sheng; WANG Xiu-Guang; LIU Qing-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    1-Picolyl-3-propylbenzimidazolium bromide (LBr) was prepared from benzimida- zole by alkylation with 2-chloromethyl-pyridine in the presence of NaH, followed by quaternization with 1-bromopropane. Ligand LBr was treated with AgBr in CH2Cl2 to afford a dinuclear silver(I) complex L2Ag2Br4 (1). In complex 1, a 2-D supramolecular layer is formed through two types of π-π stacking interactions. Fluorescent emission spectra of ligand LBr and complex 1 are described.

  17. Anderson localization in the multi-particle tight-binding model at low energies or with weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Ekanga, Trésor

    2012-01-01

    We consider the multi-particle lattice Anderson model with an i.i.d. random external potential and a short-range interaction. Using the multi-particle multiscale analysis (MPMSA) developed by Chulaevsky and Suhov (2009), we prove spectral localization for such Hamiltonians at low energies under the assumption of log-H\\"{o}lder continuity of the marginal probability distribution of the random potential. Under a stronger assumption of H\\"older continuity, Anderson localization for such systems at low energies was established earlier by Aizenman and Warzel (2009) with the help of the multi-particle Fractional-Moment Method.

  18. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  19. β+/EC decay rates of deformed neutron-deficient nuclei in the deformed QRPA with realistic interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Ni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The weak-decay (β+ and EC rates of neutron-deficient Kr, Sr, Zr, and Mo isotopes are investigated within the deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation with realistic nucleon–nucleon interactions. The particle–particle and particle–hole channels of residual interactions are handled in large single-particle model spaces, based on the Brückner G-matrix with charge-dependent Bonn nucleon–nucleon forces. Contributions from allowed Gamow–Teller and Fermi transitions as well as first-forbidden transitions are calculated. The calculated half-lives show good agreement with the experimental data over a wide range of magnitude, from 10−2 to 107 s. Moreover, predictions of β-decay half-lives are made for some extremely proton-rich isotopes, which could be useful for future experiments.

  20. Impact of weak interactions of free nucleons on the r-process in dynamical ejecta from neutron-star mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Goriely, Stephane; Just, Oliver; Pllumbi, Else; Janka, Hans-Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We investigate beta-interactions of free nucleons and their impact on the electron fraction (Y_e) and r-process nucleosynthesis in ejecta characteristic of binary neutron star mergers (BNSMs). For that we employ trajectories from a relativistic BNSM model to represent the density-temperature evolutions in our parametric study. In the high-density environment, positron captures decrease the neutron richness at the high temperatures predicted by the hydrodynamic simulation. Circumventing the complexities of modelling three-dimensional neutrino transport, (anti)neutrino captures are parameterized in terms of prescribed neutrino luminosities and mean energies, guided by published results and assumed as constant in time. Depending sensitively on the adopted neutrino-antineutrino luminosity ratio, neutrino processes increase Y_e to values between 0.25 and 0.40, still allowing for a successful r-process compatible with the observed solar abundance distribution and a significant fraction of the ejecta consisting of r...

  1. Synthesis of Diphenyl Pyridazinone-based flexible system for conformational studies through weak noncovalent interactions: Application in DNA binding

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ranjeet Kumar; Praveen Singh; Archana Gaurav; Pratima Yadav; Ranjana S Khanna; Ashish Kumar Tewari

    2016-04-01

    This paper reports conformational studies of pyridazinone-based flexible dimer connected through diethylamine linker. The conformational studies have been done by X-ray crystal structure and DFT calculation. Further, after crystallization, the compound has shown two types of crystals, one is hydrated and another one is non-hydrated. The hydrated and non-hydrated crystals showed difference in their conformation due to the presence of water in crystal lattice of hydrated crystal. The difference in their conformation has been proved by crystallographic studies, DSC curves and detailed analysis of Hirshfeld surfaces and fingerprint plots facilitating a comparison of intermolecular interactions. Along with conformational studies, this compound also showed DNA binding, as revealed in docking simulation studies.

  2. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  3. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10-2 M ⊙ yr-1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr-1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  4. Entertainment Capture through Heart Rate Activity in Physical Interactive Playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Hallam, John; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2008-01-01

    that predict reported entertainment preferences given HR features. These models are expressed as artificial neural networks and are demonstrated and evaluated on two Playware games and two control tasks requiring physical activity. The best network is able to correctly match expressed preferences in 64......An approach for capturing and modeling individual entertainment (“fun”) preferences is applied to users of the innovative Playware playground, an interactive physical playground inspired by computer games, in this study. The goal is to construct, using representative statistics computed from...

  5. The subtle balance of weak supramolecular interactions: The hierarchy of halogen and hydrogen bonds in haloanilinium and halopyridinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Raatikainen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The series of haloanilinium and halopyridinium salts: 4-IPhNH3Cl (1, 4-IPhNH3Br (5, 4-IPhNH3H2PO4 (6, 4-ClPhNH3H2PO4 (8, 3-IPyBnCl (9, 3-IPyHCl (10 and 3-IPyH-5NIPA (3-iodopyridinium 5-nitroisophthalate, 13, where hydrogen or/and halogen bonding represents the most relevant non-covalent interactions, has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This series was further complemented by extracting some relevant crystal structures: 4-BrPhNH3Cl (2, CCDC ref. code TAWRAL, 4-ClPhNH3Cl (3, CURGOL, 4-FPhNH3Cl (4, ANLCLA, 4-BrPhNH3H2PO4, (7, UGISEI, 3-BrPyHCl, (11, CIHBAX and 3-ClPyHCl, (12, VOQMUJ from Cambridge Structural Database for sake of comparison. Based on the X-ray data it was possible to highlight the balance between non-covalent forces acting in these systems, where the relative strength of the halogen bonding C–X···A− (X = I, Br or Cl and the ratio between the halogen and hydrogen bonds [C–X···A− : D–H···A−] varied across the series.

  6. The subtle balance of weak supramolecular interactions: The hierarchy of halogen and hydrogen bonds in haloanilinium and halopyridinium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatikainen, Kari; Cametti, Massimo; Rissanen, Kari

    2010-01-15

    THE SERIES OF HALOANILINIUM AND HALOPYRIDINIUM SALTS: 4-IPhNH₃Cl (1), 4-IPhNH₃Br (5), 4-IPhNH₃H₂PO₄ (6), 4-ClPhNH₃H₂PO₄ (8), 3-IPyBnCl (9), 3-IPyHCl (10) and 3-IPyH-5NIPA (3-iodopyridinium 5-nitroisophthalate, 13), where hydrogen or/and halogen bonding represents the most relevant non-covalent interactions, has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This series was further complemented by extracting some relevant crystal structures: 4-BrPhNH₃Cl (2, CCDC ref. code TAWRAL), 4-ClPhNH₃Cl (3, CURGOL), 4-FPhNH₃Cl (4, ANLCLA), 4-BrPhNH₃H₂PO₄, (7, UGISEI), 3-BrPyHCl, (11, CIHBAX) and 3-ClPyHCl, (12, VOQMUJ) from Cambridge Structural Database for sake of comparison. Based on the X-ray data it was possible to highlight the balance between non-covalent forces acting in these systems, where the relative strength of the halogen bonding C-X...A⁻ (X = I, Br or Cl) and the ratio between the halogen and hydrogen bonds [C-X...A⁻ : D-H...A⁻] varied across the series.

  7. Interactions between distal speech rate, linguistic knowledge, and speech environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Tuuli; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Heffner, Christopher; Dilley, Laura

    2015-10-01

    During lexical access, listeners use both signal-based and knowledge-based cues, and information from the linguistic context can affect the perception of acoustic speech information. Recent findings suggest that the various cues used in lexical access are implemented with flexibility and may be affected by information from the larger speech context. We conducted 2 experiments to examine effects of a signal-based cue (distal speech rate) and a knowledge-based cue (linguistic structure) on lexical perception. In Experiment 1, we manipulated distal speech rate in utterances where an acoustically ambiguous critical word was either obligatory for the utterance to be syntactically well formed (e.g., Conner knew that bread and butter (are) both in the pantry) or optional (e.g., Don must see the harbor (or) boats). In Experiment 2, we examined identical target utterances as in Experiment 1 but changed the distribution of linguistic structures in the fillers. The results of the 2 experiments demonstrate that speech rate and linguistic knowledge about critical word obligatoriness can both influence speech perception. In addition, it is possible to alter the strength of a signal-based cue by changing information in the speech environment. These results provide support for models of word segmentation that include flexible weighting of signal-based and knowledge-based cues.

  8. Interaction between Total Cost and Fill Rate: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liljana Ferbar Tratar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Forecasting plays a central role in the efficient operation of a supply chain – i.e., the total costs and fill rate. As forecasts of demand are required on a regular basis for a very large number of products, the methods developed should be fast, flexible, user-friendly, and able to produce results that are reliable and easy to interpret by a manager. In this paper we show that the supply chain costs cannot be optimal if the forecasting method is treated separately from the inventory model. We analyse the performance of the joint optimization of the modified Holt-Winters forecasting method and a stock control policy and investigate the effect of different penalties for unsatisfied demand on the total cost and fill rate of the supply chain. From the results obtained with 1,428 real time series from M3-Competition we show that an essential reduction of supply chain costs and an increase of fill rate can be achieved if we use the joint model with the modified Holt-Winters method.

  9. Impact of weak interactions of free nucleons on the r-process in dynamical ejecta from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goriely, S.; Bauswein, A.; Just, O.; Pllumbi, E.; Janka, H.-Th.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate β-interactions of free nucleons and their impact on the electron fraction (Ye) and r-process nucleosynthesis in ejecta characteristic of binary neutron star mergers (BNSMs). For that we employ trajectories from a relativistic BNSM model to represent the density-temperature evolutions in our parametric study. In the high-density environment, positron captures decrease the neutron richness at the high temperatures predicted by the hydrodynamic simulation. Circumventing the complexities of modelling three-dimensional neutrino transport, (anti)neutrino captures are parametrized in terms of prescribed neutrino luminosities and mean energies, guided by published results and assumed as constant in time. Depending sensitively on the adopted νe-bar{ν }_e luminosity ratio, neutrino processes increase Ye to values between 0.25 and 0.40, still allowing for a successful r-process compatible with the observed solar abundance distribution and a significant fraction of the ejecta consisting of r-process nuclei. If the νe luminosities and mean energies are relatively large compared to the bar{ν }_e properties, the mean Ye might reach values >0.40 so that neutrino captures seriously compromise the success of the r-process. In this case, the r-abundances remain compatible with the solar distribution, but the total amount of ejected r-material is reduced to a few per cent, because the production of iron-peak elements is favoured. Proper neutrino physics, in particular also neutrino absorption, have to be included in BNSM simulations before final conclusions can be drawn concerning r-processing in this environment and concerning observational consequences like kilonovae, whose peak brightness and colour temperature are sensitive to the composition-dependent opacity of the ejecta.

  10. Earth’s Interaction Region: Plasma-Neutral Interactions in the Weakly Ionized gas of Earth’s High Latitude Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Jeffrey; Hsu, Vicki

    2015-04-01

    The high-latitude regions of Earth’s upper atmosphere are strongly influenced by plasma-neutral interactions. These interactions couple electrodynamic processes of the ionosphere with hydrodynamic processes of the more abundant thermosphere neutral gas, consequently connecting the high-latitude upper atmosphere to distant regions of the geoplasma environment. This produces a complex spatial and temporal interplay of competing processes that results in a myriad of physical and chemical responses and a rich array of neutral and plasma morphologies that constitute the high-latitude thermosphere and ionosphere. The altitude extent from the lower thermosphere to the upper ionosphere (90km - 1000km) can be considered Earth’s space-atmosphere interaction region - likened to the solar chromosphere’s interaction region where radiative processes and hydrodynamic waves from the dense lower atmosphere produce a cold lower boundary that quickly transitions over a few 100 kilometers to neutral and plasma temperatures that are five times hotter. A thousand or more kilometers further in altitude, Earth's upper atmosphere becomes a hot, collisionless, geomagnetically controlled protonosphere whose neutral and plasma population originates from the thermosphere and ionosphere. A grand challenge in the study of Earth’s interaction region is how the collision-dominated thermosphere/ionosphere system exchanges energy, mass and momentum with the collisionless magnetosphere. This talk will focus primarily on collision-dominated processes of the high-latitude ionosphere and the electromagnetic energy transfer processes that lead to frictional heating of ions and neutrals, and plasma instability phenomenon that leads to extreme electron heating. Observations of the ionosphere response to these processes will be illustrated using incoherent scatter radar measurements. Relevance to the solar chromosphere will be identified where appropriate and outstanding issues in Earth

  11. Results on the Spin-Dependent Scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles on Nucleons from the Run 3 Data of the LUX Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle)-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of 1.4 ×104 kg day of fiducial exposure allows 90% C.L. upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of σn=9.4 ×10-41 cm2 (σp=2.9 ×10-39 cm2 ) at 33 GeV /c2 . The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date.

  12. Resonant Interaction Between a Weak Gravitational Wave and a Microwave Beam in the Double Polarized States Through a Static Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fang-Yu; YANG Nan

    2004-01-01

    @@ We investigate the resonant interaction of a weak gravitational wave with a microwave beam in a coupling electromagnetic system, which consists of a Gaussian beam with double polarized transverse electric modes,a static magnetic field and fractal membranes. We find that under the synchroresonance condition, a highfrequency gravitational wave in amplitude 10-30 and frequency 3 GHz may produce the perturbative photon flux of 2.15 × 10 s- 1 in a surface of 10-2 m2. The perturbative photon flux can be pumped out from the background photon fluxes and one may obtain the amplified signal photon flux of2.15 × 104 s-1 by cascade fractal membranes.It is worth studying this effect for the detection of high-frequency relic gravitational waves in quintessential inflationary models and the high-frequency gravitational waves expected by possible laboratory schemes.

  13. Structural Insight into Specificity of Interactions between Nonconventional Three-finger Weak Toxin from Naja kaouthia (WTX) and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shenkarev, Zakhar O; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Paramonov, Alexander S; Chugunov, Anton O; Janickova, Helena; Dolejsi, Eva; Dolezal, Vladimir; Utkin, Yuri N; Tsetlin, Victor I; Arseniev, Alexander S; Efremov, Roman G; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P

    2015-09-25

    Weak toxin from Naja kaouthia (WTX) belongs to the group of nonconventional "three-finger" snake neurotoxins. It irreversibly inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and allosterically interacts with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Using site-directed mutagenesis, NMR spectroscopy, and computer modeling, we investigated the recombinant mutant WTX analogue (rWTX) which, compared with the native toxin, has an additional N-terminal methionine residue. In comparison with the wild-type toxin, rWTX demonstrated an altered pharmacological profile, decreased binding of orthosteric antagonist N-methylscopolamine to human M1- and M2-mAChRs, and increased antagonist binding to M3-mAChR. Positively charged arginine residues located in the flexible loop II were found to be crucial for rWTX interactions with all types of mAChR. Computer modeling suggested that the rWTX loop II protrudes to the M1-mAChR allosteric ligand-binding site blocking the entrance to the orthosteric site. In contrast, toxin interacts with M3-mAChR by loop II without penetration into the allosteric site. Data obtained provide new structural insight into the target-specific allosteric regulation of mAChRs by "three-finger" snake neurotoxins.

  14. Structural Insight into Specificity of Interactions between Nonconventional Three-finger Weak Toxin from Naja kaouthia (WTX) and Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N.; Shenkarev, Zakhar O.; Shulepko, Mikhail A.; Paramonov, Alexander S.; Chugunov, Anton O.; Janickova, Helena; Dolejsi, Eva; Dolezal, Vladimir; Utkin, Yuri N.; Tsetlin, Victor I.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Efremov, Roman G.; Dolgikh, Dmitry A.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.

    2015-01-01

    Weak toxin from Naja kaouthia (WTX) belongs to the group of nonconventional “three-finger” snake neurotoxins. It irreversibly inhibits nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and allosterically interacts with muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Using site-directed mutagenesis, NMR spectroscopy, and computer modeling, we investigated the recombinant mutant WTX analogue (rWTX) which, compared with the native toxin, has an additional N-terminal methionine residue. In comparison with the wild-type toxin, rWTX demonstrated an altered pharmacological profile, decreased binding of orthosteric antagonist N-methylscopolamine to human M1- and M2-mAChRs, and increased antagonist binding to M3-mAChR. Positively charged arginine residues located in the flexible loop II were found to be crucial for rWTX interactions with all types of mAChR. Computer modeling suggested that the rWTX loop II protrudes to the M1-mAChR allosteric ligand-binding site blocking the entrance to the orthosteric site. In contrast, toxin interacts with M3-mAChR by loop II without penetration into the allosteric site. Data obtained provide new structural insight into the target-specific allosteric regulation of mAChRs by “three-finger” snake neurotoxins. PMID:26242733

  15. Multi-modal applicability of a reversed-phase/weak-anion exchange material in reversed-phase, anion-exchange, ion-exclusion, hydrophilic interaction and hydrophobic interaction chromatography modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmerhofer, Michael; Nogueira, Raquel; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2011-06-01

    We recently introduced a mixed-mode reversed-phase/weak anion-exchange type separation material based on silica particles which consisted of a hydrophobic alkyl strand with polar embedded groups (thioether and amide functionalities) and a terminal weak anion-exchange-type quinuclidine moiety. This stationary phase was designed to separate molecules by lipophilicity and charge differences and was mainly devised for peptide separations with hydroorganic reversed-phase type elution conditions. Herein, we demonstrate the extraordinary flexibility of this RP/WAX phase, in particular for peptide separations, by illustrating its applicability in various chromatographic modes. The column packed with this material can, depending on the solute character and employed elution conditions, exploit attractive or repulsive electrostatic interactions, and/or hydrophobic or hydrophilic interactions as retention and selectivity increments. As a consequence, the column can be operated in a reversed-phase mode (neutral compounds), anion-exchange mode (acidic compounds), ion-exclusion chromatography mode (cationic solutes), hydrophilic interaction chromatography mode (polar compounds), and hydrophobic interaction chromatography mode (e.g., hydrophobic peptides). Mixed-modes of these chromatographic retention principles may be materialized as well. This allows an exceptionally flexible adjustment of retention and selectivity by tuning experimental conditions. The distinct separation mechanisms will be outlined by selected examples of peptide separations in the different modes.

  16. Interaction of Rate of Force Development and Duration of Rate in Isometric Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Donald

    A study attempted to determine whether force and duration parameters are programmed in an interactive or independent fashion prior to executing ballistic type isometric contractions of graded intensities. Four adult females each performed 360 trials of producing ballistic type forces representing 25, 40, 55, and 75 percent of their maximal…

  17. Muscle Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640

  18. Weak Polarized Electron Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens; Mantry, Sonny; Souder, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Scattering polarized electrons provides an important probe of the weak interactions. Precisely measuring the parity-violating left-right cross section asymmetry is the goal of a number of experiments recently completed or in progress. The experiments are challenging, since A_{LR} is small, typically between 10^(-4) and 10^(-8). By carefully choosing appropriate targets and kinematics, various pieces of the weak Lagrangian can be isolated, providing a search for physics beyond the Standard Model. For other choices, unique features of the strong interaction are studied, including the radius of the neutron density in heavy nuclei, charge symmetry violation, and higher twist terms. This article reviews the theory behind the experiments, as well as the general techniques used in the experimental program.

  19. Heart rate responses induced by acoustic tempo and its interaction with basal heart rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Since previous studies focused on the effects of acoustic tempo on the ANS, and humans have their own physiological oscillations such as the heart rate (HR), the effects of acoustic tempo might depend on the HR. Here we show the relationship between HR elevation induced by acoustic tempo and individual basal HR. Since high tempo-induced HR elevation requires fast respiration, which is based on sympatho-respiratory coupling, we controlled the participants’ respiration at a faster rate (20 CPM) than usual (15 CPM). We found that sound stimuli with a faster tempo than the individual basal HR increased the HR. However, the HR increased following a gradual increase in the acoustic tempo only when the extent of the gradual increase in tempo was within a specific range (around + 2%/min). The HR did not follow the increase in acoustic tempo when the rate of the increase in the acoustic tempo exceeded 3% per minute. These results suggest that the effect of the sympatho-respiratory coupling underlying the HR elevation caused by a high acoustic tempo depends on the basal HR, and the strength and the temporal dynamics of the tempo. PMID:28266647

  20. Single crystal EPR study of the dinuclear Cu(II) complex [Cu(tda)(phen)](2)·H(2)tda (tda = thiodiacetate, phen = phenanthroline): influence of weak interdimeric magnetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Nicolás I; Perec, Mireille; González, Pablo J; Passeggi, Mario C G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2010-12-23

    We report powder and single crystal EPR measurements of [Cu(tda)(phen)](2)·H(2)tda (tda = thiodiacetate, phen = phenanthroline) at 9.7 GHz. This compound consists of centrosymmetric copper(II) ion dimers, weakly ferromagnetically exchange-coupled (J = +3.2 cm(-1)), in which the dimeric units are linked by hydrophobic chemical paths involving the phen molecules. EPR revealed that the triplet spectra are collapsed by interdimeric exchange interactions mediated by that chemical path. Analysis and simulation of the single crystal EPR spectra were performed using Anderson's exchange narrowing model, together with statistical arguments. This approach allowed us to interpret the spectra modulated by the interdimeric interactions in situations of weak, intermediate, and strong exchange. We evaluated an interdimeric exchange constant J' = 0.0070(3) cm(-1), indicating that hydrophobic paths can transmit weak exchange interactions between centers at relatively long distances of the order of ∼10 Å.

  1. A simple dependence between protein evolution rate and the number of protein-protein interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirsh Aaron E

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been shown for an evolutionarily distant genomic comparison that the number of protein-protein interactions a protein has correlates negatively with their rates of evolution. However, the generality of this observation has recently been challenged. Here we examine the problem using protein-protein interaction data from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and genome sequences from two other yeast species. Results In contrast to a previous study that used an incomplete set of protein-protein interactions, we observed a highly significant correlation between number of interactions and evolutionary distance to either Candida albicans or Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This study differs from the previous one in that it includes all known protein interactions from S. cerevisiae, and a larger set of protein evolutionary rates. In both evolutionary comparisons, a simple monotonic relationship was found across the entire range of the number of protein-protein interactions. In agreement with our earlier findings, this relationship cannot be explained by the fact that proteins with many interactions tend to be important to yeast. The generality of these correlations in other kingdoms of life unfortunately cannot be addressed at this time, due to the incompleteness of protein-protein interaction data from organisms other than S. cerevisiae. Conclusions Protein-protein interactions tend to slow the rate at which proteins evolve. This may be due to structural constraints that must be met to maintain interactions, but more work is needed to definitively establish the mechanism(s behind the correlations we have observed.

  2. All-atom Molecular Dynamic Simulations Combined with the Chemical Shifts Study on the Weak Interactions of Ethanol-water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rong; LUO San-Lai; WU Wen-Juan

    2008-01-01

    All-atom molecular dynamics(MD)simulation combined with chemical shifts was performed to investigate the interactions over the entire concentration range of the ethanol(EtOH)-water system.The results of the simulation were adopted to explain the NMR experiments by hydrogen bonding analysis.The strong hydrogen bonds and weak C-H…O contacts coexist in the mixtures through the analysis of the radial distribution functions.And the liquid structures in the whole concentration of EtOH-water mixtures can be classified into three regions by the statistic analysis of the hydrogen-bonding network in the MD simulations.Moreover,the chemical shifts of the hydrogen atom are in agreement witb the statistical results of the average number hydrogen bonds in the MD simulations.Interestingly,the excess relative extent Eηrel calculated by the MD simulations and chemical shifts in the EtOH aqueous solutions shows the largest deviation at XEtOH≈0.18.The excess properties present good agreement with the excess enthalpy in the concentration dependence.

  3. Electrical modulation of weak-antilocalization and spin-orbit interaction in dual gated Ge/Si core/shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Deacon, R. S.; Yao, J.; Lieber, C. M.; Ishibashi, K.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic transport of holes in Ge/Si core/shell nanowires (NWs) is investigated under the control of dual electrical gating. The strength of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is analyzed from the weak-antilocalization (WAL) of the magnetoconductance (MC) as a function of a perpendicular magnetic field. By superimposing a small alternating signal on the voltage offset of both gates the universal conductance fluctuations are largely removed from the averaged MC traces, enabling a good fitting to WAL theory models. The tuning of both spin lifetime and the SOI strength is observed in the NWs with dual gating while the carrier density is kept constant. We observe an enhancement of spin lifetime with the mean free path due to the effect of geometrical confinement. The measured SOI energy of 1-6 meV may arise from the dipole coupled Rashba SOI, which is predicted to be one order of magnitude larger than the conventional Rashba coefficient in the Ge/Si core/shell NW system. A clear electrostatic modulation of SOI strength by a factor of up to three implies that Ge/Si NWs are a promising platform for the study of helical states, Majorana fermions and spin-orbit qubits.

  4. Identification of weak points of hepatitis C virus NS3 protease inhibitors using surface plasmon resonance biosensor-based interaction kinetic analysis and genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svahn Gustafsson, Sofia; Ehrenberg, Angelica; Schmuck, Benjamin; Anwar, Muhammad Ikram; Danielson, U Helena

    2014-03-13

    To aid the design of next generation hepatitis C virus (HCV) drugs, the kinetics of the interactions between NS3 protease inhibitors and enzyme from genotypes 1a, 1b, and 3a have been characterized. The linear mechanism-based inhibitors VX-950 (telaprevir) and SCH 503034 (boceprevir) benefited from covalent adduct formation. However, the apparent affinities were rather weak (VX-950, K(D)* of 340, 8.5, and 1000 nM for genotypes 1a, 1b and 3a, respectively; SCH 503034, K(D)* of 90 and 3.9 nM for 1b and 3a, respectively). The non-mechanism-based macrocyclic inhibitors BILN-2016 (ciluprevir) and ITMN-191 (danoprevir) had faster association and slower dissociation kinetics, indicating that rigidification is kinetically favorable. ITMN-191 had nanomolar affinities for all genotypes (K(D)* of 0.13, 1.6, and 0.52 nM), suggesting that a broad spectrum drug is conceivable. The data show that macrocyclic scaffolds and mechanism-based inhibition are advantageous but that there is considerable room for improvement of the kinetics of HCV protease targeted drugs.

  5. Search for a light Higgs boson decaying to long-lived weakly-interacting particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    A search for the decay of a light Higgs (120 - 140 GeV) to a pair of weakly-interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94 fb${^-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly-interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length.

  6. Search for a light Higgs boson decaying to long-lived weakly interacting particles in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdelalim, A A; Abdesselam, A; Abdinov, O; Abi, B; Abolins, M; Abouzeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Aderholz, M; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Akesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Akiyama, A; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Aliyev, M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amaral, P; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amorós, G; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Andrieux, M-L; Anduaga, X S; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoun, S; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Archambault, J P; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Asman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Astvatsatourov, A; Aubert, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Ay, C; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Bachy, G; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barashkou, A; Barbaro Galtieri, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Barrillon, P; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beare, B; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Behera, P K; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Ben Ami, S; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Benchouk, C; Bendel, M; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertin, A; Bertinelli, F; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blazek, T; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V B; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Böser, S; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bolnet, N M; Bona, M; Bondarenko, V G; Bondioli, M; Boonekamp, M; Boorman, G; Booth, C N; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borroni, S; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Botterill, D; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozhko, N I; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Braem, A; Branchini, P; Brandenburg, G W; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Breton, D; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brodbeck, T J; Brodet, E; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brown, H; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchanan, N J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butin, F; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarri, P; Cambiaghi, M; Cameron, D; Caminada, L M; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Cantero, J; Capasso, L; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capriotti, D; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Caramarcu, C; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, B; Caron, S; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cascella, M; Caso, C; Castaneda Hernandez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Cataldi, G; Cataneo, F; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Cattani, G; Caughron, S; Cauz, D; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cetin, S A; Cevenini, F; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K; Chapleau, B; Chapman, J D; Chapman, J W; Chareyre, E; Charlton, D G; Chavda, V; Chavez Barajas, C A; Cheatham, S; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, S; Chen, T; Chen, X; Cheng, S; Cheplakov, A; Chepurnov, V F; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Cheung, S L; Chevalier, L; Chiefari, G; Chikovani, L; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chizhov, M V; Choudalakis, G; Chouridou, S; Christidi, I A; Christov, A; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Ciapetti, G; Ciba, K; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Ciobotaru, M D; Ciocca, C; Ciocio, A; Cirilli, M; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, P J; Cleland, W; Clemens, J C; Clement, B; Clement, C; Clifft, R W; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Coe, P; Cogan, J G; Coggeshall, J; Cogneras, E; Colas, J; Colijn, A P; Collins, N J; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colon, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Conidi, M C; Consonni, M; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conventi, F; Cook, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Costin, T; Côté, D; Coura Torres, R; Courneyea, L; Cowan, G; Cowden, C; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Crupi, R; 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Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, C; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wunstorf, R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xie, S; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, G; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamaoka, J; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, Y; Yasu, Y; Ybeles Smit, G V; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Young, C; Youssef, S; Yu, D; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaets, V G; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zajacova, Z; Zanello, L; Zarzhitsky, P; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeller, M; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zendler, C; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zinonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhan, Z; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, L; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, S; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhou, Y; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zieminska, D; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zolnierowski, Y; Zsenei, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2012-06-22

    A search for the decay of a light Higgs boson (120-140 GeV) to a pair of weakly interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length.

  7. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-05-03

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  8. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad M. Hunter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype–environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype–age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  9. Drug interaction alert override rates in the Meaningful Use era: no evidence of progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, A D; Fletcher, G S; Payne, T H

    2014-01-01

    Interruptive drug interaction alerts may reduce adverse drug events and are required for Stage I Meaningful Use attestation. For the last decade override rates have been very high. Despite their widespread use in commercial EHR systems, previously described interventions to improve alert frequency and acceptance have not been well studied. (1) To measure override rates of inpatient medication alerts within a commercial clinical decision support system, and assess the impact of local customization efforts. (2) To compare override rates between drug-drug interaction and drug-allergy interaction alerts, between attending and resident physicians, and between public and academic hospitals. (3) To measure the correlation between physicians' individual alert quantities and override rates as an indicator of potential alert fatigue. We retrospectively analyzed physician responses to drug-drug and drug-allergy interaction alerts, as generated by a common decision support product in a large teaching hospital system. (1) Over four days, 461 different physicians entered 18,354 medication orders, resulting in 2,455 visible alerts; 2,280 alerts (93%) were overridden. (2) The drug-drug alert override rate was 95.1%, statistically higher than the rate for drug-allergy alerts (90.9%) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in override rates between attendings and residents, or between hospitals. (3) Physicians saw a mean of 1.3 alerts per day, and the number of alerts per physician was not significantly correlated with override rate (R2 = 0.03, p = 0.41). Despite intensive efforts to improve a commercial drug interaction alert system and to reduce alerting, override rates remain as high as reported over a decade ago. Alert fatigue does not seem to contribute. The results suggest the need to fundamentally question the premises of drug interaction alert systems.

  10. Interaction between two sliders in a system with rate- and state-dependent friction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Changrong; (何昌荣)

    2003-01-01

    This study examines slip recurrence patterns in a two-block spring-slider model with rate- and state-dependent friction. Both weak and strong heterogeneities are considered with different settings of coupling stiffness. The results show that the recurrence pattern of slips strongly depends on the degree of coupling between the two blocks. With strong coupling between the two blocks (e.g., kc/ki max >~1), the slip pattern of the system is simple and characterized by periodical stick-slips, with the two blocks slipping together. With strong heterogeneity in friction strength, period-2 motion is found for moderate coupling stiffness (kc/ki max=0.4) between the two blocks. More complicated patterns are found with weak coupling stiffness (kc/ki max=0.2) and strong heterogeneity. With strong heterogeneity, very weak coupling leads to chaotic slip patterns. With coupling stiffness kc=5 ki max and strong heterogeneity, chaotic slip patterns are not found, in contrast with the results by Huang and Turcotte who employed the classical static/kinetic friction law.

  11. Growth rate and resource imbalance interactively control biomass stoichiometry and elemental quotas of aquatic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Casey M; Whitaker, Emily A; Cotner, James B

    2017-03-01

    The effects of resource stoichiometry and growth rate on the elemental composition of biomass have been examined in a wide variety of organisms, but the interaction among these effects is often overlooked. To determine how growth rate and resource imbalance affect bacterial carbon (C): nitrogen (N): phosphorus (P) stoichiometry and elemental content, we cultured two strains of aquatic heterotrophic bacteria in chemostats at a range of dilution rates and P supply levels (C:P of 100:1 to 10,000:1). When growing below 50% of their maximum growth rate, P availability and dilution rate had strong interactive effects on biomass C:N:P, elemental quotas, cell size, respiration rate, and growth efficiency. In contrast, at faster growth rates, biomass stoichiometry was strongly homeostatic in both strains (C:N:P of 70:13:1 and 73:14:1) and elemental quotas of C, N, and P were tightly coupled (but not constant). Respiration and cell size increased with both growth rate and P limitation, and P limitation induced C accumulation and excess respiration. These results show that bacterial biomass stoichiometry is relatively constrained when all resources are abundant and growth rates are high, but at low growth rates resource imbalance is relatively more important than growth rate in controlling bacterial biomass composition. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. Hunter-gatherer inter-band interaction rates: implications for cumulative culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim R Hill

    Full Text Available Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%-29% per year of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture.

  13. Hunter-gatherer inter-band interaction rates: implications for cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kim R; Wood, Brian M; Baggio, Jacopo; Hurtado, A Magdalena; Boyd, Robert T

    2014-01-01

    Our species exhibits spectacular success due to cumulative culture. While cognitive evolution of social learning mechanisms may be partially responsible for adaptive human culture, features of early human social structure may also play a role by increasing the number potential models from which to learn innovations. We present interview data on interactions between same-sex adult dyads of Ache and Hadza hunter-gatherers living in multiple distinct residential bands (20 Ache bands; 42 Hadza bands; 1201 dyads) throughout a tribal home range. Results show high probabilities (5%-29% per year) of cultural and cooperative interactions between randomly chosen adults. Multiple regression suggests that ritual relationships increase interaction rates more than kinship, and that affinal kin interact more often than dyads with no relationship. These may be important features of human sociality. Finally, yearly interaction rates along with survival data allow us to estimate expected lifetime partners for a variety of social activities, and compare those to chimpanzees. Hadza and Ache men are estimated to observe over 300 men making tools in a lifetime, whereas male chimpanzees interact with only about 20 other males in a lifetime. High intergroup interaction rates in ancestral humans may have promoted the evolution of cumulative culture.

  14. Preparation of a novel weak cation exchange/hydrophobic interaction chromatography dual-function polymer-based stationary phase for protein separation using "thiol-ene click chemistry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Bai, Quan; Zhao, Kailou; Gao, Dong; Tian, Lei

    2015-02-01

    A novel dual-function mixed-mode stationary phase based on poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) microspheres was synthesized by thiol-ene click chemistry and characterized by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The new system displays both hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) character in a high salt concentration mobile phase, and weak cation exchange (WCX) chromatography character in a low salt concentration mobile phase. It can be used to separate proteins in both ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) mode and HIC mode. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both HIC mode and IEC mode using protein standards. In comparison with the conventional WCX and HIC columns, the results were satisfactory and acceptable. Protein mass and bioactivity recoveries of more than 96% can be achieved in both HIC mode and IEC mode using this column. The results indicate that the novel dual-function mixed-mode column in many cases can replace the use of two individual WCX and HIC columns. In addition, the effects on protein separation of different ligand structures in the dual-function stationary phase and the pH of the mobile phase used were also investigated in detail. The results show that electrostatic interaction of the ligand with proteins must match the hydrophobicity of the ligand, which is an important factor to prepare the dual-function stationary phase. On the basis of this dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column, a new two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology with a single column system was also developed in this study, and was used to renature and purify recombinant human interferon-γ from inclusion bodies. The mass recovery, purity, and specific bioactivity obtained for the purified recombinant human interferon-γ were 87.2%, 92.4%, and 2.8 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in IEC mode, and 83.4%, 95.2%, and 4.3 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in HIC mode. The results indicate that the

  15. Weak Galois and Weak Cocleft Coextensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.N. Alonso (A)lvarez; J.M. Fernández Vilaboa; R. González Rodríguez; A.B. Rodríguez Raposo

    2007-01-01

    For a weak entwining structure (A, C,ψ) living in a braided monoidal category with equalizers and coequalizers, we formulate the notion of weak A-Galois coextension with normal basis and we show that these Galois coextensions are equivalent to the weak A-cocleft coextensions introduced by the authors.

  16. No simple dependence between protein evolution rate and the number of protein-protein interactions: only the most prolific interactors tend to evolve slowly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koonin Eugene V

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that rates of protein evolution are influenced, to a great extent, by the proportion of amino acid residues that are directly involved in protein function. In agreement with this hypothesis, recent work has shown a negative correlation between evolutionary rates and the number of protein-protein interactions. However, the extent to which the number of protein-protein interactions influences evolutionary rates remains unclear. Here, we address this question at several different levels of evolutionary relatedness. Results Manually curated data on the number of protein-protein interactions among Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins was examined for possible correlation with evolutionary rates between S. cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe orthologs. Only a very weak negative correlation between the number of interactions and evolutionary rate of a protein was observed. Furthermore, no relationship was found between a more general measure of the evolutionary conservation of S. cerevisiae proteins, based on the taxonomic distribution of their homologs, and the number of protein-protein interactions. However, when the proteins from yeast were assorted into discrete bins according to the number of interactions, it turned out that 6.5% of the proteins with the greatest number of interactions evolved, on average, significantly slower than the rest of the proteins. Comparisons were also performed using protein-protein interaction data obtained with high-throughput analysis of Helicobacter pylori proteins. No convincing relationship between the number of protein-protein interactions and evolutionary rates was detected, either for comparisons of orthologs from two completely sequenced H. pylori strains or for comparisons of H. pylori and Campylobacter jejuni orthologs, even when the proteins were classified into bins by the number of interactions. Conclusion The currently available comparative-genomic data do not

  17. Herschel-ATLAS/GAMA: a difference between star-formation rates in strong-line and weak-line radio galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hardcastle, M J; Virdee, J S; Jarvis, M J; Croom, S M; Sadler, E M; Mauch, T; Smith, D J B; Stevens, J A; Baes, M; Baldry, I K; Brough, S; Cooray, A; Dariush, A; De Zotti, G; Driver, S; Dunne, L; Dye, S; Eales, S; Hopwood, R; Liske, J; Maddox, S; Michalowski, M J; Rigby, E E; Robotham, A S G; Steele, O; Thomas, D; Valiante, E

    2012-01-01

    We have constructed a sample of radio-loud objects with optical spectroscopy from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) project over the Herschel-ATLAS Phase 1 fields. Classifying the radio sources in terms of their optical spectra, we find that strong-emission-line sources (`high-excitation radio galaxies') have, on average, a factor ~4 higher 250-micron Herschel luminosity than weak-line (`low-excitation') radio galaxies and are also more luminous than magnitude-matched radio-quiet galaxies at the same redshift. Using all five H-ATLAS bands, we show that this difference in luminosity between the emission-line classes arises mostly from a difference in the average dust temperature; strong-emission-line sources tend to have comparable dust masses to, but higher dust temperatures than, radio galaxies with weak emission lines. We interpret this as showing that radio galaxies with strong nuclear emission lines are much more likely to be associated with star formation in their host galaxy, although there is certain...

  18. Interactions between rate processes with different timescales explain counterintuitive foraging patterns of arctic wintering eiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heath, J.P.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    To maximize fitness, animals must respond to a variety of processes that operate at different rates or timescales. Appropriate decisions could therefore involve complex interactions among these processes. For example, eiders wintering in the arctic sea ice must consider locomotion and physiology of

  19. Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

  20. Covariation of Social Stimuli and Interaction Rates in the Natural Preschool Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hops, Hyman

    An intensive longitudinal investigation was conducted on the social behavior of two three-year old boys in a nursery school setting over a four-month period to analyze observable stimuli in each subject's immediate social environment for the main determinants of his social interactive behavior. It was hypothesized that the daily rate of social…

  1. Interactions between rate processes with different timescales explain counterintuitive foraging patterns of arctic wintering eiders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heath, J.P.; Gilchrist, H.G.; Ydenberg, R.C.

    2010-01-01

    To maximize fitness, animals must respond to a variety of processes that operate at different rates or timescales. Appropriate decisions could therefore involve complex interactions among these processes. For example, eiders wintering in the arctic sea ice must consider locomotion and physiology of

  2. Do the Naive Know Best? The Predictive Power of Naive Ratings of Couple Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Katherine J. W.; Baucom, Brian R.; Christensen, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    We examined the utility of naive ratings of communication patterns and relationship quality in a large sample of distressed couples. Untrained raters assessed 10-min videotaped interactions from 134 distressed couples who participated in both problem-solving and social support discussions at each of 3 time points (pre-therapy, post-therapy, and…

  3. Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

  4. Testing Lorentz invariance in weak decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sytema, Auke; Dijck, Elwin; Hoekstra, Steven; Jungmann, Klaus; Mueller, Stefan; Noordmans, Jacob; Onderwater, Gerco; Pijpker, Coen; Timmermans, Rob; Vos, Keri; Willmann, Lorenz; Wilschut, Hans [Van Swinderen Institute, University of Groningen (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    Lorentz invariance is the invariance of physical laws under orientations and boosts. It is a key assumption in Special Relativity and the Standard Model of Particle Physics. Several theories unifying General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics allow breaking of Lorentz invariance. At the Van Swinderen Institute in Groningen a theoretical and experimental research program was started to study Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) in weak interactions. The theoretical work allowed a systematic approach to LIV in weak decays. Limits could be set on parameters that quantify LIV. A novel beta decay experiment was designed which tests rotational invariance with respect to the orientation of nuclear spin. In particular, using the isotope {sup 20}Na, the decay rate dependence on the nuclear polarization direction was measured. Searching for sidereal variations, systematic errors can be suppressed. The result of the experiment is presented.

  5. Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2015-05-01

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  6. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  7. On Weak Regular *-semigroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Hua LI; Hai Bin KAN; Bing Jun YU

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a special kind of partial algebras called projective partial groupoids is defined.It is proved that the inverse image of all projections of a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup under the homomorphism induced by the maximum idempotent-separating congruence of a weak regular *-semigroup has a projective partial groupoid structure. Moreover, a weak regular *-product which connects a fundamental weak regular *-semigroup with corresponding projective partial groupoid is defined and characterized. It is finally proved that every weak regular *-product is in fact a weak regular *-semigroup and any weak regular *-semigroup is constructed in this way.

  8. Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demsar Janez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computational methods that infer single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP interactions from phenotype data may uncover new biological mechanisms in non-Mendelian diseases. However, practical aspects of such analysis face many problems. Present experimental studies typically use SNP arrays with hundreds of thousands of SNPs but record only hundreds of samples. Candidate SNP pairs inferred by interaction analysis may include a high proportion of false positives. Recently, Gayan et al. (2008 proposed to reduce the number of false positives by combining results of interaction analysis performed on subsets of data (replication groups, rather than analyzing the entire data set directly. If performing as hypothesized, replication groups scoring could improve interaction analysis and also any type of feature ranking and selection procedure in systems biology. Because Gayan et al. do not compare their approach to the standard interaction analysis techniques, we here investigate if replication groups indeed reduce the number of reported false positive interactions. Results A set of simulated and false interaction-imputed experimental SNP data sets were used to compare the inference of SNP-SNP interactions by means of replication groups to the standard approach where the entire data set was directly used to score all candidate SNP pairs. In all our experiments, the inference of interactions from the entire data set (e.g. without using the replication groups reported fewer false positives. Conclusions With respect to the direct scoring approach the utility of replication groups does not reduce false positive rates, and may, depending on the data set, often perform worse.

  9. Weak Decay of Hypernuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Alberico, W M

    2004-01-01

    The focus of these Lectures is on the weak decay modes of hypernuclei, with special attention to Lambda-hypernuclei. The subject involves many fields of modern theoretical and experimental physics, from nuclear structure to the fundamental constituents of matter and their interactions. The various weak decay modes of Lambda-hypernuclei are described: the mesonic mode and the non-mesonic ones. The latter are the dominant decay channels of medium--heavy hypernuclei, where, on the contrary, the mesonic decay is disfavoured by Pauli blocking effect on the outgoing nucleon. In particular, one can distinguish between one-body and two-body induced decays. Theoretical models employed to evaluate the (partial and total) decay widths of hypernuclei are illustrated, and their results compared with existing experimental data. Open problems and recent achievements are extensively discussed, in particular the determination of the ratio Gamma_n/Gamma_p, possible tests of the Delta I=1/2 rule in non-mesonic decays and the pu...

  10. Probing Neutrino Mass Hierarchy by Comparing the Charged-Current and Neutral-Current Interaction Rates of Supernova Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, $\

  11. New experimental possibility to search for the ratio of a possible T-violating amplitude to the weak-interaction amplitude in polarized neutron transmission through a polarized nuclear target

    CERN Document Server

    Lukashevich, V V; Dallman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a spin-dependent neutron interaction with optical potentials (fields) from the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and an assumed T-violating interaction. The vector sum of these fields and their interferences determines an effective field of the target with an angular position in space due to polar and azimuthal angles. The phase of the azimuthal component is found to be the sum of two angles. The tangent of the first angle is equal to the ratio of the T-violating forward-scattering amplitude D to the weak-interaction amplitude C. The quantity is of interest. The tangent of the second angle depends on the spin rotation in the residual pseudomagnetic field of the target, and it can be treated as a background effect. This paper shows that the second angle has different signs in measurements with polarized and unpolarized neutrons; thus, two measurements allow it to be compensated for. In addition, the use of the Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields for measurement of the neu...

  12. "Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?: Response"

    OpenAIRE

    González-Pérez Antonio; Gayán Javier; Ruiz Agustín

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A response to Toplak et al: Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery? BMC Genomics 2010, 11:58. Background The genomewide evaluation of genetic epistasis is a computationally demanding task, and a current challenge in Genetics. HFCC (Hypothesis-Free Clinical Cloning) is one of the methods that have been suggested for genomewide epistasis analysis. In order to perform an exhaustive search of epistasis, HFCC has implemented several tools ...

  13. On the stream-accretion disk interaction - Response to increased mass transfer rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dgani, Ruth; Livio, Mario; Soker, Noam

    1989-01-01

    The time-dependent interaction between the stream of mass from the inner Lagrangian point and the accretion disk, resulting from an increasing mass transfer rate is calculated. The calculation is fully three-dimensional, using a pseudoparticle description of the hydrodynamics. It is demonstrated that the results of such calculations, when combined with specific observations, have the potential of both determining essential parameters, such as the viscosity parameter alpha, and can distinguish between different models of dwarf nova eruptions.

  14. Complex ordering in spin networks: Critical role of adaptation rate for dynamically evolving interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Anand; Sinha, Sitabhra

    2015-09-01

    Many complex systems can be represented as networks of dynamical elements whose states evolve in response to interactions with neighboring elements, noise and external stimuli. The collective behavior of such systems can exhibit remarkable ordering phenomena such as chimera order corresponding to coexistence of ordered and disordered regions. Often, the interactions in such systems can also evolve over time responding to changes in the dynamical states of the elements. Link adaptation inspired by Hebbian learning, the dominant paradigm for neuronal plasticity, has been earlier shown to result in structural balance by removing any initial frustration in a system that arises through conflicting interactions. Here we show that the rate of the adaptive dynamics for the interactions is crucial in deciding the emergence of different ordering behavior (including chimera) and frustration in networks of Ising spins. In particular, we observe that small changes in the link adaptation rate about a critical value result in the system exhibiting radically different energy landscapes, viz., smooth landscape corresponding to balanced systems seen for fast learning, and rugged landscapes corresponding to frustrated systems seen for slow learning.

  15. Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia Lavas, Mars: Source Vents, Flow Rates, Edifice Styles and Water Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakimoto, S. E. H.; Gregg, T. K. P.

    2004-01-01

    The Cerberus Fossae and Elysium Planitia regions have been suggested as some of the youngest martian surfaces since the Viking mission, although there was doubt whether the origins were predominantly volcanic or fluvial. The Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey Missions have shown that the region is certainly young in terms of the topographic preservation and the youthful crater counts (e.g. in the tens to a few hundred million yrs.). Numerous authors have shown that fluvial and volcanic features share common flow paths and vent systems, and that there is evidence for some interaction between the lava flows and underlying volatiles as well as the use by lavas and water of the same vent system. Given the youthful age and possible water-volcanism interaction environment, we'd like constraints on water and volcanic flux rates and interactions. Here, we model ranges of volcanic flow rates where we can well-constrain them, and consider the modest flow rate results results in context with local eruption styles, and track vent locations, edifice volumes, and flow sources and data.

  16. Interactions among temperature, moisture, and oxygen concentrations in controlling decomposition rates in a boreal forest soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, Carlos A.; Malghani, Saadatullah; Loescher, Henry W.

    2017-02-01

    Determining environmental controls on soil organic matter decomposition is of importance for developing models that predict the effects of environmental change on global soil carbon stocks. There is uncertainty about the environmental controls on decomposition rates at temperature and moisture extremes, particularly at high water content levels and high temperatures. It is uncertain whether observed declines in decomposition rates at high temperatures are due to declines in the heat capacity of extracellular enzymes as predicted by thermodynamic theory, or due to simultaneous declines in soil moisture. It is also uncertain whether oxygen limits decomposition rates at high water contents. Here we present the results of a full factorial experiment using organic soils from a boreal forest incubated at high temperatures (25 and 35 °C), a wide range of water-filled pore space (WFPS; 15, 30, 60, 90 %), and contrasting oxygen concentrations (1 and 20 %). We found support for the hypothesis that decomposition rates are high at high temperatures, provided that enough moisture and oxygen are available for decomposition. Furthermore, we found that decomposition rates are mostly limited by oxygen concentrations at high moisture levels; even at 90 % WFPS, decomposition proceeded at high rates in the presence of oxygen. Our results suggest an important degree of interaction among temperature, moisture, and oxygen in determining decomposition rates at the soil core scale.

  17. Existence and stability of weak solutions for a degenerate parabolic system modelling two-phase flows in porous media

    CERN Document Server

    Escher, Joachim; Matioc, Bogdan-Vasile

    2011-01-01

    We prove global existence of nonnegative weak solutions to a degenerate parabolic system which models the interaction of two thin fluid films in a porous medium. Furthermore, we show that these weak solutions converge at an exponential rate towards flat equilibria.

  18. Interaction of small repeating earthquakes in a rate and state fault model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapusta, N.; Chen, T.

    2010-12-01

    Small repeating earthquake sequences can be located very close, for example, the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) target cluster repeaters "San Francisco" and "Los Angeles" are separated by only about 50 m. These two repeating sequences also show closeness in occurrence time, indicating substantial interaction. Modeling of the interaction of repeating sequences and comparing the modeling results with observations would help us understand the physics of fault slip. Here we conduct numerical simulations of two asperities in a rate and state fault model (Chen and Lapusta, JGR, 2009), with asperities being rate weakening and the rest of the fault being rate-strengthening. One of our goals is to create a model for the observed interaction between "San Francisco" and "Los Angeles" clusters. The study of Chen and Lapusta (JGR, 2009) and Chen et al (accepted by EPSL, 2010) showed that this approach can reproduce behavior of isolated repeating earthquake sequences, in particular, the scaling of their moment versus recurrence time and the response to accelerated postseismic creep. In this work, we investigate the effect of distance between asperities and asperity size on the interaction, in terms of occurrence time, seismic moment and rupture pattern. The fault is governed by the aging version of rate-and-state friction. To account for relatively high stress drops inferred seismically for Parkfield SAFOD target earthquakes (Dreger et al, 2007), we also conduct simulations that include enhanced dynamic weakening during seismic events. As expected based on prior studies (e.g., Kato, JGR, 2004; Kaneko et al., Nature Geoscience, 2010), the two asperities act like one asperity if they are close enough, and they behave like isolated asperities when they are sufficiently separated. Motivated by the SAFOD target repeaters that rupture separately but show evidence of interaction, we concentrate on the intermediate distance between asperities. In that regime, the

  19. Metabolic rates in five animal populations after prolonged exposure to weak extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields in nature. [Lambricus terrestris, L. rubellus, Arion sp. , Oniscus asellus, Plettrodon cinereus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenberg, B.; Ash, N.

    1976-08-01

    Five species of soil-dwelling animals were collected under or some distance from the Navy's Project Sanguine extremely low frequency experimental antenna in September 1974 and in summer 1975, and their oxygen consumption and respiratory quotient (RQ) were tested and compared. The species were: earthworms, Lumbricus terrestris L. and Lumbricus rubellus Hoffmeister; slug, Arion sp.; wood louse, Oniscus asellus L.; and redbacked salamander, Plethodon cinereus cinereus (Green). Controls were collected on the same or next day, 6 to 13 miles from the nearest antenna. Test and control animals were tested simultaneously. In September 1974 there were no significant differences in O/sub 2/ consumption and RQ, except for a marginal difference (0.05 greater than P greater than 0.025) in O/sub 2/ consumption of L. rubellus; in 1975, there were no significant differences. Comparisons of metabolic rates between exposed and control groups in fall 1974 and between fall and summer (1973 and 1975) populations show no seasonally linked change in sensitivity to the electromagnetic fields. Controls showed an autumnal increase in metabolic rate of wood lice and salamanders. Oxygen consumption of wood lice is significantly (P less than 0.05) affected by method of shipment but there is no evidence that exposed and control animals react differently from each other to shipment by air or by car. Short-term (1 week) exposure of earthworms to the electromagnetic fields did not alter metabolic rate; however, confinement in nylon bags and translocation did, thereby limiting meaningful conclusions. No abnormalities in behavior, habitat selection, or external features and pigmentation have been observed in any of the exposed populations during 4 yr of collecting and observation.

  20. Fluid-structure interaction modeling of aortic valve stenosis at different heart rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahraseman, Hamidreza Ghasemi; Languri, Ehsan Mohseni; Yahyapourjalaly, Niloofar; Espino, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to measure the cardiac output and stroke volume at different aortic stenosis severities using a fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulation at rest and during exercise. The geometry of the aortic valve is generated using echocardiographic imaging. An Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian mesh was generated in order to perform the FSI simulations. Pressure loads on ventricular and aortic sides were applied as boundary conditions. FSI modeling results for the increment rate of cardiac output and stroke volume to heart rate, were about 58.6% and -14%, respectively, at each different stenosis severity. The mean gradient of curves of cardiac output and stroke volume to stenosis severity were reduced by 57% and 48%, respectively, when stenosis severity varied from healthy to critical stenosis. Results of this paper confirm the promising potential of computational modeling capabilities for clinical diagnosis and measurements to predict stenosed aortic valve parameters including cardiac output and stroke volume at different heart rates.

  1. Cofinitely weak supplemented modules

    OpenAIRE

    Alizade, Rafail; Büyükaşık, Engin

    2003-01-01

    We prove that a module M is cofinitely weak supplemented or briefly cws (i.e., every submodule N of M with M/N finitely generated, has a weak supplement) if and only if every maximal submodule has a weak supplement. If M is a cws-module then every M-generated module is a cws-module. Every module is cws if and only if the ring is semilocal. We study also modules, whose finitely generated submodules have weak supplements.

  2. Interactions between rate processes with different timescales explain counterintuitive foraging patterns of arctic wintering eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Joel P; Gilchrist, H Grant; Ydenberg, Ronald C

    2010-10-22

    To maximize fitness, animals must respond to a variety of processes that operate at different rates or timescales. Appropriate decisions could therefore involve complex interactions among these processes. For example, eiders wintering in the arctic sea ice must consider locomotion and physiology of diving for benthic invertebrates, digestive processing rate and a nonlinear decrease in profitability of diving as currents increase over the tidal cycle. Using a multi-scale dynamic modelling approach and continuous field observations of individuals, we demonstrate that the strategy that maximizes long-term energy gain involves resting during the most profitable foraging period (slack currents). These counterintuitive foraging patterns are an adaptive trade-off between multiple overlapping rate processes and cannot be explained by classical rate-maximizing optimization theory, which only considers a single timescale and predicts a constant rate of foraging. By reducing foraging and instead digesting during slack currents, eiders structure their activity in order to maximize long-term energetic gain over an entire tide cycle. This study reveals how counterintuitive patterns and a complex functional response can result from a simple trade-off among several overlapping rate processes, emphasizing the necessity of a multi-scale approach for understanding adaptive routines in the wild and evaluating mechanisms in ecological time series.

  3. GENERALIZED WEAK FUNCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁夏畦; 罗佩珠

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the authors introduce some new ideas on generalized numbers and generalized weak functions. They prove that the product of any two weak functions is a generalized weak function. So in particular they solve the problem of the multiplication of two generalized functions.

  4. Weak self-interactions of globular proteins studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and structure-based modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kaieda, Shuji; Plivelic, Tomás S; Halle, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate protein-protein interactions in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and theoretical modeling. The structure factor for solutions of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), myoglobin (Mb), and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) is determined from SAXS measurements at multiple concentrations, from Monte Carlo simulations with a coarse-grained structure-based interaction model, and from analytic approximate solutions of two idealized colloidal interaction models without adjustable parameters. By combining these approaches, we find that the structure factor is essentially determined by hard-core and screened electrostatic interactions. Other soft short-ranged interactions (van der Waals and solvation-related) are either individually insignificant or tend to cancel out. The structure factor is also not significantly affected by charge fluctuations. For Mb and IFABP, with small net charge and relatively symmetric charge distribution, the structure factor is well described b...

  5. Analysis of the instability growth rate during the jetbackground interaction in a magnetic field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslav Hork(y); Petr Kulhánek

    2013-01-01

    The two-stream instability is common,responsible for many observed phenomena in nature,especially the interaction of jets of various origins with the background plasma (e.g.extragalactic jet interacting with the cosmic background).The dispersion relation that does not consider magnetic fields is described by the wellknown Buneman relation.In 2011,Bohata,Bren and Kulánek derived the relation for the two-stream instability without the cold limit,with the general orientation of a magnetic field,and arbitrary stream directions.The maximum value of the imaginary part of the individual dispersion branches ωn(k) is of interest from a physical point of view.It represents the instability growth rate which is responsible for the onset of turbulence mode and subsequent reconnection on the scale of the ion radius accompanied by a strong plasma thermalization.The paper presented here is focused on the non-relativistic instability growth rate and its dependence on various input parameters,such as magnitude and direction of magnetic field,sound velocity,plasma frequency of the jet and direction of the wave vector during the jet-intergalactic medium interaction.The results are presented in plots and can be used for determination of the plasma parameter values close to which the strong energy transfer and thermalization between the jet and the background plasma occur.

  6. Platelets interact with tissue factor immobilized on surfaces: effects of shear rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonda, R; Lopez-Vilchez, I; Navalon, F; Pino, M; Hernandez, M R; Escolar, G; Galan, A M

    2008-01-01

    While procoagulant activities of Tissue Factor (TF) have been widely investigated, its possible pro-adhesive properties towards platelets have not been studied in detail. We explored the interaction of platelets with human Tissue Factor (hTF) firmly adsorbed on a synthetic surface of polyvinilidene difluoride (PVDF) using different shear rates. For studies at 250 and 600 s(-1), TF firmly adsorbed was exposed to flowing anticoagulated blood in flat perfusion devices. Deposition of platelets and fibrin were evaluated by morphometric, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural methods. Prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) levels were also measured. Experiments at 5000 s(-1), were performed on the Platelet Function Analyzer (PFA-100) with experimental cartridges with collagen (COL) or collagen-hTF (COL + TF). Haemostatic effect of recombinant activated FVIIa (rFVIIa) was assessed in the same experimental settings. Platelet deposition on hTF reached 19.8 +/- 1.3% and 26.1 +/- 3.4% of the total surface, at 250 and 600 s(-1), respectively. Fibrin formation was significantly higher at 250 s(-1) than at 600 s(-1) (P hTF (154.09 +/- 14.69 s vs. 191.45 +/- 16.09 s COL alone; P hTF is an adhesive substrate for platelets and suggest that the von Willebrand factor could mediate these interactions. At low and intermediate shear rates, rFVIIa enhanced the procoagulant action of hTF, but this effect was not observed at very high shear rates.

  7. Interaction between Digestive Strategy and Niche Specialization Predicts Speciation Rates across Herbivorous Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lucy A P

    2016-04-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors often are treated as mutually exclusive drivers of diversification processes. In this framework, ecological specialists are expected to have higher speciation rates than generalists if abiotic factors are the primary controls on species diversity but lower rates if biotic interactions are more important. Speciation rate is therefore predicted to positively correlate with ecological specialization in the purely abiotic model but negatively correlate in the biotic model. In this study, I show that the positive relationship between ecological specialization and speciation expected from the purely abiotic model is recovered only when a species-specific trait, digestive strategy, is modeled in the terrestrial, herbivorous mammals (Mammalia). This result suggests a more nuanced model in which the response of specialized lineages to abiotic factors is dependent on a biological trait. I also demonstrate that the effect of digestive strategy on the ecological specialization-speciation rate relationship is not due to a difference in either the degree of ecological specialization or the speciation rate between foregut- and hindgut-fermenting mammals. Together, these findings suggest that a biological trait, alongside historical abiotic events, played an important role in shaping mammal speciation at long temporal and large geographic scales.

  8. Furry picture transition rates in the intense fields at a lepton collider interaction point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hartin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect on particle physics processes by intense electromagnetic fields in the charge bunch collisions at future lepton colliders is considered. Since the charge bunch fields are tied to massive sources (the e+e− charges, a reference frame is chosen in which the fields appear to be co-propagating. Solutions of the Dirac equation minimally coupled to the electromagnetic fields reasonably associated with two intense overlapping charge bunches are obtained and found to be a Volkov solution with respect to a null 4-vector whose 3-vector part lies in the common propagation direction. These solutions are used within the Furry interaction picture to calculate the beamstrahlung transition rate for electron radiation due to interaction with the electromagnetic fields of two colliding charge bunches. New analytic expressions are obtained and compared numerically with the beamstrahlung in the electromagnetic field of one charge bunch. The techniques developed will be applied to other collider physics processes in due course.

  9. Estimation of apparent rate coefficients for phenanthrene and pentachlorophenol interacting with sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Lin; Chen, Ying-Xu; Xu, Yun-Tai; Shen, Meng-Wei

    2004-09-01

    To gain information on organic pollutants in water-sediment systems, a compartment model was applied to study the sorption course of phenanthrene and pentachlorophenol (PCP) in sediments. The model described the time-dependent interaction of phenanthrene and PCP with operationally defined reversible and irreversible (or slowly reversible) sediment fractions. The interactions between these fractions were described using first order differential equations. By fitting the models to the experimental data, apparent rate constants were obtained using numerical optimization software. The model optimizations showed that the amount of reversible phase increased rapidly in the first 10 d with the sorption time, then decreased after 10 d, while the amount of irreversible phase increased in the total sorption course. That suggested the mass transport between reversible phase and irreversible phase. The extraction efficiency with hot methanol ranged from 36% to 103% for phenanthrene and from 65% to 101% for PCP, with the trend of decreasing with sorption time.

  10. Furry picture transition rates in the intense fields at a lepton collider interaction point

    CERN Document Server

    Hartin, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The effect on particle physics processes by intense electromagnetic fields in the charge bunch collisions at future lepton colliders is considered. Since the charge bunch fields are tied to massive sources (the $e^{+}e^{-}$ charges), a reference frame is chosen in which the fields appear to be co-propagating. Solutions of the Dirac equation minimally coupled to the electromagnetic fields reasonably associated with two intense overlapping charge bunches are obtained and found to be a Volkov solution with respect to a null 4-vector whose 3-vector part lies in the common propagation direction. These solutions are used within the Furry interaction picture to calculate the beamstrahlung transition rate for electron radiation due to interaction with the electromagnetic fields of two colliding charge bunches. New analytic expressions are obtained and compared numerically with the beamstrahlung in the electromagnetic field of one charge bunch. The techniques developed will be applied to other collider physics process...

  11. Human Dynactin-Associated Protein Transforms NIH3T3 Cells to Generate Highly Vascularized Tumors with Weak Cell-Cell Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Kunoh

    Full Text Available Human dynactin-associated protein (dynAP is a transmembrane protein that promotes AktSer473 phosphorylation. Here, we report the oncogenic properties of dynAP. In contrast to control NIH3T3 cells expressing LacZ (NIH3T3LacZ, NIH3T3dynAP cells vigorously formed foci in two-dimensional culture, colonies on soft agar, and spheroids in anchorage-deficient three-dimensional culture. NIH3T3dynAP cells injected into nude mice produced tumors with abundant blood vessels and weak cell-cell contacts. Expression of dynAP elevated the level of rictor (an essential subunit of mTORC2 and promoted phosphorylation of FOXO3aSer253. FOXO3a is a transcriptional factor that stimulates expression of pro-apoptotic genes and phosphorylation of FOXO3a abrogates its function, resulting in promoted cell survival. Knockdown of rictor in NIH3T3dynAP cells reduced AktSer473 phosphorylation and formation of foci, colony in soft agar and spheroid, indicating that dynAP-induced activation of the mTORC2/AktSer473 pathway for cell survival contributes to cell transformation. E-cadherin and its mRNA were markedly reduced upon expression of dynAP, giving rise to cells with higher motility, which may be responsible for the weak cell-cell adhesion in tumors. Thus, dynAP could be a new oncoprotein and a target for cancer therapy.

  12. A Finite-Rate Gas-Surface Interaction Model Informed by Fundamental Computational Chemistry Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-31

    oxygen interactions with a specific crystalline polymorph of SiO2 (called β- cristobalite ). Computer images of this crystal lattice are shown in Fig...2. The choice of β- cristobalite is motivated by experimental studies from Balat-Pichelin et al. [15,22,23] where silicon-carbide (SiC) surfaces were...conclusion that the measured loss rates correspond to β- cristobalite was based on the fact that for polymorph diagrams of SiO2, β- cristobalite is most stable

  13. Flow rate through microfilters: Influence of the pore size distribution, hydrodynamic interactions, wall slip, and inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Valente, André X. C. N.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-05-01

    We examine the fluid mechanics of viscous flow through filters consisting of perforated thin plates. We classify the effects that contribute to the hydraulic resistance of the filter. Classical analyses assume a single pore size and account only for filter thickness. We extend these results to obtain an analytical formula for the pressure drop across the microfilter versus the flow rate that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of pore sizes, the hydrodynamic interactions between the pores given their layout pattern, and wall slip. Further, we discuss inertial effects and their order of scaling.

  14. Flow rate through microfilters: Influence of the pore size distribution, hydrodynamic interactions, wall slip, and inertia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Valente, Andre X. C. N.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    to obtain an analytical formula for the pressure drop across the microfilter versus the flow rate that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of pore sizes, the hydrodynamic interactions between the pores given their layout pattern, and wall slip. Further, we discuss inertial effects and their order......We examine the fluid mechanics of viscous flow through filters consisting of perforated thin plates. We classify the effects that contribute to the hydraulic resistance of the filter. Classical analyses assume a single pore size and account only for filter thickness. We extend these results...

  15. Weak bond detection in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Taru; Kim, Eunho; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Yang, Jinkyu

    2017-05-01

    We experimentally investigate a diagnostic technique for identifying a weak bond in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs). We set up a one-dimensional chain of granular crystals, consisting of spherical particles with nonlinear interactions, to generate HNSWs. These solitary wave packets are transmitted into an inspection area of composites by making a direct contact with the chain. We demonstrate that a strong type of solitary waves injected to the weak bond area can break the weak bond of laminates, thereby causing delamination. Then, to identify the creation of the delamination, we transmit a weak type of solitary waves by employing the same apparatus, and measure the solitary waves reflected from the specimens. By analyzing these reflected solitary waves, we differentiate the weak bond samples with the pristine bond ones in an efficient and fast manner. The diagnostic results based on the proposed method are compared with the strength and energy release rate at bond interfaces, which are measured via standard testing methods such as three point bending and end notched flexure tests. This study shows the potential of solitary wave-based detection of weak bonds for hot spot monitoring of composite-based structures.

  16. Quantifying the Interactions between Maternal and Fetal Heart Rates by Transfer Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous studies. However there is still limited knowledge about underlying mechanisms and patterns of the coupling throughout gestation. In this study, Transfer Entropy (TE) was used to quantify directed interactions between maternal and fetal heart rates at various time delays and gestational ages. Experimental results using maternal and fetal electrocardiograms showed significant coupling for 63 out of 65 fetuses, by statistically validating against surrogate pairs. Analysis of TE showed a decrease in transfer of information from fetus to the mother with gestational age, alongside the maturation of the fetus. On the other hand, maternal to fetal TE was significantly greater in mid (26-31 weeks) and late (32-41 weeks) gestation compared to early (16-25 weeks) gestation (Mann Whitney Wilcoxon (MWW) pheart rate being larger than 4 msec in the late gestation. This difference was not observed for the fetuses with smaller RMSSD, which could be associated with the quiet sleep state. Delay in the information transfer from mother to fetus significantly decreased (p = 0.03) from mid to late gestation, implying a decrease in fetal response time. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. The effect of maternal respiratory rate derived from maternal ECG was also investigated and no significant relationship was found between breathing rate and TE at any lag. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information on the fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being.

  17. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  18. Statistical analysis of interaction between lake seepage rates and groundwater and lake levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ala-aho, P.; Rossi, P. M.; Klöve, B.

    2012-04-01

    In Finland, the main sources of groundwater are the esker deposits from the last ice age. Small lakes imbedded in the aquifer with no outlets or inlets are typically found in eskers. Some lakes at Rokua esker, in Northern Finland, have been suffering from changes in water stage and quality. A possible permanent decline of water level has raised considerable concern as the area is also used for recreation and tourism. Rare biotypes supported by the oligotrophic lakes can also be endangered by the level decline. Drainage of peatlands located in the discharge zone of the aquifer is a possible threat for the lakes and the whole aquifer. Drainage can potentially lower the aquifer water table which can have an effect on the groundwater-lake interaction. The aim of this study was to understand in more detail the interaction of the aquifer and the lake systems so potential causes for the lake level variations could be better understood and managed. In-depth understanding of hydrogeological system provides foundation to study the nutrient input to lakes affecting lake ecosystems. A small lake imbedded the Rokua esker aquifer was studied in detail. Direct measurements of seepage rate between the lake and the aquifer were carried out using seepage meters. Seepage was measured from six locations for eight times during May 2010 - November 2010. Precipitation was recorded with a tipping bucket rain gauge adjacent to the lake. Lake stage and groundwater levels from three piezometers were registered on an hourly interval using pressure probes. Statistical methods were applied to examine relationship between seepage measurements and levels of lake and groundwater and amount of precipitation. Distinct areas of inseepage and outseepage of the lake were distinguished with seepage meter measurements. Seepage rates showed only little variation within individual measurement locations. Nevertheless analysis revealed statistically significant correlation of seepage rate variation in four

  19. Does raising type 1 error rate improve power to detect interactions in linear regression models? A simulation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey P Durand

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Statistical interactions are a common component of data analysis across a broad range of scientific disciplines. However, the statistical power to detect interactions is often undesirably low. One solution is to elevate the Type 1 error rate so that important interactions are not missed in a low power situation. To date, no study has quantified the effects of this practice on power in a linear regression model. METHODS: A Monte Carlo simulation study was performed. A continuous dependent variable was specified, along with three types of interactions: continuous variable by continuous variable; continuous by dichotomous; and dichotomous by dichotomous. For each of the three scenarios, the interaction effect sizes, sample sizes, and Type 1 error rate were varied, resulting in a total of 240 unique simulations. RESULTS: In general, power to detect the interaction effect was either so low or so high at α = 0.05 that raising the Type 1 error rate only served to increase the probability of including a spurious interaction in the model. A small number of scenarios were identified in which an elevated Type 1 error rate may be justified. CONCLUSIONS: Routinely elevating Type 1 error rate when testing interaction effects is not an advisable practice. Researchers are best served by positing interaction effects a priori and accounting for them when conducting sample size calculations.

  20. On Weakly Semicommutative Rings*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN WEI-XING; CUI SHU-YING

    2011-01-01

    A ring R is said to be weakly scmicommutative if for any a, b ∈ R,ab = 0 implies aRb C_ Nil(R), where Nil(R) is the set of all nilpotcnt elements in R.In this note, we clarify the relationship between weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings by proving that the notion of a weakly semicommutative ring is a proper generalization of NI-rings. We say that a ring R is weakly 2-primal if the set of nilpotent elements in R coincides with its Levitzki radical, and prove that if R is a weakly 2-primal ring which satisfies oα-condition for an endomorphism α of R (that is, ab = 0 (←→) aα(b) = 0 where a, b ∈ R) then the skew polynomial ring R[π; αα]is a weakly 2-primal ring, and that if R is a ring and I is an ideal of R such that I and R/I are both weakly semicommutative then R is weakly semicommutative.Those extend the main results of Liang et al. 2007 (Taiwanese J. Math., 11(5)(2007),1359-1368) considerably. Moreover, several new results about weakly semicommutative rings and NI-rings are included.

  1. Understanding interaction of small repeating earthquakes through models of rate-and-state faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Lui, K.; Lapusta, N.

    2012-12-01

    Due to their short recurrence times and known locations, small repeating earthquakes are widely used to study earthquake physics. Some of the repeating sequences are located close to each other and appear to interact. For example, the "San Francisco" (SF) and "Los Angeles" (LA) repeating sequences, which are targets of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD), have a lateral separation of less than 70 m. The LA events tend to occur within 24 hours after the SF events, suggesting a triggering effect. Our goal is to study interaction of repeating earthquakes in the framework of rate-and-state fault models, in which repeating earthquakes occur on velocity-weakening patches embedded into a larger velocity-strengthening fault area. Such models can reproduce behavior of isolated repeating earthquake sequences, in particular, the scaling of their moment versus recurrence time and the response to accelerated postseismic creep (Chen and Lapusta, 2009; Chen et al., 2010). Our studies of the interaction of seismic events on two patches show that a variety of interesting behaviors. As expected based on intuition prior studies (e.g., Kato, JGR, 2004; Kaneko et al., Nature Geoscience, 2010), the two patches behave independently when they are far apart and rupture together if they are next to each other. In the intermediate range of distances, we observe triggering effects, with ruptures on the two patches clustering in time, but also other patterns, including supercycles that alternate between events that rupture a single asperity and events that rupture both asperities at the same time. When triggering occurs, smaller events tend to trigger larger events, since the nucleation of smaller events tends to be more frequent. To overcome such a pattern, and have larger events trigger smaller events as observed for the SF-LA interaction, the patch for the smaller event needs to be of the order of the nucleation size, so that the smaller event has difficulty nucleating by

  2. High Override Rate for Opioid Drug-allergy Interaction Alerts: Current Trends and Recommendations for Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaz, Maxim; Seger, Diane L; Lai, Kenneth; Wickner, Paige G; Goss, Foster; Dhopeshwarkar, Neil; Chang, Frank; Bates, David W; Zhou, Li

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trends in drug-allergy interaction (DAI) alert overrides for opioid medications - the most commonly triggered alerts in the computerized provider order entry (CPOE). We conducted an observational analysis of the DAI opioid alerts triggered over the last decade (2004-2013, n=342,338) in two large academic hospitals in Boston (United States). We found an increasing rate of DAI alert overrides culminating in 89.7% in 2013. Allergic reactions included a high proportion (38.2%) of non-immune mediated opioid reactions (e.g. gastrointestinal upset). The DAI alert override rate was high for immune mediated (88.6%) and life threatening reactions (87.8%). Exact allergy-medication matches were overridden less frequently (about 70%) compared to non-exact matches within allergy groups (over 90%). About one-third of the alert override reasons pointed to irrelevant alerts (i.e."Patient has tolerated the medication before") and 44.9% were unknown. Those findings warrant further investigation into providers' reasons for high override rate. User interfaces should evolve to enable less interruptive and more accurate alerts to decrease alert fatigue.

  3. Reasons For The Experimental Research Of Gas Outflows Based On The Signals Of Weak Interactions Between The Tested Model Of The Gas Pipeline, And Tested Equalizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Grądzki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article applies diagnosing issues outflows of gas pipelines using specialized research equipment - equalizers. Variant with only two measuring devices (equalizers, arranged on the inlet and outlet of the pipeline, and the standard pressure transducers and flow rate were considered. The signals from the system and research equipment (equalizers are the basis for the development of new method to test outflow of gas pipeline, which is based on the quotient of the power spectral density of signals generated by the equalizer (diagnoser and signals measured using standard pressure transducers and flow rate. Possible use to analysis the signals power will allow go from signal diagnostic for more effective parametric diagnostic.

  4. Wood source and pyrolysis temperature interact to control PyOM degradation rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, J. A.; Hatton, P. J.; Filley, T. R.; Chatterjee, S.; Auclerc, A.; Gormley, M.; Dastmalchi, K.; Stark, R. E.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surprisingly little is known about how shifts in tree species composition and increased forest fire frequency and intensity will affect one of the most stable pools of soil organic matter, i.e. the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or char). In a previous study, we showed that wood source and pyrolysis temperature interact to control PyOM structure and potential reactivity for two tree species common in high-latitude forests, jack pine (JP) and red maple (RM). Here, we investigate whether these differences affect PyOM turnover by examining the fates of 13C/15N-enriched JP wood and PyOM pyrolyzed at 300 (JP300) and 450 °C (JP450) and RM pyrolyzed at 450 °C (RM450). The substrates were applied 1-3 cm below the O/A interface of a well-drained Spodosol in a long-term forest fire study located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Pellston, MI, USA). 13C-CO2effluxes from the first 996 days of decay showed a significant wood source by pyrolysis temperature interaction on PyOM field mineralisation rates, with RM450 mineralising twice faster than JP450 during the first 90 days. Increasing pyrolysis temperature substantially decreased field mineralization rates during the first 996 days, with mineralisation rates 24 and 80 times slower for JP300 and JP450 compared with JP wood. After 1 year, (i) bacterial groups were large sinks for PyOM-derived C as pyrolysis temperature increased and as substrate use efficiency decreased; (ii) potential phenol oxidase and net peroxidase activities were unaffected by the PyOM addition, although net peroxidase activities measured tended to lesser for soils amended with JP450 and RM450; and (iii) Collembola detritivores appeared less likely to be found for soils amended with JP450 and RM450. PyOM-derived C and N recoveries did not differ after 1 year; we will present 3-y recovery data. Our results suggest that the composition of angiosperms (e.g. RM) and gymnosperms (e.g. JP) in high-latitude forests is an underappreciated but

  5. Temperature dependence of the rate constant of hydrogen isotope interactions with a lithium capillary-porous system under reactor irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuri [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Mukanova, Aliya [Al’ Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Ponkratov, Yuri; Barsukov, Nikolay; Tulubaev, Evgeniy [Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Platacis, Erik [University of Latvia (IPUL), Riga (Latvia); Kenzhin, Ergazy [Shakarim Semey State University, Semey (Kazakhstan)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The experiments with Li CPS sample were carried out at reactor IVG-1.M. • The gas absorption technique was used to study hydrogen isotope interaction with lithium CPS. • The temperature dependence of constants of interaction rate was obtained for various power rates of the reactor. • Determination of the activation energies, and pre-exponents of Arrhenius dependence. • The effect of increase of the rate constant under reaction irradiation. -- Abstract: Experiments with a sample of a lithium capillary-porous system (CPS) were performed at the reactor IVG-1.M of the Institute of Atomic Energy NNC RK to study the effects of neutron irradiation on the parameters of hydrogen isotope interactions with a lithium CPS. The absorption technique was used during the experiments, and this technique allowed the temperature dependences of the hydrogen isotope interaction rate constants with the lithium CPS to be obtained under various reactor powers. The obtained dependencies were used to determine the main interaction parameters: the activation energies and the pre-exponents of the Arrhenius dependence of the hydrogen interaction rate constants with lithium and the lithium CPS. An increase of the hydrogen isotope interaction rate with the lithium CPS was observed under reactor irradiation.

  6. Idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacVie, O P; Majid, M A; Husssin, H M; Ung, T; Manners, R M; Ormerod, I; Pawade, J; Harrad, R A

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Orbicularis weakness is commonly associated with seventh nerve palsy or neuromuscular and myopathic conditions such as myotonic dystrophy and myasethenia gravis. We report four cases of idiopathic isolated orbicularis weakness. Methods All four cases were female and the presenting symptoms of ocular irritation and epiphora had been present for over 7 years in three patients. All patients had lagophthalmos and three had ectropion. Three patients underwent full investigations which excluded known causes of orbicularis weakness. Two patients underwent oribularis oculi muscle biopsy and histological confirmation of orbicularis atrophy. Results All patients underwent surgery to specifically address the orbicularis weakness with satisfactory outcomes and alleviation of symptoms in all cases. Isolated orbicularis weakness may be a relatively common entity that is frequently overlooked. Conclusion Early recognition of this condition may lead to better management and prevent patients undergoing unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:22322997

  7. $\\beta$- decay of the N=Z, rp-process waiting points: $^{64}$Ge, $^{68}$Se and the N=Z+2: $^{66}$Ge, $^{70}$Se for accurate stellar weak-decay rates

    CERN Multimedia

    The contribution of electron capture to weak-decay rates has been neglected in model calculations of Type I X-ray bursts so far. Nucleosynthesis in these astrophysical events eventually proceeds through the rp-process near the proton drip-line. In particular, several N=Z nuclei such as $^{64}$Ge and $^{68}$Se act as waiting points in the nuclear flow due to the low S${_P}$ values of their Z+1 neighbours. Recent theoretical calculations have shown that, in these high density ($\\thicksim10^{6}$ g/cm$^3$) and high temperature (1 - 2 GK) scenarios, continuum electron capture rates might play an important role, in particular for species at and around these waiting point nuclei. This proposal is aimed at the study of the $\\beta^{+}$/EC-decay of the waiting point nuclei $^{64}$Ge, $^{68}$Se and their N=Z+2 second neighbours $^{66}$Ge and $^{70}$Se with the Total Absorption Spectroscopy method. This will allow for a detailed analysis of their contribution to the EC-decay rates in X-Ray burst explosions. The proposed ...

  8. Exploring a new interaction between dark matter and dark energy using the growth rate of structure

    CERN Document Server

    Richarte, Martín G

    2015-01-01

    We present a phenomenological interaction with a scale factor power law form which leads to the appearance of two kinds of perturbed terms, a scale factor spatial variation along with perturbed Hubble expansion rate. We study both the background and the perturbation evolution within the parametrized post-Friedmann scheme, obtaining that the exchange of energy-momentum can flow from dark energy to dark matter in order to keep dark energy and dark matter densities well defined at all times. We combine several measures of the cosmic microwave background (WMAP9+Planck) data, baryon acoustic oscillation measurements, redshift-space distortion data, JLA sample of supernovae, and Hubble constant for constraining the coupling constant and the exponent provided both parametrized the interaction itself. The joint analysis of ${\\rm Planck+WMAP9+BAO}$ ${\\rm +RSD+JLA+HST}$ data seems to favor large coupling constant, $\\xi_c = 0.34403427_{- 0.18907353}^{+ 0.14430125}$ at 1 $\\sigma$ level, and prefers a power law interactio...

  9. H7N9 influenza viruses interact preferentially with α2,3-linked sialic acids and bind weakly to α2,6-linked sialic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Irene; Krammer, Florian; Hai, Rong; Aguilera, Domingo; Bernal-Rubio, Dabeiba; Steel, John; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fernandez-Sesma, Ana

    2013-11-01

    The recent human outbreak of H7N9 avian influenza A virus has caused worldwide concerns. Receptor binding specificity is critical for viral pathogenicity, and still not thoroughly studied for this emerging virus. Here, we evaluated the receptor specificity of the haemagglutinin (HA) of two human H7N9 isolates (A/Shanghai/1/13 and A/Anhui/1/13) through a solid-phase binding assay and a flow cytometry-based assay. In addition, we compared it with those from several HAs from human and avian influenza viruses. We observed that the HAs from the novel H7 isolates strongly interacted with α2,3-linked sialic acids. Importantly, they also showed low levels of binding to α2,6-linked sialic acids, but significantly higher than other avian H7s.

  10. Evaluation of Finite-Rate GasSurface Interaction Models for a Carbon Based Ablator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yih-Kanq; Goekcen, Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Two sets of finite-rate gas-surface interaction model between air and the carbon surface are studied. The first set is an engineering model with one-way chemical reactions, and the second set is a more detailed model with two-way chemical reactions. These two proposed models intend to cover the carbon surface ablation conditions including the low temperature rate-controlled oxidation, the mid-temperature diffusion-controlled oxidation, and the high temperature sublimation. The prediction of carbon surface recession is achieved by coupling a material thermal response code and a Navier-Stokes flow code. The material thermal response code used in this study is the Two-dimensional Implicit Thermal-response and Ablation Program, which predicts charring material thermal response and shape change on hypersonic space vehicles. The flow code solves the reacting full Navier-Stokes equations using Data Parallel Line Relaxation method. Recession analyses of stagnation tests conducted in NASA Ames Research Center arc-jet facilities with heat fluxes ranging from 45 to 1100 wcm2 are performed and compared with data for model validation. The ablating material used in these arc-jet tests is Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator. Additionally, computational predictions of surface recession and shape change are in good agreement with measurement for arc-jet conditions of Small Probe Reentry Investigation for Thermal Protection System Engineering.

  11. "Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?: Response"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Pérez Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A response to Toplak et al: Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery? BMC Genomics 2010, 11:58. Background The genomewide evaluation of genetic epistasis is a computationally demanding task, and a current challenge in Genetics. HFCC (Hypothesis-Free Clinical Cloning is one of the methods that have been suggested for genomewide epistasis analysis. In order to perform an exhaustive search of epistasis, HFCC has implemented several tools and data filters, such as the use of multiple replication groups, and direction of effect and control filters. A recent article has claimed that the use of multiple replication groups (as implemented in HFCC does not reduce the false positive rate, and we hereby try to clarify these issues. Results/Discussion HFCC uses, as an analysis strategy, the possibility of replicating findings in multiple replication groups, in order to select a liberal subset of preliminary results that are above a statistical criterion and consistent in direction of effect. We show that the use of replication groups and the direction filter reduces the false positive rate of a study, although at the expense of lowering the overall power of the study. A post-hoc analysis of these selected signals in the combined sample could then be performed to select the most promising results. Conclusion Replication of results in independent samples is generally used in scientific studies to establish credibility in a finding. Nonetheless, the combined analysis of several datasets is known to be a preferable and more powerful strategy for the selection of top signals. HFCC is a flexible and complete analysis tool, and one of its analysis options combines these two strategies: A preliminary multiple replication group analysis to eliminate inconsistent false positive results, and a post-hoc combined-group analysis to select the top signals.

  12. "Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery?: Response"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    A response to Toplak et al: Does replication groups scoring reduce false positive rate in SNP interaction discovery? BMC Genomics 2010, 11:58. Background The genomewide evaluation of genetic epistasis is a computationally demanding task, and a current challenge in Genetics. HFCC (Hypothesis-Free Clinical Cloning) is one of the methods that have been suggested for genomewide epistasis analysis. In order to perform an exhaustive search of epistasis, HFCC has implemented several tools and data filters, such as the use of multiple replication groups, and direction of effect and control filters. A recent article has claimed that the use of multiple replication groups (as implemented in HFCC) does not reduce the false positive rate, and we hereby try to clarify these issues. Results/Discussion HFCC uses, as an analysis strategy, the possibility of replicating findings in multiple replication groups, in order to select a liberal subset of preliminary results that are above a statistical criterion and consistent in direction of effect. We show that the use of replication groups and the direction filter reduces the false positive rate of a study, although at the expense of lowering the overall power of the study. A post-hoc analysis of these selected signals in the combined sample could then be performed to select the most promising results. Conclusion Replication of results in independent samples is generally used in scientific studies to establish credibility in a finding. Nonetheless, the combined analysis of several datasets is known to be a preferable and more powerful strategy for the selection of top signals. HFCC is a flexible and complete analysis tool, and one of its analysis options combines these two strategies: A preliminary multiple replication group analysis to eliminate inconsistent false positive results, and a post-hoc combined-group analysis to select the top signals. PMID:20576100

  13. Weak decays. [Lectures, phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  14. The Reliability and Validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behavior Rating Scales in a Preschool Sample: Continuum Measures of Hyperactivity and Inattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Swanson, James M.; Riggs, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the English and Spanish versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptom and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. Method Parents of preschoolers completed both a SWAN and the well-established Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on two separate occasions over a span of 3 months; instruments were in the primary language of the family (English or Spanish). Results Psychometric properties for the English and Spanish versions of the SWAN were adequate, with high internal consistency and moderate test–retest reliability. Skewness and kurtosis statistics for the SWAN were within the range expected for a normally distributed population. The SWAN also demonstrated adequate convergent and discriminant validity in correlations with the various subscales of the SDQ. Conclusion Psychometric properties of both the English and Spanish versions of the SWAN indicate that it is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring child attention and hyperactivity. The stability of ratings over time in this preschool sample was moderate, which may reflect the relative instability of these characteristics in preschool children. PMID:21807955

  15. Binding of hydrocarbons and other extremely weak ligands to transition metal complexes that coordinate hydrogen: Investigation of cis-interactions and delocalized bonding involving sigma bonds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubas, G.J.; Eckert, J.; Luo, X.L. [and others

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). At the forefront of chemistry are efforts to catalytically transform the inert C-H bonds in alkanes to more useful products using metal compounds. The goal is to observe binding and cleavage of alkane C-H bonds on metals or to use related silane Si-H bonding as models, analogous to the discovery of hydrogen (H{sub 2}) binding to metals. Studies of these unique sigma complexes (M{hor_ellipsis}H-Y; Y{double_bond}H, Si, C) will aid in developing new catalysts or technologies relevant to DOE interest, e.g., new methods for tritium isotope separation. Several transition metals (Mo, W, Mn, and Pt) were found to reversibly bind and cleave H{sub 2}, silanes, and halocarbons. The first metal-SiH{sub 4} complexes, thus serving as a model for methane reactions. A second goal is to study the dynamics and energetics of H-Y bonds on metals by neutron scattering, and evidence for interactions between bound H-Y and nearby H atoms on metal complexes has been found.

  16. Elucidating the Weak Protein-Protein Interaction Mechanisms behind the Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation of a mAb Solution by Different Types of Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoliang; Wang Co-First, Shujing; Tian, Zhou; Zhang, Ning; Sheng, Han; Dai, Weiguo; Qian, Feng

    2017-07-25

    Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has long been observed during the physical stability investigation of therapeutic protein formulations. The buffer conditions and the presence of various excipients are thought to play important roles in the formulation development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In this study, the effects of several small-molecule excipients (histidine, alanine, glycine, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, sorbitol and sucrose) with diverse physical-chemical properties on LLPS of a model IgG1 (JM2) solutions were investigated by multiple techniques, including UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry/fluorimetry, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering. The LLPS of JM2 was confirmed to be a thermodynamic equilibrium process with no structural changes or irreversible aggregation of proteins. Phase diagrams of various JM2 formulations were constructed, suggesting that the phase behavior of JM2 was dependent on the solution pH, ionic strength and the presence of other excipients such as glycine, alanine, sorbitol and sucrose. Furthermore, we demonstrated that for this mAb, the interaction parameter (kD) determined at low protein concentration appeared to be a good predictor for the occurrence of LLPS at high concentration. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Strange Weak Values

    CERN Document Server

    Hosoya, Akio

    2010-01-01

    We develop a formal theory of the weak values with emphasis on the consistency conditions and a probabilistic interpretation in the counter-factual processes. We present the condition for the choice of the post-selected state to give a negative weak value of a given projection operator and strange values of an observable in general. The general framework is applied to Hardy's paradox and the spin $1/2$ system to explicitly address the issues of counter-factuality and strange weak values. The counter-factual arguments which characterize the paradox specifies the pre-selected state and a complete set of the post-selected states clarifies how the strange weak values emerge.

  18. Interactive effects of task difficulty and personality on mood and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Sokichi; Sugiyama, Yoshiki

    2004-05-01

    Susceptibility to stress would presumably be different from person to person and be affected by the cause of the given stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of task difficulty and subject's personality on mood and autonomic nervous function when stress was induced experimentally by tasks involving 3 degrees of difficulty: easy (Task A), difficult but controllable (Task B), and very difficult and uncontrollable (Task C). Twelve healthy female subjects volunteered for the experiment. We assessed their personalities using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire. Mood states were evaluated by a profile of mood states and a frontal alpha laterality ratio (FALR). Autonomic nervous function was estimated by a spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV). Repeated measures analysis of variance applied to two groups (low- and high-) divided by a median split of MMPI clinical scales, revealed significant interactions of time course x task difficulty x Hs (hypochondriasis) in FALR and time course x task difficulty x Pt (psychasthenia) in a low-frequency component and in a high-frequency component of HRV, and in FALR. The differences between low- and high-Hs, and low- and high-Pt were more obvious in Task B session. High-Hs group, whose members tend to place overemphasis on existing physical disorders, showed more negative FALR throughout the session, which would indicate prolonged negative mood possibly due to the task. High-Pt group, whose members tend to be susceptible to stress, showed sympathetic predominance during task period and parasympathetic predominance after task period, which would imply a tendency to overreact. These results suggest that task difficulties would affect mood states assessed by FALR and/or autonomic nervous function differently depending on the subject's personality, especially on Hs and Pt.

  19. Rating Parent-Child Interactions: Joint Engagement, Communication Dynamics, and Shared Topics in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child's…

  20. In the Eye of the Beholder: Subjective and Observer Ratings of Middle-Class African American Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Smetana, Judith G.

    2004-01-01

    Middle-class African American mothers and adolescents (n=81) participated in a dyadic interaction task in early adolescence (M=13.06 years, SD=1.27) and then again 2 years later (M=15.01 years, SD=1.27). Following the task, mothers and adolescents rated their own and their partner's support and involvement in the task; observers rated videotaped…

  1. Dependence of the rate of LiF ion pairing on the description of molecular interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pluharova, Eva; Baer, Marcel D.; Schenter, Gregory K.; Jungwirth, Pavel; Mundy, Christopher J.

    2016-03-03

    We present an analysis of the dynamics of ion-pairing of Lithium Fluoride (LiF) in aqueous solvent using both detailed molecular simulation as well as reduced models within a Gener- alized Langevin Equation (GLE) framework. We explored the sensitivity of the ion-pairing phenomena to the details of descriptions of molecular interaction, comparing two empirical potentials to explicit quantum based density functional theory. We find quantitative differences in the potentials of mean force for ion-pairing as well as time dependent frictions that lead to variations in the rate constant and reactive flux correlation functions. These details reflect differences in solvent response to ion-pairing between different representations of molecular interaction and influence anharmonicity of the dynamic response. We find that the short time anharmonic response is recovered with a GLE parameterization. Recovery of the details of long time response may require extensions to the reduced model. We show that the utility of using a reduced model leads to a straight forward application of variational transition state the- ory concepts to the condensed phase system. The significance of this is reflected in the analysis of committor distributions and the variation of planar hypersurfaces, leading to an improved understanding of factors that determine the rate of LiF ion-pairing. CJM and GKS are supported by the U.S. Department of Energy‘s (DOE) Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences. Pacific Northwest Na- tional Laboratory (PNNL) is operated for the Department of Energy by Battelle. MDB is grateful for the support of Laboratory Directed Research and Development funding under the auspices of PNNL’s Laboratory Initiative Materials Synthesis and Simulation across Scales (MS3). Additional computing resources were generously allocated by PNNL’s Institutional Computing program. EP acknowledges support from PNNL’s Alternate Sponsored

  2. Watt-level, all-fiber, ultrafast Er/Yb-codoped double-clad fiber laser mode-locked by reduced graphene oxide interacting with a weak evanescent field

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Lei; Li, Yujia

    2015-01-01

    We propose a Watt-level, all-fiber, ultrafast Er/Yb-codoped double-clad fiber laser passively mode-locked by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) interacting with a weak evanescent field of photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The rGO solution is filled into the cladding holes of the PCF based on total reflection, and after evaporation, the rGO flakes bear only 1/107 of the total energy in laser system, which enhances the thermal damage threshold and decreases the accumulated nonlinearity. By incorporating the saturable absorber into an Er/Yb-codoped fiber ring cavity, stable conventional soliton with a duration of 573 fs is generated, and a average output power up to 1.14 W is obtained.

  3. Structural insight into the role of Gln293Met mutation on the Peloruside A/Laulimalide association with αβ-tubulin from molecular dynamics simulations, binding free energy calculations and weak interactions analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Matías A; Alderete, Joel B; Jaña, Gonzalo A; Jiménez, Verónica A

    2017-07-01

    Peloruside A (PLA) and Laulimalide (LAU) are novel microtubule-stabilizing agents with promising properties against different cancer types. These ligands share a non-taxoid binding site at the outer surface of β-tubulin and promote microtubule stabilization by bridging two adjacent αβ-tubulin dimers from parallel protofilaments. Recent site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirmed the existence of a unique β-tubulin site mutation (Gln293Met) that specifically increased the activity of PLA and caused resistance to LAU, without affecting the stability of microtubules in the absence of the ligands. In this work, fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to examine the PLA and LAU association with native and mutated αβ-tubulin in the search for structural and energetic evidence to explain the role of Gln293Met mutation on determining the activity of these ligands. Our results revealed that Gln293Met mutation induced the loss of relevant LAU-tubulin contacts but exerted negligible changes in the interaction networks responsible for PLA-tubulin association. Binding free energy calculations (MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA), and weak interaction analysis (aNCI) predicted an increased affinity for PLA, and a weakened association for LAU after mutation, thus suggesting that Gln293Met mutation exerts its action by a modulation of drug-tubulin interactions. These results are valuable to increase understanding about PLA and LAU activity and to assist the future design of novel agents targeting the PLA/LAU binding pocket.

  4. Bayesian inference for genomic data integration reduces misclassification rate in predicting protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhua Xing

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Protein-protein interactions (PPIs are essential to most fundamental cellular processes. There has been increasing interest in reconstructing PPIs networks. However, several critical difficulties exist in obtaining reliable predictions. Noticeably, false positive rates can be as high as >80%. Error correction from each generating source can be both time-consuming and inefficient due to the difficulty of covering the errors from multiple levels of data processing procedures within a single test. We propose a novel Bayesian integration method, deemed nonparametric Bayes ensemble learning (NBEL, to lower the misclassification rate (both false positives and negatives through automatically up-weighting data sources that are most informative, while down-weighting less informative and biased sources. Extensive studies indicate that NBEL is significantly more robust than the classic naïve Bayes to unreliable, error-prone and contaminated data. On a large human data set our NBEL approach predicts many more PPIs than naïve Bayes. This suggests that previous studies may have large numbers of not only false positives but also false negatives. The validation on two human PPIs datasets having high quality supports our observations. Our experiments demonstrate that it is feasible to predict high-throughput PPIs computationally with substantially reduced false positives and false negatives. The ability of predicting large numbers of PPIs both reliably and automatically may inspire people to use computational approaches to correct data errors in general, and may speed up PPIs prediction with high quality. Such a reliable prediction may provide a solid platform to other studies such as protein functions prediction and roles of PPIs in disease susceptibility.

  5. Bayesian inference for genomic data integration reduces misclassification rate in predicting protein-protein interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Chuanhua; Dunson, David B

    2011-07-01

    Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential to most fundamental cellular processes. There has been increasing interest in reconstructing PPIs networks. However, several critical difficulties exist in obtaining reliable predictions. Noticeably, false positive rates can be as high as >80%. Error correction from each generating source can be both time-consuming and inefficient due to the difficulty of covering the errors from multiple levels of data processing procedures within a single test. We propose a novel Bayesian integration method, deemed nonparametric Bayes ensemble learning (NBEL), to lower the misclassification rate (both false positives and negatives) through automatically up-weighting data sources that are most informative, while down-weighting less informative and biased sources. Extensive studies indicate that NBEL is significantly more robust than the classic naïve Bayes to unreliable, error-prone and contaminated data. On a large human data set our NBEL approach predicts many more PPIs than naïve Bayes. This suggests that previous studies may have large numbers of not only false positives but also false negatives. The validation on two human PPIs datasets having high quality supports our observations. Our experiments demonstrate that it is feasible to predict high-throughput PPIs computationally with substantially reduced false positives and false negatives. The ability of predicting large numbers of PPIs both reliably and automatically may inspire people to use computational approaches to correct data errors in general, and may speed up PPIs prediction with high quality. Such a reliable prediction may provide a solid platform to other studies such as protein functions prediction and roles of PPIs in disease susceptibility.

  6. Predictive Finite Rate Model for Oxygen-Carbon Interactions at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovathingal, Savio

    An oxidation model for carbon surfaces is developed to predict ablation rates for carbon heat shields used in hypersonic vehicles. Unlike existing empirical models, the approach used here was to probe gas-surface interactions individually and then based on an understanding of the relevant fundamental processes, build a predictive model that would be accurate over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, and even microstructures. Initially, molecular dynamics was used to understand the oxidation processes on the surface. The molecular dynamics simulations were compared to molecular beam experiments and good qualitative agreement was observed. The simulations reproduced cylindrical pitting observed in the experiments where oxidation was rapid and primarily occurred around a defect. However, the studies were limited to small systems at low temperatures and could simulate time scales only of the order of nanoseconds. Molecular beam experiments at high surface temperature indicated that a majority of surface reaction products were produced through thermal mechanisms. Since the reactions were thermal, they occurred over long time scales which were computationally prohibitive for molecular dynamics to simulate. The experiments provided detailed dynamical data on the scattering of O, O2, CO, and CO2 and it was found that the data from molecular beam experiments could be used directly to build a model. The data was initially used to deduce surface reaction probabilities at 800 K. The reaction probabilities were then incorporated into the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Simulations were performed where the microstructure was resolved and dissociated oxygen convected and diffused towards it. For a gas-surface temperature of 800 K, it was found that despite CO being the dominant surface reaction product, a gas-phase reaction forms significant CO2 within the microstructure region. It was also found that surface area did not play any role in concentration of

  7. Precision measurement of the (7)Be solar neutrino interaction rate in Borexino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonetti, S; Bonfini, G; Buizza Avanzini, M; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Carraro, C; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grandi, L; Guardincerri, E; Hardy, S; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Koshio, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lewke, T; Litvinovich, E; Loer, B; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Manuzio, G; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Montanari, D; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Peña-Garay, C; Perasso, L; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Raghavan, R S; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Sabelnikov, A; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Xu, J; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuzel, G

    2011-09-30

    The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering interactions from 862 keV (7)Be solar neutrinos in Borexino is determined to be 46.0±1.5(stat)(-1.6)(+1.5)(syst) counts/(day·100  ton). This corresponds to a ν(e)-equivalent (7)Be solar neutrino flux of (3.10±0.15)×10(9)  cm(-2) s(-1) and, under the assumption of ν(e) transition to other active neutrino flavours, yields an electron neutrino survival probability of 0.51±0.07 at 862 keV. The no flavor change hypothesis is ruled out at 5.0 σ. A global solar neutrino analysis with free fluxes determines Φ(pp)=6.06(-0.06)(+0.02)×10(10)  cm(-2) s(-1) and Φ(CNO)neutrino oscillation model is experimentally tested at low energy.

  8. Engineering molecular crystals with abnormally weak cohesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maly, Kenneth E; Gagnon, Eric; Wuest, James D

    2011-05-14

    Adding astutely placed methyl groups to hexaphenylbenzene increases molecular weight but simultaneously weakens key C-H···π interactions, thereby leading to decreased enthalpies of sublimation and showing that materials with abnormally weak cohesion can be made by identifying and then obstructing interactions that help control association.

  9. The masculinity paradox: facial masculinity and beardedness interact to determine women's ratings of men's facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, B J W; Sulikowski, D; Gouda-Vossos, A; Rantala, M J; Brooks, R C

    2016-11-01

    In many species, male secondary sexual traits have evolved via female choice as they confer indirect (i.e. genetic) benefits or direct benefits such as enhanced fertility or survival. In humans, the role of men's characteristically masculine androgen-dependent facial traits in determining men's attractiveness has presented an enduring paradox in studies of human mate preferences. Male-typical facial features such as a pronounced brow ridge and a more robust jawline may signal underlying health, whereas beards may signal men's age and masculine social dominance. However, masculine faces are judged as more attractive for short-term relationships over less masculine faces, whereas beards are judged as more attractive than clean-shaven faces for long-term relationships. Why such divergent effects occur between preferences for two sexually dimorphic traits remains unresolved. In this study, we used computer graphic manipulation to morph male faces varying in facial hair from clean-shaven, light stubble, heavy stubble and full beards to appear more (+25% and +50%) or less (-25% and -50%) masculine. Women (N = 8520) were assigned to treatments wherein they rated these stimuli for physical attractiveness in general, for a short-term liaison or a long-term relationship. Results showed a significant interaction between beardedness and masculinity on attractiveness ratings. Masculinized and, to an even greater extent, feminized faces were less attractive than unmanipulated faces when all were clean-shaven, and stubble and beards dampened the polarizing effects of extreme masculinity and femininity. Relationship context also had effects on ratings, with facial hair enhancing long-term, and not short-term, attractiveness. Effects of facial masculinization appear to have been due to small differences in the relative attractiveness of each masculinity level under the three treatment conditions and not to any change in the order of their attractiveness. Our findings suggest that

  10. High Textbook Reading Rates When Using an Interactive Textbook for a Material and Energy Balances Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Textbooks are experiencing a 21st century makeover. The author has created a web-based electronic textbook, Material and Energy Balances zyBook, that records students' interactions. Animations and question sets create interactive and scaffolded content. The interactive format is adopted successfully in other engineering disciplines and is now…

  11. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  12. Weak Consistency and Convergence Rate of Quasi -Maximum Likelihood Estimated in Generalized Linear Models%广义线性模型中拟似然估计的弱相合性及收敛速度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓春亮; 胡南辉

    2012-01-01

    在非自然联系情形下讨论了广义线性模型拟似然方程的解βn在λn→∞和其他一些正则性条件下证明了解的弱相合性,并得到其收敛于真值βo的速度为Op(λn^-1/2),其中λn(λ^-n)为方阵Sn=n∑i=1XiX^11的最小(最大)特征值.%In this paper,we study the solution βn of quasi - maximum likelihood equation for generalized linear mod- els (GLMs). Under the assumption of an unnatural link function and other some mild conditions , we prove the weak consistency of the solution to βnquasi - - maximum likelihood equation and present its convergence rate isOp(λn^-1/2),λn(^λn) which denotes the smallest (Maximum)eigervalue of the matrixSn =n∑i=1XiX^11,

  13. Strong and weak compatibility of services interacting under a specific environment and its reachable analysis%给定环境下服务接口交互的强弱相容性及可达性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈波

    2011-01-01

    组合服务的接口交互行为的分析和检测是服务计算领域的一个重要课题。本文以接口自动机为组合服务接口模型,引入组合环境的因素,提出了在给定的组合环境下服务接口交互强弱相容性的概念,并给出了相容性判定的判据表达式。通过遍历组合服务接口模型进行可达性分析,并通过检测判据表达式是否满足来判定服务接口交互的相容性,同时实现了服务与环境交互相容性的判定。%Analysis and verification of composite services interacting with an interface is an important issue in service computing.The interface automata are taken as the model of composite services interacting in this paper.By introducing an environment factor into analysis,the concept of strong and weak compatibility of service interacting under specific environment is proposed,and the expression of criterion for compatibility checking is presented.In order to check the compatibility of service interfaces,the interacting model of composite services is traversed with the reachable analysis,and the compatibility of service with environment has been checked.

  14. WEAK CONVERGENCE OF SOME SERIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper continues the study of [1] on weak functions.The weak convergence theory is investigated in complex analysis,Fourier transform and Mellin transform.A Mobius inverse formula of weak functions is obtained.

  15. On the Path Towards Universal Weak Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershtein, S. S.

    2013-06-01

    I will always remember my first meeting with YaB REFID="9789814436571_0009FN001">. In the autumn of 1951, after my graduation from Moscow State University, I ended up as a teacher of physics and mathematics in a high school in a village called Belousovo in the Kaluga Region, 105 km from Moscow. Sitting in the evenings at dinner with the old peasant woman who kindly took care of me, and in whose izba (loghouse) I lived, I looked at my university notes and, listening to the rain beating on the window, beyond which was pitch darkness, I consciously bade farewell to the scientific activity for which I had prepared at university.

  16. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within the...

  17. On closed weak supplemented modules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Qing-yi; SHI Mei-hua

    2006-01-01

    A module M is called closed weak supplemented if for any closed submodule N of M, there is a submodule K of M such that M=K+N and K(c)N<<M. Any direct summand of closed weak supplemented module is also closed weak supplemented.Any nonsingular image of closed weak supplemented module is closed weak supplemented. Nonsingular V-rings in which all nonsingular modules are closed weak supplemented are characterized in Section 4.

  18. Effects of Parental Interaction on Infant Vocalization Rate, Variability and Vocal Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Beau; Warlaumont, Anne S.; Messinger, Daniel; Bene, Edina; Iyer, Suneeti Nathani; Lee, Chia-Chang; Lambert, Brittany; Oller, D. Kimbrough

    2014-01-01

    Examination of infant vocalization patterns across interactive and noninteractive contexts may facilitate better understanding of early communication development. In the current study, with 24 infant-parent dyads, infant volubility increased significantly when parent interaction ceased (presenting a "still face," or SF) after a period of…

  19. Web GIS in practice: an interactive geographical interface to English Primary Care Trust performance ratings for 2003 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Boulos Maged N

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 21 July 2004, the Healthcare Commission http://www.healthcarecommission.org.uk/ released its annual star ratings of the performance of NHS Primary Care Trusts (PCTs in England for the year ending March 2004. The Healthcare Commission started work on 1 April 2004, taking over all the functions of the former Commission for Health Improvement http://www.chi.nhs.uk/, which had released the corresponding PCT ratings for 2002/2003 in July 2003. Results We produced two Web-based interactive maps of PCT star ratings, one for 2003 and the other for 2004 http://healthcybermap.org/PCT/ratings/, with handy functions like map search (by PCT name or part of it. The maps feature a colour-blind friendly quadri-colour scheme to represent PCT star ratings. Clicking a PCT on any of the maps will display the detailed performance report of that PCT for the corresponding year. Conclusion Using our Web-based interactive maps, users can visually appreciate at a glance the distribution of PCT performance across England. They can visually compare the performance of different PCTs in the same year and also between 2003 and 2004 (by switching between the synchronised 'PCT Ratings 2003' and 'PCT Ratings 2004' themes. The performance of many PCTs has improved in 2004, whereas some PCTs achieved lower ratings in 2004 compared to 2003. Web-based interactive geographical interfaces offer an intuitive way of indexing, accessing, mining, and understanding large healthcare information sets describing geographically differentiated phenomena. By acting as an enhanced alternative or supplement to purely textual online interfaces, interactive Web maps can further empower organisations and decision makers.

  20. Rating Parent-Child Interactions: Joint Engagement, Communication Dynamics, and Shared Topics in Autism, Down Syndrome, and Typical Development

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Lauren B.; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F.; Nelson, P. Brooke

    2012-01-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child’s joint engagement correlated very strongly with state coding of joint engagement and replicated the findings that coordinated joint engagement was l...

  1. "Weak quantum chaos" and its resistor network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Alexander; Pecora, Louis M; Cohen, Doron

    2011-06-01

    Weakly chaotic or weakly interacting systems have a wide regime where the common random matrix theory modeling does not apply. As an example we consider cold atoms in a nearly integrable optical billiard with a displaceable wall (piston). The motion is completely chaotic but with a small Lyapunov exponent. The Hamiltonian matrix does not look like one taken from a Gaussian ensemble, but rather it is very sparse and textured. This can be characterized by parameters s and g which reflect the percentage of large elements and their connectivity, respectively. For g we use a resistor network calculation that has a direct relation to the semilinear response characteristics of the system, hence leading to a prediction regarding the energy absorption rate of cold atoms in optical billiards with vibrating walls.

  2. "Weak Quantum Chaos" and its resistor network modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Stotland, Alexander; Cohen, Doron

    2011-01-01

    Weakly chaotic or weakly interacting systems have a wide regime where the common random matrix theory modeling does not apply. As an example we consider cold atoms in a nearly integrable optical billiard with displaceable wall ("piston"). The motion is completely chaotic but with small Lyapunov exponent. The Hamiltonian matrix does not look like one taken from a Gaussian ensemble, but rather it is very sparse and textured. This can be characterized by parameters $s$ and $g$ that reflect the percentage of large elements, and their connectivity, respectively. For $g$ we use a resistor network calculation that has a direct relation to the semi-linear response characteristics of the system, hence leading to a novel prediction regarding the rate of heating of cold atoms in optical billiards with vibrating walls.

  3. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the fracture behavior of weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of the samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be studied in detail. We found a fracture in shear immediately followed by a collapse of the weak layer.

  4. Low wages and high unemployment rates : The role of social interactions in hiring discrimination

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques, Jean-François; Walkowiak, Emmanuelle

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain why low-wage workers with identical qualifications to higher-wage workers are more exposed to unemployment. Each worker is considered to belong to a social group (defined according to his/her gender, age, and nationality). We assume that workers experience both productive interdependencies and social interactions within the firm. Also inter- and intra-group interactions determine worker productivity, and frictions on the labor market limit the hiring of...

  5. RPA puzzle in ${^{12}C}$ weak decay processes

    CERN Document Server

    Krmpotic, F; Samana, A

    2002-01-01

    We explain the origin of the difficulties that appear in a straightforward application of the QRPA in ${^{12}C}$, and we demonstrate that it is imperative to use the projected QRPA (PQRPA). Satisfactory results, not only for the weak processes among the ground states of the triad $\\{{{^{12}B},{^{12}C},{^{12}N}}\\}$, but also for the inclusive ones are obtained. We sketch as well a new formalism for the neutrino-nucleus interaction that furnishes very simple final formulae for the muon capture rate and neutrino induced cross sections.

  6. Effects of cochlear-implant pulse rate and inter-channel timing on channel interactions and thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, John C.

    2004-07-01

    Interactions among the multiple channels of a cochlear prosthesis limit the number of channels of information that can be transmitted to the brain. This study explored the influence on channel interactions of electrical pulse rates and temporal offsets between channels. Anesthetized guinea pigs were implanted with 2-channel scala-tympani electrode arrays, and spike activity was recorded from the auditory cortex. Channel interactions were quantified as the reduction of the threshold for pulse-train stimulation of the apical channel by sub-threshold stimulation of the basal channel. Pulse rates were 254 or 4069 pulses per second (pps) per channel. Maximum threshold reductions averaged 9.6 dB when channels were stimulated simultaneously. Among nonsimultaneous conditions, threshold reductions at the 254-pps rate were entirely eliminated by a 1966-μs inter-channel offset. When offsets were only 41 to 123 μs, however, maximum threshold shifts averaged 3.1 dB, which was comparable to the dynamic ranges of cortical neurons in this experimental preparation. Threshold reductions at 4069 pps averaged up to 1.3 dB greater than at 254 pps, which raises some concern in regard to high-pulse-rate speech processors. Thresholds for various paired-pulse stimuli, pulse rates, and pulse-train durations were measured to test possible mechanisms of temporal integration.

  7. Maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and mother-child interactions in families of children with externalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, C; Pelham, W E

    1990-08-01

    Relationships among maternal characteristics, ratings of child behavior, and observed mother-child interactions were examined in a sample of 40 4- to 12-year-old children with externalizing disorders. Mothers and children were observed in a task interaction and mothers provided self-reports of depressed mood, parenting self-esteem, marital satisfaction, social support, and life stress. Child behavior was rated by both mothers and teachers. Several significant correlations were found among observed mother and child behaviors and among maternal self-report measures. However, few significant relationships were found between maternal characteristics and observed mother or child behavior. Although life stress predicted increased child negativity, maternal depressed mood was related to more appropriate child behavior. Mother and teacher ratings of child behavior demonstrated few significant relationships with other measures. These results suggest that, in samples comprised primarily of children with attention deficit disorder from socially advantaged families, few relationships exist between maternal characteristics, parenting behavior, and child behavior.

  8. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.......The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results....

  9. Effect of repulsive interactions on the rate of doublet formation of colloidal nanoparticles in the presence of convective transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattuada, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2011-03-01

    In this work, we have performed a systematic investigation of the effect of electrostatic repulsive interactions on the aggregation rate of colloidal nanoparticles to from doublets in the presence of a convective transport mechanism. The aggregation rate has been computed by solving numerically the Fuchs-Smoluchowski diffusion-convection equation. Two convective transport mechanisms have been considered: extensional flow field and gravity-induced relative sedimentation. A broad range of conditions commonly encountered in the applications of colloidal dispersions has been analyzed. The relative importance of convective to diffusive contributions has been quantified by using the Peclet number Pe. The simulation results indicate that, in the presence of repulsive interactions, the evolution of the aggregation rate as a function of Pe can always be divided into three distinct regimes, no matter which convective mechanism is considered. At low Pe values the rate of aggregation is independent of convection and is dominated by repulsive interactions. At high Pe values, the rate of aggregation is dominated by convection, and independent of repulsive interactions. At intermediate Pe values, a sharp transition between these two regimes occurs. During this transition, which occurs usually over a 10-100-fold increase in Pe values, the aggregation rate can change by several orders of magnitude. The interval of Pe values where this transition occurs depends upon the nature of the convective transport mechanism, as well as on the height and characteristic lengthscale of the repulsive barrier. A simplified model has been proposed that is capable of quantitatively accounting for the simulations results. The obtained results reveal unexpected features of the effect of ionic strength and particle size on the stability of colloidal suspensions under shear or sedimentation, which have relevant consequences in industrial applications.

  10. The Weak Haagerup Property II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....

  11. Search for long-lived, weakly interacting particles that decay to displaced hadronic jets in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Ruderman, Joshua Thomas; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Saimpert, Matthias; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    A search for the decay of neutral, weakly interacting, long-lived particles using data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC is presented. This analysis uses the full dataset recorded in 2012: 20.3 fb$^{-1}$ of proton--proton collision data at $\\sqrt{s} = 8$ TeV. The search employs techniques for reconstructing decay vertices of long-lived particles decaying to jets in the inner tracking detector and muon spectrometer. Signal events require at least two reconstructed vertices. No significant excess of events over the expected background is found, and limits as a function of proper lifetime are reported for the decay of the Higgs boson and other scalar bosons to long-lived particles and for Hidden Valley $Z^\\prime$ and Stealth SUSY benchmark models. The first search results for displaced decays in $Z^\\prime$ and Stealth SUSY models are presented. The upper bounds of the excluded proper lifetimes are the most stringent to date.

  12. Weak martingale Hardy spaces and weak atomic decompositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU; Youliang; REN; Yanbo

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we define some weak martingale Hardy spaces and three kinds of weak atoms. They are the counterparts of martingale Hardy spaces and atoms in the classical martingale Hp-theory. And then three atomic decomposition theorems for martingales in weak martingale Hardy spaces are proved. With the help of the weak atomic decompositions of martingale, a sufficient condition for a sublinear operator defined on the weak martingale Hardy spaces to be bounded is given. Using the sufficient condition, we obtain a series of martingale inequalities with respect to the weak Lp-norm, the inequalities of weak (p ,p)-type and some continuous imbedding relationships between various weak martingale Hardy spaces. These inequalities are the weak versions of the basic inequalities in the classical martingale Hp-theory.

  13. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang [Center for General Education, Chang Gung University,Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Fei-Fan [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lee, Feng-Shiuh [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Guey-Lin [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsung-Che [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Yi [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-22

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar{sub e}+p→n+e{sup +}, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar{sub e} flux with the ν-bar{sub x} (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  14. Weak Quasielastic Production of Hyperons

    CERN Document Server

    Athar, M Sajjad; Alam, M Rafi; Chauhan, S; Singh, S K

    2016-01-01

    We present the results for antineutrino induced quasielastic hyperon production from nucleon and nuclear targets \\cite{Alam:2014bya,Singh:2006xp}. The inputs are the nucleon-hyperon(N--Y) transition form factors determined from the analysis of neutrino-nucleon scattering and semileptonic decays of neutron and hyperons using SU(3) symmetry. The calculations for the nuclear targets are done in local density approximation. The nuclear medium effects(NME) like Fermi motion, Pauli blocking and final state interaction(FSI) effects due to hyperon-nucleon scattering have been taken into account. The hyperons giving rise to pions through weak decays also contribute to the weak pion production in addition to the $\\Delta$ excitation mechanism which dominates in the energy region of $<$ 0.7 GeV. We also present the results of longitudinal and perpendicular components of polarization of final hyperon \\cite{Akbar:2016awk}. These measurements in the future accelerator experiments with antineutrinos may give some informat...

  15. An Interactive Classroom Activity Demonstrating Reaction Mechanisms and Rate-Determining Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Laura D.; Keller, Steven W.

    2005-01-01

    An interactive classroom activity that includes two-step reaction of unwrapping and eating chocolate candies is described which brings not only the reaction intermediate, but also the reactants and products into macroscopic view. The qualitative activation barriers of both steps can be adjusted independently.

  16. Hill Interaction Matrix (HIM): The Conceptual Framework, Derived Rating Scales, and an Updated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, W. Fawcett

    1977-01-01

    Essentially, the HIM is a systematic set of categories developed for use in understanding and classifying interaction in small groups, especially therapy groups. It has, however, been used not only on T-groups, encounter groups, discussion groups, and such, but also on individual and dyadic counseling sessions. (Author)

  17. Inversion assuming weak scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xenaki, Angeliki; Gerstoft, Peter; Mosegaard, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The study of weak scattering from inhomogeneous media or interface roughness has long been of interest in sonar applications. In an acoustic backscattering model of a stationary field of volume inhomogeneities, a stochastic description of the field is more useful than a deterministic description...... due to the complex nature of the field. A method based on linear inversion is employed to infer information about the statistical properties of the scattering field from the obtained cross-spectral matrix. A synthetic example based on an active high-frequency sonar demonstrates that the proposed...

  18. The Weak Neutral Current

    CERN Document Server

    Erler, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This is a review of electroweak precision physics with particular emphasis on low-energy precision measurements in the neutral current sector of the electroweak theory and includes future experimental prospects and the theoretical challenges one faces to interpret these observables. Within the minimal Standard Model they serve as determinations of the weak mixing angle which are competitive with and complementary to those obtained near the Z-resonance. In the context of new physics beyond the Standard Model these measurements are crucial to discriminate between models and to reduce the allowed parameter space within a given model. We illustrate this for the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model with or without R-parity.

  19. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  20. Weakly broken galileon symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirtskhalava, David [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Santoni, Luca; Trincherini, Enrico [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Vernizzi, Filippo [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette cédex, F-91191 (France)

    2015-09-01

    Effective theories of a scalar ϕ invariant under the internal galileon symmetryϕ→ϕ+b{sub μ}x{sup μ} have been extensively studied due to their special theoretical and phenomenological properties. In this paper, we introduce the notion of weakly broken galileon invariance, which characterizes the unique class of couplings of such theories to gravity that maximally retain their defining symmetry. The curved-space remnant of the galileon’s quantum properties allows to construct (quasi) de Sitter backgrounds largely insensitive to loop corrections. We exploit this fact to build novel cosmological models with interesting phenomenology, relevant for both inflation and late-time acceleration of the universe.

  1. Weak values obtained from mass-energy equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Miao

    2017-01-01

    Quantum weak measurement, measuring some observable quantities within the selected subensemble of the entire quantum ensemble, can produce many interesting results such as the superluminal phenomena. An outcome of such a measurement is the weak value which has been applied to amplify some weak signals of quantum interactions in lots of previous references. Here, we apply the weak measurement to the system of relativistic cold atoms. According to mass-energy equivalence, the internal energy of an atom will contribute its rest mass and consequently the external momentum of center of mass. This implies a weak coupling between the internal and external degrees of freedom of atoms moving in the free space. After a duration of this coupling, a weak value can be obtained by post-selecting an internal state of atoms. We show that the weak value can change the momentum uncertainty of atoms and consequently help us to experimentally measure the weak effects arising from mass-energy equivalence.

  2. Weakly nonlinear simulation of planar stratified flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Michael R. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); McCready, Mark J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial behavior of two-fluid, planar flows is studied by numerical integration of weakly-nonlinear amplitude equations derived via eigenfunction expansion of the governing equations. This study extends the range of classic Stuart-Landau theories by the inclusion of a spectrum of modes allowing all possible quadratic and cubic interactions. Results are obtained for four cases where linear and Stuart-Landau theories do not give a complete description; gas-liquid and oil-water pressure driven flow, matched-density liquid-liquid Couette flow, and the region of gas-liquid flow near resonance that switches from supercritical to subcritical. It is found that integration of amplitude equations gives better qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments than Stuart-Landau theory. Further, the distinctively different behaviors of these systems can be understood in terms of the spectrum of nonlinear coefficients. In gas-liquid channel flow a low wave number wave is destabilized through quadratic interaction with the mean flow mode. For liquid-liquid Poiseuille flow, a low wave number wave is destabilized through cubic interactions with higher modes. For depth and viscosity ratios where liquid-liquid Couette flow is unstable to long waves and for which the growth rates are not too large, simulation results predict that the waves grow to a statistically steady state where there is no preferred wave number. Stabilization is provided by an apparently self-similar cascade of energy to higher modes that are linearly stable, explaining why no visible waves occur in experiments done in this region. While Stuart-Landau theory provides no prediction of wave amplitude above criticality for subcritical cases, simulations show that wave saturation at small amplitude is possible and suggests that subcritical predictions may not mean that steady waves do not exist. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  3. ICU-Acquired Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Sarah E; Bunnell, Aaron E; Hough, Catherine L

    2016-11-01

    Survivorship after critical illness is an increasingly important health-care concern as ICU use continues to increase while ICU mortality is decreasing. Survivors of critical illness experience marked disability and impairments in physical and cognitive function that persist for years after their initial ICU stay. Newfound impairment is associated with increased health-care costs and use, reductions in health-related quality of life, and prolonged unemployment. Weakness, critical illness neuropathy and/or myopathy, and muscle atrophy are common in patients who are critically ill, with up to 80% of patients admitted to the ICU developing some form of neuromuscular dysfunction. ICU-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is associated with longer durations of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization, along with greater functional impairment for survivors. Although there is increasing recognition of ICUAW as a clinical entity, significant knowledge gaps exist concerning identifying patients at high risk for its development and understanding its role in long-term outcomes after critical illness. This review addresses the epidemiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of ICUAW; highlights the diagnostic challenges associated with its diagnosis in patients who are critically ill; and proposes, to our knowledge, a novel strategy for identifying ICUAW. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Strong-field ionization rates of linear polyenes simulated with time-dependent configuration interaction with an absorbing potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Pascal; Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    2014-11-01

    The strong field ionization rates for ethylene, trans 1,3-butadiene, and trans,trans 1,3,5-hexatriene have been calculated using time-dependent configuration interaction with single excitations and a complex absorbing potential (TDCIS-CAP). The calculations used the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set with a large set of diffuse functions (3 s, 2 p, 3 d, and 1 f) on each atom. The absorbing boundary was placed 3.5 times the van der Waals radius from each atom. The simulations employed a seven-cycle cosine squared pulse with a wavelength of 800 nm. Ionization rates were calculated for intensities ranging from 0.3 × 1014 W/cm2 to 3.5 × 1014 W/cm2. Ionization rates along the molecular axis increased markedly with increasing conjugation length. By contrast, ionization rates perpendicular to the molecular axis were almost independent of the conjugation length.

  5. Influence of the Chemical Interactions on the Removal Rate of Different Salts in Electrokinetic Desalination Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination techniques have been successfully applied for the prevention of salt-induced deterioration problems of masonry and other construction materials. A mathematical model for electrochemical desalination treatments is described, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system...... and sculptures. Simulations of the desalination treatment of brick samples contaminated with these target contaminants are shown. The influence of the chemical interactions on the efficiency is highlighted in the results....

  6. Some Analytical Properties of the Model for Stochastic Evolutionary Games in Finite Populations with Non-uniform Interaction Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Ji; WANG Xian-Jia

    2013-01-01

    Traditional evolutionary games assume uniform interaction rate,which means that the rate at which individuals meet and interact is independent of their strategies.But in some systems,especially biological systems,the players interact with each other discriminately.Taylor and Nowak (2006) were the first to establish the corresponding non-uniform interaction rate model by allowing the interaction rates to depend on strategies.Their model is based on replicator dynamics which assumes an infinite size population.But in reality,the number of individuals in the population is always finite,and there will be some random interference in the individuals' strategy selection process.Therefore,it is more practical to establish the corresponding stochastic evolutionary model in finite populations.In fact,the analysis of evolutionary games in a finite size population is more difficult.Just as Taylor and Nowak said in the outlook section of their paper,"The analysis of non-uniform interaction rates should be extended to stochastic game dynamics of finite populations." In this paper,we are exactly doing this work.We extend Taylor and Nowak's model from infinite to finite case,especially focusing on the influence of non-uniform connection characteristics on the evolutionary stable state of the system.We model the strategy evolutionary process of the population by a continuous ergodic Markov process.Based on the fimit distribution of the process,we can give the evolutionary stable state of the system.We make a complete classification of the symmetric 2 × 2 games.For each case game,the corresponding limit distribution of the Markov-based process is given when noise intensity is small enough.In contrast with most literatures in evolutionary games using the simulation method,all our results obtained are analytical.Especially,in the dominant-case game,coexistence of the two strategies may become evolutionary stable states in our model.This result can be used to explain the emergence of

  7. Exchange rate and oil price interactions in transition economies: Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat Tayfur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates causal dynamics between crude oil prices and exchange rates in Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary by employing monthly data from the beginning of flexible exchange regime in each country to December 2011. The study benefits from the recent advance in the time series econometric analysis and carries out linear causality, non-linear causality, volatility spillover and frequency domain causality tests. The frequency domain causality analysis results imply that oil price fluctuations affect real exchange rates in the long run in Poland and Czech Republic. On the other hand, frequency domain causality test results indicate that oil price fluctuations do not affect exchange rate in any period in Hungary despite its economy’s high imported energy dependency.

  8. Effects of different kinds of couple interaction on cortisol and heart rate responses to stress in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzen, Beate; Neumann, Inga D; Bodenmann, Guy; von Dawans, Bernadette; Turner, Rebecca A; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2007-06-01

    In animal studies, positive social interaction and physical contact play a preeminent role in the control of behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress. The aim of this study was to determine whether specific kinds of couple interaction reduce hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and autonomic responses to psychosocial stress in women. Sixty-seven women, aged 20-37 years, who had been married or cohabiting with a male partner for at least 12 months at the time of the study, were exposed to a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test). Participants were randomly assigned to three study groups differing in the type of a 10-min period of social interaction with their partner prior to stress: n=25 with no partner interaction, n=22 with verbal social support, and n=20 with physical contact (standardized neck and shoulder massage). Salivary free cortisol levels, plasma levels of oxytocin, heart rate, and psychological responses to stress were compared among the three study groups. Women with positive physical partner contact before stress exhibited significantly lower cortisol and heart rate responses to stress but no different plasma oxytocin levels compared to women who received social support or no social interaction. Verbal social support alone was not associated with reduced stress responsiveness. Our results are in line with previous human studies indicating reduced responsiveness to verbal social support by a spouse in women. More importantly, these findings imply a direct protective effect of touch on stress-related neurobiological systems as a possible underlying mechanism of health beneficial effects of positive couple interaction.

  9. Gender-age interaction in incidence rates of childhood emotional disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselhoeft, R; Pedersen, C B; Mortensen, P B

    2014-01-01

    rates of emotional disorders throughout childhood. METHOD: This is a population-based cohort study of 907 806 Danish 3- to 18-year-olds. The outcome was assignment of an emotional disorder diagnosis based on in-patient and out-patient data from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Outcome measures...

  10. Modeling circadian clock-cell cycle interaction effects on cell population growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Cheikh, R; Bernard, S; El Khatib, N

    2014-12-21

    The circadian clock and the cell cycle are two tightly coupled oscillators. Recent analytical studies have shown counter-intuitive effects of circadian gating of the cell cycle on growth rates of proliferating cells which cannot be explained by a molecular model or a population model alone. In this work, we present a combined molecular-population model that studies how coupling the circadian clock to the cell cycle, through the protein WEE1, affects a proliferating cell population. We show that the cell cycle can entrain to the circadian clock with different rational period ratios and characterize multiple domains of entrainment. We show that coupling increases the growth rate for autonomous periods of the cell cycle around 24 h and above 48 h. We study the effect of mutation of circadian genes on the growth rate of cells and show that disruption of the circadian clock can lead to abnormal proliferation. Particularly, we show that Cry 1, Cry 2 mutations decrease the growth rate of cells, Per 2 mutation enhances it and Bmal 1 knockout increases it for autonomous periods of the cell cycle less than 21 h and decreases it elsewhere. Combining a molecular model to a population model offers new insight on the influence of the circadian clock on the growth of a cell population. This can help chronotherapy which takes benefits of physiological rhythms to improve anti-cancer efficacy and tolerance to drugs by administering treatments at a specific time of the day.

  11. Interacting Effects of Instructions and Presentation Rate on Visual Statistical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eBertels

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The statistical regularities of a sequence of visual shapes can be learned incidentally. Arciuli et al. (2014 recently argued that intentional instructions only improve learning at slow presentation rates as they favor the use of explicit strategies. The aim of the present study was (1 to test this assumption directly by investigating how instructions (incidental vs. intentional and presentation rate (fast vs. slow affect the acquisition of knowledge and (2 to examine how these factors influence the conscious vs. unconscious nature of the knowledge acquired. To this aim, we exposed participants to four triplets of shapes, presented sequentially in a pseudo-random order, and assessed their degree of learning in a subsequent completion task that integrated confidence judgments. Supporting Arciuli et al.’s claim, participant performance only benefited from intentional instructions at slow presentation rates. Moreover, informing participants beforehand about the existence of statistical regularities increased their explicit knowledge of the sequences, an effect that was not modulated by presentation speed. These results support that, although visual statistical learning can take place incidentally and, to some extent, outside conscious awareness, factors such as presentation rate and prior knowledge can boost learning of these regularities, presumably by favoring the acquisition of explicit knowledge.

  12. Modeling Chemical Interaction Profiles: II. Molecular Docking, Spectral Data-Activity Relationship, and Structure-Activity Relationship Models for Potent and Weak Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 Isozyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Demchuk

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP enzymes, inhibition of CYP activity has long been associated with potentially adverse health effects. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty pertaining to CYP-mediated drug-drug/chemical interactions, an interagency collaborative group developed a consensus approach to prioritizing information concerning CYP inhibition. The consensus involved computational molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR, and structure-activity relationship (SAR models that addressed the clinical potency of CYP inhibition. The models were built upon chemicals that were categorized as either potent or weak inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isozyme. The categorization was carried out using information from clinical trials because currently available in vitro high-throughput screening data were not fully representative of the in vivo potency of inhibition. During categorization it was found that compounds, which break the Lipinski rule of five by molecular weight, were about twice more likely to be inhibitors of CYP3A4 compared to those, which obey the rule. Similarly, among inhibitors that break the rule, potent inhibitors were 2–3 times more frequent. The molecular docking classification relied on logistic regression, by which the docking scores from different docking algorithms, CYP3A4 three-dimensional structures, and binding sites on them were combined in a unified probabilistic model. The SDAR models employed a multiple linear regression approach applied to binned 1D 13C-NMR and 1D 15N-NMR spectral descriptors. Structure-based and physical-chemical descriptors were used as the basis for developing SAR models by the decision forest method. Thirty-three potent inhibitors

  13. Modeling chemical interaction profiles: II. Molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship, and structure-activity relationship models for potent and weak inhibitors of cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 isozyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Yunfeng; McPhail, Brooks; Hong, Huixiao; Pearce, Bruce A; Schnackenberg, Laura K; Ge, Weigong; Buzatu, Dan A; Wilkes, Jon G; Fuscoe, James C; Tong, Weida; Fowler, Bruce A; Beger, Richard D; Demchuk, Eugene

    2012-03-15

    Polypharmacy increasingly has become a topic of public health concern, particularly as the U.S. population ages. Drug labels often contain insufficient information to enable the clinician to safely use multiple drugs. Because many of the drugs are bio-transformed by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, inhibition of CYP activity has long been associated with potentially adverse health effects. In an attempt to reduce the uncertainty pertaining to CYP-mediated drug-drug/chemical interactions, an interagency collaborative group developed a consensus approach to prioritizing information concerning CYP inhibition. The consensus involved computational molecular docking, spectral data-activity relationship (SDAR), and structure-activity relationship (SAR) models that addressed the clinical potency of CYP inhibition. The models were built upon chemicals that were categorized as either potent or weak inhibitors of the CYP3A4 isozyme. The categorization was carried out using information from clinical trials because currently available in vitro high-throughput screening data were not fully representative of the in vivo potency of inhibition. During categorization it was found that compounds, which break the Lipinski rule of five by molecular weight, were about twice more likely to be inhibitors of CYP3A4 compared to those, which obey the rule. Similarly, among inhibitors that break the rule, potent inhibitors were 2-3 times more frequent. The molecular docking classification relied on logistic regression, by which the docking scores from different docking algorithms, CYP3A4 three-dimensional structures, and binding sites on them were combined in a unified probabilistic model. The SDAR models employed a multiple linear regression approach applied to binned 1D ¹³C-NMR and 1D ¹⁵N-NMR spectral descriptors. Structure-based and physical-chemical descriptors were used as the basis for developing SAR models by the decision forest method. Thirty-three potent inhibitors and 88 weak

  14. Weak Quantum Ergodicity

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, L

    1998-01-01

    We examine the consequences of classical ergodicity for the localization properties of individual quantum eigenstates in the classical limit. We note that the well known Schnirelman result is a weaker form of quantum ergodicity than the one implied by random matrix theory. This suggests the possibility of systems with non-gaussian random eigenstates which are nonetheless ergodic in the sense of Schnirelman and lead to ergodic transport in the classical limit. These we call "weakly quantum ergodic.'' Indeed for a class of "slow ergodic" classical systems, it is found that each eigenstate becomes localized to an ever decreasing fraction of the available state space, in the semiclassical limit. Nevertheless, each eigenstate in this limit covers phase space evenly on any classical scale, and long-time transport properties betwen individual quantum states remain ergodic due to the diffractive effects which dominate quantum phase space exploration.

  15. Direct determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid, in fruits and vegetables by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion-exchange liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Xue; Cao, Zhao-Yun; Jiang, Yan; Zhu, Zhi-Wei

    2013-01-11

    A novel method was developed for the direct, sensitive, and rapid determination of glyphosate and its major metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in fruit and vegetable samples by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion-exchange liquid chromatography (HILIC/WAX) coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Homogenized samples were extracted with water, without derivatization or further clean-up, and the extracts were injected directly onto the Asahipak NH2P-50 4E column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 μm). The best results were obtained when the column was operated under mixed-mode HILIC/WAX elution conditions. An initial 10-min washing step with acetonitrile/water (10:90, v/v) in HILIC mode was used to remove potentially interfering compounds, and then the analytes were eluted in WAX mode with acetonitrile and water containing 0.1 molL(-1) ammonium hydroxide under gradient elution for the ESI analysis in negative ion mode. Limits of quantification of glyphosate and AMPA were 5 μgkg(-1) and 50 μgkg(-1), respectively, with limits of detection as low as 1.2 μgkg(-1) for glyphosate and 15 μgkg(-1) for AMPA. The linearity was satisfactory, with correlation coefficients (r)>0.9966. Recovery studies were carried out on spiked matrices (6 vegetables, 3 fruits) with glyphosate at four concentrations and AMPA at three concentrations. The mean recoveries for glyphosate and AMPA were 75.3-110% and 76.1-110%, respectively, with relative standard deviations in the range of 1.1-13.8%. The intra-day precision (n=7) for glyphosate and AMPA in vegetable and fruit samples spiked at an intermediate level between 5.9% and 7.5%, and the inter-day precision over 11 days (n=11) was between 7.0% and 13%.

  16. On the influence of the hydrodynamic interactions on the aggregation rate of magnetic spheres in a dilute suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, F.R., E-mail: frcunha@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica, Grupo de Mecanica dos Fluidos de Escoamentos Complexos - VORTEX, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Couto, H.L.G. [Universidade de Brasilia, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica, Grupo de Mecanica dos Fluidos de Escoamentos Complexos - VORTEX, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Magnetostatic attraction may lead to formation of aggregates in stable colloidal magnetic suspensions and magneto-rheological suspensions. The aggregation problem of magnetic composites under differential sedimentation is a key problem in the control of the instability of non-Brownian suspensions. Against these attractive forces are the electrostatic repulsion and the hydrodynamic interactions acting as stabilizing effects to the suspension. This work concerns an investigation of the pairwise interaction of magnetic particles in a dilute sedimenting suspension. We focus attention on suspensions where the Peclet number is large (negligible Brownian motion) and where the Reynolds number (negligible inertia) is small. The suspension is composed of magnetic micro-spheres of different radius and density immersed in a Newtonian fluid moving under the action of gravity. The theoretical calculations are based on direct computations of the hydrodynamic and the magnetic interactions among the rigid spheres in the regime of low particle Reynolds number. From the limiting trajectory in which aggregation occurs, we calculate the collision efficiency, representing the dimensionless rate at which aggregates are formed. The numerical results show clear evidence that the hydrodynamic interactions are of fundamental relevance in the process of magnetic particle aggregation. We compare the stabilizing effects between electrostatic repulsion and hydrodynamic interactions.

  17. Interaction Cross Sections and Survival Rates for Proposed Solar System Member Planet Nine

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Gongjie

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the report of a possible new planetary member of the Solar System, this work calculates cross sections for interactions between passing stars and this proposed Planet Nine. Evidence for the new planet is provided by the orbital alignment of Kuiper Belt objects, and other Solar System properties, which suggest a Neptune-mass object on an eccentric orbit with semimajor axis a_9~400-1500 AU. With such a wide orbit, Planet Nine has a large interaction cross section, and is susceptible to disruption by passing stars. Using a large ensemble of numerical simulations (several million), and Monte Carlo sampling, we calculate the cross sections for different classes of orbit-altering events: [A] scattering the planet into its proposed orbit from a smaller orbit, [B] ejecting it from the Solar System from its current orbit, [C] capturing the planet from another system, and [D] capturing a free-floating planet. Results are presented for a range of orbital elements with planetary mass m_9=10M_\\earth. Removing...

  18. Butachlor degradation in tropical soils: effect of application rate, biotic-abiotic interactions and soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, R; Das, P; Chakrabarti, K; Chakraborty, A; Chowdhury, A

    2006-01-01

    The degradative characteristics of butachlor (N-Butoxymethyl-2-chloro-2',6'-diethyla- cetanilide) were studied under controlled laboratory conditions in clay loam alluvial (AL) soil (Typic udifluvent) and coastal saline (CS) soil (Typic endoaquept) from rice cultivated fields. The application rates included field rate (FR), 2-times FR (2FR) and 10-times FR (10FR). The incubation study was carried out at 30 degrees C with and without decomposed cow manure (DCM) at 60% of maximum water holding capacity (WHC) and waterlogged soil condition. The half-life values depended on the soil types and initial concentrations of butachlor. Butachlor degraded faster in AL soil and in soil amended with DCM under waterlogged condition. Microbial degradation is the major avenue of butachlor degradation from soils.

  19. Influence of UAS Pilot Communication and Execution Delay on Controller's Acceptability Ratings of UAS-ATC Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Morales, Gregory; Chiappe, Dan; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Jay; Buker, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Successful integration of UAS in the NAS will require that UAS interactions with the air traffic management system be similar to interactions between manned aircraft and air traffic management. For example, UAS response times to air traffic controller (ATCo) clearances should be equivalent to those that are currently found to be acceptable with manned aircraft. Prior studies have examined communication delays with manned aircraft. Unfortunately, there is no analogous body of research for UAS. The goal of the present study was to determine how UAS pilot communication and execution delays affect ATCos' acceptability ratings of UAS pilot responses when the UAS is operating in the NAS. Eight radar-certified controllers managed traffic in a modified ZLA sector with one UAS flying in it. In separate scenarios, the UAS pilot verbal communication and execution delays were either short (1.5 s) or long (5 s) and either constant or variable. The ATCo acceptability of UAS pilot communication and execution delays were measured subjectively via post trial ratings. UAS verbal pilot communication delay, were rated as acceptable 92% of the time when the delay was short. This acceptability level decreased to 64% when the delay was long. UAS pilot execution delay had less of an influence on ATCo acceptability ratings in the present stimulation. Implications of these findings for UAS in the NAS integration are discussed.

  20. Polymer-Ion Interaction Weakens the Strain-Rate Dependence of Extension-Induced Crystallization for Poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingting; Tian, Nan; Ali, Sarmad; Wang, Zhen; Chang, Jiarui; Huang, Ningdong; Li, Liangbin

    2016-03-01

    The crystallization of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-sodium iodine (NaI) composites is investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), extensional rheology, and in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) with the aim of demonstrating versatile roles played by polymer-ion interactions. In the isothermal quiescent crystallization process, a decrease in the crystal growth rate is observed for PEO-NaI and is attributed to slow chain movement caused by the coordination between cations and polymer. In situ SAXS on extensional flow-induced crystallization (FIC) exhibits enhanced kinetics and orientation for both PEO and PEO-NaI with increasing strain rate. However, an overall weaker strain-rate dependence of FIC is observed for PEO-NaI, which can be interpreted as a synergistic consequence of promoted nucleation under flow and impeded crystal growth by polymer-ion interaction. A possible microscopic mechanism is proposed to account for the experimental observation based on the formation of transient cross-linking points in PEO-NaI and their influence on the entanglement network of polymer under various flow fields. The disclosed strain-rate dependence and various ion effects on the behavior of PEO-salt composites contribute to a comprehensive understanding of polymer-ion solid polyelectrolytes.

  1. Stock Prices and Exchange Rates in the EU and the USA: Evidence of their Mutual Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Stavarek, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the nature of the causal relationships among stock prices and effective exchange rates in four old EU member countries (Austria, France, Germany, and the UK), four new EU member countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia), and in the United States. Both the long- and short-term causalities between these variables are explored using monthly data. The paper also endeavors to answer the question of whether the linkages between the analyzed economic variables...

  2. Interactions between heart rate variability and pulmonary gas exchange efficiency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Peter Y W; Webber, Matthew R; Galletly, Duncan C; Ainslie, Philip N; Brown, Stephen J; Willie, Chris K; Sasse, Alexander; Larsen, Peter D; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh

    2010-07-01

    The respiratory component of heart rate variability (respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA) has been associated with improved pulmonary gas exchange efficiency in humans via the apparent clustering and scattering of heart beats in time with the inspiratory and expiratory phases of alveolar ventilation, respectively. However, since human RSA causes only marginal redistribution of heart beats to inspiration, we tested the hypothesis that any association between RSA amplitude and pulmonary gas exchange efficiency may be indirect. In 11 patients with fixed-rate cardiac pacemakers and 10 healthy control subjects, we recorded R-R intervals, respiratory flow, end-tidal gas tension and the ventilatory equivalents for carbon dioxide and oxygen during 'fast' (0.25 Hz) and 'slow' paced breathing (0.10 Hz). Mean heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, mean arterial pressure fluctuations, tidal volume, end-tidal CO(2), and were similar between pacemaker and control groups in both the fast and slow breathing conditions. Although pacemaker patients had no RSA and slow breathing was associated with a 2.5-fold RSA amplitude increase in control subjects (39 +/- 21 versus 97 +/- 45 ms, P exchange efficiency during variable-frequency paced breathing observed in prior human work is not contingent on RSA being present. Therefore, whether RSA serves an intrinsic physiological function in optimizing pulmonary gas exchange efficiency in humans requires further experimental validation.

  3. Cells Sensing Mechanical Cues: Stiffness Influences the Lifetime of Cell-Extracellular Matrix Interactions by Affecting the Loading Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Sun, Zhenglong; Chen, Xiaofei; Li, Jing; Xu, Yue; Zu, Yan; Hu, Jiliang; Han, Dong; Yang, Chun

    2016-01-26

    The question of how cells sense substrate mechanical cues has gained increasing attention among biologists. By introducing contour-based data analysis to single-cell force spectroscopy, we identified a loading-rate threshold for the integrin α2β1-DGEA bond beyond which a dramatic increase in bond lifetime was observed. On the basis of mechanical cues (elasticity or topography), the effective spring constant of substrates k is mapped to the loading rate r under actomyosin pulling speed v, which, in turn, affects the lifetime of the integrin-ligand bond. Additionally, downregulating v with a low-dose blebbistatin treatment promotes the neuronal lineage specification of mesenchymal stem cells on osteogenic stiff substrates. Thus, sensing of the loading rate is central to how cells sense mechanical cues that affect cell-extracellular matrix interactions and stem cell differentiation.

  4. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  5. On the use of allelic transmission rates for assessing gene-by-environment interaction in case-parent trios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ji-Hyung; McNeney, Brad; Graham, Jinko

    2010-09-01

    Allelic transmission rates from parents to cases are frequently stratified by an environmental risk factor E and compared, with heterogeneity interpreted as gene-environment interaction or GxE. Though generally invalid, such analyses continue to appear. We revisit why heterogeneity is not equivalent to GxE in a range of settings not considered previously. The objective is a fuller understanding of the bias in transmission rates and what is driving it. Extending previously published findings, we derive parental mating-type probabilities in cases and use them to obtain transmission rates, which we then compare to GxE. Through simulation, we investigate the practical implications of the bias for a transmission-based test of GxE. We find that general population characteristics distort the picture of GxE obtained from transmission rates: the stratum-specific mating-type probabilities under G - E dependence and the allele frequency under independence. Furthermore, the transmission-based test has inflated error rates relative to a likelihood-based test. Our investigation provides further insight into how and why transmission-based tests and descriptive summaries can mislead about GxE. For exploring GxE, we suggest graphical displays of the transmission rates within parental mating types, as they are robust to population stratification and the penetrance model.

  6. Weapon of the Weak?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amber, Van der Graaf; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Social media have the potential to offset existing inequalities in representation among interest groups and act as a ‘weapon of the weak’ by providing a technological infrastructure that allows even groups with limited resources to create content and interact across the globe. We expand on the sp......Social media have the potential to offset existing inequalities in representation among interest groups and act as a ‘weapon of the weak’ by providing a technological infrastructure that allows even groups with limited resources to create content and interact across the globe. We expand...

  7. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: orbits and rates of accreted stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Gareth F.; Meiron, Yohai; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Panamarev, Taras; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-07-01

    We examine the effect of an accretion disc on the orbits of stars in the central star cluster surrounding a central massive black hole by performing a suite of 39 high-accuracy direct N-body simulations using state-of-the art software and accelerator hardware, with particle numbers up to 128k. The primary focus is on the accretion rate of stars by the black hole (equivalent to their tidal disruption rate for black holes in the small to medium mass range) and the eccentricity distribution of these stars. Our simulations vary not only the particle number, but disc model (two models examined), spatial resolution at the centre (characterized by the numerical accretion radius) and softening length. The large parameter range and physically realistic modelling allow us for the first time to confidently extrapolate these results to real galactic centres. While in a real galactic centre both particle number and accretion radius differ by a few orders of magnitude from our models, which are constrained by numerical capability, we find that the stellar accretion rate converges for models with N ≥ 32k. The eccentricity distribution of accreted stars, however, does not converge. We find that there are two competing effects at work when improving the resolution: larger particle number leads to a smaller fraction of stars accreted on nearly circular orbits, while higher spatial resolution increases this fraction. We scale our simulations to some nearby galaxies and find that the expected boost in stellar accretion (or tidal disruption, which could be observed as X-ray flares) in the presence of a gas disc is about a factor of 10. Even with this boost, the accretion of mass from stars is still a factor of ˜100 slower than the accretion of gas from the disc. Thus, it seems accretion of stars is not a major contributor to black hole mass growth.

  8. High-repetition rate relativistic electron beam generation from intense laser solid interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Thomas; Nees, John; Hou, Bixue; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, Karl

    2015-05-01

    Relativistic electron beams have applications spanning materials science, medicine, and home- land security. Recent advances in short pulse laser technology have enabled the production of very high focused intensities at kHz rep rates. Consequently this has led to the generation of high ux sources of relativistic electrons- which is a necessary characteristic of these laser plasma sources for any potential application. In our experiments, through the generation of a plasma with the lambda cubed laser system at the University of Michigan (a 5 × 1018W=cm2, 500 Hz, Ti:Sapphire laser), we have measured electrons ejected from the surface of fused silica nd Cu targets having energies in excess of an MeV. The spectrum of these electrons was measured with respect to incident laser angle, prepulse timing, and focusing conditions. While taken at a high repetition rate, the pulse energy of the lambda cubed system was consistently on the order of 10 mJ. In order to predict scaling of the electron energy with laser pulse energy, simulations are underway which compare the spectrum generated with the lambda cubed system to the predicted spectrum generated on the petawatt scale HERCULES laser system at the University of Michigan.

  9. Star-disc interaction in galactic nuclei: orbits and rates of accreted stars

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, Gareth F; Shukirgaliyev, Bekdaulet; Panamarev, Taras; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas; Spurzem, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    We examine the effect of an accretion disc on the orbits of stars in the central star cluster surrounding a central massive black hole by performing a suite of 39 high-accuracy direct N-body simulations using state-of-the art software and accelerator hardware, with particle numbers up to 128k. The primary focus is on the accretion rate of stars by the black hole (equivalent to their tidal disruption rate for black holes in the small to medium mass range) and the eccentricity distribution of these stars. Our simulations vary not only the particle number, but disc model (two models examined), spatial resolution at the centre (characterised by the numerical accretion radius) and softening length. The large parameter range and physically realistic modelling allow us for the first time to confidently extrapolate these results to real galactic centres. While in a real galactic centre both particle number and accretion radius differ by a few orders of magnitude from our models, which are constrained by numerical cap...

  10. Modelling the effect of rail dampers on wheel-rail interaction forces and rail roughness growth rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, B. E.; Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.

    2009-06-01

    Trains generate rolling noise because of the roughness of the wheel and rail running surfaces. Special acoustic grinding programmes have been introduced on some railways specifically to control rolling noise. Rail dampers are also used to reduce rolling noise; this paper studies rail damping as a possible mechanism to slow the rate of development of roughness on the surface of rails. This would reduce noise further over time or reduce the required frequency of grinding. High roughness growth on the rail occurs in situations with stiff vertical structural dynamics of the track. In particular the antiresonance above a sleeper at the pinned-pinned frequency has been identified as a wavelength fixing mechanism for short pitch corrugation. Rail dampers change the dynamic response of the rail, shifting the pinned-pinned frequency and smoothing the track receptance. Here, a simple time-stepping model is applied to calculate the interaction forces between wheel and rail for a track with and without rail dampers. The calculations show that rail dampers reduce dynamic interaction forces and shift the force spectrum to longer wavelengths. The interaction forces are used as input to an abrasive wear model to predict the roughness growth rate and the change in roughness after many wheel passages. Track without rail dampers is predicted to develop corrugation at the wavelength corresponding to the pinned-pinned frequency. With rail dampers the corrugation growth is reduced and shifted to a longer wavelength where its significance is diminished.

  11. Weak Cat-Operads

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2010-01-01

    An operad (this paper deals with non-symmetric operads) may be conceived as a partial algebra with a family of insertion operations, Gerstenhaber's circle-i products, which satisfy two kinds of associativity, one of them involving commutativity. A Cat-operad is an operad enriched over the category Cat of small categories, as a 2-category with small hom-categories is a category enriched over Cat. The notion of weak Cat-operad is to the notion of Cat-operad what the notion of bicategory is to the notion of 2-category. The equations of operads like associativity of insertions are replaced by isomorphisms in a category. The goal of this paper is to formulate conditions concerning these isomorphisms that ensure coherence, in the sense that all diagrams of canonical arrows commute. This is the sense in which the notions of monoidal category and bicategory are coherent. The coherence proof in the paper is much simplified by indexing the insertion operations in a context-independent way, and not in the usual manner. ...

  12. Many-body chaos at weak coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    The strength of chaos in large N quantum systems can be quantified using λ L , the rate of growth of certain out-of-time-order four point functions. We calculate λ L to leading order in a weakly coupled matrix Φ4 theory by numerically diagonalizing a ladder kernel. The computation reduces to an essentially classical problem.

  13. Heat accumulation during high repetition rate ultrafast laser interaction: Waveguide writing in borosilicate glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haibin; Eaton, Shane M; Li, Jianzhao; Herman, Peter R [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G4 (Canada)

    2007-04-15

    During high repetition rate (>200 kHz) ultrafast laser waveguide writing, visible heat modified zones surrounding the formed waveguide occur as a result of heat accumulation. The radii of the heat-modified zones increase with the laser net fluence, and were found to correlate with the formation of low-loss and cylindrically symmetric optical waveguides. A numerical thermal model based on the finite difference method is applied here to account for cumulative heating and diffusion effects. The model successfully shows that heat propagation and accumulation accurately predict the radius of the 'heat modified' zones observed in borosilicate glass waveguides formed across a wide range of laser exposure conditions. Such modelling promises better control of thermal effects for optimizing the fabrication and performance of three-dimensional optical devices in transparent materials.

  14. Effects of Powder Feeding Rate on Interaction between Laser Beam and Powder Streamin Laser Cladding Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yan-lu; LI Jian-guo; LIANG Gong-ying; SU Jun-yi

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical model was presented to calculate the laser intensity distribution and the particle temperatures at different sites of the workpiece in the laser cladding process. By using this model, the effects of the powder feeding rate on the laser intensity distribution and the particle temperatures were investigated, the calculated results under the condition of different injection angles were also plotted. It is shown that with increasing the injection angle, the laser intensity distributions are similar but the peak value of the laser intensity decreases. Simultaneously, the peak value of the particle temperature increases and the distribution of the particle temperatures gets central symmetrical gradually. These tests results should be considered in model of laser cladding due to their subtle effects on the dynamic processes in laser molten pool.

  15. Decreased spontaneous eye blink rates in chronic cannabis users: evidence for striatal cannabinoid-dopamine interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael A Kowal

    Full Text Available Chronic cannabis use has been shown to block long-term depression of GABA-glutamate synapses in the striatum, which is likely to reduce the extent to which endogenous cannabinoids modulate GABA- and glutamate-related neuronal activity. The current study aimed at investigating the effect of this process on striatal dopamine levels by studying the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR, a clinical marker of dopamine level in the striatum. 25 adult regular cannabis users and 25 non-user controls matched for age, gender, race, and IQ were compared. Results show a significant reduction in EBR in chronic users as compared to non-users, suggesting an indirect detrimental effect of chronic cannabis use on striatal dopaminergic functioning. Additionally, EBR correlated negatively with years of cannabis exposure, monthly peak cannabis consumption, and lifetime cannabis consumption, pointing to a relationship between the degree of impairment of striatal dopaminergic transmission and cannabis consumption history.

  16. Effects of viscous heating and wall-fluid interaction energy on rate-dependent slip behavior of simple fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Luyao; Priezjev, Nikolai V.; Hu, Haibao; Luo, Kai

    2017-09-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are used to investigate the rate and temperature dependence of the slip length in thin liquid films confined by smooth, thermal substrates. In our setup, the heat generated in a force-driven flow is removed by the thermostat applied on several wall layers away from liquid-solid interfaces. We found that for both high and low wall-fluid interaction (WFI) energies, the temperature of the fluid phase rises significantly as the shear rate increases. Surprisingly, with increasing shear rate, the slip length approaches a constant value from above for high WFI energies and from below for low WFI energies. The two distinct trends of the rate-dependent slip length are rationalized by examining S ( G1) , the height of the main peak of the in-plane structure factor of the first fluid layer (FFL) together with DWF, which is the average distance between the wall and FFL. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that reduced values of the structure factor, S ( G1) , correlate with the enhanced slip, while smaller distances DWF indicate that fluid atoms penetrate deeper into the surface potential leading to larger friction and smaller slip. Interestingly, at the lowest WFI energy, the combined effect of the increase of S ( G1) and decrease of DWF with increasing shear rate results in a dramatic reduction of the slip length.

  17. Rate of non-linearity in DMS aerosol-cloud-climate interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Thomas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The degree of non-linearity in DMS-cloud-climate interactions is assessed using the ECHAM5-HAMMOZ model by taking into account end-to-end aerosol chemistry-cloud microphysics link. The evaluation is made over the Southern oceans in austral summer, a region of minimal anthropogenic influence. In this study, we compare the DMS-derived changes in the aerosol and cloud microphysical properties between a baseline simulation with the ocean DMS emissions from a prescribed climatology, and a scenario where the DMS emissions are doubled. Our results show that doubling the DMS emissions in the current climate results in a non-linear response in atmospheric DMS burden and subsequently, in SO2 and H2SO4 burdens due to inadequate OH oxidation. The aerosol optical depth increases by only ~20 % in the 30° S–75° S belt in the SH summer months. This increases the vertically integrated cloud droplet number concentrations (CDNC by 25 %. Since the vertically integrated liquid water vapor is constant in our model simulations, an increase in CDNC leads to a reduction in cloud droplet radius of 3.4 % over the Southern oceans in summer. The equivalent increase in cloud liquid water path is 10.7 %. The above changes in cloud microphysical properties result in a change in global annual mean radiative forcing at the TOA of −1.4 W m−2. The results suggest that the DMS-cloud microphysics link is highly non-linear. This has implications for future studies investigating the DMS-cloud climate feedbacks in a warming world and for studies evaluating geoengineering options to counteract warming by modulating low level marine clouds.

  18. Weak crystallization theory of metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ivar; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Demler, Eugene A.

    2016-06-01

    Crystallization is one of the most familiar, but hardest to analyze, phase transitions. The principal reason is that crystallization typically occurs via a strongly first-order phase transition, and thus rigorous treatment would require comparing energies of an infinite number of possible crystalline states with the energy of liquid. A great simplification occurs when crystallization transition happens to be weakly first order. In this case, weak crystallization theory, based on unbiased Ginzburg-Landau expansion, can be applied. Even beyond its strict range of validity, it has been a useful qualitative tool for understanding crystallization. In its standard form, however, weak crystallization theory cannot explain the existence of a majority of observed crystalline and quasicrystalline states. Here we extend the weak crystallization theory to the case of metallic alloys. We identify a singular effect of itinerant electrons on the form of weak crystallization free energy. It is geometric in nature, generating strong dependence of free energy on the angles between ordering wave vectors of ionic density. That leads to stabilization of fcc, rhombohedral, and icosahedral quasicrystalline (iQC) phases, which are absent in the generic theory with only local interactions. As an application, we find the condition for stability of iQC that is consistent with the Hume-Rothery rules known empirically for the majority of stable iQC; namely, the length of the primary Bragg-peak wave vector is approximately equal to the diameter of the Fermi sphere.

  19. Heart rate response as indicator of mental strain: interaction of personality and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhart, J; Kozeny, J; Procházková, Z; Boschek, P

    1990-09-01

    Relation between mental strain defined as heart rate deviation score from person's baseline and persistence-excitation concept based on the Eysenck personality theory under various density information flow was investigated. Two groups the HPE(high EPQ-N and low EPQ-E score) and the LPE(low EPQ-N and high EPQ-E score) of a nuclear power plant operators were investigated under a monotonous condition (HPE: 15 Ss; LPE:12 Ss) and under a high density information flow condition (HPE: 17Ss, LPE: 15 Ss). The data support the view that the high persistence-low inhibition individual will be more mentally strained under high density information flow and that the level of strain will decelerate more slowly in comparison to persons with low persistence-high inhibition EPQ characteristics. The low persistence-high inhibition individuals will experience higher mental strain under monotonous situations. The findings suggest that the average EPQ-E and EPQ-N score might be useful criterion for selecting persons for tasks with alternatively monotonous and cognitively demanding situations.

  20. Mobile devices and weak ties: a study of vision impairments and workplace access in Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Joyojeet; Lakshmanan, Meera

    2015-07-01

    To explore ways in which social and economic interactions are changed by access to mobile telephony. This is a mixed-methods study of mobile phone use among 52 urban professionals with vision impairments in Bangalore, India. Interviews and survey results indicated that mobile devices, specifically those with adaptive technology software, play a vital role as multi-purpose devices that enable people with disabilities to navigate economically and socially in an environment where accessibility remains a significant challenge. We found that mobile devices play a central role in enabling and sustaining weak ties, but also that these weak ties have important gender-specific implications. We found that women have less access to weak ties than men, which impacts women's access to assistive technology (AT). This has potential implications for women's sense of safety and independence, both of which are strongly related to AT access. Implications for Rehabilitation Adaptive technologies increase individuals' ability to keep in contact with casual connections or weak ties through phone calls or social media. Men tend to have stronger access to weak ties than women in India due to cultural impediments to independent access to public spaces. Weak ties are an important source of assistive technology (AT) due to the high rate of resale of used AT, typically through informal networks.

  1. Weak Total Resolvability In Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casel Katrin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A vertex v ∈ V (G is said to distinguish two vertices x, y ∈ V (G of a graph G if the distance from v to x is di erent from the distance from v to y. A set W ⊆ V (G is a total resolving set for a graph G if for every pair of vertices x, y ∈ V (G, there exists some vertex w ∈ W − {x, y} which distinguishes x and y, while W is a weak total resolving set if for every x ∈ V (G−W and y ∈ W, there exists some w ∈ W −{y} which distinguishes x and y. A weak total resolving set of minimum cardinality is called a weak total metric basis of G and its cardinality the weak total metric dimension of G. Our main contributions are the following ones: (a Graphs with small and large weak total metric bases are characterised. (b We explore the (tight relation to independent 2-domination. (c We introduce a new graph parameter, called weak total adjacency dimension and present results that are analogous to those presented for weak total dimension. (d For trees, we derive a characterisation of the weak total (adjacency metric dimension. Also, exact figures for our parameters are presented for (generalised fans and wheels. (e We show that for Cartesian product graphs, the weak total (adjacency metric dimension is usually pretty small. (f The weak total (adjacency dimension is studied for lexicographic products of graphs.

  2. Relativistic configuration interaction plus linearized-coupled-cluster calculations of U2 + energies, g factors, transition rates, and lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, I.; Safronova, U. I.; Safronova, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    Excitation energies, term designations, g factors, transition rates, and lifetimes of U2 + are determined using a relativistic configuration interaction (CI) + linearized-coupled-cluster (LCC) approach. The CI-LCC energies are compared with CI + many-body-perturbation-theory (MBPT) and available experimental energies. Close agreement has been found with experiment, within hundreds of cm-1. In addition, lifetimes of higher levels have been calculated for comparison with three experimentally measured lifetimes, and close agreement has been found within the experimental error. CI-LCC calculations constitute a benchmark test of the CI + all-order method in complex relativistic systems such as actinides and their ions with many valence electrons. The theory yields many energy levels, g factors, transition rates, and lifetimes of U2 + that are not available from experiment. The theory can be applied to other multivalence atoms and ions, which would be of interest to many applications.

  3. Exact master equation for a spin interacting with a spin bath: Non-Markovianity and negative entropy production rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Samyadeb; Misra, Avijit; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjib; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2017-01-01

    An exact canonical master equation of the Lindblad form is derived for a central spin interacting uniformly with a sea of completely unpolarized spins. The Kraus operators for the dynamical map are also derived. The non-Markovianity of the dynamics in terms of the divisibility breaking of the dynamical map and the increase of the trace distance fidelity between quantum states is shown. Moreover, it is observed that the irreversible entropy production rate is always negative (for a fixed initial state) whenever the dynamics exhibits non-Markovian behavior. In continuation with the study of witnessing non-Markovianity, it is shown that the positive rate of change of the purity of the central qubit is a faithful indicator of the non-Markovian information backflow. Given the experimental feasibility of measuring the purity of a quantum state, a possibility of experimental demonstration of non-Markovianity and the negative irreversible entropy production rate is addressed. This gives the present work considerable practical importance for detecting the non-Markovianity and the negative irreversible entropy production rate.

  4. Interaction of Kv3 potassium channels and resurgent sodium current influences the rate of spontaneous firing of Purkinje neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemann, Walther; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2006-04-26

    Purkinje neurons spontaneously generate action potentials in the absence of synaptic drive and thereby exert a tonic, yet plastic, input to their target cells in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Purkinje neurons express two ionic currents with biophysical properties that are specialized for high-frequency firing: resurgent sodium currents and potassium currents mediated by Kv3.3. How these ionic currents determine the intrinsic activity of Purkinje neurons has only partially been understood. Purkinje neurons from mutant mice lacking Kv3.3 have a reduced rate of spontaneous firing. Dynamic-clamp recordings demonstrated that normal firing rates are rescued by inserting artificial Kv3 currents into Kv3.3 knock-out Purkinje neurons. Numerical simulations indicated that Kv3.3 increases the spontaneous firing rate via cooperation with resurgent sodium currents. We conclude that the rate of spontaneous action potential firing of Purkinje neurons is controlled by the interaction of Kv3.3 potassium currents and resurgent sodium currents.

  5. Strong-field ionization rates of linear polyenes simulated with time-dependent configuration interaction with an absorbing potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Pascal; Schlegel, H. Bernhard [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48202-3489 (United States)

    2014-11-07

    The strong field ionization rates for ethylene, trans 1,3-butadiene, and trans,trans 1,3,5-hexatriene have been calculated using time-dependent configuration interaction with single excitations and a complex absorbing potential (TDCIS-CAP). The calculations used the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set with a large set of diffuse functions (3 s, 2 p, 3 d, and 1 f) on each atom. The absorbing boundary was placed 3.5 times the van der Waals radius from each atom. The simulations employed a seven-cycle cosine squared pulse with a wavelength of 800 nm. Ionization rates were calculated for intensities ranging from 0.3 × 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} to 3.5 × 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. Ionization rates along the molecular axis increased markedly with increasing conjugation length. By contrast, ionization rates perpendicular to the molecular axis were almost independent of the conjugation length.

  6. Effects of pulsation rate and viscosity on pulsation-induced taste enhancement: new insights into texture-taste interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burseg, Kerstin Martha Mensien; Camacho, Sara; Bult, Johannes Hendrikus Franciscus

    2011-05-25

    Oral stimulation with high-tastant concentrations that are alternared with low-tastant concentrations or water rinses (pulsatile stimulation) results in taste intensity ratings that are higher than continuous stimulation with the same average tastant concentration. This study tested the combined effects of taste pulsation rate and viscosity on pulsation-induced taste enhancement in apple juice. According to a tastant-kinetics hypothesis, less pulsation-induced taste enhancement is expected at enhanced pulsation rates in the high-viscous proximal stimulus compared to lower viscous stimuli. High-concentration sucrose apple juice pulses and low-concentration sucrose apple juice intervals were alternated at different pulsation periods (pulse + interval in seconds) every 2.5 s (period length = 5 s) or every 1.25 s (period length = 2.5 s). Pulsed stimuli were presented at two viscosity levels by the addition of pectin (0 and 10 g/L). Sweetness intensities of pulsed stimuli were compared to a continuous reference of the same net but nonalternating sucrose concentration. Sweetness ratings were higher for pulsatile stimuli than for continuous stimuli. In low-viscous stimuli, enhancement depended on the pulsation period and peaked at 5 s periods. In high-viscous stimuli, the same enhancement was observed for both pulsation periods. These results contradict a tastant-kinetics hypothesis of viscosity-induced taste suppression because impaired tastant kinetics by viscosity would predict the opposite: lower pulsation-induced taste enhancement for viscous stimuli, especially at higher pulsation rates. Instead, these observations favor an explanation based on perceptual texture-taste interactions, which predict the observed independence between viscosity and pulsation rate.

  7. Weak compactness of biharmonic maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenzhou Zheng

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article shows that if a sequence of weak solutions of a perturbed biharmonic map satisfies $Phi_ko 0$ in $(W^{2,2}^*$ and $u_kightharpoonup u$ weakly in $W^{2,2}$, then $u$ is a biharmonic map. In particular, we show that the space of biharmonic maps is sequentially compact under the weak-$W^{2,2}$ topology.

  8. The rotation rates of massive stars: the role of binary interaction trough tides, mass transfer and mergers

    CERN Document Server

    de Mink, S E; Izzard, R G; Sana, H; de Koter, A

    2012-01-01

    Rotation is thought to be a major factor in the evolution of massive stars, especially at low metallicity, with consequences for their chemical yields, ionizing flux and final fate. The natal rotation-rate distribution of stars is of high priority given its importance as a constraint on theories of massive star formation and as input for models of stellar populations in the local Universe and at high redshift. Recently, it has become clear that the majority of massive stars interact with a binary companion before they die. We investigate how this affects the distribution of rotation rates. For this purpose, we simulate a massive binary-star population typical for our Galaxy assuming continuous star formation. We find that, because of binary interaction, 20^+5_-10% of all massive main-sequence stars have projected rotational velocities in excess of 200km/s. We evaluate the effect of uncertain input distributions and physical processes and conclude that the main uncertainties are the mass transfer efficiency an...

  9. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, M.R. (Physics Laboratory I, The Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark)); Lomdahl, P.S. (Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (USA)); Blackburn, J.A. (Department of Physics and Computing, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-09-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.

  10. Cell differentiation by interaction of two HMG-box proteins: Mat1-Mc activates M cell-specific genes in S.pombe by recruiting the ubiquitous transcription factor Ste11 to weak binding sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaerulff, S; Dooijes, D; Clevers, H

    1997-01-01

    The Schizosaccharomyces pombe mfm1 gene is expressed in an M cell-specific fashion. This regulation requires two HMG-box proteins: the ubiquitous Ste11 transcription factor and the M cell-controlling protein Mat1-Mc. Here we report that the mfm1 promoter contains a single, weak Stell-binding site...

  11. [Systemic lupus erythematosus and weakness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Filipe; Santos, Maria José; da Silva, José Canas

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of a 13-year old young girl, with Juvenile Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and recent onset of muscle weakness. Investigations lead to the diagnosis of Myasthenia Gravis. The most important causes of muscle weakness in lupus patients are discussed.

  12. GPS and Geologic Deformation Rates Agree to Within Uncertainties in the Arabia-Africa- Eurasia Zone of Plate Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilinger, R. E.; McClusky, S.

    2008-12-01

    Geodetically-derived motions for Arabia and Nubia relative to Eurasia agree within 1 standard deviation with plate rates estimated from geologic observations (McQuarrie et al., GRL, 2003) for the past 11 Myr for Nubia and greater than 25 Myr for Arabia. Furthermore, fault slip rates derived from an elastic block model constrained by GPS agree within uncertainties (about +/- 15 percent) with geologically determined, long-term slip rates in this complex area of plate interaction. Detailed geomorphological studies of the central North Anatolian fault (NAF) constrained by quantitative dating (Kozaci et a al., Geology, 2007) indicate slip rates that agree within uncertainties, but appear to be systematically lower than geodetic rates. While real rate changes of a few mm/yr cannot be ruled out at present, we note that geodetic inversions for coseismic fault slip on the NAF, and most other faults well constrained by geodetic observations, indicate larger slip at depth than at the surface. If this difference persists throughout the earthquake deformation cycle, it would account for the small difference in geodetic and geologic rates. Extrapolating present-day geodetic motions for Arabia relative to Nubia and Somalia to the time of initiation of Red Sea and Gulf of Aden extension indicates that Arabia separated from Nubia and Somalia simultaneously along the full extent of both rifts at about 25 Myr BP, consistent with independent geologic estimates for the style, and age of initiation of Red Sea extension (Omar and Steckler, 1995, Science). In addition, structural offsets across the Gulf of Suez (GoS) and Gulf of Aqaba (GoA) are consistent with a transfer of strain form the GoS to the GoA at around 12 Ma BP, roughly consistent with the age on initiation of the Dead Sea fault system. We further show that the apparent discrepancy between geodetic deformation of the Aegean (plate-like motion with low internal deformation), and geologic deformation (extensive crustal thinning

  13. Weak interference in the high-signal regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Juan P; Puentes, Graciana; Hermosa, Nathaniel; Salazar-Serrano, Luis Jose

    2012-08-13

    Weak amplification is a signal enhancement technique which is used to measure tiny changes that otherwise cannot be determined because of technical limitations. It is based on: a) the existence of a weak interaction which couples a property of a system (the system) with a separate degree of freedom (the pointer), and b) the measurement of an anomalously large mean value of the pointer state (weak mean value), after appropriate pre-and post-selection of the state of the system. Unfortunately, the weak amplification process is generally accompanied by severe losses of the detected signal, which limits its applicability. However, we will show here that since weak amplification is essentially the result of an interference phenomena, it should be possible to use the degree of interference (weak interference) to get relevant information about the physical system under study in a more general scenario, where the signal is not severely depleted (high-signal regime).

  14. Weak Measurements Beyond the Aharonov-Albert-Vaidman Formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Shengjun

    2010-01-01

    High-precision experiments via weak measurements require pre-selected and post-selected states (PPS) that are nearly orthogonal, the linear dependence of the measurement outcomes on the weak values quickly fails when the PPS become more and more orthogonal, the phenomena in this regime cannot be explained by the previous weak measurement formalism. In this paper we extend the idea of weak measurements to the most general case, provide a complete treatment and give results for both the regime when the PPS are almost orthogonal and the regime when they are exactly orthogonal. We surprisingly find that for a fixed interaction strength, there may exist a maximum signal amplification and a corresponding optimum overlap of PPS to achieve it. We also find interesting quantities, the orthogonal weak values, which play the role of weak values for the case when the PPS are exactly orthogonal.

  15. Interactions between hatch dates, growth rates, and mortality of Age-0 native Rainbow Smelt and nonnative Alewife in Lake Champlain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Donna; Simonin, Paul W.; Rudstam, Lars G.; Pientka, Bernard; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Timing of hatch in fish populations can be critical for first-year survival and, therefore, year-class strength and subsequent species interactions. We compared hatch timing, growth rates, and subsequent mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt Osmerus mordax and Alewife Alosa pseudoharengus, two common open-water fish species of northern North America. In our study site, Lake Champlain, Rainbow Smelt hatched (beginning May 26) almost a month earlier than Alewives (June 20). Abundance in the sampling area was highest in July for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and August for age-0 Alewives. Late-hatching individuals of both species grew faster than those hatching earlier (0.6 mm/d versus 0.4 for Rainbow Smelt; 0.7 mm/d versus 0.6 for Alewives). Mean mortality rate during the first 45 d of life was 3.4%/d for age-0 Rainbow Smelt and was 5.5%/d for age-0 Alewives. Alewife mortality rates did not differ with hatch timing but daily mortality rates of Rainbow Smelt were highest for early-hatching fish. Cannibalism is probably the primary mortality source for age-0 Rainbow Smelt in this lake. Therefore, hatching earlier may not be advantageous because the overlap of adult and age-0 Rainbow Smelt is highest earlier in the season. However, Alewives, first documented in Lake Champlain in 2003, may increase the mortality of age-0 Rainbow Smelt in the summer, which should favor selection for earlier hatching.

  16. High star formation rates in turbulent atomic-dominated gas in the interacting galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207

    CERN Document Server

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Bournaud, Frederic; Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Struck, Curtis; Brinks, Elias; Juneau, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    CO observations of the interacting galaxies IC 2163 and NGC 2207 are combined with HI, Halpha and 24 microns to study the star formation rate (SFR) surface density as a function of the gas surface density. More than half of the high SFR regions are HI dominated. When compared to other galaxies, these HI-dominated regions have excess SFRs relative to their molecular gas surface densities but normal SFRs relative to their total gas surface densities. The HI-dominated regions are mostly located in the outer part of NGC 2207, where the HI velocity dispersion is high, 40 - 50 km/s. We suggest that the star-forming clouds in these regions have envelopes at lower densities than normal, making them predominantly atomic, and cores at higher densities than normal because of the high turbulent Mach numbers. This is consistent with theoretical predictions of a flattening in the density probability distribution function for compressive, high Mach number turbulence.

  17. Effect of Colloidal Interactions on the Rate of Interdroplet Heterogeneous Nucleation in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClements; Dungan

    1997-02-01

    Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance was used to monitor the crystallization of supercooled liquid droplets in 30 wt% n-hexadecane oil-in-water emulsions at 6°C. Crystallization was induced in the liquid droplets when solid droplets of the same material were present. The rate of induced crystallization increased as the concentration of free non-ionic surfactant (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate) in the aqueous phase increased from 0 to 14 wt%. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements indicated that free surfactant had no effect on crystal nucleation of individual droplets. These results indicate that the surfactant enhances induced crystallization by altering colloidal interactions between droplets. Creaming measurements showed that flocculation was enhanced in emulsions when the free surfactant concentration was increased. We propose that the presence of free surfactant micelles increases the attraction between droplets because of an osmotic effect, and this attraction facilitates the ability of solid crystals from one droplet to induce crystallization in an adjacent liquid droplet.

  18. Peptide-Column Interactions and Their Influence on Back Exchange Rates in Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheff, Joey G.; Rey, Martial; Schriemer, David C.

    2013-07-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) methods generate useful information on protein structure and dynamics, ideally at the individual residue level. Most MS-based HDX methods involve a rapid proteolytic digestion followed by LC/MS analysis, with exchange kinetics monitored at the peptide level. Localizing specific sites of HDX is usually restricted to a resolution the size of the host peptide because gas-phase processes can scramble deuterium throughout the peptide. Subtractive methods may improve resolution, where deuterium levels of overlapping and nested peptides are used in a subtractive manner to localize exchange to smaller segments. In this study, we explore the underlying assumption of the subtractive method, namely, that the measured back exchange kinetics of a given residue is independent of its host peptide. Using a series of deuterated peptides, we show that secondary structure can be partially retained under quenched conditions, and that interactions between peptides and reversed-phase LC columns may both accelerate and decelerate residue HDX, depending upon peptide sequence and length. Secondary structure is induced through column interactions in peptides with a solution-phase propensity for structure, which has the effect of slowing HDX rates relative to predicted random coil values. Conversely, column interactions can orient random-coil peptide conformers to accelerate HDX, the degree to which correlates with peptide charge in solution, and which can be reversed by using stronger ion pairing reagents. The dependency of these effects on sequence and length suggest that subtractive methods for improving structural resolution in HDX-MS will not offer a straightforward solution for increasing exchange site resolution.

  19. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls.

  20. Experimental warming and precipitation interactively modulate the mortality rate and timing of spring emergence of a gallmaking Tephritid fly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xinqiang; Li, Dongbo; Peng, Youhong; Eisenhauer, Nico; Sun, Shucun

    2016-08-31

    Global climate change is mostly characterized by temperature increase and fluctuating precipitation events, which may affect the spring phenology and mortality rate of insects. However, the interaction effect of temperature and precipitation on species performance has rarely been examined. Here we studied the response of the gall-making Tephritid fly Urophora stylata (Diptera: Tephritidae) to artificial warming, changes in precipitation, and the presence of galls. Our results revealed a significant interaction effect of warming, precipitation, and galls on the life-history traits of the focal species. Specifically, when the galls were intact, warming had no effect on the phenology and increased the mortality of the fly under decreased precipitation, but it significantly advanced the timing of adult emergence and had no effect on the mortality under increased precipitation. When galls were removed, warming significantly advanced the timing of emergence and increased fly mortality, but precipitation showed no effect on the phenology and mortality. In addition, gall removal significantly increased adult fresh mass for both females and males. Our results indicate that the effect of elevated temperature on the performance of species may depend on other environmental conditions, such as variations in precipitation, and species traits like the formation of galls.

  1. The Preventive Effect of Calcium Supplementation on Weak Bones Caused by the Interaction of Exercise and Food Restriction in Young Female Rats During the Period from Acquiring Bone Mass to Maintaining Bone Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Aikawa, Yuki; Agata, Umon; Kakutani, Yuya; Kato, Shoyo; Noma, Yuichi; Hattori, Satoshi; Ogata, Hitomi; Ezawa, Ikuko; Omi, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing calcium (Ca) intake is important for female athletes with a risk of weak bone caused by inadequate food intake. The aim of the present study was to examine the preventive effect of Ca supplementation on low bone strength in young female athletes with inadequate food intake, using the rats as an experimental model. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rat