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Sample records for weak interaction rates

  1. Weak interaction rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugarbaker, E.

    1995-01-01

    I review available techniques for extraction of weak interaction rates in nuclei. The case for using hadron charge exchange reactions to estimate such rates is presented and contrasted with alternate methods. Limitations of the (p,n) reaction as a probe of Gamow-Teller strength are considered. Review of recent comparisons between beta-decay studies and (p,n) is made, leading to cautious optimism regarding the final usefulness of (p,n)- derived GT strengths to the field of astrophysics. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  2. Weak-interaction rates in stellar conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarriguren, Pedro

    2018-05-01

    Weak-interaction rates, including β-decay and electron captures, are studied in several mass regions at various densities and temperatures of astrophysical interest. In particular, we study odd-A nuclei in the pf-shell region, which are involved in presupernova formations. Weak rates are relevant to understand the late stages of the stellar evolution, as well as the nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei. The nuclear structure involved in the weak processes is studied within a quasiparticle proton-neutron random-phase approximation with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels on top of a deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations. First, the energy distributions of the Gamow-Teller strength are discussed and compared with the available experimental information, measured under terrestrial conditions from charge-exchange reactions. Then, the sensitivity of the weak-interaction rates to both astrophysical densities and temperatures is studied. Special attention is paid to the relative contribution to these rates of thermally populated excited states in the decaying nucleus and to the electron captures from the degenerate electron plasma.

  3. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental evidences to form a basis for Lagrangian Quantum field theory for Weak Interactions are discussed. In this context, gauge invariance aspects of such interactions are showed. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogava, S.; Savada, S.; Nakagava, M.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of the use of weak interaction laws to study models of elementary particles is discussed. The most typical examples of weak interaction is beta-decay of nucleons and muons. Beta-interaction is presented by quark currents in the form of universal interaction of the V-A type. Universality of weak interactions is well confirmed using as examples e- and μ-channels of pion decay. Hypothesis on partial preservation of axial current is applicable to the analysis of processes with pion participation. In the framework of the model with four flavours lepton decays of hadrons are considered. Weak interaction without lepton participation are also considered. Properties of neutral currents are described briefly

  5. Weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    Weak interactions are studied from a phenomenological point of view, by using a minimal number of theoretical hypotheses. Charged-current phenomenology, and then neutral-current phenomenology are discussed. This all is described in terms of a global SU(2) symmetry plus an electromagnetic correction. The intermediate-boson hypothesis is introduced and lower bounds on the range of the weak force are inferred. This phenomenology does not yet reconstruct all the predictions of the conventional SU(2)xU(1) gauge theory. To do that requires an additional assumption of restoration of SU(2) symmetry at asymptotic energies

  6. Weak interaction rates for Kr and Sr waiting-point nuclei under rp-process conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarriguren, P.

    2009-01-01

    Weak interaction rates are studied in neutron deficient Kr and Sr waiting-point isotopes in ranges of densities and temperatures relevant for the rp process. The nuclear structure is described within a microscopic model (deformed QRPA) that reproduces not only the half-lives but also the Gamow-Teller strength distributions recently measured. The various sensitivities of the decay rates to both density and temperature are discussed. Continuum electron capture is shown to contribute significantly to the weak rates at rp-process conditions.

  7. Reduction of weak interaction rates in neutron stars by nucleon spin fluctuations: Degenerate case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffelt, G.; Strobel, T.

    1997-01-01

    Nucleon spin fluctuations in a dense medium reduce the open-quotes naiveclose quotes values of weak interaction rates (neutrino opacities, neutrino emissivities). We extend previous studies of this effect to the degenerate case which is appropriate for neutron stars a few ten seconds after formation. If neutron-neutron interactions by a one-pion exchange potential are the dominant cause of neutron spin fluctuations, a perturbative calculation of weak interaction rates is justified for T approx-lt 3m/(4πα π 2 )∼1MeV, where m is the neutron mass and α π ∼15 the pion fine-structure constant. At higher temperatures, the application of Landau close-quote s theory of Fermi liquids is no longer justified; i.e., the neutrons cannot be viewed as simple quasiparticles in any obvious sense. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  8. Weak interactions with nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclei provide systems where the strong, electomagnetic, and weak interactions are all present. The current picture of the strong interactions is based on quarks and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). The symmetry structure of this theory is SU(3)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub W/ x U(1)/sub W/. The electroweak interactions in nuclei can be used to probe this structure. Semileptonic weak interactions are considered. The processes under consideration include beta decay, neutrino scattering and weak neutral-current interactions. The starting point in the analysis is the effective Lagrangian of the Standard Model

  9. Electromagnetic current in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, E.

    1983-01-01

    In gauge models which unify weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current. The exact nature of such a component can be explored using e + e - experimental data. In recent years, the existence of a new component of the weak interaction has become firmly established, i.e., the neutral-current interaction. As such, it competes with the electromagnetic interaction whenever the particles involved are also charged, but at a very much lower rate because its effective strength is so small. Hence neutrino processes are best for the detection of the neutral-current interaction. However, in any gauge model which unifies weak and electromagnetic interactions, the weak neutral-current interaction also involves the electromagnetic current

  10. Weak interactions and presupernova evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aufderheide, M.B.; State Univ. of New York

    1991-01-01

    The role of weak interactions, particularly electron capture and β - decay, in presupernova evolution is discussed. The present uncertainty in these rates is examined and the possibility of improving the situation is addressed. 12 refs., 4 figs

  11. Comparing interaction rate detectors for weakly interacting massive particles with annual modulation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copi, Craig J.; Krauss, Lawrence M.

    2003-01-01

    We compare the sensitivity of WIMP detection via direct separation of possible signal versus background to WIMP detection via detection of an annual modulation, in which signal and background cannot be separated on an event-by-event basis. In order to determine how the constraints from the two different types of experiments might be combined an adequate incorporation of uncertainties due to galactic halo models must be made. This issue is particularly timely in light of recent direct detection limits from Edelweiss and CDMS, which we now demonstrate cannot be made consistent with the most recent claimed DAMA annual modulation observation by including halo uncertainties for spin independent interactions. On the other hand, we demonstrate that a combination of these two techniques, in the event of any positive direct detection signal, could ultimately allow significant constraints on anisotropic halo models even without directional sensitivity in these detectors

  12. History of Weak Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  13. Introduction to weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    An account is first given of the electromagnetic interactions of complex, scalar, vector and spinor fields. It is shown that the electromagnetic field may be considered as a gauge field. Yang-Mills fields and the field theory invariant with respect to the non-Abelian gauge transformation group are then described. The construction, owing to this invariance principle, of conserved isospin currents associated with gauge fields is also demonstrated. This is followed by a historical survey of the development of the weak interaction theory, established at first to describe beta disintegration processes by analogy with electrodynamics. The various stages are mentioned from the discovery of principles and rules and violation of principles, such as those of invariance with respect to spatial reflection and charge conjugation to the formulation of the effective current-current Lagrangian and research on the structure of weak currents [fr

  14. Expanded calculation of weak-interaction-mediated neutrino cooling rates due to 56Ni in stellar matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un

    2010-01-01

    An accurate estimate of the neutrino cooling rates is required in order to study the various stages of stellar evolution of massive stars. Neutrino losses from proto-neutron stars play a crucial role in deciding whether these stars would be crushed into black holes or explode as supernovae. Both pure leptonic and weak-interaction processes contribute to the neutrino energy losses in stellar matter. At low temperatures and densities, the characteristics of the early phase of presupernova evolution, cooling through neutrinos produced via the weak interaction, are important. Proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA) theory has recently been used with success for the calculation of stellar weak-interaction rates of fp-shell nuclide. The lepton-to-baryon ratio (Y e ) during early phases of stellar evolution of massive stars changes substantially, mainly due to electron captures on 56 Ni. The stellar matter is transparent to the neutrinos produced during the presupernova evolution of massive stars. These neutrinos escape the site and assist the stellar core in maintaining a lower entropy. Here, an expanded calculation of weak-interaction-mediated neutrino and antineutrino cooling rates due to 56 Ni in stellar matter using the pn-QRPA theory is presented. This detailed scale is appropriate for interpolation purposes and is of greater utility for simulation codes. The calculated rates are compared with earlier calculations. During the relevant temperature and density regions of stellar matter the reported rates show few differences compared with the shell model rates and might contribute in fine-tuning of the lepton-to-baryon ratio during the presupernova phases of stellar evolution of massive stars.

  15. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schramm, D.N.

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N ν ∼ 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  17. The structure of weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of introducing righthanded currents on the structure of weak interaction is discussed. The ΔI=1/2 rule is in the spotlight. The discussion provides an interesting example in which the so-called Iizuka-Okubo-Zweing rule is not only evaded, but completely negated

  18. Weak interactions at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references

  19. Weak-interacting holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazit, D.; Yee, H.-U.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a simple prescription for including low-energy weak-interactions into the frame- work of holographic QCD, based on the standard AdS/CFT dictionary of double-trace deformations. As our proposal enables us to calculate various electro-weak observables involving strongly coupled QCD, it opens a new perspective on phenomenological applications of holographic QCD. We illustrate efficiency and usefulness of our method by performing a few exemplar calculations; neutron beta decay, charged pion weak decay, and meson-nucleon parity non-conserving (PNC) couplings. The idea is general enough to be implemented in both Sakai-Sugimoto as well as Hard/Soft Wall models. (author)

  20. Light weakly interacting massive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2017-08-01

    Light weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are dark matter particle candidates with weak scale interaction with the known particles, and mass in the GeV to tens of GeV range. Hints of light WIMPs have appeared in several dark matter searches in the last decade. The unprecedented possible coincidence into tantalizingly close regions of mass and cross section of four separate direct detection experimental hints and a potential indirect detection signal in gamma rays from the galactic center, aroused considerable interest in our field. Even if these hints did not so far result in a discovery, they have had a significant impact in our field. Here we review the evidence for and against light WIMPs as dark matter candidates and discuss future relevant experiments and observations.

  1. History of the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    At the 'Jackfest' marking the 65th birthday of Jack Steinberger (see July/August 1986 issue, page 29), T.D. Lee gave an account of the history of the weak interactions. This edited version omits some of Lee's tributes to Steinberger, but retains the impressive insight into the subtleties of a key area of modern physics by one who played a vital role in its development. (orig./HSI).

  2. Weak neutral-current interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z 0 boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references

  3. Nuclear beta decay and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kean, D.C.

    1975-11-01

    Short notes are presented on various aspects of nuclear beta decay and weak interactions including: super-allowed transitions, parity violation, interaction strengths, coupling constants, and the current-current formalism of weak interaction. (R.L.)

  4. Weak interactions at the SSC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1986-03-01

    Prospects for the study of standard model weak interactions at the SSC are reviewed, with emphasis on the unique capability of the SSC to study the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking whether the associated new quanta are at the TeV scale or higher. Symmetry breaking by the minimal Higgs mechanism and by related strong interaction dynamical variants is summarized. A set of measurements is outlined that would calibrate the proton structure functions and the backgrounds to new physics. The ability to measure the three weak gauge boson vertex is found to complement LEP II, with measurements extending to larger Q 2 at a comparable statistical level in detectable decays. B factory physics is briefly reviewed as one example of a possible broad program of high statistics studies of sub-TeV scale phenomena. The largest section of the talk is devoted to the possible manifestations of symmetry breaking in the WW and ZZ production cross sections. Some new results are presented bearing on the ability to detect high mass WW and ZZ pairs. The principal conclusion is that although nonstandard model scenarios are typically more forgiving, the capability to study symmetry breaking in the standard model (and in related strong interaction dynamical variants) requires achieving the SSC design goals of √ s,L = 40Tev, 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 . 28 refs., 5 figs

  5. Estimates of the Attenuation Rates of Baroclinic Tidal Energy Caused by Resonant Interactions Among Internal Waves based on the Weak Turbulence Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Y.; Hibiya, T.

    2016-02-01

    The baroclinic tides are thought to be the dominant energy source for turbulent mixing in the ocean interior. In contrast to the geography of the energy conversion rates from the barotropic to baroclinic tides, which has been clarified in recent numerical studies, the global distribution of the energy sink for the resulting low-mode baroclinic tides remains obscure. A key to resolve this issue is the resonant wave-wave interactions, which transfer part of the baroclinic tidal energy to the background internal wave field enhancing the local energy dissipation rates. Recent field observations and numerical studies have pointed out that parametric subharmonic instability (PSI), one of the resonant interactions, causes significant energy sink of baroclinic tidal energy at mid-latitudes. The purpose of this study is to analyze the quantitative aspect of PSI to demonstrate the global distribution of the intensity of resonant wave interactions, namely, the attenuation rate of low-mode baroclinic tidal energy. Our approach is basically following the weak turbulence theory, which is the standard theory for resonant wave-wave interactions, where techniques of singular perturbation and statistical physics are employed. This study is, however, different from the classical theory in some points; we have reformulated the weak turbulence theory to be applicable to low-mode internal waves and also developed its numerical calculation method so that the effects of stratification profile and oceanic total depth can be taken into account. We have calculated the attenuation rate of low-mode baroclinic tidal waves interacting with the background Garrett-Munk internal wave field. The calculated results clearly show the rapid attenuation of baroclinic tidal energy at mid-latitudes, in agreement with the results from field observations and also show the zonal inhomogeneity of the attenuation rate caused by the density structures associated with the subtropical gyre. This study is expected

  6. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  7. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, R

    2006-01-01

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe

  8. A universe without weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-01-01

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''weakless universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting standard model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the weakless universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multiparameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe

  9. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Quantum Field Theory created by Dirac and used by Fermi to describe weak ... of classical electrodynamics (from which the electric field and magnetic field can be obtained .... Universe. However, thanks to weak interactions, this can be done.

  10. Current problems in the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pais, A.

    1977-01-01

    Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references

  11. About some distinguishing features of weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that, in contrast to strong and electromagnetic theories, additive conserved numbers (such as lepton, aromatic and another numbers) and γ 5 anomaly do not appear in the standard weak interaction theory. It means that in this interaction the additive numbers cannot be conserved. These results are the consequence of specific character of the weak interaction: the right components of spinors do not participate in this interaction. The schemes of violation of the aromatic and lepton numbers were considered

  12. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, S.J.; Chicago Univ., IL; Chicago Univ., IL

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon

  13. Weak interactions in hot nucleon matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    2006-01-01

    The reaction rates for electron capture, neutrino absorption, and neutrino scattering in hot asymmetric nuclear matter are calculated with two-body effective interactions and one-body effective weak operators obtained from realistic models of nuclear forces by use of correlated basis theory. The infinite system is modeled in a box with periodic boundary conditions, and the one-quasiparticle quasi-hole response functions are calculated with a large microcanonical sample and the Tamm-Dancoff approximation. Results for matter at a temperature of 10 MeV, proton fraction 0.4, and densities ρ=(1/2),1,(3/2)ρ 0 , where ρ 0 is the equilibrium density of symmetric nuclear matter, are presented to illustrate the method. In general, the strength of the response is shifted to higher-energy transfers when compared with that of a noninteracting Fermi gas. The shift in the response and the weakness of effective operators as compared with the bare operators significantly reduce the cross sections for electron capture and neutrino scattering by factors of ∼2.5-3.5. In contrast, the symmetry energy enhances the neutrino absorption reaction rate relative to the Fermi gas. However, this reaction rate is still quite small because of Pauli blocking

  14. Study of weak interaction with p-p colliding beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafune, Jiro; Sugawara, Hirotaka

    1975-01-01

    Weak interaction in the energy range of TRISTAN project is discussed. The cross-section of production of weak boson in p-p reaction was calculated with the parton model. The observation of weak boson may be possible. The production rate of neutral weak boson was also estimated on the basis of the Weinberg model, and was almost same as that of weak boson. The method of observation of weak boson is suggested. The direct method is the observation of lepton pair due to the decay of neutral weak boson. It is expected that the spectrum of decay products (+ -) in the decay of weak boson shows a characteristic feature, and it shows the existence of weak boson. Weak interaction makes larger contribution in case of large momentum transfer than electromagnetic interaction. When the momentum transfer is larger than 60 GeV/c, the contribution of weak interaction is dominant over the others. Therefore, the experiments at high energy will give informations concerning the relations among the interactions of elementary particles. Possibility of study on the Higgs scalar meson is also discussed. (Kato, T.)

  15. Weak interaction: past answers, present questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.

    1977-02-01

    A historical sketch of the weak interaction is presented. From beta ray to pion decay, the V-A theory of Marshak and Sudarshan, CVC principle of equivalence, universality as an algebraic condition, PCAC, renormalized weak Hamiltonian in the rehabilitation of field theory, and some current issues are considered in this review. 47 references

  16. Weak interactions and gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1979-12-01

    The status of the electroweak gauge theory, also known as quantum asthenodynamics (QAD), is examined. The major result is that the standard WS-GIM model describes the data well, although one should still look for signs of further complexity and better tests of its gauge theory aspect. A second important result is that the measured values of the three basic coupling constants of present-energy physics, g/sub s/, g, and √(5/3)g' of SU(3)/sub c/ x SU(2) 2 x U(1), are compatible with the idea that these interactions are unified at high energies. Much of the paper deals with open questions, and it takes up the following topics: the status of QAD, the scalar meson spectrum, the fermion spectrum, CP violation, and decay dynamics. 118 references, 20 figures

  17. Weak interactions in astrophysics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.J.

    1977-01-01

    There ar many problems in astrophysics and cosmology in which the form of the weak interactions, their strength or the number of weakly interacting particles, is very important. It is possible that astronomical observations may give some information about the weak interactions. In the conventional hot big bang cosmological theory the number of leptons with associated neutrinos influences the speed of expansion of the Universe and the chemical composition of pre-galactic matter. The strength of the weak interaction, as exemplified by the half-life of the neutron, has a similar effect. In addition, the form of the weak interactions will determine how effectively neutrino viscosity can smooth out irregularities in the early Universe. Because neutrinos have a very long mean free path, they can escape from the central region of stars whereas photons can only escape from the surface. In late stages of stellar evolution, neutrino luminosity is often believed to be much greater than photon luminosity. This can both accelerate the cooling of dying stars and influence the stages of stellar evolution leading to the onset of supernova explosions. In pre-super-novae it is even possible that very dense stellar cores can be opaque to neutrinos and that the absorption or scattering of neutrinos can cause the explosion. These results depend crucially on the form of the weak interactions, with the discovery of neutral currents being very important. Until the solar neutrino experiment has been reconciled with theory, the possible role of uncertainties in the weak interactions cannot be ignored. (author)

  18. The weak conversion rate in quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiselberg, H.

    1992-01-01

    The weak conversion rate of strange to down quarks, s + u ↔ u + d, is calculated analytically for degenerate u, d and s quark matter to leading orders in temperature and deviations from chemical equilibrium. The rate is applied to burning of neutron matter into quark matter, to evaporation from quark nuggets in the early universe, for estimating the lifetime of strangelets, and to pulsar glitches

  19. Theoretical status of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandit, L. K.

    1980-07-01

    An extended simple version of the Weinberg gauge model is proposed to bring together weak and electromagnetic interactions under one theory. The essential features of the standard SU/sub 2/ (operating on)U/sub 1/ gauge scheme with four leptons and four quark flavours is recalled. Charged-current and neutral current interactions are described. Non-leptonic decays of strange particles are studied. The treatment is extended to 6-leptons and 6-quark flavours. The short comings of this model are discussed. Speculations on the unification of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are made.

  20. Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmen, T.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced

  1. Weak interactions of the b quark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Mohapatra, R.N.

    1978-01-01

    In weak-interaction models with two charged W bosons of comparable mass, there exists a novel possibility for the weak interactions of the b quark, in which the (u-barb)/sub R/ current occurs with maximal strength. It is noted that multimuon production in e + e - annihilation at above Q 2 > or approx. = (12 GeV) 2 will distinguish this scheme from the conventional one. We also present a Higgs system that leads naturally to this type of coupling, in a class of gauge models

  2. CPT non-invariance and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.P.

    1973-01-01

    In this talk, I will describe a possible violation of CPT invariance in the domain of weak interactions. One can construct a model of weak interactions which, in order to be consistent with all experimental data, must violate CPT maximally. The model predicts many specific results for decay processes which could be tested in the planned neutral hyperon beam or neutrino beam at NAL. The motivations and the physical idea in the model are explained and the implications of the model are discussed. (U.S.)

  3. Quenching of weak interactions in nucleon matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowell, S.; Pandharipande, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    We have calculated the one-body Fermi and Gamow-Teller charge-current and vector and axial-vector neutral-current nuclear matrix elements in nucleon matter at densities of 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24 fm -3 and proton fractions ranging from 0.2 to 0.5. The correlated states for nucleon matter are obtained by operating on Fermi-gas states by a symmetrized product of pair correlation operators determined from variational calculations with the Argonne-v18 and Urbana-IX two- and three-nucleon interactions. The squares of the charge- current matrix elements are found to be quenched by 20-25 % by the short-range correlations in nucleon matter. Most of the quenching is due to spin-isospin correlations induced by the pion exchange interactions which change the isospins and spins of the nucleons. A large part of it can be related to the probability for a spin-up proton quasiparticle to be a bare spin-up/down proton/neutron. Within the interval considered, the charge-current matrix elements do not have significant dependence on the matter density, proton fraction, and magnitudes of nucleon momenta; however, they do depend on momentum transfer. The neutral-current matrix elements have a significant dependence on the proton fraction. We also calculate the matrix elements of the nuclear Hamiltonian in the same correlated basis. These provide relatively mild effective interactions that give the variational energies in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The calculated two-nucleon effective interaction describes the spin-isospin susceptibilities of nuclear and neutron matter fairly accurately. However terms greater than or equal to three-body terms are necessary to reproduce the compressibility. Realistic calculations of weak interaction rates in nucleon matter can presumably be carried out using the effective operators and interactions studied here. All presented results use the simple two-body cluster approximation to calculate the correlated basis matrix elements. This allows for a clear

  4. Gauge theories of the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.

    1978-08-01

    Two lectures are presented on the Weinberg--Salam--Glashow--Iliopoulos--Maiani gauge theory for weak interactions. An attempt is made to give some impressions of the generality of this model, how it was developed, variations found in the literature, and the status of the standard model. 21 references

  5. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  6. Deep inelastic inclusive weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of deep inelastic inclusive interactions is reviewed, emphasizing applications to electromagnetic and weak charged current processes. The following reactions are considered: e + N → e + X, ν + N → μ - + X, anti ν + N → μ + + X where X denotes a summation over all final state hadrons and the ν's are muon neutrinos. After a discussion of scaling, the quark-parton model is invoked to explain the principle experimental features of deep inelastic inclusive reactions

  7. Weakly interacting massive particles and stellar structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouquet, A.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) may solve both the dark matter problem and the solar neutrino problem. Such particles affect the energy transport in the stellar cores and change the stellar structure. We present the results of an analytic approximation to compute these effects in a self-consistent way. These results can be applied to many different stars, but we focus on the decrease of the 8 B neutrino flux in the case of the Sun

  8. Unification of electromagnetic, strong and weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong Van Phi; Duong Anh Duc

    1993-09-01

    The Unification of Electromagnetic, Strong and Weak Interactions is realized in the framework of the Quantum Field Theory, established in an 8-dimensional Unified Space. Two fundamental, spinor and vector field equations are considered. The first of the matter particles and the second is of the gauge particles. Interaction Lagrangians are formed from the external and internal currents and the external and internal vector field operators. Generators of the local gauge transformations are the combinations of the matrices of the first field equation. (author). 15 refs

  9. Relativistic rapprochement of weak and strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1995-01-01

    On the basis of the relativistic Yukawa potentials for the nuclear (quark) field and the field of intermediate vector W-, Z-bosons, it is shown that the interactions described by them increase differently with growing velocity (the weak one increases more rapidly). According to the estimates, they are compared (at distances of the 'action radius' of nuclear forces) at an energy of about 10 12 GeV (10 6 GeV for the pion field) what is smaller than the corresponding value in the model of 'grand unification'. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Theory and Applications of Weakly Interacting Markov Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-03

    between a node and its neighbor is inversely 3 proportional to the total number of neighbors of that node. Such stochastic systems arise in many different...jumps and models with simultaneous jumps that arise in applications. (1.ii.d) Uniform in Time Interacting Particle Approximations for Nonlinear...problems. (1.iv.a) Diffusion Approximations for Controlled Weakly Interacting Large Finite State Systems with Simultaneous Jumps [25]. We consider a rate

  11. Super symmetry in strong and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshavatharam, U.V.S.; Lakshminarayana, S.

    2010-01-01

    For strong interaction two new fermion mass units 105.32 MeV and 11450 MeV are assumed. Existence of "Integral charge quark bosons", "Integral charge effective quark fermions", "Integral charge (effective) quark fermi-gluons" and "Integral charge quark boso-gluons" are assumed and their masses are estimated. It is noticed that, characteristic nuclear charged fermion is X s · 105.32 = 938.8 MeV and corresponding charged boson is X s (105.32/x) = 415.0 where X s = 8.914 is the inverse of the strong coupling constant and x = 2.26234 is a new number by using which "super symmetry" can be seen in "strong and weak" interactions. 11450 MeV fermion and its boson of mass = 11450/x = 5060 MeV plays a crucial role in "sub quark physics" and "weak interaction". 938.8 MeV strong fermion seems to be the proton. 415 MeV strong boson seems to be the mother of the presently believed 493,496 and 547 MeV etc, strange mesons. With 11450 MeV fermion "effective quark-fermi-gluons" and with 5060 MeV boson "quark boso-gluon masses" are estimated. "Effective quark fermi-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state charged baryons mass generation. Light quark bosons couple with these charged baryons to form doublets and triplets. "Quark boso-gluons" plays a crucial role in ground state neutral and charged mesons mass generation. Fine and super-fine rotational levels can be given by [I or (I/2)] power(1/4) and [I or (I/2)] power(1/12) respectively. Here, I = n(n+1) and n = 1, 2, 3, … (author)

  12. Weak-interaction contributions to hyperfine splitting and Lamb shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eides, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    Weak-interaction contributions to hyperfine splitting and the Lamb shift in hydrogen and muonium are discussed. The problem of sign of the weak-interaction contribution to HFS is clarified, and simple physical arguments that make this sign evident are presented. It is shown that weak-interaction contributions to HFS in hydrogen and muonium have opposite signs. A weak-interaction contribution to the Lamb shift is obtained. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  13. Pre-relaxation in weakly interacting models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Bruno; Fagotti, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    We consider time evolution in models close to integrable points with hidden symmetries that generate infinitely many local conservation laws that do not commute with one another. The system is expected to (locally) relax to a thermal ensemble if integrability is broken, or to a so-called generalised Gibbs ensemble if unbroken. In some circumstances expectation values exhibit quasi-stationary behaviour long before their typical relaxation time. For integrability-breaking perturbations, these are also called pre-thermalisation plateaux, and emerge e.g. in the strong coupling limit of the Bose-Hubbard model. As a result of the hidden symmetries, quasi-stationarity appears also in integrable models, for example in the Ising limit of the XXZ model. We investigate a weak coupling limit, identify a time window in which the effects of the perturbations become significant and solve the time evolution through a mean-field mapping. As an explicit example we study the XYZ spin-\\frac{1}{2} chain with additional perturbations that break integrability. One of the most intriguing results of the analysis is the appearance of persistent oscillatory behaviour. To unravel its origin, we study in detail a toy model: the transverse-field Ising chain with an additional nonlocal interaction proportional to the square of the transverse spin per unit length (2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 197203). Despite being nonlocal, this belongs to a class of models that emerge as intermediate steps of the mean-field mapping and shares many dynamical properties with the weakly interacting models under consideration.

  14. Weak interactions - formulae, results, and derivations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietschmann, H

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to provide experimental and theoretical physicists working in the field of weak interactions with a reference work which includes all the formulae and results needed in actual research. The derivation of these formulae is also given in detail for some typical examples to facilitate their use. New developments in unified gauge theories have been included as well as the decay processes of the new particles such as intermediate bosons and tau-lepton. In order to supply the research worker with a convenient working aid, frequently occurring mathematical formulae as well as phase space integrals and the Dirac algebra have been included. Treatment of field operators - also with respect to discrete transformations C, P, T and G - as well as products of invariant functions are provided. Particular emphasis has been placed on the Lagrangian of unified electroweak interactions. The major portion of the work is, of course, devoted to formulae for decay processes and scattering cross-sections. Useful formulae in e/sup +/e/sup -/ reactions and a small dictionary for translations into other forms for the space-time metric are collected in appendices.

  15. Neutron star formation and the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, A.

    1986-01-01

    The only known direct diagnostic of the central event is its neutrino emission. The imprint of the entire internal evolution is stamped on the spectrum, mix of flavors, luminosities, and features of the accompanying neutrino burst. Detection and scrutiny of this neutrino signal will test theories concerning stellar collapse, type II supernovae, and the formation of neutron stars in ways impossible by other means. Despite the fact that an incredible 3x10 53 ergs may be emitted in neutrinos after the initiation of collapse, the very weakness of the neutrino/matter interaction that allows them to penetrate the stellar envelope and escape makes their detection at the Earth very difficult. Though neutrino astronomy is not yet a mature discipline, the physical theories of collapse have progressed to a sufficient degree that specific and detailed predictions can be made about the neutrino emissions that with future detector technology might be tested. The time seems propitious to summarize and review what is known and suspected about the neutrino signature of collapse, the potential for its detection, and how it can be used to test our ideas about the death of massive stars and the birth of neutrino stars. (orig./BBOE)

  16. Introduction to unification of electromagnetic and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing the present status of weak interaction phenomenology we discuss the basic principles of gauge theories. Then we show how Higgs mechanism can give massive quanta of interaction. The so-called 'Weinberg-Salam' model, which unifies electromagnetic and weak interactions, is described. We conclude with a few words on unification with strong interactions and gravity [fr

  17. Standard and non-standard weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leurer, M.

    1985-12-01

    This work consists of independent chapters, all deal with weak interactions. The first chapter deals with left-right symmetric theories. Two main versions of these theories are discussed and compared. In addition, the K - K-bar mixing term is analysed: it has been known for several years now that in a left-right symmetric model there are new contributions to the mixing of kaons. We show that in the most appealing left-right symmetric model - the new contributions add up constructively. Consequently, we may derive reliable bounds on the mass of the right-handed gauge boson and the average mass of the (unavoidable) physical Higgs scalars. We also show that the new contributions are proportional to a new CP violating phase. While all previous treatments of the K - K-bar system were limited to the minimal model, we are able to show that our results hold also in the general case of nonminimal models. The second chapter deals with the possibility that W and Z are composite. Three experimental tests are discussed: (i) Universality -if W is composite then its coupling to the fermions is expected to deviate from universality. Since such deviations were not yet seen -we derive a lower bound on the compositeness scale. (ii) Possible enhancement of the reaction p-bar+p→Z 0 +γ+any - we show that if Z 0 is composite then the cross section for the above process might be considerably enhanced and this effect can be measured at CERN and Fermilab.(iii) The eeγ events of the 1983 run in CERN - we show that in contradiction to suggestions made in several papers, these events may not be explained by a composite-Z decaying through a scalar. In the last chapter we discuss the quark mixing angles

  18. Information flow between weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene, Wilhelmstr. 3a, 79098 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2006-05-15

    Weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps can be modeled as ordinary coupled map lattices separated from each other by boundary regions with small coupling parameters. We demonstrate that such weakly interacting lattices can nevertheless have unexpected and striking effects on each other. Under specific conditions, particular stability properties of the lattices are significantly influenced by their weak mutual interaction. This observation is tantamount to an efficacious information flow across the boundary.

  19. Information flow between weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobyns, York; Atmanspacher, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps can be modeled as ordinary coupled map lattices separated from each other by boundary regions with small coupling parameters. We demonstrate that such weakly interacting lattices can nevertheless have unexpected and striking effects on each other. Under specific conditions, particular stability properties of the lattices are significantly influenced by their weak mutual interaction. This observation is tantamount to an efficacious information flow across the boundary

  20. Dark-Matter Particles without Weak-Scale Masses or Weak Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kumar, Jason

    2008-01-01

    We propose that dark matter is composed of particles that naturally have the correct thermal relic density, but have neither weak-scale masses nor weak interactions. These models emerge naturally from gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking, where they elegantly solve the dark-matter problem. The framework accommodates single or multiple component dark matter, dark-matter masses from 10 MeV to 10 TeV, and interaction strengths from gravitational to strong. These candidates enhance many direct and indirect signals relative to weakly interacting massive particles and have qualitatively new implications for dark-matter searches and cosmological implications for colliders

  1. Weak interaction studies from nuclear beta decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, M.

    1981-01-01

    The studies performed at the theoretical nuclear physics division of the Laboratory of Nuclear Studies, Osaka University, are reported. Electron spin density and internal conversion process, nuclear excitation by electron transition, beta decay, weak charged current, and beta-ray angular distributions in oriented nuclei have been studied. The relative intensity of internal conversion electrons for the case in which the radial wave functions of orbital electrons are different for electron spin up and down was calculated. The calculated value was in good agreement with the experimental one. The nuclear excitation following the transition of orbital electrons was studied. The calculated probability of the nuclear excitation of Os 189 was 1.4 x 10 - 7 in conformity with the experimental value 1.7 x 10 - 7 . The second class current and other problems on beta-decay have been extensively studied, and described elsewhere. Concerning weak charged current, the effects of all induced terms, the time component of main axial vector, all partial waves of leptons, Coulomb correction for the electrons in finite size nuclei, and radiative correction were studied. The beta-ray angular distribution for the 1 + -- 0 + transition in oriented B 12 and N 12 was investigated. In this connection, investigation on the weak magnetism to include all higher order corrections for the evaluation of the spectral shape factors was performed. Other works carried out by the author and his collaborators are also explained. (Kato, T.)

  2. Weak interactions, quark masses and spontaneous violation of parity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingsley, R.L.

    1976-09-01

    A six quark model is discussed for the weak interactions of hadrons in which parity is violated spontaneously in an SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory. Quarks with very small masses are required and their weak interactions approximate those of the Weinberg-Salam model. Suppression of strangeness-changing neutral currents requires at least seven quarks. (author)

  3. The weak interaction in nuclear, particle and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, K.; Klapdor, H.V.

    1989-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the concepts of weak interactions and their importance and consequences for nuclear physics, particle physics, neutrino physics, astrophysics and cosmology. After a general introduction to elementary particles and interactions the Fermi theory of weak interactions is described together with its connection with nuclear structure and beta decay including the double beta decay. Then, after a general description of gauge theories the Weinberg-Salam theory of the electroweak interactions is introduced. Thereafter the weak interactions are considered in the framework of grand unification. Then the physics of neutrinos is discussed. Thereafter connections of weak interactions with astrophysics are considered with special regards to the gravitational collapse and the synthesis of heavy elements in the r-process. Finally, the connections of grand unified theories and cosmology are considered. (HSI) With 141 figs., 39 tabs

  4. Charged current weak interactions at high energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, D.

    1977-01-01

    We review high energy neutrino and antineutrino charged current interactions. An overview of the experimental data is given, including a discussion of the experimental status of the y anomaly. Locality tests, μ-e universality and charge symmetry invariance tests are discussed. Charm production is discussed. The experimental status of trimuon events and possible phenomenological models for these events are presented. (orig.) [de

  5. Charged current weak interaction of polarized muons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smadja, G.; Vesztergombi, G.

    1983-01-01

    The polarization of the muon beam can be used to test the presence of right-handed couplings in charged current interaction of muons in process μ+N->#betta#+X. The experimental feasibility and the limits which can be obtained on the mass of right-handed intermediate boson are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...

  7. Quantum Butterfly Effect in Weakly Interacting Diffusive Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aavishkar A. Patel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study scrambling, an avatar of chaos, in a weakly interacting metal in the presence of random potential disorder. It is well known that charge and heat spread via diffusion in such an interacting disordered metal. In contrast, we show within perturbation theory that chaos spreads in a ballistic fashion. The squared anticommutator of the electron-field operators inherits a light-cone-like growth, arising from an interplay of a growth (Lyapunov exponent that scales as the inelastic electron scattering rate and a diffusive piece due to the presence of disorder. In two spatial dimensions, the Lyapunov exponent is universally related at weak coupling to the sheet resistivity. We are able to define an effective temperature-dependent butterfly velocity, a speed limit for the propagation of quantum information that is much slower than microscopic velocities such as the Fermi velocity and that is qualitatively similar to that of a quantum critical system with a dynamical critical exponent z>1.

  8. Cosmological constraints on the properties of weakly interacting massive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.; Turner, M.S.

    1984-10-01

    Considerations of the age and density of, as well as the evolution of structure in, the Universe lead to constraints on the masses and lifetimes of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). 26 references

  9. Cosmological constraints on the properties of weakly interacting massive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steigman, G.; Turner, M.S.

    1984-10-01

    Considerations of the age and density of, as well as the evolution of structure in, the Universe lead to constraints on the masses and lifetimes of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). 26 references.

  10. Weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    The present status of weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry is reviewed. The theoretical basis for asymptotic parity conservation, manifest left-right symmetry in charged current weak interactions, natural parity conservation in neutral currents and CP-violation in the context of SU(2)/sub L/ circled x SU (2)/sub R/ circled x U(1) models are outlined in detail. Various directions for further research in the theoretical and experimental side are indicated

  11. Supersymmetry and weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayet, P.

    1977-01-01

    A supersymmetric theory of particle interactions is discussed. It is based on the earlier model which involves gauge (or vector) superfields, and matter (or chiral) superfields; each of them describes a vector and a Majorana spinor in the first case, or a two-component Dirac spinor and a complex scalar in the second case. The new theory suggests the possible existence of spin - 1/2 gluons and heavy spin-0 quarks, besides spin - 1 gluons and spin - 1/2 quarks. To prevent scalar particles to be exchanged in processes such as μ or β decays a new class of leptons with its own quantum number is introduced; it includes charged leptons and a ''photonic neutrino''

  12. Weak interaction and nucleus: the relationship keeps on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, J.; Frere, J.M.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Volpe, C.; Marteau, J.; Lhuillier, D.; Vignaud, D.; Legac, R.; Marteau, J.; Legac, R.

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot-Curie international summer school in 2003 whose theme, that year, was the relationship between weak interaction and nucleus. There were 8 contributions whose titles are: 1) before the standard model: from beta decay to neutral currents; 2) the electro-weak theory and beyond; 3) testing of the standard model at low energies; 4) description of weak processes in nuclei; 5) 20.000 tonnes underground, an approach to the neutrino-nucleus interaction; 6) parity violation from atom to nucleon; 7) how neutrinos got their masses; and 8) CP symmetry

  13. Weakly interacting dark matter and baryogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Peihong; Lindner, Manfred; Sarkar, Utpal; Zhang Xinmin

    2011-01-01

    In the present Universe visible and dark matter contribute comparable energy density although they have different properties. This phenomenon can be explained if the dark matter relic density, originating from a dark matter asymmetry, is fully determined by the baryon asymmetry. Thus the dark matter mass is not arbitrary; rather, it becomes predictive. We realize this scenario in baryon (lepton) number conserving models where two or more neutral singlet scalars decay into two or three baryonic (leptonic) dark matter scalars, and also decay into quarks (leptons) through other on-shell and/or off-shell exotic scalar bilinears. The produced baryon (lepton) asymmetries in the dark matter scalar and in the standard model quarks (leptons) are thus equal and opposite. The dark matter mass can be predicted in a range from a few GeV to a few TeV, depending on the baryon (lepton) numbers of the decaying scalars and the dark matter scalar. The dark matter scalar can interact with the visible matter through the exchange of the standard model Higgs boson, opening a window for the dark matter direct detection experiments. These models also provide testable predictions in the searches for the exotic scalar bilinears at LHC.

  14. Nuclear Weak Rates and Detailed Balance in Stellar Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misch, G. Wendell, E-mail: wendell@sjtu.edu, E-mail: wendell.misch@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dong Chuan Road, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2017-07-20

    Detailed balance is often invoked in discussions of nuclear weak transitions in astrophysical environments. Satisfaction of detailed balance is rightly touted as a virtue of some methods of computing nuclear transition strengths, but I argue that it need not necessarily be strictly obeyed in astrophysical environments, especially when the environment is far from weak equilibrium. I present the results of shell model calculations of nuclear weak strengths in both charged-current and neutral-current channels at astrophysical temperatures, finding some violation of detailed balance. I show that a slight modification of the technique to strictly obey detailed balance has little effect on the reaction rates associated with these strengths under most conditions, though at high temperature the modified technique in fact misses some important strength. I comment on the relationship between detailed balance and weak equilibrium in astrophysical conditions.

  15. Recollections on the establishment of the weak-interaction notion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    The author postulated a muon-electron symmetry as early as 1947 and this gave an early hint of a universal weak interaction and its involvement in particle decay. He also suggested families of leptons. Starting in 1947, a number of new unstable particles were discovered, some electrically neutral and some charged. Some had slow decays, such as the kaon and lambda ''strange'', which could not be explained using the strong interaction. The author was partially responsible for explaining hyperon and kaon decay via the weak interaction, for any four fermions, and for the idea of pair production. (UK)

  16. A connection between the strong and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treiman, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    By studying weak scattering reactions (such as pion-nucleon scattering), the author and his colleague Marvin L Goldberger became renowned in the 1950s for work on dispersion relations. As a result of their collaboration a remarkable and unexpected connection was found between strong and weak interaction quantities. Agreement with experiment was good. Work by others found the same result, but via the partially conserved axial reactor current relation between the axial current divergence and the canonical pion field. (UK)

  17. Recollections on the establishment of the weak interaction notion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, B.

    1985-01-01

    The generalization of conception of weak interaction to the processes where strange particles discovered is given. Indepene dently of Pais, the author came to an idea of pair production of new (strange) particles. In Dubna the experiments have been performed on the search for processes of production of the same pair of Λ-particles in nucleon-nucleon collisions. To interprete negative results of these experiments the author suggested a scheme based on an assumption that the isotopic spin is conserved in strong interaction and is not conserved in the weak one. It followed from this scheme, in particularly, that K 0 and anti K 0 - different particles

  18. Weak Molecular Interactions in Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Smith

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a process by which specific molecules are internalized from the cell periphery for delivery to early endosomes. The key stages in this step-wise process, from the starting point of cargo recognition, to the later stage of assembly of the clathrin coat, are dependent on weak interactions between a large network of proteins. This review discusses the structural and functional data that have improved our knowledge and understanding of the main weak molecular interactions implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, with a particular focus on the two key proteins: AP2 and clathrin.

  19. Weak interactions of quarks and leptons: experimental status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1984-09-01

    The present experimental status of weak interactions is discussed with emphasis on the problems and questions and on the possible lines of future investigations. Major topics include; (1) the quark mixing matrix, (2) CP violation, (3) rare decays, (4) the lepton sector, and (5) right handed currents. 118 references

  20. Weak interactions physics: from its birth to the eletroweak model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A review of the evolution of weak interaction physics from its beginning (Fermi-Majorana-Perrin) to the eletroweak model (Glashow-Weinberg-Salam). Contributions from Brazilian physicists are specially mentioned as well as the first prediction of electroweak-unification, of the neutral intermediate vector Z 0 and the first approximate value of the mass of the W-bosons. (Author) [pt

  1. Discovery of the charged vector bosons (W+-) conveying weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, D.

    1983-01-01

    The unified Weinberg-Salam-Glashow theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions assumes the existence of two charged (W) and one neutral (Z) intermediate vector bosons of the unified electroweak interaction. These particles were discovered at the end of 1982 with the CERN's SPS proton-antiproton colliding beams. Technical aspects of the production and detection of W and Z bosons, the first results and their importance are described in detail. (D.Gy.)

  2. Inelastic multiple scattering of interacting bosons in weak random potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Within the present thesis we develop a diagrammatic scattering theory for interacting bosons in a three-dimensional, weakly disordered potential. Based on a microscopic N-body scattering theory, we identify the relevant diagrams including elastic and inelastic collision processes that are sufficient to describe quantum transport in the regime of weak disorder. By taking advantage of the statistical properties of the weak disorder potential, we demonstrate how the N-body dynamics can be reduced to a nonlinear integral equation of Boltzmann type for the single-particle diffusive flux. A presently available alternative description - based on the Gross-Pitaevskii equation - only includes elastic collisions. In contrast, we show that far from equilibrium the presence of inelastic collisions - even for weak interaction strength - must be accounted for and can induce the full thermalization of the single-particle current. In addition, we also determine the coherent corrections to the incoherent transport, leading to the effect of coherent backscattering. For the first time, we are able to analyze the influence of inelastic collisions on the coherent backscattering signal, which lead to an enhancement of the backscattered cone in a narrow spectral window, even for increasing non-linearity. With a short recollection of the presently available experimental techniques we furthermore show how an immediate implementation of our suggested setup with confined Bose-Einstein condensates can be accomplished. Thereby, the emergence of collective and/or thermodynamic behavior from fundamental, microscopic constituents can also be assessed experimentally. In a second part of this thesis, we present first results for light scattering off strongly interacting Rydberg atoms trapped in a one-dimensional, chain-like configuration. In order to monitor the time-dependence of this interacting many-body system, we devise a weak measurement scenario for which we derive a master equation for the

  3. Nuclear structure and weak rates of heavy waiting point nuclei under rp-process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Böyükata, Mahmut

    2017-01-01

    The structure and the weak interaction mediated rates of the heavy waiting point (WP) nuclei 80Zr, 84Mo, 88Ru, 92Pd and 96Cd along N = Z line were studied within the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1) and the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pn-QRPA). The energy levels of the N = Z WP nuclei were calculated by fitting the essential parameters of IBM-1 Hamiltonian and their geometric shapes were predicted by plotting potential energy surfaces (PESs). Half-lives, continuum electron capture rates, positron decay rates, electron capture cross sections of WP nuclei, energy rates of β-delayed protons and their emission probabilities were later calculated using the pn-QRPA. The calculated Gamow-Teller strength distributions were compared with previous calculation. We present positron decay and continuum electron capture rates on these WP nuclei under rp-process conditions using the same model. For the rp-process conditions, the calculated total weak rates are twice the Skyrme HF+BCS+QRPA rates for 80Zr. For remaining nuclei the two calculations compare well. The electron capture rates are significant and compete well with the corresponding positron decay rates under rp-process conditions. The finding of the present study supports that electron capture rates form an integral part of the weak rates under rp-process conditions and has an important role for the nuclear model calculations.

  4. Proceedings of Summer Institute on Particle Physics: the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosher, A.

    1981-01-01

    The SLAC Summer Institute on Particle Physics held its eighth session on July 28-August 8, 1980, and the focus of the meeting was The Weak Interaction. Following the now traditional format, the first seven days of the Institute were spent with the mornings given to pedagogic lectures on the experimental and theoretical foundations of the topic. This year included a very stimulating and successful series on the physics of particle detectors. In the afternoons were seminars on the various experimental tools being designed or constructed to further probe the Weak Interaction, followed by lively discussion of the morning's lectures. Again, following the usual format, the school led into a three-day topical conference at which the most recent theoretical and experimental results were presented and discussed. Abstracts of twenty-seven items from the Institute were prepared separately for the data base

  5. ISOLTRAP Mass Measurements for Weak-Interaction Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerbauer, A.; Delahaye, P.; Herlert, A.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Mukherjee, M.; Rodriguez, D.; Weber, C.; Yazidjian, C.; Blaum, K.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; George, S.; Schweikhard, L.

    2006-01-01

    The conserved-vector-current (CVC) hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix are two fundamental postulates of the Standard Model. While existing data on CVC supports vector current conservation, the unitarity test of the CKM matrix currently fails by more than two standard deviations. High-precision mass measurements performed with the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE/CERN provide crucial input for these fundamental studies by greatly improving our knowledge of the decay energy of super-allowed β decays. Recent results of mass measurements on the β emitters 18Ne, 22Mg, 34Ar, and 74Rb as pertaining to weak-interaction studies are presented

  6. Gauge theory of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soln, J.

    1980-01-01

    An SU 2 x U 1 algebra, in addition to the ordinary electric charge, also establishes the existence of the dual electric charge. This is taken as an indication of the existence of dual electromagnetic interactions in nature. Here, the unification of weak, electromagnetic and dual electromagnetic interactions is performed. The Yang-Mills-type group which contains the electromagnetic, dual electromagnetic and weak currents is SUsub(L,2) x U 1 x U' 1 . The masses of vector mesons are generated through the Higgs-Kibble mechanism. A simple consistency requirement suggests that dual electromagnetism and ordinary electromagnetism have the same strengths, leading the theory to a rather good agreement with experiments. (author)

  7. Weak turbulence theory for beam-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    The kinetic theory of weak plasma turbulence, of which Ronald C. Davidson was an important early pioneer [R. C. Davidson, Methods in Nonlinear Plasma Theory, (Academic Press, New York, 1972)], is a venerable and valid theory that may be applicable to a large number of problems in both laboratory and space plasmas. This paper applies the weak turbulence theory to the problem of gentle beam-plasma interaction and Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that the beam-plasma interaction undergoes various stages of physical processes starting from linear instability, to quasilinear saturation, to mode coupling that takes place after the quasilinear stage, followed by a state of quasi-static "turbulent equilibrium." The long term quasi-equilibrium stage is eventually perturbed by binary collisional effects in order to bring the plasma to a thermodynamic equilibrium with increased entropy.

  8. Formal identity of gravitational and weakly interacting recession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muheim, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses the construction of models using the five elementary constants esub(s), h/2π, G, c and ksub(B) which can produce a macro or micro world with exacticity. All physical processes in nature determine the gravitational universe recession. A diagram is presented comparing the gravitational and weakly interacting recession. The Big-Bang model is discussed. (A.N.K.)

  9. Challenges and dreams: physics of weak interactions essential to life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Peter; Gierasch, Lila M

    2014-11-05

    Biological systems display stunning capacities to self-organize. Moreover, their subcellular architectures are dynamic and responsive to changing needs and conditions. Key to these properties are manifold weak "quinary" interactions that have evolved to create specific spatial networks of macromolecules. These specific arrangements of molecules enable signals to be propagated over distances much greater than molecular dimensions, create phase separations that define functional regions in cells, and amplify cellular responses to changes in their environments. A major challenge is to develop biochemical tools and physical models to describe the panoply of weak interactions operating in cells. We also need better approaches to measure the biases in the spatial distributions of cellular macromolecules that result from the integrated action of multiple weak interactions. Partnerships between cell biologists, biochemists, and physicists are required to deploy these methods. Together these approaches will help us realize the dream of understanding the biological "glue" that sustains life at a molecular and cellular level. © 2014 Chien and Gierasch. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. ΔS=O weak interactions at the quark level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKellar, B.H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The calculation of short distance gluon exchange corrections to the ΔS=O weak interaction at the quark level is described. Results are given for the coefficients of the 36 independent 4 quark operators involving ud, d, and s quarks explicitly, and for the 16 independent operators which remain when s quarks are eliminated and only u and d quarks explicitly occur in the operators. There is considerable uncertainty in the interpretation of parity violating phenomena in nuclei at the moment, as will be clear from the proceedings of this workshop. There is of course a possibility that our nuclear structure calculations are incomplete, but what I want to emphasize here is the fact that the existing calculations of the weak coupling constants at the hadronic level have been based on an inadequate quark level description. Little of what I have to say is new. I refer you to various papers by Rober Miller and myself on ΔS=1 interactions and ΔS=O interactions at the quark level, and to our review. However the only attempt to calculate observable effects using a quark level Hamiltonian with all of the necessary structure is that of Goldman and Preston and their work was a high energy rather than a low energy application. This paper is a pedagogical discussion of the basic physics of this ΔS=O weak Hamiltonian at the quark level, and is designed to encourage its use in future calculations of the weak hadronic coupling constants. Some previously unpublished results on a simplified approximate form of the ΔS=O Hamiltonian are given here to facilitate use of this quark level Hamiltonian in future calculations. (author)

  11. Roles of nuclear weak rates on the evolution of degenerate cores in stars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Toshio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electron-capture and β-decay rates in stellar environments are evaluated with the use of new shell-model Hamiltonians for sd-shell and pf-shell nuclei as well as for nuclei belonging to the island of inversion. Important role of the nuclear weak rates on the final evolution of stellar degenerate cores is presented. The weak interaction rates for sd-shell nuclei are calculated to study nuclear Urca processes in O-Ne-Mg cores of stars with 8-10 M⊙ (solar mass and their effects on the final fate of the stars. Nucleosynthesis of iron-group elements in Type Ia supernova explosions are studied with the weak rates for pf-shell nuclei. The problem of the neutron-rich iron-group isotope over-production compared to the solar abundances is shown to be nearly solved with the use of the new rates and explosion model of slow defraglation with delayed detonation. Evaluation of the weak rates is extended to the island of inversion and the region of neutron-rich nuclei near 78Ni, where two major shells contribute to their configurations.

  12. SQUIDs in thermal detectors of weakly interacting particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trofimov, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    The application of four different types of SQUID-assisted thermometers for cryogenic thermal detectors of weakly interacting particles is analyzed with two of them for the first time. The classic resistive thermometer is considered as well for the comparison. Original results of testing the detector with working temperature of 1K and thermocouple thermometer with SQUID are given. The conclusion is made that temperature resolution of 10 -10 kHz -1/2 or energy sensitivity of 1-10 eV per 1 kg of detector mass can be achieved when using the SQUID-assisted thermometers. 12 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  13. Weak Interaction processes in core-collapse supernova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    In this manuscript we review the role that weak interaction processes play in supernova. This includes electron captures and inelastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (INNS). Electron captures during the collapse occur mainly in heavy nuclei, however the proton contribution is responsible for the convergence of different models to a 'norm' stellar trajectory. Neutrino-nucleus cross sections at supernova neutrino energies can be determined from precise data on the magnetic dipole strength. The results agree well with large-scale shell-model calculations. When incorporated in core-collapse simulations INNS increases the neutrino opacities noticeably and strongly reduces the high-energy part of the supernova spectrum

  14. Are Sb4n (n>1) clusters weakly interacting tetrahedra?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1993-03-01

    The electronic and atomic structure of Sb 4 and Sb 8 clusters is studied using the ab-initio molecular dynamics method in the local density approximation. While for Sb 4 we obtain a regular tetrahedron to be about 2.0 eV lower in energy than a bent rhombus, for Sb 8 two structures, (1) two weakly interaction tetrahedra and (2) a bent rhombus interacting with a stretched tetrahedron, obtained from the simulated annealing lie only within about 0.1 eV indicating the importance of the bent rhombus structure for larger clusters. As compared to two isolated tetrahedra, the binding energy of Sb 8 is about 0.5 eV. Our results are thus in excellent agreement with the experimental data which show predominantly the abundance of tetramers above room temperature. (author). 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  15. Heavy flavour decays and the structure of weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.

    1984-01-01

    The so-called Standard Model has been developed describing the electro-weak interactions by an SU(2) L xU(1) gauge theory the community's almost unanimous choice of the candidate theory for the strong interactions is QCD based on an SU(3) gauge theory. It is very instructive to recall the similarities and differences of these two theoretical frameworks. Both are based on non-abelian gauge theories with spin -1/2 matter fields and spin -1 radiation fields the latter being the carriers of the forces. Beyond this basic correspondence there are however crucial differences which I sketch under the headings ''computational tools'' and ''predictive power''; there exist of course correlations between these two items. (orig./HSI)

  16. Localization of weakly interacting Bose gas in quasiperiodic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sayak; Pandey, Mohit; Ghosh, Anandamohan; Sinha, Subhasis

    2016-01-01

    We study the localization properties of weakly interacting Bose gas in a quasiperiodic potential. The Hamiltonian of the non-interacting system reduces to the well known ‘Aubry–André model’, which shows the localization transition at a critical strength of the potential. In the presence of repulsive interaction we observe multi-site localization and obtain a phase diagram of the dilute Bose gas by computing the superfluid fraction and the inverse participation ratio. We construct a low-dimensional classical Hamiltonian map and show that the onset of localization is manifested by the chaotic phase space dynamics. The level spacing statistics also identify the transition to localized states resembling a Poisson distribution that are ubiquitous for both non-interacting and interacting systems. We also study the quantum fluctuations within the Bogoliubov approximation and compute the quasiparticle energy spectrum. Enhanced quantum fluctuation and multi-site localization phenomenon of non-condensate density are observed above the critical coupling of the potential. We briefly discuss the effect of the trapping potential on the localization of matter wave. (paper)

  17. Progress at the WITCH experiment towards weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, Michaël

    A measurement of the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation in nuclear $\\beta$- decay is a good probe to search for physics beyond the Standard Model, independent of assumptions like parity, charge and time reversal violation. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for Charged Particles) experiment will measure this correlation with the aim of further constraining the possible existence of scalar currents in the weak interaction or find a positive indication. The setup is located at ISOLDE/CERN and consists of a double Penning trap system combined with a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions from the $\\beta$- decay. The shape of the recoil ion energy spectrum allows to determine the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation coefficient, $a$. Past experiments have allowed to measure this parameter with a precision of 0.5–1 %. The aim of the WITCH experiment is to measure $a$ with a precision of about 0.5 %.\\\\ A first step towards this goal has already been taken in 2006 with the measurement of a recoil ...

  18. Forty years of the establishment of the induced weak pseudoscalar interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1998-03-01

    The author describes his work on the muon capture by light nuclei through the interaction of muons with protons via a virtual pion exchange. Although the resulting capture rate was an order of magnitude slower that the experimental available data, the calculation showed that the pion exchange between muons and protons gives rise to an induced weak pseudoscalar coupling which has to be added to the Feynman-Gell-Mann-Sudarshan-Marshak V-A interaction. (author)

  19. Weak interaction and nucleus: the relationship keeps on; Interaction faible et noyau: l'histoire continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, J [Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Frere, J M; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Volpe, C; Marteau, J; Lhuillier, D; Vignaud, D; Legac, R; Marteau, J; Legac, R

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot-Curie international summer school in 2003 whose theme, that year, was the relationship between weak interaction and nucleus. There were 8 contributions whose titles are: 1) before the standard model: from beta decay to neutral currents; 2) the electro-weak theory and beyond; 3) testing of the standard model at low energies; 4) description of weak processes in nuclei; 5) 20.000 tonnes underground, an approach to the neutrino-nucleus interaction; 6) parity violation from atom to nucleon; 7) how neutrinos got their masses; and 8) CP symmetry.

  20. A mathematical model for the Fermi weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Amour, L; Guillot, J C

    2006-01-01

    We consider a mathematical model of the Fermi theory of weak interactions as patterned according to the well-known current-current coupling of quantum electrodynamics. We focuss on the example of the decay of the muons into electrons, positrons and neutrinos but other examples are considered in the same way. We prove that the Hamiltonian describing this model has a ground state in the fermionic Fock space for a sufficiently small coupling constant. Furthermore we determine the absolutely continuous spectrum of the Hamiltonian and by commutator estimates we prove that the spectrum is absolutely continuous away from a small neighborhood of the thresholds of the free Hamiltonian. For all these results we do not use any infrared cutoff or infrared regularization even if fermions with zero mass are involved.

  1. Weak interactions in deuterons: exchange currents and nucleon-nucleon interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautry, F.; Rho, M.; Riska, D.O.

    1976-01-01

    While the meson-exchange electromagnetic current has been tested with an impressive success in the two-nucleon system, nothing much is known about the reliability of the exchange currents in weak interactions. This question is studied using muon absorption in the deuteron, μ - + d→n + n + γ. The meson-exchange current, previously derived in parallel to those of the electromagnetic interaction, is checked for consistency against the p-wave piece of the p + p→d + π + process near threshold and then tested with the total capture rate for which some (though not so accurate) data are available. The same Hamiltonian is then used to calculate the matrix elements for the solar neutrino processes p + p→d + e + + γ and p + p + e - → d + γ in the hope that they would be measured and help resolve the solar neutrino puzzle. Finally a detailed analysis is made of the differential capture rate dGAMMA/dEsub(n), Esub(n) being the kinematic energy in the c.m. of the two neutrons, in the expectation that it will be used to pin down the ever elusive n-n scattering length. (Auth.)

  2. Weak interaction contribution to the energy spectrum of two-lepton system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A.P.; Saleev, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    The contribution of neutral currents to the weak interaction quasi-potential of two leptons is investigated. The exact expression for the weak interaction operator of the system for arbitrary biding energies in one-boson approximation is obtained. The weak interaction contribution to the S-levels displacement of hydrogen-like atom. 14 refs

  3. Correlation function of weakly interacting bosons in a disordered lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deissler, B; Lucioni, E; Modugno, M; Roati, G; Tanzi, L; Zaccanti, M; Inguscio, M; Modugno, G, E-mail: deissler@lens.unifi.it, E-mail: modugno@lens.unifi.it [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    One of the most important issues in disordered systems is the interplay of the disorder and repulsive interactions. Several recent experimental advances on this topic have been made with ultracold atoms, in particular the observation of Anderson localization and the realization of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model. There are, however, still questions as to how to differentiate the complex insulating phases resulting from this interplay, and how to measure the size of the superfluid fragments that these phases entail. It has been suggested that the correlation function of such a system can give new insights, but so far very little experimental investigation has been performed. Here, we show the first experimental analysis of the correlation function for a weakly interacting, bosonic system in a quasiperiodic lattice. We observe an increase in the correlation length as well as a change in the shape of the correlation function in the delocalization crossover from Anderson glass to coherent, extended state. In between, the experiment indicates the formation of progressively larger coherent fragments, consistent with a fragmented BEC, or Bose glass.

  4. Correlation function of weakly interacting bosons in a disordered lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deissler, B; Lucioni, E; Modugno, M; Roati, G; Tanzi, L; Zaccanti, M; Inguscio, M; Modugno, G

    2011-01-01

    One of the most important issues in disordered systems is the interplay of the disorder and repulsive interactions. Several recent experimental advances on this topic have been made with ultracold atoms, in particular the observation of Anderson localization and the realization of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model. There are, however, still questions as to how to differentiate the complex insulating phases resulting from this interplay, and how to measure the size of the superfluid fragments that these phases entail. It has been suggested that the correlation function of such a system can give new insights, but so far very little experimental investigation has been performed. Here, we show the first experimental analysis of the correlation function for a weakly interacting, bosonic system in a quasiperiodic lattice. We observe an increase in the correlation length as well as a change in the shape of the correlation function in the delocalization crossover from Anderson glass to coherent, extended state. In between, the experiment indicates the formation of progressively larger coherent fragments, consistent with a fragmented BEC, or Bose glass.

  5. Fundamental quark, lepton correspondence and dynamics with weak decay interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Spuy, E.

    1977-10-01

    A nonlinear fermion-field equation of motion and its (in principle) exact solutions, making use of the previously developed technique of infinite component free spinor fields, are discussed. It is shown to be essential for the existence of the solutions to introduce the isosymmetry breaking mechanism by coupling the isospin polarization of the domain of the universe of such particle fields to the field isospin. The essential trigger for the isosymmetry breaking mechanism is the existence of the electromagnetic interaction and the photon fields, carrying an infinite range isospin polarization change in the domain. A quartet of proton, neutron, lambda and charmed quark field solutions, with their respective characteristic Regge trajectories and primary isospin quantum numbers, and a quartet of lepton fields electron neutrino, electron, muon, muon nutrino, are shown to emerge naturally. The equations of motion of the quark and lepton propagators are deduced. The complicated charge nature of the quarks and the need for quark confinement is discussed and a correspondence principle is established between the quark and lepton field solutions. The correspondence is such that the dynamics of the leptons on their own appears to be compatible with quantum electrodynamics on the one hand, and on the other hand permits a natural GIM-Cabibbo weak decay interaction with a Cibibbo angle equal to the domain isospin polarization-change phase angle

  6. Light weakly interacting particles. Constraints and connection to dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2013-07-01

    The so far unknown particle nature of dark matter is a main motivation for extending the Standard Model of particle physics. A recently promoted approach to solving this puzzle is the concept of hidden sectors. Since the interactions of such sectors with the visible sector are very weak, so are the current experimental bounds. Hidden sectors might even contain sub-GeV scale particles that have so far escaped detection. In this thesis, we study the phenomenology of Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs) as well as their connection to dark matter in different Standard Model extensions. In the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), a light CPodd Higgs, arising from spontaneous breaking of approximate symmetries, represents an example of a WISP. Light gauge bosons of an extra U(1) symmetry in a hidden sector are other well motivated candidates for WISPs and called hidden photons. Such light hidden photons appear naturally in supersymmetry or string theory and might resolve the observed deviation in the muon anomalous magnetic moment from predictions. Moreover, scenarios in which hidden sector dark matter interacts via a light hidden photon with the visible sector exhibit appealing features in view of recent astrophysical anomalies. We study how the coupling of the CP-odd Higgs A 0 to fermions can be constrained by current measurements for the case where the A 0 is lighter than two muons. Analysing measurements of different rare and radiative meson decays, the muon anomalous magnetic moment as well as results from beam dump and reactor experiments, we severely constrain the CP-odd Higgs to be heavier than 210 MeV or to couple to fermions four orders of magnitude weaker than the Standard Model Higgs. These results apply more generally to the coupling of an axion-like particle to matter. Hidden photons can be constrained by experiments since they couple to charged Standard Model particles via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. We derive several

  7. Light weakly interacting particles. Constraints and connection to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2013-07-15

    The so far unknown particle nature of dark matter is a main motivation for extending the Standard Model of particle physics. A recently promoted approach to solving this puzzle is the concept of hidden sectors. Since the interactions of such sectors with the visible sector are very weak, so are the current experimental bounds. Hidden sectors might even contain sub-GeV scale particles that have so far escaped detection. In this thesis, we study the phenomenology of Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs) as well as their connection to dark matter in different Standard Model extensions. In the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), a light CPodd Higgs, arising from spontaneous breaking of approximate symmetries, represents an example of a WISP. Light gauge bosons of an extra U(1) symmetry in a hidden sector are other well motivated candidates for WISPs and called hidden photons. Such light hidden photons appear naturally in supersymmetry or string theory and might resolve the observed deviation in the muon anomalous magnetic moment from predictions. Moreover, scenarios in which hidden sector dark matter interacts via a light hidden photon with the visible sector exhibit appealing features in view of recent astrophysical anomalies. We study how the coupling of the CP-odd Higgs A{sup 0} to fermions can be constrained by current measurements for the case where the A{sup 0} is lighter than two muons. Analysing measurements of different rare and radiative meson decays, the muon anomalous magnetic moment as well as results from beam dump and reactor experiments, we severely constrain the CP-odd Higgs to be heavier than 210 MeV or to couple to fermions four orders of magnitude weaker than the Standard Model Higgs. These results apply more generally to the coupling of an axion-like particle to matter. Hidden photons can be constrained by experiments since they couple to charged Standard Model particles via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. We derive

  8. Decay properties of heavy leptons in the supersymmetric model of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorian, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    Decay properties of heavy leptons in the SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1) supersymmetric model of weak and electromagnetic interactions are studied. l anti νsub(e)ν leptonic and ν(νsup(c))h semihadronic decays, where l are leptons and h are hadrons, are considered. The partial and total decay rates and the production in p anti p collision of one of them are estimated for various values of its mass

  9. Modeling nuclear weak-interaction processes with relativistic energy density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paar, N.; Marketin, T.; Vale, D.; Vretenar, D.

    2015-01-01

    Relativistic energy density functionals have become a standard framework for nuclear structure studies of ground state properties and collective excitations over the entire nuclide chart. In this paper, we review recent developments in modeling nuclear weak-interaction processes: Charge-exchange excitations and the role of isoscalar proton–neutron pairing, charged-current neutrino–nucleus reactions relevant for supernova evolution and neutrino detectors and calculation of β-decay rates for r-process nucleosynthesis. (author)

  10. International symposium on weak and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walecka, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the symposium is to study the implications of the Standard Model (and its extensions) in the realm of low-energy physics. The atomic nucleus constitutes a laboratory where these questions can be investigated. Low and medium-energy accelerators, reactors and other facilities continue to play an important role in this field. The electroweak sector of the Standard Model has benefited much from these investigations. Weak and electromagnetic interactions are also used to probe nuclear and hadronic structures and also new states of nuclear matter (the strong sector of the Standard Model). These studies cannot be dissociated from the fundamental questions raised in the realm of high-energy physics, astrophysics and cosmology. The symposium is therefore intended to be a meeting ground for low, medium-, and high-energy physicists, astrophysicists and cosmologists, who are tackling common problems in many different ways. That is the summary. By now most of the expert speakers have come, given their talks, and left, I assume that those of you who are still here would like to have some framework in which to put the things you have heard in the last week, and in addition gain some perspective on where we are and where we are going. That is what I am going to try and do in this talk

  11. Search for a tensor component in the weak interaction Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Soti, Gergely

    The search for physics beyond the standard model can, besides in high-energy experiments such as the ones at the LHC accelerator, also be carried out at lower energies. Measurements of correlation coefficients in neutron and nuclear b decay constitute a reliable and model-independent method for such efforts. The topic of this thesis is the precision measurement of the beta asymmetry parameter A. It was measured in the decay of 67Cu, which proceeds via a pure Gamow-Teller b transition, thus its A parameter is sensitive to possible tensor type currents in the weak interaction. The experiment was performed at the NICOLE setup in ISOLDE (CERN), using the technique of low temperature nuclear orientation. The b particles were observed with custom made planar high purity germanium detectors operating at around 10 K. The beta asymmetry of 68Cu was measured on-line for normalization purposes. Geant4 simulations were used to gain control over systematic effects such as electron scattering on the particle detectors. As...

  12. New Paradigm for Plasma Crystal Formation with weak grain interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Morfill, G.E.

    2005-01-01

    New results for non-linear grain screening, non-linear ion drag and non-linear collective attractions appropriate for existing experiments are used for the first time together to explain the observed phenomena of plasma condensation. Based on the physics of collective non-linear grain attraction a paradigm for plasma crystal formation is formulated according to which plasma the crystal formation is due to localization of grains in weak non-linear collective attraction wells. Nonlinearity in screening is an important feature of new paradigm and takes into account that the grain charges are large. The physical consequence of large non-linearity is the presence of relative large attraction potential well at distances several times larger then the non-linear screening radius. Calculated location of the potential well is of the order of the observed inter-grain distances in plasma crystals and the calculated deepness of the potential well determining the temperature of phase transition is close to that observed. The calculations of the deepness of the attraction collective well and the critical value of the coupling constant are performed using an assumption that the collective attraction length is larger than the non-linear screening length. The concept of collective grain interaction in complex plasmas is considered for the case where the non-linear screening is fully determining the collective attraction well

  13. 20F beta spectrum shape and weak interaction tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytas, Paul; George, Elizabeth; Chuna, Thomas; Naviliat-Cuncic, Oscar; Hughes, Max; Huyan, Xueying; Minamisono, Kei; Paulauskas, Stanley

    2016-09-01

    Precision measurements of the shape of beta spectra can test our understanding of the weak interaction. We are carrying out a measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of β particles from 20F decay. The primary motivation is to test the so-called strong form of the conserved vector current (CVC) hypothesis. The measurement should also enable us to place competitive limits on the contributions of exotic tensor couplings in beta decay. We aim to achieve a relative precision better than 3% on the linear contribution to the shape. This represents an order of magnitude improvement compared to previous experiments in 20F. In order to control systematic effects, we are using a technique that takes advantage of high energy radioactive beams at the NSCL to implant the decaying nuclei in scintillation detectors deeply enough that the emitted beta particles cannot escape. The β-particle energy is measured with the implantation detector after switching off the implantation beam. Ancillary detectors are used to identify the 1.633-MeV γ-rays following the 20F β decay for coincidence measurements in order to tag the transition of interest and to reduce backgrounds. We report on the status of the analysis. Supported in part with Awards from the NSCL PAC and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1506084.

  14. Weak interaction in a three nucleon system: search for an asymmetry in radiative capture n-d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenier, M.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental determination of the weak interaction rate in a three nucleon neutron-deuteron system: this weak interaction is observed through pseudoscalar parameters such as the asymetric angular distribution of the capture photon in relation with the system polarization. Orientation of the system is achieved by use of a polarized cold neutron beam. This phenomena is explained as a result of weak coupling between nucleons and mesons. Measurements of the gamma asymmetries observed when tests are conducted with or without heavy water and effects of depolarization are discussed [fr

  15. Chiral realization of the non-leptonic weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1990-01-01

    After a short introduction to chiral perturbation theory an attempt to relate the strong and the non-leptonic weak low-energy constants is reviewed. The weak deformation model is stimulated both by the geometrical structure of chiral perturbation theory and by phenomenological considerations. Applications to the radiative decays K → πγγ and K L → γe + e - are discussed. (Author) 38 refs., 4 figs

  16. Weak interaction potentials of nucleons in the Weinberg-Salam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobov, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Weak interaction potentials of nucleons due to the nonet vector meson exchange are obtained in the Weinberg-Salam model using the vector-meson dominance. Contribution from the hadronic neutral currents to the weak interaction potential due to the charged pion exchange is obtained. The isotopic structure of the obtained potentials, that is unambiguous in the Weinberg-Salam model, is investigated. Enhancement of the nucleon weak interaction in nuclei resulting from the hadronic neutral currents is discussed. A nuclear one-particle weak interaction potential is presented that is a result of averaging of the two-particle potential over the states of the nuclear core. An approach to the nucleon weak interaction based on the quark model, is discussed. Effects of the nucleon weak interaction in the radiative capture of a thermal neutron by a proton, are considered

  17. Weak-interaction processes in stars: applications to core-collapse supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Pinedo, G.

    2003-01-01

    The role of weak-interaction processes in core collapse and neutrino nucleosynthesis is reviewed. Recent calculations of the electron capture rates for nuclei with mass numbers A=65-112 show that, contrarily to previous assumptions, during core collapse electron capture is dominated by captures on heavy nuclei. Astrophysical simulations demonstrate that these rates have an important impact on the collapse. Neutrinos emitted by the collapsing core can interact with the overlying shells of the star producing substantial nuclear transmutations. This process known as ν-process seems to be responsible for the production of 138 La by charged current neutrino interactions with 138 Ba. The ν-process is then sensitive to the spectra of different neutrino species and to neutrino oscillations. (orig.)

  18. Strange-particle production via the weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adera, G. B.; Van Der Ventel, B. I. S.; Niekerk, D. D. van; Mart, T.

    2010-01-01

    The differential cross sections for the neutrino-induced weak charged current production of strange particles in the threshold energy region are presented. The general representation of the weak hadronic current is newly developed in terms of eighteen unknown invariant amplitudes to parametrize the hadron vertex. The Born-term approximation is used for the numerical calculations in the framework of the Cabibbo theory and SU(3) symmetry. For unpolarized octet baryons four processes are investigated, whereas in the case of polarized baryons only one process is chosen to study the sensitivity of the differential cross section to the various polarizations of the initial-state nucleon and the final-state hyperon.

  19. An upper bound on right-chiral weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.; Maltman, K.

    1990-01-01

    Weak vertex corrections to the quark-gluon vertex functions produce differing form-factor corrections for quarks of differing chiralities. These differences grow with increasing four-momentum transfer in the gluon leg. Consequently, inclusive polarized proton--proton scattering to a final state jet should show a large parity-violating asymmetry at high energies. The absence of large signals at sufficiently high energies can be interpreted as being due to balancing vertex corrections from a right-handed weak vector boson of limited mass, and limits on the strength of such signals can, in principle, give upper bounds on that mass. 2 refs

  20. An upper bound on right-Chiral weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.; Maltman, K.

    1990-01-01

    Weak vertex corrections to the quark-gluon vertex functions produce differing form-factor corrections for quarks of differing chiralities. These differences grow with increasing four-momentum transfer in the gluon leg. Consequently, inclusive polarized proton-proton scattering to a final state jet should show a large parity-violating asymmetry at high energies. The absence of large signals at sufficiently high energies can be interpreted as being due to balancing vertex corrections from a right-handed weak vector boson of limited mass, and limits on the strength of such signals can, in principle, give upper bounds on that mass

  1. Left-right symmetry in weak interactions: present status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1983-01-01

    The basic features of the left-right symmetric electroweak theory are reviewed. The experimental situation regarding the scale M/sub R/ of the breakdown of parity is summarized. I further discuss in detail the connection with weak and strong CP violation and especially, grand unification. Also covered are the issues of cosmological domain walls and the compositeness of quarks and leptons. 57 references

  2. The chiral anomaly in non-leptonic weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijnens, J.; Pich, A.; Ecker, G.

    1992-01-01

    The interplay between the chiral anomaly and the non-leptonic weak hamiltonian is studied. The structure of the corresponding effective lagrangian of odd intrinsic parity is established. It is shown that the factorizable contributions (leading in 1/N C ) to that lagrangian can be calculated without free parameters. As a first application, the decay K + →π + π 0 γ is investigated. (orig.)

  3. Effective field theory and weak non-leptonic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.D.C.

    1982-06-01

    The techniques of Ovrut and Schnitzer (1981) are used to calculate the finite decoupling renormalisation constants resulting from heavy fermion decoupling in a non-abelian gauge theory exhibiting broken flavour symmetry. The results of this calculation are applied to realistic, massive QCD. The decoupling information may be absorbed into renormalisation group (R.G.) invariants. Working in the Landau gauge R.G. invariants are derived for the running coupling constants and running quark masses of effective QCD in the modified minimal subtraction scheme (for effective QCD with 3 to 8 flavours). This work is then applied to the major part of the thesis; a complete derivation of the effective weak non-leptonic sector of the standard model (SU(3)/sub c/ x SU(2) x U(1)), that is the construction of all effective weak non-leptonic Hamiltonians resulting from the standard model when all quark generations above the third along with the W and Z are explicitily decoupled. The form of decoupling in the work of Gilman and Wise (1979) has been adopted. The weak non-leptonic sector naturally decomposes into flavour changing and flavour conserving sectors relative to anomalous dimension calculations. The flavour changing sector further decomposes into penguin free and penguin generating sectors. Individual analyses of these three sectors are given. All sectors are analysed uniformly, based upon a standard model with n generations

  4. Biospecific protein immobilization for rapid analysis of weak protein interactions using self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengali, Aditya N; Tessier, Peter M

    2009-10-01

    "Reversible" protein interactions govern diverse biological behavior ranging from intracellular transport and toxic protein aggregation to protein crystallization and inactivation of protein therapeutics. Much less is known about weak protein interactions than their stronger counterparts since they are difficult to characterize, especially in a parallel format (in contrast to a sequential format) necessary for high-throughput screening. We have recently introduced a highly efficient approach of characterizing protein self-association, namely self-interaction nanoparticle spectroscopy (SINS; Tessier et al., 2008; J Am Chem Soc 130:3106-3112). This approach exploits the separation-dependent optical properties of gold nanoparticles to detect weak self-interactions between proteins immobilized on nanoparticles. A limitation of our previous work is that differences in the sequence and structure of proteins can lead to significant differences in their affinity to adsorb to nanoparticle surfaces, which complicates analysis of the corresponding protein self-association behavior. In this work we demonstrate a highly specific approach for coating nanoparticles with proteins using biotin-avidin interactions to generate protein-nanoparticle conjugates that report protein self-interactions through changes in their optical properties. Using lysozyme as a model protein that is refractory to characterization by conventional SINS, we demonstrate that surface Plasmon wavelengths for gold-avidin-lysozyme conjugates over a range of solution conditions (i.e., pH and ionic strength) are well correlated with lysozyme osmotic second virial coefficient measurements. Since SINS requires orders of magnitude less protein and time than conventional methods (e.g., static light scattering), we envision this approach will find application in large screens of protein self-association aimed at either preventing (e.g., protein aggregation) or promoting (e.g., protein crystallization) these

  5. Constraints on the dark matter and dark energy interactions from weak lensing bispectrum tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Rui [School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Feng, Chang [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Wang, Bin, E-mail: an_rui@sjtu.edu.cn, E-mail: chang.feng@uci.edu, E-mail: wang_b@sjtu.edu.cn [Center for Gravitation and Cosmology, College of Physical Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009 (China)

    2017-10-01

    We estimate uncertainties of cosmological parameters for phenomenological interacting dark energy models using weak lensing convergence power spectrum and bispectrum. We focus on the bispectrum tomography and examine how well the weak lensing bispectrum with tomography can constrain the interactions between dark sectors, as well as other cosmological parameters. Employing the Fisher matrix analysis, we forecast parameter uncertainties derived from weak lensing bispectra with a two-bin tomography and place upper bounds on strength of the interactions between the dark sectors. The cosmic shear will be measured from upcoming weak lensing surveys with high sensitivity, thus it enables us to use the higher order correlation functions of weak lensing to constrain the interaction between dark sectors and will potentially provide more stringent results with other observations combined.

  6. Early history of gauge theories and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straumann, N.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with Weyl's attempt to unify gravitation and electromagnetism, Weyl's 1929 classic 'Electron and gravitation', Yang-Mills theory, parity violation and 2-component neutrino, chiral invariance and universal V-A interaction. 3 figs., 38 refs

  7. Magnetic dynamics of weakly and strongly interacting hematite nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Bender Koch, Christian; Mørup, Steen

    2000-01-01

    The magnetic dynamics of two differently treated samples of hematite nanoparticles from the same batch with a particle size of about 20 nm have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy. The dynamics of the first sample, in which the particles are coated and dispersed in water, is in accordance with...... down by interparticle interactions and a magnetically split spectrum is retained at room temperature. The temperature variation or the magnetic hyperfine field, corresponding to different quantiles in the hyperfine field distribution, can be consistently described by a mean field model...... for "superferromagnetism" in which the magnetic anisotropy is included. The coupling between the particles is due to exchange interactions and the interaction strength can be accounted for by just a few exchange bridges between surface atoms in neighboring crystallites....

  8. Final State Interaction on non Mesonic Hyperon Weak Decay Spectra of Λ12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, I.; Rodriguez, O.; Deppman, A.; Duarte, S.; Krmpotic, F.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we study the one nucleon induced non mesonic hyperon weak decay (NMWD)(ΛΝ → ηΝ) on the Λ 12 C hypernuclei with corresponding transition rates given by Γ ρ ≡ Γ (Λρ → ηρ) and Γ η ≡ Γ (Λη → ηη) respectively. The whole nuclear process is described by using a connection of two models, one to describe the primary non mesonic weak decay in the nuclear environment and another one to follows the time evolution of the outgoing of nucleons from nuclear system, to consider the Final State Interaction (FSI). The Independent-Particle Shell-Model (IPSM) is used to depict the dynamic of the primary decay by mean of the exchange of π and + Κ mesons with usual parameterization. A time dependent multicolisional intranuclear cascade approach implemented on the CRISP (Collaboration Rio-Sao Paulo) code incorporates the FSI to the Γ η /Γ ρ ratio calculation and the behaviour of these value with the coulomb barrier as well as to the observable nucleon kinetic energy spectra and also to angular correlation determinations. Recent KEK and FINUDA experiments on one- and two-nucleon non mesonic weak decay (NMWD) spectra in Λ 12 C hypernuclei are analyzed theoretically and the effect of FSI is determined within our model scenery. (Author)

  9. Weak solutions for Euler systems with non-local interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carrillo, J. A.; Feireisl, Eduard; Gwiazda, P.; Swierczewska-Gwiazda, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2017), s. 705-724 ISSN 0024-6107 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Euler system * dissipative solutions * Newtonian interaction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1112/jlms.12027/abstract

  10. Neutrinos, Weak Interactions, and r-process Nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balantekin, A B

    2006-01-01

    Two of the key issues in understanding the neutron-to-proton ratio in a corecollapse supernova are discussed. One of these is the behavior of the neutrino-nucleon cross sections as supernova energies. The other issue is the many-body properties of the neutrino gas near the core when both one- and two-body interaction terms are included

  11. Early history of gauge theories and weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straumann, N [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with Weyl`s attempt to unify gravitation and electromagnetism, Weyl`s 1929 classic `Electron and gravitation`, Yang-Mills theory, parity violation and 2-component neutrino, chiral invariance and universal V-A interaction. 3 figs., 38 refs.

  12. Neutral-current weak interactions at an EIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.X.; Deshpande, A.; Kumar, K.S.; Riordan, S. [Stony Brook University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Huang, J. [Brookhaven National Lab, Physics Department, Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-03-15

    A simulation study of measurements of neutral current structure functions of the nucleon at the future high-energy and high-luminosity polarized electron-ion collider (EIC) is presented. A new series of γ-Z interference structure functions, F{sub 1}{sup γZ}, F{sub 3}{sup γZ}, g{sub 1}{sup γZ}, g{sub 5}{sup γZ} become accessible via parity-violating asymmetries in polarized electron-nucleon deep inelastic scattering (DIS). Within the context of the quark-parton model, they provide a unique and, in some cases, yet-unmeasured combination of unpolarized and polarized parton distribution functions. The uncertainty projections for these structure functions using electron-proton collisions are considered for various EIC beam energy configurations. Also presented are uncertainty projections for measurements of the weak mixing angle sin{sup 2} θ{sub W} using electron-deuteron collisions which cover a much higher Q{sup 2} than that accessible in fixed target measurements. QED and QCD radiative corrections and effects of detector smearing are included with the calculations. (orig.)

  13. Interaction of weak shock waves with rectangular meshes in plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Mikulich

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In mechanical engineering, building and other industries a significant part of the process includes the presence of various dynamic loads due to technological and mechanical impacts. Consideration of such load effects allows more accurate assessment of the structural elements strength or machine parts. Aim: The aim is to develop an algorithm for calculating of dynamic stress state of plates with meshes for pulse loading in the form of a weak shock wave. Materials and Methods: An integral and discrete Fourier transform were used to solve the problem. An application of Fourier transform by time allowed reducing the dynamic problem of flat deformation to the solution of a finite number of problems for the established oscillations at fixed cyclic frequency values. In the area of Fourier-images the method of boundary integral equations and the apparatus of a complex variable function theory are used to study the dynamic stress concentration. Results: Based on the developed methodology the distribution change of the dynamic circle stress over time on the edge of a rectangular hole is studied. The time sections of stress distribution fields under the influence of pulse dynamic load is constructed.

  14. Nuclear weak interactions, supernova nucleosynthesis and neutrino oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajino, Toshitaka

    2013-07-01

    We study the nuclear weak response in light-to-heavy mass nuclei and calculate neutrino-nucleus cross sections. We apply these cross sections to the explosive nucleosynthesis in core-collapse supernovae and find that several isotopes of rare elements 7Li, 11B, 138La, 180Ta and several others are predominantly produced by the neutrino-process nucleosynthesis. We discuss how to determine the suitable neutrino spectra of three different flavors and their anti-particles in order to explain the observed solar system abundances of these isotopes, combined with Galactic chemical evolution of the light nuclei and the heavy r-process elements. Light-mass nuclei like 7Li and 11B, which are produced in outer He-layer, are strongly affected by the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the MSW (Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein) effect, while heavy-mass nuclei like 138La, 180Ta and r-process elements, which are produced in the inner O-Ne-Mg layer or the atmosphere of proto-neutron star, are likely to be free from the MSW effect. Using such a different nature of the neutrino-process nucleosynthesis, we study the neutrino oscillation effects on their abundances, and propose a new novel method to determine the unknown neutrino oscillation parameters, θ13 and mass hierarchy, simultaneously. There is recent evidence that some SiC X grains from the Murchison meteorite may contain supernova-produced neutrino-process 11B and 7Li encapsulated in the grains. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ13, we show that although the uncertainties are still large, our method hints at a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy for the first time.

  15. Constraining the interacting dark energy models from weak gravity conjecture and recent observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ximing; Wang Bin; Pan Nana; Gong Yungui

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effectiveness of the weak gravity conjecture in constraining the dark energy by comparing with observations. For general dark energy models with plausible phenomenological interactions between dark sectors, we find that although the weak gravity conjecture can constrain the dark energy, the constraint is looser than that from the observations.

  16. The WITCH experiment: towards weak interactions studies. Status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, V. Yu.; Beck, M.; Coeck, S.; Herbane, M.; Kraev, I. S.; Severijns, N.; Wauters, F.; Delahaye, P.; Herlert, A.; Wenander, F.; Zakoucky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Primary goal of the WITCH experiment is to test the Standard Model for a possible admixture of a scalar or tensor type interaction in β-decay. This information will be inferred from the shape of the recoil energy spectrum. The experimental set-up was completed and is under intensive commissioning at ISOLDE (CERN). It combines a Penning trap to store the ions and a retardation spectrometer to probe the recoil ion energy. A brief overview of the WITCH set-up and the results of commissioning tests performed until now are presented. Finally, perspectives of the physics program are reviewed.

  17. WITCH, a Penning trap for weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V Yu

    2005-01-01

    This work is the completion of the installation of the WITCH set-up and the first tests and commissioning of it. The first goal of the WITCH experiment is to improve the present limit on a scalar interaction in nuclear $\\beta$-decay by determining the $\\beta$-neutrino angular correlation parameter $a$ via a precise measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of the recoil ions. The development of the WITCH set-up and its installation at ISOLDE (CERN) were recently completed. The principle of WITCH is based on a combination of a Penning trap to confine the radioactive ions and a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions resulting from $\\beta$-decays in the trap. Extensive computer simulations show that for a reasonable measurement time a precision on the $a$-parameter of 0.5% can be achieved. This corresponds to an upper limit for the scalar interaction constant Cs/Cv < 9% at 95% C.L. Designing and constructing a set-up as large and complex as the WITCH set-up takes time, several y...

  18. Control of Chain Walking by Weak Neighbouring Group Interac-tions in Unsymmetric Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura; Wiedemann, Thomas; Gö ttker-Schnetmann, Inigo; Caporaso, Lucia; Cavallo, Luigi; Mecking, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental study shows how weak attractive interactions of a neighbouring group can strongly promote chain walking and chain transfer. This accounts for the previously observed very different micro-structures obtained

  19. Calculating exclusion limits for weakly interacting massive particle direct detection experiments without background subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Anne M.

    2002-01-01

    Competitive limits on the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) spin-independent scattering cross section are currently being produced by 76 Ge detectors originally designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay, such as the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments. In the absence of background subtraction, limits on the WIMP interaction cross section are set by calculating the upper confidence limit on the theoretical event rate, given the observed event rate. The standard analysis technique involves calculating the 90% upper confidence limit on the number of events in each bin, and excluding any set of parameters (WIMP mass and cross section) which produces a theoretical event rate for any bin which exceeds the 90% upper confidence limit on the event rate for that bin. We show that, if there is more than one energy bin, this produces exclusion limits that are actually at a lower degree of confidence than 90%, and are hence erroneously tight. We formulate criteria which produce true 90% confidence exclusion limits in these circumstances, including calculating the individual bin confidence limit for which the overall probability that no bins exceed this confidence limit is 90% and calculating the 90% minimum confidence limit on the number of bins which exceed their individual bin 90% confidence limits. We then compare the limits on the WIMP cross section produced by these criteria with those found using the standard technique, using data from the Heidelberg-Moscow and IGEX experiments

  20. Theoretical & Experimental Research in Weak, Electromagnetic & Strong Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Satyanarayan [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Babu, Kaladi [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Rizatdinova, Flera [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Khanov, Alexander [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Haley, Joseph [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2015-09-17

    The conducted research spans a wide range of topics in the theoretical, experimental and phenomenological aspects of elementary particle interactions. Theory projects involve topics in both the energy frontier and the intensity frontier. The experimental research involves energy frontier with the ATLAS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In theoretical research, novel ideas going beyond the Standard Model with strong theoretical motivations were proposed, and their experimental tests at the LHC and forthcoming neutrino facilities were outlined. These efforts fall into the following broad categories: (i) TeV scale new physics models for LHC Run 2, including left-right symmetry and trinification symmetry, (ii) unification of elementary particles and forces, including the unification of gauge and Yukawa interactions, (iii) supersummetry and mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking, (iv) superworld without supersymmetry, (v) general models of extra dimensions, (vi) comparing signals of extra dimensions with those of supersymmetry, (vii) models with mirror quarks and mirror leptons at the TeV scale, (viii) models with singlet quarks and singlet Higgs and their implications for Higgs physics at the LHC, (ix) new models for the dark matter of the universe, (x) lepton flavor violation in Higgs decays, (xi) leptogenesis in radiative models of neutrino masses, (xii) light mediator models of non-standard neutrino interactions, (xiii) anomalous muon decay and short baseline neutrino anomalies, (xiv) baryogenesis linked to nucleon decay, and (xv) a new model for recently observed diboson resonance at the LHC and its other phenomenological implications. The experimental High Energy Physics group has been, and continues to be, a successful and productive contributor to the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Members of the group performed search for gluinos decaying to stop and top quarks, new heavy gauge bosons decaying to top and bottom quarks, and vector-like quarks

  1. Polarization phenomena of nuclear force and weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuma, Michitsugu

    1982-01-01

    As one of the projects at the National Laboratory of High Energy Physics (KEK), the measurement of parity non-conservation component in nuclear force was proposed. The theoretical survey of this proposal is reported. The non-relativistic parity non-conserving potential between nucleons can be obtained from the interaction between a quark and a gauge boson. The wave function of a nucleus, which includes the inverse components of the parity, can be written. A practical experiment was designed. The mixing of the inverse components and the interference of an inverse component in the 1042 keV and 1081 keV levels of F 18 may produce the parity non-conservation. The processes which suggest the existence of parity non-conservation were studied. The processes are the circular polarization of gamma-ray emitted from a nucleus, the angular distribution of gamma-ray emitted from polarized nuclei, the collision of the proton beam with helicity of plus and minus on other nuclei, the spin rotation of neutrons, and the alpha decay of the parity non-conservation. The preliminary results of the experiment on the effects of parity non-conservation in the collision process of polarized proton beam have been reported, and the theoretical analyses were performed. The violation of parity conservation in large momentum collision is discussed. The comparison of the theoretical results with the experimental ones is presented. (Kato, T.)

  2. Weak Interaction Measurements with Optically Trapped Radioactive Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, D.J.; Crane, S.G.; Guckert, R.; Zhao, X.; Brice, S.J.; Goldschmidt, A.; Hime, A.; Tupa, D.

    1999-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project is to apply the latest in magneto-optical and pure magnetic trapping technology to concentrate, cool, confine, and polarize radioactive atoms for precise electroweak interaction measurements. In particular, the authors have concentrated their efforts on the trapping of 82 Rb for a parity-violating, beta-asymmetry measurement. Progress has been made in successfully trapping of up to 6 million 82 Rb(t 1/2 =75s) atoms in a magneto-optical trap coupled to a mass separator. This represents a two order of magnitude improvement in the number trapped radioactive atoms over all previous work. They have also measured the atomic hyperfine structure of 82 Rb and demonstrated the MOT-to-MOT transfer and accumulation of atoms in a second trap. Finally, they have constructed and tested a time-orbiting-potential magnetic trap that will serve as a rotating beacon of spin-polarized nuclei and a beta-telescope detection system. Prototype experiments are now underway with the initial goal of making a 1% measurements of the beta-asymmetry parameter A which would match the world's best measurements

  3. Identification of interfaces involved in weak interactions with application to F-actin-aldolase rafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guiqing; Taylor, Dianne W; Liu, Jun; Taylor, Kenneth A

    2018-03-01

    Macromolecular interactions occur with widely varying affinities. Strong interactions form well defined interfaces but weak interactions are more dynamic and variable. Weak interactions can collectively lead to large structures such as microvilli via cooperativity and are often the precursors of much stronger interactions, e.g. the initial actin-myosin interaction during muscle contraction. Electron tomography combined with subvolume alignment and classification is an ideal method for the study of weak interactions because a 3-D image is obtained for the individual interactions, which subsequently are characterized collectively. Here we describe a method to characterize heterogeneous F-actin-aldolase interactions in 2-D rafts using electron tomography. By forming separate averages of the two constituents and fitting an atomic structure to each average, together with the alignment information which relates the raw motif to the average, an atomic model of each crosslink is determined and a frequency map of contact residues is computed. The approach should be applicable to any large structure composed of constituents that interact weakly and heterogeneously. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Weak interaction and nucleus: the relationship keeps on; Interaction faible et noyau: l'histoire continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, J. [Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Frere, J.M.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Volpe, C.; Marteau, J.; Lhuillier, D.; Vignaud, D.; Legac, R.; Marteau, J.; Legac, R

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot-Curie international summer school in 2003 whose theme, that year, was the relationship between weak interaction and nucleus. There were 8 contributions whose titles are: 1) before the standard model: from beta decay to neutral currents; 2) the electro-weak theory and beyond; 3) testing of the standard model at low energies; 4) description of weak processes in nuclei; 5) 20.000 tonnes underground, an approach to the neutrino-nucleus interaction; 6) parity violation from atom to nucleon; 7) how neutrinos got their masses; and 8) CP symmetry.

  5. Weak interactions and exchange currents in light nuclei. Theoretical and experimental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichon, P.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of meson exchange currents in the nuclear weak interaction is investigated theoretically and experimentally. The hypothesis of current algebra and partial conservation of axial current are used, through Adler-Dothan theorem, to derive the one pion exchange correction to the impulse approximation. Calculations are performed for partial transitions in the 1p-shell nuclei and in 16 O. The corrections are generally small except for the (0 + →0 - ) transition in 16 O where the large correction to the time component of the axial current can show up, due to selection rules. The measurement of the muon capture rate for this transition is described and an interpretation in term of exchange currents is proposed [fr

  6. Weakly Interacting Symmetric and Anti-Symmetric States in the Bilayer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchewka, M.; Sheregii, E. M.; Tralle, I.; Tomaka, G.; Ploch, D.

    We have studied the parallel magneto-transport in DQW-structures of two different potential shapes: quasi-rectangular and quasi-triangular. The quantum beats effect was observed in Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations for both types of the DQW structures in perpendicular magnetic filed arrangement. We developed a special scheme for the Landau levels energies calculation by means of which we carried out the necessary simulations of beating effect. In order to obtain the agreement between our experimental data and the results of simulations, we introduced two different quasi-Fermi levels which characterize symmetric and anti-symmetric states in DQWs. The existence of two different quasi Fermi-Levels simply means, that one can treat two sub-systems (charge carriers characterized by symmetric and anti-symmetric wave functions) as weakly interacting and having their own rate of establishing the equilibrium state.

  7. Strong Dollar, Weak Dollar: Foreign Exchange Rates and the U.S. Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Many generalizations sound simple enough--for example, "strong is good, weak is bad"--but they can be confusing when talking about money. This booklet explores how the U.S. dollar and foreign currencies affect each other and how their interaction affects the individual and the economy. The booklet contains the following sections:…

  8. Parity violation in nuclei: studies of the weak nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcdonald, A.B.

    1980-03-01

    The Weinberg-Salam Unified Model of weak and electromagnetic interactions has been very successful in explaining parity violation and neutral current effects in neutrino-nucleon, electron-nucleon and neutrino-electron interactions. A wide variety of nuclear physics parity violation experiments are in progress to measure effects of the weak nucleon-nucleon interaction in few nucleon systems and certain heavier nuclei where enhancements are expected. The current status of these experiments will be reviewed, including details of an experiment at Chalk River to search for parity violation in the photodisintegration of deuterium and an extension of our previous measurements of parity mixing in 21 Ne. The interpretation of results in terms of basic models of the weak interaction will be discussed. (Auth)

  9. Influence of effective electron interaction on critical current of Josephson weak links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, M.Yu.; Likharev, K.K.; Lukichev, V.F.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of microscopic theory of superconductivity, the dc Josphson effect in weak links of the type of variable thickness bridges or high ohmic interlayer sandwiches is studied. The Isub(C)Rsub(N) product is calculatied as a function of temperature T and weak link length L for various amplitudes and both signs of effective electron-electron interaction constant lambda. If the weak link material is superconducting with critical temperature Tsub(C) > 0 (lambda > 0), the maximum value of Isub(C)Rsub(N) product (under condition of the singlevalued Isub(S)(phi) relationship) can be achieved at L approx. <= 3xisup(*) when Tsub(C) approx. <= Tsub(CS)/2, and at L=(4 / 6)xisup(*) when Tsub(C) = Tsub(CS). Electron repulsion inside the weak link (lambda < 0) results in some reduction of the Isub(C)Rsub(N) product in comparison with the case of 'really normal' weak link material (lambda = 0). (orig.)

  10. From the discovery of the weak interactions to that of its mediators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conversi, M.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief outline of 'prehistory' of the field of weak interactions, this article recalls the main steps occurred, in our understanding of nature at the deepest level, in the fifty years elapsed between the 1933 discovery of the Fermi weak force and the 1983 discovery of its mediators at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Emphasis is given, on one side, to the spectacular predicting power of the gauge theories which have unified electromagnetic and weak interactions, and, on the other side, to the exceptional achievement by the European Physics Community, which by developing a project of extreme technical complexity through a team work of unprecedented size, has made it possible to reveal the carriers of the weak force, the heaviest subnuclear objects thus far observed by man

  11. From the discovery of the weak interactions to that of its mediators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conversi, M

    1985-01-01

    After a brief outline of 'prehistory' of the field of weak interactions, this article recalls the main steps occurred, in our understanding of nature at the deepest level, in the fifty years elapsed between the 1933 discovery of the Fermi weak force and the 1983 discovery of its mediators at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. Emphasis is given, on one side, to the spectacular predicting power of the gauge theories which have unified electromagnetic and weak interactions, and, on the other side, to the exceptional achievement by the European Physics Community, which by developing a project of extreme technical complexity through a team work of unprecedented size, has made it possible to reveal the carriers of the weak force, the heaviest subnuclear objects thus far observed by man. 42 refs.

  12. Nonlinear localized excitations in magnets with a weak exchange interaction as a soliton problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gvozdikova, M.V.; Kovalev, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The spin dynamics of soliton-like localized excitations in a discrete ferromagnet chain with an easy axis anisotropy and a weak exchange interaction is studied. The connection of these excitations with longwave magnetic solitons is discussed. The localized excitation frequency dependence on exchange interaction is found for a fixed number of spin deviation. It is shown that this dependence modifies essentially when the exchange interaction becomes comparable with an anisotropy value

  13. NMR characterization of weak interactions between RhoGDI2 and fragment screening hits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiuyang; Gao, Jia; Li, Fudong; Ma, Rongsheng; Wei, Qingtao; Wang, Aidong; Wu, Jihui; Ruan, Ke

    2017-01-01

    The delineation of intrinsically weak interactions between novel targets and fragment screening hits has long limited the pace of hit-to-lead evolution. Rho guanine-nucleotide dissociation inhibitor 2 (RhoGDI2) is a novel target that lacks any chemical probes for the treatment of tumor metastasis. Protein-observed and ligand-observed NMR spectroscopy was used to characterize the weak interactions between RhoGDI2 and fragment screening hits. We identified three hits of RhoGDI2 using streamlined NMR fragment-based screening. The binding site residues were assigned using non-uniformly sampled C α - and H α -based three dimensional NMR spectra. The molecular docking to the proposed geranylgeranyl binding pocket of RhoGDI2 was guided by NMR restraints of chemical shift perturbations and ligand-observed transferred paramagnetic relaxation enhancement. We further validated the weak RhoGDI2-hit interactions using mutagenesis and structure-affinity analysis. Weak interactions between RhoGDI2 and fragment screening hits were delineated using an integrated NMR approach. Binders to RhoGDI2 as a potential anti-cancer target have been first reported, and their weak interactions were depicted using NMR spectroscopy. Our work highlights the powerfulness and the versatility of the integrative NMR techniques to provide valuable structural insight into the intrinsically weak interactions between RhoGDI2 and the fragment screening hits, which could hardly be conceived using other biochemical techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Three-quark forces and the role of meson exchanges in weak NN interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grach, I.; Shmatikov, M.

    1989-01-01

    The contribution of weak three-quark forces involving meson exchanges to the longitudinal analyzing power A L in the low-energy pp-scattering is calculated. The nonrelativistic potential model is used for the desorption of strong quark interactions while their weak coupling is described by the Weinberg-Salam lagrangian. The dominant mechanism of parity violation in the NN system (provided the one-pion exchange is forbidden by selection rules) is the contact interaction of quarks. 17 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Neutral currents and the gauge group of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajpoot, S.

    1977-12-01

    In considering the question of neutral current parity conversation, models of weak and electromagnetic interactions based on the gauge sub group SU(2)sub(L)xSU(2)sub(R)x(U) 1 are examined. The thesis is presented in the following sections: (1) Introduction. (2) Natural left-right symmetric theory and its neutral current phenomenology. (3) Effects of neutral weak currents in electron-positron annihilation. (4) Dilepton production in pp and anti pp collisions as a probe to the nature of the neutral current interaction. (U.K.)

  16. Search for weakly interacting massive particles with the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saab, Tarek [Stanford U.

    2002-01-01

    From individual galaxies, to clusters of galaxies, to in between the cushions of your sofa, Dark Matter appears to be pervasive on every scale. With increasing accuracy, recent astrophysical measurements, from a variety of experiments, are arriving at the following cosmological model : a flat cosmology (Ωk = 0) with matter and energy densities contributing roughly 1/3 and 2/3 (Ωm = 0.35, ΩΛ = 0.65). Of the matter contribution, it appears that only ~ 10% (Ωb ~ 0.04) is attributable to baryons. Astrophysical measurements constrain the remaining matter to be non-realtivistic, interacting primarily gravitationally. Various theoretical models for such Dark Matter exist. A leading candidate for the non-baryonic matter are Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (dubbed WIMPS). These particles, and their relic density may be naturally explained within the framework of Super-Symmetry theories. SuperSymmetry also offers predictions as to the scattering rates of WIMPs with baryonic matter allowing for the design and tailoring of experiments that search specifically for the WIMPs. The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment is searching for evidence of WIMP interactions in crystals of Ge and Si. Using cryogenic detector technology to measure both the phonon and ionization response to a particle recoil the CDMS detectors are able to discriminate between electron and nuclear recoils, thus reducing the large rates of electron recoil backgrounds to levels with which a Dark Matter search is not only feasible, but far-reaching. This thesis will describe in some detail the physical principles behind the CDMS detector technology, highlighting the final step in the evolution of the detector design and characterization techniques. In addition, data from a 100 day long exposure of the current run at the Stanford Underground Facility will be presented, with focus given to detector performance as well as to the implications on allowable WIMP mass - cross-section parameter space.

  17. Left--right symmetric gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhu, D.P.

    1978-01-01

    We review the recent progress in spontaneously broken left-right symmetric gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions. Recently gauge theories based on the group SU(2)/Sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ x U(1) have been proposed as serious candidates for a unified description of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. Such theories have a number of attractive features which are not shared by the standard SU(2) x U(1) theories. Parity violation as well as CP-violation are spontaneous in origin and, therefore, theories are parity conserving before spontaneous breakdown of the symmetry and also afterwards at asymptotic energies. The asymmetry in low energy charged current weak interaction, i.e., predominance of left-handed charged current interactions over the right-handed ones, is a consequence of the symmetry breaking thus leading to a conceptually different picture of weak interaction at low energies. Another appealing feature of these theories is the beauty and richness of the structure of weak neutral current interactions. One can have a parity conserving structure of the neutral currents (one neutral boson (Z/sub V/) has pure vector and the other (Z/sub A/) pure axial vector coupling to quarks and leptons) which is natural in the technical sense of the word. Models of this type provide the most elegant explanation of the failure to find parity violation in atoms at the level predicted on the basis of the Weinberg-Salam model. In spite of manifestly parity conserving neutral current interactions, ν/sub μ/N and anti ν/sub μ/N (also ν/sub μ/e and anti ν/sub μ/e) neutral current cross-sections have to be unequal in these theories because of the definite parity and charge conjugation of the Z-bosons

  18. Detectability of weakly interacting massive particles in the Sagittarius dwarf tidal stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freese, Katherine; Gondolo, Paolo; Newberg, Heidi Jo

    2005-01-01

    Tidal streams of the Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy (Sgr) may be showering dark matter onto the solar system and contributing ∼(0.3-23)% of the local density of our galactic halo. If the Sagittarius galaxy contains dark matter in the form of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), the extra contribution from the stream gives rise to a steplike feature in the energy recoil spectrum in direct dark matter detection. For our best estimate of stream velocity (300 km/s) and direction (the plane containing the Sgr dwarf and its debris), the count rate is maximum on June 28 and minimum on December 27 (for most recoil energies), and the location of the step oscillates yearly with a phase opposite to that of the count rate. In the CDMS experiment, for 60 GeV WIMPs, the location of the step oscillates between 35 and 42 keV, and for the most favorable stream density, the stream should be detectable at the 11σ level in four years of data with 10 keV energy bins. Planned large detectors like XENON, CryoArray, and the directional detector DRIFT may also be able to identify the Sgr stream

  19. First results of the CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting sub-eV Particle Search (CROWS)

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, M; Gasior, M; Thumm, M; Rieger, S W

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting sub-eV Particle Search probes the existence of weakly interacting sub-eV particles like axions or hidden sector photons. It is based on the principle of an optical light shining through the wall experiment, adapted to microwaves. Critical aspects of the experiment are electromagnetic shielding, design and operation of low loss cavity resonators, and the detection of weak sinusoidal microwave signals. Lower bounds are set on the coupling constant g=4.5 x 10$^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$ for axionlike particles with a mass of m$_a$=7.2 $\\mu$eV. For hidden sector photons, lower bounds are set for the coupling constant $\\chi$=4.1 x 10$^{^-9}$ at a mass of m$\\gamma$=10.8 $\\mu$eV. For the latter we are probing a previously unexplored region in the parameter space.

  20. Is neutrino produced in standard weak interactions a Dirac or Majorana particle?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    2010-01-01

    This work considers the following problem: what type (Dirac or Majorana) of neutrinos is produced in standard weak interactions? It is concluded that only Dirac neutrinos but not Majorana neutrinos can be produced in these interactions. Then neutrino interacts with W ± and Z bosons but neutrinoless double beta decay is absent. It means that this neutrino will be produced in another type of interaction. Namely, Majorana neutrino will be produced in the interaction which differentiates spin projections but cannot differentiate neutrino (particle) from antineutrino (antiparticle). Then neutrino will interact with W ± bosons and neutrinoless double beta decay will arise. But interaction with Z boson will be absent. Such an interaction has not been discovered yet. Therefore, experiments with very high precision are important to detect the neutrinoless double decays if they are realized in the Nature

  1. Additional neutral vector boson in the 7-dimensional theory of gravy-electro-weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V.R.

    1988-01-01

    Possibilities of manifestation of an additional neutron vector boson, the existence of which is predicted by the 7-dimensional theory of gravy-electro-weak interactions, are analyzed. A particular case of muon neutrino scattering on a muon is considered. In this case additional neutral current manifests both at high and at relatively low energies of particle collisions

  2. Parity violation in atoms and implications for unified models of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarlskog, C.

    1976-07-01

    Parity violation experiments in atoms are probing structure of the weak neutral current couplings of the electrons and the quarks in the same range as the neutrino interactions are measuring couplings of neutrinos and quarks. In addition, leptonic neutral currents determine couplings of neutrinos and electrons. Therefore the three type of experiments give complete information and impose strong restrictions on theoretical possibilities. (BJ) [de

  3. Prediction for neutrino-electron cross-sections in Weinberg's model for weak interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    1971-01-01

    Weinberg's theory of purely leptonic weak interactions can be tested in neutrino-electron scattering experiments. Cross-sections must be measured as a function of the energy of the recoil electron. If Weinberg's theory is correct, then the masses of the intermediate vector bosons can be derived from

  4. Introduction to the gauge theories unifying the electromagnetic and weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Xuan-Yem.

    An elementary introduction to unified gauge theories of electromagnetic and weak interactions is presented. The Goldstone theorem and the Higgs mechanism are discussed. The Weinberg-Salam model as well as the Georgi-Glashow ones are explained in details. One emphasizes on the experimental consequences of the Weinberg-Salam model (neutral current) [fr

  5. Recent developments in weak interactions and e+e- annihilation. An elementary introduction to 'charm'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Xuan-Yem.

    1976-01-01

    The recent developments about 'charm', a new quantum number postulated in the framework of models unifying electromagnetic and weak interactions are briefly reviewed. Many experimental facts seem to support this hypothesis. A proliferation of quarks, and their right-handed currents are also discussed in the light of some new experimental data on anti-neutrino scattering [fr

  6. Why is the correlation between gene importance and gene evolutionary rate so weak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2009-01-01

    One of the few commonly believed principles of molecular evolution is that functionally more important genes (or DNA sequences) evolve more slowly than less important ones. This principle is widely used by molecular biologists in daily practice. However, recent genomic analysis of a diverse array of organisms found only weak, negative correlations between the evolutionary rate of a gene and its functional importance, typically measured under a single benign lab condition. A frequently suggested cause of the above finding is that gene importance determined in the lab differs from that in an organism's natural environment. Here, we test this hypothesis in yeast using gene importance values experimentally determined in 418 lab conditions or computationally predicted for 10,000 nutritional conditions. In no single condition or combination of conditions did we find a much stronger negative correlation, which is explainable by our subsequent finding that always-essential (enzyme) genes do not evolve significantly more slowly than sometimes-essential or always-nonessential ones. Furthermore, we verified that functional density, approximated by the fraction of amino acid sites within protein domains, is uncorrelated with gene importance. Thus, neither the lab-nature mismatch nor a potentially biased among-gene distribution of functional density explains the observed weakness of the correlation between gene importance and evolutionary rate. We conclude that the weakness is factual, rather than artifactual. In addition to being weakened by population genetic reasons, the correlation is likely to have been further weakened by the presence of multiple nontrivial rate determinants that are independent from gene importance. These findings notwithstanding, we show that the principle of slower evolution of more important genes does have some predictive power when genes with vastly different evolutionary rates are compared, explaining why the principle can be practically useful

  7. Weakly hydrated surfaces and the binding interactions of small biological solutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, John W; Tavagnacco, Letizia; Ehrlich, Laurent; Chen, Mo; Schnupf, Udo; Himmel, Michael E; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Cesàro, Attilio

    2012-04-01

    Extended planar hydrophobic surfaces, such as are found in the side chains of the amino acids histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, exhibit an affinity for the weakly hydrated faces of glucopyranose. In addition, molecular species such as these, including indole, caffeine, and imidazole, exhibit a weak tendency to pair together by hydrophobic stacking in aqueous solution. These interactions can be partially understood in terms of recent models for the hydration of extended hydrophobic faces and should provide insight into the architecture of sugar-binding sites in proteins.

  8. Weak localization and electron-electron interaction in modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taboryski, R.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The first heterostructure wafer only had one electronic subband at the GaAs/AlGaAs interface populated. Weak localization magnetoresistance was interpreted by a theory valid to relatively high magnetic fields and also valid for electrons with a long mean free path. The adjustable parameter in fitting the magnetoresistance was in each case the phasebreaking relaxation time, which could then subsequently be plotted as a function of temperature. The temperature dependence of the phasebreaking rate could be interpreted on the basic of existing theories, but the residual relaxation rate at the lowest temperature remains so far unexplained. Already at low magnetic fields the weak localization magnetoresistance saturates, indicating a complete quench of weak localization. We find that the value of saturation (i.e. the total weak localization at the appropriate temperature) was smaller than predicted by the existing theories. At magnetic fields of the order of the inverse electron mobility, a quadratic magnetoresistance show up in our experiments. This quadratic magnetoresistance corresponds to corrections to the conductivity of the order of e 2 /h. Whereas we find that the temperature dependence of this conductivity correction is well in agreement with predicted effects of electron-electron interaction, the dependence on mobility, which we can measure via our ion implantation, is larger than any existing theory predicts, yet still in the ballpark of the conductance quantum. (orig./BHO)

  9. A search for weakly interacting dark matter with the LUX experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INIS-FR--11-0141/Pt.1-25

    2010-01-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical measurements indicate that our galaxy is filled with a new type of matter previously unknown to physics. This 'dark matter' apparently has no electromagnetic or strong interactions, but an interaction of the strength of the weak nuclear force is strongly suggested by the data. The LUX collaboration is attempting to detect the faint signature of weakly interacting dark matter as it passes through the earth. The experiment searches for recoiling atomic nuclei in a target consisting of 350 kg of liquefied xenon. LUX is the largest experiment of its type ever attempted, and it is expected to improve upon current experimental sensitivities by two orders of magnitude. The experiment is being assembled at the Sanford Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (SUSEL) in Lead, South Dakota, USA, and first data is expected in 2011. We report on the status of LUX and the prospects for future large-scale dark matter searches with liquid xenon. (author)

  10. Applications of on-line weak affinity interactions in free solution capillary electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Niels H H; Nissen, Mogens H; Chen, David D Y

    2002-01-01

    The impressive selectivity offered by capillary electrophoresis can in some cases be further increased when ligands or additives that engage in weak affinity interactions with one or more of the separated analytes are added to the electrophoresis buffer. This on-line affinity capillary...... electrophoresis approach is feasible when the migration of complexed molecules is different from the migration of free molecules and when separation conditions are nondenaturing. In this review, we focus on applying weak interactions as tools to enhance the separation of closely related molecules, e.g., drug...... enantiomers and on using capillary electrophoresis to characterize such interactions quantitatively. We describe the equations for binding isotherms, illustrate how selectivity can be manipulated by varying the additive concentrations, and show how the methods may be used to estimate binding constants. On...

  11. Detection of light-matter interaction in the weak-coupling regime by quantum light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Qian; Lü, Xin-You; Zheng, Li-Li; Bin, Shang-Wu; Wu, Ying

    2018-04-01

    "Mollow spectroscopy" is a photon statistics spectroscopy, obtained by scanning the quantum light scattered from a source system. Here, we apply this technique to detect the weak light-matter interaction between the cavity and atom (or a mechanical oscillator) when the strong system dissipation is included. We find that the weak interaction can be measured with high accuracy when exciting the target cavity by quantum light scattered from the source halfway between the central peak and each side peak. This originally comes from the strong correlation of the injected quantum photons. In principle, our proposal can be applied into the normal cavity quantum electrodynamics system described by the Jaynes-Cummings model and an optomechanical system. Furthermore, it is state of the art for experiment even when the interaction strength is reduced to a very small value.

  12. Separate and interactive contributions of weak inhibitory control and threat sensitivity to prediction of suicide risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venables, Noah C; Sellbom, Martin; Sourander, Andre; Kendler, Kenneth S; Joiner, Thomas E; Drislane, Laura E; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Elonheimo, Henrik; Parkkola, Kai; Multimaki, Petteri; Patrick, Christopher J

    2015-04-30

    Biobehavioral dispositions can serve as valuable referents for biologically oriented research on core processes with relevance to many psychiatric conditions. The present study examined two such dispositional variables-weak response inhibition (or disinhibition; INH-) and threat sensitivity (or fearfulness; THT+)-as predictors of the serious transdiagnostic problem of suicide risk in two samples: male and female outpatients from a U.S. clinic (N=1078), and a population-based male military cohort from Finland (N=3855). INH- and THT+ were operationalized through scores on scale measures of disinhibition and fear/fearlessness, known to be related to DSM-defined clinical conditions and brain biomarkers. Suicide risk was assessed by clinician ratings (clinic sample) and questionnaires (both samples). Across samples and alternative suicide indices, INH- and THT+ each contributed uniquely to prediction of suicide risk-beyond internalizing and externalizing problems in the case of the clinic sample where diagnostic data were available. Further, in both samples, INH- and THT+ interactively predicted suicide risk, with individuals scoring concurrently high on both dispositions exhibiting markedly augmented risk. Findings demonstrate that dispositional constructs of INH- and THT+ are predictive of suicide risk, and hold potential as referents for biological research on suicidal behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relaxation and coarsening of weakly-interacting breathers in a simplified DNLS chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iubini, Stefano; Politi, Antonio; Politi, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation displays a parameter region characterized by the presence of localized excitations (breathers). While their formation is well understood and it is expected that the asymptotic configuration comprises a single breather on top of a background, it is not clear why the dynamics of a multi-breather configuration is essentially frozen. In order to investigate this question, we introduce simple stochastic models, characterized by suitable conservation laws. We focus on the role of the coupling strength between localized excitations and background. In the DNLS model, higher breathers interact more weakly, as a result of their faster rotation. In our stochastic models, the strength of the coupling is controlled directly by an amplitude-dependent parameter. In the case of a power-law decrease, the associated coarsening process undergoes a slowing down if the decay rate is larger than a critical value. In the case of an exponential decrease, a freezing effect is observed that is reminiscent of the scenario observed in the DNLS. This last regime arises spontaneously when direct energy diffusion between breathers and background is blocked below a certain threshold.

  14. Strong FANCA/FANCG but weak FANCA/FANCC interaction in the yeast 2-hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, T; Herterich, S; Bernhard, O; Hoehn, H; Gross, H J

    2000-01-15

    Three of at least 8 Fanconi anemia (FA) genes have been cloned (FANCA, FANCC, FANCG), but their functions remain unknown. Using the yeast 2-hybrid system and full-length cDNA, the authors found a strong interaction between FANCA and FANCG proteins. They also obtained evidence for a weak interaction between FANCA and FANCC. Neither FANCA nor FANCC was found to interact with itself. These results support the notion of a functional association between the FA gene products. (Blood. 2000;95:719-720)

  15. Current algebra formulation of radiative corrections in gauge theories and the universality of the weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirlin, A.

    1978-07-01

    A current algebra formulation of the radiative corrections in gauge theories, with special applications to the analysis of the universality of the weak interactions, is developed in the framework of quantum chromodynamics. For definiteness, we work in the SU(2) x U(1) model with four quark flavors, but the methods are quite general and can be applied to other theories. The explicit cancellation of ultraviolet divergences for arbitrary semileptonic processes is achieved relying solely on the Ward identities and general considerations, both in the W and Higgs sectors. The finite parts of order G/sub F/..cap alpha.. are then evaluated in the case of the superallowed Fermi transitions, including small effects proportional to g/sup -2//sub S/(kappa/sup 2/), which are induced by the strong interactions in the asymptotic domain. We consider here both the simplest version of the Weinberg--Salam model in which the Higgs scalars transform as a single isospinsor, as well as the case of general symmetry breaking. Except for the small effects proportional to g/sup -2//sub S/(kappa/sup 2/), the results are identical to the answers previously found on the basis of heuristic arguments. The phenomenological verification of Cabibbo universality on the basis of these corrections and the superallowed Fermi transitions has been discussed before and found to be in very good agreement with present experimental evidence. The analogous calculation for the transition rate of pion ..beta.. decay is given. Theoretical alternatives to quantum chromdynamics as a framework for the evaluate ion of the radiative corrections are briefly discussed. The appendixes contain a generalization of an important result in the theory of radiative corrections, an analysis of the hadronic contributions to the W and phi propagators, mathematical methods for evaluating the g/sup -2//sub S/(kappa/sup 2/) corrections, and discussions of quark mass renormalization and the absence of operator &apos

  16. Energetic electron precipitation in weak to moderate corotating interaction region-driven storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegaard, Linn-Kristine Glesnes; Tyssøy, Hilde Nesse; Søraas, Finn; Stadsnes, Johan; Sandanger, Marit Irene

    2017-03-01

    High-energy electron precipitation from the radiation belts can penetrate deep into the mesosphere and increase the production rate of NOx and HOx, which in turn will reduce ozone in catalytic processes. The mechanisms for acceleration and loss of electrons in the radiation belts are not fully understood, and most of the measurements of the precipitating flux into the atmosphere have been insufficient for estimating the loss cone flux. In the present study the electron flux measured by the NOAA POES Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors 0° and 90° detectors is combined together with theory of pitch angle diffusion by wave-particle interaction to quantify the electron flux lost below 120 km altitude. Using this method, 41 weak and moderate geomagnetic storms caused by corotating interaction regions during 2006-2010 are studied. The dependence of the energetic electron precipitation fluxes upon solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices is investigated. Nine storms give increased precipitation of >˜750 keV electrons. Nineteen storms increase the precipitation of >˜300 keV electrons, but not the >˜750 keV population. Thirteen storms either do not change or deplete the fluxes at those energies. Storms that have an increase in the flux of electrons with energy >˜300 keV are characterized by an elevated solar wind velocity for a longer period compared to the storms that do not. Storms with increased precipitation of >˜750 keV flux are distinguished by higher-energy input from the solar wind quantified by the ɛ parameter and corresponding higher geomagnetic activity.

  17. Limits on Interactions between Weakly Interacting Massive Particles and Nucleons Obtained with CsI(Tl) Crystal Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. S.; Bhang, H. C.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, S. C.; Kim, S. K.; Kwak, J. W.; Lee, J.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. J.; Lee, S. J.; Myung, S. S.; Ryu, S.; Dao, H.; Li, J.; Li, X.; Li, Y. J.; Yue, Q.; Zhu, J. J.; Hahn, I. S.

    2007-01-01

    The Korea Invisible Mass Search (KIMS) experiment presents new limits on the weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP)-nucleon cross section using data from an exposure of 3409 kg·d taken with low-background CsI(Tl) crystals at the Yangyang Underground Laboratory. The most stringent limit on the spin-dependent interaction for a pure proton case is obtained. The DAMA signal region for both spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions for the WIMP masses greater than 20 GeV/c 2 is excluded by the single experiment with crystal scintillators

  18. Thermodynamic identities and particle number fluctuations in weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, Fabrizio [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and INFM, Unita di Salerno, I-84081 Baronissi SA (Italy); Navez, Patrick [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Materials Science, Demokritos NCSR, POB 60228, 15310 Athens (Greece); Wilkens, Martin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany)

    1999-08-14

    We derive exact thermodynamic identities relating the average number of condensed atoms and the root-mean-square fluctuations determined in different statistical ensembles for the weakly interacting Bose gas confined in a box. This is achieved by introducing the concept of auxiliary partition functions for model Hamiltonians that do conserve the total number of particles. Exploiting such thermodynamic identities, we provide the first, completely analytical prediction of the microcanonical particle number fluctuations in the weakly interacting Bose gas. Such fluctuations, as a function of the volume V of the box are found to behave normally, in contrast with the anomalous scaling behaviour V{sup 4/3} of the fluctuations in the ideal Bose gas. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  19. Chiral-model of weak-interaction form factors and magnetic moments of octet baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubodera, K.; Kohyama, Y.; Tsushima, K.; Yamaguchi, T.

    1989-01-01

    For baryon spectroscopy, magnetic moments and weak interaction form factors provide valuable information, and the impressive amount of available experimental data on these quantities for the octet baryons invites detailed investigations. The authors of this paper have made extensive studies of the weak-interaction form factors and magnetic moments of the octet baryons within the framework of the volume-type cloudy-bag model (v-type CBM). The clouds of all octet mesons have been included. Furthermore, we have taken into account in a unified framework various effects that were so far only individually discussed in the literature. Thus, the gluonic effects, center-of-mass (CM0 corrections, and recoil corrections have been included). In this talk, after giving a brief summary of some salient features of the results, we discuss a very interesting application of our model to the problem of the spin content of nucleons

  20. Weak interactions from 1950-1960: a quantitative bibliometric study of the formation of a field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.

    1986-01-01

    A quantitative technique is illustrated which uses publication statistics from a bibliography of citations in the area of weak interactions to provide a view of trends and patterns in the development of the field during the period from 1950 to 1960. An overview is given of what the physicists working in weak interactions during this period were doing as indicated by an analysis of the subjects of their papers. The dominant problems and concerns are discussed. Focus is then turned to the events surrounding the emergence of the tau/theta particle puzzle, the discovery of parity nonconservation, and the resolution offered by the V-A theory. Displaying the data from the citation index in unusual ways highlights dominant issues of the period, especially the close relationship between theory and experiment in the latter half of the decade. 64 refs., 14 figs

  1. Production of neutral heavy leptons by neutrinos in the E7 gauge model of weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottino, A.; Kim, C.W.

    1977-11-01

    An attempt, is made, in the framework of the Guersey-Sikivie gauge model of weak interactions based on the E7 group, to explain the recently observed neutrino-production of a relatively long-lived neutral heavy lepton in SKAT bubble chamber experiment. It is shown that a lepton assignment with mixings among neutral leptons can explain the SKAT event. This lepton assignment is also shown to be consistent with other well-known experiments

  2. Implications of experiment on gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1977-06-01

    In this review the phenomenology of four new models for gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions is discussed that are extensions of SU(2) x U(1) models. Included are the neutral-current phenomenology (neutrino-proton deep-inelastic, neutrino-proton elastic, neutrino-electron elastic, and atomic parity violation). The charged-current neutrino scattering includes the y-dependence, the ratio of anti ν to ν cross sections, and di- and trilepton production. 80 references

  3. WEAK LINE QUASARS AT HIGH REDSHIFT: EXTREMELY HIGH ACCRETION RATES OR ANEMIC BROAD-LINE REGIONS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemmer, Ohad; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Netzer, Hagai; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Lira, Paulina; Plotkin, Richard M.; Richards, Gordon T.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We present Gemini-North K-band spectra of two representative members of the class of high-redshift quasars with exceptionally weak rest-frame ultraviolet emission lines (WLQs), SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 at z = 3.55 and SDSS J123743.08+630144.9 at z = 3.49. In both sources, we detect an unusually weak broad Hβ line and place tight upper limits on the strengths of their [O III] lines. Virial, Hβ-based black hole mass determinations indicate normalized accretion rates of L/L Edd =0.4 for these sources, which is well within the range observed for typical quasars with similar luminosities and redshifts. We also present high-quality XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of SDSS J114153.34+021924.3 and find a hard-X-ray photon index of Γ = 1.91 +0.24 -0.22 , which supports the virial L/L Edd determination in this source. Our results suggest that the weakness of the broad emission lines in WLQs is not a consequence of an extreme continuum-emission source but instead due to abnormal broad emission line region properties.

  4. Non-leptonic weak decay rate of explicitly flavored heavy mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M.; California Univ., Berkeley

    1981-01-01

    It is argued quantitatively that a large difference between the D 0 and D + lifetimes is mainly due to non-perturbative long-distance effects. The total non-leptonic weak decay rates are related to the soft limit of short-distance processes. Scaling laws for the decay rates of heavy mesons with respect to mass are inferred from the QCD analysis of the soft limit of fragmentation. It is found that the decay rates are not determined by the disconnected spectator diagrams alone even in the limit of the heavy quark mass M Going to infinity ( 5 exp √ c log M. Some numerical discussion is made for the decay of B mesons and T mesons. (orig.)

  5. Some tests of the basic properties of the neutral weak interaction. II. With massive neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dass, G.V.; Babu, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    Assuming a general nonderivative point interaction, and Born approximation, the angular distributions for neutrino scatterings by electrons are written, using only simple considerations, allowing all leptons to have nonzero mass. Our distributions have been previously obtained for some special cases, from general considerations by Bell et al., or in the results of explicit calculations. Applications to (i) determination of the Lorentz structure of the neutral weak interaction, and (ii) tests of lepton locality are considered. For illustration, two explicit calculations are given; one of these could hold for heavy lepton production, and the other for scattering of very low energy cosmic neutrinos

  6. Early Career: The search for weakly interacting dark matter with liquid xenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Carter

    2017-01-01

    We report results from a search for weakly interacting dark matter particles obtained with the LUX experiment. LUX was located at a depth of 4850 feet at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota from 2013 through 2016. It found no evidence for dark matter particle interactions and set new constraints on the properties of such particles for masses between 6 GeV and 100 TeV. The work reported here also characterized the performance of such experiments by developing a new calibration technique based upon a tritium beta decay source.

  7. Early Career: The search for weakly interacting dark matter with liquid xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Carter [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-02-08

    We report results from a search for weakly interacting dark matter particles obtained with the LUX experiment. LUX was located at a depth of 4850 feet at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota from 2013 through 2016. It found no evidence for dark matter particle interactions and set new constraints on the properties of such particles for masses between 6 GeV and 100 TeV. The work reported here also characterized the performance of such experiments by developing a new calibration technique based upon a tritium beta decay source.

  8. Solution Phase Measurement of Both Weak Sigma and C-H---X- Hydrogen Bonding Interactions in Synthetic Anion Receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, Mr. Orion B. [University of Oregon; Sather, Mr. Aaron C [University of Oregon; Hay, Benjamin [ORNL; Meisner, Mr. Jeffrey S. [University of Oregon; Johnson, Prof. Darren W. [University of Oregon

    2008-01-01

    A series of tripodal receptors preorganize electron-deficient aromatic rings to bind halides in organic solvents using weak sigma anion-to-arene interactions or C-H---X- hydrogen bonds. 1H NMR spectroscopy proves to be a powerful technique for quantifying binding in solution, and determining the interaction motifs, even in cases of weak binding.

  9. Instability of collective strong-interaction phenomena in hadron production as a possible origin of the weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.C.

    1975-12-01

    A systematic calculus of long-range Regge cut effects in multiparticle production is constructed in the form of an infrared-divergent stochastic field theory. Total cross sections and two-body overlap integrals in such a theory may depend very sensitively upon internal quantum-numbers of incident particles, resulting in a strong symmetry breaking at ultra-high energies. Such symmetry violations will influence low energy processes through dispersion relations, and a bootstrap of weak interactions becomes possible. A rough analytic estimate of the scale of thresholds for such effects yields a BCS-type gap equation, which expresses the scale of weak and electromagnetic couplings in terms of purely strong-interaction parameters

  10. Weakly interacting topological insulators: Quantum criticality and the renormalization group approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei

    2018-03-01

    For D -dimensional weakly interacting topological insulators in certain symmetry classes, the topological invariant can be calculated from a D - or (D +1 ) -dimensional integration over a certain curvature function that is expressed in terms of single-particle Green's functions. Based on the divergence of curvature function at the topological phase transition, we demonstrate how a renormalization group approach circumvents these integrations and reduces the necessary calculation to that for the Green's function alone, rendering a numerically efficient tool to identify topological phase transitions in a large parameter space. The method further unveils a number of statistical aspects related to the quantum criticality in weakly interacting topological insulators, including correlation function, critical exponents, and scaling laws, that can be used to characterize the topological phase transitions driven by either interacting or noninteracting parameters. We use 1D class BDI and 2D class A Dirac models with electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions to demonstrate these principles and find that interactions may change the critical exponents of the topological insulators.

  11. Weak interspecific interactions in a sagebrush steppe? Conflicting evidence from observations and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Peter B; Kleinhesselink, Andrew; Giles, Hooker; Taylor, J Bret; Teller, Brittany; Ellner, Stephen P

    2018-04-28

    Stable coexistence requires intraspecific limitations to be stronger than interspecific limitations. The greater the difference between intra- and interspecific limitations, the more stable the coexistence, and the weaker the competitive release any species should experience following removal of competitors. We conducted a removal experiment to test whether a previously estimated model, showing surprisingly weak interspecific competition for four dominant species in a sagebrush steppe, accurately predicts competitive release. Our treatments were 1) removal of all perennial grasses and 2) removal of the dominant shrub, Artemisia tripartita. We regressed survival, growth and recruitment on the locations, sizes, and species identities of neighboring plants, along with an indicator variable for removal treatment. If our "baseline" regression model, which accounts for local plant-plant interactions, accurately explains the observed responses to removals, then the removal coefficient should be non-significant. For survival, the removal coefficients were never significantly different from zero, and only A. tripartita showed a (negative) response to removals at the recruitment stage. For growth, the removal treatment effect was significant and positive for two species, Poa secunda and Pseudoroegneria spicata, indicating that the baseline model underestimated interspecific competition. For all three grass species, population models based on the vital rate regressions that included removal effects projected 1.4 to 3-fold increases in equilibrium population size relative to the baseline model (no removal effects). However, we found no evidence of higher response to removal in quadrats with higher pretreatment cover of A. tripartita, or by plants experiencing higher pre-treatment crowding by A. tripartita, raising questions about the mechanisms driving the positive response to removal. While our results show the value of combining observations with a simple removal experiment

  12. Seismic potential of weak, near-surface faults revealed at plate tectonic slip rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikari, Matt J; Kopf, Achim J

    2017-11-01

    The near-surface areas of major faults commonly contain weak, phyllosilicate minerals, which, based on laboratory friction measurements, are assumed to creep stably. However, it is now known that shallow faults can experience tens of meters of earthquake slip and also host slow and transient slip events. Laboratory experiments are generally performed at least two orders of magnitude faster than plate tectonic speeds, which are the natural driving conditions for major faults; the absence of experimental data for natural driving rates represents a critical knowledge gap. We use laboratory friction experiments on natural fault zone samples at driving rates of centimeters per year to demonstrate that there is abundant evidence of unstable slip behavior that was not previously predicted. Specifically, weak clay-rich fault samples generate slow slip events (SSEs) and have frictional properties favorable for earthquake rupture. Our work explains growing field observations of shallow SSE and surface-breaking earthquake slip, and predicts that such phenomena should be more widely expected.

  13. Weak carbonyl-methyl intermolecular interactions in acetone clusters explored by IR plus VUV spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Jiwen; Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Min; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The carbonyl overtone of acetone clusters is observed by IR-VUV spectroscopy. ► Acetone molecules in the dimer are stacked with an antiparallel way. ► The structure of the acetone trimer and the tetramer are the cyclic structures. ► The carbonyl groups would interact with the methyl groups in acetone clusters. ► These weak interactions are further confirmed by H/D substitution experiment. -- Abstract: Size-selected IR–VUV spectroscopy is employed to detect vibrational characteristics in the region 2850 ∼ 3550 cm −1 of neutral acetone and its clusters (CH 3 COCH 3 ) n (n = 1–4). Features around 3440 cm −1 in the spectra of acetone monomer and its clusters are assigned to the carbonyl stretch (CO) overtone. These features red-shift from 3455 to 3433 cm −1 as the size of the clusters increases from the monomer to the tetramer. Based on calculations, the experimental IR spectra in the C=O overtone region suggest that the dominant structures for the acetone trimer and tetramer should be cyclic in the supersonic expansion sample. This study also suggests that the carbonyl groups interact with the methyl groups in the acetone clusters. These weak interactions are further confirmed by the use of deuterium substitution.

  14. Weak Localization and Antilocalization in Topological Materials with Impurity Spin-Orbit Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Culcer, Dimitrie

    2017-01-01

    Topological materials have attracted considerable experimental and theoretical attention. They exhibit strong spin-orbit coupling both in the band structure (intrinsic) and in the impurity potentials (extrinsic), although the latter is often neglected. In this work, we discuss weak localization and antilocalization of massless Dirac fermions in topological insulators and massive Dirac fermions in Weyl semimetal thin films, taking into account both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit interactions. The physics is governed by the complex interplay of the chiral spin texture, quasiparticle mass, and scalar and spin-orbit scattering. We demonstrate that terms linear in the extrinsic spin-orbit scattering are generally present in the Bloch and momentum relaxation times in all topological materials, and the correction to the diffusion constant is linear in the strength of the extrinsic spin-orbit. In topological insulators, which have zero quasiparticle mass, the terms linear in the impurity spin-orbit coupling lead to an observable density dependence in the weak antilocalization correction. They produce substantial qualitative modifications to the magnetoconductivity, differing greatly from the conventional Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka formula traditionally used in experimental fits, which predicts a crossover from weak localization to antilocalization as a function of the extrinsic spin-orbit strength. In contrast, our analysis reveals that topological insulators always exhibit weak antilocalization. In Weyl semimetal thin films having intermediate to large values of the quasiparticle mass, we show that extrinsic spin-orbit scattering strongly affects the boundary of the weak localization to antilocalization transition. We produce a complete phase diagram for this transition as a function of the mass and spin-orbit scattering strength. Throughout the paper, we discuss implications for experimental work, and, at the end, we provide a brief comparison with transition metal

  15. Constraining weakly interacting slim particles with a massive star and in the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seggern, Jan Eike von

    2014-01-01

    This doctoral thesis is devoted to constraining the allowed parameter space of weakly interacting slim particles (WISPs). WISPs are predicted by many extensions of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM): The Peccei-Quinn solution of the strong CP-problem of quantum chromo dynamics requires the existence of an axion; some embeddings of the SM into string theories predict a large number of axion-like particles (ALPs), the so called axi-verse, and hidden photons (HPs). Cosmological and astrophysical observables are sensitive to the existence of WISPs. Measurements of these observables allow to constrain the allowed WISP parameter space. In addition dedicated laboratory based experiments exist. Although the parameter space excluded by these experiments is generally smaller than the regions excluded by measurements of cosmological or astrophysical observables, the results from these experiment are valuable complements to these measurements because they are less model dependent. In this thesis, I present my work that helps to constrain the WISP parameter space in two ways: First, the existence of ALPs implies their production in stellar cores. The oscillation of ALPs with photons in the galactic magnetic field (GMF) suggest an X-ray flux from red supergiant (RSG) stars. RSGs are expected to emit no X-rays if ALPs do not exist. An upper limit for the X-ray count rate from the nearby RSG α-Ori (Betelgeuse) is estimated from observations of α-Ori with the Chandra X-ray Telescope. The interior of α-Ori is modelled with the ''Evolve ZAMS'' code. Based on this, the corresponding ALP production rate is calculated. Using current estimates of the value of the regular component of the GMF, the resulting X-ray flux density at Earth from ALP-photon oscillations and the corresponding count rates with the Chandra instruments are calculated. Comparison of this estimate with the upper limit from the Chandra measurements allows to exclude values of the ALP-photon coupling above 2

  16. Randomly organized lipids and marginally stable proteins: a coupling of weak interactions to optimize membrane signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Anne M; Mahling, Ryan; Fealey, Michael E; Rannikko, Anika; Dunleavy, Katie; Hendrickson, Troy; Lohese, K Jean; Kruggel, Spencer; Heiling, Hillary; Harren, Daniel; Sutton, R Bryan; Pastor, John; Hinderliter, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Eukaryotic lipids in a bilayer are dominated by weak cooperative interactions. These interactions impart highly dynamic and pliable properties to the membrane. C2 domain-containing proteins in the membrane also interact weakly and cooperatively giving rise to a high degree of conformational plasticity. We propose that this feature of weak energetics and plasticity shared by lipids and C2 domain-containing proteins enhance a cell's ability to transduce information across the membrane. We explored this hypothesis using information theory to assess the information storage capacity of model and mast cell membranes, as well as differential scanning calorimetry, carboxyfluorescein release assays, and tryptophan fluorescence to assess protein and membrane stability. The distribution of lipids in mast cell membranes encoded 5.6-5.8bits of information. More information resided in the acyl chains than the head groups and in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane than the outer leaflet. When the lipid composition and information content of model membranes were varied, the associated C2 domains underwent large changes in stability and denaturation profile. The C2 domain-containing proteins are therefore acutely sensitive to the composition and information content of their associated lipids. Together, these findings suggest that the maximum flow of signaling information through the membrane and into the cell is optimized by the cooperation of near-random distributions of membrane lipids and proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Solar-bound weakly interacting massive particles a no-frills phenomenology

    CERN Document Server

    Collar, J I

    1999-01-01

    The case for a stable population of solar-bound Earth-crossing Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) is reviewed. A practical general expression for their speed distribution in the laboratory frame is derived under basic assumptions. If such a population exists -even with a conservative phase-space density-, the next generation of large-mass, low-threshold underground bolometers should bring about a sizable enhancement in WIMP sensitivity. Finally, a characteristic yearly modulation in their recoil signal, arising from the ellipticity of the Earth's orbit, is presented.

  18. Interactions between two superconducting weak links in the stationary (V = 0) states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Way, Y.S.; Hsu, K.S.; Kao, Y.H.

    1977-01-01

    Effects of interaction between two superconducting weak links (SWL) at V = 0 have been calculated using the Ginzburg-Landau theory. Variations of the critical current of one SWL affected by dc current in a neighboring SWL are found in good qualitative agreement with a recent experiment. The current-phase relation of the combined system is computed for various separations between the two SWL7's; it is shown explicitly that the system behaves as a single SWL when the spacing between links is comparable to the coherence length

  19. Concluding remarks and outlook: Europhysics conference on flavor-mixing in weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Some comments are offered on the present knowledge of the mixing matrix of Kobayashi and Maskawa and of the dynamics of nonleptonic decay. Also, remarks are made concerning CP violation. Plans for research from 1984 to 1989 are listed briefly. The history of studies on weak interactions is briefly reviewed, and several unanswered questions are stated, such as where are the truth particles, how may they be discovered, what is the mass-generating mechanism for the gauge bosons, how many Z 0 's and W's are there, do neutrinos have mass, and how long do protons live

  20. Uniaxial negative thermal expansion facilitated by weak host-guest interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Emile R; Smith, Vincent J; Bezuidenhout, Charl X; Barbour, Leonard J

    2014-04-25

    A nitromethane solvate of 18-crown-6 was investigated by means of variable-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction in response to a report of abnormal unit cell contraction. Exceptionally large positive thermal expansion in two axial directions and negative thermal expansion along the third was confirmed. The underlying mechanism relies exclusively on weak electrostatic interactions to yield a linear thermal expansion coefficient of -129 × 10(-6) K(-1), the largest negative value yet observed for an organic inclusion compound.

  1. Theoretical investigation of the weak interaction between graphene and alcohol solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haining; Chen, Sian; Lu, Shanfu; Xiang, Yan

    2017-05-01

    The dispersion of graphene in five different alcohol solvents was investigated by evaluating the binding energy between graphene and alcohol molecules using DFT-D method. The calculation showed the most stable binding energy appeared at the distance of ∼3.5 Å between graphene and alcohol molecules and increased linearly as changing the alcohol from methanol to 1-pentanol. The weak interaction was further graphically illustrated using the reduced density gradient method. The theoretical study revealed alcohols with more carbon atoms could be a good starting point for screening suitable solvents for graphene dispersion.

  2. Resonant tunneling and persistent current of a non-interacting and weakly interacting one-dimensional electron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krive, I.V.; Sandstroem, P.

    1997-01-01

    The persistent current for a one-dimensional ring with two tunneling barriers is considered in the limit of weakly interacting electrons. In addition to small off-resonance current, there are two kinds of resonant behaviour; (i) a current independent of the barrier transparency (true resonance) and (ii) a current analogous to the one for a ring with only single barrier (''semi''-resonance). For a given barrier transparency the realization of this or that type of resonant behaviour depends both on the geometrical factor (the ratio of interbarrier distance to a ring circumference) and on the strength of electron-electron interaction. It is shown that repulsive interaction favours the ''semi''-resonance behaviour. For a small barrier transparency the ''semi''-resonance peaks are easily washed out by temperature whereas the true resonance peaks survive. (author). 22 refs, 2 figs

  3. Control of Chain Walking by Weak Neighbouring Group Interac-tions in Unsymmetric Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2017-12-20

    A combined theoretical and experimental study shows how weak attractive interactions of a neighbouring group can strongly promote chain walking and chain transfer. This accounts for the previously observed very different micro-structures obtained in ethylene polymerization by [κ2-N,O-{(2,6-(3\\',5\\'-R2C6H3)2C6H3-N=C(H)-(3,5-X,Y2-2-O-C6H2)}]NiCH3(pyridine)], namely hyperbranched oligomers for remote substituents R = CH3 versus. high molecular weight polyethylene for R = CF3. From a full mechanistic consideration the alkyl olefin complex with the growing chain cis to the salicylaldiminato oxygen donor is identified as the key species. Alternative to ethylene chain growth by insertion in this species, decoordination of the monomer to form a cis ß-agostic complex provides an entry into branching and chain transfer pathways. This release of monomer is promoted and made competitive by a weak η2-coordination of the distal aryl rings to the metal center, operative only for the case of sufficiently electron rich aryls. This concept for controlling chain walking is underlined by catalysts with other weakly coordinating furane and thio-phene motifs, which afford highly branched oligomers with > 120 branches per 1000 carbon atoms.

  4. Introduction to unified theories of weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions - SU(5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billoire, Alain; Morel, Andre.

    1980-11-01

    These notes correspond to a series of lectures given at Salay during winter 1979-1980. They are meant to be an introduction to the so-called grand unified theories of weak, electromagnetic and strong interactions. In a first part, we recall in a very elementary way the standard SU(2) model of electroweak interactions, putting the emphasis on the questions which are left open by this model and which unified theories help to answer. In part II, we explain in a systematic way how unified theories can be constructed, and develop the SU(5) model in great detail. Other models, like SO(10) and E 6 , are not presented, because SU(5) is the simplest one and has been subject to the deepest investigations up to now. Also it appears that most concepts and general results are not specific to any particular symmetry group [fr

  5. The CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particle Search (CROWS)

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Michael; Gasior, Marek; Thumm, Manfred

    The subject of this thesis is the design, implementation and first results of the ``CERN Resonant WISP Search'' (CROWS) experiment, which probes the existence of Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles (WISPs) using microwave techniques. Axion Like Particles and Hidden Sector Photons are two well motivated members of the WISP family. Their existence could reveal the composition of cold dark matter in the universe and explain a large number of astrophysical phenomena. Particularly, the discovery of an axion would solve a long standing issue in the standard model, known as the ``strong CP problem''. Despite their strong theoretical motivation, the hypothetical particles have not been observed in any experiment so far. One way to probe the existence of WISPs is to exploit their interaction with photons in a ``light shining through the wall'' experiment. A laser beam is guided through a strong magnetic field in the ``emitting region'' of the experiment. This provides photons, which can convert into hypothetical Axi...

  6. Some peculiarities of interactions of weakly bound lithium nuclei at near-barrier energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabyshev, A. M.; Kuterbekov, K. A.; Sobolev, Yu G.; Penionzhkevich, Yu E.; Kubenova, M. M.; Azhibekov, A. K.; Mukhambetzhan, A. M.; Lukyanov, S. M.; Maslov, V. A.; Kabdrakhimova, G. D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents new experimental data on the total cross sections of 9Li + 28Si reactions at low energies as well as the analysis of previously obtained data for 6,7Li. Based on a large collection of data (authors’ and literature data) we carried out a comparative analysis of the two main experimental interaction cross sections (angular distributions of the differential cross sections and total reaction cross sections) for weakly bound lithium (6-9Li, 11Li) nuclei in the framework of Kox parameterization and the macroscopic optical model. We identified specific features of these interactions and predicted the experimental trend in the total reaction cross sections for Li isotopes at energies close to the Coulomb barrier.

  7. Weak interaction effects in e+e- annihilation with polarised beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simard, R.

    1977-01-01

    Although the standard gauge model of weak and electromagnetic interactions based on the work of Salam and Weinberg has met with great success, there are experimental facts that will require its extension or its modification to a new gauge model; the discovery of a heavy lepton at SLAC and the absence of parity violation in atoms that is expected from the neutral weak current coupling to electrons are discussed. Three tests are proposed that bear on these questions. First, heavy lepton production in e + e - annihilation when one of the incident beams is longitudinally polarized is considered and the purely leptonic decay of this heavy lepton is examined. An asymmetry in the inclusive angular distribution of one charged lepton (electron or muon) is important in determining the structure of weak interactions of the heavy lepton. In fact, this angular asymmetry easily distinguishes between the cases V - A and V + A for the heavy lepton current. Then, the decay channel L → ν/sub L/ + one hadron is considered (L = heavy lepton) under the same experimental set-up and the inclusive one-hadron angular distribution examined. Parity nonconservation in the decay of the heavy lepton causes a conspicuous forward-backward asymmetry in the cos theta distribution of the inclusive hadron spectrum near the high energy end that can be distinguished easily from other sources of asymmetry. It is easy then to discover the chirality (V - A or V + A) of the heavy lepton current. Finally a test is proposed which provides unambigous and clear evidence for parity violation in e + e - annihilation. It consists in measuring a possible left-right asymmetry of inclusive hadron production with highly transversely polarized e + e - incident beams. If observed, this asymmetry provides evidence of a parity violating neutral current coupling to electrons

  8. Short versus long range interactions and the size of two-body weakly bound objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, R.J.; Volpe, C.

    2003-01-01

    Very weakly bound systems may manifest intriguing ''universal'' properties, independent of the specific interaction which keeps the system bound. An interesting example is given by relations between the size of the system and the separation energy, or scaling laws. So far, scaling laws have been investigated for short-range and long-range (repulsive) potentials. We report here on scaling laws for weakly bound two-body systems valid for a larger class of potentials, i.e. short-range potentials having a repulsive core and long-range attractive potentials. We emphasize analogies and differences between the short- and the long-range case. In particular, we show that the emergence of halos is a threshold phenomenon which can arise when the system is bound not only by short-range interactions but also by long-range ones, and this for any value of the orbital angular momentum l. These results enlarge the image of halo systems we are accustomed to. (orig.)

  9. Antiparallel Self-Association of a γ,α-Hybrid Peptide: More Relevance of Weak Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Paloth; Kishore, Raghuvansh

    2015-08-01

    To learn how a preorganized peptide-based molecular template, together with diverse weak non-covalent interactions, leads to an effective self-association, we investigated the conformational characteristics of a simple γ,α-hybrid model peptide, Boc-γ-Abz-Gly-OMe. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the existence of a fully extended β-strand-like structure stabilized by two non-conventional C-H⋅⋅⋅O=C intramolecular H-bonds. The 2D (1) H NMR ROESY experiment led us to propose that the flat topology of the urethane-γ-Abz-amide moiety is predominantly preserved in a non-polar environment. The self-association of the energetically more favorable antiparallel β-strand-mimic in solid-state engenders an unusual 'flight of stairs' fabricated through face-to-face and edge-to-edge Ar⋅⋅⋅Ar interactions. In conjunction with FT-IR spectroscopic analysis in chloroform, we highlight that conformationally semi-rigid γ-Abz foldamer in appositely designed peptides may encourage unusual β-strand or β-sheet-like self-association and supramolecular organization stabilized via weak attractive forces. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Weak hydrogen bonding interactions influence slip system activity and compaction behavior of pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind K

    2013-12-01

    Markedly different mechanical behavior of powders of polymorphs, cocrystals, hydrate/anhydrate pairs, or structurally similar molecules has been attributed to the presence of active slip planes system in their crystal structures. Presence of slip planes in the crystal lattice allows easier slip under the applied compaction pressure. This allows greater plastic deformation of the powder and results into increased interparticulate bonding area and greater tensile strength of the compacts. Thus, based on this crystallographic feature, tableting performance of the active pharmaceutical ingredients can be predicted. Recently, we encountered a case where larger numbers of CH···O type interactions across the proposed slip planes hinder the slip and thus resist plastic deformation of the powder under the applied compaction pressure. Hence, attention must be given to these types of interactions while identifying slip planes by visualization method. Generally, slip planes are visualized as flat layers often strengthened by a two-dimensional hydrogen-bonding network within the layers or planes. No hydrogen bonding should exist between these layers to consider them as slip planes. Moreover, one should also check the presence of CH···O type interactions across these planes. Mercury software provides an option for visualization of these weak hydrogen bonding interactions. Hence, caution must be exercised while selecting appropriate solid form based on this crystallographic feature. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  11. Conserving gapless mean-field theory for weakly interacting Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Takafumi

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a conserving gapless mean-field theory for weakly interacting Bose gases. We first construct a mean-field Luttinger-Ward thermodynamic functional in terms of the condensate wave function Ψ and the Nambu Green's function G for the quasiparticle field. Imposing its stationarity respect to Ψ and G yields a set of equations to determine the equilibrium for general non-uniform systems. They have a plausible property of satisfying the Hugenholtz-Pines theorem to provide a gapless excitation spectrum. Also, the corresponding dynamical equations of motion obey various conservation laws. Thus, the present mean-field theory shares two important properties with the exact theory: 'conserving' and 'gapless'. The theory is then applied to a homogeneous weakly interacting Bose gas with s-wave scattering length a and particle mass m to clarify its basic thermodynamic properties under two complementary conditions of constant density n and constant pressure p. The superfluid transition is predicted to be first-order because of the non-analytic nature of the order-parameter expansion near T c inherent in Bose systems, i.e., the Landau-Ginzburg expansion is not possible here. The transition temperature T c shows quite a different interaction dependence between the n-fixed and p-fixed cases. In the former case T c increases from the ideal gas value T 0 as T c /T 0 =1+2.33an 1/3 , whereas it decreases in the latter as T c /T 0 =1-3.84a(mp/2πℎ 2 ) 1/5 . Temperature dependences of basic thermodynamic quantities are clarified explicitly. (author)

  12. New approach to nonleptonic weak interactions. I. Derivation of asymptotic selection rules for the two-particle weak ground-state-hadron matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanuma, T.; Oneda, S.; Terasaki, K.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach to nonleptonic weak interactions is presented. It is argued that the presence and violation of the Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule as well as those of the quark-line selection rules can be explained in a unified way, along with other fundamental physical quantities [such as the value of g/sub A/(0) and the smallness of the isoscalar nucleon magnetic moments], in terms of a single dynamical asymptotic ansatz imposed at the level of observable hadrons. The ansatz prescribes a way in which asymptotic flavor SU(N) symmetry is secured levelwise for a certain class of chiral algebras in the standard QCD model. It yields severe asymptotic constraints upon the two-particle hadronic matrix elements of nonleptonic weak Hamiltonians as well as QCD currents and their charges. It produces for weak matrix elements the asymptotic Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule and its charm counterpart for the ground-state hadrons, while for strong matrix elements quark-line-like approximate selection rules. However, for the less important weak two-particle vertices involving higher excited states, the Vertical BarΔIVertical Bar = 1/2 rule and its charm counterpart are in general violated, providing us with an explicit source of the violation of these selection rules in physical processes

  13. The weak π − π interaction originated resonant tunneling and fast switching in the carbon based electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of the nonequilibrium Green's functions and the density functional theory, we have investigated the electronic transport properties of C60 based electronic device with different intermolecular interactions. It is found that the electronic transport properties vary with the types of the interaction between two C60 molecules. A fast electrical switching behavior based on negative differential resistance has been found when two molecules are coupled by the weak π − π interaction. Compared to the solid bonding, the weak interaction is found to induce resonant tunneling, which is responsible for the fast response to the applied electric field and hence the velocity of switching.

  14. 3D Modeling of Ultrasonic Wave Interaction with Disbonds and Weak Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, C.; Hinders, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic techniques, such as the use of guided waves, can be ideal for finding damage in the plate and pipe-like structures used in aerospace applications. However, the interaction of waves with real flaw types and geometries can lead to experimental signals that are difficult to interpret. 3-dimensional (3D) elastic wave simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding the complicated wave scattering involved in flaw detection and for optimizing experimental techniques. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate Lamb wave scattering from realistic flaws. This paper discusses simulation results for an aluminum-aluminum diffusion disbond and an aluminum-epoxy disbond and compares results from the disbond case to the common artificial flaw type of a flat-bottom hole. The paper also discusses the potential for extending the 3D EFIT equations to incorporate physics-based weak bond models for simulating wave scattering from weak adhesive bonds.

  15. Acceleration of criticality analysis solution convergence by matrix eigenvector for a system with weak neutron interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomura, Yasushi; Takada, Tomoyuki; Kuroishi, Takeshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kadotani, Hiroyuki [Shizuoka Sangyo Univ., Iwata, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the case of Monte Carlo calculation to obtain a neutron multiplication factor for a system of weak neutron interaction, there might be some problems concerning convergence of the solution. Concerning this difficulty in the computer code calculations, theoretical derivation was made from the general neutron transport equation and consideration was given for acceleration of solution convergence by using the matrix eigenvector in this report. Accordingly, matrix eigenvector calculation scheme was incorporated together with procedure to make acceleration of convergence into the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP. Furthermore, effectiveness of acceleration of solution convergence by matrix eigenvector was ascertained with the results obtained by applying to the two OECD/NEA criticality analysis benchmark problems. (author)

  16. Measurement of the weak nucleon-nucleon interaction by polarized cold neutron capture on protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcon R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The NPDGamma Experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is measuring the parity-odd correlation between the neutron spin and the direction of the emitted photon in the capture of polarized cold neutrons on protons. A parity violating asymmetry from this process is directly related to the strength of the hadronic weak interaction between nucleons. The experiment was run first with heavier nuclear targets to check systematic effects, false asymmetries, and backgrounds. Since early 2012 the experiment has been collecting data with a 16-liter liquid parahydrogen target. Data taking will continue through 2013 until statistics for a 10−8 asymmetry measurement are expected. The experiment performance will be discussed as well as the status of the asymmetry measurements.

  17. Phase transitions in ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases with a finite number of particles confined in a box

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jianhui; Ma Yongli

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the scheme to characterize phase transitions of finite systems in a complex temperature plane and approach the classifications of phase transitions in ideal and weakly interacting Bose gases of a finite number of particles, confined in a cubic box of volume L 3 with different boundary conditions. For this finite ideal Bose system, by extending the classification parameters to all regions, we predict that the phase transition for periodic boundary conditions is of second order, while the transition in Dirichlet boundary conditions is of first order. For a weakly interacting Bose gas with periodic boundary conditions, we discuss the effects of finite particle numbers and inter-particle interactions on the nature of the phase transitions. We show that this homogenous weakly interacting Bose gas undergoes a second-order phase transition, which is in accordance with universality arguments for infinite systems. We also discuss the dependence of transition temperature on interaction strengths and particle numbers.

  18. Electronic charge rearrangement at metal/organic interfaces induced by weak van der Waals interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Nicola; Ambrosetti, Alberto; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2017-07-01

    Electronic charge rearrangements at interfaces between organic molecules and solid surfaces play a key role in a wide range of applications in catalysis, light-emitting diodes, single-molecule junctions, molecular sensors and switches, and photovoltaics. It is common to utilize electrostatics and Pauli pushback to control the interface electronic properties, while the ubiquitous van der Waals (vdW) interactions are often considered to have a negligible direct contribution (beyond the obvious structural relaxation). Here, we apply a fully self-consistent Tkatchenko-Scheffler vdW density functional to demonstrate that the weak vdW interactions can induce sizable charge rearrangements at hybrid metal/organic systems (HMOS). The complex vdW correlation potential smears out the interfacial electronic density, thereby reducing the charge transfer in HMOS, changes the interface work functions by up to 0.2 eV, and increases the interface dipole moment by up to 0.3 Debye. Our results suggest that vdW interactions should be considered as an additional control parameter in the design of hybrid interfaces with the desired electronic properties.

  19. Gasdynamics of H II regions. V. The interaction of weak R ionization fronts with dense clouds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenorio-Tagle, G; Bedijn, P J

    1981-06-01

    The interaction of weak R-type ionization fronts with a density enhancement is calculated numerically as a function of time within the framework of the champagne model of the evolution of H II regions. Calculations are performed under the assumption of plane-parallel geometry for various relative densities of the cloud in which the exciting star is formed and a second cloud with which an ionization front from the first cloud interacts. The supersonic ionization front representing the outer boundary of an H II region experiencing the champagne phase is found to either evolve into a D-type front or remain of type R, depending on the absolute number of photons leaving the H II region that undergoes the champagne phase. Recombinations in the ionized gas eventually slow the ionization front, however photon fluxes allow it to speed up again, resulting in oscillatory propagation of the front. Front-cloud interactions are also shown to lead to the development of a backward-facing shock, a forward-facing shock, and a density maximum in the ionized gas. The results can be used to explain the origin of bright rims in H II regions.

  20. Measurement of the parity nonconserving neutral weak interaction in atomic thallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucksbaum, P.H.

    1980-11-01

    This thesis describes an experiment to measure parity nonconservation in atomic thallium. A frequency doubled, flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the 6P/sub 1/2/(F = 0) → 7P/sub 1/2/(F = 1) transition at 292.7 nm, with circularly polarized light. An electrostatic field E of 100 to 300 V/cm causes this transition to occur via Stark induced electric dipole. Two field free transitions may also occur: a highly forbidden magnetic dipole M, and a parity nonconserving electric dipole epsilon/sub P/. The latter is presumed to be due to the presence of a weak neutral current interaction between the 6p valence electron and the nucleus, as predicted by gauge theories which unite the electromagnetic and weak interactions. Both M and epsilon/sub P/ interfere with the Stark amplitude βE to produce a polarization of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state. This is measured with a circularly polarized infrared laser beam probe, tuned to the 7P/sub 1/2/ → 8S/sub 1/2/ transition. This selectively excites m/sub F/ = +1 or -1 components of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state, and the polarization is seen as an asymmetry in 8S → 6P/sub 3/2/ fluorescence when the probe helicity is reversed. The polarization due to M is Δ/sub M/ = -2M/(BETAE). It is used to calibrate the analyzing efficiency. The polarization due to epsilon/sub P/ is Δ/sub P/ = 2i epsilon/sub P//(βE), and can be distinguished from Δ/sub M/ by its properties under reversal of the 292.7 nm photon helicity and reversal of the laser direction. A preliminary measurement yielded a parity violation in agreement with the gauge theory of Weinberg and Salam

  1. Resonance reactions and enhancement of weak interactions in collisions of cold molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flambaum, V. V.; Ginges, J. S. M.

    2006-01-01

    With the creation of ultracold atoms and molecules, a new type of chemistry - 'resonance' chemistry - emerges: chemical reactions can occur when the energy of colliding atoms and molecules matches a bound state of the combined molecule (Feshbach resonance). This chemistry is rather similar to reactions that take place in nuclei at low energies. In this paper we suggest some problems for future experimental and theoretical work related to the resonance chemistry of ultracold molecules. Molecular Bose-Einstein condensates are particularly interesting because in this system collisions and chemical reactions are extremely sensitive to weak fields; also, a preferred reaction channel may be enhanced due to a finite number of final states. The sensitivity to weak fields arises due to the high density of narrow compound resonances and the macroscopic number of molecules with kinetic energy E=0 (in the ground state of a mean-field potential). The high sensitivity to the magnetic field may be used to measure the distribution of energy intervals, widths, and magnetic moments of compound resonances and study the onset of quantum chaos. A difference in the production rate of right-handed and left-handed chiral molecules may be produced by external electric E and magnetic B fields and the finite width Γ of the resonance (correlation ΓE·B). The same effect may be produced by the parity-violating energy difference in chiral molecules

  2. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics: Progress report, May 1, 1987-April 30, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carruthers, P.; Thews, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains progress information on the following topics in High Energy Physics: strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions; aspects of quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays, and structure; the dynamical generation of a mass gap and the role and truthfulness of perturbation theory; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production; and realization of chiral symmetry and temperature effects in supersymmetric theories

  3. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10-1 mbar methane or 10-5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10-5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water-gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~100 K. Similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.

  4. A quantitative analysis of weak intermolecular interactions & quantum chemical calculations (DFT) of novel chalcone derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Bhavin R., E-mail: chavdabhavin9@gmail.com; Dubey, Rahul P.; Patel, Urmila H. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat (India); Gandhi, Sahaj A. [Bhavan’s Shri I.L. Pandya Arts-Science and Smt. J.M. shah Commerce College, Dakar, Anand -388001, Gujarat, Indian (India); Barot, Vijay M. [P. G. Center in Chemistry, Smt. S. M. Panchal Science College, Talod, Gujarat 383 215 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The novel chalcone derivatives have widespread applications in material science and medicinal industries. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to optimized the molecular structure of the three chalcone derivatives (M-I, II, III). The observed discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental (X-ray data) results attributed to different environments of the molecules, the experimental values are of the molecule in solid state there by subjected to the intermolecular forces, like non-bonded hydrogen bond interactions, where as isolated state in gas phase for theoretical studies. The lattice energy of all the molecules have been calculated using PIXELC module in Coulomb –London –Pauli (CLP) package and is partitioned into corresponding coulombic, polarization, dispersion and repulsion contributions. Lattice energy data confirm and strengthen the finding of the X-ray results that the weak but significant intermolecular interactions like C-H…O, Π- Π and C-H… Π plays an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing.

  5. Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang [High Speed Aerodynamics Institute, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China); Luo, Xisheng, E-mail: xluo@ustc.edu.cn [Advanced Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF{sub 6} surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.

  6. One-dimensional Brownian motion of charged nanoparticles along microtubules: a model system for weak binding interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minoura, Itsushi; Katayama, Eisaku; Sekimoto, Ken; Muto, Etsuko

    2010-04-21

    Various proteins are known to exhibit one-dimensional Brownian motion along charged rodlike polymers, such as microtubules (MTs), actin, and DNA. The electrostatic interaction between the proteins and the rodlike polymers appears to be crucial for one-dimensional Brownian motion, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. We examined the interactions of positively-charged nanoparticles composed of polyacrylamide gels with MTs. These hydrophilic nanoparticles bound to MTs and displayed one-dimensional Brownian motion in a charge-dependent manner, which indicates that nonspecific electrostatic interaction is sufficient for one-dimensional Brownian motion. The diffusion coefficient decreased exponentially with an increasing particle charge (with the exponent being 0.10 kBT per charge), whereas the duration of the interaction increased exponentially (exponent of 0.22 kBT per charge). These results can be explained semiquantitatively if one assumes that a particle repeats a cycle of binding to and movement along an MT until it finally dissociates from the MT. During the movement, a particle is still electrostatically constrained in the potential valley surrounding the MT. This entire process can be described by a three-state model analogous to the Michaelis-Menten scheme, in which the two parameters of the equilibrium constant between binding and movement, and the rate of dissociation from the MT, are derived as a function of the particle charge density. This study highlights the possibility that the weak binding interactions between proteins and rodlike polymers, e.g., MTs, are mediated by a similar, nonspecific charge-dependent mechanism. Copyright 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Post hoc support vector machine learning for impedimetric biosensors based on weak protein-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Y; Padron, A V; Hagerty, K J; Nelson, N; Chi, S; Keyhani, N O; Katz, J; Datta, S P A; Gomes, C; McLamore, E S

    2018-04-30

    Impedimetric biosensors for measuring small molecules based on weak/transient interactions between bioreceptors and target analytes are a challenge for detection electronics, particularly in field studies or in the analysis of complex matrices. Protein-ligand binding sensors have enormous potential for biosensing, but achieving accuracy in complex solutions is a major challenge. There is a need for simple post hoc analytical tools that are not computationally expensive, yet provide near real time feedback on data derived from impedance spectra. Here, we show the use of a simple, open source support vector machine learning algorithm for analyzing impedimetric data in lieu of using equivalent circuit analysis. We demonstrate two different protein-based biosensors to show that the tool can be used for various applications. We conclude with a mobile phone-based demonstration focused on the measurement of acetone, an important biomarker related to the onset of diabetic ketoacidosis. In all conditions tested, the open source classifier was capable of performing as well as, or better, than the equivalent circuit analysis for characterizing weak/transient interactions between a model ligand (acetone) and a small chemosensory protein derived from the tsetse fly. In addition, the tool has a low computational requirement, facilitating use for mobile acquisition systems such as mobile phones. The protocol is deployed through Jupyter notebook (an open source computing environment available for mobile phone, tablet or computer use) and the code was written in Python. For each of the applications, we provide step-by-step instructions in English, Spanish, Mandarin and Portuguese to facilitate widespread use. All codes were based on scikit-learn, an open source software machine learning library in the Python language, and were processed in Jupyter notebook, an open-source web application for Python. The tool can easily be integrated with the mobile biosensor equipment for rapid

  8. Nuclear structure properties and stellar weak rates for 76Se: Unblocking of the Gamow Teller strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Ishfaq, Mavra; Böyükata, Mahmut; Riaz, Muhammad

    2017-10-01

    At finite temperatures (≥ 107K), 76Se is abundant in the core of massive stars and electron capture on 76Se has a consequential role to play in the dynamics of core-collapse. The present work may be classified into two main categories. In the first phase we study the nuclear structure properties of 76Se using the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1). The IBM-1 investigations include the energy levels, B (E 2) values and the prediction of the geometry. We performed the extended consistent-Q formalism (ECQF) calculation and later the triaxial formalism calculation (constructed by adding the cubic term to the ECQF). The geometry of 76Se can be envisioned within the formalism of the potential energy surface based on the classical limit of IBM-1 model. In the second phase, we reconfirm the unblocking of the Gamow-Teller (GT) strength in 76Se (a test case for nuclei having N > 40 and Z fashion. Results are compared with experimental data and previous calculations. The calculated GT distribution fulfills the Ikeda sum rule. Rates for β-delayed neutrons and emission probabilities are also calculated. Our study suggests that at high stellar temperatures and low densities, the β+-decay on 76Se should not be neglected and needs to be taken into consideration along with electron capture rates for simulation of presupernova evolution of massive stars.

  9. Correlation of the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) System with the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS): Introduction of the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Sean N.; Kallu, Raj R.; Barnard, Chase K.

    2016-11-01

    Underground gold mines in Nevada are exploiting increasingly deeper ore bodies comprised of weak to very weak rock masses. The Rock Mass Rating (RMR) classification system is widely used at underground gold mines in Nevada and is applicable in fair to good-quality rock masses, but is difficult to apply and loses reliability in very weak rock mass to soil-like material. Because very weak rock masses are transition materials that border engineering rock mass and soil classification systems, soil classification may sometimes be easier and more appropriate to provide insight into material behavior and properties. The Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) is the most likely choice for the classification of very weak rock mass to soil-like material because of its accepted use in tunnel engineering projects and its ability to predict soil-like material behavior underground. A correlation between the RMR and USCS systems was developed by comparing underground geotechnical RMR mapping to laboratory testing of bulk samples from the same locations, thereby assigning a numeric RMR value to the USCS classification that can be used in spreadsheet calculations and geostatistical analyses. The geotechnical classification system presented in this paper including a USCS-RMR correlation, RMR rating equations, and the Geo-Pick Strike Index is collectively introduced as the Weak Rock Mass Rating System (W-RMR). It is the authors' hope that this system will aid in the classification of weak rock masses and more usable design tools based on the RMR system. More broadly, the RMR-USCS correlation and the W-RMR system help define the transition between engineering soil and rock mass classification systems and may provide insight for geotechnical design in very weak rock masses.

  10. Optical response of a quantum dot-metal nanoparticle hybrid interacting with a weak probe field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosionis, Spyridon G; Terzis, Andreas F; Sadeghi, Seyed M; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2013-01-30

    We study optical effects in a hybrid system composed of a semiconductor quantum dot and a spherical metal nanoparticle that interacts with a weak probe electromagnetic field. We use modified nonlinear density matrix equations for the description of the optical properties of the system and obtain a closed-form expression for the linear susceptibilities of the quantum dot, the metal nanoparticle, and the total system. We then investigate the dependence of the susceptibility on the interparticle distance as well as on the material parameters of the hybrid system. We find that the susceptibility of the quantum dot exhibits optical transparency for specific frequencies. In addition, we show that there is a range of frequencies of the applied field for which the susceptibility of the semiconductor quantum dot leads to gain. This suggests that in such a hybrid system quantum coherence can reverse the course of energy transfer, allowing flow of energy from the metallic nanoparticle to the quantum dot. We also explore the susceptibility of the metal nanoparticle and show that it is strongly influenced by the presence of the quantum dot.

  11. Quasistatic remanence in Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction driven weak ferromagnets and piezomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanayak, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Arpan; Nigam, A. K.; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Bajpai, Ashna

    2017-09-01

    We explore remanent magnetization (μ ) as a function of time and temperature, in a variety of rhombohedral antiferromagnets (AFMs) which are also weak ferromagnets (WFMs) and piezomagnets (PzMs). These measurements, across samples with length scales ranging from nano to bulk, firmly establish the presence of a remanence that is quasistatic in nature and exhibits a counterintuitive magnetic field dependence. These observations unravel an ultraslow magnetization relaxation phenomenon related to this quasistatic remanence. This feature is also observed in a defect-free single crystal of α -Fe2O3 , which is a canonical WFM and PzM. Notably, α -Fe2O3 is not a typical geometrically frustrated AFM, and in single crystal form it is also devoid of any size or interface effects, which are the usual suspects for a slow magnetization relaxation phenomenon. The underlying pinning mechanism appears exclusive to those AFMs which either are symmetry allowed WFMs, driven by Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, or can generate this trait by tuning of size and interface. The qualitative features of the quasistatic remanence indicate that such WFMs are potential piezomagnets, in which magnetization can be tuned by stress alone.

  12. Improved Limits on Scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles from Reanalysis of 2013 LUX Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present constraints on weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP)-nucleus scattering from the 2013 data of the Large Underground Xenon dark matter experiment, including 1.4 ×104 kg day of search exposure. This new analysis incorporates several advances: single-photon calibration at the scintillation wavelength, improved event-reconstruction algorithms, a revised background model including events originating on the detector walls in an enlarged fiducial volume, and new calibrations from decays of an injected tritium β source and from kinematically constrained nuclear recoils down to 1.1 keV. Sensitivity, especially to low-mass WIMPs, is enhanced compared to our previous results which modeled the signal only above a 3 keV minimum energy. Under standard dark matter halo assumptions and in the mass range above 4 GeV c-2 , these new results give the most stringent direct limits on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section. The 90% C.L. upper limit has a minimum of 0.6 zb at 33 GeV c-2 WIMP mass.

  13. Introduction to gauge theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, C.

    1980-07-01

    The plan of these notes is as follows. Chapter 1 is devoted to a brief evocative review of current beliefs and prejudices that form the context for the discussion to follow. The idea of Gauge Invariance is introduced in Chapter 2, and the connection between conservation laws and symmetries of the Lagrangian is recalled. Non-Abelian gauge field theories are constructed in Chapter 3, by analogy with the familiar case of electromagnetism. The Yang-Mills theory based upon isospin symmetry is constructed explicitly, and the generalization is made to other gauge groups. Chapter 4 is concerned with spontaneous symmetry breaking and the phenomena that occur in the presence or absence of local gauge symmetries. The existence of massless scalar fields (Goldstone particles) and their metamorphosis by means of the Higgs mechanism are illustrated by simple examples. The Weinberg-Salam model is presented in Chapter 5, and a brief resume of applications to experiment is given. Quantum Chromodynamics, the gauge theory of colored quarks and gluons, is developed in Chapter 6. Asymptotic freedom is derived schematically, and a few simple applications of perturbative QCD ae exhibited. Details of the conjectured confinement mechanism are omitted. The strategy of grand unified theories of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions is laid out in Chapter 7. Some properties and consequences of the minimal unifying group SU(5) are presented, and the gauge hierarchy problem is introduced in passing. The final chapter contains an essay on the current outlook: aspirations, unanswered questions, and bold scenarios

  14. Renormalization of the weakly-interacting spin chains in a field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sznajd, J.

    2002-01-01

    In quasi-one-dimensional magnets made of spin chains with the intrachain coupling J, the much weaker interchain coupling J>> J may trigger the low temperature phase transition. However, in high temperature the one-dimensional character of such systems is responsible for observed phenomena. For example the maxima of the susceptibility in some compounds can be connected rather with their low dimensionality than indicates a phase transition. In some of the quasi-1D magnets such as (C 6 H 11 NH 3 )CuBr 3 or KEr(Mo0 4 ) 2 the existence of the long range magnetic order in low temperature is good established, however, in others for example Yb 4 As 3 [1] or UX 3 (X = S, Se,Te) it is still an open question. So, it seems to be important to have a method which allows to control the influence of the weak interchain interaction on the thermodynamic behavior of quasi-one-dimensional systems especially in the presence of external magnetic field. 2J it is

  15. Neutron star equilibrium configurations within a fully relativistic theory with strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belvedere, Riccardo; Pugliese, Daniela; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Xue, She-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    We formulate the equations of equilibrium of neutron stars taking into account strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational interactions within the framework of general relativity. The nuclear interactions are described by the exchange of the σ, ω, and ρ virtual mesons. The equilibrium conditions are given by our recently developed theoretical framework based on the Einstein–Maxwell–Thomas–Fermi equations along with the constancy of the general relativistic Fermi energies of particles, the “Klein potentials”, throughout the configuration. The equations are solved numerically in the case of zero temperatures and for selected parameterizations of the nuclear models. The solutions lead to a new structure of the star: a positively charged core at supranuclear densities surrounded by an electronic distribution of thickness ∼ℏ/(m e c)∼10 2 ℏ/(m π c) of opposite charge, as well as a neutral crust at lower densities. Inside the core there is a Coulomb potential well of depth ∼m π c 2 /e. The constancy of the Klein potentials in the transition from the core to the crust, imposes the presence of an overcritical electric field ∼(m π /m e ) 2 E c , the critical field being E c =m e 2 c 3 /(eℏ). The electron chemical potential and the density decrease, in the boundary interface, until values μ e crust e core and ρ crust core . For each central density, an entire family of core–crust interface boundaries and, correspondingly, an entire family of crusts with different mass and thickness, exist. The configuration with ρ crust =ρ drip ∼4.3×10 11 gcm −3 separates neutron stars with and without inner crust. We present here the novel neutron star mass–radius for the especial case ρ crust =ρ drip and compare and contrast it with the one obtained from the traditional Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff treatment.

  16. Weak and saturable protein-surfactant interactions in the denaturation of apo-alpha-lactalbumin by acidic and lactonic sophorolipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kell K Andersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are of growing interest as sustainable alternatives to fossil-fuel-derived chemical surfactants, particularly for the detergent industry. To realize this potential, it is necessary to understand how they affect proteins which they may encounter in their applications. However knowledge of such interactions is limited. Here we present a study of the interactions between the model protein apo-alpha-lactalbumin and the biosurfactant sophorolipid (SL produced by the yeast Starmerella bombicola. SL occurs both as an acidic and a lactonic form; the lactonic form (lactSL is sparingly soluble and has a lower critical micelle concentration than the acidic form (acidSL. We show that acidSL affects apo-aLA in a similar way to the related glycolipid biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL, with the important difference that RL is also active below the cmc in contrast to acidSL. Using isothermal titration calorimetry data, we show that acidSL has weak and saturable interactions with apo-aLA at low concentrations; due to the relatively low cmc of acidSL (which means that the monomer concentration is limited to ca. 0-1 mM SL, it is only possible to observe interactions with monomeric acidSL at high apo-aLA concentrations. However, the denaturation kinetics of apo-aLA in the presence of acidSL are consistent with a collaboration between monomeric and micellar surfactant species, similar to RL and nonionic or zwitterionic surfactants. Inclusion of lactSL as mixed micelles with acidSL lowers the cmc and this effectively reduces the rate of unfolding, emphasizing that SL like other biosurfactants is a gentle anionic surfactant. Our data highlight the potential of these biosurfactants for future use in the detergent industry.

  17. Can one really observe signatures of the weak interaction with multi-TeV colliding hadron rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-01-01

    We discuss two possible signatures of weak interactions in multi-TeV hadron-hadron collisions: (i) production of the weak boson W/sup plus-or-minus/ and its neutral partner Z; (ii) observation of secondaries with transverse momentum so large that they cannot be electromagnetic or strong in origin. After summarizing theoretical prejudices on the properties of weak bosons and their production mechanism, we calculate their actual experimental signature, i.e., the momentum distributions of their decay lepton, as well as the competing backgrounds. Contrary to popular belief, we conclude that the weak-boson signature is not expected to be pronounced and backgrounds could be severe (especially the production of direct photons). Our calculation reinforces the case for antiproton-proton storage rings

  18. Adaptation of the TH Epsilon Mu formalism for the analysis of the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak and electroweak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennelly, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The TH epsilon mu formalism, used in analyzing equivalence principle experiments of metric and nonmetric gravity theories, is adapted to the description of the electroweak interaction using the Weinberg-Salam unified SU(2) x U(1) model. The use of the TH epsilon mu formalism is thereby extended to the weak interactions, showing how the gravitational field affects W sub mu (+ or -1) and Z sub mu (0) boson propagation and the rates of interactions mediated by them. The possibility of a similar extension to the strong interactions via SU(5) grand unified theories is briefly discussed. Also, using the effects of the potentials on the baryon and lepton wave functions, the effects of gravity on transition mediated in high-A atoms which are electromagnetically forbidden. Three possible experiments to test the equivalence principle in the presence of the weak interactions, which are technologically feasible, are then briefly outline: (1) K-capture by the FE nucleus (counting the emitted X-ray); (2) forbidden absorption transitions in high-A atoms' vapor; and (3) counting the relative Beta-decay rates in a suitable alpha-beta decay chain, assuming the strong interactions obey the equivalence principle.

  19. Theory of weak interactions and related topics. Progress report, January 1, 1982-February 28, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshak, R.E.

    1985-08-01

    Progress is reported in these areas: B-L vs V-A gauge groups; work on neutron oscillations; preon models of quarks and leptons; partial unification theory (PUT); extensions of standard electroweak group; composite weak bosons; quasi-solitons in electroweak gauge groups; and weak CP nonconservation. 18 refs

  20. P-odd effects observed in the reactions with neutrons and isospin structure of weak nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smotritskij, L.M.

    2001-01-01

    Application of resonance phase for two quasi-stationary states with similar spin and unlike parity is shown to enable to coordinate the experimentally observed signed dependence of P-odd effects in neutron reactions with the theory. The developed approach enables to obtain information on isospin structure of a weak nucleon-nucleon interaction [ru

  1. Landau-Zener tunneling in the presence of weak intermolecular interactions in a crystal of Mn4 single-molecule magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernsdorfer, W.; Bhaduri, S.; Vinslava, A.; Christou, G.

    2005-12-01

    A Mn4 single-molecule magnet (SMM), with a well-isolated spin ground state of S=9/2 , is used as a model system to study Landau-Zener (LZ) tunneling in the presence of weak intermolecular dipolar and exchange interactions. The anisotropy constants D and B are measured with minor hysteresis loops. A transverse field is used to tune the tunnel splitting over a large range. Using the LZ and inverse LZ method, it is shown that these interactions play an important role in the tunnel rates. Three regions are identified: (i) at small transverse fields, tunneling is dominated by single tunnel transitions, (ii) at intermediate transverse fields, the measured tunnel rates are governed by reshuffling of internal fields, and (iii) at larger transverse fields, the magnetization reversal starts to be influenced by the direct relaxation process, and many-body tunnel events may occur. The hole digging method is used to study the next-nearest-neighbor interactions. At small external fields, it is shown that magnetic ordering occurs which does not quench tunneling. An applied transverse field can increase the ordering rate. Spin-spin cross-relaxations, mediated by dipolar and weak exchange interactions, are proposed to explain additional quantum steps.

  2. Effect of realistic astrophysical inputs on the phase and shape of the weakly interacting massive particles annual modulation signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Anne M.

    2003-01-01

    The orbit of the Earth about the Sun produces an annual modulation in the weakly interacting massive particles (WIMP) direct detection rate. If the local WIMP velocity distribution is isotropic then the modulation is roughly sinusoidal with maximum in June; however, if the velocity distribution is anisotropic the phase and shape of the signal can change. Motivated by conflicting claims about the effect of uncertainties in the local velocity distribution on the interpretation of the DAMA annual modulation signal (and the possibility that the form of the modulation could be used to probe the structure of the Milky Way halo), we study the dependence of the annual modulation on various astrophysical inputs. We first examine the approximations used for the Earth's motion about the Sun and the Sun's velocity with respect to the Galactic rest frame. We find that overly simplistic assumptions lead to errors of up to ten days in the phase and up to tens of percent in the shape of the signal, even if the velocity distribution is isotropic. Crucially, if the components of the Earth's velocity perpendicular to the motion of the Sun are neglected, then the change in the phase which occurs for anisotropic velocity distributions is missed. We then examine how the annual modulation signal varies for physically and observationally well-motivated velocity distributions. We find that the phase of the signal changes by up to 20 days and the mean value and amplitude change by up to tens of percent

  3. Predictions of baryon form factors for the electromagnetic and weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehlmann, H.D.

    1978-05-01

    The electromagnetic and weak form factors of the baryon matrix elements (with B the nucleon or the Λ(1232)-resonance) are determined via sumrules by the experimentally known form factors of the nucleon matrix element for momentum transfers 0 2 2 . The operator Jμ denotes either the electromagnetic current or the weak hypercharge-conserving current of the I. class. The sumrules are derived from the superconvergence of properly chosen reaction amplitudes. The results allow an absolute determination of the cross sections of a series of peripheral reactions. An important and interesting consequence for the considered matrix elements of the weak current is that the properties of CVC of PCAC follow from the sumrules without additional assumptions. Finally the predictions of relativistic SU(6)-models are checked. One gets surprisingly a good confirmation of the essential results of these models, the reliability of which has almost been unknown on account of a series of speculative assumptions. (orig.) [de

  4. Forster resonance energy transfer rate in any dielectric nanophotonic medium with weak dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn; Vos, Willem L.

    2016-01-01

    frequency dependent in nanophotonic media. Therefore, the position-dependent FRET rate and the LDOS at the donor transition frequency are completely uncorrelated for any nondispersive medium. Secondly, we derive an exact expression for the FRET rate as a frequency integral of the imaginary part of the Green...

  5. Impact of Weak Agostic Interactions in Nickel Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Christina M. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; O’Hagan, Molly [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Bullock, R. Morris [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Appel, Aaron M. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Wiedner, Eric S. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States

    2017-06-08

    To understand how H2 binding and oxidation is influenced by [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ PR2NR'2 catalysts with H2 binding energies close to thermoneutral, two [Ni(PPh2NR'2)2]2+ (R = Me or C14H29) complexes with phenyl substituents on phosphorous and varying alkyl chain lengths on the pendant amine were studied. In the solid state, [Ni(PPh2NMe2)2]2+ exhibits an anagostic interaction between the Ni(II) center and the α-CH3 of the pendant amine, and DFT and variable-temperature 31P NMR experiments suggest than the anagostic interaction persists in solution. The equilibrium constants for H2 addition to these complexes was measured by 31P NMR spectroscopy, affording free energies of H2 addition (ΔG°H2) of –0.8 kcal mol–1 in benzonitrile and –1.6 to –2.3 kcal mol–1 in THF. The anagostic interaction contributes to the low driving force for H2 binding by stabilizing the four-coordinate Ni(II) species prior to binding of H2. The pseudo-first order rate constants for H2 addition at 1 atm were measured by variable scan rate cyclic voltammetry, and were found to be similar for both complexes, less than 0.2 s–1 in benzonitrile and 3 –6 s–1 in THF. In the presence of exogenous base and H2 , turnover frequencies of electrocatalytic H2 oxidation were measured to be less than 0.2 s–1 in benzonitrile and 4 –9 s–1 in THF. These complexes are slower electrocatalysts for H2 oxidation than previously studied [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ complexes due to a competition between H2 binding and formation of the anagostic interaction. However, the decrease in catalytic rate is accompanied by a beneficial 130 mV decrease in overpotential. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence

  6. Polarization as a tool for studying the physics of weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, J.

    1983-01-01

    Realistic possibilities exist now to obtain high-energy polarized proton beams with high luminosity and to measure the polarization of a stored beam. This will be our motivation to discuss parity violating weak effects in inclusive hadron and jet production with polarized beams. There are also interesting predictions for helicity asymmetries in W +- and Z production in pp and pantip collisions

  7. Polarization as a tool for studying the physics of weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soffer, J.

    1983-01-01

    Realistic possibilities exist now to obtain high-energy polarized proton beams with high luminosity and to measure the polarization of a stored beam. This will be our motivation to discuss parity violating weak effects in inclusive hadron and jet production with polarized beams. There are also interesting predictions for helicity asymmetries in Wsup(+-) and Z production in pp and panti p collisions. (orig.)

  8. Scientific method, analyzed by means of examples from weak interaction physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietschmann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Following K. POPPER, the logic of science is briefly reviewed. The decay of the long lived K meson into muon pairs is considered and limits for its branching ratio are computed. It is used - together with the discovery of weak neutral currents - to demonstrate the logic of scientific discovery on special examples. (Auth.)

  9. The weak interactions from 1950 to 1960: a quantitative bibliometric study of the formation of a field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.

    1989-01-01

    A collaborative group of scientists and sociologists report on a bibliometric study of the literature on weak interactions between 1950 and 1960. The dominant problems of the period are discussed and the history of key events such as the discovery of parity violation in 1956 is examined. They also track the development of this area as a separate field of study in particle physics following the study of beta and muon decay, and the discovery of pions, kaons and hyper ions from cosmic rays. The study notes the surprising result that large numbers of scientists focused on a surprisingly small number of topics, such as kaon decay, the tau-theta puzzle and mixed states of the neutral kaon in 1956. In 1957, the topic was parity non-conservation. In 1959 it was V-A theory, the general theory of weak interactions. These discoveries obviously depended on advances in particle accelerators which occurred in this decade. (UK)

  10. Triangular arbitrage as an interaction among foreign exchange rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Yukihiro; Hatano, Naomichi; Takayasu, Hideki; Marumo, Kouhei; Shimizu, Tokiko

    2002-07-01

    We first show that there are in fact triangular arbitrage opportunities in the spot foreign exchange markets, analyzing the time dependence of the yen-dollar rate, the dollar-euro rate and the yen-euro rate. Next, we propose a model of foreign exchange rates with an interaction. The model includes effects of triangular arbitrage transactions as an interaction among three rates. The model explains the actual data of the multiple foreign exchange rates well.

  11. Mass matrices of weak interaction, quark flavour mixing and exponential form of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dattoli, G.; Torre, A.

    1995-01-01

    The quark mixing matrix is diagonalized. The use of the exponential parametrization leads to straightforward results, obtained in exact form, without simplifying assumptions. In this study, it is defined weak interaction eigenstates in the sense of Fritzch and Planckl. The relevant mass matrices are derived and are shown to belong to Barnhill canonical forms. It is proven that, at lowest order, these matrices exhibit a democratic structure. The mechanism of democracy breaking is finally discussed

  12. Weak C–H⋅⋅⋅F–C interactions in carboxylate anion binding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    F interactions can manifest even in the presence of a large number of heteroatom interactions. Keywords. ... cations: (i) about 20–25% of drugs in pharma- ceuticals contain at ...... Innovative Food, Health Products and Agriculture. (PERFECTA) ...

  13. [Theory of elementary particles studies in weak interaction and grand unification and studies in accelerator design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses research in high energy physics on the following topics: rare b decays; flavor changing top decays;neutrino physics; standard model; cp violation; heavy ion collisions; electron-positron interactions; electron-hadron interactions; hadron-hadron interactions; deep inelastic scattering; and grand unified models

  14. Semileptonic weak and electromagnetic interactions in nuclei: recoil polarization in muon capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfelder, R.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the polarization of the recoiling nucleus following the capture of polarized muons by nuclei is performed. New general expressions for arbitrary nuclear spin are obtained in terms of the same reduced matrix elements which govern inelastic electron scattering and β-decay. As an application the A = 12 system is considered and uncertainties in the nuclear structure are studied by using different sets of one-body density matrices. With the canonical values of the weak form factors (i.e. absence of second-class currents) a fairly good agreement with the experimental data is achieved including the inelastic form factor at high momentum transfers and the recently measured average 12 B polarization. Implications of the new corrected value of the average polarization on weak form factors and nuclear structure are discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Effect of the resistive wall on the growth rate of weakly unstable external kink mode in general 3D configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, M.S.; Ichiguchi, K.

    2005-05-01

    Formation of a method for the systematic computation of the growth rate of the weakly unstable RWM in 3D configurations by using results from ideal stability codes is presented. It is shown that the growth rate of the RWM is approximately given by the rate at which the available free energy for the ideal external kink mode can be dissipated by the resistive wall. The eigenfunction is also approximated by that of the external kink mode. This formulation is demonstrated by coupling to the ideal MHD code KSTEP with computation of the dissipation on the resistive wall. Results of the stability of the RWM in LHD plasmas and discussion on the validity and improvement to the computation are also included. (author)

  16. The effect of weak resonances on the sup 25 Mg(p,gamma) sup 26 Al reaction rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champagne, A E [Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Dept. of Physics; Howard, A J [Trinity Coll., Hartford, CT (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Smith, M S; Magnus, P V; Parker, P D [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (USA). Wright Nuclear Structure Lab.

    1989-12-11

    The {sup 25}Mg({sup 3}He,d){sup 26}Al reaction has been used to estimate proton spectroscopic factors for states which could be weak {sup 25}Mg+p resonances located near the proton-capture threshold. One of these states (corresponding to a resonance energy E{sub c.m.}=92.2 keV) is found to have a significant effect on the {sup 25}Mg(p,gamma){sup 26}Al reaction rate for temperatures characteristic of Wolf-Rayet stars or late-stage red giants. (orig.).

  17. Second sound in a two-dimensional Bose gas: From the weakly to the strongly interacting regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Miki; Stringari, Sandro

    2018-03-01

    Using Landau's theory of two-fluid hydrodynamics, we investigate first and second sounds propagating in a two-dimensional (2D) Bose gas. We study the temperature and interaction dependence of both sound modes and show that their behavior exhibits a deep qualitative change as the gas evolves from the weakly interacting to the strongly interacting regime. Special emphasis is placed on the jump of both sounds at the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless transition, caused by the discontinuity of the superfluid density. We find that the excitation of second sound through a density perturbation becomes weaker and weaker as the interaction strength increases as a consequence of the decrease in the thermal expansion coefficient. Our results could be relevant for future experiments on the propagation of sound on the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) side of the BCS-BEC crossover of a 2D superfluid Fermi gas.

  18. Phase of the annual modulation as a tool for determining the mass of the weakly interacting massive particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Matthew J.; Freese, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The count rate of weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) dark matter candidates in direct detection experiments experiences an annual modulation due to the Earth's motion around the Sun. In the standard isothermal halo model, the signal peaks near June 2nd at high recoil energies; however, the signal experiences a phase reversal and peaks in December at low energy recoils. We show that this phase reversal may be used to determine the WIMP mass. If an annual modulation were observed with the usual phase (i.e., peaking on June 2nd) in the lowest accessible energy recoil bins of the DAMA, CDMS-II, CRESST-II, EDELWEISS-II, GENIUS-TF, ZEPLIN-II, XENON, or ZEPLIN-IV detectors, one could immediately place upper bounds on the WIMP mass of 103, 48, 6, 97, 10, 52, 29, and 29 GeV, respectively. In addition, detectors with adequate energy resolution and sufficiently low recoil energy thresholds may determine the crossover recoil energy at which the phase reverses, thereby obtaining an independent measurement of the WIMP mass. We study the capabilities of various detectors, and find that CRESST-II, ZEPLIN-II, and GENIUS-TF should be able to observe the phase reversal in a few years of runtime, and can thus determine the mass of the WIMP if it is O(100 GeV). Xenon based detectors with 1000 kg (XENON and ZEPLIN-IV) and with energy recoil thresholds of a few keV require 25 kg yr exposure, which will be readily attained in upcoming experiments

  19. Neutral currents and electromagnetic renormalization of the vector part of neutrino weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folomeshkin, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    The nature and properties of neutral currents in neutrino processes at high energies are theoretically investigated. Electronagmetic renormalization of diagonal ((νsub(e)e(νsub(e)e) and (νsub(μ)μ)(νsub(μ)μ)) and nondiagonal ((νsub(e)μ)(νsub(e)μ)) interactions is discussed in terms of the universal fourfermion interaction model. It is shown that electromagnetic renormalization of neutrino vector interaction caused an effective appearance of vector neutral currents with photon isotopic structure. The value for the interaction constant is unambigously defined by the ratio of the total cross-section for electron-positron annihilation into muonic pairs. Interaction (renormalization) constants for neutral currents are pointed out to be always smaller than interaction constants for charge currents

  20. GLOBAL STAR FORMATION RATES AND DUST EMISSION OVER THE GALAXY INTERACTION SEQUENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Brassington, Nicola [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); Da Cunha, Elisabete [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy (MPIA), Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut fuer Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118, Heidelberg (Germany); Jonsson, Patrik, E-mail: llanz@head.cfa.harvard.edu [Space Exploration Technologies, 1 Rocket Road, Hawthorne, CA 90250 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions (SEDs) in 28 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared (FIR) for 31 interacting galaxies in 14 systems. The sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey, which probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters at multiple wavelengths with an emphasis on the infrared bands. The subset presented in this paper consists of all galaxies for which FIR Herschel SPIRE observations are publicly available. Our SEDs combine the Herschel photometry with multi-wavelength data from Spitzer, GALEX, Swift UVOT, and 2MASS. While the shapes of the SEDs are broadly similar across our sample, strongly interacting galaxies typically have more mid-infrared emission relative to their near-infrared and FIR emission than weakly or moderately interacting galaxies. We modeled the full SEDs to derive host galaxy star formation rates (SFRs), specific star formation rates (sSFRs), stellar masses, dust temperatures, dust luminosities, and dust masses. We find increases in the dust luminosity and mass, SFR, and cold (15-25 K) dust temperature as the interaction progresses from moderately to strongly interacting and between non-interacting and strongly interacting galaxies. We also find increases in the SFR between weakly and strongly interacting galaxies. In contrast, the sSFR remains unchanged across all the interaction stages. The ultraviolet photometry is crucial for constraining the age of the stellar population and the SFR, while dust mass is primarily determined by SPIRE photometry. The SFR derived from the SED modeling agrees well with rates estimated by proportionality relations that depend on infrared emission.

  1. Asymptotics of the bound state induced by delta-interaction supported on a weakly deformed plane

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Exner, Pavel; Kondej, S.; Lotoreichik, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2018), č. článku 013501. ISSN 0022-2488 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Schrodinger operator * interactions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics ( physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.077, year: 2016

  2. Eight supramolecular assemblies constructed from bis(benzimidazole) and organic acids through strong classical hydrogen bonding and weak noncovalent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2014-05-01

    Eight crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from alkane bridged bis(N-benzimidazole) and organic acids (2,4,6-trinitrophenol, p-nitrobenzoic acid, m-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid and oxalic acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the eight compounds five are organic salts (1, 4, 6, 7 and 8) and the other three (2, 3, and 5) are cocrystals. In all of the adducts except 1 and 8, the ratio of the acid and the base is 2:1. All eight supramolecular assemblies involve extensive intermolecular classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical N+-H⋯O-, O-H⋯O, and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) and other nonbonding associations between acids and ditopic benzimidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of cocrystals or organic salts.

  3. Study of interaction of electromagnetic waves with thin rotating cylindrical shell of conductor in vicinity of weakly gravitating string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muminov, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: As it shown in the work [1,2], interaction of electromagnetic wave with rotating cylindrical shell of conductor leads to an interesting phenomenon of energy transmission from rotating body to the wave. We study influence of the gravitational field of the string on the process of interaction of electromagnetic waves with infinitesimally thin conducting cylindrical shell. Since in the outer space and inside the shell electromagnetic field satisfies source free Maxwell equations we start with constructing the most general solutions of this equation. Then we match the fields on the cylinder with account of boundary conditions on it. Matching the fields gives expressions for reflection factors of cylindrical waves for two cases of polarization. The reflection factors for distinct wave polarizations show the ratio of outgoing energy flux to in going one. Curved cylindrical symmetric space-time with weakly gravitating string-like source is described by static metric: δs 2 = f(r)δt 2 - h(r)(δz 2 + δr 2 ) - l(r)δψ 2 ; f(r) = r ε ; h(r) = r -ε ; l(r) = r 2 /f(r). Which corresponds to low line density of mass ε on the string. The metric is particular case of Lewis metric [3,4] with zero angular momentum of the string and its weak gravity. The boundary value problem for electromagnetic waves interaction with thin conducting rotating cylindrical shell in static cylindrical metric with weakly gravitating string has been solved analytically. It is found that character of dependence of the factors on Ω at ω R<<1 and ΩR<<1 approximation remains the same as in flat space-time ε =0. Analysis of expressions for the reflection factors in frames of considered approximation has been done

  4. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  5. Detailed spectra of high power broadband microwave radiation from interactions of relativistic electron beams with weakly magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.G.; Benford, G.; Tzach, D.

    1983-01-01

    Prodigious quantities of microwave energy are observed uniformly across a wide frequency band when a relativistic electron beam (REB) penetrates a plasma. Measurement calculations are illustrated. A model of Compton-like boosting of ambient plasma waves by beam electrons, with collateral emission of high frequency photons, qualitatively explain the spectra. A transition in spectral behavior is observed from the weak to strong turbulence theories advocated for Type III solar burst radiation, and further into the regime the authors characterize as super-strong REB-plasma interactions

  6. A Search for weakly interacting dark matter particles with low temperature detectors capable of simultaneously measuring ionization and heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenschein, Andrew Harry [UC, Santa Barbara

    1999-01-01

    Lots of gravitating material that doesn't emit or absorb light seems to be required in all sensible accounts of the dynamics of large-scale structures in the universe. The nature and extent of this mysterious "dark matter" has been one of the central puzzles in cosmology over the last decade. This dissertation describes an experiment that tests one possibility, that the dark matter is in the form of undiscovered Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) produced as a thermal relic of the big bang. In this chapter, we will review the most important observations that suggest the dark matter must exist and discuss the forms it could take.

  7. Drastic fall-off of the thermal conductivity for disordered lattices in the limit of weak anharmonic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huveneers, François

    2013-01-01

    We study the thermal conductivity, at fixed positive temperature, of a disordered lattice of harmonic oscillators, weakly coupled to each other through anharmonic potentials. The interaction is controlled by a small parameter ϵ > 0. We rigorously show, in two slightly different setups, that the conductivity has a non-perturbative origin. This means that it decays to zero faster than any polynomial in ϵ as ϵ → 0. It is then argued that this result extends to a disordered chain studied by Dhar and Lebowitz (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 134301), and to a classic spin chain recently investigated by Oganesyan, Pal and Huse (2009 Phys. Rev. B 80 115104). (paper)

  8. Lower alert rates by clustering of related drug interaction alerts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, M.; Siderius, Hidde; Schreudering, A.; De Smet, Peter Agm; Bouvy, M.L.

    OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate to what extent clustering of related drug interaction alerts (drug-drug and drug-disease interaction alerts) would decrease the alert rate in clinical decision support systems (CDSSs). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of drug interaction alerts

  9. Analysis of the interaction of a weak normal shock wave with a turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, R. E.; Grossman, B.

    1974-01-01

    The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to analyze the interaction of a normal shock wave with an unseparated turbulent boundary layer on a flat surface at transonic speeds. The theory leads to a three-layer description of the interaction in the double limit of Reynolds number approaching infinity and Mach number approaching unity. The interaction involves an outer, inviscid rotational layer, a constant shear-stress wall layer, and a blending region between them. The pressure distribution is obtained from a numerical solution of the outer-layer equations by a mixed-flow relaxation procedure. An analytic solution for the skin friction is determined from the inner-layer equations. The significance of the mathematical model is discussed with reference to existing experimental data.

  10. Superconducting correlations in the one-band Hubbard model with intermediate on-site and weak attractive intersite interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, K.P.; Ramakumar, R.; Chancey, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a simple extended Hubbard model with an intermediate on-site interaction (both repulsive and attractive) and a weak intersite attractive interaction. Following Hubbard decoupling approximations and introducing Hubbard subband operators, we obtain a generalized gap function for singlet s-wave pairing that explicitly depends on the Hubbard subband energies. For the on-site repulsive-interaction case, we find that the superconductivity is not destroyed in the intermediate-interaction regime, contrary to the prediction of a Hartree-Fock mean-field treatment. The essential consequence of the on-site repulsion is the formation of the Hubbard subbands separated by the Mott-Hubbard gap, and it is within these subbands that pairing induced by the intersite interaction occurs. For the attractive on-site interaction case, the on-site pairing amplitude is found to be proportional to the bandwidth, and the gap function has contributions from both on-site and intersite pairing. The relevance of the model to high-temperature superconductivity is discussed

  11. Reconstructing weak values without weak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars M.

    2007-01-01

    I propose a scheme for reconstructing the weak value of an observable without the need for weak measurements. The post-selection in weak measurements is replaced by an initial projector measurement. The observable can be measured using any form of interaction, including projective measurements. The reconstruction is effected by measuring the change in the expectation value of the observable due to the projector measurement. The weak value may take nonclassical values if the projector measurement disturbs the expectation value of the observable

  12. Robust Weak Chimeras in Oscillator Networks with Delayed Linear and Quadratic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Christian; Sebek, Michael; Kiss, István Z.

    2017-10-01

    We present an approach to generate chimera dynamics (localized frequency synchrony) in oscillator networks with two populations of (at least) two elements using a general method based on a delayed interaction with linear and quadratic terms. The coupling design yields robust chimeras through a phase-model-based design of the delay and the ratio of linear and quadratic components of the interactions. We demonstrate the method in the Brusselator model and experiments with electrochemical oscillators. The technique opens the way to directly bridge chimera dynamics in phase models and real-world oscillator networks.

  13. Characterization of a novel weak interaction between MUC1 and Src-SH3 using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunasekara, Nirosha [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, 5B4.21 WCM Health Science Centre, 8440-112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2R7 (Canada); Sykes, Brian, E-mail: brian.sykes@ualberta.ca [Department of Biochemistry, 4-19B Medical Sciences Bldg., University of Alberta Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2H7 (Canada); Hugh, Judith, E-mail: judithh@ualberta.ca [Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta, 5B4.21 WCM Health Science Centre, 8440-112th Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2R7 (Canada)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MUC1 binds the Src-SH3 domain potentially triggering Src dependent cell migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NMR Spectroscopy was used to monitor MUC1-CD and Src SH3 domain titrations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MUC1-CD peptides bind with a low affinity (K{sub d} of 2-3 mM) to a non-canonical site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Weak interactions may mediate dynamic processes like migration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The MUC1-CD and Src-SH3 interaction may be a prime target to inhibit cell migration. -- Abstract: Breast cancer causes death through cancer cell migration and subsequent metastasis to distant organs. In vitro, the MUC1 mucin can mediate breast cancer cell migration by binding to intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This migration is dependent on MUC1 cytoplasmic domain (MUC1-CD) activation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Src, possibly through competitive displacement of an inhibitory Src intramolecular SH3 binding. Therefore, we characterized the binding site and affinity of the MUC1-CD for Src-SH3 using multidimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to monitor the titration of the {sup 15}N labeled Src-SH3 domain with synthetic native and mutant peptides of MUC1-CD. The results revealed that the dissociation constant (K{sub d}) for the interaction of the native MUC1-CD peptides and Src-SH3 domain was weak with a K{sub d} of 2-3 mM. Notably, the SH3 residues most perturbed upon peptide binding were located outside the usual hydrophobic binding cleft in a previously described alternate binding site on the Src-SH3, suggesting that MUC1-CD binds to a non-canonical site. The binding characteristics outlined here suggest that the interaction between Src-SH3 and MUC1-CD represents a novel weak electrostatic interaction of the type which is increasingly recognized as important in transient and dynamic protein complexes required for cell migration and signal transduction. As such, this

  14. Weak toxin WTX from Naja kaouthia cobra venom interacts with both nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mordvintsev, D.Y.; Polyak, Y.L.; Rodionov, D.I.; Jakubík, Jan; Doležal, Vladimír; Karlsson, E.; Tsetlin, V.I.; Utkin, Y.N.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 276, č. 18 (2009), s. 5065-5075 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110703 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : acetylcholine receptors * allosteric interaction * toxins Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 3.042, year: 2009

  15. Aspects of the flipped unification of strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.; Hagelin, J.S.; Kelley, S.; Nanopoulos, D.V.

    1988-12-19

    We explore phenomenological aspects of a recently proposed flipped SU(5) x U(1) supersymmetric GUT which incorporates an economical and natural mechanism for splitting Higgs doublets and triplets, and can be derived from string theory. Using experimental values of sin/sup 2/theta/sub W/ and the strong QCD coupling, we estimate the grand unification scale M/sub G/, where the strong and weak coupling strengths are equal, and the superunification scale M/sub SU/, where all couplings are equal. We find typical values of M/sub G/ approx. = 10/sup 15/ to 10/sup 17/ GeV, with M/sub SU/ somewhat higher and close to the value suggested by string models. We discuss different mechanisms for baryon decay, finding that the dominant one is gauge-boson exchange giving rise to p -> e/sup +/ /sup 0/, anti /sup +/ and n -> e/sup +/ /sup -/, anti /sup 0/ with partial lifetimes approx. = 10/sup 35+-2/ y. We show that a large GUT symmetry-breaking scale M/sub G/ is naturally generated by radiative corrections to the effective potential if a small amount approx. = m/sub W/ of soft supersymmetry breaking is generated dynamically at a large scale. We analyze the low-energy effective theory obtained using the renormalization group equations, demonstrating that electroweak symmetry breaking is obtained if m/sub t/ approx. = 60 to 90 GeV. We analyze the spectrum of sparticles, with particular attention to neutralinos.

  16. Theory of weak interactions and related topics. Progress report, January 1-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshak, R.E.

    1985-08-01

    The research program demonstrated that the acceptance of B-L local symmetry as the weak hypercharge, whose spontaneous breakdown was connected to the spontaneous breakdown of parity, predicted a light electron neutrino (Majorana) and a related heavy neutrino. The prediction of neutron oscillations following from the PUT group SU(4)/sub C/ x SU(2)/sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/ was scrutinized. A relation was derived between the mixing time for free neutron oscillations and the lifetime for nuclear stability with respect to ΔB = 2 transitions, and a study was conducted of the effect of time-varying or spatial-varying magnetic fields on the mixing time of neutron oscillations. Reasons are given for continuing work with the left-right symmetry (LRS) and partial unification theory (PUT) groups to their grand unification realization. It was shown that, without assuming a simple GUT group, that the color group has to be SU(3) and that the only possible GUT groups are SU(5) and SU(10). The gauge boson mass relation was derived for arbitrary Higgs structure associated either with the standard SU(2)/sub L/ x U(1) electroweak group or the LRS group. Also examined was the Pati-Salam type of grand unification. 31 refs

  17. Weak interactions and cooperativity effects on disiloxane: a look at the building block of silicones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Carlos; Montero-Campillo, M. Merced; Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José

    2018-06-01

    The behaviour of disiloxane 1 towards a set of Lewis acids (LA) and Lewis bases (LB) forming complexes through its oxygen and silicon atoms, respectively, was studied at the MP2/aug‧-cc-pVTZ level of theory, exploring a wide variety of non-covalent interactions. Disiloxane is a moderate electron acceptor and a good electron donor, exhibiting in the latter case binding energies up to almost -100 kJ/mol with BeCl2. Cooperativity effects were also analysed by looking at ternary 1:LA:LB complexes. Shorter intermolecular distances than in the corresponding binary complexes and a negative contribution of the three-body term to the binding energy indicate that the non-covalent interactions allowed by disiloxane through its acid and basic centres cooperate between them to reinforce both donor-acceptor pairs. These effects are particularly strong in complexes involving beryllium and triel bonds, but are also relevant for complexes containing hydrogen bonds.

  18. Evaluating interaction energies of weakly bonded systems using the Buckingham-Hirshfeld method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishtal, A.; Van Alsenoy, C.; Geerlings, P.

    2014-05-01

    We present the finalized Buckingham-Hirshfeld method (BHD-DFT) for the evaluation of interaction energies of non-bonded dimers with Density Functional Theory (DFT). In the method, dispersion energies are evaluated from static multipole polarizabilities, obtained on-the-fly from Coupled Perturbed Kohn-Sham calculations and partitioned into diatomic contributions using the iterative Hirshfeld partitioning method. The dispersion energy expression is distributed over four atoms and has therefore a higher delocalized character compared to the standard pairwise expressions. Additionally, full multipolar polarizability tensors are used as opposed to effective polarizabilities, allowing to retain the anisotropic character at no additional computational cost. A density dependent damping function for the BLYP, PBE, BP86, B3LYP, and PBE0 functionals has been implemented, containing two global parameters which were fitted to interaction energies and geometries of a selected number of dimers using a bi-variate RMS fit. The method is benchmarked against the S22 and S66 data sets for equilibrium geometries and the S22x5 and S66x8 data sets for interaction energies around the equilibrium geometry. Best results are achieved using the B3LYP functional with mean average deviation values of 0.30 and 0.24 kcal/mol for the S22 and S66 data sets, respectively. This situates the BHD-DFT method among the best performing dispersion inclusive DFT methods. Effect of counterpoise correction on DFT energies is discussed.

  19. Steep Hard-X-ray Spectra Indicate Extremely High Accretion Rates in Weak Emission-Line Quasars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlar, Andrea; Shemmer, Ohad; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. Niel; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Luo, Bin; Plotkin, Richard; Richards, Gordon T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wu, Jianfeng

    2018-06-01

    We present XMM-Newton imaging spectroscopy of ten weak emission-line quasars (WLQs) at 0.928 ≤ z ≤ 3.767, six of which are radio quiet and four which are radio intermediate. The new X-ray data enabled us to measure the hard-X-ray power-law photon index (Γ) in each source with relatively high accuracy. These measurements allowed us to confirm previous reports that WLQs have steeper X-ray spectra, therefore indicating higher accretion rates with respect to "typical" quasars. A comparison between the Γ values of our radio-quiet WLQs and those of a carefully-selected, uniform sample of 84 quasars shows that the first are significantly higher, at the ≥ 3σ level. Collectively, the four radio-intermediate WLQs have lower Γ values with respect to the six radio-quiet WLQs, as may be expected if the spectra of the first group are contaminated by X-ray emission from a jet. These results suggest that, in the absence of significant jet emission along our line of sight, WLQs constitute the extreme high end of the accretion rate distribution in quasars. We detect soft excess emission in our lowest-redshift radio-quiet WLQ, in agreement with previous findings suggesting that the prominence of this feature is associated with a high accretion rate. We have not detected signatures of Compton reflection, Fe Kα lines, or strong variability between two X-ray epochs in any of our WLQs.

  20. The RNA core weakly influences the interactions of the bacteriophage MS2 at key environmental interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh H.; Easter, Nickolas; Gutierrez, Leonardo; Huyett, Lauren; Defnet, Emily; Mylon, Steven E.; Ferri, James K.; Viet, Nguyen Ai

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the RNA core on interfacial interactions of the bacteriophage MS2 was investigated. After removal of the RNA core, empty intact capsids were characterized and compared to untreated MS2. Electron density of untreated MS2 and RNA-free MS2 were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based small angle spectroscopy (SAXS). Suspensions of both particles exhibited similar electrophoretic mobility across a range of pH values. Similar effects were observed at pH 5.9 across a range of NaCl or CaCl2 concentrations. We compared key interfacial interactions (particle-particle and particle/air-water interface) between suspensions of each type of particle using time resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS) to observe and quantify aggregation kinetics and axisymmetric drop shape analysis to measure adsorption at the air-water interface. Both suspensions showed insignificant aggregation over 4 h in 600 mM NaCl solutions. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, aggregation of both types of particles was consistent with earlier aggregation studies and was characterized by both reaction-limited and diffusion-limited regimes occurring at similar [Ca2+]. However, the removal of the RNA from MS2 had no apparent effect on the aggregation kinetics of particles. Despite some differences in the kinetics of adsorption to the air-water interface, the changes in surface tension which result from particle adsorption showed no difference between the untreated MS2 and RNA-free MS2. The interactions and structure of particles at the air-water interface were further probed using interfacial dilational rheology. The surface elasticity (E s) and surface viscosity (ηs) at the interface were low for both the untreated virus and the RNA-free capsid. This observation suggests that the factors that impact the adsorption kinetics are not important for an equilibrated interface. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Weak aurophilic interactions in a series of Au(III) double salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshev, Alexander N; Chernysheva, Maria V; Hirva, Pipsa; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu; Haukka, Matti

    2015-08-28

    In this work, several new examples of rare Au(III)Au(III) aurophilic contacts are reported. A series of gold(iii) double salts and complexes, viz. [AuX2(L)][AuX4] (L = 2,2'-bipyridyl, X = Cl , Br ; L = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, X = Cl , Br ; L = 2,2'-dipyridylamine, X = Cl , Br ), [AuX3(biq)] (biq = 2,2'-biquinoline, X = Cl , Br ), [LH][AuX4] (L = 2,2'-bipyridyl, X = Cl ; L = 2,2'-bipyrimidine, X = Cl ; L = 2,2'-dipyridylamine, X = Cl , Br ; L = 2,2'-biquinoline, X = Cl , Br ), [AuBr2(bpy)]2[AuBr4][AuBr2] , [AuCl2(bpm)][AuCl2] , (bpmH)2[AuBr4][AuBr2] , and (dpaH)[AuBr2] (, , and were reported earlier) was synthesized by coordination of a particular ligand to the Au(III) center and subsequent reduction of the formed product with acetone. Inspection of the X-ray structural data for , , and indicates that the Au(III) metal centers approach each other closer than the sum of their van der Waals radii, thus forming the aurophilic contacts, which were confirmed by topological charge density analysis according to the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). In , , and , such contacts are located only between the metal centers of the ion pair, whereas in , the aurophilic interactions form the cation-anion-anion array, and in , the aurophilicity exists between the gold atoms of the cations. It was also demonstrated that the interatomic distance alone is not a reliable measure of the aurophilic interactions, at least at the weakest limit of the interaction strength, and it needs to be complemented with structural analysis of the whole molecule and computational results.

  2. An analytical description of the low temperature behaviour of a weakly interacting Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guozhen; Chen Lixuan; Chen Jincan

    2004-01-01

    An analytical description of the low temperature behaviour of a trapped interacting Bose gas is presented by using a simple approach that is based on the principle of the constancy of chemical potentials in equilibrium and the local-density approximation. Several thermodynamic quantities, which include the ground-state fraction, chemical potential, total energy, entropy and heat capacity, are derived analytically. It is shown that the results obtained here are in excellent agreement with the experimental data and the theoretical predictions based on the numerical calculation. Meanwhile, by selecting a suitable variable, the divergent problem existing in some papers is solved

  3. Gravity as a dynamical consequence of the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1981-12-01

    A coherent and reasonable account of gravitational physics is shown to be possible. The three non-gravitational interactions are described by a scale and conformal invariant and asymptotically free Yang-Mills theory with massless fermions. Conformal invariance is required so that the gravitational sector of the theory is given by the Weyl action. The theory is renormalizable and has a unitary S-matrix. Possible breakdown of causality is observable only at the Planck length. In this theory, Einstein's theory of gravity is induced as an effective long-distance theory. An R 2 term is also induced with a finite and physically desired sign

  4. Effects of Weak Intermolecular Interactions on the Molecular Isomerism of Tricobalt Metal Chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulsen, R.; Overgaard, J.; Schulman, A.; Stergaard, C.; Murillo, C.; Spackman, M.; Iversen, B.

    2009-01-01

    Depending on the number of interstitial solvent molecules, n, crystals of the linear chain compound Co3(dipyridylamide)4Cl2·nCH2Cl2 adopt either symmetrical or unsymmetrical metal chain structures. We explore here the possible reasons for such behavior using Hirshfeld surface analysis of intermolecular interactions as well as the charge density determined from 100(1) K X-ray diffraction data on the unsymmetrical complex Co3(dipyridylamide)4Cl2·2.11CH2Cl2, u-1, and crystal structures of u-1 determined from single crystal synchrotron X-ray diffraction data at 20, 150, and 300 K. The new crystal structures are compared with previous structural results on a crystal with slightly different solvent content. This change in solvent content only affects the bond distances to atom Co(3), which are also strongly affected by temperature changes due to a spin crossover transition. Large differences in intermolecular interactions are revealed by the Hirshfeld surface analysis between symmetrical (s-1) and unsymmetrical (u-1) crystal solvates, suggesting that the molecular isomerism is strongly influenced by crystal packing effects. Topological analysis of the static electron density of u-1 suggests that there is direct metal-metal bonding for both the shorter Co(1)-Co(2) and the longer Co(2)-Co(3) contact. The approximate description of the system as a (Co2)2+-dimer and an isolated Co2+-ion is reflected in the character of the metal-ligand interactions, which are more ionic for the isolated Co(3) atom, and the topological charges Co(1)+0.50, Co(2)+0.77, and Co(3)+1.36. The two termini of u-1 are found to be very different, both in terms of structural surroundings as well as topology. The central Co(2) atom is similar to a cobalt atom in a tetragonally distorted octahedral environment resulting in preferred occupancy in the t2g orbitals. The Co(1) atom has significant deformation in the xz and yz planes (z along the chain axis, x and y toward ligands) reflecting covalent

  5. TAMU-TRAP facility - program for the study of fundamental weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidling, P.D.; Mehlman, M.; Melconian, Dan; Fenker, Ben; Behling, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Primary goal of the TAMU-TRAP facility is to test the Standard Model (SM) for a possible admixture of a scalar (S) or tensor (T) type of interaction in T = 2 superallowed β-delayed proton emitters. This information will be inferred from the shape of the proton energy spectrum. The main component of the facility are an RFQ cooler/buncher for cooling and bunching the ions, a Penning trap system with two cylindrical Penning traps. Additional goals for this system are mass measurements, lifetime measurements, and ft-values. A brief overview of the TAMU-TRAP set-up and T-REX upgrade facility will be presented. (author)

  6. Effects impeding the observation of weak neutral interaction between muons and nuclei in light mesic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grechukhin, D.P.; Soldatov, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The intensity of the satellite lines of the 2s1/2→1s1/2 radiative transition in a mesic atom due to configurational interaction between the meson and shell electrons of the mesic atom is estimated. The intensity of these satellite lines is shown to be about six orders of magnitude greater than the intensity of the emission in the 2s1/2→1s1/2 meson transition. Configurational interaction between the meson and conductivity band electrons in metals precludes the usage of a metal target for stopping the mesons in the experiment. Estimates show that for mesic atoms produced in a gas the Stark effect of the electric dipole field induced in collisions between atoms of the medium and a mesic atom (Z>=2) stripped of electrons significantly restricts the density of the medium from above such that the density is 14 at/cm 3 ; in the case of the Stark effect of the intra-atomic field and collisions between a μH atom and atoms of the medium the corresponding value is 11 at/cm 3

  7. Weak interaction corrections to hadronic top quark pair production; Korrekturen der schwachen Wechselwirkung zur hadronischen Topquark-Paarproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuecker, M.

    2007-05-15

    This thesis presents the calculation of the Standard Model weak-interaction corrections of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} to hadronic top-quark pair production. The one-loop weak corrections to top antitop production due to gluon fusion and uark antiquark annihilation are computed. Also the order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} corrections to top antitop production due to quark gluon and antiquark gluon scattering in the Standard Model are calculated. In this complete weak-corrections of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} to gg, q anti q, gq, and g anti q induced hadronic t anti t production the top and antitop polarizations and spin-correlations are fully taken into account. For the Tevatron and the LHC the weak contributions to the cross section, to the transverse top-momentum (p{sub T}) distributions, and to the top antitop invariant mass (M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}) distributions are analyzed. At the LHC the corrections to the distributions can be of the order of -10 percent compared with the leading-order results, for p{sub T}>1500 GeV and M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>3000 GeV, respectively. At the Tevatron the corrections are -4 percent for p{sub T}>600 GeV and M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV. This thesis also considers parity-even top antitop spin correlations of the form d{sigma}(++)+d{sigma}(--)-d{sigma}(+-)-d{sigma}(-+), where the first and second argument denotes the top and antitop spin projection onto a given reference axis. This spin asymmetries are computed as a function of M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}. At the LHC the weak corrections are of order of -10 percent for M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV for all analyzed reference axes. At the Tevatron the corrections are in the range of 5 percent at threshold and -5 percent for M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV. Apart from parity-even spin asymmetries also the Standard Model predictions for parity violating effects in topquark pair production are calculated. This thesis analyzes parity

  8. Weak interaction between germanene and GaAs(0001) by H intercalation: A route to exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-11-13

    Epitaxial germanene on a semiconducting GaAs(0001) substrate is studied by ab initio calculations. The germanene-substrate interaction is found to be strong for direct contact but can be substantially reduced by H intercalation at the interface. Our results indicate that it is energetically possible to take the germanene off the GaAs(0001) substrate. While mounted on the substrate, the electronic structure shows a distinct Dirac cone shift above the Fermi energy with a splitting of 175 meV. On the other hand, we find for a free standing sheet a band gap of 24 meV, which is due to the intrinsic spin orbit coupling.

  9. Weak interaction between germanene and GaAs(0001) by H intercalation: A route to exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Epitaxial germanene on a semiconducting GaAs(0001) substrate is studied by ab initio calculations. The germanene-substrate interaction is found to be strong for direct contact but can be substantially reduced by H intercalation at the interface. Our results indicate that it is energetically possible to take the germanene off the GaAs(0001) substrate. While mounted on the substrate, the electronic structure shows a distinct Dirac cone shift above the Fermi energy with a splitting of 175 meV. On the other hand, we find for a free standing sheet a band gap of 24 meV, which is due to the intrinsic spin orbit coupling.

  10. Exchange Enhancement of the Electron-Phonon Interaction: The Case of Weakly Doped Two-Dimensional Multivalley Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamuk, Betül; Zoccante, Paolo; Baima, Jacopo; Mauri, Francesco; Calandra, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    The effect of the exchange interaction on the vibrational properties and on the electron-phonon coupling were investigated in several recent works. In most of the cases, exchange tends to enhance the electron-phonon interaction, although the motivations for such behaviour are not completely understood. Here we consider the class of weakly doped two-dimensional multivalley semiconductors and we demonstrate that a more global picture emerges. In particular we show that in these systems, at low enough doping, even a moderate electron-electron interaction enhances the response to any perturbation inducing a valley polarization. If the valley polarization is due to the electron-phonon coupling, the electron-electron interaction results in an enhancement of the superconducting critical temperature. We demonstrate the applicability of the theory by performing random phase approximation and first principles calculations in transition metal chloronitrides. We find that exchange is responsible for the enhancement of the superconducting critical temperature in LixZrNCl and that much larger Tcs could be obtained in intercalated HfNCl if the synthesis of cleaner samples could remove the Anderson insulating state competing with superconductivity.

  11. The contour deformation method in momentum space and effective interactions for weakly bound nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Gaute

    2005-01-01

    the study of loosely bound and unbound nuclei along the drip lines. The main ingredient in the Gamow Shell Model is the construction of a complete set of many-body Slater determinants built up from a single-particle Berggren basis. It has been shown in this work that a viable starting point in Gamow Shell Model studies is to obtain a single-particle basis by the Contour Deformation Method in momentum space. The results displayed in Paper 2 indicate rapid convergence for many-body resonances using a single-particle basis in momentum space. The challenge for present and future Gamow Shell Model calculations is how to deal with the extreme growth of the number of Slater determinants in the many-body expansion basis. This topic was the main issue of the second part of the thesis. The basic idea was to modify standard effective interaction theory and many-body perturbation theory, so that that their range of applicability encompass the complex interactions and matrices which follow from the generalization of the standard Shell Model to the complex energy plane. Further, the extreme dimension of the Shell Model Hamiltonian matrix requires development of large-scale matrix diagonalization routines which can handle both real and complex matrices. In this thesis it was shown how the Lanczos iteration method may be generalized to complex energy matrices. It was further shown, that by choosing a reasonable initial Lanczos vector for the Oth order multi-particle resonance; the multi- particle resonance may be unambiguously picked out from the set of states obtained from diagonalization at each iteration, by identifying the state which has the largest overlap with the Oth order Lanczos vector. Another important result was the generalization of the Lee-Suzuki similarity transformation to include complex interactions. The emphasis was on the derivation of effective interactions for loosely bound or unbound nuclei which have a strong coupling with the continuum. We demonstrated by a

  12. Study of a device for measuring the weak effect in neutron-proton interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostachy, J.Y.

    1981-09-01

    This work is part of a prospective study of a (np) radiative capture experiment searching for parity violating effects in the nucleon system. In order to detect the expected γ forward-backward asymmetry (10 -7 - 10 -8 ), several experimental features have been investigated: light collection and performances of phototubes for high light output, liquid hydrogen target and behaviour of polarized neutrons (capture, rate, depolarizing effect,..), pertinent null tests and beam depolarization in the target. Simulations have been done by Monte Carlo codes [fr

  13. Not an Oxymoron: Some X-ray Binary Pulsars with Enormous Spinup Rates Reveal Weak Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Laycock, S. G. T.; Kazanas, D.

    2018-05-01

    Three high-mass X-ray binaries have been discovered recently exhibiting enormous spinup rates. Conventional accretion theory predicts extremely high surface dipolar magnetic fields that we believe are unphysical. Instead, we propose quite the opposite scenario: some of these pulsars exhibit weak magnetic fields, so much so that their magnetospheres are crushed by the weight of inflowing matter. The enormous spinup rate is achieved before inflowing matter reaches the pulsar's surface as the penetrating inner disk transfers its excess angular momentum to the receding magnetosphere which, in turn, applies a powerful spinup torque to the pulsar. This mechanism also works in reverse: it spins a pulsar down when the magnetosphere expands beyond corotation and finds itself rotating faster than the accretion disk which then exerts a powerful retarding torque to the magnetic field and to the pulsar itself. The above scenaria cannot be accommodated within the context of neutron-star accretion processes occurring near spin equilibrium, thus they constitute a step toward a new theory of extreme (far from equilibrium) accretion phenomena.

  14. Discrete-to-continuum modelling of weakly interacting incommensurate two-dimensional lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Español, Malena I; Golovaty, Dmitry; Wilber, J Patrick

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we derive a continuum variational model for a two-dimensional deformable lattice of atoms interacting with a two-dimensional rigid lattice. The starting point is a discrete atomistic model for the two lattices which are assumed to have slightly different lattice parameters and, possibly, a small relative rotation. This is a prototypical example of a three-dimensional system consisting of a graphene sheet suspended over a substrate. We use a discrete-to-continuum procedure to obtain the continuum model which recovers both qualitatively and quantitatively the behaviour observed in the corresponding discrete model. The continuum model predicts that the deformable lattice develops a network of domain walls characterized by large shearing, stretching and bending deformation that accommodates the misalignment and/or mismatch between the deformable and rigid lattices. Two integer-valued parameters, which can be identified with the components of a Burgers vector, describe the mismatch between the lattices and determine the geometry and the details of the deformation associated with the domain walls.

  15. Effects of nuclear structure in the spin-dependent scattering of weakly interacting massive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, M. A.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.

    1993-06-01

    We present calculations of the nuclear from factors for spin-dependent elastic scattering of dark matter WIMPs from123Te and131Xe isotopes, proposed to be used for dark matter detection. A method based on the theory of finite Fermi systems was used to describe the reduction of the single-particle spin-dependent matrix elements in the nuclear medium. Nucleon single-particle states were calculated in a realistic shell model potential; pairing effects were treated within the BCS model. The coupling of the lowest single-particle levels in123Te to collective 2+ excitations of the core was taken into account phenomenologically. The calculated nuclear form factors are considerably less then the single-particle ones for low momentum transfer. At high momentum transfer some dynamical amplification takes place due to the pion exchange term in the effective nuclear interaction. But as the momentum transfer increases, the difference disappears, the momentum transfer increases and the quenching effect disappears. The shape of the nuclear form factor for the131Xe isotope differs from the one obtained using an oscillator basis.

  16. Effects of nuclear structure in the spin-dependent scattering of weakly interacting massive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, M.A.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.

    1993-01-01

    We present calculations of the nuclear from factors for spin-dependent elastic scattering of dark matter WIMPs from 123 Te and 131 Xe isotopes, proposed to be used for dark matter detection. A method based on the theory of finite Fermi systems was used to describe the reduction of the single-particle spin-dependent matrix elements in the nuclear medium. Nucelon single-particle states were calculated in a realistic shell model potential; pairing effects were treated within the BCS model. The coupling of the lowest single-particle levels in 123 Te to collective 2 + excitations of the core was taken into account phenomenologically. The calculated nuclear form factors are considerably less then the single-particle ones for low momentum transfer. At high momentum transfer some dynamical amplification takes place due to the pion exchange term in the effective nuclear interaction. But as the momentum transfer increases, the difference disappears, the momentum transfer increases and quenching effect disappears. The shape of the nuclear form factor for the 131 Xe isotope differs from the one obtained using an oscillator basis. (orig.)

  17. A Search for Weakly Interacting Particles with the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruch, Tobias [Univ. of Zurich (Switzerland)

    2010-01-01

    Dark matter particles cannot only be detected directly in laboratories, but also indirectly by their annihilation products. Previous predictions of the neutrino flux from WIMP annihilation in the Earth and the Sun have assumed that galactic dark matter is distributed according to the SHM. Although the dark disc has a local density comparable to the dark halo, its higher phase space density at low velocities greatly enhances capture rates in the Sun and Earth. For typical dark disc properties, the resulting muon flux from the Earth is increased by three orders of magnitude over the SHM, while for the Sun the increase is one order of magnitude. This significantly increases the prospects of neutrino telescopes to fix or constrain parameters in WIMP models. The flux from the Earth is extremely sensitive to the detailed properties of the dark disc, while the flux from the Sun is more robust.

  18. Predicting rates of interspecific interaction from phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuismer, Scott L; Harmon, Luke J

    2015-01-01

    Integrating phylogenetic information can potentially improve our ability to explain species' traits, patterns of community assembly, the network structure of communities, and ecosystem function. In this study, we use mathematical models to explore the ecological and evolutionary factors that modulate the explanatory power of phylogenetic information for communities of species that interact within a single trophic level. We find that phylogenetic relationships among species can influence trait evolution and rates of interaction among species, but only under particular models of species interaction. For example, when interactions within communities are mediated by a mechanism of phenotype matching, phylogenetic trees make specific predictions about trait evolution and rates of interaction. In contrast, if interactions within a community depend on a mechanism of phenotype differences, phylogenetic information has little, if any, predictive power for trait evolution and interaction rate. Together, these results make clear and testable predictions for when and how evolutionary history is expected to influence contemporary rates of species interaction. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  19. Model analysis of molecular conformations in terms of weak interactions between non bonded atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, E.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to establish a reliable basis for the evaluation of stable conformations and rotational barriers for molecules, with possible applications to systems of biological interest. It is proceeded in two steps: first, the effect of chemical environment on orbitals of a given atom is studied for diatomic units, adopting a valence-bond approach and considering, as prototypes, the two simplest series of diatomic molecules with one valence electron each, i.e. the alkali diatomics and the alkali hydrides. In the model, the orbital of the hydrogen atom by a simple (''1S'') gaussian function, the valence orbital of an alkali atom by a function (r 2 -a 2 ) times a simple gaussian (''2S'' gaussian). Dissociation energies D e and equilibrium distances R e are calculated using a scanning procedure. Agreement with experiment is quantitative for the alkali diatomics. For alkali hydrides, good agreement is obtained only if validity of a rule β e R e =constant, for the two atoms separately, is postulated; β e is the characteristic parameter of a ''1S'' gaussian (hydrogen) or a ''2S'' gaussian (alkali atom) function. In a second step, the authors assume validity of the same rule in conformational analysis for any single bonded A-B molecule with A=C, O, N, P, Si, Ge and B=H, or a halogen atom. Gauge β e values for H, F and C are obtained by fitting experimental rotational barriers in C 2 H 6 , C 2 F 6 and C 3 H 8 . Stable conformation of, and barriers to rotation in, ethane-like rotors are determined, applying first-order exchange perturbation theory, in terms of two- and many-center exchange interactions in cluster of non-bonded atoms. Some 60 molecules are analyzed. Agreement with experiments is strikngly good except for a few systematic deviation. Reasons for such discrepancies are discussed

  20. An SU(3)xU(1) theory of weak-electromagnetic interactions with charged boson mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, M.

    1978-01-01

    An SU(3)xU(1) gauge theory of weak electromagnetic interactions is proposed in which the charged bosons mix with each other. The model naturally ensures e-μ and quark-lepton universality in couplings, and the charged boson mixing permits an equal number of leptons and quark flavours. There are no new stable leptons. All the fermions are placed in triplets and singlets and the theory is vector-like and hence free of anomalies. In addition one of the charged bosons can have a mass less than 43 GeV. Discrete symmetries and specific choices for Higgs fields are postulated to obtain the appropriate boson and fermion masses. Calculations for the decay of the tau particle, which is described as a heavy electron, are given. Multimuon events are discussed as are neutrino neutral currents. Calculations are also given for testing asymmetries in e-hadron scattering due to weak electron neutral currents along with other phenomenology of the model

  1. Measurement of the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter of $^{67}$Cu in search for tensor type currents in the weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Soti, G.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Finlay, P.; Herzog, P.; Knecht, A.; Köster, U.; Kraev, I.S.; Porobic, T.; Prashanth, P.N.; Towner, I.S.; Tramm, C.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2014-01-01

    Precision measurements at low energy search for physics beyond the Standard Model in a way complementary to searches for new particles at colliders. In the weak sector the most general $\\beta$ decay Hamiltonian contains, besides vector and axial-vector terms, also scalar, tensor and pseudoscalar terms. Current limits on the scalar and tensor coupling constants from neutron and nuclear $\\beta$ decay are on the level of several percent. The goal of this paper is extracting new information on tensor coupling constants by measuring the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter in the pure Gamow-Teller decay of $^{67}$Cu, thereby testing the V-A structure of the weak interaction. An iron sample foil into which the radioactive nuclei were implanted was cooled down to milliKelvin temperatures in a $^3$He-$^4$He dilution refrigerator. An external magnetic field of 0.1 T, in combination with the internal hyperfine magnetic field, oriented the nuclei. The anisotropic $\\beta$ radiation was observed with planar high purity germanium d...

  2. Doubly excited circular Ba(6pj, 21c) states: e-e interaction effects in weak external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.; Cheret, M.; Poirier, M.; Roussel, F.; Bolzinger, T.; Spiess, G.

    1992-01-01

    The behaviour of doubly excited circular atoms in weak parallel electric and magnetic fields has been studied. The Hamiltonian, including the e-e interaction between the two excited electrons, Stark and Zeeman effects, is diagonalized in a truncated basis. The Rydberg electron, initially in a circular state, experiences a mixing of its orbital and magnetic quantum numbers, due to the presence of the external fields and to the excitation of the inner electron. This mixing depends on the spatial symmetry of the excited core and on the amplitude of the electric field. It can be detected by the field-ionization method which provides a new way for studying non-autoionizing doubly excited states. (orig.)

  3. On Interactions of Oscillation Modes for a Weakly Non-Linear Undamped Elastic Beam with AN External Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOERTJENS, G. J.; VAN HORSSEN, W. T.

    2000-08-01

    In this paper an initial-boundary value problem for the vertical displacement of a weakly non-linear elastic beam with an harmonic excitation in the horizontal direction at the ends of the beam is studied. The initial-boundary value problem can be regarded as a simple model describing oscillations of flexible structures like suspension bridges or iced overhead transmission lines. Using a two-time-scales perturbation method an approximation of the solution of the initial-boundary value problem is constructed. Interactions between different oscillation modes of the beam are studied. It is shown that for certain external excitations, depending on the phase of an oscillation mode, the amplitude of specific oscillation modes changes.

  4. Weak interactions in clobazam–lactose mixtures examined by differential scanning calorimetry: Comparison with the captopril–lactose system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toscani, S.; Cornevin, L.; Burgot, G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of weak interactions in binary systems by DSC. ► Energy-barrier decrease for lactose dehydration induced by clobazam. ► Recrystallisation of metastable liquid clobazam induced by anhydrous alpha lactose. ► Decrease of lactose dehydration temperature in binary mixtures with captopril. ► Increase of lactose dehydration enthalpy in binary mixtures with captopril. - Abstract: The thermal behaviour of binary mixtures of two drugs (clobazam and captopril, respectively) and a pharmaceutical excipient (lactose monohydrate) was measured with differential scanning calorimetry to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (dehydration and melting enthalpies and dehydration and glass-transition activation energies) which might be affected by intermolecular interactions. A kinetic study showed that lactose dehydration is not a single-step conversion and that clobazam contributed to reduce the energy barrier for the bulk dehydration of the excipient. On the other hand, the physical interactions between metastable liquid clobazam and crystalline anhydrous α-lactose obtained from monohydrate dehydration gave rise to the recrystallisation of clobazam. In the captopril–lactose system, the liquid captopril influenced the lactose dehydration: a sharp increase of the dehydration enthalpy and a concurrent reduction of the dehydration temperature were observed. Finally, it turned out that solid-phase transitions were enhanced by the contact with a liquid phase.

  5. Weak interactions in clobazam-lactose mixtures examined by differential scanning calorimetry: Comparison with the captopril-lactose system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscani, S. [Departement de Chimie - UMR 6226, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Rennes 1, Batiment 10B, 263 avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Cornevin, L. [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Burgot, G., E-mail: Gwenola.burgot@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, EA 1274 ' Mouvement, sports, sante' , 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); CHGR Rennes, Pole Medico-Technique Pharmacie, F-35703 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of weak interactions in binary systems by DSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy-barrier decrease for lactose dehydration induced by clobazam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recrystallisation of metastable liquid clobazam induced by anhydrous alpha lactose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease of lactose dehydration temperature in binary mixtures with captopril. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of lactose dehydration enthalpy in binary mixtures with captopril. - Abstract: The thermal behaviour of binary mixtures of two drugs (clobazam and captopril, respectively) and a pharmaceutical excipient (lactose monohydrate) was measured with differential scanning calorimetry to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (dehydration and melting enthalpies and dehydration and glass-transition activation energies) which might be affected by intermolecular interactions. A kinetic study showed that lactose dehydration is not a single-step conversion and that clobazam contributed to reduce the energy barrier for the bulk dehydration of the excipient. On the other hand, the physical interactions between metastable liquid clobazam and crystalline anhydrous {alpha}-lactose obtained from monohydrate dehydration gave rise to the recrystallisation of clobazam. In the captopril-lactose system, the liquid captopril influenced the lactose dehydration: a sharp increase of the dehydration enthalpy and a concurrent reduction of the dehydration temperature were observed. Finally, it turned out that solid-phase transitions were enhanced by the contact with a liquid phase.

  6. Conservative interacting particles system with anomalous rate of ergodicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brzeźniak, Zdzislaw; Flandoli, Franco; Neklyudov, Misha; Zegarliński, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    We analyze certain conservative interacting particle system and establish ergodicity of the system for a family of invariant measures. Furthermore, we show that convergence rate to equilibrium is exponential. This result is of interest because it presents counterexample to the standard assumption of physicists that conservative system implies polynomial rate of convergence.

  7. Lectures on weak interactions: from Fermi-Majorana-Perrin to Glasgow-Weinberg-Salam and some contributions from Latin American physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Historical aspects on the development of the physics of weak interactions which, after about forty years, converged with quantum electrodynamics to give birth ot the first model of unification of interactions, the so-called electroweak standard model, are presented. (L.C.) [pt

  8. Electrokinetic detection for X-ray spectra of weakly interacting liquids: n-decane and n-nonane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Saykally, Richard J.; Shih, Orion; Prendergast, David

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of liquid microjets into soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy enabled the windowless study of liquids by this powerful atom-selective high vacuum methodology. However, weakly interacting liquids produce large vapor backgrounds that strongly perturb the liquid signal. Consequently, solvents (e.g., hydrocarbons, ethers, ketones, etc.) and solutions of central importance in chemistry and biology have been inaccessible by this technology. Here we describe a new detection method, upstream detection, which greatly reduces the vapor phase contribution to the X-ray absorption signal while retaining important advantages of liquid microjet sample introduction (e.g., minimal radiation damage). The effectiveness of the upstream detection method is demonstrated in this first study of room temperature liquid hydrocarbons: n-nonane and n-decane. Good agreement with first principles’ calculations indicates that the eXcited electron and Core Hole theory adequately describes the subtle interactions in these liquids that perturb the electronic structure of the unoccupied states probed in core-level experiments

  9. Electrokinetic detection for X-ray spectra of weakly interacting liquids: n-decane and n-nonane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Royce K.; Shih, Orion; Smith, Jacob W.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Prendergast, David; Saykally, Richard J.

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of liquid microjets into soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy enabled the windowless study of liquids by this powerful atom-selective high vacuum methodology. However, weakly interacting liquids produce large vapor backgrounds that strongly perturb the liquid signal. Consequently, solvents (e.g., hydrocarbons, ethers, ketones, etc.) and solutions of central importance in chemistry and biology have been inaccessible by this technology. Here we describe a new detection method, upstream detection, which greatly reduces the vapor phase contribution to the X-ray absorption signal while retaining important advantages of liquid microjet sample introduction (e.g., minimal radiation damage). The effectiveness of the upstream detection method is demonstrated in this first study of room temperature liquid hydrocarbons: n-nonane and n-decane. Good agreement with first principles' calculations indicates that the eXcited electron and Core Hole theory adequately describes the subtle interactions in these liquids that perturb the electronic structure of the unoccupied states probed in core-level experiments.

  10. Electrokinetic detection for X-ray spectra of weakly interacting liquids: n-decane and n-nonane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Royce K.; Smith, Jacob W.; Sheardy, Alex T.; Rizzuto, Anthony M.; Saykally, Richard J., E-mail: saykally@berkeley.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Shih, Orion [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Prendergast, David [Molecular Foundry, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-06-21

    The introduction of liquid microjets into soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy enabled the windowless study of liquids by this powerful atom-selective high vacuum methodology. However, weakly interacting liquids produce large vapor backgrounds that strongly perturb the liquid signal. Consequently, solvents (e.g., hydrocarbons, ethers, ketones, etc.) and solutions of central importance in chemistry and biology have been inaccessible by this technology. Here we describe a new detection method, upstream detection, which greatly reduces the vapor phase contribution to the X-ray absorption signal while retaining important advantages of liquid microjet sample introduction (e.g., minimal radiation damage). The effectiveness of the upstream detection method is demonstrated in this first study of room temperature liquid hydrocarbons: n-nonane and n-decane. Good agreement with first principles’ calculations indicates that the eXcited electron and Core Hole theory adequately describes the subtle interactions in these liquids that perturb the electronic structure of the unoccupied states probed in core-level experiments.

  11. Weak interactions: muon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, A.M.; Sirlin, A.

    1975-01-01

    The traditional theory of the dominant mode of muon decay is presented, a survey of the experiments which have measured the observable features of the decay is given, and those things which can be learned about the parameters and nature of the theory from the experimental results are indicated. The following aspects of the theory of muon decay are presented first: general four-fermion theory, two-component theory of the neutrino, V--A theory, two-component and V--A theories vs general four-fermion theory, intermediate-boson hypothesis, radiative corrections, radiative corrections in the intermediate-boson theory, and endpoint singularities and corrections of order α 2 . Experiments on muon lifetime, isotropic electron spectrum, total asymmetry and energy dependence of asymmetry of electrons from polarized muons, and electron polarization are described, and a summary of experimental results is given. 7 figures, 2 tables, 109 references

  12. Effect of crack-microcracks interaction on energy release rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudnovsky, A.; Wu, Shaofu

    1990-01-01

    The energy release rates associated with the main crack advancing into its surrounding damage zone, and the damage zone translation relative to the main crack, as well as the energy of interaction between the crack and the damage zone are analyzed. The displacement and stress fields for this crack-damage interaction problem are reconstructed by employing a semi-empirical stress analysis which involves experimental evaluation of the average microcrack density in the damage zone.

  13. A Search for Light Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS and Applications to Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Adam J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical evidence indicates that 85% of the matter content of the universe is in the form of non-baryonic dark matter. A large number of experiments are currently undertaking searches for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs), the leading class of particle candidates for dark matter. This thesis describes the results of such a search with the SuperCDMS experiment, which uses Ge detectors cooled to 50 mK to detect ionization and phonons produced by particle interactions. We perform a blind analysis of 577 kg d of exposure on 7 detectors targeting WIMPs with masses < 30GeV/$c^{2}$, where anomalous results have been reported by previous experiments. No significant excess is observed and we set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1.2 x 10$^{-42}$ cm2 at 8 GeV/$c^{2}$ We also set constraints on dark matter interactions independent of the dark matter halo physics, as well as on annual modulation of a dark matter signal. Cryogenic detectors similar to SuperCDMS also have potential applications in neutrino physics. We study several configurations in which dark matter detectors could be used with an intense neutrino source to detect an unmeasured Standard Model process called coherent neutrino scattering. This process may be useful, for example, as a calibration for next-generation dark matter detectors, and for constraining eV-scale sterile neutrinos. In addition, small cryogenic X-ray detectors on sounding rockets with large fields-of-view have the unique ability to constrain sterile neutrino dark matter. We set limits on sterile neutrino dark matter using an observation by the XQC instrument, and discuss prospects for a future observation of the galactic center using the Micro-X instrument.

  14. Kinematic reconstruction of tau leptons and test for lepton universality in charged weak interactions with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerland, Philip

    2011-04-15

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM) postulates the universal coupling of the three lepton families to the weak current. The most precise measurement of lepton universality in W decays comes from the four experiments at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). If one compares the couplings of muons and tau leptons to the charged weak current, there is a discrepancy of nearly three standard deviations w.r.t. the SM expectation. There are models beyond the SM, which could explain the violation of lepton universality with new physics processes, if it is more than a statistical fluctuation. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) offers a great opportunity to study decays of the charged-weak gauge bosons at very high event rates and at unmatched collision energies. This thesis presents an analysis strategy to test lepton universality with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the LHC. The analysis focusses on the decays of the W{sup {+-}} boson to particles of the second and third lepton family. For this purpose detector-simulated proton-proton events are used. The identification and reconstruction of tau leptons is a difficult task at the LHC. The reconstruction is often restricted by the limited precision of the commonly used collinear approximation. The application of a kinematic fit to particular tau-decay modes can improve the experimental resolution and provides an efficient background suppression. The development of such a fit with kinematic constraints derived from the topology of the decay {tau} {yields} 3{pi}{sup {+-}} + {nu}{sub {tau}} is described. The kinematic fit of tau leptons is not limited to the test for lepton universality, but can be deployed by various physics analyses in a broad energy range of the tau leptons. The event topology of W{sup {+-}} decays with leptonic final states is studied. Two event selections are developed: one for the W{sup {+-}} {yields} {tau}{nu} and one for the W{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{nu} decay. A common online

  15. Kinematic reconstruction of tau leptons and test for lepton universality in charged weak interactions with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauerland, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM) postulates the universal coupling of the three lepton families to the weak current. The most precise measurement of lepton universality in W decays comes from the four experiments at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). If one compares the couplings of muons and tau leptons to the charged weak current, there is a discrepancy of nearly three standard deviations w.r.t. the SM expectation. There are models beyond the SM, which could explain the violation of lepton universality with new physics processes, if it is more than a statistical fluctuation. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) offers a great opportunity to study decays of the charged-weak gauge bosons at very high event rates and at unmatched collision energies. This thesis presents an analysis strategy to test lepton universality with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the LHC. The analysis focusses on the decays of the W ± boson to particles of the second and third lepton family. For this purpose detector-simulated proton-proton events are used. The identification and reconstruction of tau leptons is a difficult task at the LHC. The reconstruction is often restricted by the limited precision of the commonly used collinear approximation. The application of a kinematic fit to particular tau-decay modes can improve the experimental resolution and provides an efficient background suppression. The development of such a fit with kinematic constraints derived from the topology of the decay τ → 3π ± + ν τ is described. The kinematic fit of tau leptons is not limited to the test for lepton universality, but can be deployed by various physics analyses in a broad energy range of the tau leptons. The event topology of W ± decays with leptonic final states is studied. Two event selections are developed: one for the W ± → τν and one for the W ± → μν decay. A common online selection is proposed, which is independent of the leptonic final state of

  16. Chirality of weakly bound complexes: The potential energy surfaces for the hydrogen-peroxide−noble-gas interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncaratti, L. F., E-mail: lz@fis.unb.br; Leal, L. A.; Silva, G. M. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Pirani, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210 Salvador (Brazil); Gargano, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Quantum Theory Project, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    We consider the analytical representation of the potential energy surfaces of relevance for the intermolecular dynamics of weakly bound complexes of chiral molecules. In this paper we study the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}−Ng (Ng=He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) systems providing the radial and the angular dependence of the potential energy surface on the relative position of the Ng atom. We accomplish this by introducing an analytical representation which is able to fit the ab initio energies of these complexes in a wide range of geometries. Our analysis sheds light on the role that the enantiomeric forms and the symmetry of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule play on the resulting barriers and equilibrium geometries. The proposed theoretical framework is useful to study the dynamics of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule, or other systems involving O–O and S–S bonds, interacting by non-covalent forces with atoms or molecules and to understand how the relative orientation of the O–H bonds changes along collisional events that may lead to a hydrogen bond formation or even to selectivity in chemical reactions.

  17. Dynamic Neuron-Glia Interactions in an Oscillatory Network Controlling Behavioral Plasticity in the Weakly Electric Fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Günther K H

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of glial cells in the regulation of physiological functions is being increasingly recognized, yet their role in plasticity of neural oscillators has remained largely elusive. An excellent model system to address the latter function is the pacemaker nucleus of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus . This brainstem oscillator drives the fish's electric organ discharge in a one-to-one fashion, with median frequencies of 880 Hz in males and 740 Hz in females. Morphometric analysis of the pacemaker nucleus has shown that astrocytes outnumber mature neurons seven-fold, and oscillator neurons even 200-fold. A similar dominance of astrocytes occurs among the adult-born cells that differentiate into glia and neurons. The astrocytes form a dense meshwork of cells interconnected by gap junctions. The degree of association of astrocytic fibers with the neural oscillator cells, and the gap-junction coupling between individual astrocytes, exhibit a sexual dimorphism, which parallels the sexual dimorphisms in the output frequency of the pacemaker nucleus, and ultimately in the electric organ discharge of the fish. It is hypothesized that the dynamics in astroglial structure mediate differences in the capacity to buffer potassium, which increases during the generation of action potentials. These differences, in turn, affect the excitability of the neural oscillator cells, and thus the output frequency of the pacemaker nucleus. Comparison of the pacemaker nucleus with other brain oscillators suggests that modulation of the output activity is one of the chief functions of the interaction of glia with the neural oscillator cells.

  18. Accurate characterization of weak macromolecular interactions by titration of NMR residual dipolar couplings: application to the CD2AP SH3-C:ubiquitin complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Roldan, Jose Luis; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Brutscher, Bernhard; Azuaga, Ana I; Blackledge, Martin; van Nuland, Nico A J

    2009-05-01

    The description of the interactome represents one of key challenges remaining for structural biology. Physiologically important weak interactions, with dissociation constants above 100 muM, are remarkably common, but remain beyond the reach of most of structural biology. NMR spectroscopy, and in particular, residual dipolar couplings (RDCs) provide crucial conformational constraints on intermolecular orientation in molecular complexes, but the combination of free and bound contributions to the measured RDC seriously complicates their exploitation for weakly interacting partners. We develop a robust approach for the determination of weak complexes based on: (i) differential isotopic labeling of the partner proteins facilitating RDC measurement in both partners; (ii) measurement of RDC changes upon titration into different equilibrium mixtures of partially aligned free and complex forms of the proteins; (iii) novel analytical approaches to determine the effective alignment in all equilibrium mixtures; and (iv) extraction of precise RDCs for bound forms of both partner proteins. The approach is demonstrated for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of the weakly interacting CD2AP SH3-C:Ubiquitin complex (K(d) = 132 +/- 13 muM) and is shown, using cross-validation, to be highly precise. We expect this methodology to extend the remarkable and unique ability of NMR to study weak protein-protein complexes.

  19. Precision measurements in the weak interaction framework: development of realistic simulations for the LPCTrap device installed at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This work belongs to the effort presently deployed to measure the angular correlation parameter a_β_ν in three nuclear beta decays ("6He"+, "3"5Ar"+ and "1"9Ne"+). The V-A structure of the weak interaction implies that a_β_ν = +1 for a pure Fermi transition and a_β_ν = -1/3 for a pure Gamow-Teller transition. A thorough measurement of this parameter to check any deviation from these values may lead to the discovery of possible exotic currents. Furthermore, the measurement of a_β_ν in mirror transitions allows the extraction of V_u_d, the first element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The LPCTrap apparatus, installed at GANIL, is designed to ready a continuous ion beam for injection in a dedicated Paul trap. This latter device allows to have a quasi-punctual source from which the decay products are detected in coincidence. It is from the study of the recoil ion time-of-flight (TOF) distribution that a_β_ν is withdrawn and, since 2010, the associated Shake-Off (SO) probabilities. This study requires the complete simulation of the LPCTrap experiments. The major part of this work is dedicated to such simulations, especially to the modeling of the trapped ion cloud dynamic. The Clouda program, which takes advantage of graphics processing unit (GPU), was developed in this context and its full characterization is presented here. Three important aspects are addressed: the electromagnetic trapping field, the realistic collisions between the ions and the buffer gas atoms and the space charge effect. The present work shows the importance of these simulations to increase the control of the systematic errors on a_β_ν. (author) [fr

  20. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents I shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. There are surely still things to learn from the low energy weak interaction but I will not discuss it here. Furthermore B. Tallini will discuss the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions. Since the Tokyo conference a few experimental results have appeared on charged current interaction, I will present them and will also comment on important topics which have been published during the last past year. (orig.)

  1. Dephasing rates for weak localization and universal conductance fluctuations in two dimensional Si:P and Ge:P δ-layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Saquib; Mahapatra, S; Scappucci, G; Klesse, W M; Simmons, M Y; Ghosh, Arindam

    2017-05-04

    We report quantum transport measurements on two dimensional (2D) Si:P and Ge:P δ-layers and compare the inelastic scattering rates relevant for weak localization (WL) and universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) for devices of various doping densities (0.3-2.5 × 10 18 m -2 ) at low temperatures (0.3-4.2 K). The phase breaking rate extracted experimentally from measurements of WL correction to conductivity and UCF agree well with each other within the entire temperature range. This establishes that WL and UCF, being the outcome of quantum interference phenomena, are governed by the same dephasing rate.

  2. Second class weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1978-01-01

    The definition and general properties of weak second class currents are recalled and various detection possibilities briefly reviewed. It is shown that the existing data on nuclear beta decay can be consistently analysed in terms of a phenomenological model. Their implication on the fundamental structure of weak interactions is discussed [fr

  3. How do marital status, work effort, and wage rates interact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahituv, Avner; Lerman, Robert I

    2007-08-01

    How marital status interacts with men's earnings is an important analytic and policy issue, especially in the context of debates in the United States over programs that encourage healthy marriage. This paper generates new findings about the earnings-marriage relationship by estimating the linkages among flows into and out of marriage, work effort, and wage rates. The estimates are based on National Longitudinal Survey of Youth panel data, covering 23 years of marital and labor market outcomes, and control for unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate marriage effects on hours worked (our proxy for work effort) and on wage rates for all men and for black and low-skilled men separately. The estimates reveal that entering marriage raises hours worked quickly and substantially but that marriage's effect on wage rates takes place more slowly while men continue in marriage. Together; the stimulus to hours worked and wage rates generates an 18%-19% increase in earnings, with about one-third to one-half of the marriage earnings premium attributable to higher work effort. At the same time, higher wage rates and hours worked encourage men to marry and to stay married. Thus, being married and having high earnings reinforce each other over time.

  4. Weak hyperon-nucleon interaction in a quark model and application to the pn → Λp scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Takashi; Sasaki, Kenji; Oka, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    The weak ΛN ↔ NN (and ΣN ↔ NN) transition is studied, in which the quark substructure of the baryons are taken into account. The short-range part of the transition potential is induced by the direct quark (DQ) mechanism, while the long-range part is described by the meson (π and K) exchanges. The transition potential is calculated and is applied to the decay of hypernuclei and the weak Λ production in the proton-neutron scattering. We show that the short-range DQ transition plays a significant role in these processes. (author)

  5. Modeling the intracellular pathogen-immune interaction with cure rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Balram; Dubey, Preeti; Dubey, Uma S.

    2016-09-01

    Many common and emergent infectious diseases like Influenza, SARS, Hepatitis, Ebola etc. are caused by viral pathogens. These infections can be controlled or prevented by understanding the dynamics of pathogen-immune interaction in vivo. In this paper, interaction of pathogens with uninfected and infected cells in presence or absence of immune response are considered in four different cases. In the first case, the model considers the saturated nonlinear infection rate and linear cure rate without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells and without immune response. The next model considers the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells while all other terms are same as in the first case. The third model incorporates innate immune response, humoral immune response and Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) mediated immune response with cure rate and without absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells. The last model is an extension of the third model in which the effect of absorption of pathogens into uninfected cells has been considered. Positivity and boundedness of solutions are established to ensure the well-posedness of the problem. It has been found that all the four models have two equilibria, namely, pathogen-free equilibrium point and pathogen-present equilibrium point. In each case, stability analysis of each equilibrium point is investigated. Pathogen-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable when basic reproduction number is less or equal to unity. This implies that control or prevention of infection is independent of initial concentration of uninfected cells, infected cells, pathogens and immune responses in the body. The proposed models show that introduction of immune response and cure rate strongly affects the stability behavior of the system. Further, on computing basic reproduction number, it has been found to be minimum for the fourth model vis-a-vis other models. The analytical findings of each model have been exemplified by

  6. Weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite Lopes, J.

    1976-01-01

    A survey of the fundamental ideas on weak currents such as CVC and PCAC and a presentation of the Cabibbo current and the neutral weak currents according to the Salam-Weinberg model and the Glashow-Iliopoulos-Miami model are given [fr

  7. An elementary introduction to Yang-Mills theories and to their applications to the weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiani, L.

    1976-01-01

    In these lecture notes, the author deals exclusively with a gauge theory of weak and e.m. processes. The aim is to give an elementary introduction to the subject by discussing the general underlying ideas, and the way these ideas can be put to work in a concrete theory, based on the gauge group SU(2)X(1). (Auth.)

  8. Electro-weak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    By electro-weak theory is meant the unified field theory that describes both weak and electro-magnetic interactions. The development of a unified electro-weak theory is certainly the most dramatic achievement in theoretical physics to occur in the second half of this century. It puts weak interactions on the same sound theoretical footing as quantum elecrodynamics. Many theorists have contributed to this development, which culminated in the works of Glashow, Weinberg and Salam, who were jointly awarded the 1979 Nobel Prize in physics. Some of the important ideas that contributed to this development are the theory of beta decay formulated by Fermi, Parity violation suggested by Lee and Yang, and incorporated into immensely successful V-A theory of weak interactions by Sudarshan and Marshak. At the same time ideas of gauge invariance were applied to weak interaction by Schwinger, Bludman and Glashow. Weinberg and Salam then went one step further and wrote a theory that is renormalizable, i.e., all higher order corrections are finite, no mean feat for a quantum field theory. The theory had to await the development of the quark model of hadrons for its completion. A description of the electro-weak theory is given

  9. Weak decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1978-11-01

    Lectures are given on weak decays from a phenomenological point of view, emphasizing new results and ideas and the relation of recent results to the new standard theoretical model. The general framework within which the weak decay is viewed and relevant fundamental questions, weak decays of noncharmed hadrons, decays of muons and the tau, and the decays of charmed particles are covered. Limitation is made to the discussion of those topics that either have received recent experimental attention or are relevant to the new physics. (JFP) 178 references

  10. Low-temperature conductivity of weakly interacting quantum spin Hall edges in strained-layer InAs/GaInSb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingxin; Wang, Pengjie; Sullivan, Gerard; Lin, Xi; Du, Rui-Rui

    2017-12-01

    We report low-temperature transport measurements in strained InAs /G a0.68I n0.32Sb quantum wells, which supports time-reversal symmetry-protected helical edge states. The temperature and bias voltage dependence of the helical edge conductance for devices of various sizes are consistent with the theoretical expectation of a weakly interacting helical edge state. Moreover, we found that the magnetoresistance of the helical edge states is related to the edge interaction effect and the disorder strength.

  11. Calculation of rate coefficients of some proton-transfer ion-molecule reactions in weakly ionized gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiller, W.

    1985-01-01

    A classical collision theory is used to describe thermal bimolecular rate coefficeints for reaction between positive and negative ions and polar molecules in a carrier gas. Special attention is paid to ion-molecule reaction in which proton transfer occurs. These reactions play an important role in terrestrial plasma devices, in ionosphere, in planetary atmospheres and in interstellar matter. The equilibrium rate coefficients of the reactions are calculated based on a microscopic reactive cross section derived from a long distance polar molecule-ion potential. The results are compared with experimental values of afterglow measurements. (D.Gy.)

  12. Cytogenetic effects of weak and combined actions in plants in connection with a problem of ecological rating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geras'kin, S.A.; Dikarev, V.G.; Udalova, A.A.; Dikareva, N.S.; Vasil'ev, D.V.; Evseeva, T.I.

    2002-01-01

    It is compared sanitary-hygienic and ecological approaches to rating of ionizing radiation action. The features of formation of cytogenetic effects in plants in conditions of separate and combined with factors of other nature action of ionizing radiation low doses are considered. (author)

  13. Monitoring of corrosion rates of Fe-Cu alloys under wet/dry condition in weakly alkaline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Je Kyoung; Nishikata, Atsushi; Tsuru, Tooru

    2002-01-01

    When the steel, containing scrap elements like copper, is used as reinforcing steel bars for concrete, the steel is exposed to alkaline environments. in this study, AC impedance technique has been applied to the monitoring of corrosion rates of iron and several Fe-Cu (0.4, 10wt%) alloys in a wet-dry cycle condition. The wet-dry cycle was conducted by exposure to alternate conditions of 1 hour-immersion in a simulated pH10 concrete solution (Ca(OH) 2 ) containing 0.01M NaCl and 3 hour-drying at 298K and 50%RH. The corrosion rate of the iron is greatly accelerated by the wet-dry cycles. Because the active FeOOH species, which are produced by the oxidation of Fe(II, III)oxide in air during drying, act as very strong oxidants to the corrosion in the wet condition. As the drying progresses, iron shows a large increase in the corrosion rate and a small shift of the corrosion potential to the positive values. This can be explained by acceleration of oxygen transport through the thin electrolyte layer In contrast to iron, the Fe-Cu alloys show low corrosion rates and the high corrosion potentials in whole cycles

  14. Postnatal growth rates covary weakly with embryonic development rates and do not explain adult mortality probability among songbirds on four continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas E; Oteyza, Juan C; Mitchell, Adam E; Potticary, Ahva L; Lloyd, Penn

    2015-03-01

    Growth and development rates may result from genetic programming of intrinsic processes that yield correlated rates between life stages. These intrinsic rates are thought to affect adult mortality probability and longevity. However, if proximate extrinsic factors (e.g., temperature, food) influence development rates differently between stages and yield low covariance between stages, then development rates may not explain adult mortality probability. We examined these issues based on study of 90 songbird species on four continents to capture the diverse life-history strategies observed across geographic space. The length of the embryonic period explained little variation (ca. 13%) in nestling periods and growth rates among species. This low covariance suggests that the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic influences on growth and development rates differs between stages. Consequently, nestling period durations and nestling growth rates were not related to annual adult mortality probability among diverse songbird species within or among sites. The absence of a clear effect of faster growth on adult mortality when examined in an evolutionary framework across species may indicate that species that evolve faster growth also evolve physiological mechanisms for ameliorating costs on adult mortality. Instead, adult mortality rates of species in the wild may be determined more strongly by extrinsic environmental causes.

  15. Robust ray-tracing algorithms for interactive dose rate evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotte, L.

    2011-01-01

    More than ever, it is essential today to develop simulation tools to rapidly evaluate the dose rate received by operators working on nuclear sites. In order to easily study numerous different scenarios of intervention, computation times of available softwares have to be all lowered. This mainly implies to accelerate the geometrical computations needed for the dose rate evaluation. These computations consist in finding and sorting the whole list of intersections between a big 3D scene and multiple groups of 'radiative' rays meeting at the point where the dose has to be measured. In order to perform all these computations in less than a second, we first propose a GPU algorithm that enables the efficient management of one big group of coherent rays. Then we present a modification of this algorithm that guarantees the robustness of the ray-triangle intersection tests through the elimination of the precision issues due to floating-point arithmetic. This modification does not require the definition of scene-dependent coefficients ('epsilon' style) and only implies a small loss of performance (less than 10%). Finally we propose an efficient strategy to handle multiple ray groups (corresponding to multiple radiative objects) which use the previous results.Thanks to these improvements, we are able to perform an interactive and robust dose rate evaluation on big 3D scenes: all of the intersections (more than 13 million) between 700 000 triangles and 12 groups of 100 000 rays each are found, sorted along each ray and transferred to the CPU in 470 milliseconds. (author) [fr

  16. Limiting absorption principle at low energies for a mathematical model of weak interaction: the decay of a boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbarouxa, J.M.; Guillot, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectral properties of a Hamiltonian describing the weak decay of spin 1 massive bosons into the full family of leptons. We prove that the considered Hamiltonian is self-adjoint, with a unique ground state and we derive a Mourre estimate and a limiting absorption principle above the ground state energy and below the first threshold, for a sufficiently small coupling constant. As a corollary, we prove absence of eigenvalues and absolute continuity of the energy spectrum in the same spectral interval. (authors)

  17. Detailed spectra of high-power broadband microwave radiation from interactions of relativistic electron beams with weakly magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.G.; Benford, G.; Tzach, D.

    1983-01-01

    Prodigious quantities of microwave energy distributed uniformly across a wide frequency band are observed when a relativistic electron beam (REB) penetrates a plasma. Typical measured values are 20 MW total for Δνapprox. =40 GHz with preliminary observations of bandwidths as large as 100 GHz. An intense annular pulsed REB (Iapprox. =128 kA; rapprox. =3 cm; Δrapprox. =1 cm; 50 nsec FWHM; γapprox. =3) is sent through an unmagnetized or weakly magnetized plasma column (n/sub plasma/approx.10 13 cm -3 ). Beam-to-plasma densities of 0.01 >ω/sub p/ and weak harmonic structure is wholly unanticipated from Langmuir scattering or soliton collapse models. A model of Compton-like boosting of ambient plasma waves by the beam electrons, with collateral emission of high-frequency photons, qualitatively explains these spectra. Power emerges largely in an angle approx.1/γ, as required by Compton mechanisms. As n/sub b//n/sub p/ falls, ω/sub p/-2ω/sub p/ structure and harmonic power ratios consistent with soliton collapse theories appear. With further reduction of n/sub b//n/sub p/ only the ω/sub p/ line persists

  18. One-Dimensional Brownian Motion of Charged Nanoparticles along Microtubules: A Model System for Weak Binding Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Minoura, Itsushi; Katayama, Eisaku; Sekimoto, Ken; Muto, Etsuko

    2010-01-01

    Various proteins are known to exhibit one-dimensional Brownian motion along charged rodlike polymers, such as microtubules (MTs), actin, and DNA. The electrostatic interaction between the proteins and the rodlike polymers appears to be crucial for one-dimensional Brownian motion, although the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. We examined the interactions of positively-charged nanoparticles composed of polyacrylamide gels with MTs. These hydrophilic nanoparticles bound to MTs ...

  19. Symmetry structure in discrete models of biochemical systems: natural subsystems and the weak control hierarchy in a new model of computation driven by interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehaniv, Chrystopher L; Rhodes, John; Egri-Nagy, Attila; Dini, Paolo; Morris, Eric Rothstein; Horváth, Gábor; Karimi, Fariba; Schreckling, Daniel; Schilstra, Maria J

    2015-07-28

    Interaction computing is inspired by the observation that cell metabolic/regulatory systems construct order dynamically, through constrained interactions between their components and based on a wide range of possible inputs and environmental conditions. The goals of this work are to (i) identify and understand mathematically the natural subsystems and hierarchical relations in natural systems enabling this and (ii) use the resulting insights to define a new model of computation based on interactions that is useful for both biology and computation. The dynamical characteristics of the cellular pathways studied in systems biology relate, mathematically, to the computational characteristics of automata derived from them, and their internal symmetry structures to computational power. Finite discrete automata models of biological systems such as the lac operon, the Krebs cycle and p53-mdm2 genetic regulation constructed from systems biology models have canonically associated algebraic structures (their transformation semigroups). These contain permutation groups (local substructures exhibiting symmetry) that correspond to 'pools of reversibility'. These natural subsystems are related to one another in a hierarchical manner by the notion of 'weak control'. We present natural subsystems arising from several biological examples and their weak control hierarchies in detail. Finite simple non-Abelian groups are found in biological examples and can be harnessed to realize finitary universal computation. This allows ensembles of cells to achieve any desired finitary computational transformation, depending on external inputs, via suitably constrained interactions. Based on this, interaction machines that grow and change their structure recursively are introduced and applied, providing a natural model of computation driven by interactions.

  20. Weak direct” and “Strong indirect” interactions are the mode of action of food factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Konishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-dependent and lifestyle related diseases such as metabolic syndromes have become a social problem worldwide. Since these disorders are closely related to dietary lifestyle, the old saying “foods are medicine” is now being re-evaluated. Thus, dietary protection against these diseases is attracting much attention. As research into functional foods advances, a book of knowledge is being accumulated on the active ingredients, termed “food factors”, present in food resources. Identifying such molecules usually follows the conventional methodology used for finding drug candidates from natural resources. The question has arisen as to whether the mode of action of food factors as molecules is the same as that of drugs. In this article, the functional properties of food factors and drugs are comparatively reviewed and the characteristic features of food factor function is discussed, based on the idea of “weak direct” and “strong indirect” actions of food factors to their receptors

  1. Weakly Deleterious Mutations and Low Rates of Recombination Limit the Impact of Natural Selection on Bacterial Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Morgan N; Arkin, Adam P

    2015-12-15

    Free-living bacteria are usually thought to have large effective population sizes, and so tiny selective differences can drive their evolution. However, because recombination is infrequent, "background selection" against slightly deleterious alleles should reduce the effective population size (Ne) by orders of magnitude. For example, for a well-mixed population with 10(12) individuals and a typical level of homologous recombination (r/m = 3, i.e., nucleotide changes due to recombination [r] occur at 3 times the mutation rate [m]), we predict that Ne is selection should be sufficient to drive evolution if Ne × s is >1, where s is the selection coefficient. We found that this remains approximately correct if background selection is occurring or when population structure is present. Overall, we predict that even for free-living bacteria with enormous populations, natural selection is only a significant force if s is above 10(-7) or so. Because bacteria form huge populations with trillions of individuals, the simplest theoretical prediction is that the better allele at a site would predominate even if its advantage was just 10(-9) per generation. In other words, virtually every nucleotide would be at the local optimum in most individuals. A more sophisticated theory considers that bacterial genomes have millions of sites each and selection events on these many sites could interfere with each other, so that only larger effects would be important. However, bacteria can exchange genetic material, and in principle, this exchange could eliminate the interference between the evolution of the sites. We used simulations to confirm that during multisite evolution with realistic levels of recombination, only larger effects are important. We propose that advantages of less than 10(-7) are effectively neutral. Copyright © 2015 Price and Arkin.

  2. Resonance energy transfer (RET)-Induced intermolecular pairing force: a tunable weak interaction and its application in SWNT separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyong; Chen, Hui; Wang, Wei Zhi; Ng, Siu Choon; Chan-Park, Mary B

    2011-07-21

    This paper explores evidence of an optically mediated interaction that is active in the separation mechanism of certain selective agents through consideration of the contrasting selective behaviors of two conjugated polymers with distinct optical properties. The involvement of a RET-induced intermolecular pairing force is implied by the different illumination response behaviors. The magnitude of this interaction scales with the external stimulus parameter, the illumination irradiance (I), and thus is tunable. This suggests a facile technique to modify the selectivity of polymers toward specific SWNT species by altering the polymer structure to adjust the corresponding intermolecular interaction. This is the first experimental verification and application of a RET-induced intermolecular pairing force to SWNT separation. With this kind of interaction taken into account, reasonable interpretation of some conflicting data, especially PLE maps, can be easily made. The above conclusion can be applied to other substances as long as they are electrically neutral and there is photon-induced RET between them. The significant magnitude of this interaction makes direct manipulation of molecules/particles possible and is expected to have applications in molecular engineering. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  3. Measurement of the beta-asymmetry parameter of Cu-67 in search for tensor-type currents in the weak interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Soti, Gergely; Breitenfeldt, Martin; Finlay, Paul; Herzog, P; Knecht, Andreas; Koester, U; Kraev, I. S; Porobic, Tomica; Prashanth, P. N; Towner, I. S; Tramm, C; Zakoucky, D; Severijns, Nathal; Wauters, F

    2014-01-01

    The experimental value, ˜A = 0.587(14), is in agreement with the standard model value of 0.5991(2) and is interpreted in terms of physics beyond the standard model. The limits obtained on possible tensor-type charged currents in the weak interaction Hamiltonian are −0.045 < (C_T + C'_T)/CA < 0.159 (90% C.L.). The obtained limits are comparable to limits from other correlation measurements in nuclear β decay and contribute to further constraining tensor coupling constants.

  4. A NOVEL APPROACH IN THE WEAKLY INTERACTING MASSIVE PARTICLE QUEST: CROSS-CORRELATION OF GAMMA-RAY ANISOTROPIES AND COSMIC SHEAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camera, Stefano; Fornasa, Mattia; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Both cosmic shear and cosmological gamma-ray emission stem from the presence of dark matter (DM) in the universe: DM structures are responsible for the bending of light in the weak-lensing regime and those same objects can emit gamma rays, either because they host astrophysical sources (active galactic nuclei or star-forming galaxies) or directly by DM annihilations (or decays, depending on the properties of the DM particle). Such gamma rays should therefore exhibit strong correlation with the cosmic shear signal. In this Letter, we compute the cross-correlation angular power spectrum of cosmic shear and gamma rays produced by the annihilation/decay of weakly interacting massive particle DM, as well as by astrophysical sources. We show that this observable provides novel information on the composition of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), since the amplitude and shape of the cross-correlation signal strongly depend on which class of sources is responsible for the gamma-ray emission. If the DM contribution to the EGB is significant (at least in a definite energy range), although compatible with current observational bounds, its strong correlation with the cosmic shear makes such signal potentially detectable by combining Fermi Large Area Telescope data with forthcoming galaxy surveys, like the Dark Energy Survey and Euclid. At the same time, the same signal would demonstrate that the weak-lensing observables are indeed due to particle DM matter and not to possible modifications of general relativity.

  5. A polyacrylamide-based silica stationary phase for the separation of carbohydrates using alcohols as the weak eluent in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianfeng; Cheng, Lingping; Zhao, Jianchao; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-11-17

    A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase was prepared by a two-step synthesis method, immobilizing polyacrylamide on silica sphere particles. The stationary phase (named PA, 5μm dia) was evaluated using a mixture of carbohydrates in HILIC mode and the column efficiency reached 121,000Nm -1 . The retention behavior of carbohydrates on PA stationary phase was investigated with three different organic solvents (acetonitrile, ethanol and methanol) employed as the weak eluent. The strongest hydrophilicity of PA stationary phase was observed in both acetonitrile and methanol as the weak eluent, when compared with another two amide stationary phases. Attributing to its high hydrophilicity, three oligosaccharides (xylooligosaccharide, fructooligosaccharide and chitooligosaccharides) presented good retention on PA stationary phase using alcohols/water as mobile phase. Finally, PA stationary phase was successfully applied for the purification of galactooligosaccharides and saponins of Paris polyphylla. It is feasible to use safer and cheaper alcohols to replace acetonitrile as the weak eluent for green analysis and purification of polar compounds on PA stationary phase. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. A Novel Approach in the Weakly Interacting Massive Particle Quest: Cross-correlation of Gamma-Ray Anisotropies and Cosmic Shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camera, Stefano; Fornasa, Mattia; Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco

    2013-07-01

    Both cosmic shear and cosmological gamma-ray emission stem from the presence of dark matter (DM) in the universe: DM structures are responsible for the bending of light in the weak-lensing regime and those same objects can emit gamma rays, either because they host astrophysical sources (active galactic nuclei or star-forming galaxies) or directly by DM annihilations (or decays, depending on the properties of the DM particle). Such gamma rays should therefore exhibit strong correlation with the cosmic shear signal. In this Letter, we compute the cross-correlation angular power spectrum of cosmic shear and gamma rays produced by the annihilation/decay of weakly interacting massive particle DM, as well as by astrophysical sources. We show that this observable provides novel information on the composition of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), since the amplitude and shape of the cross-correlation signal strongly depend on which class of sources is responsible for the gamma-ray emission. If the DM contribution to the EGB is significant (at least in a definite energy range), although compatible with current observational bounds, its strong correlation with the cosmic shear makes such signal potentially detectable by combining Fermi Large Area Telescope data with forthcoming galaxy surveys, like the Dark Energy Survey and Euclid. At the same time, the same signal would demonstrate that the weak-lensing observables are indeed due to particle DM matter and not to possible modifications of general relativity.

  7. A NOVEL APPROACH IN THE WEAKLY INTERACTING MASSIVE PARTICLE QUEST: CROSS-CORRELATION OF GAMMA-RAY ANISOTROPIES AND COSMIC SHEAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camera, Stefano [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Fornasa, Mattia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Fornengo, Nicolao; Regis, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino and INFN, Torino (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Both cosmic shear and cosmological gamma-ray emission stem from the presence of dark matter (DM) in the universe: DM structures are responsible for the bending of light in the weak-lensing regime and those same objects can emit gamma rays, either because they host astrophysical sources (active galactic nuclei or star-forming galaxies) or directly by DM annihilations (or decays, depending on the properties of the DM particle). Such gamma rays should therefore exhibit strong correlation with the cosmic shear signal. In this Letter, we compute the cross-correlation angular power spectrum of cosmic shear and gamma rays produced by the annihilation/decay of weakly interacting massive particle DM, as well as by astrophysical sources. We show that this observable provides novel information on the composition of the extragalactic gamma-ray background (EGB), since the amplitude and shape of the cross-correlation signal strongly depend on which class of sources is responsible for the gamma-ray emission. If the DM contribution to the EGB is significant (at least in a definite energy range), although compatible with current observational bounds, its strong correlation with the cosmic shear makes such signal potentially detectable by combining Fermi Large Area Telescope data with forthcoming galaxy surveys, like the Dark Energy Survey and Euclid. At the same time, the same signal would demonstrate that the weak-lensing observables are indeed due to particle DM matter and not to possible modifications of general relativity.

  8. Strengthening institutions or institutionalising weaknesses? : interactions between aid and institutions in Huíla Province, Angola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This research analyses the interaction between aid interventions and local institutions through which people address needs during crisis. These include state and non- state institutions involved in social assistance and in the delivery of basic services such as healthcare. The study focuses on the

  9. The Independent Gradient Model: A New Approach for Probing Strong and Weak Interactions in Molecules from Wave Function Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Corentin; Khartabil, Hassan; Boisson, Jean-Charles; Contreras-García, Julia; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Hénon, Eric

    2018-03-19

    Extraction of the chemical interaction signature from local descriptors based on electron density (ED) is still a fruitful field of development in chemical interpretation. In a previous work that used promolecular ED (frozen ED), the new descriptor, δg , was defined. It represents the difference between a virtual upper limit of the ED gradient (∇ρIGM , IGM=independent gradient model) that represents a noninteracting system and the true ED gradient (∇ρ ). It can be seen as a measure of electron sharing brought by ED contragradience. A compelling feature of this model is to provide an automatic workflow that extracts the signature of interactions between selected groups of atoms. As with the noncovalent interaction (NCI) approach, it provides chemists with a visual understanding of the interactions present in chemical systems. ∇ρIGM is achieved simply by using absolute values upon summing the individual gradient contributions that make up the total ED gradient. Hereby, we extend this model to relaxed ED calculated from a wave function. To this end, we formulated gradient-based partitioning (GBP) to assess the contribution of each orbital to the total ED gradient. We highlight these new possibilities across two prototypical examples of organic chemistry: the unconventional hexamethylbenzene dication, with a hexa-coordinated carbon atom, and β-thioaminoacrolein. It will be shown how a bond-by-bond picture can be obtained from a wave function, which opens the way to monitor specific interactions along reaction paths. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A Comprehensive Analysis of Jet Quenching via a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet-Medium Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Gulhan, Doga Can [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Milhano, José Guilherme [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Pablos, Daniel [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rajagopal, Krishna [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jets in strongly coupled plasma, we explore jet modifications in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Our approach merges the perturbative dynamics of hard jet evolution with the strongly coupled dynamics which dominates the soft exchanges between the fast partons in the jet shower and the strongly coupled plasma itself. We implement this approach in a Monte Carlo, which supplements the DGLAP shower with the energy loss dynamics as dictated by holographic computations, up to a single free parameter that we fit to data. We then augment the model by incorporating the transverse momentum picked up by each parton in the shower as it propagates through the medium, at the expense of adding a second free parameter. We use this model to discuss the influence of the transverse broadening of the partons in a jet on intra-jet observables. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of such observables to the back-reaction of the plasma to the passage of the jet.

  11. Disentangling weak and strong interactions in B → K*(→ Kπ)π Dalitz-plot analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, Jerome [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ., Universite de Toulon, CPT UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Descotes-Genon, Sebastien [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay (France); Ocariz, Jose [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7585, LPNHE, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, LPNHE UMR 7585, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Perez Perez, Alejandro [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC UMR 7178, Strasbourg (France); Collaboration: For the CKMfitter Group

    2017-08-15

    Dalitz-plot analyses of B → Kππ decays provide direct access to decay amplitudes, and thereby weak and strong phases can be disentangled by resolving the interference patterns in phase space between intermediate resonant states. A phenomenological isospin analysis of B → K*(→ Kπ)π decay amplitudes is presented exploiting available amplitude analyses performed at the BaBar, Belle and LHCb experiments. A first application consists in constraining the CKM parameters thanks to an external hadronic input. A method, proposed some time ago by two different groups and relying on a bound on the electroweak penguin contribution, is shown to lack the desired robustness and accuracy, and we propose a more alluring alternative using a bound on the annihilation contribution. A second application consists in extracting information on hadronic amplitudes assuming the values of the CKM parameters from a global fit to quark flavour data. The current data yields several solutions, which do not fully support the hierarchy of hadronic amplitudes usually expected from theoretical arguments (colour suppression, suppression of electroweak penguins), as illustrated from computations within QCD factorisation. Some prospects concerning the impact of future measurements at LHCb and Belle II are also presented. Results are obtained with the CKMfitter analysis package, featuring the frequentist statistical approach and using the Rfit scheme to handle theoretical uncertainties. (orig.)

  12. Equation of state and hybrid star properties with the weakly interacting light U-boson in relativistic models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dong-Rui; Jiang, Wei-Zhou; Wei, Si-Na; Yang, Rong-Yao [Southeast University, Department of Physics, Nanjing (China); Xiang, Qian-Fei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of High Energy Physics, Beijing (China)

    2016-05-15

    It has been a puzzle whether quarks may exist in the interior of massive neutron stars, since the hadron-quark phase transition softens the equation of state (EOS) and reduce the neutron star (NS) maximum mass very significantly. In this work, we consider the light U-boson that increases the NS maximum mass appreciably through its weak coupling to fermions. The inclusion of the U-boson may thus allow the existence of the quark degrees of freedom in the interior of large mass neutron stars. Unlike the consequence of the U-boson in hadronic matter, the stiffening role of the U-boson in the hybrid EOS is not sensitive to the choice of the hadron phase models. In addition, we have also investigated the effect of the effective QCD correction on the hybrid EOS. This correction may reduce the coupling strength of the U-boson that is needed to satisfy NS maximum mass constraint. While the inclusion of the U-boson also increases the NS radius significantly, we find that appropriate in-medium effects of the U-boson may reduce the NS radii significantly, satisfying both the NS radius and mass constraints well. (orig.)

  13. Precision measurements of the $^{60}$Co $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter in search for tensor currents in weak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wauters, F; Zákoucký, D; Beck, M; Breitenfeldt, M; De Leebeeck, V; Golovko, V V; Kozlov, V Yu; Phalet, T; Roccia, S; Soti, G; Tandecki, M; Towner, I S; Traykov, E; Van Gorp, S; Severijns, N

    2010-01-01

    The $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter $\\widetilde{A}$ for the Gamow-Teller decay of $^{60}$Co was measured by polarizing the radioactive nuclei with the brute force low-temperature nuclear-orientation method. The $^{60}$Co activity was cooled down to milliKelvin temperatures in a $^3$He-$^4$He dilution refrigerator in an external 13 T magnetic field. The $\\beta$ particles were observed by a 500 ${\\mu}m$ thick Si PIN diode operating at a temperature of about 10 K in a magnetic field of 0.6 T. Extensive GEANT4 Monte-Carlo simulations were performed to gain control over the systematic effects. Our result, $\\widetilde{A} = -1.014(12)_{stat}(16)_{syst}$, is in agreement with the Standard-Model value of $-0.987(9)$, which includes recoil-order corrections that were addressed for the first time for this isotope. Further, it enables limits to be placed on possible tensor-type charged weak currents as well as other physics beyond the Standard Model.

  14. Measurement of the β-asymmetry parameter of Cu67 in search for tensor-type currents in the weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soti, G.; Wauters, F.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Finlay, P.; Herzog, P.; Knecht, A.; Köster, U.; Kraev, I. S.; Porobic, T.; Prashanth, P. N.; Towner, I. S.; Tramm, C.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2014-09-01

    Background: Precision measurements at low energy search for physics beyond the standard model in a way complementary to searches for new particles at colliders. In the weak sector the most general β-decay Hamiltonian contains, besides vector and axial-vector terms, also scalar, tensor, and pseudoscalar terms. Current limits on the scalar and tensor coupling constants from neutron and nuclear β decay are on the level of several percent. Purpose: Extracting new information on tensor coupling constants by measuring the β-asymmetry parameter in the pure Gamow-Teller decay of Cu67, thereby testing the V-A structure of the weak interaction. Method: An iron sample foil into which the radioactive nuclei were implanted was cooled down to mK temperatures in a 3He-4He dilution refrigerator. An external magnetic field of 0.1 T, in combination with the internal hyperfine magnetic field, oriented the nuclei. The anisotropic β radiation was observed with planar high-purity germanium detectors operating at a temperature of about 10 K. An on-line measurement of the β asymmetry of Cu68 was performed as well for normalization purposes. Systematic effects were investigated using geant4 simulations. Results: The experimental value, Ã=0.587(14), is in agreement with the standard model value of 0.5991(2) and is interpreted in terms of physics beyond the standard model. The limits obtained on possible tensor-type charged currents in the weak interaction Hamiltonian are -0.045<(CT+CT')/CA<0.159 (90% C.L.). Conclusions: The obtained limits are comparable to limits from other correlation measurements in nuclear β decay and contribute to further constraining tensor coupling constants.

  15. P-odd effects in πN-scattering at low energies and determination of the isotopical structure of the weak nonleptonic interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershtein, S.S.; Folomeshkin, V.N.; Khlopov, M.Yu.

    1974-01-01

    P-odd effects in the πN-scattering on a target polarized along and again a pion beam have been considered. The P-odd correlations are intensified by interference of weak and strong interactions, whose amplitude is great in the energy range of the order of 100 to 300 MeV. When measuring cross-section differences of the πN-scattering at meson factories, it is possible to hope that the Lobashow integral method may be used in this range. The P-odd amplitudes have been calculated in the approximation of low-energy pions from the P-odd πNN vertex. High-energy meson effects are taken account of in the model of a rho-meson exchange. A kinematic analysis shows that the P-odd effects in a backward charge exchange reaction are sensitive to the presence of neutral currents. Investigation of the P-odd effects in a forward (elastica and with charge exchange) πN-scattering makes it possible to establish the isotopic structure of the nonlepton weak interaction and in particular to check the assumption of an intensified rho-meson exchange which has been offered by. Danilov to explain the high value of circular polarization of γ-quanta in the np → dγ reaction

  16. Weak decays of stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1988-09-01

    In this article we review recent advances in the field of weak decays and consider their implications for quantum chromodynamics (the theory of strong interactions) and electroweak theory (the combined theory of electromagnetic and weak interactions), which together form the ''Standard Model'' of elementary particles. (author)

  17. Nonmesonic weak decay of the hypertriton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennhold, C.; Ramos, A.; Aruliah, D.A.; Oelfke, U.

    1992-01-01

    The nonmesonic weak decay of Λ 3 H is evaluated microscopically in the pion exchange model. The correlated three-body wave function of the hypertriton is approximated by a bound Λ-deuteron system obtained by averaging the YN interaction over the deuteron wave function. The relevant matrix elements are calculated in momentum space. The resulting decay rate is 4.9% of the free Λ decay rate

  18. Interactions of calcium ions with weakly acidic active ingredients slow cuticular penetration: a case study with glyphosate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönherr, Jörg; Schreiber, Lukas

    2004-10-20

    Potassium and calcium salts of glyphosate were obtained by titrating glyphosate acid with the respective bases to pH 4.0, and rates of penetration of these salts across isolated astomatous cuticular membranes (CMs) were measured at 20 degrees C and 70, 80, 90, and 100% humidity. K-glyphosate exhibited first-order penetration kinetics, and rate constants (k) increased with increasing humidity. Ca-glyphosate penetrated only when the humidity above the salt residue was 100%. At 90% humidity and below, Ca-glyphosate formed a solid residue on the CMs and penetration was not measurable. With Ca-glyphosate, the k value at 100% humidity decreased with time and the initial rates were lower than for K-glyphosate by a factor of 3.68. After equimolar concentrations of ammonium oxalate were added to Ca-glyphosate, high penetration rates close to those measured with K-glyphosate were measured at all humidities. Adding ammonium sulfate or potassium carbonate also increased rates between 70 and 100% humidity, but they were not as high as with ammonium oxalate. The data indicate that at pH 4.0 one Ca2+ ion is bound to two glyphosate anions. This salt has its deliquescence point near 100% humidity. Therefore, it is a solid at lower humidity and does not penetrate. Its molecular weight is 1.82 times larger than that of K-glyphosate, and this greatly slows down rates of penetration, even at 100% humidity. The additives tested have low solubility products and form insoluble precipitates with Ca2+ ions, but only ammonium oxalate binds Ca2+ quantitatively. The resulting ammonium salt of glyphosate penetrates at 70-100% humidity and at rates comparable to K-glyphosate. The results contribute to a better understanding of the hard water antagonism observed with glyphosate. It is argued that other pesticides and hormones with carboxyl functions are likely to respond to Ca2+ ions in a similar fashion. In all of these cases, ammonium oxalate is expected to overcome hard water antagonism

  19. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  20. An interaction study in mammalian cells demonstrates weak binding of HSPB2 to BAG3, which is regulated by HSPB3 and abrogated by HSPB8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Federica F; Mediani, Laura; Heldens, Lonneke; Bertacchini, Jessika; Bigi, Ilaria; Carrà, Arianna Dorotea; Vinet, Jonathan; Carra, Serena

    2017-07-01

    The ten mammalian small heat shock proteins (sHSPs/HSPBs) show a different expression profile, although the majority of them are abundant in skeletal and cardiac muscles. HSPBs form hetero-oligomers and homo-oligomers by interacting together and complexes containing, e.g., HSPB2/HSPB3 or HSPB1/HSPB5 have been documented in mammalian cells and muscles. Moreover, HSPB8 associates with the Hsc70/Hsp70 co-chaperone BAG3, in mammalian, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Interaction of HSPB8 with BAG3 regulates its stability and function. Weak association of HSPB5 and HSPB6 with BAG3 has been also reported upon overexpression in cells, supporting the idea that BAG3 might indirectly modulate the function of several HSPBs. However, it is yet unknown whether other HSPBs highly expressed in muscles such as HSPB2 and HSPB3 also bind to BAG3. Here, we report that in mammalian cells, upon overexpression, HSPB2 binds to BAG3 with an affinity weaker than HSPB8. HSPB2 competes with HSPB8 for binding to BAG3. In contrast, HSPB3 negatively regulates HSPB2 association with BAG3. In human myoblasts that express HSPB2, HSPB3, HSPB8, and BAG3, the latter interacts selectively with HSPB8. Combining these data, it supports the interpretation that HSPB8-BAG3 is the preferred interaction.

  1. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  2. The Interaction between American and European IRS Interest Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verga Giovanni

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available European interest rates movements are affected by various internal and external factors. This paper studies the link between European and American short- and long-term interest rates. In particular, we consider the forward interest rates coming from euro and dollar IRS term structures. The econometric techniques employed are co-integration, Granger-causality, OLS and GMM. Our results indicate that European remote settlement forward and long-term interest rates are primarily driven by US rates and confirm that the causality acts mainly from the US to the Eurozone. This was true even during the recent periods of European Central Bank quantitative easing. These factors weaken the ECB’s ability to intervene. In fact, we found the impact of American monetary policy on long-term interest rates to be also relevant for European bonds.

  3. The subtle balance of weak supramolecular interactions: The hierarchy of halogen and hydrogen bonds in haloanilinium and halopyridinium salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Raatikainen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The series of haloanilinium and halopyridinium salts: 4-IPhNH3Cl (1, 4-IPhNH3Br (5, 4-IPhNH3H2PO4 (6, 4-ClPhNH3H2PO4 (8, 3-IPyBnCl (9, 3-IPyHCl (10 and 3-IPyH-5NIPA (3-iodopyridinium 5-nitroisophthalate, 13, where hydrogen or/and halogen bonding represents the most relevant non-covalent interactions, has been prepared and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This series was further complemented by extracting some relevant crystal structures: 4-BrPhNH3Cl (2, CCDC ref. code TAWRAL, 4-ClPhNH3Cl (3, CURGOL, 4-FPhNH3Cl (4, ANLCLA, 4-BrPhNH3H2PO4, (7, UGISEI, 3-BrPyHCl, (11, CIHBAX and 3-ClPyHCl, (12, VOQMUJ from Cambridge Structural Database for sake of comparison. Based on the X-ray data it was possible to highlight the balance between non-covalent forces acting in these systems, where the relative strength of the halogen bonding C–X···A− (X = I, Br or Cl and the ratio between the halogen and hydrogen bonds [C–X···A− : D–H···A−] varied across the series.

  4. Results on the Spin-Dependent Scattering of Weakly Interacting Massive Particles on Nucleons from the Run 3 Data of the LUX Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerib, D. S.; Araújo, H. M.; Bai, X.; Bailey, A. J.; Balajthy, J.; Beltrame, P.; Bernard, E. P.; Bernstein, A.; Biesiadzinski, T. P.; Boulton, E. M.; Bradley, A.; Bramante, R.; Cahn, S. B.; Carmona-Benitez, M. C.; Chan, C.; Chapman, J. J.; Chiller, A. A.; Chiller, C.; Currie, A.; Cutter, J. E.; Davison, T. J. R.; de Viveiros, L.; Dobi, A.; Dobson, J. E. Y.; Druszkiewicz, E.; Edwards, B. N.; Faham, C. H.; Fiorucci, S.; Gaitskell, R. J.; Gehman, V. M.; Ghag, C.; Gibson, K. R.; Gilchriese, M. G. D.; Hall, C. R.; Hanhardt, M.; Haselschwardt, S. J.; Hertel, S. A.; Hogan, D. P.; Horn, M.; Huang, D. Q.; Ignarra, C. M.; Ihm, M.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Ji, W.; Kazkaz, K.; Khaitan, D.; Knoche, R.; Larsen, N. A.; Lee, C.; Lenardo, B. G.; Lesko, K. T.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, M. I.; Malling, D. C.; Manalaysay, A.; Mannino, R. L.; Marzioni, M. F.; McKinsey, D. N.; Mei, D.-M.; Mock, J.; Moongweluwan, M.; Morad, J. A.; Murphy, A. St. J.; Nehrkorn, C.; Nelson, H. N.; Neves, F.; O'Sullivan, K.; Oliver-Mallory, K. C.; Ott, R. A.; Palladino, K. J.; Pangilinan, M.; Pease, E. K.; Phelps, P.; Reichhart, L.; Rhyne, C.; Shaw, S.; Shutt, T. A.; Silva, C.; Solovov, V. N.; Sorensen, P.; Stephenson, S.; Sumner, T. J.; Szydagis, M.; Taylor, D. J.; Taylor, W.; Tennyson, B. P.; Terman, P. A.; Tiedt, D. R.; To, W. H.; Tripathi, M.; Tvrznikova, L.; Uvarov, S.; Verbus, J. R.; Webb, R. C.; White, J. T.; Whitis, T. J.; Witherell, M. S.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Yazdani, K.; Young, S. K.; Zhang, C.; LUX Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    We present experimental constraints on the spin-dependent WIMP (weakly interacting massive particle)-nucleon elastic cross sections from LUX data acquired in 2013. LUX is a dual-phase xenon time projection chamber operating at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (Lead, South Dakota), which is designed to observe the recoil signature of galactic WIMPs scattering from xenon nuclei. A profile likelihood ratio analysis of 1.4 ×104 kg day of fiducial exposure allows 90% C.L. upper limits to be set on the WIMP-neutron (WIMP-proton) cross section of σn=9.4 ×10-41 cm2 (σp=2.9 ×10-39 cm2 ) at 33 GeV /c2 . The spin-dependent WIMP-neutron limit is the most sensitive constraint to date.

  5. Interaction of In(I) and Tl(I) cations with 2,6-diaryl pyridine ligands: cation encapsulation within a very weakly interacting N/arene host environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansaray, Hassanatu B; Tang, Christina Y; Vidovic, Dragoslav; Thompson, Amber L; Aldridge, Simon

    2012-12-03

    The interaction of 2,6-dimesitylpyridine with Tl(I) and In(I) cations has been investigated with a view to developing tractable molecular M(I) compounds which are soluble in organic media. In stark contrast to isosteric and isoelectronic terphenyl systems, complexes featuring the [(2,6-Mes(2)py)M](+) fragment feature very weak metal-ligand interactions in the solid state, as revealed by M-N distances of the order of 2.45 Å (M = In) and 2.64 Å (M = Tl). While additional weak π interactions are observed with arene solvate molecules in these systems, the related 2:1 complex [(2,6-Mes(2)py)(2)In][BAr(f)(4)] features an In(I) center wholly encapsulated by the bulky Mes(2)py donors, and even longer In-N distances [2.586(6) and 2.662(5) Å]. These contacts are about 0.5 Å greater than the sum of the respective covalent radii (2.13 Å) and provide evidence for an effectively "naked" In(I) cation stabilized to a minor extent by orbital interactions.

  6. Analytical description of spin-Rabi oscillation controlled electronic transitions rates between weakly coupled pairs of paramagnetic states with S=(1)/(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, R.; Baker, W. J.; Boehme, C.; Raikh, M. E.

    2013-04-01

    We report on the theoretical and experimental study of spin-dependent electronic transition rates which are controlled by a radiation-induced spin-Rabi oscillation of weakly spin-exchange and spin-dipolar coupled paramagnetic states (S=(1)/(2)). The oscillation components [the Fourier content, F(s)] of the net transition rates within spin-pair ensembles are derived for randomly distributed spin resonances, with an account of a possible correlation between the two distributions corresponding to individual pair partners. Our study shows that when electrically detected Rabi spectroscopy is conducted under an increasing driving field B1, the Rabi spectrum, F(s), evolves from a single peak at s=ΩR, where ΩR=γB1 is the Rabi frequency (γ is the gyromagnetic ratio), to three peaks at s=ΩR, s=2ΩR, and low s≪ΩR. The crossover between the two regimes takes place when ΩR exceeds the expectation value δ0 of the difference in the Zeeman energies within the pairs, which corresponds to the broadening of the magnetic resonance by disorder caused by a hyperfine field or distributions of Landé g factors. We capture this crossover by analytically calculating the shapes of all three peaks at an arbitrary relation between ΩR and δ0. When the peaks are well developed their widths are Δs˜δ02/ΩR. We find a good quantitative agreement between the theory and experiment.

  7. Entertainment Capture through Heart Rate Activity in Physical Interactive Playgrounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yannakakis, Georgios; Hallam, John; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2008-01-01

    children’s physiological signals, an estimator of the degree to which games provided by the playground engage the players. For this purpose children’s heart rate (HR) signals, and their expressed preferences of how much “fun” particular game variants are, are obtained from experiments using games...... that predict reported entertainment preferences given HR features. These models are expressed as artificial neural networks and are demonstrated and evaluated on two Playware games and two control tasks requiring physical activity. The best network is able to correctly match expressed preferences in 64...

  8. Weak antilocalization induced by Rashba spin-orbit interaction in layered III-VI compound semiconductor GaSe thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasuna, Shoichi; Shiogai, Junichi; Matsuzaka, Shunichiro; Kohda, Makoto; Oyama, Yutaka; Nitta, Junsaku

    2017-10-01

    Magnetoconductance (MC) at low temperature was measured to investigate spin-related transport affected by spin-orbit interaction (SOI) in III-VI compound n -type GaSe thin films. Results reveal that MC shows weak antilocalization (WAL). Its temperature and gate voltage dependences reveal that the dominant spin relaxation is governed by the D'yakonov-Perel' mechanism associated with the Rashba SOI. The estimated Rashba SOI strength in GaSe is much stronger than that of III-V compound GaAs quantum wells, although the energy gap and spin split-off band in GaSe closely resemble those in GaAs. The angle dependence of WAL amplitude in the in-plane magnetic field direction is almost isotropic. This isotropy indicates that the strength of the Dresselhaus SOI is negligible compared with the Rashba SOI strength. The SOI effect in n -GaSe thin films differs greatly from those of III-V compound semiconductors and transition-metal dichalcogenides.

  9. Generation of electron beams in cyclotron motion and its interaction with electromagnetic fields in weakly irregular cavities: a study applied to conceptual elaboration of a 35 GHz gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.J.B. de.

    1988-12-01

    It is presented an investigation of different phenomena that occur in the gyrotron: 1) generation and transport of helical electron beams, 2) interaction of electrons in cyclotron motion with a transverse electric mode in resonant cavities operating near cutoff and 3) electron deposition over the collector active region. An exact ballistic model, which points out the nonlinear attributes of the relativistic equation of electron cyclotron motion and that includes a complex formulation for the longitudinal electric field distribution in weakly irregular waveguides, is used. Physically realizable RF field profiles are studied with the objective of maximizing gyrotron efficiency. For this purpose, an investigation is made of the resonant properties of truncated cones cavities and a new resonator type, with a profile described in terms of a continuous function, is developed. High perpendicular efficiencies (η perpendicular MAX =0.86) have been calculated for interaction at the fundamental 1 cyclotron harmonic and for uniform external magnetic field. A maximum efficiency scaling parameter S has been introduced, by which scaling relations η perpendicular MAX = η perpendicular MAX (S) are applicable to a variety of field profiles. The conceptual design of a 35 GHz gyrotron gives emphasis to selection criteria of operating parameters in compliance with technical constraints and with the requirement of soft self-excited oscillations. The proposed gyrotron operates in the azimuthally symetrical mode TE 021 and is able to produce, with an electronic efficiency of 40%, an output power of 100 kW, in pulses of 20 ms, with a duty factor of 0.04%. (author) [pt

  10. Influence of Cell-Cell Interactions on the Population Growth Rate in a Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong

    2017-12-01

    The understanding of the macroscopic phenomenological models of the population growth at a microscopic level is important to predict the population behaviors emerged from the interactions between the individuals. In this work, we consider the influence of the population growth rate R on the cell-cell interaction in a tumor system and show that, in most cases especially small proliferative probabilities, the regulative role of the interaction will be strengthened with the decline of the intrinsic proliferative probabilities. For the high replication rates of an individual and the cooperative interactions, the proliferative probability almost has no effect. We compute the dependences of R on the interactions between the cells under the approximation of the nearest neighbor in the rim of an avascular tumor. Our results are helpful to qualitatively understand the influence of the interactions between the individuals on the growth rate in population systems. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11675008 and 21434001

  11. Search for a light Higgs boson decaying to long-lived weakly-interacting particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; 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Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; 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Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imbault, Didier; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; 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    2012-01-01

    A search for the decay of a light Higgs (120 - 140 GeV) to a pair of weakly-interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94 fb${^-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly-interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length.

  12. Search for a light Higgs boson decaying to long-lived weakly interacting particles in proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Steinbach, P; Steinberg, P; Stekl, I; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stevenson, K; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoerig, K; Stoicea, G; Stonjek, S; Strachota, P; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strang, M; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Strong, J A; Stroynowski, R; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stumer, I; Stupak, J; Sturm, P; Styles, N A; Soh, D A; Su, D; Subramania, Hs; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Sugimoto, T; Suhr, C; Suita, K; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Sushkov, S; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Sviridov, Yu M; Swedish, S; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Szeless, B; Sánchez, J; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A; Tamsett, M C; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, Y; Tanasijczuk, A J; Tani, K; Tannoury, N; Tappern, G P; Tapprogge, S; Tardif, D; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tassi, E; Tatarkhanov, M; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, C; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teinturier, M; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Thadome, J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thioye, M; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Y A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tique Aires Viegas, F J; Tisserant, S; Toczek, B; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokunaga, K; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, G; Tonoyan, A; Topfel, C; Topilin, N D; Torchiani, I; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Trinh, T N; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trivedi, A; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiakiris, M; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tua, A; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuggle, J M; Turala, M; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Tzanakos, G; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Uhrmacher, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Underwood, D G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Usai, G; Uslenghi, M; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Vahsen, S; Valenta, J; Valente, P; Valentinetti, S; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; van der Graaf, H; van der Kraaij, E; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Poel, E; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Kesteren, Z; van Vulpen, I; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vandoni, G; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Varela Rodriguez, F; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vegni, G; Veillet, J J; Vellidis, C; Veloso, F; Veness, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinek, E; Vinogradov, V B; Virchaux, M; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Viti, M; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vlasov, N; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Loeben, J; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobiev, A P; Vorwerk, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Voss, T T; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahlen, H; Wakabayashi, J; Walbersloh, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, J C; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Warsinsky, M; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Weber, M; Weber, M S; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Wellenstein, H; Wells, P S; Wen, M; Wenaus, T; Wendler, S; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; Weydert, C; Whalen, K; Wheeler-Ellis, S J; Whitaker, S P; White, A; White, M J; Whitehead, S R; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicek, F; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, M G; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wong, W C; Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, C; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wunstorf, R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xie, S; Xie, Y; Xu, C; Xu, D; Xu, G; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamaoka, J; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, Y; Yasu, Y; Ybeles Smit, G V; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Young, C; Youssef, S; Yu, D; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaets, V G; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zajacova, Z; Zanello, L; Zarzhitsky, P; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeller, M; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zendler, C; Zenin, O; Zeniš, T; Zinonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zevi Della Porta, G; Zhan, Z; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, L; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zheng, S; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhou, Y; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zieminska, D; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Zivković, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zolnierowski, Y; Zsenei, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2012-06-22

    A search for the decay of a light Higgs boson (120-140 GeV) to a pair of weakly interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at sqrt[s] = 7 TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length.

  13. Heart rate responses induced by acoustic tempo and its interaction with basal heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Ken; Ooishi, Yuuki; Kashino, Makio

    2017-03-07

    Many studies have revealed the influences of music on the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Since previous studies focused on the effects of acoustic tempo on the ANS, and humans have their own physiological oscillations such as the heart rate (HR), the effects of acoustic tempo might depend on the HR. Here we show the relationship between HR elevation induced by acoustic tempo and individual basal HR. Since high tempo-induced HR elevation requires fast respiration, which is based on sympatho-respiratory coupling, we controlled the participants' respiration at a faster rate (20 CPM) than usual (15 CPM). We found that sound stimuli with a faster tempo than the individual basal HR increased the HR. However, the HR increased following a gradual increase in the acoustic tempo only when the extent of the gradual increase in tempo was within a specific range (around + 2%/min). The HR did not follow the increase in acoustic tempo when the rate of the increase in the acoustic tempo exceeded 3% per minute. These results suggest that the effect of the sympatho-respiratory coupling underlying the HR elevation caused by a high acoustic tempo depends on the basal HR, and the strength and the temporal dynamics of the tempo.

  14. Structural and Thermodynamic Basis for Weak Interactions between Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase and Subunit-binding Domain of the Branched-chain [alpha]-Ketoacid Dehydrogenase Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brautigam, Chad A.; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Naik, Mandar T.; Young, Brittany B.; Huang, Tai-huang; Chuang, David T. (AS); (UTSMC)

    2012-02-27

    The purified mammalian branched-chain {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC), which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain {alpha}-keto acids, is essentially devoid of the constituent dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase component (E3). The absence of E3 is associated with the low affinity of the subunit-binding domain of human BCKDC (hSBDb) for hE3. In this work, sequence alignments of hSBDb with the E3-binding domain (E3BD) of the mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex show that hSBDb has an arginine at position 118, where E3BD features an asparagine. Substitution of Arg-118 with an asparagine increases the binding affinity of the R118N hSBDb variant (designated hSBDb*) for hE3 by nearly 2 orders of magnitude. The enthalpy of the binding reaction changes from endothermic with the wild-type hSBDb to exothermic with the hSBDb* variant. This higher affinity interaction allowed the determination of the crystal structure of the hE3/hSBDb* complex to 2.4-{angstrom} resolution. The structure showed that the presence of Arg-118 poses a unique, possibly steric and/or electrostatic incompatibility that could impede E3 interactions with the wild-type hSBDb. Compared with the E3/E3BD structure, the hE3/hSBDb* structure has a smaller interfacial area. Solution NMR data corroborated the interactions of hE3 with Arg-118 and Asn-118 in wild-type hSBDb and mutant hSBDb*, respectively. The NMR results also showed that the interface between hSBDb and hE3 does not change significantly from hSBDb to hSBDb*. Taken together, our results represent a starting point for explaining the long standing enigma that the E2b core of the BCKDC binds E3 far more weakly relative to other {alpha}-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes.

  15. The Reliability and Validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal Behavior Rating Scales in a Preschool Sample: Continuum Measures of Hyperactivity and Inattention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Kimberley D.; Swanson, James M.; Riggs, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability and validity of the English and Spanish versions of the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptom and Normal-behavior (SWAN) rating scale. Method: Parents of preschoolers completed both a SWAN and the well-established Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) on two separate occasions over a span of 3…

  16. Abnormal Strain Rate Sensitivity Driven by a Unit Dislocation-Obstacle Interaction in bcc Fe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhitong; Fan, Yue

    2018-03-01

    The interaction between an edge dislocation and a sessile vacancy cluster in bcc Fe is investigated over a wide range of strain rates from 108 down to 103 s-1 , which is enabled by employing an energy landscape-based atomistic modeling algorithm. It is observed that, at low strain rates regime less than 105 s-1 , such interaction leads to a surprising negative strain rate sensitivity behavior because of the different intermediate microstructures emerged under the complex interplays between thermal activation and applied strain rate. Implications of our findings regarding the previously established global diffusion model are also discussed.

  17. Analyzing Reaction Rates with the Distortion/Interaction-Activation Strain Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias; Houk, Kendall N.

    2017-01-01

    The activation strain or distortion/interaction model is a tool to analyze activation barriers that determine reaction rates. For bimolecular reactions, the activation energies are the sum of the energies to distort the reactants into geometries they have in transition states plus the interaction

  18. Survival and weak chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nee, Sean

    2018-05-01

    Survival analysis in biology and reliability theory in engineering concern the dynamical functioning of bio/electro/mechanical units. Here we incorporate effects of chaotic dynamics into the classical theory. Dynamical systems theory now distinguishes strong and weak chaos. Strong chaos generates Type II survivorship curves entirely as a result of the internal operation of the system, without any age-independent, external, random forces of mortality. Weak chaos exhibits (a) intermittency and (b) Type III survivorship, defined as a decreasing per capita mortality rate: engineering explicitly defines this pattern of decreasing hazard as 'infant mortality'. Weak chaos generates two phenomena from the normal functioning of the same system. First, infant mortality- sensu engineering-without any external explanatory factors, such as manufacturing defects, which is followed by increased average longevity of survivors. Second, sudden failure of units during their normal period of operation, before the onset of age-dependent mortality arising from senescence. The relevance of these phenomena encompasses, for example: no-fault-found failure of electronic devices; high rates of human early spontaneous miscarriage/abortion; runaway pacemakers; sudden cardiac death in young adults; bipolar disorder; and epilepsy.

  19. Weak values in collision theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Leonardo Andreta; Brasil, Carlos Alexandre; Napolitano, Reginaldo de Jesus

    2018-05-01

    Weak measurements have an increasing number of applications in contemporary quantum mechanics. They were originally described as a weak interaction that slightly entangled the translational degrees of freedom of a particle to its spin, yielding surprising results after post-selection. That description often ignores the kinetic energy of the particle and its movement in three dimensions. Here, we include these elements and re-obtain the weak values within the context of collision theory by two different approaches, and prove that the results are compatible with each other and with the results from the traditional approach. To provide a more complete description, we generalize weak values into weak tensors and use them to provide a more realistic description of the Stern-Gerlach apparatus.

  20. Weak Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ales Psaker; Wolodymyr Melnitchouk; Anatoly Radyushkin

    2006-01-01

    We extend the analysis of the deeply virtual Compton scattering process to the weak interaction sector in the generalized Bjorken limit. The virtual Compton scattering amplitudes for the weak neutral and charged currents are calculated at the leading twist within the framework of the nonlocal light-cone expansion via coordinate space QCD string operators. Using a simple model, we estimate cross sections for neutrino scattering off the nucleon, relevant for future high intensity neutrino beam facilities

  1. The effects of the interaction of various oil types and rates on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lentinus squarrosulus and Psathyrella atroumbonata, two edible indigenous mushroom species, were cultured in various different media supplemented with coconut, cotton, groundnut, butterfat, palm kernel and palm oil respectively, at 5 different rates. The interaction of the various oil types with different rates produced ...

  2. Star-formation rates in the nuclei of violently interacting galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushouse, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Spectrophotometry has been obtained of the nuclear regions of a large sample of violently interacting spiral galaxies. The sample galaxies were chosen to include only those systems having tails, plumes, or other morphological features consistent with strong tidal interactions involving disk galaxies. The interacting galaxies are found to exhibit a wide range of nuclear optical emission-line strengths, but show a significantly higher overall level in both Hα emission-line equivalent width and luminosity than samples of field spirals observed in a similar fashion. While galaxy-galaxy interactions can lead to large nuclear star-formation bursts, this is not a ubiquitous phenomenon. A large fraction (approx.30%) of the nuclei show only weak or no detectable optical emission lines and are characterized by stellar absorption spectra of old, elliptical galaxy-like stellar populations, thus indicating little recent or continuing star-formation activity. These circumstances can occur even in instances where the nucleus of the other component has a large population of young stars. While exhaustion of a galaxy's gas supply during the later phases of interaction can account for post-burst systems, it cannot explain systems that have experienced no significant star-formation activity throughout the entire interaction process. Seyfert and low-ionization nuclei also are rare in violently interacting systems which, coupled with the large number of nuclei found to have little star-formation activity, suggests either an initial lack of near-nuclear gas or that gas is present but in inappropriate forms to support star formation or fuel nuclear activity

  3. Hypernuclear weak decay puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, C.; Horvat, D.; Narancic, Z.; Krmpotic, F.; Kuo, T.T.S.; Tadic, D.

    2002-01-01

    A general shell model formalism for the nonmesonic weak decay of the hypernuclei has been developed. It involves a partial wave expansion of the emitted nucleon waves, preserves naturally the antisymmetrization between the escaping particles and the residual core, and contains as a particular case the weak Λ-core coupling formalism. The extreme particle-hole model and the quasiparticle Tamm-Dancoff approximation are explicitly worked out. It is shown that the nuclear structure manifests itself basically through the Pauli principle, and a very simple expression is derived for the neutron- and proton-induced decays rates Γ n and Γ p , which does not involve the spectroscopic factors. We use the standard strangeness-changing weak ΛN→NN transition potential which comprises the exchange of the complete pseudoscalar and vector meson octets (π,η,K,ρ,ω,K * ), taking into account some important parity-violating transition operators that are systematically omitted in the literature. The interplay between different mesons in the decay of Λ 12 C is carefully analyzed. With the commonly used parametrization in the one-meson-exchange model (OMEM), the calculated rate Γ NM =Γ n +Γ p is of the order of the free Λ decay rate Γ 0 (Γ NM th congruent with Γ 0 ) and is consistent with experiments. Yet the measurements of Γ n/p =Γ n /Γ p and of Γ p are not well accounted for by the theory (Γ n/p th p th > or approx. 0.60Γ 0 ). It is suggested that, unless additional degrees of freedom are incorporated, the OMEM parameters should be radically modified

  4. Cross-correlated relaxation rates between protein backbone H–X dipolar interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vögeli, Beat

    2017-01-01

    The relaxation interference between dipole–dipole interactions of two separate spin pairs carries structural and dynamics information. In particular, when compared to individual dynamic behavior of those spin pairs, such cross-correlated relaxation (CCR) rates report on the correlation between the spin pairs. We have recently mapped out correlated motion along the backbone of the protein GB3, using CCR rates among and between consecutive H N –N and H α –C α dipole–dipole interactions. Here, we provide a detailed account of the measurement of the four types of CCR rates. All rates were obtained from at least two different pulse sequences, of which the yet unpublished ones are presented. Detailed comparisons between the different methods and corrections for unwanted pathways demonstrate that the averaged CCR rates are highly accurate and precise with errors of 1.5–3% of the entire value ranges.

  5. Cross-correlated relaxation rates between protein backbone H–X dipolar interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vögeli, Beat, E-mail: beat.vogeli@ucdenver.edu [University of Colorado Denver, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics (United States)

    2017-03-15

    The relaxation interference between dipole–dipole interactions of two separate spin pairs carries structural and dynamics information. In particular, when compared to individual dynamic behavior of those spin pairs, such cross-correlated relaxation (CCR) rates report on the correlation between the spin pairs. We have recently mapped out correlated motion along the backbone of the protein GB3, using CCR rates among and between consecutive H{sup N}–N and H{sup α}–C{sup α} dipole–dipole interactions. Here, we provide a detailed account of the measurement of the four types of CCR rates. All rates were obtained from at least two different pulse sequences, of which the yet unpublished ones are presented. Detailed comparisons between the different methods and corrections for unwanted pathways demonstrate that the averaged CCR rates are highly accurate and precise with errors of 1.5–3% of the entire value ranges.

  6. Normal modes of weak colloidal gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Zsigmond; Swan, James W.

    2018-01-01

    The normal modes and relaxation rates of weak colloidal gels are investigated in calculations using different models of the hydrodynamic interactions between suspended particles. The relaxation spectrum is computed for freely draining, Rotne-Prager-Yamakawa, and accelerated Stokesian dynamics approximations of the hydrodynamic mobility in a normal mode analysis of a harmonic network representing several colloidal gels. We find that the density of states and spatial structure of the normal modes are fundamentally altered by long-ranged hydrodynamic coupling among the particles. Short-ranged coupling due to hydrodynamic lubrication affects only the relaxation rates of short-wavelength modes. Hydrodynamic models accounting for long-ranged coupling exhibit a microscopic relaxation rate for each normal mode, λ that scales as l-2, where l is the spatial correlation length of the normal mode. For the freely draining approximation, which neglects long-ranged coupling, the microscopic relaxation rate scales as l-γ, where γ varies between three and two with increasing particle volume fraction. A simple phenomenological model of the internal elastic response to normal mode fluctuations is developed, which shows that long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions play a central role in the viscoelasticity of the gel network. Dynamic simulations of hard spheres that gel in response to short-ranged depletion attractions are used to test the applicability of the density of states predictions. For particle concentrations up to 30% by volume, the power law decay of the relaxation modulus in simulations accounting for long-ranged hydrodynamic interactions agrees with predictions generated by the density of states of the corresponding harmonic networks as well as experimental measurements. For higher volume fractions, excluded volume interactions dominate the stress response, and the prediction from the harmonic network density of states fails. Analogous to the Zimm model in polymer

  7. Spin relaxation rates in quantum dots: Role of the phonon modulated spin orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, A. M.; Romano, C. L.; Marques, G. E.

    2008-11-01

    We calculate the spin relaxation rates in InAs and GaAs parabolic quantum dots due to the interaction of spin carriers with acoustical phonons. We consider a spin relaxation mechanism completely intrinsic to the system, since it is based on the modulation of the spin-orbit interaction by the acoustic phonon potential, which is independent of any structural properties of the confinement potential. The electron-phonon deformation potential and the piezoelectric interaction are described by the Pavlov-Firsov spin-phonon Hamiltonian. Our results demonstrate that, for narrow-gap semiconductors, the deformation potential interaction becomes dominant. This behavior is not observed for wide or intermediate gap semiconductors, where the piezoelectric coupling, in general, governs the relaxation processes. We also demonstrate that the spin relaxation rates are particularly sensitive to values of the Landé g-factor, which depend strongly on the spatial shape of the confinement.

  8. Heart Rate Variability during Social Interactions in Children with and without Psychopathology: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Sara; Stewart, Elizabeth M.; Quintana, Daniel S.; Hickie, Ian B.; Guastella, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The inability to regulate autonomic activity during social interactions is believed to contribute to social and emotional dysregulation in children. Research has employed heart rate variability (HRV) during both socially engaging and socially disengaging dyadic tasks between children and adults to assess this. Methods: We conducted a…

  9. Climate variability and nitrogen rate interactions affecting corn nitrogen use efficiency in Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization is an important practice to increase yield; however, plant–soil interactions to in-season changes in climatic conditions result on site-specific responses of corn to nitrogen rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different climatic conditions and...

  10. A Comparison of Student Ratings in Traditional and Interactive Television Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Morgan; Dunham, Mardis; Lyons, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Although interactive television (ITV) allows colleges and universities to reach a wider audience, little research has been conducted exploring the effectiveness of the courses as perceived by students. This study compared student ratings of teacher effectiveness between 331 traditional courses and 125 ITV courses. The data included 456 graduate…

  11. High rate of adaptation of mammalian proteins that interact with Plasmodium and related parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telis, Natalie; Petrov, Dmitri A.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium parasites, along with their Piroplasm relatives, have caused malaria-like illnesses in terrestrial mammals for millions of years. Several Plasmodium-protective alleles have recently evolved in human populations, but little is known about host adaptation to blood parasites over deeper evolutionary timescales. In this work, we analyze mammalian adaptation in ~500 Plasmodium- or Piroplasm- interacting proteins (PPIPs) manually curated from the scientific literature. We show that (i) PPIPs are enriched for both immune functions and pleiotropy with other pathogens, and (ii) the rate of adaptation across mammals is significantly elevated in PPIPs, compared to carefully matched control proteins. PPIPs with high pathogen pleiotropy show the strongest signatures of adaptation, but this pattern is fully explained by their immune enrichment. Several pieces of evidence suggest that blood parasites specifically have imposed selection on PPIPs. First, even non-immune PPIPs that lack interactions with other pathogens have adapted at twice the rate of matched controls. Second, PPIP adaptation is linked to high expression in the liver, a critical organ in the parasite life cycle. Finally, our detailed investigation of alpha-spectrin, a major red blood cell membrane protein, shows that domains with particularly high rates of adaptation are those known to interact specifically with P. falciparum. Overall, we show that host proteins that interact with Plasmodium and Piroplasm parasites have experienced elevated rates of adaptation across mammals, and provide evidence that some of this adaptation has likely been driven by blood parasites. PMID:28957326

  12. New experimental possibility to search for the ratio of a possible T-violating amplitude to the weak-interaction amplitude in polarized neutron transmission through a polarized nuclear target

    CERN Document Server

    Lukashevich, V V; Dallman, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers a spin-dependent neutron interaction with optical potentials (fields) from the strong interaction, the weak interaction, and an assumed T-violating interaction. The vector sum of these fields and their interferences determines an effective field of the target with an angular position in space due to polar and azimuthal angles. The phase of the azimuthal component is found to be the sum of two angles. The tangent of the first angle is equal to the ratio of the T-violating forward-scattering amplitude D to the weak-interaction amplitude C. The quantity is of interest. The tangent of the second angle depends on the spin rotation in the residual pseudomagnetic field of the target, and it can be treated as a background effect. This paper shows that the second angle has different signs in measurements with polarized and unpolarized neutrons; thus, two measurements allow it to be compensated for. In addition, the use of the Ramsey method of separated oscillatory fields for measurement of the neu...

  13. Weak strange particle production: advantages and difficulties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelescu, Tatiana; Baker, O.K.

    2002-01-01

    Electromagnetic strange particle production developed at Jefferson Laboratory was an important source of information on strange particle electromagnetic formfactors and induced and transferred polarization. The high quality of the beam and the detection techniques involved could be an argument for detecting strange particles in weak interactions and answer questions about cross sections, weak formfactors, neutrino properties, which have not been investigated yet. The paper analyses some aspects related to the weak lambda production and detection with the Hall C facilities at Jefferson Laboratory and the limitations in measuring the weak interaction quantities. (authors)

  14. A twin study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Dimensions rated by the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptoms and Normal-behavior (SWAN) Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hay, D.A.; Bennett, K.S.; Levy, J.; Sergeant, J.A.; Swanson, J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: When symptom rating scales are used in the general population, there is severe skewness, with many individuals having no symptoms. While this has major implications for genetic designs that require extremely discordant and concordant (EDAC) siblings, little is known of the genetics of

  15. Precision Measurement of the Beryllium-7 Solar Neutrino Interaction Rate in Borexino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldanha, Richard Nigel

    Solar neutrinos, since their first detection nearly forty years ago, have revealed valuable information regarding the source of energy production in the Sun, and have demonstrated that neutrino oscillations are well described by the Large Mixing Angle (LMA) oscillation parameters with matter interactions due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. This thesis presents a precision measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino interaction rate within Borexino, an underground liquid scintillator detector that is designed to measure solar neutrino interactions through neutrino-electron elastic scattering. The thesis includes a detailed description of the analysis techniques developed and used for this measurement as well as an evaluation of the relevant systematic uncertainties that affect the precision of the result. The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering from 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is determined to be 45.4 +/- 1.6 (stat) +/- 1.5 (sys) counts/day/100 ton. Due to extensive detector calibrations and improved analysis methods, the systematic uncertainty in the interaction rate has been reduced by more than a factor of two from the previous evaluation. In the no-oscillation hypothesis, the interaction rate corresponds to a 0.862 MeV 7Be electron neutrino flux of (2.75 +/- 0.13) x 10 9 cm-2 sec-1. Including the predicted neutrino flux from the Standard Solar Model yields an electron neutrino survival probability of Pee 0.51 +/- 0.07 and rules out the no-oscillation hypothesis at 5.1sigma The LMA-MSW neutrino oscillation model predicts a transition in the solar Pee value between low ( 10 MeV) energies which has not yet been experimentally confirmed. This result, in conjunction with the Standard Solar Model, represents the most precise measurement of the electron neutrino survival probability for solar neutrinos at sub-MeV energies.

  16. Measurement of Nuclear Interaction Rates in Crystal Using the CERN-SPS North Area Test Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Losito, R; Taratin, A

    2010-01-01

    A number of tests were performed in the North area of the SPS in view of investigating crystal-particles interactions for future application in hadron colliders. The rate of nuclear interactions was measured with 400 GeV proton beams directed into a silicon bent crystal. In this way the background induced by the crystal either in amorphous or in channeling orientation was revealed. The results provide fundamental information to put in perspective the use of silicon crystals to assist halo collimation in hadron colliders, whilst minimizing the induced loss.

  17. Ant Larval Demand Reduces Aphid Colony Growth Rates in an Ant-Aphid Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Cook

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ants often form mutualistic interactions with aphids, soliciting honeydew in return for protective services. Under certain circumstances, however, ants will prey upon aphids. In addition, in the presence of ants aphids may increase the quantity or quality of honeydew produced, which is costly. Through these mechanisms, ant attendance can reduce aphid colony growth rates. However, it is unknown whether demand from within the ant colony can affect the ant-aphid interaction. In a factorial experiment, we tested whether the presence of larvae in Lasius niger ant colonies affected the growth rate of Aphis fabae colonies. Other explanatory variables tested were the origin of ant colonies (two separate colonies were used and previous diet (sugar only or sugar and protein. We found that the presence of larvae in the ant colony significantly reduced the growth rate of aphid colonies. Previous diet and colony origin did not affect aphid colony growth rates. Our results suggest that ant colonies balance the flow of two separate resources from aphid colonies- renewable sugars or a protein-rich meal, depending on demand from ant larvae within the nest. Aphid payoffs from the ant-aphid interaction may change on a seasonal basis, as the demand from larvae within the ant colony waxes and wanes.

  18. Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, V E

    1997-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.

  19. A study on microstructure and strain-hardening rate of friction stir welded Al-Mg-Si alloys using a weak beam technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukedai, E; Yokoyama, T

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical properties of a friction stir welded Al-Mg-Si (6061-T6Al) alloy are evaluated by a tensile test. It is found that the strain-hardening rate is higher than that of a base material. In order to investigate the origin, TEM observations have been performed about 4 kinds of materials; base- and friction stir welded-materials, and both materials deformed to 5 % strain by tension. There are not so large differences about dislocation density, size and density of precipitates and crystal defects between the base material and the friction stir welded-materials, but a significant decrease of grain-size in the friction stir welded-materials is recognized. These results suggest a dynamic recovery occurs during FSW process, and it is speculated that the recovery leads to the differences of yield stress and strain-hardening rate between both materials.

  20. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, $\

  1. Weakly clopen functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Mi Jung; Park, Jin Han; Lim, Ki Moon

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a new class of functions called weakly clopen function which includes the class of almost clopen functions due to Ekici [Ekici E. Generalization of perfectly continuous, regular set-connected and clopen functions. Acta Math Hungar 2005;107:193-206] and is included in the class of weakly continuous functions due to Levine [Levine N. A decomposition of continuity in topological spaces. Am Math Mon 1961;68:44-6]. Some characterizations and several properties concerning weakly clopenness are obtained. Furthermore, relationships among weak clopenness, almost clopenness, clopenness and weak continuity are investigated

  2. Weak value controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidman, L.

    2017-10-01

    Recent controversy regarding the meaning and usefulness of weak values is reviewed. It is argued that in spite of recent statistical arguments by Ferrie and Combes, experiments with anomalous weak values provide useful amplification techniques for precision measurements of small effects in many realistic situations. The statistical nature of weak values is questioned. Although measuring weak values requires an ensemble, it is argued that the weak value, similarly to an eigenvalue, is a property of a single pre- and post-selected quantum system. This article is part of the themed issue `Second quantum revolution: foundational questions'.

  3. Effect of Microenvironmental pH Modulation on the Dissolution Rate and Oral Absorption of the Salt of a Weak Acid - Case Study of GDC-0810.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Hao Helen; Jia, Wei; Liu, Lichuan; Cheeti, Sravanthi; Li, Jane; Nauka, Ewa; Nagapudi, Karthik

    2018-01-29

    The purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of microenvironmental pH modulation on the in vitro dissolution rate and oral absorption of GDC-0810, an oral anti-cancer drug, in human. The pH-solubility profile of GDC-0810 free acid and pH max of its N-Methyl-D-glucamine (NMG) salt were determined. Precipitation studies were conducted for GDC-0810 NMG salt at different pH values. GDC-0810 200-mg dose NMG salt tablet formulations containing different levels of sodium bicarbonate as the pH modifier were tested for dissolution under the dual pH-dilution scheme. Three tablet formulations were evaluated in human as a part of a relative bioavailability study. A 200-mg dose of GDC-0810 was administered QD with low fat food. Intrinsic solubility of GDC-0810 free acid was found to be extremely low. The pH max of the NMG salt suggested a strong tendency for form conversion to the free acid under GI conditions. In vitro dissolution profiles showed that the dissolution rate and extent of GDC-0810 increased with increasing the level of sodium bicarbonate in the formulation. The human PK data showed a similar trend for the geometric mean of C max and AUC 0-t for formulations containing 5%, 10%, and 15% sodium bicarbonate, but the difference is not statistically significant. Incorporation of a basic pH modifier, sodium bicarbonate, in GDC-0810 NMG salt tablet formulations enhanced in vitro dissolution rate of GDC-0810 via microenvironmental pH modulation. The human PK data showed no statistically significant difference in drug exposure from tablets containing 5%, 10%, and 15% sodium bicarbonate.

  4. A Multiagent Cooperation Model Based on Trust Rating in Dynamic Infinite Interaction Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixia Fan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the liveness of agents and enhance trust and collaboration in multiagent system, a new cooperation model based on trust rating in dynamic infinite interaction environment (TR-DII is proposed. TR-DII model is used to control agent’s autonomy and selfishness and to make agent do the rational decision. TR-DII model is based on two important components. One is dynamic repeated interaction structure, and the other is trust rating. The dynamic repeated interaction structure is formed with multistage inviting and evaluating actions. It transforms agents’ interactions into an infinity task allocation environment, where controlled and renewable cycle is a component most agent models ignored. Additionally, it influences the expectations and behaviors of agents which may not appear in one-shot time but may appear in long-time cooperation. Moreover, with rewards and punishments mechanism (RPM, the trust rating (TR is proposed to control agent blindness in selection phase. However, RPM is the factor that directly influences decisions, not the reputation as other models have suggested. Meanwhile, TR could monitor agent’s statuses in which they could be trustworthy or untrustworthy. Also, it refines agent’s disrepute in a new way which is ignored by the others. Finally, grids puzzle experiment has been used to test TR-DII model and other five models are used as comparisons. The results show that TR-DII model can effectively adjust the trust level between agents and makes the solvers be more trustworthy and do choices that are more rational. Moreover, through interaction result feedback, TR-DII model could adjust the income function, to control cooperation reputation, and could achieve a closed-loop control.

  5. Strong mobility in weakly disordered systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-naim, Eli [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Krapivsky, Pavel [BOSTON UNIV

    2009-01-01

    We study transport of interacting particles in weakly disordered media. Our one-dimensional system includes (i) disorder, the hopping rate governing the movement of a particle between two neighboring lattice sites is inhomogeneous, and (ii) hard core interaction, the maximum occupancy at each site is one particle. We find that over a substantial regime, the root-mean-square displacement of a particle s grows superdiffusively with time t, {sigma}{approx}({epsilon}t){sup 2/3}, where {epsilon} is the disorder strength. Without disorder the particle displacement is subdiffusive, {sigma} {approx}t{sup 1/4}, and therefore disorder strongly enhances particle mobility. We explain this effect using scaling arguments, and verify the theoretical predictions through numerical simulations. Also, the simulations show that regardless of disorder strength, disorder leads to stronger mobility over an intermediate time regime.

  6. Oscillations of neutral K mesons in the theory of dynamical expansion of the weak interaction theory or in the theory of dynamical analogy of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    1998-01-01

    The elements of the theory of dynamical expansion of the weak interaction theory working on the tree level, i.e., the theory of dynamical analogy of Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrices, are given. The equation for mass difference of K 1 0 , K 2 0 mesons or the length of K 0 -, K bar 0 - meson oscillations is calculated. In the framework of this theory the oscillations of K 0 , K 0 mesons which arise at violation of strangeness by B bosons are considered. The general conclusion is: the length of K 0 -, K 0 -meson oscillations is proportional to the mass of B boson (which changes strangeness) in the fourth degree

  7. Staggering towards a calculation of weak amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1988-09-01

    An explanation is given of the methods required to calculate hadronic matrix elements of the weak Hamiltonians using lattice QCD with staggered fermions. New results are presented for the 1-loop perturbative mixing of the weak interaction operators. New numerical techniques designed for staggered fermions are described. A preliminary result for the kaon B parameter is presented. 24 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Evidence for parity nonconservation in the weak neutral current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benvenuti, A.; Cline, D.; Messing, F.; Ford, W.; Imlay, R.; Ling, T.Y.; Mann, A.K.; Reeder, D.D.; Rubbia, C.; Stefanski, R.; Sulak, L.; Wanderer, P.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of R/sup nu/ and R/sup nu-bar/, the ratios of neutral current to charged current ν and nu-bar cross sections, yield neutral current rates for ν and nu-bar that are consistent with a pure V-A interaction but 3 standard deviations from pure V or pure A, indicating the presence of parity nonconservation in the weak neutral current

  9. Theory and phenomenology of strong and weak interaction high energy physics: [Technical progress report, 5/1/86-4/30/87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thews, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The research reported includes: low energy quark-hadron dynamics; quark-gluon models for hadronic interactions, decays and structure; mathematical and physical properties of nonlinear sigma models, Yang-Mills theories, and Coulomb gases, which are of interest in both particle physics and condensed matter physics; statistical and dynamical aspects of hadronic multiparticle production. 28 refs

  10. An interaction study in mammalian cells demonstrates weak binding of HSPB2 to BAG3, which is regulated by HSPB3 and abrogated by HSPB8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morelli, Federica F; Mediani, Laura; Heldens, Lonneke; Bertacchini, Jessika; Bigi, Ilaria; Carra, Arianna Dorotea; Vinet, Jonathan; Carra, Serena

    The ten mammalian small heat shock proteins (sHSPs/HSPBs) show a different expression profile, although the majority of them are abundant in skeletal and cardiac muscles. HSPBs form hetero-oligomers and homo-oligomers by interacting together and complexes containing, e.g., HSPB2/HSPB3 or HSPB1/HSPB5

  11. Plane waves with weak singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, Justin R.

    2003-03-01

    We study a class of time dependent solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations which are plane waves with weak null singularities. This singularity is weak in the sense that though the tidal forces diverge at the singularity, the rate of divergence is such that the distortion suffered by a freely falling observer remains finite. Among such weak singular plane waves there is a sub-class which does not exhibit large back reaction in the presence of test scalar probes. String propagation in these backgrounds is smooth and there is a natural way to continue the metric beyond the singularity. This continued metric admits string propagation without the string becoming infinitely excited. We construct a one parameter family of smooth metrics which are at a finite distance in the space of metrics from the extended metric and a well defined operator in the string sigma model which resolves the singularity. (author)

  12. Configuration interaction calculations and excitation rates of X-ray and EUV transitions in sulfurlike manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Maaref, A.A., E-mail: ahmed.maaref@azhar.edu.eg; Saddeek, Y.B.; Abou halaka, M.M.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Fine-structure calculations of sulfurlike Mn have been performed using configuration interaction technique, CI. • The relativistic effects, Breit-Pauli Hameltonian, have been correlated to the CI calculations. • Excitation rates by electron impact of the Mn X ion have been evaluated up to ionization potential. - Abstract: Fine-structure calculations of energies and transition parameters have been performed using the configuration interaction technique (CI) as implemented in CIV3 code for sulfurlike manganese, Mn X. The calculations are executed in an intermediate coupling scheme using the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. As well as, energy levels and oscillator strengths are calculated using LANL code, where the calculations by LANL have been used to estimate the accuracy of the present CI calculations. The calculated energy levels, oscillator strengths, and lifetimes are in reasonable agreement with the published experimental and theoretical values. Electron impact excitation rates of the transitions emit soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelengths have been evaluated. The level population densities are calculated using the collisional radiative model (CRM), as well. The collisional excitation rates and collision strengths have been calculated in the electron temperature range ≤ the ionization potential, ∼1–250 eV.

  13. Effect of PWR Re-start ramp rate on pellet-cladding interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagnik, S.K.; Chang, B.C.; Sunderland, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    To mitigate pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) leading to fuel rod failures, fuel suppliers specify reactor power ramp rate limitations during reactor start-up after an outage. Typical re-start ramp rates are restricted and range between 3-4% per hour of full reactor power above a threshold power level. Relaxation of threshold power and ramp rate restrictions has the potential to improve plant economics. The paper will compare known re-start power ascension procedures employed in the US, German, French and Korean PWRs after a refuelling outage. A technical basis for optimising power ascension procedures during reactor start-up can be developed using analytical modelling. The main objective of the modelling is to determine the potential for PCI failure for various combinations of threshold power levels and ramp rate levels. A key element of our analysis is to estimate the decrease in margin to cladding failure by ISCC based on a time-temperature-stress failure criterion fashioned Act a cumulative cladding damage index. The analysis approach and the cladding damage model will be described and the results from three case studies based on the FALCON fuel rod behaviour code will be reported. We conclude that the PCI behaviour is more affected by ramp rate and threshold power than by the fuel design and that the fuel power history is the most important parameter. (authors)

  14. Interaction between Digestive Strategy and Niche Specialization Predicts Speciation Rates across Herbivorous Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Lucy A P

    2016-04-01

    Biotic and abiotic factors often are treated as mutually exclusive drivers of diversification processes. In this framework, ecological specialists are expected to have higher speciation rates than generalists if abiotic factors are the primary controls on species diversity but lower rates if biotic interactions are more important. Speciation rate is therefore predicted to positively correlate with ecological specialization in the purely abiotic model but negatively correlate in the biotic model. In this study, I show that the positive relationship between ecological specialization and speciation expected from the purely abiotic model is recovered only when a species-specific trait, digestive strategy, is modeled in the terrestrial, herbivorous mammals (Mammalia). This result suggests a more nuanced model in which the response of specialized lineages to abiotic factors is dependent on a biological trait. I also demonstrate that the effect of digestive strategy on the ecological specialization-speciation rate relationship is not due to a difference in either the degree of ecological specialization or the speciation rate between foregut- and hindgut-fermenting mammals. Together, these findings suggest that a biological trait, alongside historical abiotic events, played an important role in shaping mammal speciation at long temporal and large geographic scales.

  15. Lewis acid-base interactions in weakly bound formaldehyde complexes with CO2, HCN, and FCN: considerations on the cooperative H-bonding effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivelino, Roberto

    2008-01-17

    Ab initio quantum chemistry calculations reveal that HCN and mainly FCN can form Lewis acid-base complexes with formaldehyde associated with cooperative H bonds, as first noticed by Wallen et al. (Blatchford, M. A.; Raveendran, P.; Wallen, S. L. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 14818-14819) for CO2-philic materials under supercritical conditions. The present results, obtained with MP2(Full)/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations, show that the degeneracy of the nu(2) mode in free HCN or FCN is removed upon complexation in the same fashion as that of CO2. The splitting of these bands along with the electron structure analysis provides substantial evidence of the interaction of electron lone pairs of the carbonyl oxygen with the electron-deficient carbon atom of the cyanides. Also, this work investigates the role of H bonds acting as additional stabilizing interactions in the complexes by performing the energetic and geometric characterization.

  16. The Role of Weak Interactions in Characterizing Peptide Folding Preferences using a QTAIM Interpretation of the Ramachandran Plot ({\\phi}-{\\psi})

    OpenAIRE

    Momen, Roya; Azizi, Alireza; Wang, Lingling; Ping, Yang; Xu, Tianlv; Kirk, Steven R.; Li, Wenxuan; Manzhos, Sergei; Jenkins, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    The Ramachandran plot is a potent way to understand structures of biomolecules, however, the original formulation of the Ramachandran plot only considers backbone conformations. We formulate a new interpretation of the original Ramachandran plot ($\\phi-\\psi$) that can include a description of the weaker interactions including both the hydrogen bonds and H$---$H bonds as a new way to derive insights into the phenomenon of peptide folding. We use QTAIM (quantum theory of atoms in molecules) to ...

  17. On the existence of weak solution to the coupled fluid-structure interaction problem for non-Newtonian shear-dependent fluid

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hundertmark-Zaušková, A.; Lukáčová-Medviďová, M.; Nečasová, Šárka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 1 (2016), s. 193-243 ISSN 0025-5645 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : non-Newtonian fluids * fluid-structure interaction * shear-thinning fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2016 http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.jmsj/1453731541

  18. Analysis of multiplicities in e+e- interactions using 2-jet rates from different jet algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahiya, S.; Kaur, M.; Dhamija, S.

    2002-01-01

    The shoulder structure of charged particle multiplicity distribution measured in full phase space in e + e - interactions at various c.m. energies from 91 to 189 GeV has been analysed in terms of weighted superposition of two negative binomial distributions associated with 2-jet and multi-jet production. The 2-jet rates have been obtained from various jet algorithms. This phenomenological parametrization reproduces the shoulder structure behaviour quantitatively and improves the agreement with the experimental distributions than the conventional negative binomial distribution. The analysis at the higher energies where the shoulder structure appears more prominently, is important for the understanding of underlying structure. (author)

  19. Weak C* Hopf Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, K. -H.

    1996-01-01

    Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.

  20. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor variab...

  1. On interaction of P-waves with one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of weak conducting matter and transparent dielectric layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yushkanov, A. A.; Zverev, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    An influence of quantum and spatial dispersion properties of the non-degenerate electron plasma on the interaction of electromagnetic P-waves with one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of conductor with low carrier electron density and transparent dielectric matter, is studied numerically. It is shown that at the frequencies of order of the plasma frequency and at small widths of the conducting and dielectric layers of the photonic crystal, optical coefficients in the quantum non-degenerate plasma approach differ from the coefficients in the classical electron gas approach. And also, at these frequencies one observes a temperature dependence of the optical coefficients.

  2. Quantifying the Interactions between Maternal and Fetal Heart Rates by Transfer Entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh Marzbanrad

    Full Text Available Evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous studies. However there is still limited knowledge about underlying mechanisms and patterns of the coupling throughout gestation. In this study, Transfer Entropy (TE was used to quantify directed interactions between maternal and fetal heart rates at various time delays and gestational ages. Experimental results using maternal and fetal electrocardiograms showed significant coupling for 63 out of 65 fetuses, by statistically validating against surrogate pairs. Analysis of TE showed a decrease in transfer of information from fetus to the mother with gestational age, alongside the maturation of the fetus. On the other hand, maternal to fetal TE was significantly greater in mid (26-31 weeks and late (32-41 weeks gestation compared to early (16-25 weeks gestation (Mann Whitney Wilcoxon (MWW p<0.05. TE further increased from mid to late, for the fetuses with RMSSD of fetal heart rate being larger than 4 msec in the late gestation. This difference was not observed for the fetuses with smaller RMSSD, which could be associated with the quiet sleep state. Delay in the information transfer from mother to fetus significantly decreased (p = 0.03 from mid to late gestation, implying a decrease in fetal response time. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. The effect of maternal respiratory rate derived from maternal ECG was also investigated and no significant relationship was found between breathing rate and TE at any lag. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information on the fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being.

  3. Interaction of a weak and a strong shock in reacting high enthalpy flow; Wechselwirkung einer starken und einer schwachen Stosswelle in reagierender Hochenthalpiestroemung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnieder, M.

    1998-11-01

    In the free piston driven shock tunnel HEG the interaction of shock waves in front of a blunt body is studied in reacting high enthalpy flow. The influence of high temperature effects is of interest. The so called type IV interaction produces a free jet that impinges onto the body and creates high pressure and heat loads on the body surface. A cylinder wedge model is used. At the cylinder surface pressure and heat flux are measured. Holographic interferometry and schlieren optic are applied to visualize the flow. The measured loads show unsteady behaviour. At higher Reynolds numbers the upper bow shock shows a strong disturbance. It is assumed that this disturbance is caused by an unstable shear layer if the convective Mach number (i.e. the Mach number of the flow relative to a frame of reference moving with the shear layer structures) is larger than one. A study of the influence of dissociation on the convective Mach number shows, that the convective Mach number increases. Numerical calculations and an analytical model, which is based on the ideal dissociating gas model and the Fay Riddell solution to stagnation point flows are discussed in comparison with the experiments. (orig.)

  4. The Drosophila Su(var)3-7 gene is required for oogenesis and female fertility, genetically interacts with piwi and aubergine, but impacts only weakly transposon silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basquin, Denis; Spierer, Anne; Begeot, Flora; Koryakov, Dmitry E; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Vieira, Cristina; Spierer, Pierre; Delattre, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is made of repetitive sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs), the regulation of which is critical for genome stability. We have analyzed the role of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3-7 protein in Drosophila ovaries. We present evidences that Su(var)3-7 is required for correct oogenesis and female fertility. It accumulates in heterochromatic domains of ovarian germline and somatic cells nuclei, where it co-localizes with HP1. Homozygous mutant females display ovaries with frequent degenerating egg-chambers. Absence of Su(var)3-7 in embryos leads to defects in meiosis and first mitotic divisions due to chromatin fragmentation or chromosome loss, showing that Su(var)3-7 is required for genome integrity. Females homozygous for Su(var)3-7 mutations strongly impair repression of P-transposable element induced gonadal dysgenesis but have minor effects on other TEs. Su(var)3-7 mutations reduce piRNA cluster transcription and slightly impact ovarian piRNA production. However, this modest piRNA reduction does not correlate with transposon de-silencing, suggesting that the moderate effect of Su(var)3-7 on some TE repression is not linked to piRNA production. Strikingly, Su(var)3-7 genetically interacts with the piwi and aubergine genes, key components of the piRNA pathway, by strongly impacting female fertility without impairing transposon silencing. These results lead us to propose that the interaction between Su(var)3-7 and piwi or aubergine controls important developmental processes independently of transposon silencing.

  5. The Drosophila Su(var)3–7 Gene Is Required for Oogenesis and Female Fertility, Genetically Interacts with piwi and aubergine, but Impacts Only Weakly Transposon Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeot, Flora; Koryakov, Dmitry E.; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Vieira, Cristina; Spierer, Pierre; Delattre, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is made of repetitive sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs), the regulation of which is critical for genome stability. We have analyzed the role of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3–7 protein in Drosophila ovaries. We present evidences that Su(var)3–7 is required for correct oogenesis and female fertility. It accumulates in heterochromatic domains of ovarian germline and somatic cells nuclei, where it co-localizes with HP1. Homozygous mutant females display ovaries with frequent degenerating egg-chambers. Absence of Su(var)3–7 in embryos leads to defects in meiosis and first mitotic divisions due to chromatin fragmentation or chromosome loss, showing that Su(var)3–7 is required for genome integrity. Females homozygous for Su(var)3–7 mutations strongly impair repression of P-transposable element induced gonadal dysgenesis but have minor effects on other TEs. Su(var)3–7 mutations reduce piRNA cluster transcription and slightly impact ovarian piRNA production. However, this modest piRNA reduction does not correlate with transposon de-silencing, suggesting that the moderate effect of Su(var)3–7 on some TE repression is not linked to piRNA production. Strikingly, Su(var)3–7 genetically interacts with the piwi and aubergine genes, key components of the piRNA pathway, by strongly impacting female fertility without impairing transposon silencing. These results lead us to propose that the interaction between Su(var)3–7 and piwi or aubergine controls important developmental processes independently of transposon silencing. PMID:24820312

  6. Quantifying the Interactions between Maternal and Fetal Heart Rates by Transfer Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzbanrad, Faezeh; Kimura, Yoshitaka; Palaniswami, Marimuthu; Khandoker, Ahsan H.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of the short term relationship between maternal and fetal heart rates has been found in previous studies. However there is still limited knowledge about underlying mechanisms and patterns of the coupling throughout gestation. In this study, Transfer Entropy (TE) was used to quantify directed interactions between maternal and fetal heart rates at various time delays and gestational ages. Experimental results using maternal and fetal electrocardiograms showed significant coupling for 63 out of 65 fetuses, by statistically validating against surrogate pairs. Analysis of TE showed a decrease in transfer of information from fetus to the mother with gestational age, alongside the maturation of the fetus. On the other hand, maternal to fetal TE was significantly greater in mid (26–31 weeks) and late (32–41 weeks) gestation compared to early (16–25 weeks) gestation (Mann Whitney Wilcoxon (MWW) pgestation. This difference was not observed for the fetuses with smaller RMSSD, which could be associated with the quiet sleep state. Delay in the information transfer from mother to fetus significantly decreased (p = 0.03) from mid to late gestation, implying a decrease in fetal response time. These changes occur concomitant with the maturation of the fetal sensory and autonomic nervous systems with advancing gestational age. The effect of maternal respiratory rate derived from maternal ECG was also investigated and no significant relationship was found between breathing rate and TE at any lag. In conclusion, the application of TE with delays revealed detailed information on the fetal-maternal heart rate coupling strength and latency throughout gestation, which could provide novel clinical markers of fetal development and well-being. PMID:26701122

  7. $\\beta$- decay of the N=Z, rp-process waiting points: $^{64}$Ge, $^{68}$Se and the N=Z+2: $^{66}$Ge, $^{70}$Se for accurate stellar weak-decay rates

    CERN Multimedia

    The contribution of electron capture to weak-decay rates has been neglected in model calculations of Type I X-ray bursts so far. Nucleosynthesis in these astrophysical events eventually proceeds through the rp-process near the proton drip-line. In particular, several N=Z nuclei such as $^{64}$Ge and $^{68}$Se act as waiting points in the nuclear flow due to the low S${_P}$ values of their Z+1 neighbours. Recent theoretical calculations have shown that, in these high density ($\\thicksim10^{6}$ g/cm$^3$) and high temperature (1 - 2 GK) scenarios, continuum electron capture rates might play an important role, in particular for species at and around these waiting point nuclei. This proposal is aimed at the study of the $\\beta^{+}$/EC-decay of the waiting point nuclei $^{64}$Ge, $^{68}$Se and their N=Z+2 second neighbours $^{66}$Ge and $^{70}$Se with the Total Absorption Spectroscopy method. This will allow for a detailed analysis of their contribution to the EC-decay rates in X-Ray burst explosions. The proposed ...

  8. Binding of hydrocarbons and other extremely weak ligands to transition metal complexes that coordinate hydrogen: Investigation of cis-interactions and delocalized bonding involving sigma bonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubas, G.J.; Eckert, J.; Luo, X.L.

    1997-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). At the forefront of chemistry are efforts to catalytically transform the inert C-H bonds in alkanes to more useful products using metal compounds. The goal is to observe binding and cleavage of alkane C-H bonds on metals or to use related silane Si-H bonding as models, analogous to the discovery of hydrogen (H 2 ) binding to metals. Studies of these unique sigma complexes (M hor-ellipsis H-Y; Y double-bond H, Si, C) will aid in developing new catalysts or technologies relevant to DOE interest, e.g., new methods for tritium isotope separation. Several transition metals (Mo, W, Mn, and Pt) were found to reversibly bind and cleave H 2 , silanes, and halocarbons. The first metal-SiH 4 complexes, thus serving as a model for methane reactions. A second goal is to study the dynamics and energetics of H-Y bonds on metals by neutron scattering, and evidence for interactions between bound H-Y and nearby H atoms on metal complexes has been found

  9. Elucidating the weak protein-protein interaction mechanisms behind the liquid-liquid phase separation of a mAb solution by different types of additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guoliang; Wang, Shujing; Tian, Zhou; Zhang, Ning; Sheng, Han; Dai, Weiguo; Qian, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has long been observed during the physical stability investigation of therapeutic protein formulations. The buffer conditions and the presence of various excipients are thought to play important roles in the formulation development of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). In this study, the effects of several small-molecule excipients (histidine, alanine, glycine, sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, sorbitol and sucrose) with diverse physical-chemical properties on LLPS of a model IgG1 (JM2) solutions were investigated by multiple techniques, including UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, differential scanning calorimetry/fluorimetry, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering. The LLPS of JM2 was confirmed to be a thermodynamic equilibrium process with no structural changes or irreversible aggregation of proteins. Phase diagrams of various JM2 formulations were constructed, suggesting that the phase behavior of JM2 was dependent on the solution pH, ionic strength and the presence of other excipients such as glycine, alanine, sorbitol and sucrose. Furthermore, we demonstrated that for this mAb, the interaction parameter (k D ) determined at low protein concentration appeared to be a good predictor for the occurrence of LLPS at high concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Hunting the weak bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The possibility of the production of weak bosons in the proton-antiproton colliding beam facilities which are currently being developed, is discussed. The production, decay and predicted properties of these particles are described. (W.D.L.).

  11. Weakly oval electron lense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system

  12. Precision Measurement of the Be7 Solar Neutrino Interaction Rate in Borexino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Peña-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2011-09-01

    The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering interactions from 862 keV Be7 solar neutrinos in Borexino is determined to be 46.0±1.5(stat)-1.6+1.5(syst)counts/(day·100ton). This corresponds to a νe-equivalent Be7 solar neutrino flux of (3.10±0.15)×109cm-2s-1 and, under the assumption of νe transition to other active neutrino flavours, yields an electron neutrino survival probability of 0.51±0.07 at 862 keV. The no flavor change hypothesis is ruled out at 5.0σ. A global solar neutrino analysis with free fluxes determines Φpp=6.06-0.06+0.02×1010cm-2s-1 and ΦCNOMikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle neutrino oscillation model is experimentally tested at low energy.

  13. Interaction of 2-Gy Equivalent Dose and Margin Status in Perioperative High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Monge, Rafael; Cambeiro, Mauricio; Moreno, Marta; Gaztanaga, Miren; San Julian, Mikel; Alcalde, Juan; Jurado, Matias

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine patient, tumor, and treatment factors predictive of local control (LC) in a series of patients treated with either perioperative high-dose-rate brachytherapy (PHDRB) alone (Group 1) or with PHDRB combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) (Group 2). Patient and Methods: Patients (n = 312) enrolled in several PHDRB prospective Phase I-II studies conducted at the Clinica Universidad de Navarra were analyzed. Treatment with PHDRB alone, mainly because of prior irradiation, was used in 126 patients to total doses of 32 Gy/8 b.i.d. or 40 Gy/10 b.i.d. treatments after R0 or R1 resections. Treatment with PHDRB plus EBRT was used in 186 patients to total doses of 16 Gy/4 b.i.d. or 24 Gy/6 b.i.d. treatments after R0 or R1 resections along with 45 Gy of EBRT with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Results: No dose-margin interaction was observed in Group 1 patients. In Group 2 patients there was a significant interaction between margin status and 2-Gy equivalent (Eq2Gy) dose (p = 0.002): (1) patients with negative margins had 9-year LC of 95.7% at Eq2Gy = 62.9Gy; (2) patients with close margins of >1 mm had 9-year LC of 92.4% at Eq2Gy = 72.2Gy, and (3) patients with positive/close <1-mm margins had 9-year LC of 68.0% at Eq2Gy = 72.2Gy. Conclusions: Two-gray equivalent doses ≥70 Gy may compensate the effect of close margins ≥1 mm but do not counterbalance the detrimental effect of unfavorable (positive/close <1 mm) resection margins. No dose-margin interaction is observed in patients treated at lower Eq2Gy doses ≤50 Gy with PHDRB alone.

  14. Impact of hydrodynamic interactions on protein folding rates depends on temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegarra, Fabio C.; Homouz, Dirar; Eliaz, Yossi; Gasic, Andrei G.; Cheung, Margaret S.

    2018-03-01

    We investigated the impact of hydrodynamic interactions (HI) on protein folding using a coarse-grained model. The extent of the impact of hydrodynamic interactions, whether it accelerates, retards, or has no effect on protein folding, has been controversial. Together with a theoretical framework of the energy landscape theory (ELT) for protein folding that describes the dynamics of the collective motion with a single reaction coordinate across a folding barrier, we compared the kinetic effects of HI on the folding rates of two protein models that use a chain of single beads with distinctive topologies: a 64-residue α /β chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI2) protein, and a 57-residue β -barrel α -spectrin Src-homology 3 domain (SH3) protein. When comparing the protein folding kinetics simulated with Brownian dynamics in the presence of HI to that in the absence of HI, we find that the effect of HI on protein folding appears to have a "crossover" behavior about the folding temperature. This means that at a temperature greater than the folding temperature, the enhanced friction from the hydrodynamic solvents between the beads in an unfolded configuration results in lowered folding rate; conversely, at a temperature lower than the folding temperature, HI accelerates folding by the backflow of solvent toward the folded configuration of a protein. Additionally, the extent of acceleration depends on the topology of a protein: for a protein like CI2, where its folding nucleus is rather diffuse in a transition state, HI channels the formation of contacts by favoring a major folding pathway in a complex free energy landscape, thus accelerating folding. For a protein like SH3, where its folding nucleus is already specific and less diffuse, HI matters less at a temperature lower than the folding temperature. Our findings provide further theoretical insight to protein folding kinetic experiments and simulations.

  15. Relationship between interaction parent-child with addictability rate and heterosexual orientation in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Ali Hosseinkhanzadeh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the purpose of this study was to study relationship between interaction parent-child with addictability rate and heterosexual orientation in students. Method: The statistical population consisted of all students of Guilan University in 2012-2013 academic year, which among them a sample of 200 students were selected by random cluster sampling method and they completed preparation to addiction scale relationship between parent–child scale and attitude and heterosexual orientation before marriage. Findings: Correlation analysis indicated a significant negative correlation between addictability in female students and male students with relationship with father, and positive affect, interlace and communication subscales. The relationship between female students’ addictability with relationship with mother and positive affect, hurt and confusion and communication subscales was observed significant negative correlation, also there is a significant negative relationship between male students’ addictability with the relationship with mother. There is significant negative relationship between heterosexual orientations in male students with relation with father, positive affects and interlace. Results of regression analysis showed that relationship with father and relationship with mother can anticipate addict ability in female and male students. Conclusion: If parents cannot establish an appropriate and constructive interaction with their child cause child face with affection and emotional deprivation and this poor emotional and affection deprivation may cause he or she bring to the addict ability and heterosexual orientation.

  16. Maternal executive function, heart rate, and EEG alpha reactivity interact in the prediction of harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Bell, Martha Ann

    2017-02-01

    Do physiological and behavioral performance indicators of effortful cognitive self-regulation converge additively or interactively in their statistical prediction of individual differences in harsh parenting? To answer this question, we examined heart rate (HR) and electroencephalography alpha (α) reactivity during executive function (EF) tasks, along with observed and self-reported indicators of harsh parenting. A socioeconomically diverse sample of 115 mothers with 3- to 7-year-old children completed questionnaires and a laboratory visit. Three quarters of the mothers showed typical patterns of task reactivity that were interpretable (i.e., increases in HR and decreases in α). Among them, we found no evidence to suggest that variance in harsh parenting was associated with magnitude of HR or α reactivity independently. Instead, the physiological variables interacted to enhance the EF statistical effect. EF explained one third of the variance in harsh parenting among mothers showing the largest α decreases when accompanied by modest to moderate (rather than substantial) HR increases. Physiological indicators can clarify the role and estimation of the strength of the effect of direct behavioral measures of cognitive regulation in the etiology of harsh parenting behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Hydrodynamic fluctuations from a weakly coupled scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G.; Laine, M.

    2018-04-01

    Studies of non-equilibrium dynamics of first-order cosmological phase transitions may involve a scalar field interacting weakly with the energy-momentum tensor of a thermal plasma. At late times, when the scalar field is approaching equilibrium, it experiences both damping and thermal fluctuations. We show that thermal fluctuations induce a shear viscosity and a gravitational wave production rate, and propose that including this tunable contribution may help in calibrating the measurement of the gravitational wave production rate in hydrodynamic simulations. Furthermore it may enrich their physical scope, permitting in particular for a study of the instability of growing bubbles.

  18. Children and their parents assessing the doctor-patient interaction: a rating system for doctors' communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Jim; Eiser, Christine; Davies, Helena A

    2005-08-01

    Only a patient and his or her family can judge many of the most important aspects of the doctor-patient interaction. This study evaluates the feasibility and reliability of children and their families assessing the quality of paediatricians' interactions using a rating instrument developed specifically for this purpose. A reliability analysis using generalisability theory on the ratings from 352 doctor-patient interactions across different speciality clinics. Ratings were normally distributed. They were highest for 'overall' performance, and lowest for giving time to discuss the families' agenda. An appropriate sample of adults' ratings provided a reliable score (G = 0.7 with 15 raters), but children's ratings were too idiosyncratic to be reproducible (G = 0.36 with 15 raters). CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORK: Accompanying adults can provide reliable ratings of doctors' interactions with children. Because an adult is usually present at the consultation their ratings provide a highly feasible and authentic approach. Sampling doctors' interactions from different clinics and with patients of both genders provides a universal picture of performance. The method is ideal to measure performance for in-training assessment or revalidation. Further work is in progress to evaluate the educational impact of feeding ratings back to the doctors being assessed, and their use in a range of clinical contexts.

  19. Dairy cow breed interacts with stocking rate in temperate pasture-based dairy production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaans, O K; Macdonald, K A; Lancaster, J A S; Bryant, A M; Roche, J R

    2018-05-01

    Economic optimum stocking rates for grazing dairy systems have been defined by accounting for the pasture production potential of the farm [t of dry matter (DM)/ha], the amount of feed imported from outside the farm (t of DM/ha), and the size of the cow (kg). These variables were combined into the comparative stocking rate [CSR; kg of body weight (BW)/t of feed DM available] measure. However, CSR assumes no effect of cow genetics beyond BW, and there is increasing evidence of within-breed differences in residual feed intake and between-breed differences in the gross efficiency with which cows use metabolizable energy for milk production. A multiyear production system experiment was established to determine whether Jersey (J) and Holstein-Friesian (HF) breeds performed similarly at the same CSR. Fifty-nine J cows and 51 HF cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 CSR in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement; systems were designed to have a CSR of either 80 or 100 kg of BW/t of feed DM (J-CSR80, J-CSR100, HF-CSR80, and HF-CSR100 treatment groups). Data were analyzed for consistency of farmlet response over years using ANOVA procedures, with year and farmlet as fixed effects and the interaction of farmlet with year as a random effect. The collated biological data and financial data extracted from a national economic database were used to model the financial performance for the different breed and CSR treatments. On average, annual and individual season pasture DM production was greater for the J farmlets and was less in the CSR100 treatment; however, the effect of CSR was primarily driven by a large decline in pasture DM production in the HF-CSR100 treatment (breed × CSR interaction). This interaction in feed availability resulted in a breed × CSR interaction for the per-cow and per-hectare milk production variables, with HF cows producing more milk and milk components per cow in the CSR80 treatment but the same amount as the J cows in the CSR100 treatment. On a per

  20. Basal electric and magnetic fields of celestial bodies come from positive-negative charge separation caused by gravitation of quasi-Casimir pressure in weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    According to f =d(mv)/dt=m(dv/dt)+ v(dm/dt), a same gravitational formula had been de-duced from the variance in physical mass of QFT and from the variance in mass of inductive energy-transfer of GR respectively: f QF T = f GR = -G (mM/r2 )((r/r)+(v/c)) when their interaction-constants are all taken the experimental values (H05-0029-08, E15-0039-08). f QF T is the quasi-Casimir pressure. f GR is equivalent to Einstein's equation, then more easy to solve it. The hypothesis of the equivalent principle is not used in f QF T , but required by f GR . The predictions of f QF T and f GR are identical except that f QF T has quantum effects but f GR has not and f GR has Lense-Thirring effect but f QF T has not. The quantum effects of gravitation had been verified by Nesvizhevsky et al with the ultracold neutrons falling in the earth's gravitational field in 2002. Yet Lense-Thirring effect had not been measured by GP-B. It shows that f QF T is essential but f GR is phenomenological. The macro-f QF T is the statistic average pressure collided by net virtual neutrinos ν 0 flux (after self-offset in opposite directions) and in direct proportion to the mass. But micro-f QF T is in direct proportion to the scattering section. The electric mass (in inverse proportion to de Broglie wavelength λ) far less than nucleonic mass and the electric scattering section (in direct proportion to λ2 ) far large than that of nucleon, then the net ν 0 flux pressure exerted to electron far large than that to nucleon and the electric displacement far large than that of nucleon, it causes the gravitational polarization of positive-negative charge center separation. Because the gravity far less than the electromagnetic binding force, in atoms the gravitational polarization only produces a little separation. But the net ν 0 flux can press a part freedom electrons in plasma of ionosphere into the earth's surface, the static electric force of redundant positive ions prevents electrons from further

  1. Coordinated rates of evolution between interacting plastid and nuclear genes in Geraniaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Ruhlman, Tracey A; Sabir, Jamal; Blazier, J Chris; Jansen, Robert K

    2015-03-01

    Although gene coevolution has been widely observed within individuals and between different organisms, rarely has this phenomenon been investigated within a phylogenetic framework. The Geraniaceae is an attractive system in which to study plastid-nuclear genome coevolution due to the highly elevated evolutionary rates in plastid genomes. In plants, the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase (PEP) is a protein complex composed of subunits encoded by both plastid (rpoA, rpoB, rpoC1, and rpoC2) and nuclear genes (sig1-6). We used transcriptome and genomic data for 27 species of Geraniales in a systematic evaluation of coevolution between genes encoding subunits of the PEP holoenzyme. We detected strong correlations of dN (nonsynonymous substitutions) but not dS (synonymous substitutions) within rpoB/sig1 and rpoC2/sig2, but not for other plastid/nuclear gene pairs, and identified the correlation of dN/dS ratio between rpoB/C1/C2 and sig1/5/6, rpoC1/C2 and sig2, and rpoB/C2 and sig3 genes. Correlated rates between interacting plastid and nuclear sequences across the Geraniales could result from plastid-nuclear genome coevolution. Analyses of coevolved amino acid positions suggest that structurally mediated coevolution is not the major driver of plastid-nuclear coevolution. The detection of strong correlation of evolutionary rates between SIG and RNAP genes suggests a plausible explanation for plastome-genome incompatibility in Geraniaceae. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  2. Electromagnetic weak turbulence theory revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, P. H. [IPST, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Ziebell, L. F. [Instituto de Fisica, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Gaelzer, R.; Pavan, J. [Instituto de Fisica e Matematica, UFPel, Pelotas, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-15

    The statistical mechanical reformulation of weak turbulence theory for unmagnetized plasmas including fully electromagnetic effects was carried out by Yoon [Phys. Plasmas 13, 022302 (2006)]. However, the wave kinetic equation for the transverse wave ignores the nonlinear three-wave interaction that involves two transverse waves and a Langmuir wave, the incoherent analogue of the so-called Raman scattering process, which may account for the third and higher-harmonic plasma emissions. The present paper extends the previous formalism by including such a term.

  3. Gossip and Distributed Kalman Filtering: Weak Consensus Under Weak Detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the gossip interactive Kalman filter (GIKF) for distributed Kalman filtering for networked systems and sensor networks, where inter-sensor communication and observations occur at the same time-scale. The communication among sensors is random; each sensor occasionally exchanges its filtering state information with a neighbor depending on the availability of the appropriate network link. We show that under a weak distributed detectability condition: 1. the GIKF error process remains stochastically bounded, irrespective of the instability properties of the random process dynamics; and 2. the network achieves \\emph{weak consensus}, i.e., the conditional estimation error covariance at a (uniformly) randomly selected sensor converges in distribution to a unique invariant measure on the space of positive semi-definite matrices (independent of the initial state.) To prove these results, we interpret the filtered states (estimates and error covariances) at each node in the GIKF as stochastic particles with local interactions. We analyze the asymptotic properties of the error process by studying as a random dynamical system the associated switched (random) Riccati equation, the switching being dictated by a non-stationary Markov chain on the network graph.

  4. Weak radiative hyperon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.L.; Booth, E.C.; Gall, K.P.; McIntyre, E.K.; Miller, J.P.; Whitehouse, D.A.; Bassalleck, B.; Hall, J.R.; Larson, K.D.; Wolfe, D.M.; Fickinger, W.J.; Robinson, D.K.; Hallin, A.L.; Hasinoff, M.D.; Measday, D.F.; Noble, A.J.; Waltham, C.E.; Hessey, N.P.; Lowe, J.; Horvath, D.; Salomon, M.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements of the Σ + and Λ weak radiative decays are discussed. The hyperons were produced at rest by the reaction K - p → Yπ where Y = Σ + or Λ. The monoenergetic pion was used to tag the hyperon production, and the branching ratios were determined from the relative amplitudes of Σ + → pγ to Σ + → pπ 0 and Λ → nγ to Λ → nπ 0 . The photons from weak radiative decays and from π 0 decays were detected with modular NaI arrays. (orig.)

  5. Decay Rates of Interactive Hyperbolic-Parabolic PDE Models with Thermal Effects on the Interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasiecka, I.; Lebiedzik, C.

    2000-01-01

    We consider coupled PDE systems comprising of a hyperbolic and a parabolic-like equation with an interface on a portion of the boundary. These models are motivated by structural acoustic problems. A specific prototype consists of a wave equation defined on a three-dimensional bounded domain Ω coupled with a thermoelastic plate equation defined on Γ 0 -a flat surface of the boundary Ω. Thus, the coupling between the wave and the plate takes place on the interface Γ 0 . The main issue studied here is that of uniform stability of the overall interactive model. Since the original (uncontrolled) model is only strongly stable, but not uniformly stable, the question becomes: what is the 'minimal amount' of dissipation necessary to obtain uniform decay rates for the energy of the overall system? Our main result states that boundary nonlinear dissipation placed only on a suitable portion of the part of the boundary which is complementary to Γ 0 , suffices for the stabilization of the entire structure. This result is new with respect to the literature on several accounts: (i) thermoelasticity is accounted for in the plate model; (ii) the plate model does not account for any type of mechanical damping, including the structural damping most often considered in the literature; (iii) there is no mechanical damping placed on the interface Γ 0 ; (iv) the boundary damping is nonlinear without a prescribed growth rate at the origin; (v) the undamped portions of the boundary partial Ω are subject to Neumann (rather than Dirichlet) boundary conditions, which is a recognized difficulty in the context of stabilization of wave equations, due to the fact that the strong Lopatinski condition does not hold. The main mathematical challenge is to show how the thermal energy is propagated onto the hyperbolic component of the structure. This is achieved by using a recently developed sharp theory of boundary traces corresponding to wave and plate equations, along with the analytic

  6. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(bar nu) + p → ν(bar nu) + p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), bar nue + p → n + e+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of bar nue flux with the bar nux (x = μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  7. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar_e+p→n+e"+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar_e flux with the ν-bar_x (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  8. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  9. Weakly Coretractable Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Inaam M. A.; Al-aeashi, Shukur N.

    2018-05-01

    If R is a ring with identity and M is a unitary right R-module. Here we introduce the class of weakly coretractable module. Some basic properties are investigated and some relationships between these modules and other related one are introduced.

  10. Predictive Finite Rate Model for Oxygen-Carbon Interactions at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poovathingal, Savio

    An oxidation model for carbon surfaces is developed to predict ablation rates for carbon heat shields used in hypersonic vehicles. Unlike existing empirical models, the approach used here was to probe gas-surface interactions individually and then based on an understanding of the relevant fundamental processes, build a predictive model that would be accurate over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, and even microstructures. Initially, molecular dynamics was used to understand the oxidation processes on the surface. The molecular dynamics simulations were compared to molecular beam experiments and good qualitative agreement was observed. The simulations reproduced cylindrical pitting observed in the experiments where oxidation was rapid and primarily occurred around a defect. However, the studies were limited to small systems at low temperatures and could simulate time scales only of the order of nanoseconds. Molecular beam experiments at high surface temperature indicated that a majority of surface reaction products were produced through thermal mechanisms. Since the reactions were thermal, they occurred over long time scales which were computationally prohibitive for molecular dynamics to simulate. The experiments provided detailed dynamical data on the scattering of O, O2, CO, and CO2 and it was found that the data from molecular beam experiments could be used directly to build a model. The data was initially used to deduce surface reaction probabilities at 800 K. The reaction probabilities were then incorporated into the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. Simulations were performed where the microstructure was resolved and dissociated oxygen convected and diffused towards it. For a gas-surface temperature of 800 K, it was found that despite CO being the dominant surface reaction product, a gas-phase reaction forms significant CO2 within the microstructure region. It was also found that surface area did not play any role in concentration of

  11. B → Kπ decays and the weak phase angle γ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, T.N.

    2001-01-01

    The large branching ratios for B → Kπ decays as observed by the CLEO Collaboration indicate that penguin interactions contribute a major part to the decay rates and provide an interference between the Cabibbo-suppressed tree and penguin contributions resulting in a CP-asymmetry between the B → Kπ and its charge conjugate mode. The CP-averaged decay rates depend also on the weak phase γ and give us a determination of this phase. In this talk, I would like to report on a recent analysis of B → Kπ decays using factorisation model with final state interaction phase shift included. We find that factorisation seems to describe qualitatively the latest CLEO data. We also obtain a relation for the branching ratios independent of the strength of the strong penguin interactions. This relation gives a central value of 0.60 x 10 -5 for B(B-bar 0 → K-bar 0 π 0 ), somewhat smaller than the latest CLEO measurement. We also find that a ratio obtained from the CP-averaged B → Kπ decay rates could be used to test the factorisation model and to determine the weak angle γ with more precise data, though the latest CLEO data seem to favor γ in the range 90 deg. - 120 deg

  12. Renormalization of gauge theories of weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.W.

    1973-01-01

    The renormalizability of spontaneously broken gauge theories is discussed. A brief outline of the motivation for such an investigation is given, and the manner in which the renormalizability of such theories is proven is described. The renormalizability question of the unbroken gauge theory is considered, and the formulation of a renormalizable perturbation theory of Higgs phenomena (spontaneously broken gauge theories) is considered. (U.S.)

  13. Gauge theories of the weak interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.

    1978-01-01

    Lectures are given on the Weinberg--Salam or Weinberg--Salam--Glashow--Iliopoulos--Maiani gauge theory. The way it is put together and some possible variations in the literature are discussed. 53 references

  14. Supersymmetric models of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egoryan, Eh.; Slavnov, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Examples of realistic supergauge lepton models based on the SU(2)xU(1) and SU(2)xSU(2)xU(1) groups are considered. These models do not contradict to up-to-date experimental data, give a natural explanation for the Higgs mechanism and predict the existence of heavy leptons. The first model predicts the conservation of parity, the second one predicts parity breaking in atomic processes

  15. Precision measurement of the (7)Be solar neutrino interaction rate in Borexino.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonetti, S; Bonfini, G; Buizza Avanzini, M; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Carraro, C; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Grandi, L; Guardincerri, E; Hardy, S; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Koshio, Y; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lewke, T; Litvinovich, E; Loer, B; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Manuzio, G; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Montanari, D; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Peña-Garay, C; Perasso, L; Perasso, S; Pocar, A; Raghavan, R S; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Sabelnikov, A; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schönert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Xu, J; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuzel, G

    2011-09-30

    The rate of neutrino-electron elastic scattering interactions from 862 keV (7)Be solar neutrinos in Borexino is determined to be 46.0±1.5(stat)(-1.6)(+1.5)(syst) counts/(day·100  ton). This corresponds to a ν(e)-equivalent (7)Be solar neutrino flux of (3.10±0.15)×10(9)  cm(-2) s(-1) and, under the assumption of ν(e) transition to other active neutrino flavours, yields an electron neutrino survival probability of 0.51±0.07 at 862 keV. The no flavor change hypothesis is ruled out at 5.0 σ. A global solar neutrino analysis with free fluxes determines Φ(pp)=6.06(-0.06)(+0.02)×10(10)  cm(-2) s(-1) and Φ(CNO)Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein large mixing angle neutrino oscillation model is experimentally tested at low energy.

  16. The masculinity paradox: facial masculinity and beardedness interact to determine women's ratings of men's facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, B J W; Sulikowski, D; Gouda-Vossos, A; Rantala, M J; Brooks, R C

    2016-11-01

    In many species, male secondary sexual traits have evolved via female choice as they confer indirect (i.e. genetic) benefits or direct benefits such as enhanced fertility or survival. In humans, the role of men's characteristically masculine androgen-dependent facial traits in determining men's attractiveness has presented an enduring paradox in studies of human mate preferences. Male-typical facial features such as a pronounced brow ridge and a more robust jawline may signal underlying health, whereas beards may signal men's age and masculine social dominance. However, masculine faces are judged as more attractive for short-term relationships over less masculine faces, whereas beards are judged as more attractive than clean-shaven faces for long-term relationships. Why such divergent effects occur between preferences for two sexually dimorphic traits remains unresolved. In this study, we used computer graphic manipulation to morph male faces varying in facial hair from clean-shaven, light stubble, heavy stubble and full beards to appear more (+25% and +50%) or less (-25% and -50%) masculine. Women (N = 8520) were assigned to treatments wherein they rated these stimuli for physical attractiveness in general, for a short-term liaison or a long-term relationship. Results showed a significant interaction between beardedness and masculinity on attractiveness ratings. Masculinized and, to an even greater extent, feminized faces were less attractive than unmanipulated faces when all were clean-shaven, and stubble and beards dampened the polarizing effects of extreme masculinity and femininity. Relationship context also had effects on ratings, with facial hair enhancing long-term, and not short-term, attractiveness. Effects of facial masculinization appear to have been due to small differences in the relative attractiveness of each masculinity level under the three treatment conditions and not to any change in the order of their attractiveness. Our findings suggest that

  17. The weak decay of helium hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athanas, M.J.

    1992-08-01

    A Λ hyperon replaces a neutron in a nucleus to form a hypernucleus via the A X(K - , π - ) Λ A X reaction at 750 MeV/c (Brookhaven Experiment 788). The free Λ decay rates Γ(Λ → pπ - ) and Γ(Λ → nπ 0 ) are diminished due to Pauli blocking; but a non-mesonic decay mode, nucleon stimulated decay NΛ → Nn, is present and is detected via the energetic decay nucleon(s) (∼ 400MeV/c). Measurements of the various hypernuclear decay rates Γ(Λ → pπ - ), Γ(Λ → nπ 0 ) and Γ(Λn → nn) provides insight into the strong modification of the weak interaction such as the baryon-baryon ΔI =1/2 rule. The hypernuclear state is isolated by momentum analysis of (K - , π - ) target reaction. Out-of-beam large volume scintillation detectors and tracking chambers axe used to make particle identification of the hypernuclear decay products by time-of-flight, dE/dx, and range. The kinetic energy of the decay neutrons are measured by time of flight using the large volume 100 element neutron detector system. The hypernuclear lifetime is directly measured using precision scintillator counters and tracking chambers. Measurements of the various decay rates as well as the total lifetime are discussed for Λ 4 He

  18. High Textbook Reading Rates When Using an Interactive Textbook for a Material and Energy Balances Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberatore, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Textbooks are experiencing a 21st century makeover. The author has created a web-based electronic textbook, Material and Energy Balances zyBook, that records students' interactions. Animations and question sets create interactive and scaffolded content. The interactive format is adopted successfully in other engineering disciplines and is now…

  19. Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, R.L. Jr.

    1991-06-01

    One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10{sup {minus}11}. In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs.

  20. Anomalous baryogenesis at the weak scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, R.L. Jr.

    1991-06-01

    One of the fundamental constants of nature is the baryon asymmetry of the universe -- the ratio of the number of baryons to the entropy. This constant is about 10 -11 . In baryon- number conserving theories, this was just an initial condition. With the advent of the grand unified theories (GUTs), baryon number is no longer conserved, and this asymmetry can be generated dynamically. Unfortunately, however, there are reasons for preferring another mechanism. For example, GUTs predict proton decay which, after extensive searches, has not been found. An alternative place to look for baryogenesis is the electroweak phase transition, described by the standard model, which posses all the necessary ingredients for baryogenesis. Anomalous baryon-number violation in weak interactions becomes large at high temperatures, which offers the prospect of creating the asymmetry with the standard model or minimal extensions. This can just barely be done if certain conditions are fulfilled. CP violation must be large, which rules out the minimal standard model as the source of the asymmetry, but which is easily arranged with an extended Higgs sector. The baryon-number violating rates themselves are not exactly known, and they must be pushed to their theoretical limits. A more exact determination of these rates is needed before a definitive answer can be given. Finally, the phase transition must be at least weakly first order. Such phase transitions are accompanied by the formation and expansion of bubbles of true vacuum within the false vacuum, much like the boiling of water. As the bubbles expand, they provide a departure from thermal equilibrium, otherwise the dynamics will adjust the net baryon number to zero. The bubble expansion also provides a biasing that creates an asymmetry on the bubbles surface. Under optimal conditions, the observed asymmetry can just be produced. 31 refs., 10 figs

  1. Theoretical Probing of Weak Anion-Cation Interactions in Certain Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquid Ion Pairs and the Application of Molecular Electrostatic Potential in Their Ionic Crystal Density Determination: A Comparative Study Using Density Functional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Aswathy; Thomas, Vibin Ipe; Żyła, Gaweł; Padmanabhan, A S; Mathew, Suresh

    2018-01-11

    A comprehensive study on the structure, nature of interaction, and properties of six ionic pairs of 1-butylpyridinium and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium cations in combination with tetrafluoroborate (BF 4 - ), chloride (Cl - ), and bromide (Br - ) anions have been carried out using density functional theory (DFT). The anion-cation interaction energy (ΔE int ), thermochemistry values, theoretical band gap, molecular orbital energy order, DFT-based chemical activity descriptors [chemical potential (μ), chemical hardness (η), and electrophilicity index (ω)], and distribution of density of states (DOS) of these ion pairs were investigated. The ascendancy of the -CH 3 substituent at the fourth position of the 1-butylpyridinium cation ring on the values of ΔE int , theoretical band gap and chemical activity descriptors was evaluated. The ΔE int values were negative for all six ion pairs and were highest for Cl - containing ion pairs. The theoretical band gap value after -CH 3 substitution increased from 3.78 to 3.96 eV (for Cl - ) and from 2.74 to 2.88 eV (for Br - ) and decreased from 4.9 to 4.89 eV (for BF 4 - ). Ion pairs of BF 4 - were more susceptible to charge transfer processes as inferred from their significantly high η values and comparatively small difference in ω value after -CH 3 substitution. The change in η and μ values due to the -CH 3 substituent is negligibly small in all cases except for the ion pairs of Cl - . Critical-point (CP) analyses were carried out to investigate the AIM topological parameters at the interionic bond critical points (BCPs). The RDG isosurface analysis indicated that the anion-cation interaction was dominated by strong H cat ···X ani and C cat ···X ani interactions in ion pairs of Cl - and Br - whereas a weak van der Waal's effect dominated in ion pairs of BF 4 - . The molecular electrostatic potential (MESP)-based parameter ΔΔV min measuring the anion-cation interaction strength showed a good linear correlation with

  2. Weak states and security

    OpenAIRE

    Rakipi, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Although the weak 1 failing states have often been deseribed as the single most important problem for the international order s ince the en d of Cold W ar (F .Fukuyaına 2004:92) several dimensions of this phenomenon still remain unexplored. While this phenomenon has been present in the international politics even earlier, only the post Cold W ar period accentuated its relationship with security issues. Following the Cold W ar' s "peacef...

  3. "Weak quantum chaos" and its resistor network modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Alexander; Pecora, Louis M; Cohen, Doron

    2011-06-01

    Weakly chaotic or weakly interacting systems have a wide regime where the common random matrix theory modeling does not apply. As an example we consider cold atoms in a nearly integrable optical billiard with a displaceable wall (piston). The motion is completely chaotic but with a small Lyapunov exponent. The Hamiltonian matrix does not look like one taken from a Gaussian ensemble, but rather it is very sparse and textured. This can be characterized by parameters s and g which reflect the percentage of large elements and their connectivity, respectively. For g we use a resistor network calculation that has a direct relation to the semilinear response characteristics of the system, hence leading to a prediction regarding the energy absorption rate of cold atoms in optical billiards with vibrating walls.

  4. Normal-Mode Splitting in a Weakly Coupled Optomechanical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Kralj, Nenad; Zippilli, Stefano; Natali, Riccardo; Borrielli, Antonio; Pandraud, Gregory; Serra, Enrico; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Vitali, David

    2018-02-01

    Normal-mode splitting is the most evident signature of strong coupling between two interacting subsystems. It occurs when two subsystems exchange energy between themselves faster than they dissipate it to the environment. Here we experimentally show that a weakly coupled optomechanical system at room temperature can manifest normal-mode splitting when the pump field fluctuations are antisquashed by a phase-sensitive feedback loop operating close to its instability threshold. Under these conditions the optical cavity exhibits an effectively reduced decay rate, so that the system is effectively promoted to the strong coupling regime.

  5. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.......The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results....

  6. Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of [Cu2(LH2]•(ClO42. Influence of the weak Cu•••O(perchlorate interaction on the structure of Cu2N2O2 metallocycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirković Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diimine-dioxime ligand, 4,9-diaza-3,10-diethyl-3,9-dodecadiene-2,11-dione bisoxime (LH2, containing a N4 donor set was prepared by Schiff base condensation of 2-hydroxyimino-3-pentanone and 1,4-diaminobutane in two ways: in protic and in aprotic solvent. Higher yield of (LH2 imine was obtained when the synthesis was carried out using protic solvent (C2H5OH instead of aprotic benzene (78% and 30%, respectively. Cu(II metal complex of diimine-dioxime was synthesized in CH3OH from metal salt and LH2 in mole ratio 1:1. The isolated complex was characterized by the elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The structure of [Cu2(LH2]•(ClO42 was determined by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Comparison with the structurally related diimine-dioxime Cu(II complexes revealed the influence of the weak Cu•••O(perchlorate interaction on the geometry of the metallocycle. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45015, br. 172013, br. 172065 i br. 172014

  7. Nature of weak inter- and intramolecular interactions in crystals. Communication 5. Interactions Na...H-B in a crystal of sodium salt of charge compensated nido-carborane [9-SMe2-7,8-C2B9H10]-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysenko, K.A.; Golovanov, D.G.; Meshcheryakov, V.I.; Kudinov, A.R.; Antipin, M.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    The character of electron density distribution in the C 2 B 3 open face, the influence of the SMe 2 group on the character of electron density distribution, and the nature of the sodium-anion interaction were studied based on the data of high-resolution X-ray diffraction study of crystals of the sodium salt of charge-compensated nido-carborane [9-SMe 2 -7,8- C 2 B 9 H 10 ] - and quantum-chemical calculations for the Na...H-B-bonded dimer, the isolated [9-SMe 2 -7,8-C 2 B 9 H 10 ] - anion, and the [7,8-C 2 B 9 H 10 ] 2- dianion. The character of electron density distribution in the C 2 B 3 open face is analogous to the electron distribution in the cyclopentadienyl ligand. In nido-carborane, a substantial charge redistribution takes place compared to that observed in the closo analogs. The topological analysis of the electron density distribution function demonstrated that the cation-anion interactions are determined predominantly by Na...H-B contacts. The total energy of these contacts in the {[9-SMe 2 -7,8-C 2 B 9 H 10 ]Na(thf) 2 } 2 dimer estimated from X-ray diffraction data is 11.74 kcal mol -1 [ru

  8. Web GIS in practice: an interactive geographical interface to English Primary Care Trust performance ratings for 2003 and 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Boulos Maged N

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On 21 July 2004, the Healthcare Commission http://www.healthcarecommission.org.uk/ released its annual star ratings of the performance of NHS Primary Care Trusts (PCTs in England for the year ending March 2004. The Healthcare Commission started work on 1 April 2004, taking over all the functions of the former Commission for Health Improvement http://www.chi.nhs.uk/, which had released the corresponding PCT ratings for 2002/2003 in July 2003. Results We produced two Web-based interactive maps of PCT star ratings, one for 2003 and the other for 2004 http://healthcybermap.org/PCT/ratings/, with handy functions like map search (by PCT name or part of it. The maps feature a colour-blind friendly quadri-colour scheme to represent PCT star ratings. Clicking a PCT on any of the maps will display the detailed performance report of that PCT for the corresponding year. Conclusion Using our Web-based interactive maps, users can visually appreciate at a glance the distribution of PCT performance across England. They can visually compare the performance of different PCTs in the same year and also between 2003 and 2004 (by switching between the synchronised 'PCT Ratings 2003' and 'PCT Ratings 2004' themes. The performance of many PCTs has improved in 2004, whereas some PCTs achieved lower ratings in 2004 compared to 2003. Web-based interactive geographical interfaces offer an intuitive way of indexing, accessing, mining, and understanding large healthcare information sets describing geographically differentiated phenomena. By acting as an enhanced alternative or supplement to purely textual online interfaces, interactive Web maps can further empower organisations and decision makers.

  9. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  10. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...... the framework of Bishop-style mathematics (which has been open for about 20 years). The underivability even holds if the ine.ective schema of full comprehension (in all types) for negated formulas (in particular for -free formulas) is added, which allows one to derive the law of excluded middle...

  11. Interaction of initial litter quality and thinning intensity on litter decomposition rate, nitrogen accumulation and release in a pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao Chen; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Ruiheng Lv; Weiwei Wang; Guolei Li; Yong. Liu

    2014-01-01

    Thinning alters litter quality and microclimate under forests. Both of these two changes after thinning induce alterations of litter decomposition rates and nutrient cycling. However, a possible interaction between these two changes remains unclear. We placed two types of litter (LN, low N concentration litter; HN, high N concentration litter) in a Chinese pine (Pinus...

  12. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  13. Weakly Supervised Dictionary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zeyu; Raich, Raviv; Fern, Xiaoli Z.; Kim, Jinsub

    2018-05-01

    We present a probabilistic modeling and inference framework for discriminative analysis dictionary learning under a weak supervision setting. Dictionary learning approaches have been widely used for tasks such as low-level signal denoising and restoration as well as high-level classification tasks, which can be applied to audio and image analysis. Synthesis dictionary learning aims at jointly learning a dictionary and corresponding sparse coefficients to provide accurate data representation. This approach is useful for denoising and signal restoration, but may lead to sub-optimal classification performance. By contrast, analysis dictionary learning provides a transform that maps data to a sparse discriminative representation suitable for classification. We consider the problem of analysis dictionary learning for time-series data under a weak supervision setting in which signals are assigned with a global label instead of an instantaneous label signal. We propose a discriminative probabilistic model that incorporates both label information and sparsity constraints on the underlying latent instantaneous label signal using cardinality control. We present the expectation maximization (EM) procedure for maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) of the proposed model. To facilitate a computationally efficient E-step, we propose both a chain and a novel tree graph reformulation of the graphical model. The performance of the proposed model is demonstrated on both synthetic and real-world data.

  14. Rating parent-child interactions: joint engagement, communication dynamics, and shared topics in autism, Down syndrome, and typical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Lauren B; Bakeman, Roger; Deckner, Deborah F; Nelson, P Brooke

    2012-12-01

    A battery of 17 rating items were applied to video records of typically-developing toddlers and young children with autism and Down syndrome interacting with their parents during the Communication Play Protocol. This battery provided a reliable and broad view of the joint engagement triad of child, partner, and shared topic. Ratings of the child's joint engagement correlated very strongly with state coding of joint engagement and replicated the finding that coordinated joint engagement was less likely in children with autism. Ratings of other child actions, of parent contributions, and of shared topics and communicative dynamics also documented pervasive variations related to diagnosis, language facility, and communicative context.

  15. MONTEC, an interactive fortran program to simulate radiation dose and dose-rate responses of populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, K.A.; Szekely, J.G.

    1983-09-01

    The computer program MONTEC was written to simulate the distribution of responses in a population whose members are exposed to multiple radiation doses at variable dose rates. These doses and dose rates are randomly selected from lognormal distributions. The individual radiation responses are calculated from three equations, which include dose and dose-rate terms. Other response-dose/rate relationships or distributions can be incorporated by the user as the need arises. The purpose of this documentation is to provide a complete operating manual for the program. This version is written in FORTRAN-10 for the DEC system PDP-10

  16. Material interactions with the Low Earth Orbital (LEO) environment: Accurate reaction rate measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visentine, James T.; Leger, Lubert J.

    1987-01-01

    To resolve uncertainties in estimated LEO atomic oxygen fluence and provide reaction product composition data for comparison to data obtained in ground-based simulation laboratories, a flight experiment has been proposed for the space shuttle which utilizes an ion-neutral mass spectrometer to obtain in-situ ambient density measurements and identify reaction products from modeled polymers exposed to the atomic oxygen environment. An overview of this experiment is presented and the methodology of calibrating the flight mass spectrometer in a neutral beam facility prior to its use on the space shuttle is established. The experiment, designated EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials, third series), will provide a reliable materials interaction data base for future spacecraft design and will furnish insight into the basic chemical mechanisms leading to atomic oxygen interactions with surfaces.

  17. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang [Center for General Education, Chang Gung University,Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Fei-Fan [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lee, Feng-Shiuh [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Guey-Lin [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsung-Che [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Yi [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-22

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar{sub e}+p→n+e{sup +}, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar{sub e} flux with the ν-bar{sub x} (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  18. Detection of weak electric fields by sharks, rays, and skates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adair, Robert K.; Astumian, R. Dean; Weaver, James C.

    1998-09-01

    The elasmobranchs-sharks, rays, and skates-can detect very weak electric fields in their aqueous environment through a complex sensory system, the ampullae of Lorenzini. The ampullae are conducting tubes that connect the surface of the animal to its interior. In the presence of an electric field, the potential of the surface of the animal will differ from that of the interior and that potential is applied across the apical membrane of the special sensory cells that line the ampullae. The firing rate of the afferent neurons that transmit signals from the ampullae has been shown to vary with that potential. We show that those firing rates can be described quantitatively in terms of synchronous firing of the sensory cells that feed the neurons. We demonstrate that such synchronism follows naturally from a hypothetical weak cell-to-cell interaction that results in a self-organization of the sensory cells. Moreover, the pulse rates of those cells-and the neurons that service the cells-can be expected to vary with the imposed electric fields in accord with measured values through actions of voltage gated transmembrane proteins in the apical sector of the cell membranes that admit Ca(++) ions. We also present a more conjectural model of signal processing at the neuron level that could exploit small differences in firing rates of nerve fibers servicing different ampullae to send an unambiguous signal to the central nervous system of the animal. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Theoretical estimation of Photons flow rate Production in quark gluon interaction at high energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Agealy, Hadi J. M.; Hamza Hussein, Hyder; Mustafa Hussein, Saba

    2018-05-01

    photons emitted from higher energetic collisions in quark-gluon system have been theoretical studied depending on color quantum theory. A simple model for photons emission at quark-gluon system have been investigated. In this model, we use a quantum consideration which enhances to describing the quark system. The photons current rate are estimation for two system at different fugacity coefficient. We discussion the behavior of photons rate and quark gluon system properties in different photons energies with Boltzmann model. The photons rate depending on anisotropic coefficient : strong constant, photons energy, color number, fugacity parameter, thermal energy and critical energy of system are also discussed.

  20. Weak hadronic currents in compensation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pappas, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    Working within the framework of a compensation theory of strong and weak interactions, it is shown that: (1) an axial vector baryon number current can be included in the weak current algebra if certain restrictions on the K-meson strong couplings are relaxed; (2) the theory does not permit the introduction of strange currents of the chiral form V + A; and (3) the assumption that the superweak currents of the theory cannot contain certain CP conserving terms can be justified on the basis of compensation requirements

  1. The dynamic interaction of order flows and the CAD/USD exchange rate

    OpenAIRE

    Nikola Gradojevic; Christopher J. Neely

    2008-01-01

    We explore the relationship between disaggregated order flow, the Canada/U.S. dollar (CAD/USD) market and U.S. macroeconomic announcements. Three types of CAD order flow and the CAD/USD are cointegrated. Financial order flow appears to contemporaneously drive the CAD/USD while commercial order flow seems to contemporaneously respond to exchange rate movements. Past order flow and lagged exchange rates strongly explain most types of order flow. Despite this predictability and the contemporaneo...

  2. The weak decay of helium hypernuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanas, Michael J. [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1992-08-01

    A Λ hyperon replaces a neutron in a nucleus to form a hypernucleus via the AX(K-, π-) $A\\atop{Λ}$X reaction at 750 MeV/c (Brookhaven Experiment 788). The free Λ decay rates Γ(Λ → pπ-) and Γ(Λ → nπ0) are diminished due to Pauli blocking; but a non-mesonic decay mode, nucleon stimulated decay NΛ → Nn, is present and is detected via the energetic decay nucleon(s) (~ 400MeV/c). Measurements of the various hypernuclear decay rates Γ(Λ → pπ-), Γ(Λ → nπ0) and Γ(Λn → nn) provides insight into the strong modification of the weak interaction such as the baryon-baryon ΔI ={1/2} rule. The hypernuclear state is isolated by momentum analysis of (K-, π-) target reaction. Out-of-beam large volume scintillation detectors and tracking chambers axe used to make particle identification of the hypernuclear decay products by time-of-flight, dE/dx, and range. The kinetic energy of the decay neutrons are measured by time of flight using the large volume 100 element neutron detector system. The hypernuclear lifetime is directly measured using precision scintillator counters and tracking chambers. Measurements of the various decay rates as well as the total lifetime are discussed for $4\\atop{Λ}$He.

  3. Weak layer fracture: facets and depth hoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reiweger

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding failure initiation within weak snow layers is essential for modeling and predicting dry-snow slab avalanches. We therefore performed laboratory experiments with snow samples containing a weak layer consisting of either faceted crystals or depth hoar. During these experiments the samples were loaded with different loading rates and at various tilt angles until fracture. The strength of the samples decreased with increasing loading rate and increasing tilt angle. Additionally, we took pictures of the side of four samples with a high-speed video camera and calculated the displacement using a particle image velocimetry (PIV algorithm. The fracture process within the weak layer could thus be observed in detail. Catastrophic failure started due to a shear fracture just above the interface between the depth hoar layer and the underlying crust.

  4. Attending to weak signals: the leader's challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Karlene

    2005-12-01

    Halverson and Isham (2003) quote sources that report the accidental death rate of simply being in a hospital is " ... four hundred times more likely than your risk of death from traveling by train, forty times higher than driving a car, and twenty times higher than flying in a commercial aircraft" (p. 13). High-reliability organizations such as nuclear power plants and aircraft carriers have been pioneers in the business of recognizing weak signals. Weike and Sutcliffe (2001) note that high-reliability organizations distinguish themselves from others because of their mindfulness which enables them to see the significance of weak signals and to give strong interventions to weak signals. To act mindfully, these organizations have an underlying mental model of continually updating, anticipating, and focusing the possibility of failure using the intelligence that weak signals provides. Much of what happens is unexpected in health care. However, with a culture that is continually looking for weak signals, and intervenes and rescues when these signals are detected, the unexpected happens less often. This is the epitome of how leaders can build a culture of safety that focuses on recognizing the weak signals to manage the unforeseen.

  5. Some Analytical Properties of the Model for Stochastic Evolutionary Games in Finite Populations with Non-uniform Interaction Rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Ji; Wang Xianjia

    2013-01-01

    Traditional evolutionary games assume uniform interaction rate, which means that the rate at which individuals meet and interact is independent of their strategies. But in some systems, especially biological systems, the players interact with each other discriminately. Taylor and Nowak (2006) were the first to establish the corresponding non-uniform interaction rate model by allowing the interaction rates to depend on strategies. Their model is based on replicator dynamics which assumes an infinite size population. But in reality, the number of individuals in the population is always finite, and there will be some random interference in the individuals' strategy selection process. Therefore, it is more practical to establish the corresponding stochastic evolutionary model in finite populations. In fact, the analysis of evolutionary games in a finite size population is more difficult. Just as Taylor and Nowak said in the outlook section of their paper, ''The analysis of non-uniform interaction rates should be extended to stochastic game dynamics of finite populations''. In this paper, we are exactly doing this work. We extend Taylor and Nowak's model from infinite to finite case, especially focusing on the infiuence of non-uniform connection characteristics on the evolutionary stable state of the system. We model the strategy evolutionary process of the population by a continuous ergodic Markov process. Based on the limit distribution of the process, we can give the evolutionary stable state of the system. We make a complete classification of the symmetric 2 × 2 games. For each case game, the corresponding limit distribution of the Markov-based process is given when noise intensity is small enough. In contrast with most literatures in evolutionary games using the simulation method, all our results obtained are analytical. Especially, in the dominant-case game, coexistence of the two strategies may become evolutionary stable states in our model. This result can be

  6. Gender-age interaction in incidence rates of childhood emotional disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselhoeft, R; Pedersen, C B; Mortensen, P B

    2014-01-01

    were incidence rates and cumulative incidences for unipolar depressive disorder (ICD-10: F32-F33), anxiety disorders (ICD-10: F40-F42), and emotional disorders with onset specific to childhood (ICD-10: F93). RESULTS: Pre-pubertal incidence rates for depressive and anxiety disorders were higher for boys...... rates of emotional disorders throughout childhood. METHOD: This is a population-based cohort study of 907 806 Danish 3- to 18-year-olds. The outcome was assignment of an emotional disorder diagnosis based on in-patient and out-patient data from The Danish Psychiatric Central Register. Outcome measures.......24-2.43) for boys and 3.77% (95% CI 3.64-3.90) for girls. The pre-pubertal male preponderance was also significant for depressive disorders (F32-F33, p = 0.00144) and anxiety disorders (F40-F42, F93, p

  7. A Compilation of Rate Parameters of Water-Mineral Interaction Kinetics for Application to Geochemical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-03-01

    Eggleston C. M. (2002) Dissolution kinetics of magnesite in acidic solutions: A hydrothermal atomic force microscopy study assessing step kinetics and...glass dissolution: I. An experimental study of the dissolution rates of basaltic glass as a function of aqueous Al, Si and oxalic acid concentration at...Stillings L. L., Drever J. I., Brantley S. L., Sun Y., and Oxburgh R. (1996) Rates of feldspar dissolution at pH 3-7 with 0-8mM oxalic acid . Chem

  8. The effects of the interaction of various oil types and rates on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    i.e., oil type and rate, on the mycelial wet and dry weights of L. squarrosulus and P. ... 1.5 g yeast extract ... from the weight of the experimental filter paper plus the mycelium. The filter .... linseed, wheat germ, olive and soybean oils respectively.

  9. Interacting Effects of Instructions and Presentation Rate on Visual Statistical Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie eBertels

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The statistical regularities of a sequence of visual shapes can be learned incidentally. Arciuli et al. (2014 recently argued that intentional instructions only improve learning at slow presentation rates as they favor the use of explicit strategies. The aim of the present study was (1 to test this assumption directly by investigating how instructions (incidental vs. intentional and presentation rate (fast vs. slow affect the acquisition of knowledge and (2 to examine how these factors influence the conscious vs. unconscious nature of the knowledge acquired. To this aim, we exposed participants to four triplets of shapes, presented sequentially in a pseudo-random order, and assessed their degree of learning in a subsequent completion task that integrated confidence judgments. Supporting Arciuli et al.’s claim, participant performance only benefited from intentional instructions at slow presentation rates. Moreover, informing participants beforehand about the existence of statistical regularities increased their explicit knowledge of the sequences, an effect that was not modulated by presentation speed. These results support that, although visual statistical learning can take place incidentally and, to some extent, outside conscious awareness, factors such as presentation rate and prior knowledge can boost learning of these regularities, presumably by favoring the acquisition of explicit knowledge.

  10. Weak radiative baryonic decays of B mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohara, Yoji

    2004-01-01

    Weak radiative baryonic B decays B→B 1 B 2 -barγ are studied under the assumption of the short-distance b→sγ electromagnetic penguin transition dominance. The relations among the decay rates of various decay modes are derived

  11. Influence of the Chemical Interactions on the Removal Rate of Different Salts in Electrokinetic Desalination Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paz-Garcia, Juan Manuel; Johannesson, Björn; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrokinetic desalination techniques have been successfully applied for the prevention of salt-induced deterioration problems of masonry and other construction materials. A mathematical model for electrochemical desalination treatments is described, based on the Poisson-Nernst-Planck system...... of equations and accounting for the chemical interactions between the species in the pore solution and the solid matrix. Due to their high abundance in the natural environment, chlorides, nitrates and sulfates are considered the main ions responsible to the salt decay processes in buildings materials...

  12. Weak neutral currents discovery: a giant step for particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pullia, A.; Vialle, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Subatomic particles interact with different kinds of forces (strong, electromagnetic, weak and gravitational). In case of the weak force, the interaction is due to the exchange of intermediate charged (W +,- ) and neutral (Z 0 ) bosons. These cases are referred as 'charged currents' and 'neutral currents', respectively. The evidence for such weak neutral currents appeared in the Gargamelle international collaboration whose aim was to study in-depth neutrino interactions (and thus weak interactions) through the use of a giant heavy liquid bubble chamber at CERN. In a collaboration meeting in March 1972, the Milan team showed the first hints of neutral currents in neutrino interactions with at least one pion outgoing. In 1974, 2 new leptonic neutral current candidate events were found in Gargamelle films and the Fermilab team confirmed the result a few months later. (A.C.)

  13. On the influence of the hydrodynamic interactions on the aggregation rate of magnetic spheres in a dilute suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, F.R.; Couto, H.L.G.

    2011-01-01

    Magnetostatic attraction may lead to formation of aggregates in stable colloidal magnetic suspensions and magneto-rheological suspensions. The aggregation problem of magnetic composites under differential sedimentation is a key problem in the control of the instability of non-Brownian suspensions. Against these attractive forces are the electrostatic repulsion and the hydrodynamic interactions acting as stabilizing effects to the suspension. This work concerns an investigation of the pairwise interaction of magnetic particles in a dilute sedimenting suspension. We focus attention on suspensions where the Peclet number is large (negligible Brownian motion) and where the Reynolds number (negligible inertia) is small. The suspension is composed of magnetic micro-spheres of different radius and density immersed in a Newtonian fluid moving under the action of gravity. The theoretical calculations are based on direct computations of the hydrodynamic and the magnetic interactions among the rigid spheres in the regime of low particle Reynolds number. From the limiting trajectory in which aggregation occurs, we calculate the collision efficiency, representing the dimensionless rate at which aggregates are formed. The numerical results show clear evidence that the hydrodynamic interactions are of fundamental relevance in the process of magnetic particle aggregation. We compare the stabilizing effects between electrostatic repulsion and hydrodynamic interactions.

  14. On the influence of the hydrodynamic interactions on the aggregation rate of magnetic spheres in a dilute suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, F.R., E-mail: frcunha@unb.b [Universidade de Brasilia, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica, Grupo de Mecanica dos Fluidos de Escoamentos Complexos - VORTEX, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Couto, H.L.G. [Universidade de Brasilia, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Depto. de Engenharia Mecanica, Grupo de Mecanica dos Fluidos de Escoamentos Complexos - VORTEX, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Magnetostatic attraction may lead to formation of aggregates in stable colloidal magnetic suspensions and magneto-rheological suspensions. The aggregation problem of magnetic composites under differential sedimentation is a key problem in the control of the instability of non-Brownian suspensions. Against these attractive forces are the electrostatic repulsion and the hydrodynamic interactions acting as stabilizing effects to the suspension. This work concerns an investigation of the pairwise interaction of magnetic particles in a dilute sedimenting suspension. We focus attention on suspensions where the Peclet number is large (negligible Brownian motion) and where the Reynolds number (negligible inertia) is small. The suspension is composed of magnetic micro-spheres of different radius and density immersed in a Newtonian fluid moving under the action of gravity. The theoretical calculations are based on direct computations of the hydrodynamic and the magnetic interactions among the rigid spheres in the regime of low particle Reynolds number. From the limiting trajectory in which aggregation occurs, we calculate the collision efficiency, representing the dimensionless rate at which aggregates are formed. The numerical results show clear evidence that the hydrodynamic interactions are of fundamental relevance in the process of magnetic particle aggregation. We compare the stabilizing effects between electrostatic repulsion and hydrodynamic interactions.

  15. Geometric phase topology in weak measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2017-12-01

    The geometric phase visualization proposed by Bhandari (R Bhandari 1997 Phys. Rep. 281 1-64) in the ellipticity-ellipse orientation basis of the polarization ellipse of light is implemented to understand the geometric aspects of weak measurement. The weak interaction of a pre-selected state, acheived via spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL), results in a spread in the polarization ellipticity (η) or ellipse orientation (χ) depending on the resulting spatial or angular shift, respectively. The post-selection leads to the projection of the η spread in the complementary χ basis results in the appearance of a geometric phase with helical phase topology in the η - χ parameter space. By representing the weak measurement on the Poincaré sphere and using Jones calculus, the complex weak value and the geometric phase topology are obtained. This deeper understanding of the weak measurement process enabled us to explore the techniques’ capabilities maximally, as demonstrated via SHEL in two examples—external reflection at glass-air interface and transmission through a tilted half-wave plate.

  16. MapRat: Meaningful Explanation, Interactive Exploration and Geo-Visualization of Collaborative Ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Thirumuruganathan , Saravanan; Das , Mahashweta; Desai , Shrikant; Amer-Yahia , Sihem; Das , Gautam; Yu , Cong

    2012-01-01

    ISSN: 2150-8097 - www.vldb2012.org - Demonstration session: Information Retrieval, Web, and Mobility at VLDB 2012 (Very Large Data Bases Conference, Istanbul, Turkey, 2012); International audience; Collaborative rating sites such as IMDB and Yelp have become rich resources that users consult to form judgments about and choose from among competing items. Most of these sites either provide a plethora of information for users to interpret all by themselves or a simple overall aggregate informati...

  17. The Combined Effect of Long Working Hours and Low Job Control on Self-Rated Health: An Interaction Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Seong-Sik; Ju, Young-Su; Paek, Domyung; Kim, Hyunjoo; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of long working hours and low job control on self-rated health. We analyzed employees' data obtained from the third Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS). Multiple survey logistic analysis and postestimation commands were employed to estimate the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). The odds ratio (OR) for poor self-rated health was 1.24 [95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.13 to 1.35] for long working hours, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97 to 1.13) for low job control, and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.33 to 1.62) for both long working hours and low job control. The RERI was 0.18 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.34). These results imply that low job control may increase the negative influence of long working hours on self-rated health.

  18. Mobile devices and weak ties: a study of vision impairments and workplace access in Bangalore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Joyojeet; Lakshmanan, Meera

    2015-07-01

    To explore ways in which social and economic interactions are changed by access to mobile telephony. This is a mixed-methods study of mobile phone use among 52 urban professionals with vision impairments in Bangalore, India. Interviews and survey results indicated that mobile devices, specifically those with adaptive technology software, play a vital role as multi-purpose devices that enable people with disabilities to navigate economically and socially in an environment where accessibility remains a significant challenge. We found that mobile devices play a central role in enabling and sustaining weak ties, but also that these weak ties have important gender-specific implications. We found that women have less access to weak ties than men, which impacts women's access to assistive technology (AT). This has potential implications for women's sense of safety and independence, both of which are strongly related to AT access. Implications for Rehabilitation Adaptive technologies increase individuals' ability to keep in contact with casual connections or weak ties through phone calls or social media. Men tend to have stronger access to weak ties than women in India due to cultural impediments to independent access to public spaces. Weak ties are an important source of assistive technology (AT) due to the high rate of resale of used AT, typically through informal networks.

  19. Compatibility between weak gel and microorganisms in weak gel-assisted microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yi-Bin; Zheng, Cheng-Gang; Lv, Cheng-Yuan; Lun, Zeng-Min; Ma, Tao

    2018-03-20

    To investigate weak gel-assisted microbial flooding in Block Wang Long Zhuang in the Jiangsu Oilfield, the compatibility of weak gel and microbe was evaluated using laboratory experiments. Bacillus sp. W5 was isolated from the formation water in Block Wang Long Zhuang. The rate of oil degradation reached 178 mg/day, and the rate of viscosity reduction reached 75.3%. Strain W5 could produce lipopeptide with a yield of 1254 mg/L. Emulsified crude oil was dispersed in the microbial degradation system, and the average diameter of the emulsified oil particles was 18.54 μm. Bacillus sp. W5 did not affect the rheological properties of the weak gel, and the presence of the weak gel did not significantly affect bacterial reproduction (as indicated by an unchanged microbial biomass), emulsification (surface tension is 35.56 mN/m and average oil particles size is 21.38 μm), oil degradation (162 mg/day) and oil viscosity reduction (72.7%). Core-flooding experiments indicated oil recovery of 23.6% when both weak gel and Bacillus sp. W5 were injected into the system, 14.76% when only the weak gel was injected, and 9.78% with strain W5 was injected without the weak gel. The results demonstrate good compatibility between strains W5 and the weak gel and highlight the application potential of weak gel-assisted microbial flooding. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Intraspecies Volatile Interactions Affect Growth Rates and Exometabolomes in Aspergillus oryzae KCCM 60345.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Digar; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2018-02-28

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are increasingly been recognized as the chemical mediators of mold interactions, shaping their community dynamics, growth, and metabolism. Herein, we selectively examined the time-correlated (0 D-11 D, where D = incubation days) effects of intraspecies VOC-mediated interactions (VMI) on Aspergillus oryzae KCCM 60345 (S1), following co-cultivation with partner strain A. oryzae KACC 44967 (S2), in a specially designed twin plate assembly. The comparative evaluation of S1 VMI (S1 subjected to VMI with S2) and its control (S1 Con ) showed a notable disparity in their radial growth (S1 VMI S1 Con ) at 3-5 D, amylase activity (S1 VMI S1 Con ) at 3 D. Furthermore, we observed a distinct clustering pattern for gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry datasets from 5 D extracts of S1 VMI and S1 Con in principle component analysis (PC1: 30.85%; PC2: 10.31%) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) (PLS1: 30.77; PLS2: 10.15%). Overall, 43 significantly discriminant metabolites were determined for engendering the metabolic variance based on the PLS-DA model (VIP > 0.7, p S1 Con ) at 5 D, organic acids (S1 VMI > S1 Con ) at 5 D, and kojic acid (S1 VMI < S1 Con ) at 5-7 D were observed. Examining the headspace VOCs shared between S1 and S2 in the twin plate for 5 D incubated samples, we observed the relatively higher abundance of C-8 VOCs (1-octen-3-ol, (5Z)-octa-1,5-dien-3-ol, 3-octanone, 1-octen-3-ol acetate) having known semiochemical functions. The present study potentially illuminates the effects of VMI on commercially important A. oryzae's growth and biochemical phenotypes with subtle details of altered metabolomes.