WorldWideScience

Sample records for weak interaction measurements

  1. History of Weak Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. D.

    1970-07-01

    While the phenomenon of beta-decay was discovered near the end of the last century, the notion that the weak interaction forms a separate field of physical forces evolved rather gradually. This became clear only after the experimental discoveries of other weak reactions such as muon-decay, muon-capture, etc., and the theoretical observation that all these reactions can be described by approximately the same coupling constant, thus giving rise to the notion of a universal weak interaction. Only then did one slowly recognize that the weak interaction force forms an independent field, perhaps on the same footing as the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, and the strong nuclear and sub-nuclear forces.

  2. Weak Measurement and Quantum Correlation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Kumar Pati

    The concept of the weak measurements, for the first time, was introduced by Aharonov et al.1. Quantum state is preselected in |ψi〉 and allowed to interact weakly with apparatus. Measurement strength can be tuned and for “small g(t)” it is called 'weak measurement'. With postselection in |ψf 〉, apparatus state is shifted by an ...

  3. Measurement of the weak nucleon-nucleon interaction by polarized cold neutron capture on protons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alarcon R.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The NPDGamma Experiment at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is measuring the parity-odd correlation between the neutron spin and the direction of the emitted photon in the capture of polarized cold neutrons on protons. A parity violating asymmetry from this process is directly related to the strength of the hadronic weak interaction between nucleons. The experiment was run first with heavier nuclear targets to check systematic effects, false asymmetries, and backgrounds. Since early 2012 the experiment has been collecting data with a 16-liter liquid parahydrogen target. Data taking will continue through 2013 until statistics for a 10−8 asymmetry measurement are expected. The experiment performance will be discussed as well as the status of the asymmetry measurements.

  4. Measurement of the parity nonconserving neutral weak interaction in atomic thallium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucksbaum, P.H.

    1980-11-01

    This thesis describes an experiment to measure parity nonconservation in atomic thallium. A frequency doubled, flashlamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the 6P/sub 1/2/(F = 0) ..-->.. 7P/sub 1/2/(F = 1) transition at 292.7 nm, with circularly polarized light. An electrostatic field E of 100 to 300 V/cm causes this transition to occur via Stark induced electric dipole. Two field free transitions may also occur: a highly forbidden magnetic dipole M, and a parity nonconserving electric dipole epsilon/sub P/. The latter is presumed to be due to the presence of a weak neutral current interaction between the 6p valence electron and the nucleus, as predicted by gauge theories which unite the electromagnetic and weak interactions. Both M and epsilon/sub P/ interfere with the Stark amplitude ..beta..E to produce a polarization of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state. This is measured with a circularly polarized infrared laser beam probe, tuned to the 7P/sub 1/2/ ..-->.. 8S/sub 1/2/ transition. This selectively excites m/sub F/ = +1 or -1 components of the 7P/sub 1/2/ state, and the polarization is seen as an asymmetry in 8S ..-->.. 6P/sub 3/2/ fluorescence when the probe helicity is reversed. The polarization due to M is ..delta../sub M/ = -2M/(BETAE). It is used to calibrate the analyzing efficiency. The polarization due to epsilon/sub P/ is ..delta../sub P/ = 2i epsilon/sub P//(..beta..E), and can be distinguished from ..delta../sub M/ by its properties under reversal of the 292.7 nm photon helicity and reversal of the laser direction. A preliminary measurement yielded a parity violation in agreement with the gauge theory of Weinberg and Salam.

  5. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  6. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  7. Weak interactions of elementary particles

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    1965-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 5: Weak Interaction of Elementary Particles focuses on the composition, properties, and reactions of elementary particles and high energies. The book first discusses elementary particles. Concerns include isotopic invariance in the Sakata model; conservation of fundamental particles; scheme of isomultiplets in the Sakata model; universal, unitary-symmetric strong interaction; and universal weak interaction. The text also focuses on spinors, amplitudes, and currents. Wave function, calculation of traces, five bilinear covariants,

  8. Cosmology and the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, D.N. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)):(Chicago Univ., IL (USA))

    1989-12-01

    The weak interaction plays a critical role in modern Big Bang cosmology. This review will emphasize two of its most publicized cosmological connections: Big Bang nucleosynthesis and Dark Matter. The first of these is connected to the cosmological prediction of Neutrino Flavours, N{sub {nu}} {approximately} 3 which is now being confirmed at SLC and LEP. The second is interrelated to the whole problem of galaxy and structure formation in the universe. This review will demonstrate the role of the weak interaction both for dark matter candidates and for the problem of generating seeds to form structure. 87 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Measurement-induced deterministic and probabilistic entanglement with strong and weak interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, Antonio

    2017-11-01

    A scheme is proposed to transform spatial coherence of a single particle into entanglement. Two quantum systems can be entangled by having them interact in parallel with an ancillary particle in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, then making a suitable post-selection of the particle followed by a conditional feedforward on one of the systems to be entangled. For a strong interaction between each system and the ancilla, the process works deterministically. For a weaker interaction only the probability of success is reduced, but the output continues to be a maximally entangled state. It is demonstrated that the process is optimal when the two interactions are symmetric, systems with continuous variables are considered, and the effects of the environment are taken into account.

  10. Weak neutral-current interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z/sup 0/ boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references. (JFP)

  11. Measurement of the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter of $^{67}$Cu in search for tensor type currents in the weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Soti, G.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Finlay, P.; Herzog, P.; Knecht, A.; Köster, U.; Kraev, I.S.; Porobic, T.; Prashanth, P.N.; Towner, I.S.; Tramm, C.; Zákoucký, D.; Severijns, N.

    2014-01-01

    Precision measurements at low energy search for physics beyond the Standard Model in a way complementary to searches for new particles at colliders. In the weak sector the most general $\\beta$ decay Hamiltonian contains, besides vector and axial-vector terms, also scalar, tensor and pseudoscalar terms. Current limits on the scalar and tensor coupling constants from neutron and nuclear $\\beta$ decay are on the level of several percent. The goal of this paper is extracting new information on tensor coupling constants by measuring the $\\beta$-asymmetry parameter in the pure Gamow-Teller decay of $^{67}$Cu, thereby testing the V-A structure of the weak interaction. An iron sample foil into which the radioactive nuclei were implanted was cooled down to milliKelvin temperatures in a $^3$He-$^4$He dilution refrigerator. An external magnetic field of 0.1 T, in combination with the internal hyperfine magnetic field, oriented the nuclei. The anisotropic $\\beta$ radiation was observed with planar high purity germanium d...

  12. Quantum discord with weak measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Uttam, E-mail: uttamsingh@hri.res.in; Pati, Arun Kumar, E-mail: akpati@hri.res.in

    2014-04-15

    Weak measurements cause small change to quantum states, thereby opening up the possibility of new ways of manipulating and controlling quantum systems. We ask, can weak measurements reveal more quantum correlation in a composite quantum state? We prove that the weak measurement induced quantum discord, called as the “super quantum discord”, is always larger than the quantum discord captured by the strong measurement. Moreover, we prove the monotonicity of the super quantum discord as a function of the measurement strength and in the limit of strong projective measurement the super quantum discord becomes the normal quantum discord. We find that unlike the normal discord, for pure entangled states, the super quantum discord can exceed the quantum entanglement. Our results provide new insights on the nature of quantum correlation and suggest that the notion of quantum correlation is not only observer dependent but also depends on how weakly one perturbs the composite system. We illustrate the key results for pure as well as mixed entangled states. -- Highlights: •Introduced the role of weak measurements in quantifying quantum correlation. •We have introduced the notion of the super quantum discord (SQD). •For pure entangled state, we show that the SQD exceeds the entanglement entropy. •This shows that quantum correlation depends not only on observer but also on measurement strength.

  13. Optimal Weak Lensing Skewness Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John

    2003-01-01

    Weak lensing measurements are entering a precision era to statistically map the distribution of matter in the universe. The most common measurement has been of the variance of the projected surface density of matter, which corresponds to the induced correlation in alignments of background galaxies. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content, like using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. But when the depth is shallow as happens near a beach, waves beco...

  14. A Universe without Weak Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnik, Roni; Kribs, Graham D.; Perez, Gilad

    2006-04-07

    A universe without weak interactions is constructed that undergoes big-bang nucleosynthesis, matter domination, structure formation, and star formation. The stars in this universe are able to burn for billions of years, synthesize elements up to iron, and undergo supernova explosions, dispersing heavy elements into the interstellar medium. These definitive claims are supported by a detailed analysis where this hypothetical ''Weakless Universe'' is matched to our Universe by simultaneously adjusting Standard Model and cosmological parameters. For instance, chemistry and nuclear physics are essentially unchanged. The apparent habitability of the Weakless Universe suggests that the anthropic principle does not determine the scale of electroweak breaking, or even require that it be smaller than the Planck scale, so long as technically natural parameters may be suitably adjusted. Whether the multi-parameter adjustment is realized or probable is dependent on the ultraviolet completion, such as the string landscape. Considering a similar analysis for the cosmological constant, however, we argue that no adjustments of other parameters are able to allow the cosmological constant to raise up even remotely close to the Planck scale while obtaining macroscopic structure. The fine-tuning problems associated with the electroweak breaking scale and the cosmological constant therefore appear to be qualitatively different from the perspective of obtaining a habitable universe.

  15. Summary of the Hadronic Weak Interaction session

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, G.; Bryman, D. A.; Numao, T.

    1993-07-01

    We summarize and discuss present and future experiments on decays of light mesons and muons that were presented in the Hadronic Weak Interaction working group session of the Workshop on Future Directions in Particle and Nuclear Physics at Multi-GeV Hadron Facilities. Precise measurements and rare-decay searches, which sense mass scales in the 1-1000 TeV region, are discussed in the context of the standard model and beyond.

  16. Summary of the Hadronic Weak Interaction session

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, G. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Bryman, D.A.; Numao, T. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). TRIUMF Facility

    1993-07-01

    We summarize and discuss present and future experiments on decays of light mesons and muons that were presented in the Hadronic Weak Interaction working group session of the ``Workshop on Future Directions in Particle and Nuclear Physics at Multi-GeV Hadron Facilities.`` Precise measurements and rare-decay searches, which sense mass scales in the 1--1000 TeV region, are discussed in the context of the standard model and beyond.

  17. Francium Spectroscopy for Weak Interaction Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Luis

    2014-05-01

    Francium, a radioactive element, is the heaviest alkali. Its atomic and nuclear structure makes it an ideal laboratory to study the weak interaction. Laser trapping and cooling in-line with the superconducting LINAC accelerator at Stony Brook opened the precision study of its atomic structure. I will present our proposal and progress towards weak interaction measurements at TRIUMF, the National Canadian Accelerator in Vancouver. These include the commissioning run of the Francium Trapping Facility, hyperfine anomaly measurements on a chain of Fr isotopes, the nuclear anapole moment through parity non-conserving transitions in the ground state hyperfine manifold. These measurements should shed light on the nucleon-nucleon weak interaction. This work is done by the FrPNC collaboration: S. Aubin College of William and Mary, J. A. Behr TRIUMF, R. Collister U. Manitoba, E. Gomez UASLP, G. Gwinner U. Manitoba, M. R. Pearson TRIUMF, L. A. Orozco UMD, M. Tandecki TRIUMF, J. Zhang UMD Supported by NSF and DOE from the USA; TRIUMF, NRC and NSERC from Canada; and CONACYT from Mexico

  18. Current problems in the weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais, A

    1977-01-01

    Some reasons are discussed showing why the recent SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions is not a complete theory of these interactions, Lepton theory, charm, and the CP problem are considered. 60 references. (JFP)

  19. Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution, and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe u...

  20. Spin effects in the weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, S.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Dept. of Physics Chicago Univ., IL (USA). Enrico Fermi Inst.)

    1990-01-01

    Modern experiments investigating the beta decay of the neutron and light nuclei are still providing important constraints on the theory of the weak interaction. Beta decay experiments are yielding more precise values for allowed and induced weak coupling constants and putting constraints on possible extensions to the standard electroweak model. Here we emphasize the implications of recent experiments to pin down the strengths of the weak vector and axial vector couplings of the nucleon.

  1. Geometric phase topology in weak measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlan, C. T.; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2017-12-01

    The geometric phase visualization proposed by Bhandari (R Bhandari 1997 Phys. Rep. 281 1–64) in the ellipticity-ellipse orientation basis of the polarization ellipse of light is implemented to understand the geometric aspects of weak measurement. The weak interaction of a pre-selected state, acheived via spin-Hall effect of light (SHEL), results in a spread in the polarization ellipticity (η) or ellipse orientation (χ) depending on the resulting spatial or angular shift, respectively. The post-selection leads to the projection of the η spread in the complementary χ basis results in the appearance of a geometric phase with helical phase topology in the η ‑ χ parameter space. By representing the weak measurement on the Poincaré sphere and using Jones calculus, the complex weak value and the geometric phase topology are obtained. This deeper understanding of the weak measurement process enabled us to explore the techniques’ capabilities maximally, as demonstrated via SHEL in two examples—external reflection at glass-air interface and transmission through a tilted half-wave plate.

  2. Are the Weak Measurements Really Measurements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Sokolovski

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Weak measurements can be seen as an attempt at answering the Which way? question without destroying interference between the pathways involved. Unusual mean values obtained in such measurements represent the response of a quantum system to this forbidden question, in which the true composition of virtual pathways is hidden from the observer. Such values indicate a failure of a measurement where the uncertainty principle says it must fail, rather than provide an additional insight into physical reality. Quanta 2013; 2: 50–57.

  3. Quantum mechanical calculations on weakly interacting complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmen, T.G.A.

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) has been applied to compute the intermolecular potential energy surfaces and the interaction-induced electrical properties of weakly interacting complexes. Asymptotic (large R) expressions have been derived for the contributions to the collision-induced

  4. Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe undergoes decoherence can be significantly lower than that of a standard weak measurement. This indicates another advantage of weak-value amplification in improving the performance of parameter estimation. We illustrate the results by an exact numerical simulation of decoherence arising from a bosonic mode and compare it to the first-order analytical result we obtain.

  5. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The history of weak interactions starting with. Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Dis- coveries of parity violation, matter{antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted. Introduction. Sun gives us ...

  6. Phenomenological model of the weak interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Schunck, Franz E.

    2008-01-01

    We use the informations known so far about elementary particles in order to construct a simple model. We find a reason for the gyromagnetic factor of 2 for leptons and a vivid imagination for the weak interaction. By this, we understand, why the elementary particles with lowest mass are stable and all other unstable.

  7. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Rajasekaran, G.

    2014-01-01

    The history of weak interactions starting with Fermi's creation of the beta decay theory and culminating in its modern avatar in the form of the electroweak gauge theory is described. Discoveries of parity violation, matter-antimatter asymmetry, W and Z bosons and neutrino mass are highlighted.

  8. Dynamical theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, F

    1974-01-01

    The gauge theory of unified weak and electromagnetic interactions is developed without the use of scalar mesons. It is shown that the Glashow Weinberg scheme is unrealistic, but that a similar such scheme is possible if one includes two pairs of leptons, identified with e-, νe and μ-, νμ.

  9. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. Fermi and the Theory of Weak Interactions. G Rajasekaran. General Article Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 18-44 ... Keywords. Fermi; beta decay; parity violation; electroweak theory; neutral current; quarks and leptons; neutrino mass.

  10. Weak interactions at high energies. [Lectures, review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    1978-08-01

    Review lectures are presented on the phenomenological implications of the modern spontaneously broken gauge theories of the weak and electromagnetic interactions, and some observations are made about which high energy experiments probe what aspects of gauge theories. Basic quantum chromodynamics phenomenology is covered including momentum dependent effective quark distributions, the transverse momentum cutoff, search for gluons as sources of hadron jets, the status and prospects for the spectroscopy of fundamental fermions and how fermions may be used to probe aspects of the weak and electromagnetic gauge theory, studies of intermediate vector bosons, and miscellaneous possibilities suggested by gauge theories from the Higgs bosons to speculations about proton decay. 187 references. (JFP)

  11. Quantum correlation cost of the weak measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun; Wu, Shao-xiong; Yu, Chang-shui, E-mail: quaninformation@sina.com

    2014-12-15

    Quantum correlation cost (QCC) characterizing how much quantum correlation is used in a weak-measurement process is presented based on the trace norm. It is shown that the QCC is related to the trace-norm-based quantum discord (TQD) by only a factor that is determined by the strength of the weak measurement, so it only catches partial quantumness of a quantum system compared with the TQD. We also find that the residual quantumness can be ‘extracted’ not only by the further von Neumann measurement, but also by a sequence of infinitesimal weak measurements. As an example, we demonstrate our outcomes by the Bell-diagonal state.

  12. Search for a new weakly interacting particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decamp, D.; Deschizeaux, B.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Alemany, R.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Fernandez, E.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mato, P.; Ll. M., Mir; Pacheco, A.; Catanesi, M. G.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Quattromini, M.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Gao, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Lou, J.; Qiao, C.; Ruan, T.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, W.; Atwood, W. B.; Bird, F.; Blucher, E.; Bonvicini, G.; Bossi, F.; Brown, D.; Burnett, T. H.; Drevermann, H.; Dydak, F.; Forty, R. W.; Grab, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Haywood, S.; Hilgart, J.; Jost, B.; Kasemann, M.; Knobloch, J.; Lacourt, A.; Lançon, E.; Lehraus, I.; Lohse, T.; Marchioro, A.; Martinez, M.; Menary, S.; Minten, A.; Miotto, A.; Miguel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Nash, J.; Palazzi, P.; Ranjard, F.; Redlinger, G.; Roth, A.; Rothberg, J.; Rotscheidt, H.; St. Denis, R.; Schlatter, D.; Takashima, M.; Talby, M.; Tejessy, W.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wheeler, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Falvard, A.; El Fellous, R.; Gay, P.; Harvey, J.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Stimpfl, G.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nielsen, E. R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Simopoulou, E.; Vayaki, A.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Bourotte, J.; Braems, F.; Brient, J. C.; Fouque, G.; Gamess, A.; Guirlet, R.; Orteu, S.; Rosowsky, A.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Veitch, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Lannutti, J.; Levinthal, D.; Mermikides, M.; Sawyer, L.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Nicoletti, G.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Zografou, P.; Altoon, B.; Boyle, O.; Halley, A. W.; Ten Have, I.; Hearns, J. L.; Lynch, J. G.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geiges, R.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Belk, A. T.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Dornan, P. J.; Dugeay, S.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Patton, S. J.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Taylor, G.; Tomalin, I. R.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Rowlingson, B. S.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Barczewski, T.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Kleinknecht, K.; Renk, B.; Roehn, S.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, H.; Steeg, F.; Albanese, J.-P.; Aubert, J.-J.; Benchouk, C.; Bernard, V.; Bonissent, A.; Courvoisier, D.; Etienne, F.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Qian, Z.; Becker, H.; Blum, W.; Cattaneo, P.; Cowan, G.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Jahn, A.; Kozanecki, W.; Lange, E.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Pan, Y.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Stierlin, U.; Thomas, J.; Wolf, G.; Bertin, V.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Chen, X.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Ganis, G.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F.; Amendolia, S. R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Focardi, E.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Moneta, L.; Palla, F.; Sanguinetti, G.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Carter, J. M.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Saich, M. R.; Strong, J. A.; Thomas, R. M.; West, L. R.; Wildish, T.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Edwards, M.; Fisher, S. M.; Jones, T. J.; Norton, P. R.; Salmon, D. P.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Klopfenstein, C.; Locci, E.; Loucatos, S.; Monnier, E.; Perez, P.; Perlas, J. A.; Perrier, F.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Vallage, B.; Ashman, J. G.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Carney, R.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dinsdale, M.; Dogru, M.; Hatfield, F.; Martin, J.; Parker, D.; Reeves, P.; Thompson, L. F.; Brandt, S.; Burkhardt, H.; Grupen, C.; Meinhard, H.; Mirabito, L.; Neugebauer, E.; Schäfer, U.; Seywerd, H.; Apollinari, G.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Liello, F.; Ragusa, F.; Rolandi, L.; Stiegler, U.; Bellantoni, L.; Boudreau, J. F.; Cinabro, D.; Conway, J. S.; Cowen, D. F.; Deweerd, A. J.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Jacobsen, J. E.; Jared, R. C.; Johnson, R. P.; Leclaire, B. W.; Pan, Y. B.; Pater, J. R.; Saadi, Y.; Sharma, V.; Walsh, A. M.; Wear, J. A.; Weber, F. V.; Whitney, M. H.; Sau, Lan, Wu; Zhou, Z. L.; Zobernig, G.

    1991-06-01

    A search for events of the type e+e--->l+l-X0, where X0 can be any weakly interacting particle which couples to the Z, has been performed with the ALEPH detector at LEP, by searching for acollinear lepton pairs. Such particles can be excluded up to a mass of 7.0 GeV/c2 for a value of the ratio of branching fractions, Br(Z-->X0l+l-)/Br(Z-->l+l-), greater than 2.5 × 10-3 if the X0 has third component of isospin, I3 greater than 1/2 and decays to a pair of virtual gauge bosons. When this analysis is combined with the previous results of the Higgs particle searches from ALEPH, this limit can be extended to an X0 mass of 60 GeV/c2.

  13. Weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Di Simone, Andrea; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Talk will cover weak mixing angle measurements at hadron colliders ATLAS and CMS in particular. ATLAS has measured the forward-backward asymmetry for the neutral current Drell Yan process in a wide mass range around the Z resonance region using dielectron and dimuon final states with $\\sqrt{s}$ =7 TeV data. For the dielectron channel, the measurement includes electrons detected in the forward calorimeter which extends the covered phase space. The result is then used to extract a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle. Uncertainties from the limited knowledge on the parton distribution functions in the proton constitute a significant part of the uncertainty and a dedicated study is performed to obtain a PDF set describing W and Z data measured previously by ATLAS. Similar studies from CMS will be reported.

  14. The First Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions and the Prediction of Weak Neutral Currents

    OpenAIRE

    Bludman, S. A.

    1992-01-01

    The three theoretical and historical components of the Standard Model are the exact chiral gauge theory of weak interactions, electroweak unification, and the Higgs mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. I put into historical perspective my 1958 invention of the first gauge theory of weak interactions, predicting weak neutral currents, and show how the fundamental differences between global and gauge symmetries and between partial flavour and exact gauge symmetries, emerged in the stron...

  15. Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF for weak interaction studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Orozco, L. A.; Collister, R.; Gwinner, G.; Tandecki, M.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Frpnc Collaboration

    2014-05-01

    We present the current status of the Francium Trapping Facility at TRIUMF. After successfully commissioning the capture chamber we are now in the process of finishing the science chamber where weak interaction measurements on Fr will be performed. We require transfer of the cold atoms from the capture chamber to the science chamber where they can be re-trapped for precision spectroscopy. The modular design of the science chamber allows for microwave studies for the anapole moment measurement and optical studies for the weak charge measurements using atomic parity non-conservation. We will present our current status and the plans for the commissioning run of the science chamber. Work supported by NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and DOE from USA, CONACYT from Mexico.

  16. Optimal Weak-Lensing Skewness Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong-Jie; Pen, Ue-Li; Zhang, Pengjie; Dubinski, John

    2003-12-01

    Weak-lensing measurements are starting to provide statistical maps of the distribution of matter in the universe that are increasingly precise and complementary to cosmic microwave background maps. The most common measurement is the correlation in alignments of background galaxies, which can be used to infer the variance of the projected surface density of matter. This measurement of the fluctuations is insensitive to the total mass content and is analogous to using waves on the ocean to measure its depths. However, when the depth is shallow, as happens near a beach, waves become skewed. Similarly, a measurement of skewness in the projected matter distribution directly measures the total matter content of the universe. While skewness has already been convincingly detected, its constraint on cosmology is still weak. We address optimal analyses for the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in the presence of noise. We show that a compensated Gaussian filter with a width of 2.5‧ optimizes the cosmological constraint, yielding ΔΩm/Ωm~10%. This is significantly better than other filters that have been considered in the literature. This can be further improved with tomography and other sophisticated analyses.

  17. Information flow between weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobyns, York [PEAR, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544-5263 (United States); Atmanspacher, Harald [Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene, Wilhelmstr. 3a, 79098 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: haa@igpp.de

    2006-05-15

    Weakly interacting lattices of coupled maps can be modeled as ordinary coupled map lattices separated from each other by boundary regions with small coupling parameters. We demonstrate that such weakly interacting lattices can nevertheless have unexpected and striking effects on each other. Under specific conditions, particular stability properties of the lattices are significantly influenced by their weak mutual interaction. This observation is tantamount to an efficacious information flow across the boundary.

  18. Kramers systems with weak spin-dependent interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanski, R.J. [Inst. of Physics and Informatics, Pedagogical University, 30-084, Krakow (Poland)]|[Center for Solid State Physics, Sw. Filip 5, 31-150, Krakow (Poland)

    1995-02-09

    Magnetic properties of a paramagnetic Kramers f{sup 3} subsystem under charge interactions of the hexagonal symmetry have been examined in the combination with weak spin-dependent (S-D) interactions for the case of the weakly-magnetic charge-formed ground state. The Kramers systems with weak S-D interactions exhibit particular phenomena like large specific heat at low temperatures. ((orig.)).

  19. Weak nuclear interactions in neon-21 and neon-18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Lintig, Richard David [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1981-01-01

    The results of two experiments involving weak meson exchange among nucleons are reviewed. Measurements are described of the circular polarization of 2.789 MeV gamma rays associated with the 2.789/2.796 MeV parity mixed doublet in 21Ne. Also reported are measurements of the 0+ - 0- beta decay from 18Ne to the 1.081 MeV 0- state of 18F, itself part of a spin-zero doublet of considerable interest for parity mixing. The significance of the results to the theory of weak non-leptonic interactions is examined. An argument is repeated that more careful interpretation of the results in terms of the fundamental weak interaction is needed. The circular polarization of the 2.789 MeV radiation from 21Ne is (20 +- 26) x 10-4, a small result in view of the enhancement of this effect due to narrow doublet separation and the forbidden character of the transition. Simultaneous measurements of the circular polarization of 2.439 MeV radiation, which should not exhibit the parity violating effect even if the 1/2- (2.789 MeV) state contains a significant parity impurity, indicate an absence of bias in the measurements. The relative probability of the 0+ - 0- (1.081 MeV) decay from 18Ne is (2.26 ± .37) x 10-4. The two-body (or meson exchange) contribution to this transition is the isospin analog of parity mixing between the 1042-keV (Jπ;T = 0+;1) and 1081-keV (Jπ;T = 0-;0) states of 18F. The theoretical relation which has been shown to exist between these two weak interaction phenomena is recounted, so that the importance of the beta-decay measurement to non-leptonic weak interaction physics can be appreciated.

  20. Limits Of Quantum Information In Weak Interaction Processes Of Hyperons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiesmayr, B C

    2015-07-06

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay Σ(+)→ pπ(0)). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities where α is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated, the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this information theoretic insight we show how entanglement can be measured in these systems and why Bell's nonlocality (in contradiction to common misconception in literature) cannot be revealed in hyperon decays. Last but not least we study under which circumstances contextuality can be revealed.

  1. Weak measurements measure probability amplitudes (and very little else)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolovski, D., E-mail: dgsokol15@gmail.com [Departmento de Química-Física, Universidad del País Vasco, UPV/EHU, Leioa (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Maria Diaz de Haro 3, 48013, Bilbao (Spain)

    2016-04-22

    Conventional quantum mechanics describes a pre- and post-selected system in terms of virtual (Feynman) paths via which the final state can be reached. In the absence of probabilities, a weak measurement (WM) determines the probability amplitudes for the paths involved. The weak values (WV) can be identified with these amplitudes, or their linear combinations. This allows us to explain the “unusual” properties of the WV, and avoid the “paradoxes” often associated with the WM. - Highlights: • Weak measurement on a pre- and post-selected system is a particular perturbative scheme. • A conventional average for the additional degree of freedom measured. • The result is proportional to the amplitudes on the virtual paths connecting two system's states. • Over-interpretation of the weak values (WV) is unwise. • “Unusual” WVs are not unusual after all.

  2. Progress at the WITCH experiment towards weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Tandecki, Michaël

    A measurement of the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation in nuclear $\\beta$- decay is a good probe to search for physics beyond the Standard Model, independent of assumptions like parity, charge and time reversal violation. The WITCH (Weak Interaction Trap for Charged Particles) experiment will measure this correlation with the aim of further constraining the possible existence of scalar currents in the weak interaction or find a positive indication. The setup is located at ISOLDE/CERN and consists of a double Penning trap system combined with a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions from the $\\beta$- decay. The shape of the recoil ion energy spectrum allows to determine the $\\beta$–ν angular correlation coefficient, $a$. Past experiments have allowed to measure this parameter with a precision of 0.5–1 %. The aim of the WITCH experiment is to measure $a$ with a precision of about 0.5 %.\\\\ A first step towards this goal has already been taken in 2006 with the measurement of a recoil ...

  3. Superparamagnetic relaxation of weakly interacting particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Steen; Tronc, Elisabeth

    1994-01-01

    The influence of particle interactions on the superparamagnetic relaxation time has been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy in samples of maghemite (gamma-Fe2O3) particles with different particle sizes and particle separations. It is found that the relaxation time decreases with decreasing particl...

  4. Weak measurements, quantum-state collapse, and the Born rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Apoorva; Kumar, Parveen

    2017-08-01

    Projective measurement is used as a fundamental axiom in quantum mechanics, even though it is discontinuous and cannot predict which measured operator eigenstate will be observed in which experimental run. The probabilistic Born rule gives it an ensemble interpretation, predicting proportions of various outcomes over many experimental runs. Understanding gradual weak measurements requires replacing this scenario with a dynamical evolution equation for the collapse of the quantum state in individual experimental runs. We revisit the quantum trajectory framework that models quantum measurement as a continuous nonlinear stochastic process. We describe the ensemble of quantum trajectories as noise fluctuations on top of geodesics that attract the quantum state towards the measured operator eigenstates. In this effective theory framework for the ensemble of quantum trajectories, the measurement interaction can be specific to each system-apparatus pair, a context necessary for understanding weak measurements. Also in this framework, the constraint to reproduce projective measurement as per the Born rule in the appropriate limit requires that the magnitudes of the noise and the attraction are precisely related, in a manner reminiscent of the fluctuation-dissipation relation. This relation implies that both the noise and the attraction have a common origin in the underlying measurement interaction between the system and the apparatus. We analyze the quantum trajectory ensemble for the scenarios of quantum diffusion and binary quantum jump, and show that the ensemble distribution is completely determined in terms of a single evolution parameter. This trajectory ensemble distribution can be tested in weak measurement experiments. We also comment on how the required noise may arise in the measuring apparatus.

  5. The role of weak intermolecular CH… F interactions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analysis of Cambridge Structural Database using these newly defined parameters reveals high propensity of C-H…F interactions in organic crystals. The present structural study suggests much larger role of fluorine driven intermolecular interactions that are even though weak, but possess significant ability to direct and alter ...

  6. The FrPNC Experiment, weak interaction studies in Francium at TRIUMF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, E.; Aubin, S.; Collister, R.; Behr, J. A.; Gwinner, G.; Orozco, L. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Tandecki, M.; Sheng, D.; Zhang, J.

    2012-09-01

    Francium is an excellent system to study the nuclear weak force due to its large nucleus and relatively simple atomic structure. The FrPNC experiment has a facility to produce cold trapped atomic francium samples for parity non-conservation studies. We are preparing to measure both the nuclear spin independent and dependent parts of the weak interaction in francium. The first one gives information about weak neutral currents at low energies, while the second one is sensitive to weak interactions between nucleons. We present the current status of the experiment.

  7. Non-perturbative aspects in a weakly interacting Higgs sector

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Just like the weakly interacting QED can support non-perturbative phenomena, like atoms, so can the weak and Higgs interactions. Especially, there are strong field-theoretical arguments that only bound states can be the (quasi-)asymptotic physical degrees of freedom of this sector. After a brief review of these arguments, the 2-point, 3-point and 4-point correlation functions of the Higgs-W system are determined using lattice gauge theory. The results support a conjectured duality between elementary states and bound states for weak Higgs self-interactions. This leads to relations between the bound states and the experimentally observed particles. Interestingly, these may yield pseudo-scalar admixtures at the Higgs energy, and possibly a faint standard-model signal in the channel where a Kaluza-Klein graviton would be expected.

  8. Weak Interaction Studies by Precision Experiments in Nuclear Beta Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severijns, Nathal

    The framework and formalism related to the study of symmetries and the structure of the weak interaction in nuclear -decay are presented and discussed. This is illustrated with a number of selected experiments in nuclear -decay addressing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, the search for right-handed (V+A), scalar and tensor components in the weak interaction and the search for non-Standard Model sources of time reversal violation. Finally, an outlook is given on important progress in this field that can be expected for the near future.

  9. Weak Molecular Interactions in Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah M.; Baker, Michael; Halebian, Mary; Smith, Corinne J.

    2017-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a process by which specific molecules are internalized from the cell periphery for delivery to early endosomes. The key stages in this step-wise process, from the starting point of cargo recognition, to the later stage of assembly of the clathrin coat, are dependent on weak interactions between a large network of proteins. This review discusses the structural and functional data that have improved our knowledge and understanding of the main weak molecular interactions implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, with a particular focus on the two key proteins: AP2 and clathrin.

  10. Search for a tensor component in the weak interaction Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Soti, Gergely

    The search for physics beyond the standard model can, besides in high-energy experiments such as the ones at the LHC accelerator, also be carried out at lower energies. Measurements of correlation coefficients in neutron and nuclear b decay constitute a reliable and model-independent method for such efforts. The topic of this thesis is the precision measurement of the beta asymmetry parameter A. It was measured in the decay of 67Cu, which proceeds via a pure Gamow-Teller b transition, thus its A parameter is sensitive to possible tensor type currents in the weak interaction. The experiment was performed at the NICOLE setup in ISOLDE (CERN), using the technique of low temperature nuclear orientation. The b particles were observed with custom made planar high purity germanium detectors operating at around 10 K. The beta asymmetry of 68Cu was measured on-line for normalization purposes. Geant4 simulations were used to gain control over systematic effects such as electron scattering on the particle detectors. As...

  11. Light weakly interacting particles. Constraints and connection to dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreas, Sarah

    2013-07-15

    The so far unknown particle nature of dark matter is a main motivation for extending the Standard Model of particle physics. A recently promoted approach to solving this puzzle is the concept of hidden sectors. Since the interactions of such sectors with the visible sector are very weak, so are the current experimental bounds. Hidden sectors might even contain sub-GeV scale particles that have so far escaped detection. In this thesis, we study the phenomenology of Weakly Interacting Slim Particles (WISPs) as well as their connection to dark matter in different Standard Model extensions. In the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), a light CPodd Higgs, arising from spontaneous breaking of approximate symmetries, represents an example of a WISP. Light gauge bosons of an extra U(1) symmetry in a hidden sector are other well motivated candidates for WISPs and called hidden photons. Such light hidden photons appear naturally in supersymmetry or string theory and might resolve the observed deviation in the muon anomalous magnetic moment from predictions. Moreover, scenarios in which hidden sector dark matter interacts via a light hidden photon with the visible sector exhibit appealing features in view of recent astrophysical anomalies. We study how the coupling of the CP-odd Higgs A{sup 0} to fermions can be constrained by current measurements for the case where the A{sup 0} is lighter than two muons. Analysing measurements of different rare and radiative meson decays, the muon anomalous magnetic moment as well as results from beam dump and reactor experiments, we severely constrain the CP-odd Higgs to be heavier than 210 MeV or to couple to fermions four orders of magnitude weaker than the Standard Model Higgs. These results apply more generally to the coupling of an axion-like particle to matter. Hidden photons can be constrained by experiments since they couple to charged Standard Model particles via kinetic mixing with the ordinary photon. We derive

  12. Correlation function of weakly interacting bosons in a disordered lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deissler, B; Lucioni, E; Modugno, M; Roati, G; Tanzi, L; Zaccanti, M; Inguscio, M; Modugno, G, E-mail: deissler@lens.unifi.it, E-mail: modugno@lens.unifi.it [LENS and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    One of the most important issues in disordered systems is the interplay of the disorder and repulsive interactions. Several recent experimental advances on this topic have been made with ultracold atoms, in particular the observation of Anderson localization and the realization of the disordered Bose-Hubbard model. There are, however, still questions as to how to differentiate the complex insulating phases resulting from this interplay, and how to measure the size of the superfluid fragments that these phases entail. It has been suggested that the correlation function of such a system can give new insights, but so far very little experimental investigation has been performed. Here, we show the first experimental analysis of the correlation function for a weakly interacting, bosonic system in a quasiperiodic lattice. We observe an increase in the correlation length as well as a change in the shape of the correlation function in the delocalization crossover from Anderson glass to coherent, extended state. In between, the experiment indicates the formation of progressively larger coherent fragments, consistent with a fragmented BEC, or Bose glass.

  13. Weak interactions of quarks and leptons: experimental status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcicki, S.

    1984-09-01

    The present experimental status of weak interactions is discussed with emphasis on the problems and questions and on the possible lines of future investigations. Major topics include; (1) the quark mixing matrix, (2) CP violation, (3) rare decays, (4) the lepton sector, and (5) right handed currents. 118 references. (WHK)

  14. Large potential steps at weakly interacting metal-insulator interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, Menno; Brocks, G.; Kelly, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Potential steps exceeding 1 eV are regularly formed at metal|insulator interfaces, even when the interaction between the materials at the interface is weak physisorption. From first-principles calculations on metal|h−BN interfaces we show that these potential steps are only indirectly sensitive to

  15. Search for the Scalar Component of Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Zakoucky, Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Weak interactions ar e described by the Standard Model which postulates the basic assumption about the pure " V (ector) - A (xial vector)" character of the interaction. Nevertheless, even after half a century of development of the model and experimental testing of its fundamental i ngredients, experimental data still allow the existence of other types of weak interactions - e.g. scalar interactions are ruled out only on the 7% level. Experimental project WITCH ( W eak I nteraction T rap for CH arged particles) was set up at the isoto pe separator ISOLDE at CERN trying to probe the properties of the weak interaction in order to look for their forbidden (scalar, tensor) components or at least significantly improve their current experimental limits. Experimental setup consisting of a comb ination of 2 Penning traps and retardation spectrometer allows to catch the radioactive nuclei from ISOLDE separator, traps and cools them and lets them decay in rest and then probes the energy spectrum of recoiling nuclei whic...

  16. Comparative Weak Value Amplification as an Approach to Estimating the Value of Small Quantum Mechanical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parks Allen D.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Weak value amplification is a measurement technique where small quantum mechanical interactions are amplified and manifested macroscopically in the output of a measurement apparatus. It is shown here that the linear nature of weak value amplification provides a straightforward comparative methodology for using the value of a known small interaction to estimate the value of an unknown small interaction. The methodology is illustrated by applying it to quantify the unknown size of an optical Goos-Hänchen shift of a laser beam induced at a glass/gold interface using the known size of the shift at a glass/air interface.

  17. Quantum Butterfly Effect in Weakly Interacting Diffusive Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Aavishkar A.; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Sachdev, Subir; Swingle, Brian

    2017-07-01

    We study scrambling, an avatar of chaos, in a weakly interacting metal in the presence of random potential disorder. It is well known that charge and heat spread via diffusion in such an interacting disordered metal. In contrast, we show within perturbation theory that chaos spreads in a ballistic fashion. The squared anticommutator of the electron-field operators inherits a light-cone-like growth, arising from an interplay of a growth (Lyapunov) exponent that scales as the inelastic electron scattering rate and a diffusive piece due to the presence of disorder. In two spatial dimensions, the Lyapunov exponent is universally related at weak coupling to the sheet resistivity. We are able to define an effective temperature-dependent butterfly velocity, a speed limit for the propagation of quantum information that is much slower than microscopic velocities such as the Fermi velocity and that is qualitatively similar to that of a quantum critical system with a dynamical critical exponent z >1 .

  18. Weak turbulence theory for beam-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Peter H.

    2018-01-01

    The kinetic theory of weak plasma turbulence, of which Ronald C. Davidson was an important early pioneer [R. C. Davidson, Methods in Nonlinear Plasma Theory, (Academic Press, New York, 1972)], is a venerable and valid theory that may be applicable to a large number of problems in both laboratory and space plasmas. This paper applies the weak turbulence theory to the problem of gentle beam-plasma interaction and Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that the beam-plasma interaction undergoes various stages of physical processes starting from linear instability, to quasilinear saturation, to mode coupling that takes place after the quasilinear stage, followed by a state of quasi-static "turbulent equilibrium." The long term quasi-equilibrium stage is eventually perturbed by binary collisional effects in order to bring the plasma to a thermodynamic equilibrium with increased entropy.

  19. Engineering interlocking DNA rings with weak physical interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zai-Sheng; Shen, Zhifa; Tram, Kha; Li, Yingfu

    2014-06-01

    Catenanes are intriguing molecular assemblies for engineering unique molecular devices. The resident rings of a catenane are expected to execute unhindered rotation around each other, and to do so, they must have weak physical interactions with each other. Due to sequence programmability, DNA has become a popular material for nanoscale object engineering. However, current DNA catenanes, particularly in the single-stranded (ss) form, are synthesized through the formation of a linking duplex, which makes them less ideal as mobile elements for molecular machines. Herein we adopt a random library approach to engineer ssDNA [2] catenanes (two interlocked DNA rings) without a linking duplex. Results from DNA hybridization, double-stranded catenane synthesis and rolling circle amplification experiments signify that representative catenanes have weak physical interactions and are capable of operating as independent units. Our findings lay the foundation for exploring free-functioning interlocked DNA rings for the design of elaborate nanoscale machines based on DNA.

  20. Measuring Workload Weak Resilience Signals at a Rail Control Post

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siegel, A.W.; Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    OCCUPATIONAL APPLICATIONS This article describes an observational study at a rail control post to measure workload weak resilience signals. A weak resilience signal indicates a possible degradation of a system's resilience, which is defined as the ability of a complex socio-technical system to cope

  1. Measures of weak noncompactness, nonlinear Leray-Schauder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we establish some new nonlinear Leray-Schauder alternatives for the sum and the product of weakly sequentially continuous operators in Banach algebras satisfying certain sequential condition (P). The main condition in our results is formulated in terms of axiomatic measures of weak noncompactness.

  2. Ultrasmall polarization rotation measurements via weak value amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima Bernardo, Bertúlio de, E-mail: bertulio@fisica.ufpb.br; Azevedo, Sérgio; Rosas, Alexandre

    2014-06-13

    Highlights: • We present a class of weak measurements where the measurer is an angular variable of the system. • Photon-energy qubits are required, which seems to be the first application of this kind of light. • Both weak optical activity and reflection-induced polarization rotation can be amplified. • This protocol can amplify the optical activity signal in nanostructures and biological tissues. - Abstract: We propose a framework to analyze weak measurements based on an angular version of the von Neumann measurement scheme, where the coupling between the system and the meter causes rotation of the measuring variable. We also discuss an experimental application of this theory in which measurements of weak optical activity and reflection-induced polarization rotation could be amplified in nearly two orders of magnitude. It can shed a new light on a great variety of physical chemistry, molecular biology and nanotechnology studies.

  3. Introduction to weak interaction theories with dynamical symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, K.D.; Peskin, M.E.

    1980-07-01

    A straightforward introduction to theories of the weak interactions with dynamical symmetry breaking-theories of technicolor or hypercolor is presented. The intent is to inform experimentalists, but also to goad theorists. The motivation for considering theories of this type is described. The structure that such a theory must possess, including new gauge interactions at mass scales of 1-100 TeV is then outlined. Despite their reliance on phenomena at such enormous energies, these theories contain new phenomena observable at currently accessible energies. Three such effects which are especially likely to be observed are described.

  4. Anti-Weak Localization Measurements in the Ballistic Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathilaka, Dilhani; Dedigama, Aruna; Murphy, Sheena; Edirisooriya, Madhavie; Goel, Niti; Mishima, Tetsuya; Santos, Michael; Mullen, Kieran

    2007-03-01

    Anti-weak localization dominates at low fields in systems in which spin-orbit coupling is strong. The experimental results are well described by theory [1] in low mobility systems in which the magnetic length (lB) is greater than the mean free path; however high mobility systems with strong spin-orbit interactions, such the InSb based two dimensional systems (2DESs) examined here, are not in this diffusive regime. A recently developed theory [2] addresses both the diffusive and ballistic regimes taking into account both the backscattered and non-backscattered contributions to the conductivity. We will discuss the agreement of the new theory to measurements of InSb 2DESs prepared with both strong Dresselhaus and Rashba effects. [1] S.V. Iordanskii, Yu B. Lyanda-Geller, and G.E. Pikus, JETP Lett. 60, 206 (1994). [2] L.E. Golub, Phys. Rev. B. 71, 235310 (2005).

  5. Enhancing teleportation fidelity by means of weak measurements or reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Liang, E-mail: lqiu@cumt.edu.cn [College of Sciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Tang, Gang; Yang, Xianqing [College of Sciences, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Wang, Anmin [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-11-15

    The enhancement of teleportation fidelity by weak measurement or quantum measurement reversal is investigated. One qubit of a maximally entangled state undergoes the amplitude damping, and the subsequent application of weak measurement or quantum measurement reversal could improve the teleportation fidelity beyond the classical region. The improvement could not be attributed to the increasing of entanglement, quantum discord, classical correlation or total correlation. We declare that it should be owed to the probabilistic nature of the method. - Highlights: • The method’s probabilistic nature should be responsible for the improvement. • Quantum or classical correlation cannot explain the improvement. • The receiver cannot apply weak measurements. • The sender’s quantum measurement reversal is only useful for |Ψ{sup ±}〉.

  6. Weak-value Metrology and Shot-Noise Limited Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viza, Gerardo Ivan

    This thesis contains a subset of the research in which I have participated in during my studies at the University of Rochester. It contains three projects and one overarching theme of weak-value metrology. We start with chapter 1 where we cover the historical background leading up to quantum optics, which we use for precision metrology. We also introduce the weak-value formulation and give examples of metrological implementations for parameter estimation. Chapter 2 introduces two experiments to measure a longitudinal velocity and a transverse momentum kick. We show that weak-value based techniques are shot-noise limited because we saturate the Cramer-Rao bound for the estimator used, and efficient because we experimentally demonstrate there is virtually no loss of Fisher information of the parameter of interest from the discarded events. In Chapter 3 we present a comparison of two experiments that measure a beam deflection. One experiment is a weak-value based technique, while the other is the standard focusing technique. We set up the two experiments in the presence of simulated technical noise sources and show how the weak-value based technique out performs the standard technique in both visibility and in deviation of the transverse momentum kick. Chapter 4 contains work of the exploration of concatenated postselection for weak-value amplification. We demonstrate an optimization and conditions where postselecting on two degrees of freedom can be beneficial to enhance the weak-value amplification.

  7. Quantum Butterfly Effect in Weakly Interacting Diffusive Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aavishkar A. Patel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We study scrambling, an avatar of chaos, in a weakly interacting metal in the presence of random potential disorder. It is well known that charge and heat spread via diffusion in such an interacting disordered metal. In contrast, we show within perturbation theory that chaos spreads in a ballistic fashion. The squared anticommutator of the electron-field operators inherits a light-cone-like growth, arising from an interplay of a growth (Lyapunov exponent that scales as the inelastic electron scattering rate and a diffusive piece due to the presence of disorder. In two spatial dimensions, the Lyapunov exponent is universally related at weak coupling to the sheet resistivity. We are able to define an effective temperature-dependent butterfly velocity, a speed limit for the propagation of quantum information that is much slower than microscopic velocities such as the Fermi velocity and that is qualitatively similar to that of a quantum critical system with a dynamical critical exponent z>1.

  8. Molecular imprinting sensor based on quantum weak measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongmei; He, Qinghua; He, Yonghong; Xin, Meiguo; Zhang, Yilong; Shen, Zhiyuan

    2017-08-15

    A new type of sensing protocol, based on a high precision metrology of quantum weak measurement, was first proposed for molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) sensor. The feasibility, sensitivity and selectivity of weak measurement based MIP (WMMIP) sensor were experimentally demonstrated with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Weak measurement system exhibits high sensitivity to the optical phase shift corresponding to the refractive index change, which is induced by the specific capture of target protein molecules with its recognition sites. The recognition process can be finally characterized by the central wavelength shift of output spectra through weak value amplification. In our experiment, we prepared BSA@MIP with modified reversed-phase microemulsion method, and coated it on the internal surface of measuring channels assembled into the Mach-Zehnder (MZ) interferometer based optical weak measurement system. The design of this home-built optical system makes it possible to detect analyte in real time. The dynamic process of the specific adsorption and concentration response to BSA from 5×10-4 to 5×10-1μg/L was achieved with a limit of detection (LOD) of 8.01×10-12g/L. This WMMIP shows superiority in accuracy, fast response and low cost. Furthermore, real-time monitoring system can creatively promote the performance of MIP in molecular analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Theory of “Weak Value" and Quantum Mechanical Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Shikano, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Comment: to be published from "Measurements in Quantum Mechanics", edited by M. R. Pahlavani (InTech, 2012) Chapter 4 page 75. Yutaka Shikano (2012). ISBN: 978-953-51-0058-4 Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/theory-of-weak-value-and-quantum-mechanical-measurement

  10. Weak gravitational lensing with COSMOS : galaxy selection and shape measurements.

    OpenAIRE

    Leauthaud, Alexie; Massey, Richard; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Rhodes, Jason; Johnston, David E.; Capak, Peter; Heymans, Catherine; Ellis, Richard S.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Le Fevre, Oliver; Mellier, Yannick; Refregier, Alexandre; Robin, Annie C.; Scoville, Nick; Tasca, Lidia

    2007-01-01

    With a primary goal of conducting precision weak-lensing measurements from space, the COSMOS survey has imaged the largest contiguous area observed by Hubble Space Telescope to date, using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). This is the first paper in a series in which we describe our strategy for addressing the various technical challenges in the production of weak-lensing measurements from COSMOS data. We first construct a source catalog from 575 ACS/WFC tiles (1.64 deg^2) subsampled at ...

  11. Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klejda, B.

    2005-01-28

    The weak mixing parameter, sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}, is one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model. Its tree-level value has been measured with high precision at energies near the Z{sup 0} pole; however, due to radiative corrections at the one-loop level, the value of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} is expected to change with the interaction energy. As a result, a measurement of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} at low energy (Q{sup 2} << m{sub Z}, where Q{sup 2} is the momentum transfer and m{sub Z} is the Z boson mass), provides a test of the Standard Model at the one-loop level, and a probe for new physics beyond the Standard Model. One way of obtaining sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} at low energy is from measuring the left-right, parity-violating asymmetry in electron-electron (Moeller) scattering: A{sub PV} = {sigma}{sub R}-{sigma}{sub L}/{sigma}{sub R}+{sigma}{sub L}, where {sigma}{sub R} and {sigma}{sub L} are the cross sections for right- and left-handed incident electrons, respectively. The parity violating asymmetry is proportional to the pseudo-scalar weak neutral current coupling in Moeller scattering, g{sub ee}. At tree level g{sub ee} = (1/4 -sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w}). A precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in Moeller scattering was performed by Experiment E158 at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). During the experiment, {approx}50 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons scattered off unpolarized atomic electrons in a liquid hydrogen target, corresponding to an average momentum transfer Q{sup 2} {approx} 0.03 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The tree-level prediction for A{sub PV} at such energy is {approx}300 ppb. However one-loop radiative corrections reduce its value by {approx}40%. This document reports the E158 results from the 2002 data collection period. The parity-violating asymmetry was found to be A{sub PV} = -160 {+-} 21 (stat.) {+-} 17 (syst.) ppb, which represents the first observation of a parity-violating asymmetry in Moeller

  12. Tunneling Time and Weak Measurement in Strong Field Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Tomáš; Mishra, Siddhartha; Doran, Brent R.; Gordon, Daniel F.; Landsman, Alexandra S.

    2016-06-01

    Tunneling delays represent a hotly debated topic, with many conflicting definitions and little consensus on when and if such definitions accurately describe the physical observables. Here, we relate these different definitions to distinct experimental observables in strong field ionization, finding that two definitions, Larmor time and Bohmian time, are compatible with the attoclock observable and the resonance lifetime of a bound state, respectively. Both of these definitions are closely connected to the theory of weak measurement, with Larmor time being the weak measurement value of tunneling time and Bohmian trajectory corresponding to the average particle trajectory, which has been recently reconstructed using weak measurement in a two-slit experiment [S. Kocsis, B. Braverman, S. Ravets, M. J. Stevens, R. P. Mirin, L. K. Shalm, and A. M. Steinberg, Science 332, 1170 (2011)]. We demonstrate a big discrepancy in strong field ionization between the Bohmian and weak measurement values of tunneling time, and we suggest this arises because the tunneling time is calculated for a small probability postselected ensemble of electrons. Our results have important implications for the interpretation of experiments in attosecond science, suggesting that tunneling is unlikely to be an instantaneous process.

  13. Measurements of weak localization of graphene in inhomogeneous magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvall, N.; Shivayogimath, Abhay; Yurgens, A.

    2015-01-01

    attribute this to the inhomogeneous field caused by vortices in the superconductor. The deviation, which depends on the carrier concentration in graphene, can be tuned by the gate voltage. In addition, collective vortex motion, known as vortex avalanches, is observed through magnetoresistance measurements......Weak localization in graphene is studied in inhomogeneous magnetic fields. To generate the inhomogeneous field, a thin film of type-II superconducting niobium is put in close proximity to graphene. A deviation from the ordinary quadratic weak localization behavior is observed at low fields. We...... of graphene....

  14. Precision Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Anthony, P L; Arroyo, C; Bega, K; Biesiada, J; Bosted, P E; Bower, G; Cahoon, J; Carr, R; Cates, G D; Chen, J P; Chudakov, E; Cooke, M; Decowski, P; Deur, A; Emam, W; Erickson, R; Fieguth, T; Field, C; Gao, J; Gary, M; Gustafsson, K; Hicks, R S; Holmes, R; Hughes, E W; Humensky, T B; Jones, G M; Kaufman, L J; Keller, L; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kumar, K S; La Violette, P; Lhuillier, D; Lombard-Nelsen, R M; Marshall, Z; Mastromarino, P; McKeown, R D; Michaels, R; Niedziela, J; Olson, M; Paschke, K D; Peterson, G A; Pitthan, R; Relyea, D; Rock, S E; Saxton, O; Singh, J; Souder, P A; Szalata, Z M; Turner, J; Tweedie, B; Vacheret, A; Walz, D; Weber, T; Weisend, J; Woods, M; Younus, I

    2005-01-01

    We report on a precision measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in fixed target electron-electron (Moller) scattering: A_PV = -131 +/- 14 (stat.) +/- 10 (syst.) parts per billion, leading to the determination of the weak mixing angle \\sin^2\\theta_W^eff = 0.2397 +/- 0.0010 (stat.) +/- 0.0008 (syst.), evaluated at Q^2 = 0.026 GeV^2. Combining this result with the measurements of \\sin^2\\theta_W^eff at the Z^0 pole, the running of the weak mixing angle is observed with over 6 sigma significance. The measurement sets constraints on new physics effects at the TeV scale.

  15. Ultrahigh energy neutrino interactions and weak-scale string theories

    CERN Document Server

    Kachelriess, M

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested that ultrahigh energy neutrinos can acquire cross-sections approaching hadronic size if the string scale is as low as 1-10 TeV. In this case, the vertical air showers observed with energies above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff at E approximately 6x10^{19} eV could be initiated by neutrinos which are the only known primaries able to travel long distances unimpeded. We have calculated the neutrino-nucleon cross-section due to the exchange of Kaluza-Klein excitations of the graviton in a field theoretical framework. We have found that the neutrino-nucleon cross section and the transferred energy per interaction are too small to explain vertical showers even in the most optimistic scenario. However, future cosmic ray experiments like AUGER or OWL which are able to observe horizontal air showers could have a potential to restrict or to discover weak-scale string physics comparable to LHC.

  16. Method and apparatus for measuring weak magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1995-01-01

    When measuring weak magnetic fields, a container containing a medium, such as a solution containing a stable radical, is placed in a polarising magnetic field, which is essentially at right angles to the field to be measured. The polarising field is interrupted rapidly, the interruption being...... preceded by the impression of a high-frequency electromagnetic signal. The frequency of the signal corresponds to the resonance frequency of the free electron spin. The frequency and amplitude of the precessing nuclei, which are a function of the strength of the measured field, are recorded by a pick...

  17. Pulsed photothermal phase-shift spectroscopy for weak absorption measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Deng, Y; Cheng, J

    1996-04-01

    A novel photothermal phase-shift spectroscopy configuration based on the retro-reflected beam interference has been developed and its operational principle is described. The weak absorption measurement ability of this technique is experimentally proven with a water/ethanol solution of standard Pyronine G dye and the limit of detection is found to be 1.8 x 10(-6) absorbance. Potential applications of the technique are discussed.

  18. Decoherence suppression of tripartite entanglement in non-Markovian environments by using weak measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Zhi-yong [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China); School of Physics & Electronic Engineering, Fuyang Normal University, Fuyang 236037 (China); He, Juan, E-mail: juanhe78@163.com [School of Physics & Electronic Engineering, Fuyang Normal University, Fuyang 236037 (China); Ye, Liu, E-mail: yeliu@ahu.edu.cn [School of Physics & Material Science, Anhui University, Hefei 230039 (China)

    2017-02-15

    A feasible scheme for protecting the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement state in non-Markovian environments is proposed. It consists of prior weak measurement on each qubit before the interaction with decoherence environments followed by post quantum measurement reversals. It is shown that both the fidelity and concurrence of the GHZ state can be effectively improved. Meanwhile, we also verified that our scenario can enhance tripartite nonlocality remarkably. In addition, the result indicates that the larger the weak measurement strength, the better the effectiveness of the scheme with the lower success probability.

  19. Measuring non-Hermitian operators via weak values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Arun Kumar; Singh, Uttam; Sinha, Urbasi

    2015-11-01

    In quantum theory, a physical observable is represented by a Hermitian operator as it admits real eigenvalues. This stems from the fact that any measuring apparatus that is supposed to measure a physical observable will always yield a real number. However, the reality of an eigenvalue of some operator does not mean that it is necessarily Hermitian. There are examples of non-Hermitian operators that may admit real eigenvalues under some symmetry conditions. In general, given a non-Hermitian operator, its average value in a quantum state is a complex number and there are only very limited methods available to measure it. Following standard quantum mechanics, we provide an experimentally feasible protocol to measure the expectation value of any non-Hermitian operator via weak measurements. The average of a non-Hermitian operator in a pure state is a complex multiple of the weak value of the positive-semidefinite part of the non-Hermitian operator. We also prove an uncertainty relation for any two non-Hermitian operators and show that the fidelity of a quantum state under a quantum channel can be measured using the average of the corresponding Kraus operators. The importance of our method is shown in testing the stronger uncertainty relation, verifying the Ramanujan formula, and measuring the product of noncommuting projectors.

  20. Excitations and stability of weakly interacting Bose gases with multibody interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laghi, Danny; Macrı, Tommaso; Trombettoni, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    We consider weakly interacting bosonic gases with local and nonlocal multibody interactions. By using the Bogoliubov approximation, we first investigate contact interactions, studying the case in which the interparticle potential can be written as a sum of N -body δ interactions and then considering general contact potentials. Results for the quasiparticle spectrum and the stability are presented. We then examine nonlocal interactions, focusing on two different cases of three-body nonlocal interactions. Our results are used for systems with two- and three-body δ interactions and applied for realistic values of the trap parameters. Finally, the effect of conservative three-body terms in dipolar systems and soft-core potentials (that can be simulated with Rydberg dressed atoms) is also studied.

  1. Weak qubit measurement with a nonlinear cavity: beyond perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laflamme, C; Clerk, A A

    2012-09-21

    We analyze the use of a driven nonlinear cavity to make a weak continuous measurement of a dispersively coupled qubit. We calculate the backaction dephasing rate and measurement rate beyond leading-order perturbation theory using a phase-space approach which accounts for cavity noise squeezing. Surprisingly, we find that increasing the coupling strength beyond the regime describable by leading-order perturbation theory (i.e., linear response) allows one to come significantly closer to the quantum limit on the measurement efficiency. We interpret this behavior in terms of the non-Gaussian photon number fluctuations of the nonlinear cavity. Our results are relevant to recent experiments using superconducting microwave circuits to study quantum measurement.

  2. WITCH, a Penning trap for weak interaction studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V Yu

    2005-01-01

    This work is the completion of the installation of the WITCH set-up and the first tests and commissioning of it. The first goal of the WITCH experiment is to improve the present limit on a scalar interaction in nuclear $\\beta$-decay by determining the $\\beta$-neutrino angular correlation parameter $a$ via a precise measurement of the shape of the energy spectrum of the recoil ions. The development of the WITCH set-up and its installation at ISOLDE (CERN) were recently completed. The principle of WITCH is based on a combination of a Penning trap to confine the radioactive ions and a retardation spectrometer to probe the energy of the recoil ions resulting from $\\beta$-decays in the trap. Extensive computer simulations show that for a reasonable measurement time a precision on the $a$-parameter of 0.5% can be achieved. This corresponds to an upper limit for the scalar interaction constant Cs/Cv < 9% at 95% C.L. Designing and constructing a set-up as large and complex as the WITCH set-up takes time, several y...

  3. The chiral anomaly in non-leptonic weak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Bijnens, J; Pich, Antonio

    1992-01-01

    The interplay between the chiral anomaly and the non-leptonic weak Hamiltonian is studied. The structure of the corresponding effective Lagrangian of odd intrinsic parity is established. It is shown that the factorizable contributions (leading in $1/N_C$) to that Lagrangian can be calculated without free parameters. As a first application, the decay $K^+ \\ra \\pi^+ \\pi^0 \\gamma$ is investigated.

  4. Weak Interactions Govern the Viscosity of Concentrated Antibody Solutions: High-Throughput Analysis Using the Diffusion Interaction Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian D.; Petry, Chris; Yadav, Sandeep; Demeule, Barthélemy; Ciaccio, Natalie; Moore, Jamie M.R.; Shire, Steven J.; Gokarn, Yatin R.

    2012-01-01

    Weak protein-protein interactions are thought to modulate the viscoelastic properties of concentrated antibody solutions. Predicting the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated antibodies from their dilute solution behavior is of significant interest and remains a challenge. Here, we show that the diffusion interaction parameter (kD), a component of the osmotic second virial coefficient (B2) that is amenable to high-throughput measurement in dilute solutions, correlates well with the viscosity of concentrated monoclonal antibody (mAb) solutions. We measured the kD of 29 different mAbs (IgG1 and IgG4) in four different solvent conditions (low and high ion normality) and found a linear dependence between kD and the exponential coefficient that describes the viscosity concentration profiles (|R| ≥ 0.9). Through experimentally measured effective charge measurements, under low ion normality where the electroviscous effect can dominate, we show that the mAb solution viscosity is poorly correlated with the mAb net charge (|R| ≤ 0.6). With this large data set, our results provide compelling evidence in support of weak intermolecular interactions, in contrast to the notion that the electroviscous effect is important in governing the viscoelastic behavior of concentrated mAb solutions. Our approach is particularly applicable as a screening tool for selecting mAbs with desirable viscosity properties early during lead candidate selection. PMID:22828333

  5. Particle-laden weakly swirling free jets - Measurements and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzan, Daniel L.; Shuen, Jian-Shun; Faeth, Gerard M.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of particle-laden, weakly swirling, turbulent free jets was conducted. Glass particles, having a Sauter mean diameter of 39 microns with a standard deviation of 15 microns, were used. A single loading ratio of 0.2 was used in the experiments. Measurements are reported for three swirl numbers, ranging from 0.0 to 0.3. The measurements included mean and fluctuating velocities of both phases, and particle mass flux distributions. Measurements were compared with predictions from three types of multiphase flow analysis: locally homogeneous flow (LHF); deterministic separated flow (DSF); and stochastic separated flow (SSF). For the particle-laden jets, the LHF and DSF models did not provide very satisfactory predictions. The LHF model generally overestimated the rate of decay of particle mean axial and angular velocities with streamwise distance, due to the neglect of particle inertia. The LHF model predictions of particle mass flux also showed poor agreement with measurements due to the assumption of no-slip between phases. The DSF model also performed quite poorly for predictions of particle mass flux, because turbulent dispersion of the particles was neglected. The SSF model, which accounts for both particle inertia and turbulent disperison of the particles, yielded reasonably good predictions throughout the flow field for the particle-laden jets.

  6. Particle-laden weakly swirling free jets: Measurements and predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzan, Daniel L.; Shuen, Jian-Shun; Faeth, Gerard M.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of particle-laden, weakly swirling, turbulent free jets was conducted. Glass particles, having a Sauter mean diameter of 39 microns with a standard deviation of 15 microns, were used. A single loading ratio of 0.2 was used in the experiments. Measurements are reported for three swirl numbers, ranging from 0.0 to 0.3. The measurements included mean and fluctuating velocities of both phases, and particle mass flux distributions. Measurements were compared with predictions from three types of multiphase flow analysis: locally homogeneous flow (LHF); deterministic separated flow (DSF); and stochastic separated flow (SSF). For the particle-laden jets, the LHF and DSF models did not provide very satisfactory predictions. The LHF model generally overestimated the rate of decay of particle mean axial and angular velocities with streamwise distance, due to the neglect of particle inertia. The LHF model predictions of particle mass flux also showed poor agreement with measurements due to the assumption of no-slip between phases. The DSF model also performed quite poorly for predictions of particle mass flux, because turbulent dispersion of the particles was neglected. The SSF model, which accounts for both particle inertia and turbulent dispersion of the particles, yielded reasonably good predictions throughout the flow field for the particle-laden jets.

  7. Social Interactions and Well-Being: The Surprising Power of Weak Ties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandstrom, Gillian M; Dunn, Elizabeth W

    2014-07-01

    Although we interact with a wide network of people on a daily basis, the social psychology literature has primarily focused on interactions with close friends and family. The present research tested whether subjective well-being is related not only to interactions with these strong ties but also to interactions with weak social ties (i.e., acquaintances). In Study 1, students experienced greater happiness and greater feelings of belonging on days when they interacted with more classmates than usual. Broadening the scope in Studies 2A and 2B to include all daily interactions (with both strong and weak ties), we again found that weak ties are related to social and emotional well-being. The current results highlight the power of weak ties, suggesting that even social interactions with the more peripheral members of our social networks contribute to our well-being. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  8. Quantum non-demolition measurement of photon number using weak nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerry, Christopher C.; Bui, Trung

    2008-12-01

    We propose an alternative method for the quantum non-demolition measurement of photon numbers wherein weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities are to be used. The usual approach to quantum non-demolition measurements of quantum number involves encoding the photon number, through a cross-Kerr interaction, into a phase shift of a probe coherent state which is then detected through balanced homodyning. Weak nonlinearities produce small phase shifts which are difficult to detect and distinguish. In the method we propose, unbalanced homodyning acts as a displacement operator on the probe beam coherent state such that the cross-Kerr interaction encodes the photon number into the amplitude of a new coherent state. The value of the photon number can be determined by inefficient photon counting on the new coherent state. Our proposed method requires fewer resources than does the usual approach.

  9. Quantum non-demolition measurement of photon number using weak nonlinearities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerry, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)], E-mail: christopher.gerry@lehman.cuny.edu; Bui, Trung [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, NY 10468-1589 (United States)

    2008-12-08

    We propose an alternative method for the quantum non-demolition measurement of photon numbers wherein weak cross-Kerr nonlinearities are to be used. The usual approach to quantum non-demolition measurements of quantum number involves encoding the photon number, through a cross-Kerr interaction, into a phase shift of a probe coherent state which is then detected through balanced homodyning. Weak nonlinearities produce small phase shifts which are difficult to detect and distinguish. In the method we propose, unbalanced homodyning acts as a displacement operator on the probe beam coherent state such that the cross-Kerr interaction encodes the photon number into the amplitude of a new coherent state. The value of the photon number can be determined by inefficient photon counting on the new coherent state. Our proposed method requires fewer resources than does the usual approach.

  10. Amplifying and freezing of quantum coherence using weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian-Wu; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2016-11-01

    We analyze universal conditions where the l 1 norm and relative entropy of coherence are amplified and frozen under identical bit-flip channels; that is, using pre-measurements (quantum weak measurements or quantum measurement reversals) on the systems before undergoing local bit-flip channels. With the option of quantum weak measurements or quantum measurement reversals, the measurement strength and the success probability are all determined by the initial state of the quantum system. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204156, 61178012, 11304179, and 11247240) and the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20133705110001).

  11. Application of ultra-weak photon emission measurements in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kimihiko; Iyozumi, Hiroyuki; Kageyama, Chizuko; Inagaki, Hidehiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Nukui, Hideki

    2014-10-05

    Here we report our two applications of ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) measurements in agriculture. One is to find new types of agrochemicals that potentiate plants' defense, so-called "plant activator". We first analyzed the relation between plant defense and Elicitor-Responsive Photon Emission (ERPE) using a combination of rice cells and a chitin elicitor. Pharmacological analyses clarified that ERPE was generated as a part of the chitin elicitor-responsive defense in close relation with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Then we successfully detected the activity of plant activators as the potentiation of ERPE, and developed a new screening system for plant activators based on this principle. Another UPE application is to distinguish herbicide-resistant weeds from susceptible ones by measuring UPE in weeds. In our study, it was revealed that the weed biotypes resistant to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides, one of the major herbicide groups, showed stronger UPE than susceptible ones after an SU herbicide treatment. By further analysis with a pharmacological and RNAi study, we found that the detoxifying enzyme P450s contributed to the UPE increase in SU herbicide resistant weeds. It is considered that weeds resistant to herbicides other than SU might also be able to be distinguished from susceptible ones by UPE measurement, as long as the herbicides are subject to detoxification by P450s. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. On possible non-weak interactions between neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    1987-01-01

    The author proposes a renormalizable model in which neutrinos possess a strong Yukawa interaction with a neutral isoscalar spinless boson. The author discusses the experimental consequences of the model. (14 refs).

  13. Weak solutions for Euler systems with non-local interactions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Carrillo, J. A.; Feireisl, Eduard; Gwiazda, P.; Swierczewska-Gwiazda, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 3 (2017), s. 705-724 ISSN 0024-6107 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 320078 - MATHEF Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : Euler system * dissipative solutions * Newtonian interaction Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.895, year: 2016 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1112/jlms.12027/abstract

  14. Early history of gauge theories and weak interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straumann, N. [Zurich Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    1996-11-01

    The paper deals with Weyl`s attempt to unify gravitation and electromagnetism, Weyl`s 1929 classic `Electron and gravitation`, Yang-Mills theory, parity violation and 2-component neutrino, chiral invariance and universal V-A interaction. 3 figs., 38 refs.

  15. Effect of weak measurement on entanglement distribution over noisy channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Wen; Yu, Sixia; Zhang, Deng-Yu; Oh, C H

    2016-03-03

    Being able to implement effective entanglement distribution in noisy environments is a key step towards practical quantum communication, and long-term efforts have been made on the development of it. Recently, it has been found that the null-result weak measurement (NRWM) can be used to enhance probabilistically the entanglement of a single copy of amplitude-damped entangled state. This paper investigates remote distributions of bipartite and multipartite entangled states in the amplitudedamping environment by combining NRWMs and entanglement distillation protocols (EDPs). We show that the NRWM has no positive effect on the distribution of bipartite maximally entangled states and multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, although it is able to increase the amount of entanglement of each source state (noisy entangled state) of EDPs with a certain probability. However, we find that the NRWM would contribute to remote distributions of multipartite W states. We demonstrate that the NRWM can not only reduce the fidelity thresholds for distillability of decohered W states, but also raise the distillation efficiencies of W states. Our results suggest a new idea for quantifying the ability of a local filtering operation in protecting entanglement from decoherence.

  16. WITCH a Penning trap retardation spectrometer combination for precision studies of the weak interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Delauré, B J; Golovko, V V; Kozlov, V Yu; Phalet, T; Schuurmans, P; Severijns, N; Vereecke, B; Versyck, S; Beck, D; Quint, W; Ames, F; Reisinger, K; Forstner, O; Deutsch, J; Bollen, G; Schwarz, S

    2003-01-01

    The weak interaction trap for charged particles (WITCH) setup is being installed at the ISOLDE facility (CERN) to test the Standard Model of the electroweak interaction. This will be done by searching for scalar and tensor admixtures in nuclear $\\beta$-decay. The $\\beta$-neutrino angular correlation is an excellent probe to determine the possible strength of those non-Standard Model contributions. The WITCH setup combines the unique storage features of a Penning trap to produce a scattering free radioactive source with a retardation spectrometer to measure the recoil energy spectrum of the daughter nuclei after $\\beta$-decay with high precision. Physics beyond the Standard Model would lead to deviations from the expected spectral shape. (7 refs).

  17. The WITCH Experiment : towards weak interactions studies. Status and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V.Yu.; Coeck, S.; Herbane, M.; Kraev, I.S.; Severijns, N.; Wauters, F.; Delahaye, P.; Herlert, A.; Wenander, F.; Zakoucky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Primary goal of the WITCH experiment is to test the Standard Model for a possible ad-mixture of a scalar or tensor type interaction in $\\beta$-decay. This information will be inferred from the shape of the recoil energy spectrum. The experimental set-up was completed and is under intensive commissioning at ISOLDE (CERN). It combines a Penning trap to store the ions and a retardation spectrometer to probe the recoil ion energy. A brief overview of the WITCH set-up and the results of commissioning tests performed until now are presented. Finally, perspectives of the physics program are reviewed.

  18. Introduction to the Standard Model of the Electro-Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Iliopoulos, Jean

    2014-01-01

    These lectures notes cover the basic ideas of gauge symmetries and the phe- nomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking which are used in the construc- tion of the Standard Model of the Electro-Weak Interactions.

  19. Measuring the Weak Charge of the Proton via Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, Donald C. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Qweak experiment which ran in Hall C at Jefferson Lab in Newport News, VA, and completed data taking in May 2012, measured the weak charge of the proton QpW via elastic electron-proton scattering. Longitudinally polarized electrons were scattered from an unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. The helicity of the electron beam was flipped at approximately 1 kHz between left and right spin states. The Standard Model predicts a small parity-violating asymmetry of scattering rates between right and left helicity states due to the weak interaction. An initial result using 4% of the data was published in October 2013 [1] with a measured parity-violating asymmetry of -279 ± 35(stat) ± 31 (syst) ppb. This asymmetry, along with other data from parity-violating electron scattering experiments, provided the world's first determination of the weak charge of the proton. The weak charge of the proton was found to be pW = 0.064 ± 0.012, in good agreement with the Standard Model prediction of pW(SM) = 0.0708 ± 0.0003[2].

  20. Theoretical & Experimental Research in Weak, Electromagnetic & Strong Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandi, Satyanarayan [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Babu, Kaladi [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Rizatdinova, Flera [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Khanov, Alexander [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States); Haley, Joseph [Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, OK (United States)

    2015-09-17

    The conducted research spans a wide range of topics in the theoretical, experimental and phenomenological aspects of elementary particle interactions. Theory projects involve topics in both the energy frontier and the intensity frontier. The experimental research involves energy frontier with the ATLAS Collaboration at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In theoretical research, novel ideas going beyond the Standard Model with strong theoretical motivations were proposed, and their experimental tests at the LHC and forthcoming neutrino facilities were outlined. These efforts fall into the following broad categories: (i) TeV scale new physics models for LHC Run 2, including left-right symmetry and trinification symmetry, (ii) unification of elementary particles and forces, including the unification of gauge and Yukawa interactions, (iii) supersummetry and mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking, (iv) superworld without supersymmetry, (v) general models of extra dimensions, (vi) comparing signals of extra dimensions with those of supersymmetry, (vii) models with mirror quarks and mirror leptons at the TeV scale, (viii) models with singlet quarks and singlet Higgs and their implications for Higgs physics at the LHC, (ix) new models for the dark matter of the universe, (x) lepton flavor violation in Higgs decays, (xi) leptogenesis in radiative models of neutrino masses, (xii) light mediator models of non-standard neutrino interactions, (xiii) anomalous muon decay and short baseline neutrino anomalies, (xiv) baryogenesis linked to nucleon decay, and (xv) a new model for recently observed diboson resonance at the LHC and its other phenomenological implications. The experimental High Energy Physics group has been, and continues to be, a successful and productive contributor to the ATLAS experiment at the LHC. Members of the group performed search for gluinos decaying to stop and top quarks, new heavy gauge bosons decaying to top and bottom quarks, and vector-like quarks

  1. Superallowed Nuclear Beta Decay: A Window on the Weak Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J. C.

    2008-01-01

    Measurements on superallowed 0+-->0+ nuclear beta transitions currently provide the most demanding test of the Conserved Vector Current (CVC) hypothesis and the most precise value for the up-down element, Vud, of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. Both are sensitive probes for physics beyond the Standard Model. Analysis of the experimental results depends on small radiative and isospin-symmetry-breaking corrections whose uncertainties now dominate those from experiment. Recent experiments have been focusing on tests of these corrections with a view to reducing their uncertainties. An overview is presented together with a description of measurements at Texas A&M on the superallowed decay of 34Ar.

  2. Testing the Standard Model by precision measurement of the weak charges of quarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross Young; Roger Carlini; Anthony Thomas; Julie Roche

    2007-05-01

    In a global analysis of the latest parity-violating electron scattering measurements on nuclear targets, we demonstrate a significant improvement in the experimental knowledge of the weak neutral-current lepton-quark interactions at low-energy. The precision of this new result, combined with earlier atomic parity-violation measurements, limits the magnitude of possible contributions from physics beyond the Standard Model - setting a model-independent, lower-bound on the scale of new physics at ~1 TeV.

  3. Weak-scale string theories and ultrahigh energy neutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kachelriess, M

    2001-01-01

    We discuss if ultrahigh energy (UHE) neutrinos can be responsible for the observed vertical extensive air showers with energy ~10/sup 20/ e V. After briefly reviewing the proposal that the decay products from UHE neutrinos annihilations on relic neutrinos are the observed UHE primaries, we concentrate on the suggestion that UHE neutrinos can acquire cross-sections approaching hadronic size if the string scale is as low as approximately=10 TeV. In this case, the vertical air showers observed with energies above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cutoff at E approximately=6.10/sup 19/ eV could be initiated directly by neutrinos which are the only known primaries able to travel long distances unimpeded. We review the calculation of the neutrino- nucleon cross-section sigma /sub N nu //sup KK/ due to the exchange of Kaluza-Klein excitations of the graviton in a field theoretical framework and discuss the issue of unitarity. We find that sigma /sub N nu //sup KK/ and the transferred energy per interaction are too small t...

  4. Weak interaction effects in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation with polarised beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simard, R.

    1977-11-02

    Although the standard gauge model of weak and electromagnetic interactions based on the work of Salam and Weinberg has met with great success, there are experimental facts that will require its extension or its modification to a new gauge model; the discovery of a heavy lepton at SLAC and the absence of parity violation in atoms that is expected from the neutral weak current coupling to electrons are discussed. Three tests are proposed that bear on these questions. First, heavy lepton production in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation when one of the incident beams is longitudinally polarized is considered and the purely leptonic decay of this heavy lepton is examined. An asymmetry in the inclusive angular distribution of one charged lepton (electron or muon) is important in determining the structure of weak interactions of the heavy lepton. In fact, this angular asymmetry easily distinguishes between the cases V - A and V + A for the heavy lepton current. Then, the decay channel L ..-->.. ..nu../sub L/ + one hadron is considered (L = heavy lepton) under the same experimental set-up and the inclusive one-hadron angular distribution examined. Parity nonconservation in the decay of the heavy lepton causes a conspicuous forward-backward asymmetry in the cos theta distribution of the inclusive hadron spectrum near the high energy end that can be distinguished easily from other sources of asymmetry. It is easy then to discover the chirality (V - A or V + A) of the heavy lepton current. Finally a test is proposed which provides unambigous and clear evidence for parity violation in e/sup +/e/sup -/ annihilation. It consists in measuring a possible left-right asymmetry of inclusive hadron production with highly transversely polarized e/sup +/e/sup -/ incident beams. If observed, this asymmetry provides evidence of a parity violating neutral current coupling to electrons.

  5. Weakly interacting sub-eV particle searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasev, A; Beard, K B; Biallas, G; Boyce, J; Hirshfield, J L; Jiang, Y; Kazakevitch, G; LaPointe, M A; Martin, A; Minarni, M; Ramdon, R; Shinn, Michelle D; Slocum, P

    2010-08-01

    We make use of the generation-regeneration or "light shining through a wall" technique in searches for optical-wavelength photons mixing with hypothetical hidden-sector paraphotons in the mass range between 10^-5 and 10^-2 electron volts for a mixing parameter greater than 10^-7 and in sensitive searches for scalar and pseudoscalar coupling of photons to light neutral bosons in the mass range of approximately 1.0 milli-electron volts and coupling strength greater than 10^-6 GeV-1. Additionally, there is an effort underway to use photons in the microwave region using this same technique to make a more sensitive measurement in the mass range of approximately 0.1 milli-electron volts. The equipment in the latter effort will be used to search for galactic halo axions in this same mass range.

  6. Isospin Symmetry of Transitions Probed by Weak and Strong Interactions

    CERN Multimedia

    Roeckl, E

    2002-01-01

    Under the assumption that isospin is a good quantum number, isospin symmetry is expected for the transitions from the ground states of the pair of T = 1, T$_{z}$ = $\\pm$ 1 nuclei to excited states of the T = 0 nucleus situated in between the pair. In order to study the isospin symmetry of these transitions, we propose to perform an accurate comparison of Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions for the A = 58 system. This system is the heaviest for which such a comparison is possible. The $^{58}$Ni(T$_{z}$ = 1 ) $\\rightarrow^{58}$Cu(T$_{z}$ = 0 ) GT transitions are presently studied by using high-resolution charge exchange reaction at RNCP Osaka, while those of $^{58}$Zn(T$_{z}$ = -1) $\\rightarrow^{58}$Cu will be investigated in the $\\beta$-decay study at ISOLDE. Due to the large $Q\\scriptstyle_\\textrm{EC}$-value of $^{58}$Zn, GT transitions can be observed up to high excitation energies in $^{58}$Cu. In order to reach this goal, it is proposed to measure $\\beta$-delayed protons and $\\gamma$-rays by using a dedicated de...

  7. Weak interaction and nucleus: the relationship keeps on; Interaction faible et noyau: l'histoire continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, J. [Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Frere, J.M.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Volpe, C.; Marteau, J.; Lhuillier, D.; Vignaud, D.; Legac, R.; Marteau, J.; Legac, R

    2003-07-01

    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot-Curie international summer school in 2003 whose theme, that year, was the relationship between weak interaction and nucleus. There were 8 contributions whose titles are: 1) before the standard model: from beta decay to neutral currents; 2) the electro-weak theory and beyond; 3) testing of the standard model at low energies; 4) description of weak processes in nuclei; 5) 20.000 tonnes underground, an approach to the neutrino-nucleus interaction; 6) parity violation from atom to nucleon; 7) how neutrinos got their masses; and 8) CP symmetry.

  8. On Hardy's paradox, weak measurements, and multitasking diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meglicki, Zdzislaw, E-mail: gustav@indiana.edu [Indiana University, Office of the Vice President for Information Technology, 601 E. Kirkwood Ave., Room 116, Bloomington, IN 47405-1223 (United States)

    2011-07-04

    We discuss Hardy's paradox and weak measurements by using multitasking diagrams, which are introduced to illustrate the progress of quantum probabilities through the double interferometer system. We explain how Hardy's paradox is avoided and elaborate on the outcome of weak measurements in this context. -- Highlights: → Hardy's paradox explained and eliminated. → Weak measurements: what is really measured? → Multitasking diagrams: introduced and used to discuss quantum mechanical processes.

  9. An Investigation of Human-Computer Interaction Approaches Beneficial to Weak Learners in Complex Animation Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Yu-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Animation is one of the useful contemporary educational technologies in teaching complex subjects. There is a growing interest in proper use of learner-technology interaction to promote learning quality for different groups of learner needs. The purpose of this study is to investigate if an interaction approach supports weak learners, who have…

  10. Electron-electron interaction, weak localization and spin valve effect in vertical-transport graphene devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Mingsheng; Gong, Youpin; Wei, Xiangfei; Zhu, Chao; Xu, Jianbao; Liu, Ping; Guo, Yufen; Li, Weiwei; Liu, Liwei, E-mail: lwliu2007@sinano.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications-CAS and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Guangtong [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-04-14

    We fabricated a vertical structure device, in which graphene is sandwiched between two asymmetric ferromagnetic electrodes. The measurements of electron and spin transport were performed across the combined channels containing the vertical and horizontal components. The presence of electron-electron interaction (EEI) was found not only at low temperatures but also at moderate temperatures up to ∼120 K, and EEI dominates over weak localization (WL) with and without applying magnetic fields perpendicular to the sample plane. Moreover, spin valve effect was observed when magnetic filed is swept at the direction parallel to the sample surface. We attribute the EEI and WL surviving at a relatively high temperature to the effective suppress of phonon scattering in the vertical device structure. The findings open a way for studying quantum correlation at relatively high temperature.

  11. WITCH: a recoil spectrometer for weak interaction and nuclear physics studies

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, M; Golovko, V.V.; Kozlov, V.Yu.; Kraev, I.S.; Lindroth, A.; Phalet, T.; Schuurmans, P.; Severijns, N.; Vereecke, B.; Versyck, S.; Beck, D.; Quint, W.; Ames, F.; Bollen, G.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental set-up is described for the precise measurement of the recoil energy spectrum of the daughter ions from nuclear beta decay. The experiment is called WITCH, short for Weak Interaction Trap for CHarged particles, and is set up at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The principle of the experiment and its realization are explained as well as the main physics goal. A cloud of radioactive ions stored in a Penning trap serves as the source for the WITCH experiment, leading to the minimization of scattering and energy loss of the decay products. The energy spectrum of the recoiling daughter ions from the $\\beta$--decays in this ion cloud will be measured with a retardation spectrometer. The principal aim of the WITCH experiment is to study the electroweak interaction by determining the beta--neutrino angular correlation in nuclear $\\beta$--decay from the shape of this recoil energy spectrum. This will be the first time that the recoil energy spectrum of the daughter ions from $\\beta$--decay can be measured ...

  12. Review Article: The weak interactive characteristic of resonance cells and broadband effect of metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Zhao

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Metamaterials are artificial media designed to control electromagnetic wave propagation. Due to resonance, most present-day metamaterials inevitably suffer from narrow bandwidth, extremely limiting their practical applications. On the basis of tailored properties, a metamaterial within which each distinct unit cell resonates at its inherent frequency and has almost no coupling effect with the other ones, termed as weak interaction system, can be formulated. The total response of a weak interaction system can be treated as an overlap of the single resonance spectrum of each type of different unit cells. This intriguing feature therefore makes it possible to accomplish multiband or broadband metamaterials in a simple way. By introducing defects into metamaterials to form a weak interaction system, multiband and broadband electromagnetic metamaterials have first been experimentally demonstrated by our group. The similar concept can also be readily extended to acoustic and seismic metamaterials.

  13. n→π* Non-Covalent Interaction is Weak but Strong in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh Kumar; Das, Aloke

    2017-06-01

    n→π* interaction is a newly discovered non-covalent interaction which involves delocalization of lone pair (n) electrons of an electronegative atom into π* orbital of a carbonyl group or an aromatic ring. It is widely observed in materials, biomolecules (protein, DNA, RNA), amino acids, neurotransmitter and drugs. However, due to its weak strength and counterintuitive nature its existence is debatable. Such weak interactions are often masked by solvent effects in condense phase or physiological conditions thereby, making it difficult to prove the presence of such weak interactions. Therefore, we have used isolated gas phase spectroscopy in combination with quantum chemical calculations to study n→π* interaction in several molecules where, our molecular systems are free from solvent effects or any external forces. Herein I will be discussing two of the molecular systems (phenyl formate and salicin) where, we have observed the significance of n→π* interaction in determining the conformational specificity of the molecules. We have proved the existence of n→π* interaction for the first time through IR spectroscopy by probing the carbonyl stretching frequency of phenyl formate. Our study is further pursued on a drug named salicin where, we have observed that its conformational preferences is ruled by n→π* interaction even though a strong hydrogen bonding interaction is present in the molecule. Our results show that n→π* interaction, in spite of its weak strength, should not be overlooked as it existence can play an important role in governing the structures of molecules like other strong non-covalent interactions do.

  14. Interferometric Measurement of the Current-Phase Relationship of a Superfluid Weak Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Eckel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Weak connections between superconductors or superfluids can differ from classical links due to quantum coherence, which allows flow without resistance. Transport properties through such weak links can be described with a single function, the current-phase relationship, which serves as the quantum analog of the current-voltage relationship. Here, we present a technique for inteferometrically measuring the current-phase relationship of superfluid weak links. We interferometrically measure the phase gradient around a ring-shaped superfluid Bose-Einstein condensate containing a rotating weak link, allowing us to identify the current flowing around the ring. While our Bose-Einstein condensate weak link operates in the hydrodynamic regime, this technique can be extended to all types of weak links (including tunnel junctions in any phase-coherent quantum gas. Moreover, it can also measure the current-phase relationships of excitations. Such measurements may open new avenues of research in quantum transport.

  15. First results of the CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting sub-eV Particle Search (CROWS)

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, M; Gasior, M; Thumm, M; Rieger, S W

    2013-01-01

    The CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting sub-eV Particle Search probes the existence of weakly interacting sub-eV particles like axions or hidden sector photons. It is based on the principle of an optical light shining through the wall experiment, adapted to microwaves. Critical aspects of the experiment are electromagnetic shielding, design and operation of low loss cavity resonators, and the detection of weak sinusoidal microwave signals. Lower bounds are set on the coupling constant g=4.5 x 10$^{-8}$ GeV$^{-1}$ for axionlike particles with a mass of m$_a$=7.2 $\\mu$eV. For hidden sector photons, lower bounds are set for the coupling constant $\\chi$=4.1 x 10$^{^-9}$ at a mass of m$\\gamma$=10.8 $\\mu$eV. For the latter we are probing a previously unexplored region in the parameter space.

  16. Direct quantum process tomography via measuring sequential weak values of incompatible observables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yosep; Kim, Yong-Su; Lee, Sang-Yun; Han, Sang-Wook; Moon, Sung; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Cho, Young-Wook

    2018-01-15

    The weak value concept has enabled fundamental studies of quantum measurement and, recently, found potential applications in quantum and classical metrology. However, most weak value experiments reported to date do not require quantum mechanical descriptions, as they only exploit the classical wave nature of the physical systems. In this work, we demonstrate measurement of the sequential weak value of two incompatible observables by making use of two-photon quantum interference so that the results can only be explained quantum physically. We then demonstrate that the sequential weak value measurement can be used to perform direct quantum process tomography of a qubit channel. Our work not only demonstrates the quantum nature of weak values but also presents potential new applications of weak values in analyzing quantum channels and operations.

  17. Weak interactions between water and clathrate-forming gases at low pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurmer, Konrad; Yuan, Chunqing; Kimmel, Gregory A.; Kay, Bruce D.; Smith, R. Scott

    2015-11-01

    Using scanning probe microscopy and temperature programed desorption we examined the interaction between water and two common clathrate-forming gases, methane and isobutane, at low temperature and low pressure. Water co-deposited with up to 10-1 mbar methane or 10-5 mbar isobutane at 140 K onto a Pt(111) substrate yielded pure crystalline ice, i.e., the exposure to up to ~107 gas molecules for each deposited water molecule did not have any detectable effect on the growing films. Exposing metastable, less than 2 molecular layers thick, water films to 10-5 mbar methane does not alter their morphology, suggesting that the presence of the Pt(111) surface is not a strong driver for hydrate formation. This weak water-gas interaction at low pressures is supported by our thermal desorption measurements from amorphous solid water and crystalline ice where 1 ML of methane desorbs near ~43 K and isobutane desorbs near ~100 K. Similar desorption temperatures were observed for desorption from amorphous solid water.

  18. Interaction of a weak discontinuity with elementary waves of Riemann problema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Sharma, V. D.

    2012-01-01

    We study the interaction of a weak discontinuity wave with the elementary waves of the Riemann problem for the one-dimensional Euler equations governing the flow of ideal polytropic gases, and investigate the effects of initial states, and the shock strength on the jumps in shock acceleration and the reflected and transmitted waves.

  19. Prethermal Floquet Steady States and Instabilities in the Periodically Driven, Weakly Interacting Bose-Hubbard Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukov, Marin; Gopalakrishnan, Sarang; Knap, Michael; Demler, Eugene

    2015-11-13

    We explore prethermal Floquet steady states and instabilities of the weakly interacting two-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model subject to periodic driving. We develop a description of the nonequilibrium dynamics, at arbitrary drive strength and frequency, using a weak-coupling conserving approximation. We establish the regimes in which conventional (zero-momentum) and unconventional [(π,π)-momentum] condensates are stable on intermediate time scales. We find that condensate stability is enhanced by increasing the drive strength, because this decreases the bandwidth of quasiparticle excitations and thus impedes resonant absorption and heating. Our results are directly relevant to a number of current experiments with ultracold bosons.

  20. Weakly Hydrated Surfaces and the Binding Interactions of Small Biological Solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, J. W.; Tavagnacco, L.; Ehrlich, L.; Chen, M.; Schnupf, U.; Himmel, M. E.; Saboungi, M. L.; Cesaro, A.

    2012-04-01

    Extended planar hydrophobic surfaces, such as are found in the side chains of the amino acids histidine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, exhibit an affinity for the weakly hydrated faces of glucopyranose. In addition, molecular species such as these, including indole, caffeine, and imidazole, exhibit a weak tendency to pair together by hydrophobic stacking in aqueous solution. These interactions can be partially understood in terms of recent models for the hydration of extended hydrophobic faces and should provide insight into the architecture of sugar-binding sites in proteins.

  1. Relieving the tension between weak lensing and cosmic microwave background with interacting dark matter and dark energy models

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Rui; Feng, Chang; Wang, Bin

    2018-02-01

    We constrain interacting dark matter and dark energy (IDMDE) models using a 450-degree-square cosmic shear data from the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) and the angular power spectra from Planck's latest cosmic microwave background measurements. We revisit the discordance problem in the standard Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model between weak lensing and Planck datasets and extend the discussion by introducing interacting dark sectors. The IDMDE models are found to be able to alleviate the discordance between KiDS and Planck as previously inferred from the ΛCDM model, and moderately favored by a combination of the two datasets.

  2. Energetic electron precipitation in weak to moderate corotating interaction region-driven storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ødegaard, Linn-Kristine Glesnes; Tyssøy, Hilde Nesse; Søraas, Finn; Stadsnes, Johan; Sandanger, Marit Irene

    2017-03-01

    High-energy electron precipitation from the radiation belts can penetrate deep into the mesosphere and increase the production rate of NOx and HOx, which in turn will reduce ozone in catalytic processes. The mechanisms for acceleration and loss of electrons in the radiation belts are not fully understood, and most of the measurements of the precipitating flux into the atmosphere have been insufficient for estimating the loss cone flux. In the present study the electron flux measured by the NOAA POES Medium Energy Proton and Electron Detectors 0° and 90° detectors is combined together with theory of pitch angle diffusion by wave-particle interaction to quantify the electron flux lost below 120 km altitude. Using this method, 41 weak and moderate geomagnetic storms caused by corotating interaction regions during 2006-2010 are studied. The dependence of the energetic electron precipitation fluxes upon solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices is investigated. Nine storms give increased precipitation of >˜750 keV electrons. Nineteen storms increase the precipitation of >˜300 keV electrons, but not the >˜750 keV population. Thirteen storms either do not change or deplete the fluxes at those energies. Storms that have an increase in the flux of electrons with energy >˜300 keV are characterized by an elevated solar wind velocity for a longer period compared to the storms that do not. Storms with increased precipitation of >˜750 keV flux are distinguished by higher-energy input from the solar wind quantified by the ɛ parameter and corresponding higher geomagnetic activity.

  3. Weak interactions of colliding lepton beams with energy (10/sup 2/-10 /sup 3/) GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgov, A D; Zakharov, V I

    1972-01-01

    Weak V-A interaction of colliding lepton beams at high energies is considered. It is shown that for colliding lepton antilepton beams, the contribution of weak interactions to the differential cross section of elastic scattering at angle theta =90 degrees prevails over that of electromagnetic interaction. The estimate of the weak cross section is based on the calculation of the imaginary part of the amplitude. A phenomenological description of the real art of the amplitude in the same approximation introduces a single unknown parameter. Provided the validity of dispersion relations with two subtractions is granted this parameter is related to the integral of total cross sections of ll and ll weak interactions.

  4. Weak measurement of the arrival times of single photons and pairs of entangled photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, S. E.; Payne, M. C.

    2004-04-01

    In this paper we propose a setup for the weak measurement of photon arrival time. It is found that the weak values of this arrival time can lie far away from the expectation value, and in principle also in regions forbidden by special relativity. We discuss in brief the implications of these results as well as their reconciliation with the principle of causality. Furthermore, an analysis of the weak arrival times of a pair of photons in a Bell state shows that these weak arrival times are correlated.

  5. Thermodynamic identities and particle number fluctuations in weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, Fabrizio [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and INFM, Unita di Salerno, I-84081 Baronissi SA (Italy); Navez, Patrick [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany); Institute of Materials Science, Demokritos NCSR, POB 60228, 15310 Athens (Greece); Wilkens, Martin [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Potsdam, Am Neuen Palais 10, D-14415, Potsdam (Germany)

    1999-08-14

    We derive exact thermodynamic identities relating the average number of condensed atoms and the root-mean-square fluctuations determined in different statistical ensembles for the weakly interacting Bose gas confined in a box. This is achieved by introducing the concept of auxiliary partition functions for model Hamiltonians that do conserve the total number of particles. Exploiting such thermodynamic identities, we provide the first, completely analytical prediction of the microcanonical particle number fluctuations in the weakly interacting Bose gas. Such fluctuations, as a function of the volume V of the box are found to behave normally, in contrast with the anomalous scaling behaviour V{sup 4/3} of the fluctuations in the ideal Bose gas. (author). Letter-to-the-editor.

  6. Geometry versus topology: Combined AIM, ELI-D, and ASF analysis of weak intramolecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebs, Stefan; Chilleck, Maren Annika

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of weak intramolecular interactions in a zincocene related compound uncovers a dependency of the Atoms In Molecules and Electron Localizability Indicator topology against the Ca-Ha⋯Hb and Ha⋯Hb-Cb angles: for sharp angles (<100°), no saddle point is generated. For medium angles (<120°), an ELI-D saddle point is formed. If one angle becomes larger than ca. 120°, an AIM bond critical point is generated. A virial path is exhibited if one angle exceeds ca. 130°. If an H atom is involved in more than one weak interaction, exceptions are found. No influence of the Ha⋯Hb distance is observed.

  7. Frontal affinity chromatography: practice of weak interaction analysis between lectins and fluorescently labeled oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chihiro

    2014-01-01

    Frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) is a simple and effective method that is applicable to the analysis of interactions between glycans and glycan-recognition proteins, including lectins, with weak affinity ranging from 10(-4) to 10(-6) (M) in terms of dissociation constant (Kd). Using conventional instruments, such as a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system equipped with pump, injector, (fluorescent) detector, and data recorder, the dissociation constants for weak glycan-based interactions can be easily determined with high throughput and accuracy. Notably, if the glycans are labeled with fluorescent dyes, only a small amount of glycans is required for the analysis. Fluorescent labeling of glycans is a common technique, and an increasing number of fluorescent-labeled glycans are commercially available. In this chapter, an advanced FAC method using fluorescent-labeled glycans is described.

  8. Weak interactions from 1950-1960: a quantitative bibliometric study of the formation of a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Sullivan, D.

    1986-01-01

    A quantitative technique is illustrated which uses publication statistics from a bibliography of citations in the area of weak interactions to provide a view of trends and patterns in the development of the field during the period from 1950 to 1960. An overview is given of what the physicists working in weak interactions during this period were doing as indicated by an analysis of the subjects of their papers. The dominant problems and concerns are discussed. Focus is then turned to the events surrounding the emergence of the tau/theta particle puzzle, the discovery of parity nonconservation, and the resolution offered by the V-A theory. Displaying the data from the citation index in unusual ways highlights dominant issues of the period, especially the close relationship between theory and experiment in the latter half of the decade. 64 refs., 14 figs. (LEW)

  9. Transverse electron polarization in the neutron decay - Direct search for scalar and tensor couplings in weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodek, Kazimierz

    2012-09-01

    The Standard Model (SM) predictions of T-violation for weak decays of systems built up of u and d quarks are by 7 to 10 orders of magnitude lower than the experimental accuracies attainable at present. It is a general presumption that time reversal phenomena are caused by a tiny admixture of exotic interaction terms. Therefore, weak decays provide a favorable testing ground in a search for such feeble forces. Physics with very slow, polarized neutrons has a great potential in this respect. An experiment seeking for small deviations from the SM in two observables, N and R, that are for the first time addressed experimentally in free neutron decay and that are exclusively sensitive to real and imaginary parts of the same linear combination of the scalar and tensor interaction coupling constants has been completed at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland. The analysis of the experimental data has been completed recently leading to, among others, the best direct constraint for the imaginary part of the R-parity violating MSSM contribution. The success of the applied technique results in a new project devoted to the simultaneous measurement of seven correlation coefficients: H, L, N, R, S, U and V. Five of them (H, L, S, U and V) have never before been measured in weak decays. Such a systematic exploration of the transverse electron polarization will generate from the neutron decay alone a complete set of constraints for the real and imaginary parts of the weak scalar and tensor interactions on the level of 5 × 10-4 or better.

  10. Potentiometric Investigation of Specific Ionic Effects on Interactions between Bovine Serum Albumin and Weak Polyelectrolytes

    OpenAIRE

    Mutka, Saniela; Njegić Džakula, Branka; Kovačević, Davor

    2008-01-01

    The effect of salt on the behaviour of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in solution and on the interactions between BSA and the weakly charged polyelectrolytes poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and poly(dimethylaminoethylmethacrylate) was investigated by potentiometric titrations. Titrations of pure BSA solution and of the BSA solution with the addition of polyelectrolyte were performed in the presence of different salts. Three electrolytes having the same anion and a different cation were used. lithi...

  11. The explicit expression of the fugacity for weakly interacting Bose and Fermi gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wu-Sheng; Xie, Mi

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we calculate the explicit expression for the fugacity for two- and three-dimensional weakly interacting Bose and Fermi gases from their equations of state in isochoric and isobaric processes, respectively, based on the mathematical result of the boundary problem of analytic functions—the homogeneous Riemann-Hilbert problem. We also discuss the Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition of three-dimensional hard-sphere Bose gases.

  12. Limit on right hand weak coupling parameters from inelastic neutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H; De Groot, J G H; Dydak, F; Eisele, F; Flottmann, T; Geweniger, C; Guyot, C; He, J T; Klasen, H P; Kleinknecht, K; Knobloch, J; Królikowski, J; May, J; Merlo, J P; Palazzi, P; Para, A; Peyaud, B; Pszola, B; Rander, J; Ranjard, F; Renk, B; Rothberg, J E; Ruan, T Z; Schlatter, W D; Schuller, J P; Steinberger, J; Taureg, H; Tittel, K; Turlay, René; von Rüden, Wolfgang; Wahl, H; Willutzki, H J; Wotschack, J; Wu, W M

    1982-01-01

    Right handed weak quark current coupled to the usual left handed weak lepton current would be seen in inclusive antineutrino scattering on nuclei as a contribution at large y with the quark (not antiquark) structure function. The authors do not see such a term, and can therefore put an upper limit on the relative strengths of such right handed currents: rho /sup 2/= sigma /sub R// sigma /sub L/ <0.009, 90% confidence. This measurement puts limits on the mixing angle of left- right symmetric models. In distinction to similar limits derived from muon decay or beta decay, our limits are also valid if the right handed neutrino is heavy.

  13. Lattice-Boltzmann simulation of laser interaction with weakly ionized helium plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huayu; Ki, Hyungson

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a lattice Boltzmann method for laser interaction with weakly ionized plasmas considering electron impact ionization and three-body recombination. To simulate with physical properties of plasmas, the authors' previous work on the rescaling of variables is employed and the electromagnetic fields are calculated from the Maxwell equations by using the finite-difference time-domain method. To calculate temperature fields, energy equations are derived separately from the Boltzmann equations. In this way, we attempt to solve the full governing equations for plasma dynamics. With the developed model, the continuous-wave CO2 laser interaction with helium is simulated successfully.

  14. Early Career: The search for weakly interacting dark matter with liquid xenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Carter [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2017-02-08

    We report results from a search for weakly interacting dark matter particles obtained with the LUX experiment. LUX was located at a depth of 4850 feet at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota from 2013 through 2016. It found no evidence for dark matter particle interactions and set new constraints on the properties of such particles for masses between 6 GeV and 100 TeV. The work reported here also characterized the performance of such experiments by developing a new calibration technique based upon a tritium beta decay source.

  15. Weak Interaction Models with New Quarks and Right-handed Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, F. A.; Zee, A.; Kingsley, R. L.; Treiman, S. B.

    1975-06-01

    We discuss various weak interaction issues for a general class of models within the SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory framework, with special emphasis on the effects of right-handed, charged currents and of quarks bearing new quantum numbers. In particular we consider the restrictions on model building which are imposed by the small KL - KS mass difference and by the .I = = rule; and we classify various possibilities for neutral current interactions and, in the case of heavy mesons with new quantum numbers, various possibilities for mixing effects analogous to KL - KS mixing.

  16. Thalamo-cortical interactions modeled by weakly connected oscillators: could the brain use FM radio principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppensteadt, F C; Izhikevich, E M

    1998-01-01

    We consider all models of the thalamo-cortical system that satisfy the following two assumptions: (1) each cortical column is an autonomous oscillator; (2) connections between cortical columns and the thalamus are weak. Our goal is to deduce from these assumptions general principles of thalamo-cortical interactions that are independent of the equations describing the system. We find that the existence of synaptic connections between any two cortical columns does not guarantee that the columns interact: They interact only when there is a certain nearly resonant relation between their frequencies, which implies that the interactions are frequency modulated (FM). When the resonance relation holds, the cortical columns interact through phase modulations. Thus, communications between weakly connected cortical oscillators employ a principle similar to that in FM radio: The frequency of oscillation encodes the channel of communication, while the information is transmitted via phase modulations. If the thalamic input has an appropriate frequency, then it can dynamically link any two cortical columns, even those that have non-resonant frequencies and would otherwise be unlinked. Thus, by adjusting its temporal activity, the thalamus has control over information processing taking place in the cortex. Our results suggest that the mean firing rate (frequency) of periodically spiking neuron does not carry any information other than identifying a channel of communication. Information (i.e. neural code) is carried through modulations of interspike intervals.

  17. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nap, R. J.; Tagliazucchi, M.; Szleifer, I.

    2014-01-01

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  18. Born energy, acid-base equilibrium, structure and interactions of end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nap, R J; Tagliazucchi, M; Szleifer, I

    2014-01-14

    This work addresses the effect of the Born self-energy contribution in the modeling of the structural and thermodynamical properties of weak polyelectrolytes confined to planar and curved surfaces. The theoretical framework is based on a theory that explicitly includes the conformations, size, shape, and charge distribution of all molecular species and considers the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte. Namely, the degree of charge in the polymers is not imposed but it is a local varying property that results from the minimization of the total free energy. Inclusion of the dielectric properties of the polyelectrolyte is important as the environment of a polymer layer is very different from that in the adjacent aqueous solution. The main effect of the Born energy contribution on the molecular organization of an end-grafted weak polyacid layer is uncharging the weak acid (or basic) groups and consequently decreasing the concentration of mobile ions within the layer. The magnitude of the effect increases with polymer density and, in the case of the average degree of charge, it is qualitatively equivalent to a small shift in the equilibrium constant for the acid-base equilibrium of the weak polyelectrolyte monomers. The degree of charge is established by the competition between electrostatic interactions, the polymer conformational entropy, the excluded volume interactions, the translational entropy of the counterions and the acid-base chemical equilibrium. Consideration of the Born energy introduces an additional energetic penalty to the presence of charged groups in the polyelectrolyte layer, whose effect is mitigated by down-regulating the amount of charge, i.e., by shifting the local-acid base equilibrium towards its uncharged state. Shifting of the local acid-base equilibrium and its effect on the properties of the polyelectrolyte layer, without considering the Born energy, have been theoretically predicted previously. Account of the Born energy leads

  19. Controlled-not gate with weakly coupled qubits: Dependence of fidelity on the form of interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Joydip; Geller, Michael R.

    2010-05-01

    An approach to the construction of the controlled-not quantum logic gate for a four-dimensional coupled-qubit model with weak but otherwise arbitrary coupling has been given recently [M. R. Geller , Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.81.012320 81, 012320 (2010)]. How does the resulting fidelity depend on the form of qubit-qubit coupling? In this paper we calculate intrinsic fidelity curves (fidelity in the absence of decoherence versus total gate time) for a variety of qubit-qubit interactions, including the commonly occurring isotropic Heisenberg and XY models, as well as randomly generated ones. For interactions not too close to that of the Ising model, we find that the fidelity curves do not significantly depend on the form of the interaction, and we calculate the resulting interaction-averaged fidelity curve for the non-Ising-like cases and a criterion for determining its applicability.

  20. Higgs Gravitational Interactions, Weak Boson Scattering, and Higgs Inflation in Jordan and Einstein Frames

    CERN Document Server

    Ren, Jing; He, Hong-Jian

    2014-01-01

    We study gravitational interactions of Higgs boson through the unique dimension-4 operator $\\xi H^\\dag H R$, with $H$ the Higgs doublet and $R$ the Ricci scalar curvature. We analyze the effect of this dimensionless nonminimal coupling $\\xi$ on weak gauge boson scattering in both Jordan and Einstein frames. We demonstrate that the weak boson scattering amplitudes computed in both frames are equal in flat background. We explicitly establish the longitudinal-Goldstone equivalence theorem with nonzero $\\xi$ coupling in both frames, and analyze the unitarity constraints. We further extend our study to Higgs inflation, and quantitatively derive the perturbative unitarity bounds via coupled channel analysis, under the large field background at the inflation scale. We analyze the unitarity constraints on the parameter space in both the conventional Higgs inflation and the improved models in light of the recent BICEP2 data.

  1. Observations of the Goos-Hanchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts via weak measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazarina, Oxana

    The Goos-Hanchen (longitudinal) and Imbert-Fedorov (transverse) shifts show that the center of the reflected beam is shifted and doesn't follow the laws of geometrical optics. The beam has to have finite width and be totally internally reflected at an interface of two media having different indices of refraction. Because these shifts are very small (on the wavelength scale) the weak measurements, known from the quantum mechanics, allow to amplify and measure such small phenomena. In this paper the Goos-Hanchen and Imbert-Fedorov spatial shifts were measured experimentally via weak measurement technique which was observed for a linearly polarized beam at total internal reflection.

  2. Qweak: First Direct Measurement of the Proton’s Weak Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Androic D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Qweak experiment, which took data at Jefferson Lab in the period 2010 - 2012, will precisely determine the weak charge of the proton by measuring the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e-p scattering at 1.1 GeV using a longitudinally polarized electron beam and a liquid hydrogen target at a low momentum transfer of Q2 = 0.025 (GeV/c2. The weak charge of the proton is predicted by the Standard Model and any significant deviation would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model. The technical challenges and experimental apparatus for measuring the weak charge of the proton will be discussed, as well as the method of extracting the weak charge of the proton. The results from a small subset of the data, that has been published, will also be presented. Furthermore an update will be given of the current status of the data analysis.

  3. Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, Alan J.; Asai, M.; balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Beaty, John; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cherry, M.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; DeVaney, D.; DeStefano, PC F.; Do Couto E Silva, E.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Hansen, S.; Harris, Harold R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hines, B. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kenany, S.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, M.; Moffatt, R. A.; Nelson, R. H.; Novak, L.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Platt, M.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Resch, R. W.; Ricci, Y.; Ruschman, M.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schmitt, R.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, A.; Seitz, D.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Tomada, A.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-06-01

    We report a first search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) using the background rejection capabilities of SuperCDMS. An exposure of 577 kg-days was analyzed for WIMPs with mass < 30 GeV/c2, with the signal region blinded. Eleven events were observed after unblinding. We set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1:2 10-42cm2 at 8 GeV/c2. This result is in tension with WIMP interpretations of recent experiments and probes new parameter space for WIMP-nucleon scattering for WIMP masses < 6 GeV/c2.

  4. Two particle nonleptonic decays of D and F mesons and the structure of weak interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Voloshin, M B; Okun, Lev Borisovich

    1975-01-01

    The two particle nonleptonic decays of charmed D/sup +or-/, D/sup 0/, D/sup approximately 0/ and F/sup +or-/ mesons are examined within the framework of a unitary symmetry. The ratios between the amplitudes of various different decays, resulting from the unitary symmetry and the assumption that the hamiltonian of weak interactions takes the form of the product of the current multiplied by the current, are found. The consequences of the T-, U- and V-spin selection rules are considered. (9 refs).

  5. Controlled-NOT gate with weakly coupled qubits: Dependence of fidelity on the form of interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Joydip; Geller, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    An approach to the construction of the CNOT quantum logic gate for a 4-dimensional coupled-qubit model with weak but otherwise arbitrary coupling has been given recently [M. R. Geller et al., Phys. Rev. A, 012320 (2010)]. How does the resulting fidelity depend on the form of qubit-qubit coupling? In this paper we calculate intrinsic fidelity curves (fidelity in the absence of decoherence versus total gate time) for a variety of qubit-qubit interactions, including the commonly occurring isotro...

  6. A linear model for amplitude modulation of Langmuir waves in weak electron-beam plasma interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Baumgärtel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple linear approach to the phenomenon of amplitude modulation of Langmuir waves in weak beam plasma interaction is presented. During the short growth phase of the instability and within the longer period after saturation, the waves are described by their linear kinetic dispersion properties.The amplitude modulation appears as result of the beating of waves with different wavelengths and amplitudes that have grown from noise in the initial phase. The Langmuir wave fields are calculated via FFT (fast Fourier transform technique. The resulting waveforms in temporal representation are quite similar to those observed by spacecraft.

  7. Control of Chain Walking by Weak Neighbouring Group Interac-tions in Unsymmetric Catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Falivene, Laura

    2017-12-20

    A combined theoretical and experimental study shows how weak attractive interactions of a neighbouring group can strongly promote chain walking and chain transfer. This accounts for the previously observed very different micro-structures obtained in ethylene polymerization by [κ2-N,O-{(2,6-(3\\',5\\'-R2C6H3)2C6H3-N=C(H)-(3,5-X,Y2-2-O-C6H2)}]NiCH3(pyridine)], namely hyperbranched oligomers for remote substituents R = CH3 versus. high molecular weight polyethylene for R = CF3. From a full mechanistic consideration the alkyl olefin complex with the growing chain cis to the salicylaldiminato oxygen donor is identified as the key species. Alternative to ethylene chain growth by insertion in this species, decoordination of the monomer to form a cis ß-agostic complex provides an entry into branching and chain transfer pathways. This release of monomer is promoted and made competitive by a weak η2-coordination of the distal aryl rings to the metal center, operative only for the case of sufficiently electron rich aryls. This concept for controlling chain walking is underlined by catalysts with other weakly coordinating furane and thio-phene motifs, which afford highly branched oligomers with > 120 branches per 1000 carbon atoms.

  8. Quantification of the weakness and fatigue in thoracic outlet syndrome with isokinetic measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Ozcakar, L; Inanici, F; Kaymak, B; Abali, G; Cetin, A; Hascelik, Z

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) complain of many subjective symptoms that are difficult to measure and quantify. In this study we have tried to assess the weakness (muscle strength) and fatigue (endurance) of these patients with an objective measurement method, isokinetic muscle testing.

  9. While Heisenberg Is Not Looking: The Strength of "Weak Measurements" in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "weak measurements" in quantum physics is a way of "cheating" the Uncertainty Principle. Heisenberg stated (and 85 years of experiments have demonstrated) that it is impossible to know both the position and momentum of a particle with arbitrary precision. More precise measurements of one decrease the precision…

  10. The CERN Resonant Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particle Search (CROWS)

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, Michael; Gasior, Marek; Thumm, Manfred

    The subject of this thesis is the design, implementation and first results of the ``CERN Resonant WISP Search'' (CROWS) experiment, which probes the existence of Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles (WISPs) using microwave techniques. Axion Like Particles and Hidden Sector Photons are two well motivated members of the WISP family. Their existence could reveal the composition of cold dark matter in the universe and explain a large number of astrophysical phenomena. Particularly, the discovery of an axion would solve a long standing issue in the standard model, known as the ``strong CP problem''. Despite their strong theoretical motivation, the hypothetical particles have not been observed in any experiment so far. One way to probe the existence of WISPs is to exploit their interaction with photons in a ``light shining through the wall'' experiment. A laser beam is guided through a strong magnetic field in the ``emitting region'' of the experiment. This provides photons, which can convert into hypothetical Axi...

  11. A quantitative analysis of weak intermolecular interactions & quantum chemical calculations (DFT) of novel chalcone derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavda, Bhavin R.; Gandhi, Sahaj A.; Dubey, Rahul P.; Patel, Urmila H.; Barot, Vijay M.

    2016-05-01

    The novel chalcone derivatives have widespread applications in material science and medicinal industries. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to optimized the molecular structure of the three chalcone derivatives (M-I, II, III). The observed discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental (X-ray data) results attributed to different environments of the molecules, the experimental values are of the molecule in solid state there by subjected to the intermolecular forces, like non-bonded hydrogen bond interactions, where as isolated state in gas phase for theoretical studies. The lattice energy of all the molecules have been calculated using PIXELC module in Coulomb -London -Pauli (CLP) package and is partitioned into corresponding coulombic, polarization, dispersion and repulsion contributions. Lattice energy data confirm and strengthen the finding of the X-ray results that the weak but significant intermolecular interactions like C-H…O, Π- Π and C-H… Π plays an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing.

  12. The weak shall inherit: bacteriocin-mediated interactions in bacterial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hadeel; Lampert, Adam; Ghazaryan, Lusine; Gillor, Osnat

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary arms race plays a major role in shaping biological diversity. In microbial systems, competition often involves chemical warfare and the production of bacteriocins, narrow-spectrum toxins aimed at killing closely related strains by forming pores in their target's membrane or by degrading the target's RNA or DNA. Although many empirical and theoretical studies describe competitive exclusion of bacteriocin-sensitive strains by producers of bacteriocins, the dynamics among producers are largely unknown. We used a reporter-gene assay to show that the bacterial response to bacteriocins' treatment mirrors the inflicted damage Potent bacteriocins are lethal to competing strains, but at sublethal doses can serve as strong inducing agents, enhancing their antagonists' bacteriocin production. In contrast, weaker bacteriocins are less toxic to their competitors and trigger mild bacteriocin expression. We used empirical and numerical models to explore the role of cross-induction in the arms race between bacteriocin-producing strains. We found that in well-mixed, unstructured environments where interactions are global, producers of weak bacteriocins are selectively advantageous and outcompete producers of potent bacteriocins. However, in spatially structured environments, where interactions are local, each producer occupies its own territory, and competition takes place only in "no man's lands" between territories, resulting in much slower dynamics. The models we present imply that producers of potent bacteriocins that trigger a strong response in neighboring bacteriocinogenic strains are doomed, while producers of weak bacteriocins that trigger a mild response in bacteriocinogenic strains flourish. This counter-intuitive outcome might explain the preponderance of weak bacteriocin producers in nature. However, the described scenario is prolonged in spatially structured environments thus promoting coexistence, allowing migration and evolution, and maintaining

  13. 'Trophic whales' as biotic buffers: weak interactions stabilize ecosystems against nutrient enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzmüller, Florian; Eisenhauer, Nico; Brose, Ulrich

    2015-05-01

    Human activities may compromise biodiversity if external stressors such as nutrient enrichment endanger overall network stability by inducing unstable dynamics. However, some ecosystems maintain relatively high diversity levels despite experiencing continuing disturbances. This indicates that some intrinsic properties prevent unstable dynamics and resulting extinctions. Identifying these 'ecosystem buffers' is crucial for our understanding of the stability of ecosystems and an important tool for environmental and conservation biologists. In this vein, weak interactions have been suggested as stabilizing elements of complex systems, but their relevance has rarely been tested experimentally. Here, using network and allometric theory, we present a novel concept for a priori identification of species that buffer against externally induced instability of increased population oscillations via weak interactions. We tested our model in a microcosm experiment using a soil food-web motif. Our results show that large-bodied species feeding at the food web's base, so called 'trophic whales', can buffer ecosystems against unstable dynamics induced by nutrient enrichment. Similar to the functionality of chemical or mechanical buffers, they serve as 'biotic buffers' that take up stressor effects and thus protect fragile systems from instability. We discuss trophic whales as common functional building blocks across ecosystems. Considering increasing stressor effects under anthropogenic global change, conservation of these network-intrinsic biotic buffers may help maintain the stability and diversity of natural ecosystems. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  14. Space inversion of spinors revisited: A possible explanation of chiral behavior in weak interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavšič, Matej

    2010-08-01

    We investigate a model in which spinors are considered as being embedded within the Clifford algebra that operates on them. In Minkowski space M1,3, we have four independent 4-component spinors, each living in a different minimal left ideal of Cl(1,3). We show that under space inversion, a spinor of one left ideal transforms into a spinor of another left ideal. This brings novel insight to the role of chirality in weak interactions. We demonstrate the latter role by considering an action for a generalized spinor field ψ that has not only a spinor index α but also an extra index i running over four ideals. The covariant derivative of ψ contains the generalized spin connection, the extra components of which are interpreted as the SU(2) gauge fields of weak interactions and their generalization. We thus arrive at a system that is left-right symmetric due to the presence of a “parallel sector”, postulated a long time ago, that contains mirror particles coupled to mirror SU(2) gauge fields.

  15. Antiparallel Self-Association of a γ,α-Hybrid Peptide: More Relevance of Weak Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, Paloth; Kishore, Raghuvansh

    2015-08-01

    To learn how a preorganized peptide-based molecular template, together with diverse weak non-covalent interactions, leads to an effective self-association, we investigated the conformational characteristics of a simple γ,α-hybrid model peptide, Boc-γ-Abz-Gly-OMe. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the existence of a fully extended β-strand-like structure stabilized by two non-conventional C-H⋅⋅⋅O=C intramolecular H-bonds. The 2D (1) H NMR ROESY experiment led us to propose that the flat topology of the urethane-γ-Abz-amide moiety is predominantly preserved in a non-polar environment. The self-association of the energetically more favorable antiparallel β-strand-mimic in solid-state engenders an unusual 'flight of stairs' fabricated through face-to-face and edge-to-edge Ar⋅⋅⋅Ar interactions. In conjunction with FT-IR spectroscopic analysis in chloroform, we highlight that conformationally semi-rigid γ-Abz foldamer in appositely designed peptides may encourage unusual β-strand or β-sheet-like self-association and supramolecular organization stabilized via weak attractive forces. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Dipole-dipole interaction in cavity QED: The weak-coupling, nondegenerate regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, M.; Muñoz-Castañeda, J. M.; Nieto, L. M.

    2017-10-01

    We compute the energies of the interaction between two atoms placed in the middle of a perfectly reflecting planar cavity, in the weak-coupling nondegenerate regime. Both inhibition and enhancement of the interactions can be obtained by varying the size of the cavity. We derive exact expressions for the dyadic Green's function of the cavity field which mediates the interactions and apply time-dependent quantum perturbation theory in the adiabatic approximation. We provide explicit expressions for the van der Waals potentials of two polarizable atomic dipoles and the electrostatic potential of two induced dipoles. We compute the van der Waals potentials in three different scenarios: two atoms in their ground states, two atoms excited, and two dissimilar atoms with one of them excited. In addition, we calculate the phase-shift rate of the two-atom wave function in each case. The effect of the two-dimensional confinement of the electromagnetic field on the dipole-dipole interactions is analyzed. This effect depends on the atomic polarization. For dipole moments oriented parallel to the cavity plates, both the electrostatic and the van der Waals interactions are exponentially suppressed for values of the cavity width much less than the interatomic distance, whereas for values of the width close to the interatomic distance, the strength of both interactions is higher than their values in the absence of cavity. For dipole moments perpendicular to the plates, the strength of the van der Waals interaction decreases for values of the cavity width close to the interatomic distance, while it increases for values of the width much less than the interatomic distance with respect to its strength in the absence of cavity. We illustrate these effects by computing the dipole-dipole interactions between two alkali atoms in circular Rydberg states.

  17. The Cucker-Smale Equation: Singular Communication Weight, Measure-Valued Solutions and Weak-Atomic Uniqueness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Piotr B.; Peszek, Jan

    2017-08-01

    The Cucker-Smale flocking model belongs to a wide class of kinetic models that describe a collective motion of interacting particles that exhibit some specific tendency, e.g. to aggregate, flock or disperse. This paper examines the kinetic Cucker-Smale equation with a singular communication weight. Given a compactly supported measure as an initial datum we construct a global in time weak measure-valued solution in the space {C_{weak}(0,∞;M)} . The solution is defined as a mean-field limit of the empirical distributions of particles, the dynamics of which is governed by the Cucker-Smale particle system. The studied communication weight is {ψ(s)=|s|^{-α}} with {α \\in (0, 1/2)} . This range of singularity admits the sticking of characteristics/trajectories. The second result concerns the weak-atomic uniqueness property stating that a weak solution initiated by a finite sum of atoms, i.e. Dirac deltas in the form {m_i δ_{x_i} ⊗ δ_{v_i}} , preserves its atomic structure. Hence these coincide with unique solutions to the system of ODEs associated with the Cucker-Smale particle system.

  18. The Cucker-Smale Equation: Singular Communication Weight, Measure-Valued Solutions and Weak-Atomic Uniqueness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Piotr B.; Peszek, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The Cucker-Smale flocking model belongs to a wide class of kinetic models that describe a collective motion of interacting particles that exhibit some specific tendency, e.g. to aggregate, flock or disperse. This paper examines the kinetic Cucker-Smale equation with a singular communication weight. Given a compactly supported measure as an initial datum we construct a global in time weak measure-valued solution in the space {C_{weak}(0,∞M)}. The solution is defined as a mean-field limit of the empirical distributions of particles, the dynamics of which is governed by the Cucker-Smale particle system. The studied communication weight is {ψ(s)=|s|^{-α}} with {α \\in (0,1/2)}. This range of singularity admits the sticking of characteristics/trajectories. The second result concerns the weak-atomic uniqueness property stating that a weak solution initiated by a finite sum of atoms, i.e. Dirac deltas in the form {m_i δ_{x_i} ⊗ δ_{v_i}}, preserves its atomic structure. Hence these coincide with unique solutions to the system of ODEs associated with the Cucker-Smale particle system.

  19. Storing Data from Qweak--A Precision Measurement of the Proton's Weak Charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pote, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    The Qweak experiment will perform a precision measurement of the proton's parity violating weak charge at low Q-squared. The experiment will do so by measuring the asymmetry in parity-violating electron scattering. The proton's weak charge is directly related to the value of the weak mixing angle--a fundamental quantity in the Standard Model. The Standard Model makes a firm prediction for the value of the weak mixing angle and thus Qweak may provide insight into shortcomings in the SM. The Qweak experiment will run at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, VA. A database was designed to hold data directly related to the measurement of the proton's weak charge such as detector and beam monitor yield, asymmetry, and error as well as control structures such as the voltage across photomultiplier tubes and the temperature of the liquid hydrogen target. In order to test the database for speed and stability, it was filled with fake data that mimicked the data that Qweak is expected to collect. I will give a brief overview of the Qweak experiment and database design, and present data collected during these tests.

  20. Quantitative detection of the respective concentrations of chiral compounds with weak measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Linguo; Qiu, Xiaodong; Luo, Lan; Liu, Xiong; Li, Zhaoxue; Zhang, Zhiyou; Du, Jinglei; Wang, Deqiang

    2017-11-01

    In this letter, we determine the respective concentrations of glucose and fructose in the mixed chiral solution by simultaneously measuring the optical rotation angle (ORA) and the refractive index change (RIC) with weak measurements. The photonic spin Hall effect (PSHE) serves as a probe in our scheme. The measurement of ORA is based on the high sensitivity of the amplification factor to the polarization state in weak measurements. The measurement of RIC is based on the rapid variation of spin splitting of the PSHE. The measurement precision of the respective concentrations can be achieved to be 0.02 mg/ml. This method can detect traces of enantiomeric impurities and has a potential application in chiral sensing.

  1. Discovering protein complexes in protein interaction networks via exploring the weak ties effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoke; Gao, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Studying protein complexes is very important in biological processes since it helps reveal the structure-functionality relationships in biological networks and much attention has been paid to accurately predict protein complexes from the increasing amount of protein-protein interaction (PPI) data. Most of the available algorithms are based on the assumption that dense subgraphs correspond to complexes, failing to take into account the inherence organization within protein complex and the roles of edges. Thus, there is a critical need to investigate the possibility of discovering protein complexes using the topological information hidden in edges. To provide an investigation of the roles of edges in PPI networks, we show that the edges connecting less similar vertices in topology are more significant in maintaining the global connectivity, indicating the weak ties phenomenon in PPI networks. We further demonstrate that there is a negative relation between the weak tie strength and the topological similarity. By using the bridges, a reliable virtual network is constructed, in which each maximal clique corresponds to the core of a complex. By this notion, the detection of the protein complexes is transformed into a classic all-clique problem. A novel core-attachment based method is developed, which detects the cores and attachments, respectively. A comprehensive comparison among the existing algorithms and our algorithm has been made by comparing the predicted complexes against benchmark complexes. We proved that the weak tie effect exists in the PPI network and demonstrated that the density is insufficient to characterize the topological structure of protein complexes. Furthermore, the experimental results on the yeast PPI network show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms. The analysis of detected modules by the present algorithm suggests that most of these modules have well biological significance in context of complexes, suggesting

  2. Measurement of the charged particle multiplicity of weakly decaying B hadrons

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, P; Adye, T; Adzic, P; Ajinenko, I; Alekseev, G D; Alemany, R; Allport, P P; Almehed, S; Amaldi, Ugo; Amato, S; Andersson, P; Andreazza, A; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Bambade, P; Barão, F; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Bärring, O; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Beillière, P; Belokopytov, Yu A; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Bertini, D; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Bianchi, F; Bigi, M; Bilenky, S M; Bizouard, M A; Bloch, D; Bonesini, M; Bonivento, W; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borgland, A W; Borisov, G; Bosio, C; Botner, O; Boudinov, E; Bouquet, B; Bourdarios, C; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bozovic, I; Bozzo, M; Branchini, P; Brand, K D; Brenke, T; Brenner, R A; Brown, R; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buran, T; Burgsmüller, T; Buschmann, P; Cabrera, S; Caccia, M; Calvi, M; Camacho-Rozas, A J; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Canepa, M; Carena, F; Carroll, L; Caso, Carlo; Castillo-Gimenez, M V; Cattai, A; Cavallo, F R; Cerruti, C; Chabaud, V; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Chaussard, L; Checchia, P; Chelkov, G A; Chen, M; Chierici, R; Chliapnikov, P V; Chochula, P; Chorowicz, V; Chudoba, J; Collins, P; Colomer, M; Contri, R; Cortina, E; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Cowell, J H; Crawley, H B; Crennell, D J; Crosetti, G; Cuevas-Maestro, J; Czellar, S; D'Almagne, B; Damgaard, G; Davenport, Martyn; Da Silva, W; Deghorain, A; Della Ricca, G; Delpierre, P A; Demaria, N; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Brabandere, S; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Dijkstra, H; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Diodato, A; Djannati, A; Dolbeau, J; Doroba, K; Dracos, M; Drees, J; Drees, K A; Dris, M; Duperrin, A; Durand, J D; Ehret, R; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ekspong, Gösta; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Engel, J P; Erzen, B; Espirito-Santo, M C; Falk, E; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Fayot, J; Feindt, Michael; Ferrari, P; Ferrer, A; Fichet, S; Firestone, A; Fischer, P A; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fontanelli, F; Franek, B J; Frodesen, A G; Frühwirth, R; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Galloni, A; Gamba, D; Gandelman, M; García, C; García, J; Gaspar, C; Gaspar, M; Gasparini, U; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gelé, D; Gerber, J P; Gerdyukov, L N; Ghodbane, N; Gil, I; Glege, F; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gonçalves, P; González-Caballero, I; Gopal, Gian P; Gorn, L; Górski, M; Guz, Yu; Gracco, Valerio; Grahl, J; Graziani, E; Green, C; Grefrath, A; Gris, P; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Günther, M; Guy, J; Hahn, F; Hahn, S; Haider, S; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Harris, F J; Hedberg, V; Heising, S; Henriques, R P; Hernández, J J; Herquet, P; Herr, H; Hessing, T L; Heuser, J M; Higón, E; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Holthuizen, D J; Hoorelbeke, S; Houlden, M A; Hrubec, Josef; Huet, K; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jacobsson, R; Jalocha, P; Janik, R; Jarlskog, C; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jean-Marie, B; Johansson, E K; Jönsson, L B; Jönsson, P E; Joram, C; Juillot, P; Kapusta, F; Karafasoulis, K; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Keränen, R; Khokhlov, Yu A; Khomenko, B A; Khovanskii, N N; King, B J; Kjaer, N J; Klapp, O; Klein, H; Kluit, P M; Knoblauch, D; Kokkinias, P; Koratzinos, M; Kostyukhin, V; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krammer, Manfred; Kreuter, C; Kronkvist, I J; Krstic, J; Krumshtein, Z; Kubinec, P; Kucewicz, W; Kurvinen, K L; Lacasta, C; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lane, D W; Langefeld, P; Lapin, V; Laugier, J P; Lauhakangas, R; Leder, Gerhard; Ledroit, F; Lefébure, V; Leinonen, L; Leisos, A; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lenzen, Georg; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Lethuillier, M; Libby, J; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lippi, I; Lörstad, B; Loken, J G; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J N; Mahon, J R; Maio, A; Malek, A; Malmgren, T G M; Malychev, V; Marco, J; Marco, R P; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Martínez-Vidal, F; Martí i García, S; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Matthiae, Giorgio; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McCubbin, M L; McKay, R; McNulty, R; McPherson, G; Medbo, J; Meroni, C; Michelotto, M; Migliore, E; Mirabito, L; Mitaroff, Winfried A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Møller, R; Mönig, K; Monge, M R; Moreau, X; Morettini, P; Morton, G A; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W J; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Naraghi, F; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Navas, S; Nawrocki, K; Negri, P; Némécek, S; Neufeld, N; Neumann, W; Neumeister, N; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, B S; Nieuwenhuizen, M; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolenko, M; Nomerotski, A; Normand, Ainsley; Nygren, A; Oberschulte-Beckmann, W; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Orazi, G; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Paganini, P; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Pain, R; Paiva, R; Palacios, J; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Papageorgiou, K; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Pegoraro, M; Peralta, L; Pernicka, Manfred; Perrotta, A; Petridou, C; Petrolini, A; Phillips, H T; Piana, G; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Podobrin, O; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Privitera, P; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Radojicic, D; Ragazzi, S; Rahmani, H; Rakoczy, D; Rames, J; Ratoff, P N; Read, A L; Rebecchi, P; Redaelli, N G; Regler, Meinhard; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Resvanis, L K; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rinaudo, G; Røhne, O M; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Rosinsky, P; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ruiz, A; Saarikko, H; Sacquin, Yu; Sadovskii, A; Sajot, G; Salt, J; Sampsonidis, D; Sannino, M; Schneider, H; Schwemling, P; Schwickerath, U; Schyns, M A E; Scuri, F; Seager, P; Sedykh, Yu; Segar, A M; Sekulin, R L; Shellard, R C; Sheridan, A; Silvestre, R; Simonetto, F; Sissakian, A N; Skaali, T B; Smadja, G; Smirnov, N; Smirnova, O G; Smith, G R; Sopczak, André; Sosnowski, R; Souza-Santos, D; Spiriti, E; Sponholz, P; Squarcia, S; Stampfer, D; Stanescu, C; Stanic, S; Stapnes, Steinar; Stavitski, I; Stevenson, K; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Strub, R; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Tegenfeldt, F; Terranova, F; Thomas, J; Tilquin, A; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Todorov, T; Todorova, S; Toet, D Z; Tomaradze, A G; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortora, L; Tranströmer, G; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trombini, A; Troncon, C; Tsirou, A L; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tzamarias, S; Überschär, B; Ullaland, O; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; Vallazza, E; Van der Velde, C; van Apeldoorn, G W; van Dam, P; Van Doninck, W K; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Vulpen, I B; Vassilopoulos, N; Vegni, G; Ventura, L; Venus, W A; Verbeure, F; Verlato, M; Vertogradov, L S; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vlasov, E; Vodopyanov, A S; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Walck, C; Weiser, C; Wetherell, Alan M; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G R; Winter, M; Witek, M; Wlodek, T; Wolf, G; Yi, J; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zevgolatakos, E; Zimin, N I; Zucchelli, G C; Zumerle, G

    1998-01-01

    From the $Z$ decays recorded in 1994 and 1995 by the DELPHI detector at LEP, the charged particle multiplicity of weakly decaying $B$ hadrons was measured to be: \\begin{center} $4.97 \\pm 0.03 \\pm 0.06 \\, ,$ \\end{center} \

  3. The weak π − π interaction originated resonant tunneling and fast switching in the carbon based electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available By means of the nonequilibrium Green's functions and the density functional theory, we have investigated the electronic transport properties of C60 based electronic device with different intermolecular interactions. It is found that the electronic transport properties vary with the types of the interaction between two C60 molecules. A fast electrical switching behavior based on negative differential resistance has been found when two molecules are coupled by the weak π − π interaction. Compared to the solid bonding, the weak interaction is found to induce resonant tunneling, which is responsible for the fast response to the applied electric field and hence the velocity of switching.

  4. 3D Modeling of Ultrasonic Wave Interaction with Disbonds and Weak Bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckey, C.; Hinders, M.

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic techniques, such as the use of guided waves, can be ideal for finding damage in the plate and pipe-like structures used in aerospace applications. However, the interaction of waves with real flaw types and geometries can lead to experimental signals that are difficult to interpret. 3-dimensional (3D) elastic wave simulations can be a powerful tool in understanding the complicated wave scattering involved in flaw detection and for optimizing experimental techniques. We have developed and implemented parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (3D EFIT) code to investigate Lamb wave scattering from realistic flaws. This paper discusses simulation results for an aluminum-aluminum diffusion disbond and an aluminum-epoxy disbond and compares results from the disbond case to the common artificial flaw type of a flat-bottom hole. The paper also discusses the potential for extending the 3D EFIT equations to incorporate physics-based weak bond models for simulating wave scattering from weak adhesive bonds.

  5. From Instantons To Sphalerons Thermal Baryon Non-conservation In The Weak Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, K L

    1999-01-01

    The Weinberg-Salam theory of the weak interactions predicts that net baryon number can be altered by non-perturbative topological transitions of SU(2) gauge fields. These topological transitions are intimately related with the existence and properties of topologically non-trivial solutions of the classical field equations of four- dimensional SU(2)-Higgs theory. As is well known, in this theory there is a static solution, the sphaleron, which represents the top of an energy barrier separating bosonic vacua with different baryon number. There are also instanton configurations in Euclidean space, which approach minimal action as the instanton size goes to zero, and represent tunneling from one vacuum to another. We solved numerically for periodic, spherically symmetric, classical solutions of SU(2)- Higgs theory in four-dimensional Euclidean space. In the limit of short periods, these solutions approach small instanton - anti- instanton superpositions while, for longer periods, the solutions merge with the stat...

  6. The new finite temperature Schrödinger equations with strong or weak interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heling; Yang, Bin; Shen, Hongjun

    2017-07-01

    Implanting the thoughtway of thermostatistics into quantum mechanics, we formulate new Schrödinger equations of multi-particle and single-particle respectively at finite temperature. To get it, the pure-state free energies and the microscopic entropy operators are introduced and meantime the pure-state free energies take the places of mechanical energies at finite temperature. The definition of microscopic entropy introduced by Wu was also revised, and the strong or weak interactions dependent on temperature are considered in multi-particle Schrödinger Equations. Based on the new Schrödinger equation at finite temperature, two simple cases were analyzed. The first one is concerning some identical harmonic oscillators in N lattice points and the other one is about N unrelated particles in three dimensional in finite potential well. From the results gotten, we conclude that the finite temperature Schrödinger equation is particularly important for mesoscopic systems.

  7. Information-theoretic measures of hydrogen-like ions in weakly coupled Debye plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Li Rong; Jiao, Li Guang; Ma, Jia; Ho, Yew Kam

    2017-12-01

    Recent development of information theory provides researchers an alternative and useful tool to quantitatively investigate the variation of the electronic structure when atoms interact with the external environment. In this work, we make systematic studies on the information-theoretic measures for hydrogen-like ions immersed in weakly coupled plasmas modeled by Debye-Hückel potential. Shannon entropy, Fisher information, and Fisher-Shannon complexity in both position and momentum spaces are quantified in high accuracy for the hydrogen atom in a large number of stationary states. The plasma screening effect on embedded atoms can significantly affect the electronic density distributions, in both conjugate spaces, and it is quantified by the variation of information quantities. It is shown that the composite quantities (the Shannon entropy sum and the Fisher information product in combined spaces and Fisher-Shannon complexity in individual space) give a more comprehensive description of the atomic structure information than single ones. The nodes of wave functions play a significant role in the changes of composite information quantities caused by plasmas. With the continuously increasing screening strength, all composite quantities in circular states increase monotonously, while in higher-lying excited states where nodal structures exist, they first decrease to a minimum and then increase rapidly before the bound state approaches the continuum limit. The minimum represents the most reduction of uncertainty properties of the atom in plasmas. The lower bounds for the uncertainty product of the system based on composite information quantities are discussed. Our research presents a comprehensive survey in the investigation of information-theoretic measures for simple atoms embedded in Debye model plasmas.

  8. Bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium: An investigation of weak interactions in solution using multinuclear NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, David Joel [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-07-01

    NMR spectroscopy is ideal for studying weak interactions (formation enthalpy ≤20 kcal/mol) in solution. The metallocene bis(pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)ytterbium, Cp*2Yb, is ideal for this purpose. cis-P2PtH2complexes (P = phosphine) were used to produce slow-exchange Cp*2YbL adducts for NMR study. Reversible formation of (P2PtH)2 complexes from cis-P2PtH2 complexes were also studied, followed by interactions of Cp*2Yb with phosphines, R3PX complexes. A NMR study was done on the interactions of Cp*2Yb with H2, CH4, Xe, CO, silanes, stannanes, C6H6, and toluene.

  9. Interaction of torsional and longitudinal guided waves in weakly nonlinear circular cylinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Khajeh, Ehsan; Lissenden, Cliff J; Rose, Joseph L

    2013-05-01

    The nonlinear forcing terms for the wave equation in general curvilinear coordinates are derived based on an isotropic homogeneous weakly nonlinear elastic material. The expressions for the nonlinear part of the first Piola-Kirchhoff stress are specialized for axisymmetric torsional and longitudinal fundamental waves in a circular cylinder. The matrix characteristics of the nonlinear forcing terms and secondary mode wave structures are manipulated to analyze the higher harmonic generation due to the guided wave mode self-interactions and mutual interactions. It is proved that both torsional and longitudinal secondary wave fields can be cumulative by a specific type of guided wave mode interactions. A method for the selection of preferred fundamental excitations that generate strong cumulative higher harmonics is formulated, and described in detail for second harmonic generation. Nonlinear finite element simulations demonstrate second harmonic generation by T(0,3) and L(0,4) modes at the internal resonance points. A linear increase of the normalized modal amplitude ratio A2/A1(2) over the propagation distance is observed for both cases, which indicates that mode L(0,5) is effectively generated as a cumulative second harmonic. Counter numerical examples demonstrate that synchronism and sufficient power flux from the fundamental mode to the secondary mode must occur for the secondary wave field to be strongly cumulative.

  10. Qweak: A Precision Measurement of the Proton's Weak Charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Armstrong; Todd Averett; James Birchall; James Bowman; Roger Carlini; Swapan Chattopadhyay; Charles Davis; J. Doornbos; James Dunne; Rolf Ent; Jens Erler; Willie Falk; John Finn; Tony Forest; David Gaskell; Klaus Grimm; C. Hagner; F. Hersman; Maurik Holtrop; Kathleen Johnston; R.T. Jones; Kyungseon Joo; Cynthia Keppel; Elie Korkmaz; Stanley Kowalski; Lawrence Lee; Allison Lung; David Mack; Stanislaw Majewski; Gregory Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Norman Morgan; Allena Opper; Shelley Page; Seppo Penttila; Mark Pitt; Benard Poelker; Tracy Porcelli; William Ramsay; Michael Ramsey-musolf; Julie Roche; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Riad Suleiman; Simon Taylor; Willem Van Oers; Steven Wells; W.S. Wilburn; Stephen Wood; Carl Zorn

    2004-02-05

    The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab aims to make a 4% measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic scattering at very low Q{sup 2} of a longitudinally polarized electron beam on a proton target. The experiment will measure the weak charge of the proton, and thus the weak mixing angle at low energy scale, providing a precision test of the Standard Model. Since the value of the weak mixing angle is approximately 1/4, the weak charge of the proton Q{sub w}{sup p} = 1-4 sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub w} is suppressed in the Standard Model, making it especially sensitive to the value of the mixing angle and also to possible new physics. The experiment is approved to run at JLab, and the construction plan calls for the hardware to be ready to install in Hall C in 2007. The theoretical context of the experiment and the status of its design are discussed.

  11. Anomalous weak values and the violation of a multiple-measurement Leggett-Garg inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avella, Alessio; Piacentini, Fabrizio; Borsarelli, Michelangelo; Barbieri, Marco; Gramegna, Marco; Lussana, Rudi; Villa, Federica; Tosi, Alberto; Degiovanni, Ivo Pietro; Genovese, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Quantum mechanics presents peculiar properties that, on the one hand, have been the subject of several theoretical and experimental studies about its very foundations and, on the other hand, provide tools for developing new technologies, the so-called quantum technologies. The nonclassicality pointed out by Leggett-Garg inequalities has represented, with Bell inequalities, one of the most investigated subjects. In this article we study the connection of Leggett-Garg inequalities with a new emerging field of quantum measurement, the weak values in the case of a series of sequential measurements on a single object. In detail, we perform an experimental study of the four-time-correlator Leggett-Garg test, by exploiting single and sequential weak measurements performed on heralded single photons.

  12. Outer measures and weak type estimates of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terasawa Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We will introduce the times modified centered and uncentered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on nonhomogeneous spaces for . We will prove that the times modified centered Hardy-Littlewood maximal operator is weak type bounded with constant when if the Radon measure of the space has "continuity" in some sense. In the proof, we will use the outer measure associated with the Radon measure. We will also prove other results of Hardy-Littlewood maximal operators on homogeneous spaces and on the real line by using outer measures.

  13. Spontaneous Magnetization of the square 2D Ising lattice with nearest- and weak next-nearest neighbour interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.; Hoede, C.

    2009-01-01

    We show that the square two-dimensional (2D) Ising lattice with nearest- (J) and weak next-nearest-neighbour interactions (Jd) can be mapped on a square 2D Ising lattice that has only nearest neighbour interactions (J*). For Jd/J << 1 the transformation equation has the simple form

  14. A quantitative analysis of weak intermolecular interactions & quantum chemical calculations (DFT) of novel chalcone derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Bhavin R., E-mail: chavdabhavin9@gmail.com; Dubey, Rahul P.; Patel, Urmila H. [Department of Physics, Sardar Patel University, Vallabh Vidyanagar-388120, Gujarat (India); Gandhi, Sahaj A. [Bhavan’s Shri I.L. Pandya Arts-Science and Smt. J.M. shah Commerce College, Dakar, Anand -388001, Gujarat, Indian (India); Barot, Vijay M. [P. G. Center in Chemistry, Smt. S. M. Panchal Science College, Talod, Gujarat 383 215 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The novel chalcone derivatives have widespread applications in material science and medicinal industries. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to optimized the molecular structure of the three chalcone derivatives (M-I, II, III). The observed discrepancies between the theoretical and experimental (X-ray data) results attributed to different environments of the molecules, the experimental values are of the molecule in solid state there by subjected to the intermolecular forces, like non-bonded hydrogen bond interactions, where as isolated state in gas phase for theoretical studies. The lattice energy of all the molecules have been calculated using PIXELC module in Coulomb –London –Pauli (CLP) package and is partitioned into corresponding coulombic, polarization, dispersion and repulsion contributions. Lattice energy data confirm and strengthen the finding of the X-ray results that the weak but significant intermolecular interactions like C-H…O, Π- Π and C-H… Π plays an important role in the stabilization of crystal packing.

  15. Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang [High Speed Aerodynamics Institute, China Aerodynamics Research and Development Center, Mianyang 621000 (China); Luo, Xisheng, E-mail: xluo@ustc.edu.cn [Advanced Propulsion Laboratory, Department of Modern Mechanics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF{sub 6} surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.

  16. Interaction of a weak shock wave with a discontinuous heavy-gas cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiansheng; Yang, Dangguo; Wu, Junqiang; Luo, Xisheng

    2015-06-01

    The interaction between a cylindrical inhomogeneity and a weak planar shock wave is investigated experimentally and numerically, and special attention is given to the wave patterns and vortex dynamics in this scenario. A soap-film technique is realized to generate a well-controlled discontinuous cylinder (SF6 surrounded by air) with no supports or wires in the shock-tube experiment. The symmetric evolving interfaces and few disturbance waves are observed in a high-speed schlieren photography. Numerical simulations are also carried out for a detailed analysis. The refracted shock wave inside the cylinder is perturbed by the diffracted shock waves and divided into three branches. When these shock branches collide, the shock focusing occurs. A nonlinear model is then proposed to elucidate effects of the wave patterns on the evolution of the cylinder. A distinct vortex pair is gradually developing during the shock-cylinder interaction. The numerical results show that a low pressure region appears at the vortex core. Subsequently, the ambient fluid is entrained into the vortices which are expanding at the same time. Based on the relation between the vortex motion and the circulation, several theoretical models of circulation in the literature are then checked by the experimental and numerical results. Most of these theoretical circulation models provide a reasonably good prediction of the vortex motion in the present configuration.

  17. Subaru Weak Lensing Measurements of Four Strong Lensing Clusters: Are Lensing Clusters Over-Concentrated?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Dahle, Haakon; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin P.; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew

    2009-01-29

    We derive radial mass profiles of four strong lensing selected clusters which show prominent giant arcs (Abell 1703, SDSS J1446+3032, SDSS J1531+3414, and SDSS J2111-0115), by combining detailed strong lens modeling with weak lensing shear measured from deep Subaru Suprime-cam images. Weak lensing signals are detected at high significance for all four clusters, whose redshifts range from z = 0.28 to 0.64. We demonstrate that adding strong lensing information with known arc redshifts significantly improves constraints on the mass density profile, compared to those obtained from weak lensing alone. While the mass profiles are well fitted by the universal form predicted in N-body simulations of the {Lambda}-dominated cold dark matter model, all four clusters appear to be slightly more centrally concentrated (the concentration parameters c{sub vir} {approx} 8) than theoretical predictions, even after accounting for the bias toward higher concentrations inherent in lensing selected samples. Our results are consistent with previous studies which similarly detected a concentration excess, and increases the total number of clusters studied with the combined strong and weak lensing technique to ten. Combining our sample with previous work, we find that clusters with larger Einstein radii are more anomalously concentrated. We also present a detailed model of the lensing cluster Abell 1703 with constraints from multiple image families, and find the dark matter inner density profile to be cuspy with the slope consistent with -1, in agreement with expectations.

  18. Weak interactions in clobazam-lactose mixtures examined by differential scanning calorimetry: Comparison with the captopril-lactose system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscani, S. [Departement de Chimie - UMR 6226, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Rennes 1, Batiment 10B, 263 avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Cornevin, L. [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Burgot, G., E-mail: Gwenola.burgot@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, EA 1274 ' Mouvement, sports, sante' , 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); CHGR Rennes, Pole Medico-Technique Pharmacie, F-35703 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-09-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters of weak interactions in binary systems by DSC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy-barrier decrease for lactose dehydration induced by clobazam. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Recrystallisation of metastable liquid clobazam induced by anhydrous alpha lactose. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Decrease of lactose dehydration temperature in binary mixtures with captopril. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increase of lactose dehydration enthalpy in binary mixtures with captopril. - Abstract: The thermal behaviour of binary mixtures of two drugs (clobazam and captopril, respectively) and a pharmaceutical excipient (lactose monohydrate) was measured with differential scanning calorimetry to determine thermodynamic and kinetic parameters (dehydration and melting enthalpies and dehydration and glass-transition activation energies) which might be affected by intermolecular interactions. A kinetic study showed that lactose dehydration is not a single-step conversion and that clobazam contributed to reduce the energy barrier for the bulk dehydration of the excipient. On the other hand, the physical interactions between metastable liquid clobazam and crystalline anhydrous {alpha}-lactose obtained from monohydrate dehydration gave rise to the recrystallisation of clobazam. In the captopril-lactose system, the liquid captopril influenced the lactose dehydration: a sharp increase of the dehydration enthalpy and a concurrent reduction of the dehydration temperature were observed. Finally, it turned out that solid-phase transitions were enhanced by the contact with a liquid phase.

  19. Relaxation and coarsening of weakly-interacting breathers in a simplified DNLS chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iubini, Stefano; Politi, Antonio; Politi, Paolo

    2017-07-01

    The discrete nonlinear Schrödinger (DNLS) equation displays a parameter region characterized by the presence of localized excitations (breathers). While their formation is well understood and it is expected that the asymptotic configuration comprises a single breather on top of a background, it is not clear why the dynamics of a multi-breather configuration is essentially frozen. In order to investigate this question, we introduce simple stochastic models, characterized by suitable conservation laws. We focus on the role of the coupling strength between localized excitations and background. In the DNLS model, higher breathers interact more weakly, as a result of their faster rotation. In our stochastic models, the strength of the coupling is controlled directly by an amplitude-dependent parameter. In the case of a power-law decrease, the associated coarsening process undergoes a slowing down if the decay rate is larger than a critical value. In the case of an exponential decrease, a freezing effect is observed that is reminiscent of the scenario observed in the DNLS. This last regime arises spontaneously when direct energy diffusion between breathers and background is blocked below a certain threshold.

  20. Parity-violating electric-dipole transitions in helium induced by the electron-electron neutral weak interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esteve, J.G.; Morales, A.; Morales, J.; Nuez-Lagos, R.; Pacheco, A.F.

    1984-04-01

    The parity-violating E1 transitions between the n = 2 levels of atomic helium, induced by the electron-electron neutral weak interaction have been computed by using Coulomb-type wave functions and (up to 84 parameter) Hylleraas wave functions. The parity-violating matrix elements turn out to be of the same order of magnitude as those due to the electron-nucleus weak interaction, thus allowing one to conclude that the relative importance of both effects is to be traced to their corresponding effective coupling constants.

  1. Density Measurements in Low Pressure, Weakly Magnetized, RF Plasmas: Experimental Verification of the Sheath Expansion Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchao Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This experimental study shows the validity of Sheridan's method in determining plasma density in low pressure, weakly magnetized, RF plasmas using ion saturation current data measured by a planar Langmuir probe. The ion density derived from Sheridan's method which takes into account the sheath expansion around the negatively biased probe tip, presents a good consistency with the electron density measured by a cylindrical RF-compensated Langmuir probe using the Druyvesteyn theory. The ion density obtained from the simplified method which neglects the sheath expansion effect, overestimates the true density magnitude, e.g., by a factor of 3 to 12 for the present experiment.

  2. Density measurements in low pressure, weakly magnetized, RF plasmas: experimental verification of the sheath expansion effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Roderick W.

    2017-07-01

    This experimental study shows the validity of Sheridan's method in determining plasma density in low pressure, weakly magnetized, RF plasmas using ion saturation current data measured by a planar Langmuir probe. The ion density derived from Sheridan's method which takes into account the sheath expansion around the negatively biased probe tip, presents a good consistency with the electron density measured by a cylindrical RF-compensated Langmuir probe using the Druyvesteyn theory. The ion density obtained from the simplified method which neglects the sheath expansion effect, overestimates the true density magnitude, e.g., by a factor of 3 to 12 for the present experiment.

  3. Measurement of 67,68Zn Neutron Capture for the weak s-process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macon, Kevin T.; Blackmon, Jeff C.; Rasco, B. C.; Couture, Aaron; Mosby, Shea; O'Donnell, John M.; Ullmann, John L.; Baugher, Travis

    2015-10-01

    The observed abundance distributions for the heavy elements (A > 60) are driven by neutron capture processes. The slow neutron capture process (the s-process) takes place on a timescale of tens of thousands of years and is responsible for the origin of about half the heavy elements. The weak s-process in particular occurs in massive stars and is responsible for the production of a major portion of the elements up to A = 90 . The s-process path follows close to the stable elements and most reactions can be directly studied in the laboratory using neutron beams. Precise measurements on specific isotopes with low neutron capture cross-sections (<~ 100 mb) in the mass 60 < A < 70 region are important for abundance calculations. In the past decade, new capture measurements with calorimeters have seen large discrepancies with liquid scintillator time-of-flight measurements, requiring new measurements on isotopes with high scatter/capture cross-section ratios. I will present preliminary results from a recent measurement for 67,68Zn using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments at LANSCE. Improved capture cross-sections on these isotopes will significantly reduce uncertainties on the synthesis of elements in the weak s-process. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE Office of science by Award No. DE-FG02-96ER40978.

  4. A Precision Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering at Low Q^2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, G.

    2005-01-28

    The electroweak theory has been probed to a high level of precision at the mass scale of the Z{sup 0} through the joint contributions of LEP at CERN and the SLC at SLAC. The E158 experiment at SLAC complements these results by measuring the weak mixing angle at a Q{sup 2} of 0.026 (GeV/c){sup 2}, far below the weak scale. The experiment utilizes a 48 GeV longitudinally polarized electron beam on unpolarized atomic electrons in a target of liquid hydrogen to measure the parity-violating asymmetry A{sup PV} in Moeller scattering. The tree-level prediction for A{sup PV} is proportional to 1-4 sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}. Since sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} {approx} 0.25, the effect of radiative corrections is enhanced, allowing the E158 experiment to probe for physics effects beyond the Standard Model at the TeV scale. This work presents the results from the first two physics runs of the experiment, covering data collected in the year 2002. The parity-violating asymmetry A{sup PV} was measured to be A{sup PV} = -158 ppb {+-} 21 ppb (stat) {+-} 17 ppb (sys). The result represents the first demonstration of parity violation in Moeller scattering. The observed value of A{sup PV} corresponds to a measurement of the weak mixing angle of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2380 {+-} 0.0016(stat) {+-} 0.0013(sys), which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2385 {+-} 0.0006 (theory).

  5. Measurement of xylem translocation of weak electrolytes with the pressure chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciucani, Giovannella; Trevisan, M.; Sacchi, G.A.

    2002-01-01

    Xylem translocation and root uptake of weak electrolytes were investigated with the pressure chamber technique (PCT) using de-topped soybean plants. Two compounds were organic bases (fenpropimorph and imazalil) and four were organic acids (bentazone, primisulfuron-methyl, rimsulfuron...... and triasulfuron). The compounds covered a wide range of log K-OW and pK(a) values. Concentrations in external solution and in xylem sap were measured by HPLC at pH values in external solution of 4.5, 6.5 and 8.5. For weak bases, translocation was higher at low pH and the transpiration stream concentration factors.......64-1.35 for rimsulfuron, 0.81-0.93 for triasulfuron and 0.69-0.92 for bentazone. The variation of TSCF of the weak electrolytes was much smaller in these PCT experiments than in recent experiments with intact plants. The likely reason is that de-topped soybean plants in the pressure chamber seemed to be unable...

  6. The impact of camera optical alignments on weak lensing measures for the Dark Energy Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonik, M. L.; Bacon, D. J.; Bridle, S.; Doel, P.; Brooks, D.; Worswick, S.; Bernstein, G.; Bernstein, R.; DePoy, D.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gladders, M.; Gutierrez, G.; Jain, B.; Jarvis, M.; Kent, S. M.; Lahav, O.; Parker, S. -. J.; Roodman, A.; Walker, A. R.

    2013-04-10

    Telescope point spread function (PSF) quality is critical for realizing the potential of cosmic weak lensing observations to constrain dark energy and test general relativity. In this paper, we use quantitative weak gravitational lensing measures to inform the precision of lens optical alignment, with specific reference to the Dark Energy Survey (DES). We compute optics spot diagrams and calculate the shear and flexion of the PSF as a function of position on the focal plane. For perfect optical alignment, we verify the high quality of the DES optical design, finding a maximum PSF contribution to the weak lensing shear of 0.04 near the edge of the focal plane. However, this can be increased by a factor of approximately 3 if the lenses are only just aligned within their maximum specified tolerances. We calculate the E- and B-mode shear and flexion variance as a function of the decentre or tilt of each lens in turn. We find tilt accuracy to be a few times more important than decentre, depending on the lens considered. Finally, we consider the compound effect of decentre and tilt of multiple lenses simultaneously, by sampling from a plausible range of values of each parameter. We find that the compound effect can be around twice as detrimental as when considering any one lens alone. Furthermore, this combined effect changes the conclusions about which lens is most important to align accurately. For DES, the tilt of the first two lenses is the most important.

  7. A proposal for the measurement of the weak mixing angle at the HL-LHC

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A proposal is presented for measuring the weak mixing angle using the forward-backward asymmetry of Drell-Yan dimuon events in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 14~\\mathrm{TeV}$ with the CMS detector at the high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC). In addition to the increased luminosity, the upgraded part of the muon system extends the pseudorapidity coverage of the CMS experiment to $|\\eta| < 2.8$ for muons. Since the measurement has higher sensitivity in this pseudorapidity region, both the statistical and systematic uncertainties will be significantly reduced. To estimate the increased potential for this measurement we use a Monte Carlo data sample of pp events corresponding to a luminosity of $3000~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ and compare to the recent CMS measurements at $\\sqrt{s} = 8~\\mathrm{TeV}$.

  8. Disentangling weak and strong interactions in B→ K^{*}(→ Kπ )π Dalitz-plot analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Jérôme; Descotes-Genon, Sébastien; Ocariz, José; Pérez Pérez, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Dalitz-plot analyses of B→ Kπ π decays provide direct access to decay amplitudes, and thereby weak and strong phases can be disentangled by resolving the interference patterns in phase space between intermediate resonant states. A phenomenological isospin analysis of B→ K^*(→ Kπ )π decay amplitudes is presented exploiting available amplitude analyses performed at the BaBar, Belle and LHCb experiments. A first application consists in constraining the CKM parameters thanks to an external hadronic input. A method, proposed some time ago by two different groups and relying on a bound on the electroweak penguin contribution, is shown to lack the desired robustness and accuracy, and we propose a more alluring alternative using a bound on the annihilation contribution. A second application consists in extracting information on hadronic amplitudes assuming the values of the CKM parameters from a global fit to quark flavour data. The current data yields several solutions, which do not fully support the hierarchy of hadronic amplitudes usually expected from theoretical arguments (colour suppression, suppression of electroweak penguins), as illustrated from computations within QCD factorisation. Some prospects concerning the impact of future measurements at LHCb and Belle II are also presented. Results are obtained with the CKMfitter analysis package, featuring the frequentist statistical approach and using the Rfit scheme to handle theoretical uncertainties.

  9. Weak Anderson localisation in reverberation rooms and its effect on the uncertainty of sound power measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2011-01-01

    The effect known as ‘weak Anderson localisation’, ‘coherent backscattering’ or ‘enhanced backscattering’ is a physical phenomenon that occurs in random systems, e.g., disordered media and linear wave systems, including reverberation rooms: the mean square response is increased at the drive point....... In a reverberation room this means that one can expect an increase of the reverberant sound field at the position of the source that generates the sound field. This affects the sound power output of the source and is therefore of practical concern. However, because of the stronger direct sound field at the source...... for the uncertainty of sound power measurements....

  10. Simultaneous weak measurement of angular and spatial Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Chandravati; Viswanathan, Nirmal K.

    2017-10-01

    We propose and demonstrate the weak measurement scheme to simultaneously measure the amplified angular and spatial contributions to the Goos-Hänchen (GH) and Imbert-Fedorov (IF) shifts, due to transmission through a glass plate. We have studied two cases of post-selection using a polarizer in the first case and a quarter-wave plate (QWP)-polarizer combination in the second case. The two cases are analyzed theoretically using Jones calculus of polarization formalism and the results are verified experimentally. In the first case of post-selection, the projection of the polarizer at +/- {{Δ }} away from the crossed position amplifies the angular GH and IF shifts, while in the second case of post-selection, the projection of QWP at +/- {{Δ }} and polarizer kept fixed measures the polarization ellipticity in the beam and thus amplifies the spatial shift along with the angular shift simultaneously, for {{Δ }}\\ll 1.

  11. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  12. Coupled harmonic oscillators for the measurement of a weak classical force at the standard quantum limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaci, Paola; Ortolan, Antonello

    2007-12-01

    We discuss limitations in precision measurements of a weak classical force coupled to quantum mechanical systems, the so-called standard quantum limit (SQL). Among the several contexts exploiting the measurement of classical signals, gravitational wave (GW) detection is of paramount importance. In this framework, we analyze the quantum limited sensitivity of a free test mass, a quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator, two harmonic oscillators with equal masses and different resonance frequencies, and finally two mechanical oscillators with different masses and resonating at the same frequency. The sensitivity analysis of the latter two cases illustrates the potentialities of back-action reduction and classical impedance matching schemes, respectively. By examining coupled quantum oscillators as detectors of classical signals, we found a viable path to approach the SQL for planned or operating GW detectors, such as DUAL and AURIGA.

  13. Weak-beam scanning transmission electron microscopy for quantitative dislocation density measurement in steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kenta; Shimodaira, Masaki; Toyama, Takeshi; Shimizu, Yasuo; Inoue, Koji; Yoshiie, Toshimasa; Milan, Konstantinovic J; Gerard, Robert; Nagai, Yasuyoshi

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate dislocations induced by neutron irradiation, we developed a weak-beam scanning transmission electron microscopy (WB-STEM) system by installing a novel beam selector, an annular detector, a high-speed CCD camera and an imaging filter in the camera chamber of a spherical aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The capabilities of the WB-STEM with respect to wide-view imaging, real-time diffraction monitoring and multi-contrast imaging are demonstrated using typical reactor pressure vessel steel that had been used in an European nuclear reactor for 30 years as a surveillance test piece with a fluence of 1.09 × 1020 neutrons cm-2. The quantitatively measured size distribution (average loop size = 3.6 ± 2.1 nm), number density of the dislocation loops (3.6 × 1022 m-3) and dislocation density (7.8 × 1013 m m-3) were carefully compared with the values obtained via conventional weak-beam transmission electron microscopy studies. In addition, cluster analysis using atom probe tomography (APT) further demonstrated the potential of the WB-STEM for correlative electron tomography/APT experiments. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The RNA core weakly influences the interactions of the bacteriophage MS2 at key environmental interfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh H.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the RNA core on interfacial interactions of the bacteriophage MS2 was investigated. After removal of the RNA core, empty intact capsids were characterized and compared to untreated MS2. Electron density of untreated MS2 and RNA-free MS2 were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and synchrotron-based small angle spectroscopy (SAXS). Suspensions of both particles exhibited similar electrophoretic mobility across a range of pH values. Similar effects were observed at pH 5.9 across a range of NaCl or CaCl2 concentrations. We compared key interfacial interactions (particle-particle and particle/air-water interface) between suspensions of each type of particle using time resolved dynamic light scattering (TR-DLS) to observe and quantify aggregation kinetics and axisymmetric drop shape analysis to measure adsorption at the air-water interface. Both suspensions showed insignificant aggregation over 4 h in 600 mM NaCl solutions. In the presence of Ca2+ ions, aggregation of both types of particles was consistent with earlier aggregation studies and was characterized by both reaction-limited and diffusion-limited regimes occurring at similar [Ca2+]. However, the removal of the RNA from MS2 had no apparent effect on the aggregation kinetics of particles. Despite some differences in the kinetics of adsorption to the air-water interface, the changes in surface tension which result from particle adsorption showed no difference between the untreated MS2 and RNA-free MS2. The interactions and structure of particles at the air-water interface were further probed using interfacial dilational rheology. The surface elasticity (E s) and surface viscosity (ηs) at the interface were low for both the untreated virus and the RNA-free capsid. This observation suggests that the factors that impact the adsorption kinetics are not important for an equilibrated interface. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  15. Particle-laden weakly swirling free jets: Measurements and predictions. Ph.D. Thesis - Pennsylvania State Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzan, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation of particle-laden, weakly swirling, turbulent free jets was conducted. Glass particles, having a Sauter mean diameter of 39 microns, with a standard deviation of 15 microns, were used. A single loading ratio (the mass flow rate of particles per unit mass flow rate of air) of 0.2 was used in the experiments. Measurements are reported for three swirl numbers, ranging from 0 to 0.33. The measurements included mean and fluctuating velocities of both phases, and particle mass flux distributions. Measurements were also completed for single-phase non-swirling and swirling jets, as baselines. Measurements were compared with predictions from three types of multiphase flow analysis, as follows: (1) locally homogeneous flow (LHF) where slip between the phases was neglected; (2) deterministic separated flow (DSF), where slip was considered but effects of turbulence/particle interactions were neglected; and (3) stochastic separated flow (SSF), where effects of both interphase slip and turbulence/particle interactions were considered using random sampling for turbulence properties in conjunction with random-walk computations for particle motion. Single-phase weakly swirling jets were considered first. Predictions using a standard k-epsilon turbulence model, as well as two versions modified to account for effects of streamline curvature, were compared with measurements. Predictions using a streamline curvature modification based on the flux Richardson number gave better agreement with measurements for the single-phase swirling jets than the standard k-epsilon model. For the particle-laden jets, the LHF and DSF models did not provide very satisfactory predictions. The LHF model generally overestimated the rate of decay of particle mean axial and angular velocities with streamwise distance, and predicted particle mass fluxes also showed poor agreement with measurements, due to the assumption of no-slip between phases. The DSF model also

  16. Tunable insulator-quantum Hall transition in a weakly interacting two-dimensional electron system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Shun-Tsung; Wang, Yi-Ting; Lin, Sheng-Di; Strasser, Gottfried; Bird, Jonathan P; Chen, Yang-Fang; Liang, Chi-Te

    2013-07-03

    We have performed low-temperature measurements on a gated two-dimensional electron system in which electron-electron (e-e) interactions are insignificant. At low magnetic fields, disorder-driven movement of the crossing of longitudinal and Hall resistivities (ρxx and ρxy) can be observed. Interestingly, by applying different gate voltages, we demonstrate that such a crossing at ρxx ~ ρxy can occur at a magnetic field higher, lower, or equal to the temperature-independent point in ρxx which corresponds to the direct insulator-quantum Hall transition. We explicitly show that ρxx ~ ρxy occurs at the inverse of the classical Drude mobility 1/μD rather than the crossing field corresponding to the insulator-quantum Hall transition. Moreover, we show that the background magnetoresistance can affect the transport properties of our device significantly. Thus, we suggest that great care must be taken when calculating the renormalized mobility caused by e-e interactions.

  17. Quantum Measurements, Stochastic Networks, the Uncertainty Principle, and the Not So Strange “Weak Values”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Sokolovski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suppose we make a series of measurements on a chosen quantum system. The outcomes of the measurements form a sequence of random events, which occur in a particular order. The system, together with a meter or meters, can be seen as following the paths of a stochastic network connecting all possible outcomes. The paths are shaped from the virtual paths of the system, and the corresponding probabilities are determined by the measuring devices employed. If the measurements are highly accurate, the virtual paths become “real”, and the mean values of a quantity (a functional are directly related to the frequencies with which the paths are traveled. If the measurements are highly inaccurate, the mean (weak values are expressed in terms of the relative probabilities’ amplitudes. For pre- and post-selected systems they are bound to take arbitrary values, depending on the chosen transition. This is a direct consequence of the uncertainty principle, which forbids one from distinguishing between interfering alternatives, while leaving the interference between them intact.

  18. Is the cosmic microwave background telling us that dark matter is weaker than weakly interacting?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan

    2013-10-18

    If moduli, or other long-lived heavy states, decay in the early universe in part into light and feebly interacting particles (such as axions), these decay products could account for the additional energy density in radiation that is suggested by recent measurements of the CMB. These moduli decays will also, however, alter the expansion history of the early universe, potentially diluting the thermal relic abundance of dark matter. If this is the case, then dark matter particles must annihilate with an even lower cross section than required in the standard thermal scenario (sigma v < 3x10^-26 cm^3/s) if they are to make up the observed density of dark matter. This possibility has significant implications for direct and indirect searches for dark matter.

  19. Synergistic formation and stabilization of oil-in-water emulsions by a weakly interacting mixture of zwitterionic surfactant and silica nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthen, Andrew J; Foster, Lynn M; Dong, Jiannan; Bollinger, Jonathan A; Peterman, Adam H; Pastora, Lucinda E; Bryant, Steven L; Truskett, Thomas M; Bielawski, Christopher W; Johnston, Keith P

    2014-02-04

    Oil-in-water emulsions were formed and stabilized at low amphiphile concentrations by combining hydrophilic nanoparticles (NPs) (i.e., bare colloidal silica) with a weakly interacting zwitterionic surfactant, caprylamidopropyl betaine, to generate a high hydrophilic-lipophilic balance. The weak interaction of the NPs with surfactant was quantified with contact angle measurements. Emulsions were characterized by static light scattering to determine the droplet size distributions, optical photography to quantify phase separation due to creaming, and both optical and electron microscopy to determine emulsion microstructure. The NPs and surfactant acted synergistically to produce finer emulsions with a greater stability to coalescence relative to the behavior with either NPs or surfactant alone. As a consequence of the weak adsorption of the highly hydrophilic surfactant on the anionic NPs along with the high critical micelle concentration, an unusually large surfactant concentration was available to adsorb at the oil-water interface and lower the interfacial tension. The synergy for emulsion formation and stabilization for the two amphiphiles was even greater in the case of a high-salinity synthetic seawater aqueous phase. Here, higher NP adsorption at the oil-water interface was caused by electrostatic screening of interactions between (1) NPs and the anionic oil-water interface and (2) between the NPs. This greater adsorption as well as partial flocculation of the NPs provided a more efficient barrier to droplet coalescence.

  20. A new method to measure galaxy bias by combining the density and weak lensing fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, Arnau; Chang, Chihway; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre; Bacon, David J.; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Crocce, Martin; Fosalba, Pablo; Manera, Marc; Vikram, Vinu

    2016-07-29

    We present a new method to measure redshift-dependent galaxy bias by combining information from the galaxy density field and the weak lensing field. This method is based on the work of Amara et al., who use the galaxy density field to construct a bias-weighted convergence field κg. The main difference between Amara et al.'s work and our new implementation is that here we present another way to measure galaxy bias, using tomography instead of bias parametrizations. The correlation between κg and the true lensing field κ allows us to measure galaxy bias using different zero-lag correlations, such as <κgκ>/<κκ> or <κgκg>/<κgκ>. Our method measures the linear bias factor on linear scales, under the assumption of no stochasticity between galaxies and matter. We use the Marenostrum Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (MICE) simulation to measure the linear galaxy bias for a flux-limited sample (i < 22.5) in tomographic redshift bins using this method. This article is the first that studies the accuracy and systematic uncertainties associated with the implementation of the method and the regime in which it is consistent with the linear galaxy bias defined by projected two-point correlation functions (2PCF). We find that our method is consistent with a linear bias at the per cent level for scales larger than 30 arcmin, while non-linearities appear at smaller scales. This measurement is a good complement to other measurements of bias, since it does not depend strongly on σ8 as do the 2PCF measurements. We will apply this method to the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data in a follow-up article.

  1. Effect of Our Galaxy's Motion on Weak Lensing Measurements of Shear and Convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Mertens, J B

    2013-01-01

    In this work we investigate the effect on weak-lensing shear and convergence measurements due to distortions from the Lorentz boost induced by our Galaxy's motion. While no ellipticity is induced in an image from the Lorentz boost to first order in beta = v/c, the image is magnified. This affects the inferred convergence at a 10 per cent level and is most notable for low multipoles in the convergence power spectrum, C {\\kappa}{\\kappa}, and for surveys with large sky coverage like LSST. Experiments which image only small fractions of the sky and convergence power spectrum determinations at l > 5 can safely neglect the boost effect to first order in beta.

  2. Impact of Weak Agostic Interactions in Nickel Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Christina M. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; O’Hagan, Molly [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Bullock, R. Morris [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Appel, Aaron M. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States; Wiedner, Eric S. [Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, K2-57, Richland, Washington 99352, United States

    2017-06-08

    To understand how H2 binding and oxidation is influenced by [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ PR2NR'2 catalysts with H2 binding energies close to thermoneutral, two [Ni(PPh2NR'2)2]2+ (R = Me or C14H29) complexes with phenyl substituents on phosphorous and varying alkyl chain lengths on the pendant amine were studied. In the solid state, [Ni(PPh2NMe2)2]2+ exhibits an anagostic interaction between the Ni(II) center and the α-CH3 of the pendant amine, and DFT and variable-temperature 31P NMR experiments suggest than the anagostic interaction persists in solution. The equilibrium constants for H2 addition to these complexes was measured by 31P NMR spectroscopy, affording free energies of H2 addition (ΔG°H2) of –0.8 kcal mol–1 in benzonitrile and –1.6 to –2.3 kcal mol–1 in THF. The anagostic interaction contributes to the low driving force for H2 binding by stabilizing the four-coordinate Ni(II) species prior to binding of H2. The pseudo-first order rate constants for H2 addition at 1 atm were measured by variable scan rate cyclic voltammetry, and were found to be similar for both complexes, less than 0.2 s–1 in benzonitrile and 3 –6 s–1 in THF. In the presence of exogenous base and H2 , turnover frequencies of electrocatalytic H2 oxidation were measured to be less than 0.2 s–1 in benzonitrile and 4 –9 s–1 in THF. These complexes are slower electrocatalysts for H2 oxidation than previously studied [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ complexes due to a competition between H2 binding and formation of the anagostic interaction. However, the decrease in catalytic rate is accompanied by a beneficial 130 mV decrease in overpotential. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Computational resources were provided at the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) at Lawrence

  3. New Precise Measurement of the Pion Weak Form Factors in the Pi+ -> e+ nu gamma Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Bychkov, M; VanDevender, B A; Baranov, V A; Bertl, W; Bystritsky, Yu M; Frlež, E; Kalinnikov, V A; Khomutov, N V; Korenchenko, A S; Korenchenko, S M; Korolija, M; Kozlovskii, T; Kravchuk, N P; Kuchinskii, N A; Li, W; Mekterović, D; Mzhavia, D; Ritt, S; Robmann, P; Rondon-Aramayo, O A; Rozhdestvensky, A M; Sakhelashvili, T; Scheu, S; Straumann, U; Supek, I; Tsamalaidze, Z; Van der Schaaf, A; Velicheva, E P; Volnykh, V P; Wang, Y; Wirtz, H -P

    2008-01-01

    We have measured the radiative pion decay branching ratio over a wide region of phase space, based on a total of 65,460 events acquired using the PIBETA detector. Fits to the measured energy distributions result in the weak form factor value of F_A = 0.0119(1) with a fixed value of F_V = 0.0259. An unconstrained fit yields F_V = 0.0258(17) and F_A = 0.0117(17). In addition, we have measured a = 0.095(58) for the dependence of F_V on the lepton pair invariant mass. The branching ratio for the kinematic region with E(gamma) > 10 MeV and Theta(e+,gamma) > 40 degrees is measured to be B = 73.86(54)x10^{-8}. Earlier deviations we reported in the high-E(gamma)/low-E(e+) kinematic region are resolved, and we find full compatibility with CVC and standard V-A calculations without a tensor term. We also derive new values for the pion polarizability alpha_E = 2.78(10)x10^{-4} fm^3, and neutral pion lifetime, tau_{pi0} = (8.5+-1.1)x10^{-17} s.

  4. Residual stress measurement on propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy and study on its weak spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chaoqun; Li, Huan; Li, Jianxiong; Luo, Chuanguang; Ni, Yanbing [Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2017-05-15

    This paper presented residual stress measurement on two circumferential Variable polarity plasma arc welding (VPPAW) joints and one circular closed Friction stir welding (FSW) joint on the propellant tank of 2219 aluminum alloy using the indentation strain-gauge method. Quite large tensile residual stresses were attached to the center and inner areas of the circular closed FSW joint. There were very large tensile stresses in some points of the two circumferential VPPAW joints, among these points, the maximum value was +253 MPa, which was about 63 % of the yield strength of 410 MPa measured in the base material. In addition, the peak of compressive residual stress was about -160 MPa. Above all, there were two typical peaks of residual stress in the circumferential VPPAW joints, one was located in the middle part while the other one was near the start/end position of the joints. Combining the result of residual stress measurement with the characteristics of the tank structure, it can be concluded that circular closed FSW joint around the flange was a weak spot on the propellant tank. And the most vulnerable point on the circular closed FSW joint has also been found.

  5. Measurements of the weak bonding interfacial stiffness by using air-coupled ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Lin; Wang, Xing-Guo; Huang, Zhi-Cheng; Wu, Nan-Xing

    2017-12-01

    An air-coupled ultrasonic method, focusing on the problem that weak bonding interface is difficult to accurately measure using conventional nondestructive testing technique, is proposed to evaluate the bond integrity. Based on the spring model and the potential function theory, a theoretical model is established to predict the through-transmission spectrum in double-layer adhesive structure. The result of a theoretical algorithm shows that all the resonant transmission peaks move towards higher frequency with the increase of the interfacial stiffness. The reason for these movements is related to either the normal stiffness (KN) or the transverse stiffness (KT). A method to optimize the measurement parameters (i.e. the incident angle and testing frequency) is put forward through analyzing the relationship between the resonant transmission peaks and the interfacial spring stiffness at the frequency below 1MHz. The air-coupled ultrasonic testing experiments at the normal and oblique incident angle respectively are carried out to verify the theoretical analysis and to accurately measure the interfacial stiffness of double-layer adhesive composite plate. The experimental results are good agreement with the results from the theoretical algorithm, and the relationship between bonding time and interfacial stiffness is presented at the end of this paper.

  6. In allergic rhinitis, work, classroom and activity impairments are weakly related to other outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillier, P; Bousquet, J; Salvator, H; Naline, E; Grassin-Delyle, S; de Beaumont, O

    2016-11-01

    The impact of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) on classroom/work productivity and activities can be assessed with a specific instrument: the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire plus Classroom Impairment Questions: Allergy Specific (WPAI-AS). This study evaluated the relationships between the WPAI-AS and other outcome measures in AR. Adolescents (aged 12-17) and adults (aged 18-65) consulting specialists for AR were enrolled in a four-week, multicentre, observational study. The management of AR was left to the physicians' discretion. Participants regularly rated the WPAI-AS, their symptoms (using the Rhinoconjunctivitis Total Symptom Score (RTSS) and a 0- to 100-mm visual analogue scale (VAS)) and quality of life (according to the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ)). A total of 247 adolescents and 292 adults showed similar baseline impairments in classroom/work productivity and activities other than work. In both age groups, the WPAI-AS scores were moderately correlated with the RQLQ score and, to a lesser extent, with the VAS score and the RTSS. A multiple regression analysis indicated that the RQLQ score was a weak but statistically significant predictor of both impaired work/classroom productivity and daily activities. A 50-mm VAS cut-off categorized patients in whom AR had the greatest impact on productivity. Grass pollen-induced AR impairs work/classroom and daily activity to a similar extent in adults and adolescents. The weak-to-moderate correlations with AR symptom scores and quality-of-life scores suggest that a specific tool (such as the WPAI-AS) should be used to assess AR's impact on word/classroom productivity and daily activities. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Cosmic discordance: are Planck CMB and CFHTLenS weak lensing measurements out of tune?

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCrann, Niall; Zuntz, Joe; Bridle, Sarah; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Becker, Matthew R.

    2015-08-01

    We examine the level of agreement between low-redshift weak lensing data and the cosmic microwave background using measurements from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and Planck+Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) polarization. We perform an independent analysis of the CFHTLenS six bin tomography results of Heymans et al. We extend their systematics treatment and find the cosmological constraints to be relatively robust to the choice of non-linear modelling, extension to the intrinsic alignment model and inclusion of baryons. We find that when marginalized in the Ωm-σ8 plane, the 95 per cent confidence contours of CFHTLenS and Planck+WMAP only just touch, but the discrepancy is less significant in the full six-dimensional parameter space of Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM). Allowing a massive active neutrino or tensor modes does not significantly resolve the tension in the full n-dimensional parameter space. Our results differ from some in the literature because we use the full tomographic information in the weak lensing data and marginalize over systematics. We note that adding a sterile neutrino to ΛCDM brings the 2D marginalized contours into greater overlap, mainly due to the extra effective number of neutrino species, which we find to be 0.88 ± 0.43 (68 per cent) greater than standard on combining the data sets. We discuss why this is not a completely satisfactory resolution, leaving open the possibility of other new physics or observational systematics as contributing factors. We provide updated cosmology fitting functions for the CFHTLenS constraints and discuss the differences from ones used in the literature.

  8. A Precision Low-Energy Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastromarino, P.

    2005-01-26

    The E-158 experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) measures the parity-violating cross-section asymmetry in electron-electron (Moeller) scattering at low Q{sup 2}. This asymmetry, whose Standard Model prediction is roughly -150 parts per billion (ppb), is directly proportional to (1-4 sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}), where {theta}{sub W} is the weak mixing angle. Measuring this asymmetry to within 10% provides an important test of the Standard Model at the quantum loop level and probes for new physics at the TeV scale. The experiment employs the SLAC 50 GeV electron beam, scattering it off a liquid hydrogen target. A system of magnets and collimators is used to isolate and focus the Moeller scattering events into an integrating calorimeter. The electron beam is generated at the source using a strained, gradient-doped GaAs photocathode, which produces roughly 5 x 10{sup 11} electrons/pulse (at a beam rate of 120 Hz) with {approx} 80% longitudinal polarization. The helicity of the beam can be rapidly switched, eliminating problems associated with slow drifts. Helicity-correlations in the beam parameters (charge, position, angle and energy) are minimized at the source and corrected for using precision beam monitoring devices.

  9. Measurement of the effective weak mixing angle in $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow Z/\\gamma^{*}\\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}$ events

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Agnew, James P; Alexeev, Guennadi D; Alkhazov, Georgiy D; Alton, Andrew K; Askew, Andrew Warren; Atkins, Scott; Augsten, Kamil; Avila, Carlos A; Badaud, Frederique; Bagby, Linda F; Baldin, Boris; Bandurin, Dmitry V; Banerjee, Sunanda; Barberis, Emanuela; Baringer, Philip S; Bartlett, JFrederick; Bassler, Ursula Rita; Bazterra, Victor; Bean, Alice L; Begalli, Marcia; Bellantoni, Leo; Beri, Suman B; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bernhard, Ralf Patrick; Bertram, Iain A; Besancon, Marc; Beuselinck, Raymond; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bhatia, Sudeep; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Blazey, Gerald Charles; Blessing, Susan K; Bloom, Kenneth A; Boehnlein, Amber S; Boline, Daniel Dooley; Boos, Edward E; Borissov, Guennadi; Borysova, Maryna; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Oleg; Brock, Raymond L; Bross, Alan D; Brown, Duncan Paul; Bu, Xue-Bing; Buehler, Marc; Buescher, Volker; Bunichev, Viacheslav Yevgenyevich; Burdin, Sergey; Buszello, Claus Peter; Camacho-Perez, Enrique; Casey, Brendan Cameron Kieran; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; Caughron, Seth Aaron; Chakrabarti, Subhendu; Chan, Kwok Ming Leo; Chandra, Avdhesh; Chapon, Emilien; Chen, Guo; Cho, Sung-Woong; Choi, Suyong; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Cihangir, Selcuk; Claes, Daniel R; Clutter, Justace Randall; Cooke, Michael P; Cooper, William Edward; Corcoran, Marjorie D; Couderc, Fabrice; Cousinou, Marie-Claude; Cutts, David; Das, Amitabha; Davies, Gavin John; de Jong, Sijbrand Jan; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Deliot, Frederic; Demina, Regina; Denisov, Dmitri S; Denisov, Sergei P; Desai, Satish Vijay; Deterre, Cecile; DeVaughan, Kayle Otis; Diehl, HThomas; Diesburg, Michael; Ding, Pengfei; Dominguez, DAaron M; Dubey, Abhinav Kumar; Dudko, Lev V; Duperrin, Arnaud; Dutt, Suneel; Eads, Michael T; Edmunds, Daniel L; Ellison, John A; Elvira, VDaniel; Enari, Yuji; Evans, Harold G; Evdokimov, Valeri N; Faure, Alexandre; Feng, Lei; Ferbel, Thomas; Fiedler, Frank; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fisk, HEugene; Fortner, Michael R; Fox, Harald; Fuess, Stuart C; Garbincius, Peter H; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Garcia-Gonzalez, Jose Andres; Gavrilov, Vladimir B; Geng, Weigang; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Gershtein, Yuri S; Ginther, George E; Gogota, Olga; Golovanov, Georgy Anatolievich; Grannis, Paul D; Greder, Sebastien; Greenlee, Herbert B; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Gris, Phillipe Luc; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gruenendahl, Stefan; Gruenewald, Martin Werner; Guillemin, Thibault; Gutierrez, Gaston R; Gutierrez, Phillip; Haley, Joseph Glenn Biddle; Han, Liang; Harder, Kristian; Harel, Amnon; Hauptman, John Michael; Hays, Jonathan M; Head, Tim; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hedin, David R; Hegab, Hatim; Heinson, Ann; Heintz, Ulrich; Hensel, Carsten; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Herner, Kenneth Richard; Hesketh, Gavin G; Hildreth, Michael D; Hirosky, Robert James; Hoang, Trang; Hobbs, John D; Hoeneisen, Bruce; Hogan, Julie; Hohlfeld, Mark; Holzbauer, Jenny Lyn; Howley, Ian James; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hynek, Vlastislav; Iashvili, Ia; Ilchenko, Yuriy; Illingworth, Robert A; Ito, Albert S; Jabeen, Shabnam; Jaffre, Michel J; Jayasinghe, Ayesh; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jesik, Richard L; Jiang, Peng; Johns, Kenneth Arthur; Johnson, Emily; Johnson, Marvin E; Jonckheere, Alan M; Jonsson, Per Martin; Joshi, Jyoti; Jung, Andreas Werner; Juste, Aurelio; Kajfasz, Eric; Karmanov, Dmitriy Y; Katsanos, Ioannis; Kaur, Manbir; Kehoe, Robert Leo Patrick; Kermiche, Smain; Khalatyan, Norayr; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchilava, Avto; Kharzheev, Yuri N; Kiselevich, Ivan Lvovich; Kohli, Jatinder M; Kozelov, Alexander V; Kraus, James Alexander; Kumar, Ashish; Kupco, Alexander; Kurca, Tibor; Kuzmin, Valentin Alexandrovich; Lammers, Sabine Wedam; Lebrun, Patrice; Lee, Hyeon-Seung; Lee, Seh-Wook; Lee, William M; Lei, Xiaowen; Lellouch, Jeremie; Li, Dikai; Li, Hengne; Li, Liang; Li, Qi-Zhong; Lim, Jeong Ku; Lincoln, Donald W; Linnemann, James Thomas; Lipaev, Vladimir V; Lipton, Ronald J; Liu, Huanzhao; Liu, Yanwen; Lobodenko, Alexandre; Lokajicek, Milos; Lopes de Sa, Rafael; Luna-Garcia, Rene; Lyon, Adam Leonard; Maciel, Arthur KA; Madar, Romain; Magana-Villalba, Ricardo; Malik, Sudhir; Malyshev, Vladimir L; Mansour, Jason; Martinez-Ortega, Jorge; McCarthy, Robert L; Mcgivern, Carrie Lynne; Meijer, Melvin M; Melnitchouk, Alexander S; Menezes, Diego D; Mercadante, Pedro Galli; Merkin, Mikhail M; Meyer, Arnd; Meyer, Jorg Manfred; Miconi, Florian; Mondal, Naba K; Mulhearn, Michael James; Nagy, Elemer; Narain, Meenakshi; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer A; Negret, Juan Pablo; Neustroev, Petr V; Nguyen, Huong Thi; Nunnemann, Thomas P; Hernandez Orduna, Jose de Jesus; Osman, Nicolas Ahmed; Osta, Jyotsna; Pal, Arnab; Parashar, Neeti; Parihar, Vivek; Park, Sung Keun; Partridge, Richard A; Parua, Nirmalya; Patwa, Abid; Penning, Bjoern; Perfilov, Maxim Anatolyevich; Peters, Reinhild Yvonne Fatima; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrillo, Gianluca; Petroff, Pierre; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Podstavkov, Vladimir M; Popov, Alexey V; Prewitt, Michelle; Price, Darren; Prokopenko, Nikolay N; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quinn, Breese; Ratoff, Peter N; Razumov, Ivan A; Ripp-Baudot, Isabelle; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rominsky, Mandy Kathleen; Ross, Anthony; Royon, Christophe; Rubinov, Paul Michael; Ruchti, Randal C; Sajot, Gerard; Sanchez-Hernandez, Alberto; Sanders, Michiel P; Santos, Angelo Souza; Savage, David G; Savitskyi, Mykola; Sawyer, HLee; Scanlon, Timothy P; Schamberger, RDean; Scheglov, Yury A; Schellman, Heidi M; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwienhorst, Reinhard H; Sekaric, Jadranka; Severini, Horst; Shabalina, Elizaveta K; Shary, Viacheslav V; Shaw, Savanna; Shchukin, Andrey A; Simak, Vladislav J; Skubic, Patrick Louis; Slattery, Paul F; Smirnov, Dmitri V; Snow, Gregory R; Snow, Joel Mark; Snyder, Scott Stuart; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; Sonnenschein, Lars; Soustruznik, Karel; Stark, Jan; Stoyanova, Dina A; Strauss, Michael G; Suter, Louise; Svoisky, Peter V; Titov, Maxim; Tokmenin, Valeriy V; Tsai, Yun-Tse; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tuchming, Boris; Tully, Christopher George T; Uvarov, Lev; Uvarov, Sergey L; Uzunyan, Sergey A; Van Kooten, Richard J; van Leeuwen, Willem M; Varelas, Nikos; Varnes, Erich W; Vasilyev, Igor A; Verkheev, Alexander Yurievich; Vertogradov, Leonid S; Verzocchi, Marco; Vesterinen, Mika; Vilanova, Didier; Vokac, Petr; Wahl, Horst D; Wang, Michael HLS; Warchol, Jadwiga; Watts, Gordon Thomas; Wayne, Mitchell R; Weichert, Jonas; Welty-Rieger, Leah Christine; Williams, Mark Richard James; Wilson, Graham Wallace; Wobisch, Markus; Wood, Darien Robert; Wyatt, Terence R; Xie, Yunhe; Yamada, Ryuji; Yang, Siqi; Yasuda, Takahiro; Yatsunenko, Yuriy A; Ye, Wanyu; Ye, Zhenyu; Yin, Hang; Yip, Kin; Youn, Sungwoo; Yu, Jiaming; Zennamo, Joseph; Zhao, Tianqi Gilbert; Zhou, Bing; Zhu, Junjie; Zielinski, Marek; Zieminska, Daria; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2015-07-22

    We present a measurement of the fundamental parameter of the standard model, the weak mixing angle, in $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow Z/\\gamma^{*}\\rightarrow e^{+}e^{-}$ events at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using data corresponding to 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The effective weak mixing angle is extracted from the forward-backward charge asymmetry as a function of the invariant mass around the Z boson pole. The measured value of $\\sin^2\\theta_{\\text{eff}}^{\\text{$\\ell$}}=0.23146 \\pm 0.00047$ is the most precise measurement from light quark interactions to date, with a precision close to the best LEP and SLD results.

  10. Weak competing interactions control assembly of strongly bonded TCNQ ionic acceptor molecules on silver surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Changwon; Rojas, Geoffrey A.; Jeon, Seokmin; Kelly, Simon J.; Smith, Sean C.; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Yoon, Mina; Maksymovych, Petro

    2014-09-01

    The energy scales of interactions that control molecular adsorption and assembly on surfaces can vary by several orders of magnitude, yet the importance of each contributing interaction is not apparent a priori. Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) is an archetypal electron acceptor molecule and it is a key component of organic metals. On metal surfaces, this molecule also acts as an electron acceptor, producing negatively charged adsorbates. It is therefore rather intriguing to observe attractive molecular interactions in this system that were reported previously for copper and silver surfaces. Our experiments compared TCNQ adsorption on noble metal surfaces of Ag(100) and Ag(111). In both cases we found net attractive interactions down to the lowest coverage. However, the morphology of the assemblies was strikingly different, with two-dimensional islands on Ag(100) and one-dimensional chains on Ag(111) surfaces. This observation suggests that the registry effect governed by the molecular interaction with the underlying lattice potential is critical in determining the dimensionality of the molecular assembly. Using first-principles density functional calculations with a van der Waals correction scheme, we revealed that the strengths of major interactions (i.e., lattice potential corrugation, intermolecular attraction, and charge-transfer-induced repulsion) are all similar in energy. The van der Waals interactions, in particular, almost double the strength of attractive interactions, making the intermolecular potential comparable in strength to the diffusion potential and promoting self-assembly. However, it is the anisotropy of local intermolecular interactions that is primarily responsible for the difference in the topology of the molecular islands on Ag(100) and Ag(111) surfaces. We anticipate that the intermolecular potential will become more attractive and dominant over the diffusion potential with increasing molecular size, providing new design strategies for the

  11. The role of weakly polar and H-bonding interactions in the stabilization of the conformers of FGG, WGG, and YGG: an aqueous phase computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, József; Murphy, Richard F; Lovas, Sándor

    2008-11-01

    The energetics of intramolecular interactions on the conformational potential energy surface of the terminally protected N-Ac-Phe-Gly-Gly-NHMe (FGG), N-Ac-Trp-Gly-Gly-NHMe (WGG), and N-Ac-Tyr-Gly-Gly-NHMe (YGG) tripeptides was investigated. To identify the representative conformations, simulated annealing molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) methods were used. The interaction energies were calculated at the BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. In the global minima, 10%, 31%, and 10% of the stabilization energy come from weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG, and YGG. In the prominent cases 46%, 62%, and 46% of the stabilization energy is from the weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG, and YGG. On average, weakly polar interactions account for 15%, 34%, and 9% of the stabilization energies of the FGG, WGG, and YGG conformers, respectively. Thus, weakly polar interactions can make an important energetic contribution to protein structure and function.

  12. Weak C–H⋅⋅⋅ F–C interactions in carboxylate anion binding ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    5-fluorobenzoate; C-H…F interactions. ... Department of Chemistry, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160 014; Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phyathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand ...

  13. Particle physics on ice: constraints on neutrino interactions far above the weak scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchordoqui, Luis A; Feng, Jonathan L; Goldberg, Haim

    2006-01-20

    Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos probe energies far above the weak scale. Their usefulness might appear to be limited by astrophysical uncertainties; however, by simultaneously considering up- and down-going events, one may disentangle particle physics from astrophysics. We show that present data from the AMANDA experiment in the South Pole ice already imply an upper bound on neutrino cross sections at energy scales that will likely never be probed at man-made accelerators. The existing data also place an upper limit on the neutrino flux valid for any neutrino cross section. In the future, similar analyses of IceCube data will constrain neutrino properties and fluxes at the theta(10%) level.

  14. Weakly pulse-coupled oscillators, FM interactions, synchronization, and oscillatory associative memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhikevich, E M

    1999-01-01

    We study pulse-coupled neural networks that satisfy only two assumptions: each isolated neuron fires periodically, and the neurons are weakly connected. Each such network can be transformed by a piece-wise continuous change of variables into a phase model, whose synchronization behavior and oscillatory associative properties are easier to analyze and understand. Using the phase model, we can predict whether a given pulse-coupled network has oscillatory associative memory, or what minimal adjustments should be made so that it can acquire memory. In the search for such minimal adjustments we obtain a large class of simple pulse-coupled neural networks that can memorize and reproduce synchronized temporal patterns the same way a Hopfield network does with static patterns. The learning occurs via modification of synaptic weights and/or synaptic transmission delays.

  15. Toward Precision LSST Weak-Lensing Measurement. I. Impacts of Atmospheric Turbulence and Optical Aberration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, M. James; Tyson, J. Anthony

    2011-05-01

    The weak-lensing science of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) project drives the need to carefully model and separate the instrumental artifacts from the intrinsic shear signal caused by gravitational lensing. The dominant source of the systematics for all ground-based telescopes is the spatial correlation of the point-spread function (PSF) modulated by both atmospheric turbulence and optical aberrations in the telescope and camera system. In this article, we present a full field-of-view simulation of the LSST images by modeling both the atmosphere and the system optics with the most current data for the telescope and camera specifications and the environment. To simulate the effects of atmospheric turbulence, we generated six-layer Kolmogorov/von Kármán phase screens with the parameters estimated from the on-site measurements. LSST will continuously sample the wavefront, correcting the optics alignment and focus. For the optics, we combined the ray-tracing tool ZEMAX and our simulated focal-plane data to introduce realistic residual aberrations and focal-plane height variations. Although this expected focal-plane flatness deviation for LSST is small compared with that of other existing cameras, the fast focal ratio of the LSST optics cause this focal-plane flatness variation and the resulting PSF discontinuities across the CCD boundaries to be significant challenges in our removal of the PSF-induced systematics. We resolve this complication by performing principal component analysis (PCA) CCD by CCD and by interpolating the basis functions derived from the analysis using conventional polynomials. We demonstrate that this PSF correction scheme reduces the residual PSF ellipticity correlation below 10-7 over the cosmologically interesting (dark-matter-dominated) scale 10‧-3°. From a null test using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Ultra Deep Field (UDF) galaxy images without input shear, we verify that the amplitude of the galaxy ellipticity

  16. Eight supramolecular assemblies constructed from bis(benzimidazole) and organic acids through strong classical hydrogen bonding and weak noncovalent interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2014-05-01

    Eight crystalline organic acid-base adducts derived from alkane bridged bis(N-benzimidazole) and organic acids (2,4,6-trinitrophenol, p-nitrobenzoic acid, m-nitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid and oxalic acid) were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. Of the eight compounds five are organic salts (1, 4, 6, 7 and 8) and the other three (2, 3, and 5) are cocrystals. In all of the adducts except 1 and 8, the ratio of the acid and the base is 2:1. All eight supramolecular assemblies involve extensive intermolecular classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical N+-H⋯O-, O-H⋯O, and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) and other nonbonding associations between acids and ditopic benzimidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of cocrystals or organic salts.

  17. Study of intrapulse phase stability of 34 GHz magnicon for Yale project of weakly interacting sub-eV particle searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakevich, G.M., E-mail: gkazakevitch@yahoo.co [Dept. of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Baker, O.K. [Dept. of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Hirshfield, J.L. [Dept. of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Omega-P Inc., 258 Bradley Ave., New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Jiang, Y.; LaPointe, M.A.; Martin, A.; Shchelkunov, S.V.; Slocum, P.L. [Dept. of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Yakovlev, V.P. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2010-09-21

    The intrapulse phase instability of the 34 GHz magnicon that will be used as a high-power RF source for the Yale project 'Weakly interacting sub-eV particle searches' was measured using a heterodyne technique. The measured intrapulse RMS phase deviation averaged over a series of runs is approximately 22.1{+-}6.8 degrees. This is shown to be due mainly to magnicon modulator ripples. The ripples cause variable beam loading of the magnicon cavities resulting in frequency modulation of the magnicon output signal. Simulation of the beam dynamics (considering variations of the modulator voltage and the magnicon gun current) demonstrates a good agreement with the measured RMS value of the phase deviation for the magnicon steady-state regime. Measured RMS values of the phase deviations for similar parameter sets demonstrate good repeatability from one run to another one.

  18. New Results from the Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles with the CDMS Low Ionization Threshold Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Aramaki, T.; Asai, M.; Baker, W.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Ghaith, M.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Mast, N.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Rogers, H. E.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Underwood, R.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2016-02-01

    The CDMS low ionization threshold experiment (CDMSlite) uses cryogenic germanium detectors operated at a relatively high bias voltage to amplify the phonon signal in the search for weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs). Results are presented from the second CDMSlite run with an exposure of 70 kg day, which reached an energy threshold for electron recoils as low as 56 eV. A fiducialization cut reduces backgrounds below those previously reported by CDMSlite. New parameter space for the WIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross section is excluded for WIMP masses between 1.6 and 5.5 GeV/c^2.

  19. To which densities is spin-polarized neutron matter a weakly interacting Fermi gas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Krüger

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the properties of spin-polarized neutron matter at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order in chiral effective field theory, including two-, three-, and four-neutron interactions. The energy of spin-polarized neutrons is remarkably close to a non-interacting system at least up to saturation density, where interaction effects provide less than 10% corrections. This shows that the physics of neutron matter is similar to a unitary gas well beyond the scattering-length regime. Implications for energy-density functionals and for a possible ferromagnetic transition in neutron stars are discussed. Our predictions can be tested with lattice QCD, and we present results for varying pion mass.

  20. Enhancing the quantum state transfer between two atoms in separate cavities via weak measurement and its reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Ling; Huang, Jinsong; Xu, Zhonghui; Xiao, Xing

    2017-10-01

    Taking the advantage of weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal, we propose a scheme to enhance the fidelity of transferring quantum state from one atom trapped in cavity to another distant one trapped in another cavity which is coupled by an optical fiber. It is turned out that the fidelity can be greatly improved even when the system is under serious dissipation. Moreover, the scheme works in both the strong-coupling and weak-coupling regimes. It is also robust to the ratio of the coupling constant between the atoms and the cavity modes to the coupling constant between the fiber and cavity modes. The underlying mechanism can be attributed to the probabilistic nature of weak measurements.

  1. Robust Weak Chimeras in Oscillator Networks with Delayed Linear and Quadratic Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bick, Christian; Sebek, Michael; Kiss, István Z.

    2017-10-01

    We present an approach to generate chimera dynamics (localized frequency synchrony) in oscillator networks with two populations of (at least) two elements using a general method based on a delayed interaction with linear and quadratic terms. The coupling design yields robust chimeras through a phase-model-based design of the delay and the ratio of linear and quadratic components of the interactions. We demonstrate the method in the Brusselator model and experiments with electrochemical oscillators. The technique opens the way to directly bridge chimera dynamics in phase models and real-world oscillator networks.

  2. Identifying two regimes of slip of simple fluids over smooth surfaces with weak and strong wall-fluid interaction energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haibao; Bao, Luyao; Priezjev, Nikolai V; Luo, Kai

    2017-01-21

    The slip behavior of simple fluids over atomically smooth surfaces was investigated in a wide range of wall-fluid interaction (WFI) energies at low shear rates using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The relationship between slip and WFI shows two regimes (the strong-WFI and weak-WFI regimes): as WFI decreases, the slip length increases in the strong-WFI regime and decreases in the weak-WFI regime. The critical value of WFI energy that separates these regimes increases with temperature, but it remains unaffected by the driving force. The mechanism of slip was analyzed by examining the density-weighted average energy barrier (ΔE¯) encountered by fluid atoms in the first fluid layer (FFL) during their hopping between minima of the surface potential. We demonstrated that the relationship between slip and WFI can be rationalized by considering the effect of the fluid density distribution in the FFL on ΔE¯ as a function of the WFI energy. Moreover, the dependence of the slip length on WFI and temperature is well correlated with the exponential factor exp(-ΔE¯/(kBT)), which also determines the critical value of WFI between the strong-WFI and weak-WFI regimes.

  3. Significance of weak interactions in imidazolium picrate ionic liquids: spectroscopic and theoretical studies for molecular level understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panja, Sumit Kumar; Dwivedi, Nidhi; Noothalapati, Hemanth; Shigeto, Shinsuke; Sikder, A K; Saha, Abhijit; Sunkari, Sailaja S; Saha, Satyen

    2015-07-21

    The effects of interionic hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions on the physical properties of a new series of picrate anion based ionic liquids (ILs) have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The existence of aromatic (C2-HO) and aliphatic (C7-HO-N22 and C6-HO-N20) hydrogen bonding and π-π stacking interactions in these ILs has been observed using various spectroscopic techniques. The aromatic and aliphatic C-HO hydrogen bonding interactions are found to have a crucial role in binding the imidazolium cation and picrate anion together. However, the π-π stacking interactions between two successive layers are found to play a decisive role in tight packing in ILs leading to differences in physical properties. The drastic difference in the melting points of the methyl and propyl derivatives (mmimPic and pmimPic respectively) have been found to be primarily due to the difference in the strength and varieties of π-π stacking interactions. While in mmimPic, several different types of π-π stacking interactions between the aromatic rings (such as picrate-picrate, picrate-imidazole and imidazolium-imidazolium cation rings) are observed, only one type of π-π stacking interaction (picrate-picrate rings) is found to exist in the pmimPic IL. NMR spectroscopic studies reveal that the interaction of these ILs with solvent molecules is different and depends on the dielectric constant of the solvent. While an ion solvation model explains the solvation in high dielectric solvents, an ion-pair solvation model is found to be more appropriate for low dielectric constant solvents. The enhanced stability of these investigated picrate ILs compared with that of inorganic picrate salts under high doses of γ radiation clearly indicates the importance of weak interionic interactions in ILs, and also opens up the possibility of the application of picrate ILs as prospective diluents in nuclear separation for advanced fuel cycling process.

  4. Weak antibody-cyclodextrin interactions determined by quartz crystal microbalance and dynamic/static light scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtl, Elisabeth; Dixit, Nitin; Besheer, Ahmed; Kalonia, Devendra; Winter, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    In a quest to elucidate the mechanism by which hydroxypropyl β-cyclodextrin (HPβCD) stabilizes antibodies against shaking stress, two heavily debated hypotheses exist, namely that stabilization is due to HPβCD's surface activity, or due to specific interactions with proteins. In a previous study by Serno et al. (Pharm. Res. 30 (2013) 117), we could refute the first hypothesis by proving that, although HPβCD is slightly surface active, it does not displace the antibody at the air-water interface, and accordingly, its surface activity is not the underlying stabilizing mechanism. In the present study, we investigated the possibility of interactions between HPβCD and monoclonal antibodies as the potential stabilization mechanism using quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) and static as well as dynamic light scattering. In the presence of HPβCD, the adsorption of IgG antibodies in the native state (IgG A) and the unfolded state (IgG A and IgG B) on gold-coated quartz crystals was studied by QCM. Results show that HPβCD causes a reduction in protein adsorption in both the folded and the unfolded states, probably due to an interaction between the protein and the cyclodextrin, leading to a reduced hydrophobicity of the protein and consequently a lower extent of adsorption. These results were supported by investigation of the interaction between the native protein and HPβCD using static and dynamic light scattering experiments, which provide the protein-protein interaction parameters, B22 and kD, respectively. Both B22 and kD showed an increase in magnitude with increasing HPβCD-concentrations, indicating a rise in net repulsive forces between the protein molecules. This is further evidence for the presence of interactions between HPβCD and the studied antibodies, since an association of HPβCD on the protein surface leads to a change in the intermolecular forces between the protein molecules. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that the previously observed

  5. Measuring the coolness of interactive products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Raptis, Dimitrios; Kjeldskov, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    Coolness has recently started to be explored as a design goal for interactive products from practitioners as well as researchers within human–computer interaction (HCI), but there is still a need to further operationalise the concept and explore how we can measure it. Our contribution in this paper...

  6. Measuring dynamics in weakly structured regions of proteins using microfluidics-enabled subsecond H/D exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Tamanna; Liuni, Peter; Gill, Preet Kamal; Zhu, Shaolong; Balachandran, Naresh; Berti, Paul J; Wilson, Derek J

    2012-04-17

    This work introduces an integrated microfluidic device for measuring rapid H/D exchange (HDX) in proteins. By monitoring backbone amide HDX on the millisecond to low second time scale, we are able to characterize conformational dynamics in weakly structured regions, such as loops and molten globule-like domains that are inaccessible in conventional HDX experiments. The device accommodates the entire MS-based HDX workflow on a single chip with residence times sufficiently small (ca. 8 s) that back-exchange is negligible (≤5%), even without cooling. Components include an adjustable position capillary mixer providing a variable-time labeling pulse, a static mixer for HDX quenching, a proteolytic microreactor for rapid protein digestion, and on-chip electrospray ionization (ESI). In the present work, we characterize device performance using three model systems, each illustrating a different application of 'time-resolved' HDX. Ubiquitin is used to illustrate a crude, high throughput structural analysis based on a single subsecond HDX time-point. In experiments using cytochrome c, we distinguish dynamic behavior in loops, establishing a link between flexibility and interactions with the heme prosthetic group. Finally, we localize an unusually high 'burst-phase' of HDX in the large tetrameric enzyme DAHP synthase to a 'molten globule-like' region surrounding the active site.

  7. Detection of weak synaptic interactions between single Ia afferent and motor-unit spike trains in the decerebrate cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, B A; Halliday, D M; Rosenberg, J R

    1993-11-01

    1. Spike trains from identified single Ia afferents from soleus and lateral gastrocnemius muscles were recorded (while 'in continuity' with the spinal cord) simultaneously with single-motor-unit EMG spike trains from the same muscles in decerebrate cats. 2. A total of 143 Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs were examined for the presence of correlated activity between the Ia afferent and motor-unit and between the motor-unit and Ia afferent. Four types of correlation were identified on the basis of the cross-intensity function estimated for individual Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs. These correlations were attributed to the absence or presence of a central Ia afferent-motoneurone interaction or a peripheral motor-unit-muscle spindle interaction. 3. In addition to the cross-correlation-based second-order cross-intensity function, third-order cumulants were defined and used further to investigate Ia afferent-motor-unit interactions. A third-order cumulant density-based approach to signal processing offers improved signal-to-noise ratios, compared with the traditional product density approach, for parameters characterizing certain kinds of linear processes as well as a description of non-linear interactions. Two classes of third-order relations were described. One class was associated with a strong central connection and the other with a weak central connection. 4. Third-order cumulants estimated for Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs with significant second-order central correlations were able to detect a period of decreased motoneuronal excitability. In addition, temporal summation prior to spike initiation could be identified in cases where the afferent discharge was suitably high. 5. Third-order cumulants estimated for Ia afferent-motor-unit pairs in which no significant second-order central correlation existed identified the presence of weak synaptic interactions. It is argued that these interactions result from the summation from the recorded Ia afferent discharge and other

  8. Single crystal EPR study of the dinuclear Cu(II) complex [Cu(tda)(phen)](2)·H(2)tda (tda = thiodiacetate, phen = phenanthroline): influence of weak interdimeric magnetic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Nicolás I; Perec, Mireille; González, Pablo J; Passeggi, Mario C G; Rizzi, Alberto C; Brondino, Carlos D

    2010-12-23

    We report powder and single crystal EPR measurements of [Cu(tda)(phen)](2)·H(2)tda (tda = thiodiacetate, phen = phenanthroline) at 9.7 GHz. This compound consists of centrosymmetric copper(II) ion dimers, weakly ferromagnetically exchange-coupled (J = +3.2 cm(-1)), in which the dimeric units are linked by hydrophobic chemical paths involving the phen molecules. EPR revealed that the triplet spectra are collapsed by interdimeric exchange interactions mediated by that chemical path. Analysis and simulation of the single crystal EPR spectra were performed using Anderson's exchange narrowing model, together with statistical arguments. This approach allowed us to interpret the spectra modulated by the interdimeric interactions in situations of weak, intermediate, and strong exchange. We evaluated an interdimeric exchange constant J' = 0.0070(3) cm(-1), indicating that hydrophobic paths can transmit weak exchange interactions between centers at relatively long distances of the order of ∼10 Å.

  9. Weak interaction corrections to hadronic top quark pair production; Korrekturen der schwachen Wechselwirkung zur hadronischen Topquark-Paarproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuecker, M.

    2007-05-15

    This thesis presents the calculation of the Standard Model weak-interaction corrections of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} to hadronic top-quark pair production. The one-loop weak corrections to top antitop production due to gluon fusion and uark antiquark annihilation are computed. Also the order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} corrections to top antitop production due to quark gluon and antiquark gluon scattering in the Standard Model are calculated. In this complete weak-corrections of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}{alpha} to gg, q anti q, gq, and g anti q induced hadronic t anti t production the top and antitop polarizations and spin-correlations are fully taken into account. For the Tevatron and the LHC the weak contributions to the cross section, to the transverse top-momentum (p{sub T}) distributions, and to the top antitop invariant mass (M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}) distributions are analyzed. At the LHC the corrections to the distributions can be of the order of -10 percent compared with the leading-order results, for p{sub T}>1500 GeV and M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>3000 GeV, respectively. At the Tevatron the corrections are -4 percent for p{sub T}>600 GeV and M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV. This thesis also considers parity-even top antitop spin correlations of the form d{sigma}(++)+d{sigma}(--)-d{sigma}(+-)-d{sigma}(-+), where the first and second argument denotes the top and antitop spin projection onto a given reference axis. This spin asymmetries are computed as a function of M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}. At the LHC the weak corrections are of order of -10 percent for M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV for all analyzed reference axes. At the Tevatron the corrections are in the range of 5 percent at threshold and -5 percent for M{sub t} {sub anti} {sub t}>1000 GeV. Apart from parity-even spin asymmetries also the Standard Model predictions for parity violating effects in topquark pair production are calculated. This thesis analyzes parity

  10. Neutrino Spectra from Nuclear Weak Interactions in sd-Shell Nuclei under Astrophysical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, G. Wendell; Sun, Yang; Fuller, George M.

    2018-01-01

    We present shell model calculations of nuclear neutrino energy spectra for 70 sd-shell nuclei over the mass number range A = 21–35. Our calculations include nuclear excited states as appropriate for the hot and dense conditions characteristic of pre-collapse massive stars. We consider neutrinos produced by charged lepton captures and decays, and for the first time in tabular form, neutral current nuclear deexcitation, providing neutrino energy spectra on the Fuller–Fowler–Newman temperature–density grid for these interaction channels for each nucleus. We use the full sd-shell model space to compute initial nuclear states up to 20 MeV excitation with transitions to final states up to 35–40 MeV, employing a modification of the Brink-Axel hypothesis to handle high-temperature population factors and the nuclear partition functions.

  11. Weak interaction between germanene and GaAs(0001) by H intercalation: A route to exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-11-13

    Epitaxial germanene on a semiconducting GaAs(0001) substrate is studied by ab initio calculations. The germanene-substrate interaction is found to be strong for direct contact but can be substantially reduced by H intercalation at the interface. Our results indicate that it is energetically possible to take the germanene off the GaAs(0001) substrate. While mounted on the substrate, the electronic structure shows a distinct Dirac cone shift above the Fermi energy with a splitting of 175 meV. On the other hand, we find for a free standing sheet a band gap of 24 meV, which is due to the intrinsic spin orbit coupling.

  12. Preferential domain orientation of HMGB2 determined by the weak intramolecular interactions mediated by the interdomain linker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uewaki, Jun-ichi; Kamikubo, Hironari; Kurita, Jun-ichi; Hiroguchi, Noriteru; Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Michiteru; Kataoka, Mikio; Utsunomiya-Tate, Naoko; Tate, Shin-ichi

    2013-06-01

    High mobility group box protein 2 (HMGB2) contains homologous tandem HMG box DNA-binding domains, boxes A and B. These two boxes are linked by a short basic linker having a sequence characteristic of an intrinsically disordered element. The combined use of NMR and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) showed that the two boxes assume a preferred orientation to make their DNA binding surface in opposite directions, although the linker does not keep any specific conformation. A series of site directed mutations to the residues in the linker showed that a network of CH-π interactions connects the N-terminal part of the linker to box A. The mutants having impaired intramolecular CH-π interactions changed the interdomain dynamics and their dynamic averaged orientation relative to the wild-type. This work demonstrates that the apparently unstructured linker plays a role in defining the preferential domain orientation through the intramolecular CH-π interactions, even though the interactions are weak and transient.

  13. A Measurement of the Parity-Violating Asymmetry in Aluminum and its Contribution to a Measurement of the Proton's Weak Charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magee, Joshua Allen [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Q_weak experiment, which ran at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, made a precision measurement of the proton's weak charge, Q^p_W. The weak charge is extracted via a measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering from hydrogen at low momentum transfer (Q^2=0.025 GeV^2). This result is directly related to the electroweak mixing angle, sin^2(Theta_W), a fundamental parameter in the Standard Model of particle physics. This provides a precision test sensitive to new, as yet unknown, fundamental physics. This dissertation focuses on two central corrections to the Q_weak measurement: the target window contribution and sub-percent determination of the electron beam polarization. The aluminum target windows contribute approximately 30% of the measured asymmetry. Removal of this background requires precise measurements of both the elastic electron-aluminum scattering rate and its parity-violating asymmetry. The results reported here are the most precise measurement of the Q_weak target dilution and asymmetry to date. The parity-violating asymmetry for the aluminum alloy was found to be 1.6174 +/- 0.0704 (stat.) +/- 0.0113 (sys.) parts-per-million. The first sub-percent precision polarization measurements made from the Hall C Moller polarimeter are also reported, with systematic uncertainties of 0.84%.

  14. Weak trophic interactions among birds, insects and white oak saplings (Quercus alba)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, J.S.; Lichtenberg, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    We examined the interactions among insectivorous birds, arthropods and white oak saplings (Quercus alba L.) in a temperate deciduous forest under 'open' and 'closed' canopy environments. For 2 y, we compared arthropod densities, leaf damage and sapling growth. Saplings from each canopy environment were assigned to one of four treatments: (1) reference, (2) bird exclosure, (3) insecticide and (4) exclosure + insecticide. Sap-feeding insects were the most abundant arthropod feeding guild encountered and birds reduced sap-feeder densities in 1997, but not in 1998. Although there was no detectable influence of birds on leaf-chewer densities in either year, leaf damage to saplings was greater within bird exclosures than outside of bird exclosures in 1997. Insecticide significantly reduced arthropod densities and leaf damage to saplings, but there was no corresponding increase in sapling growth. Growth and biomass were greater for saplings in more open canopy environments for both years. Sap-feeder densities were higher on closed canopy than open canopy saplings in 1997, but canopy environment did not influence the effects of birds on lower trophic levels. Although previous studies have found birds to indirectly influence plant growth and biomass, birds did not significantly influence the growth or biomass of white oak saplings during our study.

  15. Determination of the weak charge of the proton through parity violating asymmetry measurements in the elastic e+p scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, Adesh [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The Qweak experiment has taken data to make a 2.5% measurement of parity violating elastic e+p asymmetry in the four momentum transfer region of 0.0250 (GeV/c)2. This asymmetry is proportional to the weak charge of the proton, which is related to the weak mixing angle, sin2(theta_W). The final Qweak measurement will provide the most precise measurement of the weak mixing angle below the Z0 pole to test the Standard Model prediction. A description of the experimental apparatus is provided in this dissertation. The experiment was carried out using a longitudinally polarized electron beam of up to 180 microampere on a 34.5 cm long unpolarized liquid hydrogen target. The Qweak target is not only the world's highest cryogenic target ever built for a parity experiment but also is the least noisy target. This dissertation provides a detailed description of this target and presents a thorough analysis of the target performance. Statistical analysis of Run 1 data, collected between Feb - May 2011, is done to extract a blinded parity violating asymmetry of size -299.7 ± 13.4 (stat.) ± 17.2 (syst.) ± 68 (blinding) parts-per-billion. This resulted in a preliminary proton's weak charge of value 0.0865 ± 0.0085, a 9% measurement. Based on this blinded asymmetry, the weak mixing angle was determined to be sin2(theta_W) = 0.23429 ± 0.00211.

  16. Results and Perspectives for Laboratory Search of Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles with the OSQAR Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Pugnat, P.; Schott, M.; Husek, T.; Sulc, M.; Deferne, G.; Duvillaret, L.; Finger, M., Jr.; Finger, M.; Flekova, L.; Hosek, J.; Jary, V.; Jost, R.; Kral, M.; Kunc, S.; Macuchova, K.; Meissner, K.A.; Morville, J.; Romanini, D.; Siemko, A.; Slunecka, M.; Vitrant, G.; Zicha, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent intensive theoretical and experimental studies highlight the possibility of new fundamental particle physics beyond the standard model that can be probed by sub-eV energy experiments. The OSQAR photon regeneration experiment looks for Light Shining through a Wall (LSW) from the quantum oscillation of optical photons into Weakly Interacting Sub-eV Particles (WISPs), like axion or axion-like particles (ALPs), in a 9 T transverse magnetic field over the unprecedented length of 2 x 14.3 m. No excess of events has been detected over the background. The di-photon couplings of possible new light scalar and pseudo-scalar particles can be constrained in the massless limit to be less than 8.0 x 10-8 GeV-1. These results are very close to the most stringent laboratory constraints obtained for the coupling of WISPs to two photons. Plans for further improving the sensitivity of the OSQAR experiment are presented.

  17. Preparation of a weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation using click chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kailou; Yang, Fan; Xia, Hongjun; Wang, Fei; Song, Qingguo; Bai, Quan

    2015-03-01

    In this study, 3-diethylamino-1-propyne was covalently bonded to the azide-silica by a click reaction to obtain a novel dual-function mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase for protein separation with a ligand containing tertiary amine and two ethyl groups capable of electrostatic and hydrophobic interaction functionalities, which can display hydrophobic interaction chromatography character in a high-salt-concentration mobile phase and weak anion exchange character in a low-salt-concentration mobile phase employed for protein separation. As a result, it can be employed to separate proteins with weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction modes, respectively. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both hydrophobic interaction and ion exchange modes with standard proteins, respectively, which can be comparable to that of conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns. Therefore, the synthesized weak anion exchange/hydrophobic interaction dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column can be used to replace two corresponding conventional weak anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography columns to separate proteins. Based on this mixed-mode chromatography stationary phase, a new off-line two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology using only a single dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column was developed. Nine kinds of tested proteins can be separated completely using the developed method within 2.0 h. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Structure factor of model bidisperse ferrofluids with relatively weak interparticle interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, Ekaterina; Pyanzina, Elena; Ivanov, Alexey [Institute of Mathematics, Department of Mathematical Physics, Ural Federal University, Lenin av. 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Minina, Elena [Institute for Computational Physics, Universiät Stuttgart, Allmandring 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Kantorovich, Sofia, E-mail: sofia.kantorovich@univie.ac.at [Institute of Mathematics, Department of Mathematical Physics, Ural Federal University, Lenin av. 51, 620000 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Faculty of Physics, Computational Physics, University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8, 1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-14

    In the present manuscript we develop a theoretical approach to describe the pair correlation function of bidisperse magnetic dipolar hard- and soft-spheres. We choose bidisperse system as the first step to allow for polydispersity when studying thermodynamics of magnetic fluids. Using diagram technique we calculate the virial expansion of the pair correlation function up to the first order in density and fourth order in the dipolar strength. Even though, the radial distribution functions are extremely sensitive to the steric potential, we show that the behaviour of the isotropic centre-centre structure factor is almost indifferent to the type of the short-range repulsion. We extensively compare our theoretical results to the data of molecular dynamics simulations, which helps us to understand the range of validity of the virial expansion both on density and magnetic dipolar strength. We also investigate the influence of the granulometric composition on the height, width, and position of the structure factor first peak in order to clarify whether it is possible to extract structural information from experimentally measured small angle neutron scattering intensities.

  19. Weak and saturable protein-surfactant interactions in the denaturation of apo-alpha-lactalbumin by acidic and lactonic sophorolipid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kell K Andersen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosurfactants are of growing interest as sustainable alternatives to fossil-fuel-derived chemical surfactants, particularly for the detergent industry. To realize this potential, it is necessary to understand how they affect proteins which they may encounter in their applications. However knowledge of such interactions is limited. Here we present a study of the interactions between the model protein apo-alpha-lactalbumin and the biosurfactant sophorolipid (SL produced by the yeast Starmerella bombicola. SL occurs both as an acidic and a lactonic form; the lactonic form (lactSL is sparingly soluble and has a lower critical micelle concentration than the acidic form (acidSL. We show that acidSL affects apo-aLA in a similar way to the related glycolipid biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL, with the important difference that RL is also active below the cmc in contrast to acidSL. Using isothermal titration calorimetry data, we show that acidSL has weak and saturable interactions with apo-aLA at low concentrations; due to the relatively low cmc of acidSL (which means that the monomer concentration is limited to ca. 0-1 mM SL, it is only possible to observe interactions with monomeric acidSL at high apo-aLA concentrations. However, the denaturation kinetics of apo-aLA in the presence of acidSL are consistent with a collaboration between monomeric and micellar surfactant species, similar to RL and nonionic or zwitterionic surfactants. Inclusion of lactSL as mixed micelles with acidSL lowers the cmc and this effectively reduces the rate of unfolding, emphasizing that SL like other biosurfactants is a gentle anionic surfactant. Our data highlight the potential of these biosurfactants for future use in the detergent industry.

  20. Single-Hit Criterion in Dama/libra DM Search and Daemons — they are anything but Weakly Interacting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshevski, E. M.

    Our prediction that the more massive DAMA/LIBRA detector would detect a smaller number of events per unit of mass and time than the DAMA/NaI system has got confirmation. It is easy to understand, because DM objects are by far not the WIMPs of the Galactic halo that interact only weakly with matter but are apparently electrically charged Planckian objects, i.e. daemons which fall from Earth-crossing orbits with V = 30-50 km/s and undergo multiple interaction with condensed matter already in its outer layers, on a path of a few tens of cm. Therefore, one should use not compact massive detectors but rather systems with a large surface area, as we did to detect daemons with thin ZnS(Ag) scintillators. There are grounds to believe that correct use of the single-hit criterion in LIBRA should reveal DM particles with V = 30-50 km/s, and subsequently, with V = 10-15 km/s as well.

  1. Cross-Correlation Tomography: Measuring Dark Energy Evolution with Weak Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Bhuvnesh; Taylor, Andy

    2003-10-01

    A cross-correlation technique of lensing tomography is developed to probe dark energy in the Universe. The variation of weak shear with redshift around foreground galaxies depends only on the angular distances and is robust to the dominant systematic error in lensing. We estimate the margin­alized accuracies that deep lensing surveys with photometric redshifts can provide on the dark energy density Ωde, the equation of state parameter w, and its evolution w': σ(w)≃0.01f-1/2sky and σ(w')≃0.03f-1/2sky, where a prior of σ(Ωde)=0.03 is assumed in the marginalization.

  2. A Search for Light Weakly-Interacting Massive Particles with SuperCDMS and Applications to Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Adam J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Cosmological and astrophysical evidence indicates that 85% of the matter content of the universe is in the form of non-baryonic dark matter. A large number of experiments are currently undertaking searches for weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPs), the leading class of particle candidates for dark matter. This thesis describes the results of such a search with the SuperCDMS experiment, which uses Ge detectors cooled to 50 mK to detect ionization and phonons produced by particle interactions. We perform a blind analysis of 577 kg d of exposure on 7 detectors targeting WIMPs with masses < 30GeV/$c^{2}$, where anomalous results have been reported by previous experiments. No significant excess is observed and we set an upper limit on the spin-independent WIMP-nucleon cross section of 1.2 x 10$^{-42}$ cm2 at 8 GeV/$c^{2}$ We also set constraints on dark matter interactions independent of the dark matter halo physics, as well as on annual modulation of a dark matter signal. Cryogenic detectors similar to SuperCDMS also have potential applications in neutrino physics. We study several configurations in which dark matter detectors could be used with an intense neutrino source to detect an unmeasured Standard Model process called coherent neutrino scattering. This process may be useful, for example, as a calibration for next-generation dark matter detectors, and for constraining eV-scale sterile neutrinos. In addition, small cryogenic X-ray detectors on sounding rockets with large fields-of-view have the unique ability to constrain sterile neutrino dark matter. We set limits on sterile neutrino dark matter using an observation by the XQC instrument, and discuss prospects for a future observation of the galactic center using the Micro-X instrument.

  3. Measures of interaction contrast (biological interaction) - ic, ici and icp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    .For the analyzes of binary (or count) data, a fairly well established position holds, that loglinear models estimating measures of relative risk type represent a convenient choice, whereas interactions are often best interpreted if estimated on a linear/additive scale. This code implement the procedure described...... in Hosmer & Lemeshow (1992) and Alfredsson et all (2005) purely in Stata.These two sources however both uses odds ratios as approximations for relational risks. This code on the other hand opens up for using proper estimates of relational risks. To install type "ssc install ic" in the Stata command...

  4. Path integral measure for gravitational interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuo Fujikawa

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available It is pointed out that the path-integral variables as well as the local measure for gravitational interactions are uniquely specified if one imposes the anomaly-free condition on the Becchi-Rouet-Stora supersymmetry associated with general coordinate transformations. This prescription is briefly illustrated for the Einstein gravity and supergravity in four space-time dimensions and the relativistic string theory in two dimensions.

  5. Electroweak Measurements with Multiple Gauge Boson Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sood, A; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    This talk presents measurements from ATLAS and CMS that are sensitive interactions between EW gauge bosons. Included analyses sensitive to triple gauge couplings are EW $Z$ production, and $VV^{\\prime}$ cross sections where $V=W/Z$ and $V^{\\prime}=W/Z/\\gamma$, while $\\gamma\\gamma\\rightarrow WW$, $WV\\gamma$ where $V=W/Z$, and $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ production are present as probes of quartic gauge couplings.

  6. The role of weakly polar and H-bonding interactions in the stabilization of the conformers of FGG, WGG and YGG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, József; Murphy, Richard F.; Lovas, Sándor

    2008-01-01

    The energetics of intramolecular interactions on the conformational potential energy surface of the terminally protected N-Ac-Phe-Gly-Gly-NHMe (FGG), N-Ac-Trp-Gly-Gly-NHMe (WGG) and N-Ac-Tyr-Gly-Gly-NHMe (YGG) tripeptides was investigated. To identify the representative conformations, simulated annealing molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) methods were used. The interaction energies were calculated at the BHandHLYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level of theory. In the global minima, 10%, 31% and 10% of the stabilization energy come from weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG and YGG. In the prominent cases 46%, 62% and 46% of the stabilization energy is from weakly polar interactions, respectively, in FGG, WGG and YGG. On average, weakly polar interactions account for 15%, 34% and 9% of the stabilization energies of the FGG, WGG and YGG conformers, respectively. Thus, weakly polar interactions can make an important energetic contribution to protein structure and function. PMID:18615659

  7. Kinematic reconstruction of tau leptons and test for lepton universality in charged weak interactions with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauerland, Philip

    2011-04-15

    The Standard Model of Particle Physics (SM) postulates the universal coupling of the three lepton families to the weak current. The most precise measurement of lepton universality in W decays comes from the four experiments at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP). If one compares the couplings of muons and tau leptons to the charged weak current, there is a discrepancy of nearly three standard deviations w.r.t. the SM expectation. There are models beyond the SM, which could explain the violation of lepton universality with new physics processes, if it is more than a statistical fluctuation. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) offers a great opportunity to study decays of the charged-weak gauge bosons at very high event rates and at unmatched collision energies. This thesis presents an analysis strategy to test lepton universality with the Compact Muon Solenoid experiment (CMS) at the LHC. The analysis focusses on the decays of the W{sup {+-}} boson to particles of the second and third lepton family. For this purpose detector-simulated proton-proton events are used. The identification and reconstruction of tau leptons is a difficult task at the LHC. The reconstruction is often restricted by the limited precision of the commonly used collinear approximation. The application of a kinematic fit to particular tau-decay modes can improve the experimental resolution and provides an efficient background suppression. The development of such a fit with kinematic constraints derived from the topology of the decay {tau} {yields} 3{pi}{sup {+-}} + {nu}{sub {tau}} is described. The kinematic fit of tau leptons is not limited to the test for lepton universality, but can be deployed by various physics analyses in a broad energy range of the tau leptons. The event topology of W{sup {+-}} decays with leptonic final states is studied. Two event selections are developed: one for the W{sup {+-}} {yields} {tau}{nu} and one for the W{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{nu} decay. A common online

  8. Chirality of weakly bound complexes: The potential energy surfaces for the hydrogen-peroxide−noble-gas interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roncaratti, L. F., E-mail: lz@fis.unb.br; Leal, L. A.; Silva, G. M. de [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Pirani, F. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Aquilanti, V. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Biologia e Biotecnologie, Università di Perugia, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210 Salvador (Brazil); Gargano, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, 70910 Brasília (Brazil); Departments of Chemistry and Physics, University of Florida, Quantum Theory Project, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    We consider the analytical representation of the potential energy surfaces of relevance for the intermolecular dynamics of weakly bound complexes of chiral molecules. In this paper we study the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}−Ng (Ng=He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) systems providing the radial and the angular dependence of the potential energy surface on the relative position of the Ng atom. We accomplish this by introducing an analytical representation which is able to fit the ab initio energies of these complexes in a wide range of geometries. Our analysis sheds light on the role that the enantiomeric forms and the symmetry of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule play on the resulting barriers and equilibrium geometries. The proposed theoretical framework is useful to study the dynamics of the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molecule, or other systems involving O–O and S–S bonds, interacting by non-covalent forces with atoms or molecules and to understand how the relative orientation of the O–H bonds changes along collisional events that may lead to a hydrogen bond formation or even to selectivity in chemical reactions.

  9. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  10. Combinatoric Models of Information Retrieval Ranking Methods and Performance Measures for Weakly-Ordered Document Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Lewis

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation answers three research questions: (1) What are the characteristics of a combinatoric measure, based on the Average Search Length (ASL), that performs the same as a probabilistic version of the ASL?; (2) Does the combinatoric ASL measure produce the same performance result as the one that is obtained by ranking a collection of…

  11. The MOLLER Experiment: An Ultra-Precise Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle Using M{\\o}ller Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Benesch, J; Carlini, R D; Chen, J-P; Chudakov, E; Covrig, S; Dalton, M M; Deur, A; Gaskell, D; Gavalya, A; Gomez, J; Higinbotham, D W; Keppel, C; Meekins, D; Michaels, R; Moffit, B; Roblin, Y; Suleiman, R; Wines, R; Wojtsekhowski, B; Cates, G; Crabb, D; Day, D; Gnanvo, K; Keller, D; Liyanage, N; Nelyubin, V V; Nguyen, H; Norum, B; Paschke, K; Sulkosky, V; Zhang, J; Zheng, X; Birchall, J; Blunden, P; Gericke, M T W; Falk, W R; Lee, L; Mammei, J; Page, S A; van Oers, W T H; Dehmelt, K; Deshpande, A; Feege, N; Hemmick, T K; Kumar, K S; Kutz, T; Miskimen, R; Ramsey-Musolf, M J; Riordan, S; Taylor, N Hirlinger; Bessuille, J; Ihloff, E; Kelsey, J; Kowalski, S; Silwal, R; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Di Bari, D; Lagamba, L; Bellini, E NappiV; Mammoliti, F; Noto, F; Sperduto, M L; Sutera, C M; Cole, P; Forest, T A; Khandekar, M; McNulty, D; Aulenbacher, K; Baunack, S; Maas, F; Tioukine, V; Gilman, R; Myers, K; Ransome, R; Tadepalli, A; Beniniwattha, R; Holmes, R; Souder, P; Armstrong, D S; Averett, T D; Deconinck, W; Duvall, W; Lee, A; Pitt, M L; Dunne, J A; Dutta, D; Fassi, L El; De Persio, F; Meddi, F; Urciuoli, G M; Cisbani, E; Fanelli, C; Garibaldi, F; Johnston, K; Simicevic, N; Wells, S; King, P M; Roche, J; Arrington, J; Reimer, P E; Franklin, G; Quinn, B; Ahmidouch, A; Danagoulian, S; Glamazdin, O; Pomatsalyuk, R; Mammei, R; Martin, J W; Holmstrom, T; Erler, J; Kolomensky, Yu G; Napolitano, J; Aniol, K A; Ramsay, W D; Korkmaz, E; Spayde, D T; Benmokhtar, F; Del Dotto, A; Perrino, R; Barkanova, S; Aleksejevs, A; Singh, J

    2014-01-01

    The physics case and an experimental overview of the MOLLER (Measurement Of a Lepton Lepton Electroweak Reaction) experiment at the 12 GeV upgraded Jefferson Lab are presented. A highlight of the Fundamental Symmetries subfield of the 2007 NSAC Long Range Plan was the SLAC E158 measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry $A_{PV}$ in polarized electron-electron (M{\\o}ller) scattering. The proposed MOLLER experiment will improve on this result by a factor of five, yielding the most precise measurement of the weak mixing angle at low or high energy anticipated over the next decade. This new result would be sensitive to the interference of the electromagnetic amplitude with new neutral current amplitudes as weak as $\\sim 10^{-3}\\cdot G_F$ from as yet undiscovered dynamics beyond the Standard Model. The resulting discovery reach is unmatched by any proposed experiment measuring a flavor- and CP-conserving process over the next decade, and yields a unique window to new physics at MeV and multi-TeV scales, complem...

  12. Measurement of weak magnetic field of corrosion current of isolated corrosion center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Bardin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A very small magnetic field of corrosion current, of the order of 10−4 Oe, generated by isolated zinc inclusion in a copper platelet placed in electrolyte has been measured for the first time with a highly sensitive giant magneto-impedance magnetometer. The total corrosion current of the inclusion is estimated comparing the measured magnetic field distribution with corresponding theoretical calculation. The estimated value of the total corrosion current turns out to be in reasonable agreement with that one obtained in the standard gravimetric measurement.

  13. How Empty is Empty? Weak-Signal Spectrum Survey Measurements and Analysis for Cognitive Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    figure, the amplifier input was connected directly to the output of a wideband biconical antenna . The output of the amplifier was then connected to...from the An- napolis area using a low-to-ground antenna . • Long-term high-resolution measurements from the USNA clock tower. • Short-term low-resolution...Airport (BWI) in Baltimore, Maryland (39.1867◦ N, 76.6544◦ W). At each of these measurement sites, the measurement system antenna was placed in an open

  14. Electroweak Measurements with Multiple Gauge Boson Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Sood, Alexander; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    These proceedings present measurements from ATLAS and CMS using proton-proton collisions with center-of-mass energies of 7 TeV and 8 TeV at the LHC that are sensitive to interactions between EW gauge bosons. Included analyses sensitive to triple gauge couplings are EW Z production, and $VV^{\\prime}$ cross sections where $V=W,Z$ and $V^{\\prime}=W,Z,γ$, while $\\gamma\\gamma \\rightarrow WW$, $WV\\gamma$ where $V=W,Z$, and $W^{\\pm}W^{\\pm}jj$ production are presented as probes of quartic gauge couplings.

  15. Direct measurement of weakly nonequilibrium system entropy is consistent with Gibbs–Shannon form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrilov, Momčilo; Chétrite, Raphaël; Bechhoefer, John

    2017-10-01

    Stochastic thermodynamics extends classical thermodynamics to small systems in contact with one or more heat baths. It can account for the effects of thermal fluctuations and describe systems far from thermodynamic equilibrium. A basic assumption is that the expression for Shannon entropy is the appropriate description for the entropy of a nonequilibrium system in such a setting. Here we measure experimentally this function in a system that is in local but not global equilibrium. Our system is a micron-scale colloidal particle in water, in a virtual double-well potential created by a feedback trap. We measure the work to erase a fraction of a bit of information and show that it is bounded by the Shannon entropy for a two-state system. Further, by measuring directly the reversibility of slow protocols, we can distinguish unambiguously between protocols that can and cannot reach the expected thermodynamic bounds.

  16. Protecting quantum Fisher information of N-qubit GHZ state by weak measurement with flips against dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zou, Jian; Long, Zheng-Wen; Shao, Bin

    2017-07-21

    In this paper we propose a scheme by using weak-measurement-based pre- and post-flips (WMPPF) to protect the average quantum Fisher information (QFI) in the independent amplitude-damping channel (ADC) for N-qubit GHZ state and generalized N-qubit GHZ states. We also discuss the weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal (WMQMR) with the same ADC. Based on the analytical and numerical results we obtain the main result: the WMPPF can reduce the effect of dissipation on the average QFI of the phase or the frequency for GHZ state and some generalized GHZ states, and the WMQMR can reduce the effect of dissipation on the average fidelity for GHZ state and generalized GHZ states in ADC. Comparing QFI with fidelity for WMPPF or for WMQMR, a scheme protecting the average fidelity does not necessarily protect the average QFI, even with the same parameters, and vice versa. We also focus on the average QFI versus N in the phase estimation and the frequency estimation of WMPPF, both of which show the advantages over the do-nothing (DN) case. From the investigation of the QFI of weight factor, we find that increasing qubit number can protect it both for WMPPF and for DN.

  17. Corrugation in the Weakly Interacting Hexagonal-BN/Cu(111) System: Structure Determination by Combining Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray Standing Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Martin; Riss, Alexander; Garnica, Manuela; Ducke, Jacob; Deimel, Peter S; Duncan, David A; Thakur, Pardeep Kumar; Lee, Tien-Lin; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo; Barth, Johannes V; Allegretti, Francesco; Auwärter, Willi

    2017-09-26

    Atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layers on metallic supports represent a promising platform for the selective adsorption of atoms, clusters, and molecular nanostructures. Specifically, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies revealed an electronic corrugation of h-BN/Cu(111), guiding the self-assembly of molecules and their energy level alignment. A detailed characterization of the h-BN/Cu(111) interface including the spacing between the h-BN sheet and its support-elusive to STM measurements-is crucial to rationalize the interfacial interactions within these systems. To this end, we employ complementary techniques including high-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy, STM, low-energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the X-ray standing wave method, and density functional theory. Our multimethod study yields a comprehensive, quantitative structure determination including the adsorption height and the corrugation of the sp(2) bonded h-BN layer on Cu(111). Based on the atomic contrast in atomic force microscopy measurements, we derive a measurable-hitherto unrecognized-geometric corrugation of the h-BN monolayer. This experimental approach allows us to spatially resolve minute height variations in low-dimensional nanostructures, thus providing a benchmark for theoretical modeling. Regarding potential applications, e.g., as a template or catalytically active support, the recognition of h-BN on Cu(111) as a weakly bonded and moderately corrugated overlayer is highly relevant.

  18. Weak convergence to isotropic complex S α S $S\\alpha S$ random measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove that an isotropic complex symmetric α-stable random measure ( 0 < α < 2 $0<\\alpha<2$ can be approximated by a complex process constructed by integrals based on the Poisson process with random intensity.

  19. Electrophilic Ln(III) cations protected by C-F → Ln interactions and their coordination chemistry with weak σ- and π-donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haolin; Lewis, Andrew J; Carroll, Patrick; Schelter, Eric J

    2013-07-15

    A homoleptic cerium(III) amide complex, Ce(NPh(F)2)3 (1-Ce) (Ph(F) = pentafluorophenyl), in an unusual pseudo-trigonal planar geometry featuring six C-F → Ce interactions was prepared. The C-F → Ln interactions in solution were evident by comparison of the (19)F NMR shifts for the paramagnetic 1-Ce with those of the 4f(0) lanthanum(III) analogue. Coordination of weak σ- and π-donors, including ethers and neutral arene molecules, was achieved by the reversible displacement of the weak C-F → Ce interactions. Computational studies on Ce(NPh(F)2)3 and Ce(NPh(F)2)3(η(6)-C6H3Me3) provide information on the F → Ce interactions and Ce-η(6)-arene bonding.

  20. Disentangling weak and strong interactions in B → K*(→ Kπ)π Dalitz-plot analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, Jerome [CNRS, Aix-Marseille Univ., Universite de Toulon, CPT UMR 7332, Marseille (France); Descotes-Genon, Sebastien [CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Universite Paris-Saclay, Laboratoire de Physique Theorique (UMR 8627), Orsay (France); Ocariz, Jose [Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7585, LPNHE, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, LPNHE UMR 7585, Sorbonne Paris Cite, Paris (France); Perez Perez, Alejandro [Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS, IPHC UMR 7178, Strasbourg (France); Collaboration: For the CKMfitter Group

    2017-08-15

    Dalitz-plot analyses of B → Kππ decays provide direct access to decay amplitudes, and thereby weak and strong phases can be disentangled by resolving the interference patterns in phase space between intermediate resonant states. A phenomenological isospin analysis of B → K*(→ Kπ)π decay amplitudes is presented exploiting available amplitude analyses performed at the BaBar, Belle and LHCb experiments. A first application consists in constraining the CKM parameters thanks to an external hadronic input. A method, proposed some time ago by two different groups and relying on a bound on the electroweak penguin contribution, is shown to lack the desired robustness and accuracy, and we propose a more alluring alternative using a bound on the annihilation contribution. A second application consists in extracting information on hadronic amplitudes assuming the values of the CKM parameters from a global fit to quark flavour data. The current data yields several solutions, which do not fully support the hierarchy of hadronic amplitudes usually expected from theoretical arguments (colour suppression, suppression of electroweak penguins), as illustrated from computations within QCD factorisation. Some prospects concerning the impact of future measurements at LHCb and Belle II are also presented. Results are obtained with the CKMfitter analysis package, featuring the frequentist statistical approach and using the Rfit scheme to handle theoretical uncertainties. (orig.)

  1. Principal component analysis of modified gravity using weak lensing and peculiar velocity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaba, Shinsuke [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Hikage, Chiaki [Kobayashi Maskawa Institute (KMI), Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Koyama, Kazuya [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Zhao, Gong-Bo [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100012, P.R.China (China); Hojjati, Alireza [Institute for the Early Universe, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, 120-750 (Korea, Republic of); Pogosian, Levon, E-mail: asaba.shinsuke@j.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: hikage@kmi.nagoya-u.ac.jp, E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk, E-mail: aha25@sfu.ca, E-mail: levon@sfu.ca [Department of Physics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    We perform a principal component analysis to assess ability of future observations to measure departures from General Relativity in predictions of the Poisson and anisotropy equations on linear scales. In particular, we focus on how the measurements of redshift-space distortions (RSD) observed from spectroscopic galaxy redshift surveys will improve the constraints when combined with lensing tomographic surveys. Assuming a Euclid-like galaxy imaging and redshift survey, we find that adding the 3D information decreases the statistical uncertainty by a factor between 3 and 7 compared to the case when only observables from lensing tomographic surveys are used. We also find that the number of well-constrained modes increases by a factor between 3 and 6. Our study indicates the importance of joint galaxy imaging and redshift surveys such as SuMIRe and Euclid to give more stringent tests of the ΛCDM model and to distinguish between various modified gravity and dark energy models.

  2. Measuring the Weak Charge of the Proton and the Hadronic Parity Violation of the N → Δ Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leacock, John D. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2012-10-16

    Qweak will determine the weak charge of the proton, Qp{sub W}, via an asymmetry measurement of parity-violating elastic electron-proton scattering at low four momentum transfer to a precision of 4%. QpW has a firm Standard Model prediction and is related to the weak mixing angle, sin2 ΦW, a well-defined Standard Model parameter. Qweak will probe a subset of new physics to the TeV mass scale and test the Standard Model. The details of how this measurement was performed and the analysis of the 25% elastic dataset will be presented in this thesis. Also, an analysis of an auxiliary measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in the N → Δ transition is presented. It is used as a systematic inelastic background correction in the elastic analysis and to extract information about the hadronic parity violation through the low energy constant, dΔ. The elastic asymmetry at Q2 = 0.0252 ± 0.0007 GeV2 was measured to be Aep = -265 ± 40 ± 22 ± 68 ppb (stat., sys., and blinding). Extrapolated to Q2 = 0, the value of the proton's weak charge was measured to be QpW = 0.077 ± 0.019 (stat. and sys.) ± 0.026 (blinding). This is within 1 σ of the Standard Model prediction of QpW = 0.0705 ± 0.0008. The N → Δ inelastic asymmetry at Q2 = 0.02078 ± 0.0005 GeV2 and W = 1205 MeV was measured to be Ainel = -3.03 ± 0.65 ± 0.73 ± 0.07 ppm (stat., sys., and blinding). This result constrains the low energy constant to be dΔ = 5.8 ± 22gπ, and, if the result of the G0 experiment is included, dΔ = 5.8 ± 17gπ. This result rules out suggested large values of dΔ motivated by radiative hyperon decays. The elastic measurement is the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton while the inelastic measurement is only the second

  3. Interaction Free Measurement of Quantum Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Onofrio; Jiang, Liang

    2012-02-01

    A measurement of the state of a physical system always causes some degree of disturbance in the system. When the scaling consists of nano or smaller quantities, measurements can cause severe changes in the information contained in the system. Noteworthy are the quantum computing elements, or qubits, used operationally and as memory. The main and foremost concern for the quantum computing elements is decoherence which is exacerbated by the measuring process. We propose to overcome these obstacles using an intriguing quantum mechanical interaction free measurement (IFM) method. High-efficiency IFM has been demonstrated by combining quantum interference and the quantum Zeno effect [P. G. Kwiat, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4725 (1999)]. In addition, IFM can be useful for quantum information processing, because it eliminates photon absorbing/scattering processes, which often are responsible for undesired information loss and decoherence in neighboring atoms. This is manifested in optical lattices, dephasing of proximal nuclear spins of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond, etc. We further propose and investigate using IFM to replace conventional optical readouts for specific quantum systems with the advantage of elimination of undesired decoherence.

  4. First Measurement of the Beam Normal Single Spin Asymmetry in $Δ$ Resonance Production by $Q_{\\rm weak}$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuruzzaman, nfn [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The beam normal single spin asymmetry ($B_{\\rm n}$) is generated in the scattering of transversely polarized electrons from unpolarized nuclei. The asymmetry arises from the interference of the imaginary part of the two-photon exchange with the one-photon exchange amplitude. The $Q_{\\rm weak}$ experiment has made the first measurement of $B_{\\rm n}$ in the production of the $\\Delta$(1232) resonance, using the $Q_{\\rm weak}$ apparatus in Hall-C at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The final transverse asymmetry, corrected for backgrounds and beam polarization, is $B_{\\rm n}$ = 43 $\\pm$ 16 ppm at beam energy 1.16 GeV at an average scattering angle of about 8.3 degrees, and invariant mass of 1.2 GeV. The measured preliminary $B_{\\rm n}$ agrees with a preliminary theoretical calculation. $B_{\\rm n}$ for the $\\Delta$ is the only known observable that is sensitive to the $\\Delta$ elastic form-factors ($\\gamma$*$\\Delta\\Delta$) in addition to the generally studied transition form-factors ($\\gamma$*N$\\Delta$), but extracting this information will require significant theoretical input.

  5. Precision Measurement of the 6He Half-Life and the Weak Axial Current in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Knecht, A; Zumwalt, D W; Delbridge, B G; Garcia, A; Mueller, P; Swanson, H E; Towner, I S; Utsuno, S; Williams, W; Wrede, C

    2011-01-01

    Studies of 6He beta decay along with tritium can play an important role in testing ab-initio nuclear wave-function calculations and may allow for fixing low-energy constants in effective field theories. Here, we present an improved determination of the 6He half-life to a relative precision of 3x10^(-4). Our value of 806.89 \\pm 0.11(stat)^{+0.23}_{-0.19}(syst) ms resolves a major discrepancy between previous measurements. Calculating the statistical rate function we determined the ft-value to be 803.04 ^{+0.26}_{-0.23} s. The extracted Gamow-Teller matrix element agrees within a few percent with ab-initio calculations.

  6. Ultra-Weak Fiber Bragg Grating Sensing Network Coated with Sensitive Material for Multi-Parameter Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A multi-parameter measurement system based on ultra-weak fiber Bragg grating (UFBG array with sensitive material was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The UFBG array interrogation principle is time division multiplex technology with two semiconductor optical amplifiers as timing units. Experimental results showed that the performance of the proposed UFBG system is almost equal to that of traditional FBG, while the UFBG array system has obvious superiority with potential multiplexing ability for multi-point and multi-parameter measurement. The system experimented on a 144 UFBG array with the reflectivity of UFBG ~0.04% for the four target parameters: hydrogen, humidity, temperature and salinity. Moreover, a uniform solution was customized to divide the cross-sensitivity between temperature and other target parameters. It is expected that this scheme will be capable of handling thousands of multi-parameter sensors in a single fiber.

  7. Number of first-passage times as a measurement of information for weakly chaotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, Pierre; Venegeroles, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    We consider a general class of maps of the interval having Lyapunov subexponential instability |δxt|∼|δx0|exp[Λt(x0)ζ(t)], where ζ(t) grows sublinearly as t→∞. We outline here a scheme [J. Stat. Phys. 154, 988 (2014)] whereby the choice of a characteristic function automatically defines the map equation and corresponding growth rate ζ(t). This matching approach is based on the infinite measure property of such systems. We show that the average information that is necessary to record without ambiguity a trajectory of the system tends to 〈Λ〉ζ(t), suitably extending the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Pesin's identity. For such systems, information behaves like a random variable for random initial conditions, its statistics obeying a universal Mittag-Leffler law. We show that, for individual trajectories, information can be accurately inferred by the number of first-passage times through a given turbulent phase-space cell. This enables us to calculate far more efficiently Lyapunov exponents for such systems. Lastly, we also show that the usual renewal description of jumps to the turbulent cell, usually employed in the literature, does not provide the real number of entrances there. Our results are supported by exhaustive numerical simulations.

  8. Number of first-passage times as a measurement of information for weakly chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazé, Pierre; Venegeroles, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    We consider a general class of maps of the interval having Lyapunov subexponential instability |δxt|˜|δx0|exp[Λt(x0)ζ(t)], where ζ (t) grows sublinearly as t →∞. We outline here a scheme [J. Stat. Phys. 154, 988 (2014), 10.1007/s10955-013-0895-5] whereby the choice of a characteristic function automatically defines the map equation and corresponding growth rate ζ (t). This matching approach is based on the infinite measure property of such systems. We show that the average information that is necessary to record without ambiguity a trajectory of the system tends to ζ(t), suitably extending the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and Pesin's identity. For such systems, information behaves like a random variable for random initial conditions, its statistics obeying a universal Mittag-Leffler law. We show that, for individual trajectories, information can be accurately inferred by the number of first-passage times through a given turbulent phase-space cell. This enables us to calculate far more efficiently Lyapunov exponents for such systems. Lastly, we also show that the usual renewal description of jumps to the turbulent cell, usually employed in the literature, does not provide the real number of entrances there. Our results are supported by exhaustive numerical simulations.

  9. Evidence of weak ferromagnetism in doped plasticized polyaniline (PANI-DDoESSA)0.5 from electron spin resonance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, V T; Nascimento, O R; Djurado, D; Travers, J P; Pron, A; Walmsley, L

    2013-03-20

    X-band electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements have been performed on a conducting free-standing film of polyaniline plasticized and protonated with di-n-dodecyl ester of sulfosuccinic acid (DDoESSA). The magnetic field was applied parallel and perpendicular to the plane of the film. At around 75 K a transition is observed from Pauli susceptibility to a localized state in which the spin 1/2 polarons behave as spin 1/2 dimers. A rough estimation of the intradimer and interdimer exchange constants is obtained. Below 5 K, ESR data reveal a weak ferromagnetism with the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya vector mainly oriented in the plane of the film. The existence of a relatively well-defined n-fold axis along the chain direction in the crystalline regions confers a symmetry compatible with such analysis.

  10. Electrical modulation of weak-antilocalization and spin-orbit interaction in dual gated Ge/Si core/shell nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Deacon, R. S.; Yao, J.; Lieber, C. M.; Ishibashi, K.

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic transport of holes in Ge/Si core/shell nanowires (NWs) is investigated under the control of dual electrical gating. The strength of the spin-orbit interaction (SOI) is analyzed from the weak-antilocalization (WAL) of the magnetoconductance (MC) as a function of a perpendicular magnetic field. By superimposing a small alternating signal on the voltage offset of both gates the universal conductance fluctuations are largely removed from the averaged MC traces, enabling a good fitting to WAL theory models. The tuning of both spin lifetime and the SOI strength is observed in the NWs with dual gating while the carrier density is kept constant. We observe an enhancement of spin lifetime with the mean free path due to the effect of geometrical confinement. The measured SOI energy of 1-6 meV may arise from the dipole coupled Rashba SOI, which is predicted to be one order of magnitude larger than the conventional Rashba coefficient in the Ge/Si core/shell NW system. A clear electrostatic modulation of SOI strength by a factor of up to three implies that Ge/Si NWs are a promising platform for the study of helical states, Majorana fermions and spin-orbit qubits.

  11. The WITCH experiment: completion of a set-up to investigate the structure of weak interactions with a Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V.Yu.; Beck, D.; Beck, M.; Coeck, S.; Delaure, B.; Kopecky, S.; Lindroth, A.; Delahaye, P.; Wenander, F.; Golovko, V.V.; Kraev, I.S.; Phalet, T.

    2006-01-01

    The WITCH experiment aims to study a possible admixture of a scalar or tensor type interaction in beta decay by determining the beta-neutrino angular correlation from the shape of the recoil energy spectrum. The installation period was completed and intensive commissioning of the set-up was performed already. The lay-out of the WITCH set-up and results of commissioning tests performed until now are described here, showing that the full set-up up to the spectrometer is now operational, although several efficiencies are still to be improved. Due to its feature of being able to measure the energy spectrum for recoil ions, the WITCH experiment also opens possibilities for other observables.

  12. Exclusion of canonical weakly interacting massive particles by joint analysis of Milky Way dwarf galaxies with data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Koushiappas, Savvas M

    2011-12-09

    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are known to be excellent targets for the detection of annihilating dark matter. We present new limits on the annihilation cross section of weakly interacting massive particles based on the joint analysis of seven Milky Way dwarfs using a frequentist Neyman construction and Pass 7 data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. We exclude generic weakly interacting massive particle candidates annihilating into bb with a mass less than 40 GeV that reproduce the observed relic abundance. To within 95% systematic errors on the dark matter distribution within the dwarfs, the mass lower limit can be as low as 19 GeV or as high as 240 GeV. For annihilation into τ+ τ-, these limits become 19, 13, and 80 GeV, respectively.

  13. Measurement of the weak mixing angle with the Drell-Yan process in proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Trauner, Christine; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Raval, Amita; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Da Costa, Eliza Melo; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Lingemann, Joschka; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Davids, Martina; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Rosin, Michele; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Berger, Joram; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Röcker, Steffen; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schmanau, Mike; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gupta, Pooja; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Fanzago, Federica; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Mazzucato, Mirco; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zumerle, Gianni; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Palmonari, Francesco; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Jo, Hyun Yong; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Seo, Eunsung; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Polujanskas, Mindaugas; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Pela, Joao; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Soares, Mara Senghi; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Maurisset, Aurelie; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jaeger, Andreas; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Özbek, Melih; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Henderson, Conor; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Houtz, Rachel; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Mall, Orpheus; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Rutherford, Britney; Salur, Sevil; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Mullin, Sam Daniel; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Limon, Peter; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pivarski, James; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Schwarz, Thomas; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Goldberg, Sean; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Myeonghun, Park; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Schmitt, Michael; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Grizzard, Kevin; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Jindal, Pratima; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Smith, Kenneth; Wan, Zongru; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Petrillo, Gianluca; Sakumoto, Willis; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Johnston, Cody; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goadhouse, Stephen; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Belknap, Donald; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Parker, William; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    A multivariate likelihood method to measure electroweak couplings with the Drell-Yan process at the LHC is presented. The process is described by the dilepton rapidity, invariant mass, and decay angle distributions. The decay angle ambiguity due to the unknown assignment of the scattered constituent quark and antiquark to the two protons in a collision is resolved statistically using correlations between the observables. The method is applied to a sample of dimuon events from proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.1 inverse femtobarns. From the dominant u-ubar, d-dbar to gamma*/Z to opposite sign dimuons process, the effective weak mixing angle parameter is measured to be sin^2(theta[eff]) = 0.2287 +/- 0.0020 (stat.) +/- 0.0025 (syst.). This result is consistent with measurements from other processes, as expected within the standard model.

  14. Line Assignments and Position Measurements in Several Weak CO2 Bands between 4590 /cm and 7930/ cm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giver, L. P.; Kshirsagar, R. J.; Freedman, R. C.; Chackerian, C.; Wattson, R. B.

    1998-01-01

    A substantial set of CO2 spectra from 4500 to 12000 /cm has been obtained at Ames with 1500 m path length using a Bomem DA8 FTS. The signal/noise was improved compared to prior spectra obtained in this laboratory by including a filter wheel limiting the band-pass of each spectrum to several hundred/cm. We have measured positions of lines in several weak bands not previously resolved in laboratory spectra. Using our positions and assignments of lines of the Q branch of the 31103-00001 vibrational band at 4591/cm, we have re-determined the rotational constants for the 31103f levels. Q-branch lines of this band were previously observed, but misassigned, in Venus spectra by Mandin. The current HITRAN values of the rotational constants for this level are incorrect due to the Q-branch misassignments. Our prior measurements of the 21122-00001 vibrational band at 7901/cm were limited to Q- and R-branch lines; with the improved signal/noise of these new spectra we have now measured lines in the weaker P branch.

  15. Measurement of the weak mixing angle with the Drell-Yan process in proton-proton collisions at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, S. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia); et al.,

    2011-12-01

    A multivariate likelihood method to measure electroweak couplings with the Drell-Yan process at the LHC is presented. The process is described by the dilepton rapidity, invariant mass, and decay angle distributions. The decay angle ambiguity due to the unknown assignment of the scattered constituent quark and antiquark to the two protons in a collision is resolved statistically using correlations between the observables. The method is applied to a sample of dimuon events from proton-proton collisions at sqrt(s) = 7 TeV collected by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.1 inverse femtobarns. From the dominant u-ubar, d-dbar to gamma*/Z to opposite sign dimuons process, the effective weak mixing angle parameter is measured to be sin^2(theta[eff]) = 0.2287 +/- 0.0020 (stat.) +/- 0.0025 (syst.). This result is consistent with measurements from other processes, as expected within the standard model.

  16. Tests of the electroweak standard model and measurement of the weak mixing angle with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goebel, M.

    2011-09-15

    In this thesis the global Standard Model (SM) fit to the electroweak precision observables is revisted with respect to newest experimental results. Various consistency checks are performed showing no significant deviation from the SM. The Higgs boson mass is estimated by the electroweak fit to be M{sub H}=94{sub -24}{sup +30} GeV without any information from direct Higgs searches at LEP, Tevatron, and the LHC and the result is M{sub H}=125{sub -10}{sup +8} GeV when including the direct Higgs mass constraints. The strong coupling constant is extracted at fourth perturbative order as {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}{sup 2})=0.1194{+-}0.0028(exp){+-}0.0001 (theo). From the fit including the direct Higgs constraints the effective weak mixing angle is determined indirectly to be sin{sup 2} {theta}{sup l}{sub eff}=0.23147{sub -0.00010}{sup +0.00012}. For the W mass the value of M{sub W}=80.360{sub -0.011}{sup +0.012} GeV is obtained indirectly from the fit including the direct Higgs constraints. The electroweak precision data is also exploited to constrain new physics models by using the concept of oblique parameters. In this thesis the following models are investigated: models with a sequential fourth fermion generation, the inert-Higgs doublet model, the littlest Higgs model with T-parity conservation, and models with large extra dimensions. In contrast to the SM, in these models heavy Higgs bosons are in agreement with the electroweak precision data. The forward-backward asymmetry as a function of the invariant mass is measured for pp{yields} Z/{gamma}{sup *}{yields}e{sup +}e{sup -} events collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The data taken in 2010 at a center-of-mass energy of {radical}(s)=7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 37.4 pb{sup -1} is analyzed. The measured forward-backward asymmetry is in agreement with the SM expectation. From the measured forward-backward asymmetry the effective weak mixing angle is extracted as sin{sup 2} {theta}{sup l

  17. Objectively measured physical activity has a negative but weak association with academic performance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Tejero-González, Carlos M; Martinez-Gomez, David; Cabanas-Sánchez, Verónica; Fernández-Santos, Jorge R; Conde-Caveda, Julio; Sallis, James F; Veiga, Oscar L

    2014-11-01

    There is an emerging body of evidence on the potential effects of regular physical activity on academic performance. The aim of this study was to add to the debate, by examining the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic performance in a relatively large sample of children and adolescents. The Spanish UP & DOWN study is a 3-year longitudinal study designed to assess the impact, overtime, of physical activity and sedentary behaviours on health indicators. This present analysis was conducted with 1778 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years. Physical activity was objectively measured by accelerometry. Academic performance was assessed using school grades. Physical activity was inversely associated with all academic performance indicators after adjustment for potential confounders, including neonatal variables, fatness and fitness (all p academic performance between the lowest and the second quartile of physical activity, compared to the highest quartile, with very small effect size (d academic performance during both childhood and adolescence, but this association was negative and very weak. Longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to further our understanding. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. CH-{\\pi} interaction-induced deep orbital deformation in a benzene-methane weak binding system

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jianfu

    2015-01-01

    The nonbonding interaction between benzene and methane, called CH-{\\pi} interaction, plays an important role in physical, chemical, and biological fields. CH-{\\pi} interaction can decrease the system total energy and promote the formation of special geometric configurations. This work investigates systemically the orbital distribution and composition of the benzene-methane complex for the first time using ab initio calculation based on different methods and basis sets. Surprisingly, we find strong deformation in HOMO-4 and LUMO+2 induced by CH-{\\pi} interaction, extending the general view that nonbonding interaction does not cause orbital change of molecules.

  19. Social interactions between live and artificial weakly electric fish: Electrocommunication and locomotor behavior of Mormyrus rume proboscirostris towards a mobile dummy fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Worm

    Full Text Available Mormyrid weakly electric fish produce short, pulse-type electric organ discharges for actively probing their environment and to communicate with conspecifics. Animals emit sequences of pulse-trains that vary in overall frequency and temporal patterning and can lead to time-locked interactions with the discharge activity of other individuals. Both active electrolocation and electrocommunication are additionally accompanied by stereotypical locomotor patterns. However, the concrete roles of electrical and locomotor patterns during social interactions in mormyrids are not well understood. Here we used a mobile fish dummy that was emitting different types of electrical playback sequences to study following behavior and interaction patterns (electrical and locomotor between individuals of weakly electric fish. We confronted single individuals of Mormyrus rume proboscirostris with a mobile dummy fish designed to attract fish from a shelter and recruit them into an open area by emitting electrical playbacks of natural discharge sequences. We found that fish were reliably recruited by the mobile dummy if it emitted electrical signals and followed it largely independently of the presented playback patterns. While following the dummy, fish interacted with it spatially by displaying stereotypical motor patterns, as well as electrically, e.g. through discharge regularizations and by synchronizing their own discharge activity to the playback. However, the overall emission frequencies of the dummy were not adopted by the following fish. Instead, social signals based on different temporal patterns were emitted depending on the type of playback. In particular, double pulses were displayed in response to electrical signaling of the dummy and their expression was positively correlated with an animals' rank in the dominance hierarchy. Based on additional analysis of swimming trajectories and stereotypical locomotor behavior patterns, we conclude that the reception

  20. Social interactions between live and artificial weakly electric fish: Electrocommunication and locomotor behavior of Mormyrus rume proboscirostris towards a mobile dummy fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worm, Martin; Kirschbaum, Frank; von der Emde, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Mormyrid weakly electric fish produce short, pulse-type electric organ discharges for actively probing their environment and to communicate with conspecifics. Animals emit sequences of pulse-trains that vary in overall frequency and temporal patterning and can lead to time-locked interactions with the discharge activity of other individuals. Both active electrolocation and electrocommunication are additionally accompanied by stereotypical locomotor patterns. However, the concrete roles of electrical and locomotor patterns during social interactions in mormyrids are not well understood. Here we used a mobile fish dummy that was emitting different types of electrical playback sequences to study following behavior and interaction patterns (electrical and locomotor) between individuals of weakly electric fish. We confronted single individuals of Mormyrus rume proboscirostris with a mobile dummy fish designed to attract fish from a shelter and recruit them into an open area by emitting electrical playbacks of natural discharge sequences. We found that fish were reliably recruited by the mobile dummy if it emitted electrical signals and followed it largely independently of the presented playback patterns. While following the dummy, fish interacted with it spatially by displaying stereotypical motor patterns, as well as electrically, e.g. through discharge regularizations and by synchronizing their own discharge activity to the playback. However, the overall emission frequencies of the dummy were not adopted by the following fish. Instead, social signals based on different temporal patterns were emitted depending on the type of playback. In particular, double pulses were displayed in response to electrical signaling of the dummy and their expression was positively correlated with an animals' rank in the dominance hierarchy. Based on additional analysis of swimming trajectories and stereotypical locomotor behavior patterns, we conclude that the reception and emission of

  1. Experimental observation of structures with subtle balance between strong hydrogen bond and weak n → π(*) interaction: Gas phase laser spectroscopy of 7-azaindole⋯fluorosubstituted pyridines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Santosh K; Vaishnav, Jamuna K; Das, Aloke

    2016-09-14

    In this study, interplay between a strong hydrogen bond and a very weak n → π(*) interaction has been probed through experiment for the first time. We have used resonant 2-photon ionization, Infrared-ultraviolet double resonance spectroscopy, and quantum chemistry calculation to determine the structures of 7-azaindole⋯2,6-difluoropyridine and 7-azaindole⋯2,3,5,6-tetrafluororpyridine complexes, which are stabilized by both hydrogen bonding and n → π(*) interaction. The structures of the complexes studied in the present work have been compared with the double hydrogen bonded (N-H⋯N and C-H⋯N) planar structure of 7-azaindole⋯2-fluoropyridine. It has been found that the strength of the N-H⋯N hydrogen bond in the 7-azaindole⋯2,6-substituted fluoropyridines is affected due to several factors. The main reason for huge reduction in the strength of this N-H⋯N hydrogen bond in these complexes is due to loss of the C-H⋯N hydrogen bond, through substitution of fluorine atoms in 2 and 6 positions, which induces major structural changes by bending the hydrogen bond and introducing the n → π(*) interaction. Effect of fluorination as well as presence of the n → π(*) interaction in these complexes also contributes to the reduction of the strength of the N-H⋯N interaction. Although it is difficult to quantify the role of the n → π(*) interaction to affect the strength of the hydrogen bond, observation of the structures, where a strong hydrogen bond and a weak n → π(*) interaction co-exist, is confirmed.

  2. Measuring enjoyment of an interactive museum experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Elisabeth M.A.G.; Lingnau, Andreas; Kockelkorn, Hub

    2012-01-01

    Museums are increasingly being equipped with interactive technology. The main goal of using technology is to improve the museum-going experience of visitors. In this paper, we present the results of a study with an electronic quest through a museum aimed at children in the age of 10-12. We wanted to

  3. Measurement of the magnetic interaction between two bound electrons of two separate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Navon, Nir; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-06-19

    Electrons have an intrinsic, indivisible, magnetic dipole aligned with their internal angular momentum (spin). The magnetic interaction between two electronic spins can therefore impose a change in their orientation. Similar dipolar magnetic interactions exist between other spin systems and have been studied experimentally. Examples include the interaction between an electron and its nucleus and the interaction between several multi-electron spin complexes. The challenge in observing such interactions for two electrons is twofold. First, at the atomic scale, where the coupling is relatively large, it is often dominated by the much larger Coulomb exchange counterpart. Second, on scales that are substantially larger than the atomic, the magnetic coupling is very weak and can be well below the ambient magnetic noise. Here we report the measurement of the magnetic interaction between the two ground-state spin-1/2 valence electrons of two (88)Sr(+) ions, co-trapped in an electric Paul trap. We varied the ion separation, d, between 2.18 and 2.76 micrometres and measured the electrons' weak, millihertz-scale, magnetic interaction as a function of distance, in the presence of magnetic noise that was six orders of magnitude larger than the magnetic fields the electrons apply on each other. The cooperative spin dynamics was kept coherent for 15 seconds, during which spin entanglement was generated, as verified by a negative measured value of -0.16 for the swap entanglement witness. The sensitivity necessary for this measurement was provided by restricting the spin evolution to a decoherence-free subspace that is immune to collective magnetic field noise. Our measurements show a d(-3.0(4)) distance dependence for the coupling, consistent with the inverse-cube law.

  4. Measuring social interaction in music ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, Gualtiero; D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Badino, Leonardo; Camurri, Antonio; Fadiga, Luciano

    2016-05-05

    Music ensembles are an ideal test-bed for quantitative analysis of social interaction. Music is an inherently social activity, and music ensembles offer a broad variety of scenarios which are particularly suitable for investigation. Small ensembles, such as string quartets, are deemed a significant example of self-managed teams, where all musicians contribute equally to a task. In bigger ensembles, such as orchestras, the relationship between a leader (the conductor) and a group of followers (the musicians) clearly emerges. This paper presents an overview of recent research on social interaction in music ensembles with a particular focus on (i) studies from cognitive neuroscience; and (ii) studies adopting a computational approach for carrying out automatic quantitative analysis of ensemble music performances. © 2016 The Author(s).

  5. A Proposal for Measuring Interactivity that Brings Learning Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosh Yamamoto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed in this paper that some type of way to measure and visualize interactivity in the multimedia or e-Learning contents is necessary in order to clearly identify interactivity that brings learning effectiveness. Interactivity during learning will arouse students’ intellectual curiosity and motivate them to learn further. Although the interaction in the communication between the teacher and his/her students in a regular classroom is ideal, it is not possible to maintain the equivalence in the multimedia or e-Learning contents. In order to rigorously formalize the field of measuring interactivity as a theory, theoretical constructs such as interactivity, interest, knowledge, and experience are redefined first. Then, the defined “interactivity” is broken down to subcomponents to develop an assessment tool for the interactivity which brings learning effectiveness. In the end, it is proved that the interactivity in learning can be measured.

  6. Measuring social interaction in music ensembles

    OpenAIRE

    Volpe, Gualtiero; D’Ausilio, Alessandro; Badino, Leonardo; Camurri, Antonio; Fadiga, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    Music ensembles are an ideal test-bed for quantitative analysis of social interaction. Music is an inherently social activity, and music ensembles offer a broad variety of scenarios which are particularly suitable for investigation. Small ensembles, such as string quartets, are deemed a significant example of self-managed teams, where all musicians contribute equally to a task. In bigger ensembles, such as orchestras, the relationship between a leader (the conductor) and a group of followers ...

  7. Low energy weak interactions and decays. [Partial summary of presentations at XXth International Conf. on High Energy Physics, Madison, Wisc. , July 17-23, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trilling, G.H.

    1980-09-01

    Results presented during sessions B5 to 7 at the XXth International Conference on High Energy Physics (University of Wisconsin, Madison, July 17 to 23, 1980) are discussed. Essentially all the material presented is summarized. The sessions covered various aspects of low-energy weak interactions. The following topics are addressed: CP-invariance violation, high-statistics study of ..lambda.. beta decay, parity violation in proton-nucleus scattering at 6 GeV/c, new results on the tau, charm particle decays (direct lifetime determinations, semileptonic branching ratios, comparison of semileptonic rate with theoretical expectations, further study of charm meson decays, F decays), and neutrino oscillations. 6 figures, 9 tables. (RWR)

  8. A polyacrylamide-based silica stationary phase for the separation of carbohydrates using alcohols as the weak eluent in hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jianfeng; Cheng, Lingping; Zhao, Jianchao; Fu, Qing; Jin, Yu; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao

    2017-11-17

    A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) stationary phase was prepared by a two-step synthesis method, immobilizing polyacrylamide on silica sphere particles. The stationary phase (named PA, 5μm dia) was evaluated using a mixture of carbohydrates in HILIC mode and the column efficiency reached 121,000Nm -1 . The retention behavior of carbohydrates on PA stationary phase was investigated with three different organic solvents (acetonitrile, ethanol and methanol) employed as the weak eluent. The strongest hydrophilicity of PA stationary phase was observed in both acetonitrile and methanol as the weak eluent, when compared with another two amide stationary phases. Attributing to its high hydrophilicity, three oligosaccharides (xylooligosaccharide, fructooligosaccharide and chitooligosaccharides) presented good retention on PA stationary phase using alcohols/water as mobile phase. Finally, PA stationary phase was successfully applied for the purification of galactooligosaccharides and saponins of Paris polyphylla. It is feasible to use safer and cheaper alcohols to replace acetonitrile as the weak eluent for green analysis and purification of polar compounds on PA stationary phase. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Measuring Multimodal Synchrony for Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    England, D.; Reidsma, Dennis; Sheridan, J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Crane, B.; Tschacher, Wolfgang; Ramseyer, Fabian

    Nonverbal synchrony is an important element in human-human interaction. It can also play various roles in human-computer interaction. This paper surveys some of these uses, and presents a quantitative method for measuring the level of nonverbal synchrony in an interaction.

  10. Strengthening institutions or institutionalising weaknesses? : interactions between aid and institutions in Huíla Province, Angola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This research analyses the interaction between aid interventions and local institutions through which people address needs during crisis. These include state and non- state institutions involved in social assistance and in the delivery of basic services such as healthcare. The study focuses on the

  11. Hybridization-induced charge rebalancing at the weakly interactive C60/Fe3O4(001) spinterface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wong, P.K.J.; Zhang, W.; de Jong, Machiel Pieter

    Spin injection in organic and molecular spintronic devices is largely defined by the electronic and magnetic structure of the constituting organic/ferromagnetic “spinterfaces‿. Unlike most of the previous studies involving highly interactive organic/metallic interfaces, we present here the valence

  12. A Comprehensive Analysis of Jet Quenching via a Hybrid Strong/Weak Coupling Model for Jet-Medium Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Gulhan, Doga Can [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Milhano, José Guilherme [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211 Genève 23 (Switzerland); Pablos, Daniel [Departament d' Estructura i Constituents de la Matèria and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rajagopal, Krishna [Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Within a hybrid strong/weak coupling model for jets in strongly coupled plasma, we explore jet modifications in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. Our approach merges the perturbative dynamics of hard jet evolution with the strongly coupled dynamics which dominates the soft exchanges between the fast partons in the jet shower and the strongly coupled plasma itself. We implement this approach in a Monte Carlo, which supplements the DGLAP shower with the energy loss dynamics as dictated by holographic computations, up to a single free parameter that we fit to data. We then augment the model by incorporating the transverse momentum picked up by each parton in the shower as it propagates through the medium, at the expense of adding a second free parameter. We use this model to discuss the influence of the transverse broadening of the partons in a jet on intra-jet observables. In addition, we explore the sensitivity of such observables to the back-reaction of the plasma to the passage of the jet.

  13. A Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redi, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, Richard; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-27

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c2.

  14. Search for low-mass weakly interacting massive particles using voltage-assisted calorimetric ionization detection in the SuperCDMS experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnese, R; Anderson, A J; Asai, M; Balakishiyeva, D; Basu Thakur, R; Bauer, D A; Billard, J; Borgland, A; Bowles, M A; Brandt, D; Brink, P L; Bunker, R; Cabrera, B; Caldwell, D O; Cerdeno, D G; Chagani, H; Cooley, J; Cornell, B; Crewdson, C H; Cushman, P; Daal, M; Di Stefano, P C F; Doughty, T; Esteban, L; Fallows, S; Figueroa-Feliciano, E; Godfrey, G L; Golwala, S R; Hall, J; Harris, H R; Hertel, S A; Hofer, T; Holmgren, D; Hsu, L; Huber, M E; Jastram, A; Kamaev, O; Kara, B; Kelsey, M H; Kennedy, A; Kiveni, M; Koch, K; Loer, B; Lopez Asamar, E; Mahapatra, R; Mandic, V; Martinez, C; McCarthy, K A; Mirabolfathi, N; Moffatt, R A; Moore, D C; Nadeau, P; Nelson, R H; Page, K; Partridge, R; Pepin, M; Phipps, A; Prasad, K; Pyle, M; Qiu, H; Rau, W; Redl, P; Reisetter, A; Ricci, Y; Saab, T; Sadoulet, B; Sander, J; Schneck, K; Schnee, R W; Scorza, S; Serfass, B; Shank, B; Speller, D; Villano, A N; Welliver, B; Wright, D H; Yellin, S; Yen, J J; Young, B A; Zhang, J

    2014-01-31

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this Letter, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage-assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for ten live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of 170  eVee (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6  GeV/c2.

  15. Search for Low-Mass Weakly Interacting Massive Particles Using Voltage-Assisted Calorimetric Ionization Detection in the SuperCDMS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Bowles, M. A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Cabrera, B.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Chagani, H.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hertel, S. A.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Kiveni, M.; Koch, K.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Mahapatra, R.; Mandic, V.; Martinez, C.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Moore, D. C.; Nadeau, P.; Nelson, R. H.; Page, K.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schneck, K.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wright, D. H.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2014-01-01

    SuperCDMS is an experiment designed to directly detect Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), a favored candidate for dark matter ubiquitous in the Universe. In this paper, we present WIMP-search results using a calorimetric technique we call CDMSlite, which relies on voltage- assisted Luke-Neganov amplification of the ionization energy deposited by particle interactions. The data were collected with a single 0.6 kg germanium detector running for 10 live days at the Soudan Underground Laboratory. A low energy threshold of 170 eVee (electron equivalent) was obtained, which allows us to constrain new WIMP-nucleon spin-independent parameter space for WIMP masses below 6 GeV/c2.

  16. Compton Scattering Polarimetry for the Determination of the Proton's Weak Charge Through Measurements of the Parity-Violating Asymmetry of 1H(e,e')p

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornejo, Juan Carlos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The Standard Model has been a theory with the greatest success in describing the fundamental interactions of particles. As of the writing of this dissertation, the Standard Model has not been shown to make a false prediction. However, the limitations of the Standard Model have long been suspected by its lack of a description of gravity, nor dark matter. Its largest challenge to date, has been the observation of neutrino oscillations, and the implication that they may not be massless, as required by the Standard Model. The growing consensus is that the Standard Model is simply a lower energy effective field theory, and that new physics lies at much higher energies. The Qweak Experiment is testing the Electroweak theory of the Standard Model by making a precise determination of the weak charge of the proton (Qpw). Any signs of "new physics" will appear as a deviation to the Standard Model prediction. The weak charge is determined via a precise measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry of the electron-proton interaction via elastic scattering of a longitudinally polarized electron beam of an un-polarized proton target. The experiment required that the electron beam polarization be measured to an absolute uncertainty of 1%. At this level the electron beam polarization was projected to contribute the single largest experimental uncertainty to the parity-violating asymmetry measurement. This dissertation will detail the use of Compton scattering to determine the electron beam polarization via the detection of the scattered photon. I will conclude the remainder of the dissertation with an independent analysis of the blinded Qweak.

  17. Simulation of LD Identification Accuracy Using a Pattern of Processing Strengths and Weaknesses Method with Multiple Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miciak, Jeremy; Taylor, W. Pat; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the classification accuracy of learning disability (LD) identification methods premised on the identification of an intraindividual pattern of processing strengths and weaknesses (PSW) method using multiple indicators for all latent constructs. Known LD status was derived from latent scores; values at the observed level identified…

  18. Weak relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Selleri, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Weak Relativity is an equivalent theory to Special Relativity according to Reichenbach’s definition, where the parameter epsilon equals to 0. It formulates a Neo-Lorentzian approach by replacing the Lorentz transformations with a new set named “Inertial Transformations”, thus explaining the Sagnac effect, the twin paradox and the trip from the future to the past in an easy and elegant way. The cosmic microwave background is suggested as a possible privileged reference system. Most importantly, being a theory based on experimental proofs, rather than mutual consensus, it offers a physical description of reality independent of the human observation.

  19. Heat transfer measurements in swept shock wave/turbulent boundary-layer interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeol

    An experimental research program providing basic knowledge and establishing a database on the heat transfer in three-dimensional shock wave/boundary-layer interaction is described. High thermal loading in such interactions constitutes a fundamental problem of critical concern to future supersonic and hypersonic flight vehicles. A turbulent boundary-layer on a flat plate is subjected to interactions with swept planar shock waves generated by a sharp fin. Fin angles from 10 deg to 20 deg at freestream Mach numbers 3.0 and 4.0 produce a variety of interaction strengths from weak to very strong. A foil heater generates a uniform heat flux over the surface of interest and thin-film resistance thermometers mounted on it are used to measure the local surface temperature. The heat convection equation is then used to calculate the local heat transfer coefficients. The present heat transfer technique is applied to measure heat transfer distributions for 5 different interaction cases. The experimental data are compared with numerical Navier-Stokes solutions. The estimation of total uncertainty of the present measurements is about plus or minus 10 percent, which makes them suitable for CFD code validation purposes. The measured peak heat transfer data are correlated with the normal Mach number based on the concept of the quasi-conical nature of such interactions, and the results show good agreement with other experimental data.

  20. Composite weak bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, M.

    1988-04-01

    Dynamical mechanism of composite W and Z is studied in a 1/N field theory model with four-fermion interactions in which global weak SU(2) symmetry is broken explicitly by electromagnetic interaction. Issues involved in such a model are discussed in detail. Deviation from gauge coupling due to compositeness and higher order loop corrections are examined to show that this class of models are consistent not only theoretically but also experimentally.

  1. A reliability measure of protein-protein interactions and a reliability measure-based search engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byungkyu; Han, Kyungsook

    2010-02-01

    Many methods developed for estimating the reliability of protein-protein interactions are based on the topology of protein-protein interaction networks. This paper describes a new reliability measure for protein-protein interactions, which does not rely on the topology of protein interaction networks, but expresses biological information on functional roles, sub-cellular localisations and protein classes as a scoring schema. The new measure is useful for filtering many spurious interactions, as well as for estimating the reliability of protein interaction data. In particular, the reliability measure can be used to search protein-protein interactions with the desired reliability in databases. The reliability-based search engine is available at http://yeast.hpid.org. We believe this is the first search engine for interacting proteins, which is made available to public. The search engine and the reliability measure of protein interactions should provide useful information for determining proteins to focus on.

  2. Weak-coupling instabilities of SU(N) fermions on the Bernal-stacked honeycomb bilayer in presence of on-site Hubbard Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujari, Sumiran; Lang, Thomas C.; Kaul, Ribhu K.

    Bernal-stacked bilayer graphene hosts an interesting 'non-relativistic' semi-metallic dispersion different from monolayer graphene. At this quadratic band touching, short-range interactions are marginal and hence cause instabilities to a variety of ground states. In this work we consider the instabilities of even N species of fermions on the Bernal bilayer with an SU (N) -symmetric contact interaction. For SU (2) fermions with an on-site Hubbard interaction the ground state has been found to be to a magnetic Néel state for all strengths of the interaction. In contrast, the leading weak coupling instability for N > 2 is a non-magnetic ground state, which is gapped and odd under time reversal. On the other hand, at strong coupling we expect Néel or VBS ground states of the effective self-conjugate SU (N) spin models. Motivated by this observation, we investigate the phase diagram for even N > 2 using determinantal quantum Monte Carlo computations. Support from NSF Grant DMR-1056536 and XSEDE Grant DMR-150037.

  3. Weak interaction strengths for supernovae calculations via the (t, He-3) reaction on medium-heavy nuclei.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, RGT; Cole, AL; Akimune, H; Austin, SM; Bazin, D; van den Berg, AM; Berg, GPA; Daito, [No Value; Fujita, Y; Fujiwara, M; Hara, K; Harakeh, MN; Hitt, GW; Howard, ME; Janecke, J; Kawabata, T; Nakamura, T; Ueno, H; Schatz, H; Sherrill, BM; Steiner, M

    2005-01-01

    The Ni-58 (t, He-3)Co-58 reaction at 112 MeV/nucleon was measured to identify strength associated with Gamow-Teller transitions in the T-z = +1 direction. The experiment is a test case for future similar studies. The main aim of such studies is to test theoretical models used to predict Gamow-Teller

  4. Development of a Highly Portable Plate Loading Device and In Situ Modulus Measurements in Weak Rock Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallu, Raj R.; Keffeler, Evan R.; Watters, Robert J.; Warren, Sean N.

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, underground mines in Nevada are increasingly exploiting in weak mineralized zones at greater depths that are intensely fractured and highly altered. The mechanical behavior of these rock masses ranges between weak rock and very stiff soil. A common limitation for design of underground mining excavations in these types of rock masses is absence of in situ geotechnical data. This limitation is generally overcome by estimating in situ mechanical behavior from empirical relationships so that the continuum-based numerical methods can be used to evaluate ground support designs. Because of the cost, time, and specialized equipment involved, historically in situ tests have not been performed in these underground mines. Predictive rock mass modulus relationships that are currently available in the literature are derived from field testing of predominantly good-quality rock masses. Consequently, there is limited confidence in using these models for rock masses with Rock Mass Ratings less than 45. In order to overcome some of these limitations, a portable plate loading device (PPLD) was designed and fabricated. The PPLD allows one to perform low cost and relatively quick in situ deformability tests to be performed on weak rock masses in underground mines. Test procedures and data reduction methods were developed to limit potential sources of error associated with the PPLD test. A total of fourteen plate loading tests were performed in weak rock masses at two different active underground mines in Nevada, USA. The resulting the test data were compared to eight published empirical rock mass modulus relationships to determine which, if any, of these relationships are sufficiently accurate for estimating modulus in similar geotechnical conditions. Only two of these relationships were found to be sufficient for first-order estimations of in situ modulus.

  5. Measuring outcomes in adult spinal deformity surgery: a systematic review to identify current strengths, weaknesses and gaps in patient-reported outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Sayf S A; van Hooff, Miranda L; Holewijn, Roderick M; Polly, David W; Haanstra, Tsjitske M; de Kleuver, Marinus

    2017-08-01

    Adult spinal deformity (ASD) causes severe disability, reduces overall quality of life, and results in a substantial societal burden of disease. As healthcare is becoming more value based, and to facilitate global benchmarking, it is critical to identify and standardize patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). This study aims to identify the current strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in PROMs used for ASD. Studies were included following a systematic search in multiple bibliographic databases between 2000 and 2015. PROMs were extracted and linked to the outcome domains of WHO's International Classification of Functioning and Health (ICF) framework. Subsequently, the clinimetric quality of identified PROMs was evaluated. The literature search identified 144 papers that met the inclusion criteria, and nine frequently used PROMs were identified. These covered 29 ICF outcome domains, which could be grouped into three of the four main ICF chapters: body function (n = 7), activity and participation (n = 19), environmental factors (n = 3), and body structure (n = 0). A low quantity (n = 3) of papers was identified that studied the clinimetric quality of PROMs. The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)-22 has the highest level of clinimetric quality for ASD. Outcome domains related to mobility and pain were well represented. We identified a gap in current outcome measures regarding neurological and pulmonary function. In addition, no outcome domains were measured in the ICF chapter body structure. These results will serve as a foundation for the process of seeking international consensus on a standard set of outcome domains, accompanied PROMs and contributing factors to be used in future clinical trials and spine registries.

  6. Hardware development for the "Weak ionization lead lepton interaction for air-shower investigations in Romania"- WILLI-AIR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bǎlǎceanu, A.; Brancus, I. M.; Dumitriu, D.; Gherghel-Lascu, A.; Haungs, A.; Mathes, H.-J.; Munteanu, A.; Mitrica, B.; Mosu, T.; Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.; Saftoiu, A.; Stanca, D.

    2017-06-01

    WILLI-AIR experiment is designed to study the muon charge ratio in Extensive Air Showers (EAS) produced by primary cosmic particles with energy lower than 1015 eV. It consists in two parts represented by two existing experiments, WILLI detector and AIR mini-array. The WILLI calorimeter has been built with the aim to measure the atmospheric muons and to discriminate between µ+ and µ-. The experimental method is based on different behavior of negative and positive muons after stopping in the matter. The EAS are measured by the AIR array, composed of 24 stations, each with a detection surface of 1m2 read out by two photomultipliers. In order to use as best as we can the properties of both capabilities, the array configuration was previously established through CORSIKA simulations, being placed at about 50 m from WILLI electromagnetic calorimeter. Fast and integrated electronics have been developed in order to process the signals from PMT's. An MBS system was chosen as a fast DAQ. This document is presenting the evolution of the work on hardware and the current results regarding the electronics capability.

  7. Muscle Weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi MD, MSc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome. And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations.

  8. Using an innovative multiple regression procedure in a cancer population (Part 1): detecting and probing relationships of common interacting symptoms (pain, fatigue/weakness, sleep problems) as a strategy to discover influential symptom pairs and clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with advanced cancer experience symptom pairs or clusters among pain, fatigue, and insomnia. Improved methods are needed to detect and interpret interactions among symptoms or diesease markers to reveal influential pairs or clusters. In prior work, I developed and validated sequential residual centering (SRC), a method that improves the sensitivity of multiple regression to detect interactions among predictors, by conditioning for multicollinearity (shared variation) among interactions and component predictors. Using a hypothetical three-way interaction among pain, fatigue, and sleep to predict depressive affect, I derive and explain SRC multiple regression. Subsequently, I estimate raw and SRC multiple regressions using real data for these symptoms from 268 palliative radiation outpatients. Unlike raw regression, SRC reveals that the three-way interaction (pain × fatigue/weakness × sleep problems) is statistically significant. In follow-up analyses, the relationship between pain and depressive affect is aggravated (magnified) within two partial ranges: 1) complete-to-some control over fatigue/weakness when there is complete control over sleep problems (ie, a subset of the pain-fatigue/weakness symptom pair), and 2) no control over fatigue/weakness when there is some-to-no control over sleep problems (ie, a subset of the pain-fatigue/weakness-sleep problems symptom cluster). Otherwise, the relationship weakens (buffering) as control over fatigue/weakness or sleep problems diminishes. By reducing the standard error, SRC unmasks a three-way interaction comprising a symptom pair and cluster. Low-to-moderate levels of the moderator variable for fatigue/weakness magnify the relationship between pain and depressive affect. However, when the comoderator variable for sleep problems accompanies fatigue/weakness, only frequent or unrelenting levels of both symptoms magnify the relationship. These findings suggest that a countervailing mechanism

  9. A Measurement of the Weak Charge of the Proton through Parity Violating Electron Scattering using the Qweak Apparatus: A 21% Result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beminiwattha, Rakitha [Ohio Univ., Athens, OH (United States)

    2013-08-01

    After a decade of preparations, the Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab is making the first direct measurement of the weak charge of the proton, Q^p_W. This quantity is suppressed in the Standard Model making a good candidate for search for new physics beyond the SM at the TeV scale. Operationally, we measure a small (about -0.200 ppm) parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron-proton scattering in integrating mode while flipping the helicity of the electrons 1000 times per second. Commissioning took place Fall 2010, and we finished taking data in early summer 2012. This dissertation is based on the data taken on an initial two weeks period (Wien0). It will provide an overview of the Qweak apparatus, description of the data acquisition and analysis software systems, and final analysis and results from the Wien0 data set. The result is a 16% measurement of the parity violating electron-proton scattering asymmetry, A = -0.2788 +/- 0.0348 (stat.) +/- 0.0290 (syst.) ppm at Q^2 = 0.0250 +/- 0.0006 (GeV)^2. From this a 21% measurement of the weak charge of the proton, Q_w^p(msr)= +0.0952 +/- 0.0155 (stat.) +/- 0.0131 (syst.) +/- 0.0015 (theory) is extracted. From this a 2% measurement of the weak mixing angle, sin^2theta_W(msr)= +0.2328 +/- 0.0039 (stat.) +/- 0.0033 (syst.) +/- 0.0004 (theory) and improved constraints on isoscalar/isovector effective coupling constants of the weak neutral hadronic currents are extracted. These results deviate from the Standard Model by one standard deviation. The Wien0 results are a proof of principle of the Qweak data analysis and a highlight of the road ahead for obtaining full results.

  10. Weak self-interactions of globular proteins studied by small-angle X-ray scattering and structure-based modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kaieda, Shuji; Plivelic, Tomás S; Halle, Bertil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate protein-protein interactions in solution by small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and theoretical modeling. The structure factor for solutions of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI), myoglobin (Mb), and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (IFABP) is determined from SAXS measurements at multiple concentrations, from Monte Carlo simulations with a coarse-grained structure-based interaction model, and from analytic approximate solutions of two idealized colloidal interaction models without adjustable parameters. By combining these approaches, we find that the structure factor is essentially determined by hard-core and screened electrostatic interactions. Other soft short-ranged interactions (van der Waals and solvation-related) are either individually insignificant or tend to cancel out. The structure factor is also not significantly affected by charge fluctuations. For Mb and IFABP, with small net charge and relatively symmetric charge distribution, the structure factor is well described b...

  11. Measuring Engagement: Affective and Social Cues in Interactive Media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Vinciarelli, Alessandro; Spink, A.J.; Grieco, F; Krips, O.E.; Loijens, L.W.S.; Noldus, L.P.J.J.; Zimmerman, P.H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this special session at Measuring Behavior 2012 is to look at engagement and ways to measure engagement in situations where users are not glued to their chair and keyboard, that is, in sensor-equipped environments that are able to perceive nonverbal interaction behavior. And, moreover, we

  12. Resumptions, Weak Bisimilarity and Big-Step Semantics for While with Interactive I/O: An Exercise in Mixed Induction-Coinduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiko Nakata

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We look at the operational semantics of languages with interactive I/O through the glasses of constructive type theory. Following on from our earlier work on coinductive trace-based semantics for While, we define several big-step semantics for While with interactive I/O, based on resumptions and termination-sensitive weak bisimilarity. These require nesting inductive definitions in coinductive definitions, which is interesting both mathematically and from the point-of-view of implementation in a proof assistant. After first defining a basic semantics of statements in terms of resumptions with explicit internal actions (delays, we introduce a semantics in terms of delay-free resumptions that essentially removes finite sequences of delays on the fly from those resumptions that are responsive. Finally, we also look at a semantics in terms of delay-free resumptions supplemented with a silent divergence option. This semantics hinges on decisions between convergence and divergence and is only equivalent to the basic one classically. We have fully formalized our development in Coq.

  13. Measurement of glycan-based interactions by frontal affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Chihiro; Yamakawa, Nao; Kitajima, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Proteins and lipids are often modified with glycan chains, which due to their large hydration effect and structural heterogeneity, significantly alter the surface physicochemical properties of proteins and biomembranes. This "glyco-atmosphere" also serves as a field for interactions with various molecules, including other glycans, lipids, peptides, proteins, and small molecules such as neurotransmitters and drugs as well as lectins. Therefore, sensitive techniques for measuring these glycan-based interactions are becoming more and more necessary, with the appropriate method largely depending on the interacting molecules. In this chapter, we focus on frontal affinity chromatography (FAC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) for examining polysialic acid-involved interactions with neurotransmitters and neurotrophins. FAC is characterized by its applicability to analyze weak interactions that are difficult to measure using conventional methods, and by the ease of principle and experimental procedures. SPR is advantageous due to the availability of suitable surface materials and for real-time monitoring with nonlabeled analytes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Selectivity issues in targeted metabolomics: Separation of phosphorylated carbohydrate isomers by mixed-mode hydrophilic interaction/weak anion exchange chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterwirth, Helmut; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Preinerstorfer, Beatrix; Gargano, Andrea; Reischl, Roland; Bicker, Wolfgang; Trapp, Oliver; Brecker, Lothar; Lindner, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Phosphorylated carbohydrates are important intracellular metabolites and thus of prime interest in metabolomics research. Complications in their analysis arise from the existence of structural isomers that do have similar fragmentation patterns in MS/MS and are hard to resolve chromatographically. Herein, we present selective methods for the liquid chromatographic separation of sugar phosphates, such as hexose and pentose phosphates, 2- and 3-phosphoglycerate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate, as well as glucosamine 1- and 6-phosphate utilizing mixed-mode chromatography with reversed-phase/weak anion-exchangers and a charged aerosol detector. The best results were obtained when the reversed-phase/weak anion-exchanger column was operated under hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography elution conditions. The effects of various chromatographic parameters were examined and are discussed on the basis of a simple stoichiometric displacement model for explaining ion-exchange processes. Employed acidic conditions have led to the complete separation of α- and β-anomers of glucose 6-phosphate at low temperature. The anomers coeluted in a single peak at elevated temperatures (>40°C) (peak coalescence), while at intermediate temperatures on-column interconversion with a plateau in-between resolved anomer peaks was observed with apparent reaction rate constants between 0.1 and 27.8×10(-4) s(-1). Dynamic HPLC under specified conditions enabled to investigate mutarotation of phosphorylated carbohydrates, their interconversion kinetics, and energy barriers for interconversion. A complex mixture of six hexose phosphate structural isomers could be resolved almost completely.

  15. The quantum measurement effect of interaction without interaction for an atomic beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong-Yi

    When an atomic beam collectively and harmonically vibrates perpendicular to the wave vector of the beam, the number of atoms reaching the atomic detector will have a vibrant factor Δt / T if the measurement time interval Δt is shorter than the period T. This new quantum mechanical measurement effect for an atomic beam is called interaction without interaction: though the translational motion of the atomic beam does not interact with its collective and transverse harmonic vibration, the latter will have an effect on the measured number of atoms associated with the former. From the new measurement effect the classical harmonic vibration's period is evaluated. We give a clear physical picture and a satisfactory physical interpretation for the measurement effect based on the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. We present an experimental proposal to verify this measurement effect for an ion beam instead of an atomic beam.

  16. Gossip and Distributed Kalman Filtering: Weak Consensus Under Weak Detectability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Soummya; Moura, José M. F.

    2011-04-01

    The paper presents the gossip interactive Kalman filter (GIKF) for distributed Kalman filtering for networked systems and sensor networks, where inter-sensor communication and observations occur at the same time-scale. The communication among sensors is random; each sensor occasionally exchanges its filtering state information with a neighbor depending on the availability of the appropriate network link. We show that under a weak distributed detectability condition: 1. the GIKF error process remains stochastically bounded, irrespective of the instability properties of the random process dynamics; and 2. the network achieves \\emph{weak consensus}, i.e., the conditional estimation error covariance at a (uniformly) randomly selected sensor converges in distribution to a unique invariant measure on the space of positive semi-definite matrices (independent of the initial state.) To prove these results, we interpret the filtered states (estimates and error covariances) at each node in the GIKF as stochastic particles with local interactions. We analyze the asymptotic properties of the error process by studying as a random dynamical system the associated switched (random) Riccati equation, the switching being dictated by a non-stationary Markov chain on the network graph.

  17. The quantum measurement effect of interaction without interaction for an atomic beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Yi Huang

    Full Text Available When an atomic beam collectively and harmonically vibrates perpendicular to the wave vector of the beam, the number of atoms reaching the atomic detector will have a vibrant factor Δt/T if the measurement time interval Δt is shorter than the period T. This new quantum mechanical measurement effect for an atomic beam is called interaction without interaction: though the translational motion of the atomic beam does not interact with its collective and transverse harmonic vibration, the latter will have an effect on the measured number of atoms associated with the former. From the new measurement effect the classical harmonic vibration’s period is evaluated. We give a clear physical picture and a satisfactory physical interpretation for the measurement effect based on the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. We present an experimental proposal to verify this measurement effect for an ion beam instead of an atomic beam. Keywords: The quantum measurement effect of interaction without interaction, The Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

  18. PIV measurements in two hypersonic shock wave / turbulent boundary layer interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreyer, Anne-Marie; Williams, Owen; Smits, Alexander J.

    2017-11-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry measurements were performed to study two compression corner interactions in hypersonic flow. The experiments, carried out at Mach 7.2 and at a Reynolds number based on momentum thickness of 3500, included mean flow surveys as well as turbulence measurements in the near-field of the interaction. For the 8° compression corner, the flow remained attached, and for the 33° compression corner a large separation bubble formed. For the attached case, the influence of the shock wave on the streamwise turbulence intensities is weak, but the wall-normal component and the Reynolds shear stress show considerable amplification. In the fully separated case, both the streamwise and wall normal velocity fluctuations, as well as the Reynolds shear stresses, show strong amplification across the interaction. In contrast with the behavior in the attached case, equilibrium flow is approached much more rapidly in the separated case. Turbulence measurements in such complex hypersonic flows are far from trivial, with particle frequency response limitations often significantly reducing the measured wall-normal turbulence. We will therefore discuss these influences on overall data quality as well as the interpretation of flow physics based on these results.

  19. Statistical and systematic errors in the measurement of weak-lensing Minkowski functionals: Application to the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirasaki, Masato; Yoshida, Naoki, E-mail: masato.shirasaki@utap.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2014-05-01

    The measurement of cosmic shear using weak gravitational lensing is a challenging task that involves a number of complicated procedures. We study in detail the systematic errors in the measurement of weak-lensing Minkowski Functionals (MFs). Specifically, we focus on systematics associated with galaxy shape measurements, photometric redshift errors, and shear calibration correction. We first generate mock weak-lensing catalogs that directly incorporate the actual observational characteristics of the Canada-France-Hawaii Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). We then perform a Fisher analysis using the large set of mock catalogs for various cosmological models. We find that the statistical error associated with the observational effects degrades the cosmological parameter constraints by a factor of a few. The Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey with a sky coverage of ∼1400 deg{sup 2} will constrain the dark energy equation of the state parameter with an error of Δw {sub 0} ∼ 0.25 by the lensing MFs alone, but biases induced by the systematics can be comparable to the 1σ error. We conclude that the lensing MFs are powerful statistics beyond the two-point statistics only if well-calibrated measurement of both the redshifts and the shapes of source galaxies is performed. Finally, we analyze the CFHTLenS data to explore the ability of the MFs to break degeneracies between a few cosmological parameters. Using a combined analysis of the MFs and the shear correlation function, we derive the matter density Ω{sub m0}=0.256±{sub 0.046}{sup 0.054}.

  20. Measurements of the Weak UV Absorptions of Isoprene and Acetone at 261–275 nm Using Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy for Evaluation of a Potential Portable Ringdown Breath Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan T.; Wang, Chuji

    2013-01-01

    The weak absorption spectra of isoprene and acetone have been measured in the wavelength range of 261–275 nm using cavity ringdown spectroscopy. The measured absorption cross-sections of isoprene in the wavelength region of 261–266 nm range from 3.65 × 10−21 cm2·molecule−1 at 261 nm to 1.42 × 10−21 cm2·molecule−1 at 266 nm; these numbers are in good agreement with the values reported in the literature. In the longer wavelength range of 270–275 nm, however, where attractive applications using a single wavelength compact diode laser operating at 274 nm is located, isoprene has been reported in the literature to have no absorption (too weak to be detected). Small absorption cross-sections of isoprene in this longer wavelength region are measured using cavity ringdown spectroscopy for the first time in this work, i.e., 6.20 × 10−23 cm2·molecule−1 at 275 nm. With the same experimental system, wavelength-dependent absorption cross-sections of acetone have also been measured. Theoretical detection limits of isoprene and comparisons of absorbance of isoprene, acetone, and healthy breath gas in this wavelength region are also discussed. PMID:23803787

  1. Measurement of the Effective Weak Mixing Angle in $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow Z/\\gamma^* \\rightarrow \\ell^+\\ell^-$ Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; et al.

    2017-10-11

    We present a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle parameter $\\sin^2\\theta_\\text{eff}^{\\ell}$, in $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow Z/\\gamma^* \\rightarrow \\mu^+\\mu^-$ events at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and corresponding to 8.6 fb$^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity. The measured value of $\\sin^2\\theta_\\text{eff}^{\\ell}[\\mu\\mu]=0.23016 \\pm 0.00064$ is further combined with the result from the D0 measurement in $p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow Z/\\gamma^{*}\\rightarrow e^{+} e^{-}$ events, resulting in $\\sin^2\\theta_\\text{eff}^{\\ell} [\\text{comb.}]=0.23095 \\pm 0.00040$. This combined result is the most precise measurement from a single experiment at a hadron collider and is the most precise determination using the coupling of the $Z/\\gamma^*$ to light quarks.

  2. Measurement of the transverse momentum spectra of weak vector bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aşılar, Ece; Bergauer, Thomas; Brandstetter, Johannes; Brondolin, Erica; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Flechl, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; König, Axel; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Matsushita, Takashi; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rad, Navid; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schieck, Jochen; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Lauwers, Jasper; Luyckx, Sten; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Abu Zeid, Shimaa; Blekman, Freya; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; De Bruyn, Isabelle; Deroover, Kevin; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Moortgat, Seth; Moreels, Lieselotte; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Parijs, Isis; Brun, Hugues; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Fasanella, Giuseppe; Favart, Laurent; Goldouzian, Reza; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lenzi, Thomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Maerschalk, Thierry; Marinov, Andrey; Randle-conde, Aidan; Seva, Tomislav; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Yonamine, Ryo; Zenoni, Florian; Zhang, Fengwangdong; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Crucy, Shannon; Dobur, Didar; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Gul, Muhammad; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Poyraz, Deniz; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Tytgat, Michael; Van Driessche, Ward; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bondu, Olivier; Brochet, Sébastien; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; De Visscher, Simon; Delaere, Christophe; Delcourt, Martin; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Mertens, Alexandre; Musich, Marco; Nuttens, Claude; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Beliy, Nikita; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Fábio Lúcio; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Hamer, Matthias; Hensel, Carsten; Moraes, Arthur; Pol, Maria Elena; Rebello Teles, Patricia; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, Ewerton; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Huertas Guativa, Lina Milena; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Ahuja, Sudha; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Souza Santos, Angelo; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Moon, Chang-Seong; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Romero Abad, David; Ruiz Vargas, José Cupertino; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Fang, Wenxing; Ahmad, Muhammad; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Leggat, Duncan; Plestina, Roko; Romeo, Francesco; Shaheen, Sarmad Masood; Spiezia, Aniello; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Chunjie; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Huaqiao; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Xu, Zijun; Avila, Carlos; Cabrera, Andrés; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Puljak, Ivica; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Ferencek, Dinko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Micanovic, Sasa; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Rykaczewski, Hans; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Awad, Adel; Elgammal, Sherif; Mohamed, Amr; Salama, Elsayed; Calpas, Betty; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Perrini, Lucia; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Veelken, Christian; Eerola, Paula; Pekkanen, Juska; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Peltola, Timo; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Machet, Martina; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Zghiche, Amina; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Antropov, Iurii; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Cadamuro, Luca; Chapon, Emilien; Charlot, Claude; Davignon, Olivier; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Jo, Mihee; Lisniak, Stanislav; Miné, Philippe; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Ortona, Giacomo; Paganini, Pascal; Pigard, Philipp; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Strebler, Thomas; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Buttignol, Michael; Chabert, Eric Christian; Chanon, Nicolas; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Coubez, Xavier; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Merlin, Jeremie Alexandre; Skovpen, Kirill; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Bernet, Colin; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Courbon, Benoit; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Lagarde, Francois; Laktineh, Imad Baptiste; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Pequegnot, Anne-Laure; Perries, Stephane; Popov, Andrey; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Khvedelidze, Arsen; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Feld, Lutz; Heister, Arno; Kiesel, Maximilian Knut; Klein, Katja; Lipinski, Martin; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Preuten, Marius; Raupach, Frank; Schael, Stefan; Schulte, Jan-Frederik; Verlage, Tobias; Weber, Hendrik; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Endres, Matthias; Erdmann, Martin; Erdweg, Sören; Esch, Thomas; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Knutzen, Simon; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Mukherjee, Swagata; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Pook, Tobias; Radziej, Markus; Reithler, Hans; Rieger, Marcel; Scheuch, Florian; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nehrkorn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Pistone, Claudia; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Asin, Ivan; Beernaert, Kelly; Behnke, Olaf; Behrens, Ulf; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Campbell, Alan; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dolinska, Ganna; Dooling, Samantha; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Gallo, Elisabetta; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gizhko, Andrii; Gunnellini, Paolo; Harb, Ali; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Karacheban, Olena; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Korol, Ievgen; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Ntomari, Eleni; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Roland, Benoit; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Saxena, Pooja; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Stefaniuk, Nazar; Trippkewitz, Karim Damun; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Dreyer, Torben; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Gonzalez, Daniel; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Junkes, Alexandra; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Kovalchuk, Nataliia; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Marconi, Daniele; Meyer, Mareike; Niedziela, Marek; Nowatschin, Dominik; Ott, Jochen; Pantaleo, Felice; Peiffer, Thomas; Perieanu, Adrian; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Sander, Christian; Scharf, Christian; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schumann, Svenja; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Tholen, Heiner; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Vormwald, Benedikt; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; Colombo, Fabio; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Fink, Simon; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Giffels, Manuel; Gilbert, Andrew; Haitz, Dominik; Hartmann, Frank; Heindl, Stefan Michael; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Maier, Benedikt; Mildner, Hannes; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Müller, Thomas; Plagge, Michael; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Röcker, Steffen; Roscher, Frank; Schröder, Matthias; Sieber, Georg; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weber, Marc; Weiler, Thomas; Williamson, Shawn; Wöhrmann, Clemens; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Agapitos, Antonis; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Tziaferi, Eirini; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Loukas, Nikitas; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Strologas, John; Filipovic, Nicolas; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Bartók, Márton; Makovec, Alajos; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Choudhury, Somnath; Mal, Prolay; Mandal, Koushik; Nayak, Aruna; Sahoo, Deepak Kumar; Sahoo, Niladribihari; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Chawla, Ridhi; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Anterpreet; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mehta, Ankita; Mittal, Monika; Singh, Jasbir; Walia, Genius; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Garg, Rocky Bala; Keshri, Sumit; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Nishu, Nishu; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Ramkrishna; Sharma, Varun; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dey, Sourav; Dutta, Suchandra; Ghosh, Shamik; Majumdar, Nayana; Modak, Atanu; Mondal, Kuntal; Mukhopadhyay, Supratik; Nandan, Saswati; Purohit, Arnab; Roy, Ashim; Roy, Debarati; Roy Chowdhury, Suvankar; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Chudasama, Ruchi; Dutta, Dipanwita; Jha, Vishwajeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Jain, Sandhya; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahakud, Bibhuprasad; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mitra, Soureek; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sarkar, Tanmay; Sur, Nairit; Sutar, Bajrang; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Chauhan, Shubhanshu; Dube, Sourabh; Kapoor, Anshul; Kothekar, Kunal; Rane, Aditee; Sharma, Seema; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Calabria, Cesare; Caputo, Claudio; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; Cristella, Leonardo; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Miniello, Giorgia; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Ranieri, Antonio; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Venditti, Rosamaria; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Battilana, Carlo; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Viliani, Lorenzo; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Primavera, Federica; Calvelli, Valerio; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Monge, Maria Roberta; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Brianza, Luca; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Pigazzini, Simone; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Esposito, Marco; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lanza, Giuseppe; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Sciacca, Crisostomo; Thyssen, Filip; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Benato, Lisa; Bisello, Dario; Boletti, Alessio; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Dosselli, Umberto; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Ventura, Sandro; Zanetti, Marco; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Braghieri, Alessandro; Magnani, Alice; Montagna, Paolo; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vai, Ilaria; Vitulo, Paolo; Alunni Solestizi, Luisa; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Leonardi, Roberto; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fedi, Giacomo; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Gelli, Simone; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Preiato, Federico; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bartosik, Nazar; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Covarelli, Roberto; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Kiani, Bilal; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Monteil, Ennio; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Ravera, Fabio; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Schizzi, Andrea; Zanetti, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Butanov, Khakimjan; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Lee, Seh Wook; Oh, Young Do; Pak, Sang Il; Son, Dong-Chul; Yusupov, Hammid; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Kim, Hyunsoo; Kim, Tae Jeong; Song, Sanghyeon; Cho, Sungwoong; Choi, Suyong; Go, Yeonju; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kisoo; Lee, Kyong Sei; Lee, Songkyo; Lim, Jaehoon; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Hyunyong; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jason Sang Hun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Yu, Intae; Dudenas, Vytautas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Vaitkus, Juozas; Ahmed, Ijaz; Ibrahim, Zainol Abidin; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Mohamad Idris, Faridah; Wan Abdullah, Wan Ahmad Tajuddin; Yusli, Mohd Nizam; Zolkapli, Zukhaimira; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-De La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Mejia Guisao, Jhovanny; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Uribe Estrada, Cecilia; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shoaib, Muhammad; Waqas, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Traczyk, Piotr; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Byszuk, Adrian; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michal; Walczak, Marek; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Di Francesco, Agostino; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Hollar, Jonathan; Leonardo, Nuno; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nemallapudi, Mythra Varun; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Toldaiev, Oleksii; Vadruccio, Daniele; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Shulha, Siarhei; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Voytishin, Nikolay; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Karneyeu, Anton; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Pozdnyakov, Ivan; Safronov, Grigory; Spiridonov, Alexander; Toms, Maria; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Chistov, Ruslan; Danilov, Mikhail; Markin, Oleg; Rusinov, Vladimir; Tarkovskii, Evgenii; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Baskakov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Miagkov, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Cirkovic, Predrag; Devetak, Damir; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Castiñeiras De Saa, Juan Ramon; Curras, Esteban; De Castro Manzano, Pablo; Fernandez, Marcos; Garcia-Ferrero, Juan; Gomez, Gervasio; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Trevisani, Nicolò; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Benhabib, Lamia; Berruti, Gaia Maria; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Castello, Roberto; Cepeda, Maria; Cerminara, Gianluca; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; Daponte, Vincenzo; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Gruttola, Michele; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dorney, Brian; Du Pree, Tristan; Duggan, Daniel; Dünser, Marc; Dupont, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Franzoni, Giovanni; Fulcher, Jonathan; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kirschenmann, Henning; Knünz, Valentin; Kortelainen, Matti J; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Martelli, Arabella; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Neugebauer, Hannes; Orfanelli, Styliani; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Peruzzi, Marco; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Piparo, Danilo; Racz, Attila; Reis, Thomas; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Ruan, Manqi; Sakulin, Hannes; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Seidel, Markus; Sharma, Archana; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Steggemann, Jan; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; 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Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Pastika, Nathaniel; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Arcaro, Daniel; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Gastler, Daniel; Rankin, Dylan; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; Sulak, Lawrence; Zou, David; Alimena, Juliette; Benelli, Gabriele; Berry, Edmund; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Hakala, John; Heintz, Ulrich; Jesus, Orduna; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Mao, Zaixing; Narain, Meenakshi; Piperov, Stefan; Sagir, Sinan; Syarif, Rizki; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Funk, Garrett; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Mclean, Christine; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; 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Tan, Shao Min; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Wittich, Peter; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Apollinari, Giorgio; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hirschauer, James; Hu, Zhen; Jayatilaka, Bodhitha; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Lammel, Stephan; Lewis, Jonathan; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lopes De Sá, Rafael; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mrenna, Stephen; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pedro, Kevin; Prokofyev, Oleg; Rakness, Gregory; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Stoynev, Stoyan; Strobbe, Nadja; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vernieri, Caterina; Verzocchi, Marco; Vidal, Richard; Wang, Michael; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Whitbeck, Andrew; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Carnes, Andrew; Carver, Matthew; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; Field, Richard D; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kotov, Khristian; Ma, Peisen; Matchev, Konstantin; Mei, Hualin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Rank, Douglas; Rossin, Roberto; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Terentyev, Nikolay; Thomas, Laurent; Wang, Jian; Wang, Sean-Jiun; Yelton, John; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Ackert, Andrew; Adams, Jordon Rowe; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bein, Samuel; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Khatiwada, Ajeeta; Prosper, Harrison; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Bhopatkar, Vallary; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Noonan, Daniel; Roy, Titas; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Kurt, Pelin; O'Brien, Christine; Sandoval Gonzalez, Irving Daniel; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Wu, Zhenbin; Zakaria, Mohammed; Zhang, Jingyu; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Durgut, Süleyman; Gandrajula, Reddy Pratap; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Khristenko, Viktor; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Snyder, Christina; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yi, Kai; Anderson, Ian; 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Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Baty, Austin; Bi, Ran; Bierwagen, Katharina; Brandt, Stephanie; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Demiragli, Zeynep; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Hsu, Dylan; Iiyama, Yutaro; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Klute, Markus; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Mcginn, Christopher; Mironov, Camelia; Narayanan, Siddharth; Niu, Xinmei; Paus, Christoph; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Stephans, George; Sumorok, Konstanty; Tatar, Kaya; Varma, Mukund; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ta-Wei; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zhukova, Victoria; Benvenuti, Alberto; Dahmes, Bryan; Evans, Andrew; Finkel, Alexey; Gude, Alexander; Hansen, Peter; Kalafut, Sean; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Lesko, Zachary; Mans, Jeremy; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rusack, Roger; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bartek, Rachel; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Fangmeier, Caleb; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kamalieddin, Rami; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Meier, Frank; Monroy, Jose; Ratnikov, Fedor; Siado, Joaquin Emilo; Snow, Gregory R; Stieger, Benjamin; Alyari, Maral; Dolen, James; George, Jimin; Godshalk, Andrew; Harrington, Charles; Iashvili, Ia; Kaisen, Josh; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Parker, Ashley; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Roozbahani, Bahareh; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Hortiangtham, Apichart; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Teixeira De Lima, Rafael; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Low, Jia Fu; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Sung, Kevin; Trovato, Marco; 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Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Foerster, Mark; Heideman, Joseph; Riley, Grant; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; Thapa, Krishna; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Celik, Ali; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; De Mattia, Marco; Delgado, Andrea; Dildick, Sven; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Huang, Tao; Kamon, Teruki; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Mueller, Ryan; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Patel, Rishi; Perloff, Alexx; Perniè, Luca; Rathjens, Denis; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Tatarinov, Aysen; Ulmer, Keith; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kunori, Shuichi; Lamichhane, Kamal; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Undleeb, Sonaina; Volobouev, Igor; Wang, Zhixing; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Janjam, Ravi; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Ni, Hong; Sheldon, Paul; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Xu, Qiao; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Barria, Patrizia; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Neu, Christopher; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Sun, Xin; Wang, Yanchu; Wolfe, Evan; Xia, Fan; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Gomber, Bhawna; Grothe, Monika; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Levine, Aaron; Long, Kenneth; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ruggles, Tyler; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Sharma, Archana; Smith, Nicholas; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Woods, Nathaniel

    2017-02-20

    The transverse momentum spectra of weak vector bosons are measured in the CMS experiment at the LHC. The measurement uses a sample of proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV, collected during a special low-luminosity running that corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 18.4 $\\pm$ 0.5 pb$^{-1}$. The production of W bosons is studied in both electron and muon decay modes, while the production of Z bosons is studied using only the dimuon decay channel. The ratios of $\\mathrm{ W }^{-}$ to $\\mathrm{ W }^{+}$ and Z to W differential cross sections are also measured. The measured differential cross sections and ratios are compared with theoretical predictions up to next-to-next leading order in QCD.

  3. Measurement of longitudinal spin asymmetries for weak boson production in polarized proton-proton collisions at RHIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, L; Adkins, J K; Agakishiev, G; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Alekseev, I; Alford, J; Anson, C D; Aparin, A; Arkhipkin, D; Aschenauer, E C; Averichev, G S; Balewski, J; Banerjee, A; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bhattarai, P; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Bland, L C; Bordyuzhin, I G; Borowski, W; Bouchet, J; Brandin, A V; Brovko, S G; Bültmann, S; Bunzarov, I; Burton, T P; Butterworth, J; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Campbell, J M; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chaloupka, P; Chang, Z; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, L; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Christie, W; Chwastowski, J; Codrington, M J M; Contin, G; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Cui, X; Das, S; Davila Leyva, A; De Silva, L C; Debbe, R R; Dedovich, T G; Deng, J; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Dhamija, S; di Ruzza, B; Didenko, L; Dilks, C; Ding, F; Djawotho, P; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, C M; Dunkelberger, L E; Dunlop, J C; Efimov, L G; Engelage, J; Engle, K S; Eppley, G; Eun, L; Evdokimov, O; Eyser, O; Fatemi, R; Fazio, S; Fedorisin, J; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fisyak, Y; Flores, C E; Gagliardi, C A; Gangadharan, D R; Garand, D; Geurts, F; Gibson, A; Girard, M; Gliske, S; Greiner, L; Grosnick, D; Gunarathne, D S; Guo, Y; Gupta, A; Gupta, S; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hamed, A; Han, L-X; Haque, R; Harris, J W; Heppelmann, S; Hirsch, A; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Horvat, S; Huang, B; Huang, H Z; Huang, X; Huck, P; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Jacobs, W W; Jang, H; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kalinkin, D; Kang, K; Kauder, K; Ke, H W; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kesich, A; Khan, Z H; Kikola, D P; Kisel, I; Kisiel, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Konzer, J; Koralt, I; Kosarzewski, L K; Kotchenda, L; Kraishan, A F; Kravtsov, P; Krueger, K; Kulakov, I; Kumar, L; Kycia, R A; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Landry, K D; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, J H; LeVine, M J; Li, C; Li, W; Li, X; Li, X; Li, Y; Li, Z M; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Lomnitz, M; Longacre, R S; Luo, X; Ma, G L; Ma, Y G; Madagodagettige Don, D M M D; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Masui, H; Matis, H S; McDonald, D; McShane, T S; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mohanty, B; Mondal, M M; Morozov, D A; Mustafa, M K; Nandi, B K; Nasim, Md; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nigmatkulov, G; Nogach, L V; Noh, S Y; Novak, J; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Oh, K; Ohlson, A; Okorokov, V; Oldag, E W; Olvitt, D L; Pachr, M; Page, B S; Pal, S K; Pan, Y X; Pandit, Y; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Pawlik, B; Pei, H; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Pile, P; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Poniatowska, K; Porter, J; Poskanzer, A M; Pruthi, N K; Przybycien, M; Pujahari, P R; Putschke, J; Qiu, H; Quintero, A; Ramachandran, S; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Riley, C K; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Ross, J F; Roy, A; Ruan, L; Rusnak, J; Rusnakova, O; Sahoo, N R; Sahu, P K; Sakrejda, I; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sangaline, E; Sarkar, A; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmah, A M; Schmidke, W B; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Seyboth, P; Shah, N; Shahaliev, E; Shanmuganathan, P V; Shao, M; Sharma, B; Shen, W Q; Shi, S S; Shou, Q Y; Sichtermann, E P; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, D; Smirnov, N; Solanki, D; Sorensen, P; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Stevens, J R; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Sumbera, M; Sun, X; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Svirida, D N; Symons, T J M; Szelezniak, M A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thomas, J H; Timmins, A R; Tlusty, D; Tokarev, M; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tribedy, P; Trzeciak, B A; Tsai, O D; Turnau, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van Nieuwenhuizen, G; Vandenbroucke, M; Vanfossen, J A; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasiliev, A N; Vertesi, R; Videbæk, F; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Vossen, A; Wada, M; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, J S; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Wang, Y; Webb, G; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, Y F; Xiao, Z; Xie, W; Xin, K; Xu, H; Xu, J; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yan, W; Yang, C; Yang, Y; Yang, Y; Ye, Z; Yepes, P; Yi, L; Yip, K; Yoo, I-K; Yu, N; Zawisza, Y; Zbroszczyk, H; Zha, W; Zhang, J B; Zhang, J L; Zhang, S; Zhang, X P; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, F; Zhao, J; Zhong, C; Zhu, X; Zhu, Y H; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zyzak, M

    2014-08-15

    We report measurements of single- and double-spin asymmetries for W^{±} and Z/γ^{*} boson production in longitudinally polarized p+p collisions at sqrt[s]=510  GeV by the STAR experiment at RHIC. The asymmetries for W^{±} were measured as a function of the decay lepton pseudorapidity, which provides a theoretically clean probe of the proton's polarized quark distributions at the scale of the W mass. The results are compared to theoretical predictions, constrained by polarized deep inelastic scattering measurements, and show a preference for a sizable, positive up antiquark polarization in the range 0.05

  4. Measuring RNA-Ligand Interactions with Microscale Thermophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Michelle H; Hilimire, Thomas; Sanders, Allix M; Schneekloth, John S

    2018-01-12

    In the past twenty years, there has been a dramatic increase in the study of RNA. RNA has gone from being known as an intermediate in the central dogma of molecular biology to a molecule with a large diversity of structure and function that is involved in all aspects of biology. As new functions are rapidly discovered, it has become clear that there is a need for RNA-targeting small molecule probes to investigate RNA biology and clarify the potential for therapeutics based on RNA/small molecule interactions. While a host of techniques exist to measure small molecule/RNA interactions, many of these have drawbacks that make them intractable for routine use and are often not broadly applicable. A newer technology called microscale thermophoresis (MST), which measures the directed migration of a molecule and/or molecule ligand complex along a temperature gradient, can be used to measure binding affinities using very small amounts of sample, greatly reducing cost of materials. Here, we demonstrate how MST can be used to study a range of RNA interactions, including peptide/RNA interactions, RNA/small molecule interactions, and displacement of an RNA bound peptide by a small molecule.

  5. Search for a light Higgs boson decaying to long-lived weakly-interacting particles in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; 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Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; 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Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; 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Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imbault, Didier; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    A search for the decay of a light Higgs (120 - 140 GeV) to a pair of weakly-interacting, long-lived particles in 1.94 fb${^-1}$ of proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV recorded in 2011 by the ATLAS detector is presented. The search strategy requires that both long-lived particles decay inside the muon spectrometer. No excess of events is observed above the expected background and limits on the Higgs boson production times branching ratio to weakly-interacting, long-lived particles are derived as a function of the particle proper decay length.

  6. Interaction-free measurement as quantum channel discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Yung, Man-Hong

    2017-12-01

    Interaction-free measurement is a quantum process where, in the ideal situation, an object can be detected as if no interaction took place with the probing photon. Here we show that the problem of interaction-free measurement can be regarded as a problem of quantum-channel discrimination. In particular, we look for the optimal photonic states that can minimize the detection error and the photon loss in detecting the presence or absence of the object, which is taken to be semitransparent, and the number of the interrogation cycle is assumed to be finite. Furthermore, we also investigated the possibility of minimizing the detection error through the use of entangled photons, which is essentially a setting of quantum illumination. However, our results indicate that entanglement does not exhibit a clear advantage; the same performance can be achieved with unentangled photonic states.

  7. Measurement of strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    In the PS207 experiment at CERN, X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressure. The strong interaction shift and the broadening of the K/sub alpha / transition in antiprotonic hydrogen were $9 determined. Evidence was found for the individual hyperfine components of the protonium ground state. (7 refs).

  8. Comparison between high-frequency ultrasonography and histological assessment reveals weak correlation for measurements of scar tissue thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabalyan, Natacha A; Su, Samuel; Sinha, Sarthak; Gabriel, Vincent

    2017-05-01

    Current methods for evaluating scar tissue volume following burns have shortcomings. The Vancouver Burn Scar scale is subjective, leading to a high variability in assessment. Although histological assessment via punch biopsy can discriminate between the different layers of skin, such an approach is invasive, inefficient, and detrimental to patient experience and wound healing. This study investigates the accuracy of high-frequency ultrasonography, a non-invasive alternative to histology, for measuring dermal and epidermal thickness in scar tissue. Scar thicknesses of 10 patients following burns were assessed using a 2-D high-frequency ultrasound probe. The scars were then biopsied using a circular 4mm punch biopsy for histological assessment. Dermal, epidermal, and total thickness of the scar tissue was measured using ultrasound and histology, and correlations between the two measurements were calculated. There was not a strong correlation between ultrasound measurement and histological analysis for epidermal, dermal, and total thickness (Spearman's rank correlation of -0.1223, -0.6242, and -0.6242) of scar tissue. Measurements of scar thickness using high-frequency ultrasonography did not recapitulate the in vivo dermal, epidermal and total thickness. Based on these findings, strategies for further optimization of 2-D ultrasonography is discussed before clinical and research use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  9. Measurement of the dynamic response of low-gain solid-state photodetector under weak pulse illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, D; Morel, Christian

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a Tunable Light Pulse Generator built to measure the quantum efficiency of photodetectors under continuous or pulsed (20 ns FWHM) illumination as a function of wavelength in the Visible-UV region. For this purpose, a miniature Hamamatsu R5600U-04 PMT with low cathode resistivity can be used as reference detector. Dedicated electronics was developed in order to measure simultaneously the cathode and anode currents. This should allow to determine precisely the gain as a function of the high voltage applied to the PMT. Preliminary measurements using the TLPG do not demonstrate significant differences between the dynamic (approx 10 000 photons) and DC responses of PIN photodiodes down to 300 nm.

  10. Applicability of SWOT analysis for measuring quality of public oral health services as perceived by adult patients in Finland. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toivanen, T; Lahti, S; Leino-Kilpi, H

    1999-10-01

    To determine the applicability of SWOT analysis for measuring the quality of public oral health services from the adult client's perspective. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire developed in an earlier study. The study group consisted of all adult (over 18 years of age) clients (n = 256) using public municipal oral health services in Kirkkonummi, Finland, during 2 weeks in 1995. Before treatment, patients filled out a questionnaire that measured the importance of their expectations in different aspects of oral care. After the appointment, they filled out a similar questionnaire that measured the enactment of these expectations in the treatment situation. The response rate was 51%. The difference between subjective importance and enactment of expectations was tested by Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results were interpreted using both a conventional analysis of "expectation enacted or not" and SWOT analysis, which is used in strategic planning to identify areas of strengths (S), weaknesses (W), opportunities (O) and threats (T) in an organisation. In 28 statements out of 35, the two analyses revealed similar interpretations. In most areas the patient-perceived quality of the services was good. Weaknesses were found in the following areas: communicating to patients the causes and risk of developing oral diseases, informing them about different treatment possibilities, and including patients in decision-making when choosing restorative materials. SWOT analysis provided more structured interpretation of the results, and can be more easily transferred to development of services.

  11. Statistical measures of complexity for strongly interacting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Solé, R V; Sole, Ricard V.; Luque, Bartolo

    1999-01-01

    In recent studies, new measures of complexity for nonlinear systems have been proposed based on probabilistic grounds, as the LMC measure (Phys. Lett. A {\\bf 209} (1995) 321) or the SDL measure (Phys. Rev. E {\\bf 59} (1999) 2). All these measures share an intuitive consideration: complexity seems to emerge in nature close to instability points, as for example the phase transition points characteristic of critical phenomena. Here we discuss these measures and their reliability for detecting complexity close to critical points in complex systems composed of many interacting units. Both a two-dimensional spatially extended problem (the 2D Ising model) and a analysed. It is shown that the LMC and the SDL measures can be easily generalized to extended systems but fails to detect real complexity.

  12. Objectively measured physical activity has a negative but weak association with academic performance in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban Cornejo, I.; Tejero González, Carlos María; Martínez-Gómez, David; Cabanas Sánchez, Verónica; Fernández Santos, J.; Conde Caveda, J.; Sallis, J F; Veiga, Óscar Luis; Santiago Dorrego, Catalina; Gómez Gallego, Félix; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    AIM: There is an emerging body of evidence on the potential effects of regular physical activity on academic performance. The aim of this study was to add to the debate, by examining the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic performance in a relatively large sample of children and adolescents. METHODS: The Spanish UP & DOWN study is a 3-year longitudinal study designed to assess the impact, overtime, of physical activity and sedentary behaviours on h...

  13. Quantifying Engagement: Measuring Player Involvement in Human-Avatar Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Anne E; Weger, Harry; Bullinger, Cory; Bowers, Alyssa

    2014-05-01

    This research investigated the merits of using an established system for rating behavioral cues of involvement in human dyadic interactions (i.e., face-to-face conversation) to measure involvement in human-avatar interactions. Gameplay audio-video and self-report data from a Feasibility Trial and Free Choice study of an effective peer resistance skill building simulation game (DRAMA-RAMA™) were used to evaluate reliability and validity of the rating system when applied to human-avatar interactions. The Free Choice study used a revised game prototype that was altered to be more engaging. Both studies involved girls enrolled in a public middle school in Central Florida that served a predominately Hispanic (greater than 80%), low-income student population. Audio-video data were coded by two raters, trained in the rating system. Self-report data were generated using measures of perceived realism, predictability and flow administered immediately after game play. Hypotheses for reliability and validity were supported: Reliability values mirrored those found in the human dyadic interaction literature. Validity was supported by factor analysis, significantly higher levels of involvement in Free Choice as compared to Feasibility Trial players, and correlations between involvement dimension sub scores and self-report measures. Results have implications for the science of both skill-training intervention research and game design.

  14. Entropic uncertainty for spin-1/2 XXX chains in the presence of inhomogeneous magnetic fields and its steering via weak measurement reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Ming, Fei; Huang, Ai-Jun; Sun, Wen-Yang; Ye, Liu

    2017-09-01

    The uncertainty principle configures a low bound to the measuring precision for a pair of non-commuting observables, and hence is considerably nontrivial to quantum precision measurement in the field of quantum information theory. In this letter, we consider the entropic uncertainty relation (EUR) in the context of quantum memory in a two-qubit isotropic Heisenberg spin chain. Specifically, we explore the dynamics of EUR in a practical scenario, where two associated nodes of a one-dimensional XXX-spin chain, under an inhomogeneous magnetic field, are connected to a thermal entanglement. We show that the temperature and magnetic field effect can lead to the inflation of the measuring uncertainty, stemming from the reduction of systematic quantum correlation. Notably, we reveal that, firstly, the uncertainty is not fully dependent on the observed quantum correlation of the system; secondly, the dynamical behaviors of the measuring uncertainty are relatively distinct with respect to ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism chains. Meanwhile, we deduce that the measuring uncertainty is dramatically correlated with the mixedness of the system, implying that smaller mixedness tends to reduce the uncertainty. Furthermore, we propose an effective strategy to control the uncertainty of interest by means of quantum weak measurement reversal. Therefore, our work may shed light on the dynamics of the measuring uncertainty in the Heisenberg spin chain, and thus be important to quantum precision measurement in various solid-state systems.

  15. Measurement of the weak mixing angle with the forward-backward asymmetry of Drell-Yan events at 8 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    We present a measurement of the effective weak mixing angle using the forward-backward asymmetry of Drell-Yan ($ee$ and $\\mu\\mu$) events in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8~\\mathrm{TeV}$ at CMS. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $18.8~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ and $19.6~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$ for muon and electron channels, respectively. The sample consists of 8.2 million dimuon and 4.9 million dielectron events. With new analysis techniques and a larger dataset, the statistical and systematic uncertainties are significantly reduced compared to our previous measurement. The extracted value of the effective weak mixing angle from the combined $ee$ and $\\mu\\mu$ data samples is $ \\sin^2\\theta^{\\text{lept}}_{\\text{eff}}=0.23101\\pm 0.00036(\\text{stat})\\pm 0.00018(\\text{syst})\\pm 0.00016(\\text{theory})\\pm 0.00030(\\text{pdf})$ or $ \\sin^2\\theta^{\\text{lept}}_{\\text{eff}}=0.23101\\pm0.00052$.

  16. Determination of the weak phase $\\gamma$ from rate measurements in $B^{\\pm} \\to \\pi K, \\pi \\pi$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Neubert, Matthias; Neubert, Matthias; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    1998-01-01

    A method is described which, under the assumption of SU(3) symmetry, allows one to determine the angle $\\gamma = Arg(V_{ub}^*)$ of the unitarity triangle from time-independent measurements of the branching ratios for the decays $B^+\\to\\pi^0 K^+$ and $B^-\\to\\pi^0 K^-$, as well as of the CP-averaged branching ratios for the decays $B^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm K^0$ and $B^\\pm\\to\\pi^\\pm\\pi^0$. The effects of electroweak penguin operators are included in a model-independent way, and SU(3)-breaking corrections are accounted for in the factorization approximation.

  17. USING EYE TRACKING TO MEASURE ONLINE INTERACTIVITY: A THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana-Emilia ROBU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding that each and every company, even the sweetshop around the corner has found its way to the Internet, some customers still hesitate to shop online or to shop from one site and ignore the other. In order to build an online effective communication between the participants, one of the most important factors is interactivity. In the last decade it received extensive attention in the marketing literature, but few are the studies which have seen new methods to measure it. Eye tracking technology has been broadly used in the cognitive sciences. The purpose of this study is to investigate the existing literature in order to give insights into the eye tracking methodology when measuring the online interactivity. It also describes the eye tracking technology in general, extracts various examples from the eye tracking research field, with different applications, highlights its importance when analyzing the online consumer behavior, giving examples from various studies and finds the key points of the methodological difficulties. Finally, this work has an important merit for the future studies when taking into consideration the eye tracking technology in the online interactivity research and further, it is relevant for marketers, regarding the enhancement of online interactive interfaces and web or mobile applications.

  18. Using an innovative multiple regression procedure in a cancer population (Part 1: detecting and probing relationships of common interacting symptoms (pain, fatigue/weakness, sleep problems as a strategy to discover influential symptom pairs and clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoeur RB

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Richard B Francoeur1,2 1School of Social Work and the Center for Health Innovation, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY, USA; 2Center for the Psychosocial Study of Health and Illness, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Background: The majority of patients with advanced cancer experience symptom pairs or clusters among pain, fatigue, and insomnia. Improved methods are needed to detect and interpret interactions among symptoms or diesease markers to reveal influential pairs or clusters. In prior work, I developed and validated sequential residual centering (SRC, a method that improves the sensitivity of multiple regression to detect interactions among predictors, by conditioning for multicollinearity (shared variation among interactions and component predictors. Materials and methods: Using a hypothetical three-way interaction among pain, fatigue, and sleep to predict depressive affect, I derive and explain SRC multiple regression. Subsequently, I estimate raw and SRC multiple regressions using real data for these symptoms from 268 palliative radiation outpatients. Results: Unlike raw regression, SRC reveals that the three-way interaction (pain × fatigue/weakness × sleep problems is statistically significant. In follow-up analyses, the relationship between pain and depressive affect is aggravated (magnified within two partial ranges: 1 complete-to-some control over fatigue/weakness when there is complete control over sleep problems (ie, a subset of the pain–fatigue/weakness symptom pair, and 2 no control over fatigue/weakness when there is some-to-no control over sleep problems (ie, a subset of the pain–fatigue/weakness–sleep problems symptom cluster. Otherwise, the relationship weakens (buffering as control over fatigue/weakness or sleep problems diminishes. Conclusion: By reducing the standard error, SRC unmasks a three-way interaction comprising a symptom pair and cluster. Low-to-moderate levels of the moderator variable for fatigue/weakness

  19. Preparation of a novel weak cation exchange/hydrophobic interaction chromatography dual-function polymer-based stationary phase for protein separation using "thiol-ene click chemistry".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Bai, Quan; Zhao, Kailou; Gao, Dong; Tian, Lei

    2015-02-01

    A novel dual-function mixed-mode stationary phase based on poly(glycidyl methacrylate-co-ethylene dimethacrylate) microspheres was synthesized by thiol-ene click chemistry and characterized by infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The new system displays both hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) character in a high salt concentration mobile phase, and weak cation exchange (WCX) chromatography character in a low salt concentration mobile phase. It can be used to separate proteins in both ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) mode and HIC mode. The resolution and selectivity of the stationary phase were evaluated in both HIC mode and IEC mode using protein standards. In comparison with the conventional WCX and HIC columns, the results were satisfactory and acceptable. Protein mass and bioactivity recoveries of more than 96% can be achieved in both HIC mode and IEC mode using this column. The results indicate that the novel dual-function mixed-mode column in many cases can replace the use of two individual WCX and HIC columns. In addition, the effects on protein separation of different ligand structures in the dual-function stationary phase and the pH of the mobile phase used were also investigated in detail. The results show that electrostatic interaction of the ligand with proteins must match the hydrophobicity of the ligand, which is an important factor to prepare the dual-function stationary phase. On the basis of this dual-function mixed-mode chromatography column, a new two-dimensional liquid chromatography technology with a single column system was also developed in this study, and was used to renature and purify recombinant human interferon-γ from inclusion bodies. The mass recovery, purity, and specific bioactivity obtained for the purified recombinant human interferon-γ were 87.2%, 92.4%, and 2.8 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in IEC mode, and 83.4%, 95.2%, and 4.3 × 10(7) IU/mg, respectively, in HIC mode. The results indicate that the

  20. A technique to measure wavenumber mismatch between quadratically interacting modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hajj, M.R. [Coll. of Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Davila, J.B. [Coll. of Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Miksad, R.W. [Coll. of Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Powers, E.J. [Coll. of Engineering, Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1995-02-01

    Nonlinear energy cascade by means of three-wave resonant interactions is a characteristic feature of transitioning and turbulent flows. Resonant wavenumber mismatch between these interacting modes can arise from the dispersive characteristics of the interacting waves and from spectral broadening due to random effects. In this paper, a general technique is presented to estimate the average level of instantaneous wavenumber mismatch, left angle {Delta}k right angle = left angle k{sub m}-k{sub i}-k{sub j} right angle , between components whose frequencies obey the resonant selection condition, f{sub m}-f{sub i}-f{sub j}=0. Cross-correlation of the auto-bispectrum is used to quantify the level of mismatch. The concept of bispectrum coupling coherency is introduced to determine the confidence level in the wavenumber mismatch estimates. These techniques are then applied to measure wavenumber mismatch in the transitioning field of a plane wake. The results show that the average of the instantaneous mismatch between the actual interacting modes left angle k{sub m}-k{sub i}-k{sub j} right angle is in general not equal to the mismatch between the average wavenumbers of each interacting mode left angle k{sub m} right angle - left angle k{sub i} right angle - left angle k{sub j} right angle . (orig.)

  1. PIV measurements of hydrodynamic interactions between biofilms and flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kenneth T.; Kazemifar, Farzan; Aybar, Marcelo; Perez-Calleja, Patricia; Nerenberg, Robert; Sinha, Sumit; Hardy, Richard J.; Best, Jim L.; Sambrook Smith, Greg H.

    2015-11-01

    Biofilms constitute an important form of bacterial life in aquatic environments and are present at the interface of fluids and solid such as riverbeds or bridge columns. They are also utilized in bioreactors for bioremediation and water treatment purposes. They are permeable, heterogeneous, and deformable structures that can influence the flow and mass/momentum transport, yet their interaction with flow is not fully understood in part due to technical obstacles impeding quantitative experimental investigations. We have attempted to address these challenges using the PIV technique and fluorescence imaging to investigate the flow field around cylinders covered with biofilms at different growth stages. These measurements are meant to uncover the coupled dynamics of turbulence and the biofilm development. Preliminary results of PIV measurements of flow-biofilm interactions in channel flow will be presented.

  2. Predicted and measured concentrations of pharmaceuticals in hospital effluents. Examination of the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches through the analysis of a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlicchi, Paola; Zambello, Elena

    2016-09-15

    This study deals with the chemical characterization of hospital effluents in terms of the predicted and measured concentrations of 38 pharmaceuticals belonging to 11 different therapeutic classes. The paper outlines the strengths and weaknesses of the two approaches through an analysis of a case study referring to a large hospital. It highlights the observed (and expected) ranges of variability for the parameters of the adopted model, presents the results of an uncertainty analysis of direct measurements (due to sampling mode and frequency and chemical analysis) and a sensitivity analysis of predicted concentrations (based on the annual consumption of pharmaceuticals, their excretion rate and annual wastewater volume generated by the hospital). Measured concentrations refer to two sampling campaigns carried out in summer and winter in order to investigate seasonal variability of the selected compounds. Predicted concentrations are compared to measured ones in the three scenarios: summer, winter and the whole year. It was found that predicted and measured concentrations are in agreement for a limited number of compounds (namely atenolol, atorvastatin and hydrochlorothiazide), and for most compounds the adoption of the model leads to a large overestimation in all three periods. Uncertainties in predictions are mainly due to the wastewater volume and excretion factor, whereas for measured concentrations, uncertainties are mainly due to sampling mode. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. SGP Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC): Measurement Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MA Miller; R Avissar; LK Berg; SA Edgerton; ML Fischer; TJ Jackson; B. Kustas; PJ Lamb; G McFarquhar; Q Min; B Schmid; MS Torn; DD Tuner

    2007-06-01

    The Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) will be conducted from June 8 to June 30, 2007, at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. Data will be collected using eight aircraft equipped with a variety of specialized sensors, four specially instrumented surface sites, and two prototype surface radar systems. The architecture of CLASIC includes a high-altitude surveillance aircraft and enhanced vertical thermodynamic and wind profile measurements that will characterize the synoptic scale structure of the clouds and the land surface within the ACRF SGP site. Mesoscale and microscale structures will be sampled with a variety of aircraft, surface, and radar observations. An overview of the measurement platforms that will be used during the CLASIC are described in this report. The coordination of measurements, especially as it relates to aircraft flight plans, will be discussed in the CLASIC Implementation Plan.

  4. Measurement of the hadronic interaction inside the plastic scintillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Ramazani-moghaddam-Arani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  Scintillation detectors are widely used in the experimental setup for the detection of charged particles. These detectors are able to measure the energy and time-of-flight of the charged particles. Also, they can be used to identify the detected particle. The probability of hadronic interaction between the detected particle and the nuclei of the scintillator atoms is one important issue that must be considered in the analysis of the detectors output. The hadronic interaction causes particles the deposit only a part of their energy inside the detector. In this case, particle will appear in the tail of energy spectrum and is mixed with the background events. Therefore, the measured cross section, which is calculated using the number of particles that deposit their full energy in the detector will be underestimated and one should correct the cross section for the lost events. The percentage of incident particles for which the hadronic interaction occurs is determined by different methods. In this paper, using two different methods, Monte-Carlo simulation and experimental data for several different channels in the proton-deuteron and deuteron-deuteron scattering at intermediate energy are introduced. The obtained results from the two methods are consistent with each other.

  5. Interactions between chitosan and cells measured by AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Sheng-Wen; Thien, Doan Van Hong; Ho, Ming-Hua [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Li, Chung-Hsing [Division of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chang-Hsiang [Department of Dentistry, Kinmen Hospital Department of Health, Taiwan (China); Li, Hsi-Hsin, E-mail: mhho@mail.ntust.edu.t [Deputy Superintendent, Kinmen Hospital Department of Health, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    Chitosan, a biocompatible material that has been widely used in bone tissue engineering, is believed to have a high affinity to osteoblastic cells. This research is the first to prove this hypothesis. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a chitosan-modified cantilever, quantitative evaluation of the interforce between chitosan and cells was carried out. A chitosan tip functionalized with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) was also used to measure the interforce between RGD-chitosan and osteoblastic cells. This research concluded by examining cell adhesion and spreading of chitosan substrates as further characterization of the interactions between cells and chitosan. The force measured by AFM showed that the interforce between chitosan and osteoblasts was the highest (209 nN). The smallest adhesion force (61.8 nN) appeared between chitosan and muscle fibroblasts, which did not demonstrate any osteoblastic properties. This result proved that there was a significant interaction between chitosan and bone cells, and correlated with the observations of cell attachment and spreading. The technique developed in this research directly quantified the adhesion between chitosan and cells. This is the first study to demonstrate that specific interaction exists between chitosan and osteoblasts.

  6. Measurement of charm production in neutrino charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kayis-Topaksu, A

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wide-band neutrino beam of the CERN SPS of 27 GeV average neutrino energy from 1994 to 1997. In total about 100000 charged-current neutrino interactions with at least one identified muon were located in the emulsion target and fully reconstructed, using newly developed automated scanning systems. Charmed particles were searched for by a program recognizing particle decays. The observation of the decay in nuclear emulsion makes it possible to select a sample with very low background and minimal kinematical bias. 2013 charged-current interactions with a charmed hadron candidate in the final state were selected and confirmed through visual inspection. The charm production rate induced by neutrinos relative to the charged-current cross-section is measured to be $\\sigma(\

  7. Significance of Wave-Particle Interaction Analyzer for direct measurements of nonlinear wave-particle interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Katoh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the upcoming JAXA/ERG satellite mission, Wave Particle Interaction Analyzer (WPIA will be installed as an onboard software function. We study the statistical significance of the WPIA for measurement of the energy transfer process between energetic electrons and whistler-mode chorus emissions in the Earth's inner magnetosphere. The WPIA measures a relative phase angle between the wave vector E and velocity vector v of each electron and computes their inner product W, where W is the time variation of the kinetic energy of energetic electrons interacting with plasma waves. We evaluate the feasibility by applying the WPIA analysis to the simulation results of whistler-mode chorus generation. We compute W using both a wave electric field vector observed at a fixed point in the simulation system and a velocity vector of each energetic electron passing through this point. By summing up Wi of an individual particle i to give Wint, we obtain significant values of Wint as expected from the evolution of chorus emissions in the simulation result. We can discuss the efficiency of the energy exchange through wave-particle interactions by selecting the range of the kinetic energy and pitch angle of the electrons used in the computation of Wint. The statistical significance of the obtained Wint is evaluated by calculating the standard deviation σW of Wint. In the results of the analysis, positive or negative Wint is obtained at the different regions of velocity phase space, while at the specific regions the obtained Wint values are significantly greater than σW, indicating efficient wave-particle interactions. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of using the WPIA, which will be on board the upcoming ERG satellite, for direct measurement of wave-particle interactions.

  8. Network compression as a quality measure for protein interaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loic Royer

    Full Text Available With the advent of large-scale protein interaction studies, there is much debate about data quality. Can different noise levels in the measurements be assessed by analyzing network structure? Because proteomic regulation is inherently co-operative, modular and redundant, it is inherently compressible when represented as a network. Here we propose that network compression can be used to compare false positive and false negative noise levels in protein interaction networks. We validate this hypothesis by first confirming the detrimental effect of false positives and false negatives. Second, we show that gold standard networks are more compressible. Third, we show that compressibility correlates with co-expression, co-localization, and shared function. Fourth, we also observe correlation with better protein tagging methods, physiological expression in contrast to over-expression of tagged proteins, and smart pooling approaches for yeast two-hybrid screens. Overall, this new measure is a proxy for both sensitivity and specificity and gives complementary information to standard measures such as average degree and clustering coefficients.

  9. Network Compression as a Quality Measure for Protein Interaction Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Loic; Reimann, Matthias; Stewart, A. Francis; Schroeder, Michael

    2012-01-01

    With the advent of large-scale protein interaction studies, there is much debate about data quality. Can different noise levels in the measurements be assessed by analyzing network structure? Because proteomic regulation is inherently co-operative, modular and redundant, it is inherently compressible when represented as a network. Here we propose that network compression can be used to compare false positive and false negative noise levels in protein interaction networks. We validate this hypothesis by first confirming the detrimental effect of false positives and false negatives. Second, we show that gold standard networks are more compressible. Third, we show that compressibility correlates with co-expression, co-localization, and shared function. Fourth, we also observe correlation with better protein tagging methods, physiological expression in contrast to over-expression of tagged proteins, and smart pooling approaches for yeast two-hybrid screens. Overall, this new measure is a proxy for both sensitivity and specificity and gives complementary information to standard measures such as average degree and clustering coefficients. PMID:22719828

  10. Measurement of charm production in antineutrino charged-current interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Onengüt, G; De Jong, M; Konijn, J; Melzer, O; Oldeman, R G C; Pesen, E; Van der Poel, C A F J; Visschers, J L; Güler, M; Köse, U; Serin-Zeyrek, M; Kama, S; Sever, R; Tolun, P; Zeyrek, M T; Catanesi, M G; De Serio, M; Ieva, M; Muciaccia, M T; Radicioni, E; Simone, S; Bülte, A; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Artamonov, A V; Brunner, J; Chizhov, M; Cussans, D G; Doucet, M; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Litmaath, M; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Ricciardi, S; Rozanov, A; Saltzberg, D; Tsenov, R V; Uiterwijk, J W E; Zucchelli, P; Goldberg, J; Chikawa, M; Arik, E; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Aoki, S; Hara, T; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Gorbunov, P; Khovanskii, V D; Shamanov, V V; Tsukerman, I; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Rondeshagen, D; Wolff, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Ereditato, A; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Pistillo, C; Santorelli, R; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V; Nakamura, K; Okusawa, T; Dore, U; FLoverre, P; Ludovici, L; Maslennikov, A L; Righini, P; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I

    2004-01-01

    During the years 1994-97, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wideband neutrino beam of the CERN SPS collecting about 10^6 neutrino interactions. A measurement of nubar_mu-induced charm production is performed by usingthe presence of a 5% nubarmu component in the nu_mu beam. The measurement takes advantage of the capability to observe the decay topology in the emulsion. The analysis is based on a sample of charged-current interactions with at least one identified muon. About 100 000 vere located in the emulsion target and fully reconstructed. By requiring a positive muon charge as determined by the CHORUS spectrometer, 32-nubar_mu induced charm events were observed with an estimated background of 3.2 events. At an average antineutrino energy in the neutrino beam of 18GeV, the charm production rate induced by anitneutrinos is measured to be sigma(nubar_muN -> mu+cbarX)/sigma(nubar_muN -> mu+X) = (5.0^+1.4_-0.9(stat) +- 0.7(syst))%. The ratio between neutral and charged charm productio...

  11. Theoretical Probing of Weak Anion-Cation Interactions in Certain Pyridinium based Ionic Liquid Ion-Pairs and the Application of Molecular Electrostatic Potential in their Ionic Crystal Density Determination : A Comparative Study Using Density Functional Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Aswathy; Thomas, Vibin Ipe; Żyła, Gaweł; Alapat, Padmanabhan Sridharan; Mathew, Suresh

    2017-11-07

    A comprehensive study on the structure, nature of interaction and properties of six ionic pairs of 1-butylpyridinium and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium cations in combination with tetrafluoroborate (BF4-), chloride (Cl-) and bromide (Br-) anions have been carried out using Density Functional Theory (DFT). The anion-cation interaction energy (ΔEint), theoretical band gap, molecular orbital energy-order, DFT-based chemical activity descriptors: chemical potential (μ), chemical hardness (η) and electrophilicity index (ω) and distribution of density of states (DOS) of these ion-pairs were investigated. The ascendancy of -CH3 substituent at the 4th position of the 1-butylpyridinium cation ring on the values of ΔEint, theoretical band gap and chemical activity descriptors was evaluated. The ΔEint values were negative for all the six ion-pairs and were highest for Cl- containing ion-pairs. The theoretical band-gap value after -CH3 substitution increased from 3.78 to 3.96 eV (for Cl-) and from 2.74 to 2.88 eV (for Br-) and decreased from 4.9 to 4.89 eV (for BF4-). Ion-pairs of BF4- were more susceptible to charge transfer processes as inferred from their significantly high η values and comparatively small difference in ω value after -CH3 substitution. The change in η and μ values due to the -CH3 substituent is negligibly small in all cases except for the ion-pairs of Cl-. The entropy change (ΔS) was negative for all the ion-pairs. Critical point (CP) analysis were carried out to investigate the AIM topological parameters at the inter-ionic bond critical points (BCPs). The RDG isosurface analysis indicated that anion-cation interaction was dominated by strong Hcat….Xani and Ccat….Xani interactions in ion-pairs of Cl- and Br- whereas weak van der Waal's effect dominated in ion-pairs of BF4-. The molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) based parameter ΔΔVmin measuring the anion-cation interaction strength showed a good linear correlation with ΔEint for all 1

  12. Measurement of $D^{*+}$ production in charged-current neutrino interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Önengüt, G; De Jong, M; Oldeman, R G C; Güler, M; Köse, U; Tolun, P; Catanesi, M G; Muciaccia, M T; Winter, Klaus; Van de Vyver, B; Vilain, P; Wilquet, G; Saitta, B; Di Capua, E; Ogawa, S; Shibuya, H; Goldberg, J; Hristova, I R; Kawamura, T; Kolev, D; Kayis-Topaksu, A; Meinhard, H; Panman, J; Rozanov, A; Tsenov, R V; Zucchelli, P; Uiterwijk, J W E; Chikawa, M; Song, J S; Yoon, C S; Kodama, K; Ushida, N; Hara, T; Aoki, S; Delbar, T; Favart, D; Grégoire, G; Kalinin, S; Makhlyoueva, I V; Bruski, N; Frekers, D; Tsukerman, I; Shamanov, V V; Khovanskii, V D; Gorbunov, P; Artamonov, A V; Sato, Y; Tezuka, I; Barbuto, E; Bozza, C; Grella, G; Romano, G; Sirignano, C; Sorrentino, S; Dore, U; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Rosa, G; Santacesaria, R; Satta, A; Spada, F R; Okusawa, T; Hoshino, K; Kawada, J; Komatsu, M; Miyanishi, M; Nakamura, M; Nakano, T; Narita, K; Niu, K; Niwa, K; Nonaka, N; Sato, O; Toshito, T; Buontempo, S; Cocco, A G; D'Ambrosio, N; De Lellis, G; De Rosa, G; Di Capua, F; Fiorillo, G; Marotta, A; Messina, M; Migliozzi, P; Scotto-Lavina, L; Strolin, P; Tioukov, V

    2005-01-01

    During the years 1994-97, the emulsion target of the CHORUS detector was exposed to the wide-band neutrino beam of the CERN SPS of 27 GeV average neutrino energy. In total about 100 000 charged-current neutrino interactions were located in the nuclear emulsion target and fully reconstructed. A high-statistics sample of neutrino interactions with a D^0 in the final state was collected. Using the decay mode D*^+ -> D ^0 \\pi+ a production cross-section measurement of the D*^+ in neutrino-nucleon charged-current interactions was performed. The low Q-value of the decay was used to isolate a sample of candidate events containing a positive hadron with a small p_T with respect to the D^0 direction. A signal of 22.1 +- 5.5 D*^+ events was obtained. The D*^+ production cross-section relative to the D^0 production cross-section, \\sigma(D*^+) / \\sigma(D^0), was estimated to be 0.38 +- 0.09(stat) +- 0.05(syst). From this result, the fraction of D^0’s produced via the decay of a D* was deduced to be 0.63 +- 0.17. The D*...

  13. A Search for New Physics at the TeV Scale Via a Precise Measurement of the Weak Mixing Angle in Moller Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emam, W.

    2004-11-01

    This dissertation reports on a precise measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in electron-electron (Moeller) scattering at a four-momentum transfer Q{sup 2} = 0.03 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The observed parity-violating asymmetry is A{sub PV} = -128 {+-} 14 (stat.) {+-} 12 (syst.) x 10{sup -9}. This is the most precise asymmetry ever measured in a parity-violating electron scattering. In the context of the Standard Model, the A{sub PV} result determines the weak mixing angle, which is one of the fundamental parameters of the model. The result is sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W}{sup eff} = 0.2403 {+-} 0.0014, which is consistent with the Standard Model expectation at the current level of precision. The comparison between this measurement of the weak mixing angle at low Q{sup 2} and at the Z{sup 0} pole establishes the running of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} with 6.5{sigma} significance. In addition, they report on the first observation of a transverse asymmetry in electron-electron scattering. The observed asymmetry is A{sub T}{sup Moeller} = 2.7 x 10{sup -6}, which is consistent with the theoretical predictions. They also provide a new measurement of the transverse asymmetry in ep scattering A{sub T}{sup ep} = 2 x 10{sup -6}. The consistency of the result with the theoretical prediction provides new limits on the TeV scale physics. A limit of 0.9 TeV was set on the mass of the extra Z' boson in the SO(10) Model. A limit of 14 TeV and 6 TeV was set on the compositeness scales {Lambda}{sub ee}{sup +} and {Lambda}{sub ee}{sup -}, respectively. Finally a limit of 0.2 TeV was set on ratio of the doubly-charged Higgs mass to the ee{Delta} coupling g{sub ee{Delta}}{sup 2}/m{sub {delta}}{sup 2}.

  14. Measurements of Gauge Boson Self-Interactions at CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    A critical prediction of the Standard Model electroweak theory is the existence of triple and quartic gauge-boson self-interactions. The 2010-12 LHC run has resulted in a wealth of data in this sector, which can now be probed in many different production modes, both ordinary and potentially anomalous, with a sensitivity that is world-leading. In this seminar, recent CMS results are presented for: measurements of diboson production, with associated constraints on triple gauge boson couplings; the first LHC measurement of purely electroweak production of a Z with two forward jets; and two-photon production of W pairs, with the first LHC constraints on quartic gauge couplings.

  15. A measurement of the V-A x V-A structure of the weak charged current in semileptonic b decays and missing energy measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Behner, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The polarization of the W-propagator in semileptonic b decays is measured with the 13 experiment at LEP via simultaneous observation of the charged lepton and the neutrino spectrum. The polarization is seen with more than 3 standard deviations and found to be in agreement with the V-AxV-A structure. The measurement excludes the V+Ax V-A polarization with more than 6 standard deviations. Furthermore, the branching ratio in B_, vX is measured and found to be 22.7%±0.8%(stat.)±l.5%(syst.) which corresponds to a branching ratio of B_,evX of 10.1%±0.8%.

  16. Measuring public spending preferences using an interactive budgeting questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Bonica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an innovative approach to measuring public spending preferences using an interactive budgeting questionnaire. After being presented with the President’s requested budget for the upcoming fiscal year, survey respondents were asked to adjust spending levels in line with their personal preferences, subject to budgetary trade-offs. An analysis of survey results reveals that responses sharply contrast with those recovered by traditional survey measures. The results are then used to examine the relationship between fiscal preferences and self-reported ideology, and to explore the structure of budgetary preferences. It is found that preferences scale to two substantive dimensions: the first measures the trade-off between security and non-security spending and strongly correlates with self-reported ideology; and the second reveals a crosscutting cleavage that has attracted little, if any, attention in previous research. Specifically, it measures each respondent’s relative preference for rival and non-rival government goods and services.

  17. Measuring ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for detecting early-stage type 2 diabetes: A step toward personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Mengmeng; Van Wijk, Eduard; Koval, Slavik; Van Wijk, Roeland; He, Min; Wang, Mei; Hankemeier, Thomas; van der Greef, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of type 2 diabetes is estimated to reach 4.4% by 2030, placing a significant burden on our healthcare system. Therefore, the ability to identify patients in early stages of the disease is essential for both prevention and effective management, and diagnostic methods based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) may be suitable for identifying patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes. Here, a panel of three physicians trained in TCM classified 44 pre-diabetic subjects into three syndrome subtypes using TCM-based diagnostics. In addition, ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) was measured at four anatomical sites in each subject. Ten properties encompassing 40 parameters were then extracted from the UPE time series. Statistical analyses, including multinomial logistic regression, were performed using the results of each parameter measured at the four sites. Sixteen UPE parameters were then selected and used to discriminate between the three subtypes of pre-diabetic subjects. Next, Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to quantify the correlation between the 16 UPE parameters and the TCM-based diagnoses. The resulting correlation networks accurately reflected the differences between the three syndrome subtypes. These results suggest that UPE is a suitable tool for detecting subtypes in early-stage type 2 diabetes. In addition, our results provide evidence that TCM may represent an important step toward personalized medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Precision Measurement of the proton neutral weak form factors at Q2 ~ 0.1 GeV2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufman, Lisa J. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2007-02-01

    This thesis reports the HAPPEX measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry for longitudinally polarized electrons elastically scattered from protons in a liquid hydrogen target. The measurement was carried out in Hall A at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility using a beam energy E = 3 GeV and scattering angle <θ{sub lab}> = 6°. The asymmetry is sensitive to the weak neutral form factors from which we extract the strange quark electric and magnetic form factors (G$s\\atop{E}$ and G$s\\atop{M}$) of the proton. The measurement was conducted during two data-taking periods in 2004 and 2005. This thesis describes the methods for controlling the helicity-correlated beam asymmetries and the analysis of the raw asymmetry. The parity-violating asymmetry has been measured to be APV = -1.14± 0.24 (stat)±0.06 (syst) ppm at 2> = 0.099 GeV2 (2004), and APV = -1.58±0.12 (stat)±0.04 (syst) ppm at 2> = 0.109 GeV2 (2005). The strange quark form factors extracted from the asymmetry are G$s\\atop{E}$ + 0.080G$s\\atop{M}$ = 0.030 ± 0.025 (stat) ± 0.006 (syst) ± 0.012 (FF) (2004) and G$s\\atop{E}$ +0.088G$s\\atop{M}$ = 0.007±0.011 (stat)±0.004 (syst)±0.005 (FF) (2005). These results place the most precise constraints on the strange quark form factors and indicate little strange dynamics in the proton.

  19. Employing Beam-Gas Interaction Vertices for Transverse Profile Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rihl, Mariana; Baglin, Vincent; Barschel, Colin; Bay, Aurelio; Blanc, Frederic; Bravin, Enrico; Bregliozzi, Giuseppe; Chritin, Nicolas; Dehning, Bernd; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Gaspar, Clara; Gianì, Sebastiana; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Greim, Roman; Haefeli, Guido; Hopchev, Plamen; Jacobsson, Richard; Jensen, Lars; Jones, Owain Rhodri; Jurado, Nicolas; Kain, Verena; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kirn, Thomas; Kuhn, Maria; Luthi, Berengere; Magagnin, Paolo; Matev, Rosen; Nakada, Tatsuya; Neufeld, Niko; Panman, Jaap; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Salvant, Benoit; Schael, Stefan; Schneider, Olivier; Schwering, Georg; Tobin, Mark; Veness, Raymond; Veyrat, Quentin; Vlachos, Sotiris; Wlochal, Michael; Xu, Zhirui; von Dratzig, Arndt

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of high-energy beam particles with residual gas offer a unique opportunity to measure the beam profile in a non-intrusive fashion. Such a method was successfully pioneered* at the LHCb experiment using a silicon microstrip vertex detector. During the recent Large Hadron Collider shutdown at CERN, a demonstrator Beam-Gas Vertexing system based on eight scintillating-fibre modules was designed**, constructed and installed on Ring 2 to be operated as a pure beam diagnostics device. The detector signals are read out and collected with LHCb-type front-end electronics and a DAQ system consisting of a CPU farm. Tracks and vertices will be reconstructed to obtain a beam profile in real time. Here, first commissioning results are reported. The advantages and potential for future applications of this technique are discussed.

  20. Ultra-weak photon emission as a non-invasive tool for the measurement of oxidative stress induced by UVA radiation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Anshu; Pospíšil, Pavel

    2013-06-05

    All living organisms emit ultra-weak photon emission as a result of oxidative processes caused by the physical or chemical stress factors. In the present study, the effect of oxidative stress induced by the exposure of the plant model Arabidopsis thaliana to ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation was studied using ultra-weak photon emission. When Arabidopsis plants and leaves were exposed to UVA radiation, two kinetically distinguished phases in the ultra-weak photon emission decay were observed: the fast decay phase (τ1=0.805±0.024 min) and slow decay phase (τ2=4.321±0.166 min). The spectral analysis of the UVA radiation-induced ultra-weak photon emission showed that the photon emission during the fast decay phase is from both blue-green and red regions of the spectrum, whereas the photon emission during the slow decay phase is solely from the blue-green region of the spectrum. These observations reveal that triplet excited carbonyls contribute to ultra-weak photon emission during both fast and slow decay phases, whereas chlorophylls participate in the ultra-weak photon emission solely during the fast decay phase. It is illustrated here that the ultra-weak photon emission serves as a non-invasive method for the monitoring of oxidative stress in plants caused by UVA radiation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Measurement and simulation of high voltage-wake interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, D.A.; Olsen, D.; Burke, W.J.; Ginet, G. [AF Phillips Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (United States); Gough, P. [Univ. of Sussex (United Kingdom); Huang, C. [Boston Coll., Chestnut Hills, MA (United States); James, H.G. [Canadian Communication Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Oedipus C was a tethered mother-son payload with a 50 kHz to 8.0 Mhz stepped frequency transmitter on the forward payload and a HF receiver on the aft payload. In the course of the upleg of the flight the tether was deployed to a distance of approximately 1 km. At apogee the tether was cut. As part of the compliment of environmental sensors, multiangular electrostatic analyzers were flown on both the forward and aft payloads. These detectors compiled 10, 32 point electron spectra/second over the energy range from 20 eV to 20 keV and in 8 angular zones defining a detection fan of 1,440{degree} by 100{degree}. The HF transmitter was normally swept through 165 frequency steps every .5 seconds. The stepping of the electrostatic analyzer was synchronized to the stepping of the transmitter such that the analyzer measured at a fixed frequency at each energy step. The output pulses of the electrostatic analyzers were also processed by an on-board particle correlator that measured bunching in the electron flux produced by coherent wave-particle interactions. Throughout the flight the analyzer in the forward payload measured large increases in the electron flux at energies up to several keV and over a wide angular range whenever the transmitter was emitting at approximately the local electron gyrofrequency. Similar effects were seen on the aft payload for separation up to several hundred meters. In addition, weaker electron flux enhancements were also seen at sub-harmonics of the gyrofrequency at low altitudes. The correlator measured clear Mhz modulation of the electrons at harmonics of the gyrofrequency. The data indicate strong heating of the local plasma due to the HF wave injection.

  2. Fault zone fabric and fault weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collettini, C.; Niemeijer, A.; Viti, C.; Marone, C.

    2009-01-01

    Geological and geophysical evidence suggests that some crustal faults are weak1–6 compared to laboratory measurements of frictional strength7. Explanations for fault weakness include the presence of weak minerals4, high fluid pressures within the fault core8,9 and dynamic processes such as

  3. Nonlinear waves and weak turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zakharov, V E

    1997-01-01

    This book is a collection of papers on dynamical and statistical theory of nonlinear wave propagation in dispersive conservative media. Emphasis is on waves on the surface of an ideal fluid and on Rossby waves in the atmosphere. Although the book deals mainly with weakly nonlinear waves, it is more than simply a description of standard perturbation techniques. The goal is to show that the theory of weakly interacting waves is naturally related to such areas of mathematics as Diophantine equations, differential geometry of waves, Poincaré normal forms, and the inverse scattering method.

  4. Site-resolved multiple-quantum filtered correlations and distance measurements by magic-angle spinning NMR: Theory and applications to spins with weak to vanishing quadrupolar couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliav, U; Haimovich, A; Goldbourt, A

    2016-01-14

    We discuss and analyze four magic-angle spinning solid-state NMR methods that can be used to measure internuclear distances and to obtain correlation spectra between a spin I = 1/2 and a half-integer spin S > 1/2 having a small quadrupolar coupling constant. Three of the methods are based on the heteronuclear multiple-quantum and single-quantum correlation experiments, that is, high rank tensors that involve the half spin and the quadrupolar spin are generated. Here, both zero and single-quantum coherence of the half spins are allowed and various coherence orders of the quadrupolar spin are generated, and filtered, via active recoupling of the dipolar interaction. As a result of generating coherence orders larger than one, the spectral resolution for the quadrupolar nucleus increases linearly with the coherence order. Since the formation of high rank tensors is independent of the existence of a finite quadrupolar interaction, these experiments are also suitable to materials in which there is high symmetry around the quadrupolar spin. A fourth experiment is based on the initial quadrupolar-driven excitation of symmetric high order coherences (up to p = 2S, where S is the spin number) and subsequently generating by the heteronuclear dipolar interaction higher rank (l + 1 or higher) tensors that involve also the half spins. Due to the nature of this technique, it also provides information on the relative orientations of the quadrupolar and dipolar interaction tensors. For the ideal case in which the pulses are sufficiently strong with respect to other interactions, we derive analytical expressions for all experiments as well as for the transferred echo double resonance experiment involving a quadrupolar spin. We show by comparison of the fitting of simulations and the analytical expressions to experimental data that the analytical expressions are sufficiently accurate to provide experimental (7)Li-(13)C distances in a complex of lithium, glycine, and water. Discussion

  5. Noise-Enhanced Measurement of Weak Doublet Spectra with a Fourier-Transform Spectrometer and a 1-Bit Analog-to-Digital Converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, M; Saloma, C

    2001-04-10

    We demonstrate an efficient noise dithering procedure for measuring the power spectrum of a weak spectral doublet with a Fourier-transform spectrometer in which the subthreshold interferogram is measured by a 1-bit analog-to-digital converter without oversampling. In the absence of noise, no information is obtained regarding the doublet spectrum because the modulation term s(x) of its interferogram is below the instrumental detection limit B, i.e., |s(x)| < B, for all path difference x values. Extensive numerical experiments are carried out concerning the recovery of the doublet power spectrum that is represented by s(x) = (s(0)/2)exp(-pi(2)x(2)/beta)[cos(2pif(1)x) + cos(2pif(2)x)], where s(0) is a constant, beta is the linewidth factor, and ?f? = (f(1) + f(2))/2. Different values of ?f?, s(0), and beta are considered to evaluate thoroughly the accuracy of the procedure to determine the unknown values of f(1) and f(2), the spectral linewidth, and the peak values of the spectral profiles. Our experiments show that, even for short observation times, the resonant frequencies of s(x) could be located with high accuracy over a wide range of ?f? and beta values. Signal-to-noise ratios as high as 50 are also gained for the recovered power spectra. The performance of the procedure is also analyzed with respect to another method that recovers the amplitude values of s(x) directly.

  6. Measuring Multimodal Synchrony for Human-Computer Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, Dennis; Nijholt, Antinus; Tschacher, Wolfgang; Ramseyer, Fabian; Sourin, A.

    2010-01-01

    Nonverbal synchrony is an important and natural element in human-human interaction. It can also play various roles in human-computer interaction. In particular this is the case in the interaction between humans and the virtual humans that inhabit our cyberworlds. Virtual humans need to adapt their

  7. Measuring and adapting behavior during product interaction to influence affect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, M.B.; Hummels, C.C.M.; Keyson, D.V.; Hekkert, P.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Sometimes, the way in which we interact with products implicitly communicates how we feel. Based on previous studies on how emotions can be detected and communicated via product interaction, we discuss how an interactive product could influence affect by responding and changing behaviors expressing

  8. Weak bond detection in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhal, Taru; Kim, Eunho; Kim, Tae-Yeon; Yang, Jinkyu

    2017-05-01

    We experimentally investigate a diagnostic technique for identifying a weak bond in composites using highly nonlinear solitary waves (HNSWs). We set up a one-dimensional chain of granular crystals, consisting of spherical particles with nonlinear interactions, to generate HNSWs. These solitary wave packets are transmitted into an inspection area of composites by making a direct contact with the chain. We demonstrate that a strong type of solitary waves injected to the weak bond area can break the weak bond of laminates, thereby causing delamination. Then, to identify the creation of the delamination, we transmit a weak type of solitary waves by employing the same apparatus, and measure the solitary waves reflected from the specimens. By analyzing these reflected solitary waves, we differentiate the weak bond samples with the pristine bond ones in an efficient and fast manner. The diagnostic results based on the proposed method are compared with the strength and energy release rate at bond interfaces, which are measured via standard testing methods such as three point bending and end notched flexure tests. This study shows the potential of solitary wave-based detection of weak bonds for hot spot monitoring of composite-based structures.

  9. Spin-Spin Interactions in Gauge Theory of Gravity, Violation of Weak Equivalence Principle and New Classical Test of General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    For a long time, it is generally believed that spin-spin interactions can only exist in a theory where Lorentz symmetry is gauged, and a theory with spin-spin interactions is not perturbatively renormalizable. But this is not true. By studying the motion of a spinning particle in gravitational field, it is found that there exist spin-spin interactions in gauge theory of gravity. Its mechanism is that a spinning particle will generate gravitomagnetic field in space-time, and this gravitomagnet...

  10. A measure of emergence of a logistic group interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Novikov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nature of the relations between group members is a very important part of the integrity of the logistics process. The identification of rating among the participants is certainly the most necessary condition for the quality of the logistics process. It can distinguished four types of emergence rating: direct participation rating, direct impact rating, participation rating and impact rating. The aim of this paper was to create the method to determine the mutual relationships among various elements of logistic group. Methods: The technique is based on the processing of the matrix of pairwise interactions obtained on the basis of a questionnaire survey of all members of the group and expressed as a score on the selected scale of assessments. The computation algorithm is based in particular on the traveling salesman problem using an original method of optimization and is implemented in Visual Studio C #. Results: 16 types of leaderships were distinguished and described by the use of statistical methods. Conclusions: The developed method of calculating the measure of emergence can be used not only for a group of students, but also for the definition of the rate of emergence in any collective system.

  11. Many-body effects in the excitation spectrum of weakly interacting Bose-Einstein condensates in one-dimensional optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinke, Raphael; Klaiman, Shachar; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.; Streltsov, Alexej I.; Alon, Ofir E.

    2017-06-01

    In this work, we study many-body excitations of Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in periodic one-dimensional optical lattices. In particular, we investigate the impact of quantum depletion onto the structure of the low-energy spectrum and contrast the findings to the mean-field predictions of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations. Accurate results for the many-body excited states are obtained by applying a linear-response theory atop the multiconfigurational time-dependent Hartree method for bosons equations of motion. We demonstrate for condensates in a triple well that even weak ground-state depletion of around 1 % leads to visible many-body effects in the low-energy spectrum, which deviates substantially from the corresponding BdG spectrum. We further show that these effects also appear in larger systems with more lattice sites and particles, indicating the general necessity of a full many-body treatment.

  12. Rationalization of weak interactions in two fluorescence active imidazo-[1,5-a]-pyridine derivatives: A combined experimental and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Arkalekha; Patel, Bhisma K.

    2017-11-01

    Two bis-bromo substituted imidazo-[1,5-a]-pyridine derivatives IMPY1 and IMPY2 were synthesized from a 2:1:2 mixture of ortho/meta-bromobenzaldehyde, 2-cyanopyridine and ammonium acetate. The compounds IMPY1 and IMPY2 exhibit blue fluorescence in both THF and methanol solution and their highly fluorescent nature is revealed by the quantum yields ΦF ranging from 9.3 to 10.4%. The crystal structure of the compounds are stabilized by various weak, non-classical hydrogen bonds viz. C-H⋯N, C-H⋯Br and C-H⋯π as well as type II interhalogen and C-Br⋯π halogen bonds. The supramolecular features and electronic property of these compounds have been thoroughly analyzed with the aid of DFT, TD-DFT and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analyses.

  13. New aspects of weak CH⋯π bonds: intermolecular interactions between alicyclic and aromatic rings in crystals of small compounds, peptides and proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciunik, Z.; Berski, S.; Latajka, Z.; Leszczyński, J.

    1998-02-01

    The geometry of intermolecular contacts between alicyclic and aromatic rings in a number of crystal structures suggests an attractive interaction between the rings. An analysis of molecular packing of 444 different crystal structures collected in the Cambridge Structural Database shows that phenyl…cyclohexanonyl, cyclohexyl, and/or cyclopentyl ring interactions occur in 59-82% of studied crystals. Similar interactions are observed between aromatic rings and heterocyclic pyrrolidine rings of proline in peptides and proteins. An analysis of data collected in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank reveals that interactions between proline CH groups and aromatic rings of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan as acceptors are frequently observed in proteins. Based on these results, several geometric models of these interactions are proposed. Two of these models are fully optimized using quantum chemical calculations at the density functional theory level. Calculated energies suggest that the most important interaction between the cyclohexanone and benzene rings is described by the face-to-face model, in which three axial hydrogen atoms are directed toward the aromatic partner.

  14. Human Dynactin-Associated Protein Transforms NIH3T3 Cells to Generate Highly Vascularized Tumors with Weak Cell-Cell Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Kunoh

    Full Text Available Human dynactin-associated protein (dynAP is a transmembrane protein that promotes AktSer473 phosphorylation. Here, we report the oncogenic properties of dynAP. In contrast to control NIH3T3 cells expressing LacZ (NIH3T3LacZ, NIH3T3dynAP cells vigorously formed foci in two-dimensional culture, colonies on soft agar, and spheroids in anchorage-deficient three-dimensional culture. NIH3T3dynAP cells injected into nude mice produced tumors with abundant blood vessels and weak cell-cell contacts. Expression of dynAP elevated the level of rictor (an essential subunit of mTORC2 and promoted phosphorylation of FOXO3aSer253. FOXO3a is a transcriptional factor that stimulates expression of pro-apoptotic genes and phosphorylation of FOXO3a abrogates its function, resulting in promoted cell survival. Knockdown of rictor in NIH3T3dynAP cells reduced AktSer473 phosphorylation and formation of foci, colony in soft agar and spheroid, indicating that dynAP-induced activation of the mTORC2/AktSer473 pathway for cell survival contributes to cell transformation. E-cadherin and its mRNA were markedly reduced upon expression of dynAP, giving rise to cells with higher motility, which may be responsible for the weak cell-cell adhesion in tumors. Thus, dynAP could be a new oncoprotein and a target for cancer therapy.

  15. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  16. Sensor Interaction as a Source of the Electromagnetic Field Measurement Error

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartansky R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with analytical calculation and numerical simulation of interactive influence of electromagnetic sensors. Sensors are components of field probe, whereby their interactive influence causes the measuring error. Electromagnetic field probe contains three mutually perpendicular spaced sensors in order to measure the vector of electrical field. Error of sensors is enumerated with dependence on interactive position of sensors. Based on that, proposed were recommendations for electromagnetic field probe construction to minimize the sensor interaction and measuring error.

  17. An interaction study in mammalian cells demonstrates weak binding of HSPB2 to BAG3, which is regulated by HSPB3 and abrogated by HSPB8

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morelli, Federica F; Mediani, Laura; Heldens, Lonneke; Bertacchini, Jessika; Bigi, Ilaria; Carra, Arianna Dorotea; Vinet, Jonathan; Carra, Serena

    The ten mammalian small heat shock proteins (sHSPs/HSPBs) show a different expression profile, although the majority of them are abundant in skeletal and cardiac muscles. HSPBs form hetero-oligomers and homo-oligomers by interacting together and complexes containing, e.g., HSPB2/HSPB3 or HSPB1/HSPB5

  18. Weak distance dependence of through-bond interactions in tetrahydro-4H-thiopyran-4-ylidene end-capped oligo(cyclohexylidenes); a computational survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, R.W.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205279546; van Walree, C.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/147609089; Marsman, A.W.; van Lenthe, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068417942; Jenneskens, L.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/071635246

    2007-01-01

    Calculations on members of the oligo(cyclohexylidene) series [1(n), n = 1-5)] and related tetrahydro-4H-thiopyran end-capped analogues [2(n), n = 1-4)] show a strong through-bond coupling between their π bonds and sulfur lone pairs (LpπS). This coupling is mediated by an interaction between the

  19. Harvesting the weak angular reflections from the fundus of the human eye : on measuring and analyzing the light wasted by the retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraats, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    Summary of the thesis “Harvesting the weak angular reflections from the fundus of the human eye” by Jan van de Kraats University Medical Centre Utrecht. Defended October 16, 2007. This thesis is on the modeling of the optical reflection of the human fovea, and on the three instruments build for

  20. Highly parallel measurements of interaction kinetic constants with a microfabricated optomechanical device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Steven R.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2009-08-01

    We used mechanical trapping of molecular interactions to demonstrate a highly parallel approach to measure the kinetics of biomolecular interactions. This approach consumes 25 fmol of material per measurement and permits 320 measurements in a single experiment. We measured association and dissociation curves for the interactions of 6-His and T7 epitope tags with their antibodies, from which we determined the off rates, on rates, and dissociation constants.

  1. Measurement of $\\Delta\\Gamma_{s}$ and the CP-violating weak phase $\\phi_s$ in the decay $B_{s}^{0} \\to J/\\psi\\phi$ by ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Smizanska, Maria

    2012-01-01

    A measurement of $B_{s}^{0} \\to J/\\psi\\phi$ decay parameters, including the CP-violating weak phase $\\phi_s$ and the decay width difference $\\Delta\\Gamma_{s}$ is reported, using 4.9 $fb^{-1}$ of integrated luminosity collected in 2011 by the ATLAS detector. The measured parameters are consistent with the world average values and with theoretical expectations, in particular $\\phi_s$ is within 1 $\\sigma$ of the expected value in the Standard Model.

  2. Parasocial interaction and parasocial relationship: Conceptual clarification and a critical assessment of measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibble, J.L.; Hartmann, T.; Rosaen, S.F.

    2016-01-01

    Parasocial interaction and parasocial relationship are often conflated conceptually and methodologically, leaving researchers unclear as to which concept is being tapped. This research clarifies these concepts and experimentally compares the most common measure of parasocial interaction, the

  3. WEAK GORENSTEIN GLOBAL DIMENSION

    OpenAIRE

    Bennis, Driss

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the weak Gorenstein global dimensions. We are mainly interested in studying the problem when the left and right weak Gorenstein global dimensions coincide. We first show, for GF-closed rings, that the left and right weak Gorenstein global dimensions are equal when they are finite. Then, we prove that the same equality holds for any two-sided coherent ring. We conclude the paper with some examples and a brief discussion of the scope and limits of our results.

  4. Measurements of modulated lamellar Pβ' phases of interacting lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wack, Daniel C.; Webb, Watt W.

    1988-09-01

    A diffraction study of lattice constants in the Pβ' (``rippled'') phase of hydrated lecithins suggests that the lamellar modulation arises from a delicate interplay between the energies associated with membrane curvature and with hydration, as modified by interactions between membranes. Our results imply the existence of a Lifshitz point in the global phase diagram of the lecithin-water system.

  5. Interactions between adsorbed macromolecules : measurements on emulsions and liquid films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.

    1977-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the factors, determining the inter- and intramolecular interactions between adsorbed macromolecules. To that end several experimental and theoretical approaches were followed, using well-defined systems. It was shown that these

  6. The Drosophila Su(var)3–7 Gene Is Required for Oogenesis and Female Fertility, Genetically Interacts with piwi and aubergine, but Impacts Only Weakly Transposon Silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeot, Flora; Koryakov, Dmitry E.; Todeschini, Anne-Laure; Ronsseray, Stéphane; Vieira, Cristina; Spierer, Pierre; Delattre, Marion

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin is made of repetitive sequences, mainly transposable elements (TEs), the regulation of which is critical for genome stability. We have analyzed the role of the heterochromatin-associated Su(var)3–7 protein in Drosophila ovaries. We present evidences that Su(var)3–7 is required for correct oogenesis and female fertility. It accumulates in heterochromatic domains of ovarian germline and somatic cells nuclei, where it co-localizes with HP1. Homozygous mutant females display ovaries with frequent degenerating egg-chambers. Absence of Su(var)3–7 in embryos leads to defects in meiosis and first mitotic divisions due to chromatin fragmentation or chromosome loss, showing that Su(var)3–7 is required for genome integrity. Females homozygous for Su(var)3–7 mutations strongly impair repression of P-transposable element induced gonadal dysgenesis but have minor effects on other TEs. Su(var)3–7 mutations reduce piRNA cluster transcription and slightly impact ovarian piRNA production. However, this modest piRNA reduction does not correlate with transposon de-silencing, suggesting that the moderate effect of Su(var)3–7 on some TE repression is not linked to piRNA production. Strikingly, Su(var)3–7 genetically interacts with the piwi and aubergine genes, key components of the piRNA pathway, by strongly impacting female fertility without impairing transposon silencing. These results lead us to propose that the interaction between Su(var)3–7 and piwi or aubergine controls important developmental processes independently of transposon silencing. PMID:24820312

  7. How Good is Your User Experience? Measuring and Designing Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wildner Raimund

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Form and function are important dimensions of consumer choice, but there is more in our increasingly digital world. It is not only products per se that need to be designed but the whole interaction between consumers and brands. The whole UX or user experience is more important than ever before. Digitalism nowadays is everywhere, and even mundane products are becoming more digital (e.g. ovens, while others evolve that are purely digital (e.g. PayPal.

  8. An international study on measuring social support : Interactions and satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeglas, D.M; Suurmeijer, Th.P.B.M.; Briancon, S; Krol, B; Moum, T.; Sanderman, R.; Bjelle, A.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, a new instrument was developed to measure social support. It consists of two parts; the Social Support Questionnaire for Transactions (SSQT) and the Social Support Questionnaire for Satisfaction with the supportive transactions (SSQS). The SSQT measures the number of supportive

  9. Measurement of the multi-TeV neutrino interaction cross-section with IceCube using Earth absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Hill, G. C.; Kyriacou, A.; Robertson, S.; Wallace, A.; Whelan, B. J.; Ackermann, M.; Bernardini, E.; Blot, S.; Bradascio, F.; Bretz, H.-P.; Brostean-Kaiser, J.; Franckowiak, A.; Jacobi, E.; Karg, T.; Kintscher, T.; Kunwar, S.; Nahnhauer, R.; Satalecka, K.; Spiering, C.; Stachurska, J.; Stasik, A.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; van Santen, J.; Adams, J.; Bagherpour, H.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ansseau, I.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O'Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Raab, C.; Ahlers, M.; Koskinen, D. J.; Larson, M. J.; Medici, M.; Rameez, M.; Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J. P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Zoll, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Bron, S.; Carver, T.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T.; Altmann, D.; Anton, G.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Katz, U.; Kittler, T.; Tselengidou, M.; Andeen, K.; Plum, M.; Anderson, T.; Delaunay, J. J.; Dunkman, M.; Eller, P.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Pankova, D. V.; Teši´, G.; Turley, C. F.; Weiss, M. J.; Argüelles, C.; Axani, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Moulai, M.; Auffenberg, J.; Brenzke, M.; Glauch, T.; Haack, C.; Kalaczynski, P.; Koschinsky, J. P.; Leuermann, M.; Rädel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Sälzer, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schumacher, L.; Stettner, J.; Vehring, M.; Vogel, E.; Wallraff, M.; Waza, A.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Bai, X.; Barron, J. P.; Giang, W.; Grant, D.; Kopper, C.; Moore, R. W.; Nowicki, S. C.; Herrera, S. E. Sanchez; Sarkar, S.; Wandler, F. D.; Weaver, C.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Yanez, J. P.; Barwick, S. W.; Yodh, G.; Baum, V.; Böser, S.; di Lorenzo, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Köpke, L.; Krückl, G.; Momenté, G.; Peiffer, P.; Sandroos, J.; Steuer, A.; Wiebe, K.; Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P. B.; Woschnagg, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Tjus, J. Becker; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Kroll, M.; Schöneberg, S.; Tenholt, F.; Becker, K.-H.; Bindig, D.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Lauber, F.; Naumann, U.; Pollmann, A. Obertacke; Soldin, D.; Benzvi, S.; Cross, R.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Felde, J.; Friedman, E.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K. D.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Schmidt, T.; Song, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Klein, S. R.; Miarecki, S.; Palczewski, T.; Tatar, J.; Börner, M.; Fuchs, T.; Hünnefeld, M.; Meier, M.; Menne, T.; Pieloth, D.; Rhode, W.; Ruhe, T.; Sandrock, A.; Schlunder, P.; Soedingrekso, J.; Werthebach, J.; Bose, D.; Dujmovic, H.; in, S.; Jeong, M.; Kang, W.; Kim, J.; Rott, C.; Botner, O.; Burgman, A.; Hallgren, A.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Unger, E.; Bourbeau, J.; Braun, J.; Casey, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Fahey, S.; Ghorbani, K.; Griffith, Z.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hokanson-Fasig, B.; Hoshina, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J. L.; Kheirandish, A.; Liu, Q. R.; Luszczak, W.; Mancina, S.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Schneider, A.; Tobin, M. N.; Tosi, D.; Ty, B.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wandkowsky, N.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wille, L.; Wolf, M.; Wood, J.; Xu, D. L.; Yuan, T.; Brayeur, L.; Casier, M.; de Clercq, C.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; Kunnen, J.; Lünemann, J.; Maggi, G.; Toscano, S.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Kappes, A.; Coenders, S.; Huber, M.; Krings, K.; Rea, I. C.; Resconi, E.; Turcati, A.; Cowen, D. F.; de André, J. P. A. M.; Deyoung, T.; Hignight, J.; Lennarz, D.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Micallef, J.; Neer, G.; Rysewyk, D.; Dembinski, H.; Evenson, P. A.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Koirala, R.; Pandya, H.; Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Tilav, S.; De Ridder, S.; Labare, M.; Ryckbosch, D.; van Driessche, W.; Vanheule, S.; Vraeghe, M.; de With, M.; Hebecker, D.; Kolanoski, H.; Fazely, A. R.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Xu, X. W.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Nygren, D. R.; Przybylski, G. T.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Ishihara, A.; Kim, M.; Kuwabara, T.; Lu, L.; Mase, K.; Relich, M.; Stößl, A.; Yoshida, S.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jones, B. J. P.; Kiryluk, J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Niederhausen, H.; Xu, Y.; Kohnen, G.; Kopper, S.; Nakarmi, P.; Pepper, J. A.; Toale, P. A.; Williams, D. R.; Kowalski, M.; Kurahashi, N.; Relethford, B.; Richman, M.; Wills, L.; Madsen, J.; Seunarine, S.; Spiczak, G. M.; Maruyama, R.; Rawlins, K.; Sarkar, S.; Sutherland, M.; Taboada, I.; Tung, C. F.; IceCube Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    Neutrinos interact only very weakly, so they are extremely penetrating. The theoretical neutrino-nucleon interaction cross-section, however, increases with increasing neutrino energy, and neutrinos with energies above 40 teraelectronvolts (TeV) are expected to be absorbed as they pass through the Earth. Experimentally, the cross-section has been determined only at the relatively low energies (below 0.4 TeV) that are available at neutrino beams from accelerators. Here we report a measurement of neutrino absorption by the Earth using a sample of 10,784 energetic upward-going neutrino-induced muons. The flux of high-energy neutrinos transiting long paths through the Earth is attenuated compared to a reference sample that follows shorter trajectories. Using a fit to the two-dimensional distribution of muon energy and zenith angle, we determine the neutrino-nucleon interaction cross-section for neutrino energies 6.3-980 TeV, more than an order of magnitude higher than previous measurements. The measured cross-section is about 1.3 times the prediction of the standard model, consistent with the expectations for charged- and neutral-current interactions. We do not observe a large increase in the cross-section with neutrino energy, in contrast with the predictions of some theoretical models, including those invoking more compact spatial dimensions or the production of leptoquarks. This cross-section measurement can be used to set limits on the existence of some hypothesized beyond-standard-model particles, including leptoquarks.

  10. Morawetz and interaction Morawetz identities for systems of N-defocusing weakly coupled NLS equations on ℝd × 𝕋 in low space dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarulli, Mirko; Venkov, George

    2016-12-01

    We perform new Morawetz identities, interaction Morawetz identities and their corresponding inequalities for the system of N nonlinear defocusing Schrödinger equations (NLS), with N ≥ 2, { i ∂tuμ+(Δx+∂y2u)μ-∑μ ,v =1 N βμ v|uv|p+1|uμ|p-1uμ=0 ,μ =1 ,⋯,N, (uμ(0,ṡ,ṡ)) μ =1 N=(uμ,0)μ=1 N∈H1(ℝd×T) N. Here, for all µ, ν = 1, …, N, uµ = uµ(t, x, y) : ℝ × ℝd × 𝕋 → ℂ, (uμ)μ =1 N=(u 1,…,uN) and βµν ≥ 0, βµµ ≠ 0 are coupling parameters, moreover we require that the nonlinearity parameter p is both L2(ℝd × 𝕋)-supercritical and H1(ℝd × 𝕋)-subcritical (or at most H1(ℝd × 𝕋)-critical).

  11. Double salt ionic liquids based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and hydroxyl-functionalized ammonium acetates: strong effects of weak interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge F B; Barber, Patrick S; Kelley, Steven P; Berton, Paula; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-10-11

    The properties of double salt ionic liquids based on solutions of cholinium acetate ([Ch][OAc]), ethanolammonium acetate ([NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 OH][OAc]), hydroxylammonium acetate ([NH 3 OH][OAc]), ethylammonium acetate ([NH 3 CH 2 CH 3 ][OAc]), and tetramethylammonium acetate ([N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc]) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C 2 mim][OAc]) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Through mixture preparation, the solubility of [N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc] is the lowest, and [Ch][OAc] shows a 3-fold lower solubility than the other hydroxylated ammonium acetate-based salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] at room temperature. NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies of the pure salts suggest that the molecular-level mechanisms governing such miscibility differences are related to the weaker interactions between the -NH 3 groups and [OAc] - , even though three of these salts possess the same strong 1 : 1 hydrogen bonds between the cation -OH group and the [OAc] - ion. The formation of polyionic clusters between the anion and those cations with unsatisfied hydrogen bond donors seems to be a new tool by which the solubility of these salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] can be controlled.

  12. Generation of quasi-monochromatic beams of accelerated electrons during interaction of weak-contrast intense femtosecond laser radiation with a metal-foil edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malkov, Yu A; Stepanov, A N; Yashunin, D A; Pugachev, L P; Levashov, P R; Andreev, N E; Andreev, Aleksandr A

    2013-03-31

    The formation of monoenergetic beams of accelerated electrons by focusing femtosecond laser radiation with an intensity of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} W cm{sup -2} onto an edge of aluminium foil has been experimentally demonstrated. The electrons had energy distributions peaking in the range from 0.2 to 0.8 MeV and an energy spread less than 20 %. The acceleration mechanism related to the generation of a plasma wave as a result of self-modulation instability of the laser pulse in the subcritical plasma formed the prepulse of the laser system (arriving 10 ns before the main pulse) is considered. Onedimensional PIC simulation of the interaction between the laser radiation and plasma with a concentration of 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} showed that effective excitation of a plasma wave, as well as the trapping and acceleration of the electron beam with an energy on the order of 1 MeV, may occur in the presence of inhomogeneities in the density at the plasma boundary and in the temporal shape of the beam. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  13. Chirped-Pulse Fourier-Transform Microwave Spectroscopy of the Prototypical C-H\\cdotsπ Interaction: the BENZENE\\cdotsACETYLENE Weakly Bound Dimer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Nathan; Seifert, Nathan A.; Dorris, Rachel E.; Peebles, Rebecca A.; Peebles, Sean A.; Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The rotational spectrum of the CH\\cdotsπ bonded complex between benzene and acetylene has been measured in the 6-20 GHz range using chirped-pulse Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. The spectra for the normal isotopologue, three unique 13C substituted species, and the d_1-benzene\\cdotsHCCH species have allowed determination of the dimer structure. The spectrum is that of a symmetric top, with effective C6v symmetry, and a CH\\cdotsπ distance of 2.4921(1) Å. The dipole moment has been measured using the Stark effect, and is 0.438(11) D. In addition to the ground state spectrum, three additional sets of transitions corresponding to similar rotational constants have been observed, likely due to excitation of the three low energy intermolecular vibrational modes of the dimer. Analysis of these excited state transitions is in progress. Comparison of the binding energy and structure of the benzene\\cdotsHCCH dimer with other H\\cdotsπ complexes will be presented.

  14. Urban sustainability : complex interactions and the measurement of risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Diappi

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the concept of asustainable city and its theoretical implications for the urban system. Urban sustainability is based on positive interactions among three different urban sub-systems : social, economic and physical, where social well-being coexists with economic development and environmental quality. This utopian scenario doesn’t appear. Affluent economy is often associated with poverty and criminality, labour variety and urban efficiency coexist with pollution and congestion. The research subject is the analysis of local risk and opportunity conditions, based on the application of a special definition of risk elaborated and made operative with the production of a set of maps representing the multidimensional facets of spatial organisation in urban sustainability. The interactions among the economic/social and environmental systems are complex and unpredictable and present the opportunity for a new methodology of scientific investigation : the connectionistic approach, processed by Self-Reflexive Neural Networks (SRNN. These Networks are a useful instrument of investigation and analogic questioning of the Data Base. Once the SRNN has learned the structure of the weights from the DB, by querying the network with the maximization or minimization of specific groups of attributes, it is possible to read the related properties and to rank the areas. The survey scale assumed by the research is purposefully aimed at the micro-scale and concerns the Municipality of Milan which is spatially divided into 144 zones.

  15. Watt-level, all-fiber, ultrafast Er/Yb-codoped double-clad fiber laser mode-locked by reduced graphene oxide interacting with a weak evanescent field

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Lei; Li, Yujia

    2015-01-01

    We propose a Watt-level, all-fiber, ultrafast Er/Yb-codoped double-clad fiber laser passively mode-locked by reduced graphene oxide (rGO) interacting with a weak evanescent field of photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The rGO solution is filled into the cladding holes of the PCF based on total reflection, and after evaporation, the rGO flakes bear only 1/107 of the total energy in laser system, which enhances the thermal damage threshold and decreases the accumulated nonlinearity. By incorporating the saturable absorber into an Er/Yb-codoped fiber ring cavity, stable conventional soliton with a duration of 573 fs is generated, and a average output power up to 1.14 W is obtained.

  16. Spin Seebeck effect in a weak ferromagnet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arboleda, Juan David, E-mail: juan.arboledaj@udea.edu.co; Arnache Olmos, Oscar [Instituto de Física, Universidad de Antioquia, A.A. 1226, Medellín (Colombia); Aguirre, Myriam Haydee; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Laboratorio de Microscopías Avanzadas, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Ramos, Rafael [WPI Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Spin Quantum Rectification Project, ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Anadon, Alberto [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragón, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2016-06-06

    We report the observation of room temperature spin Seebeck effect (SSE) in a weak ferromagnetic normal spinel Zinc Ferrite (ZFO). Despite the weak ferromagnetic behavior, the measurements of the SSE in ZFO show a thermoelectric voltage response comparable with the reported values for other ferromagnetic materials. Our results suggest that SSE might possibly originate from the surface magnetization of the ZFO.

  17. Structural insight into the role of Gln293Met mutation on the Peloruside A/Laulimalide association with αβ-tubulin from molecular dynamics simulations, binding free energy calculations and weak interactions analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zúñiga, Matías A.; Alderete, Joel B.; Jaña, Gonzalo A.; Jiménez, Verónica A.

    2017-07-01

    Peloruside A (PLA) and Laulimalide (LAU) are novel microtubule-stabilizing agents with promising properties against different cancer types. These ligands share a non-taxoid binding site at the outer surface of β-tubulin and promote microtubule stabilization by bridging two adjacent αβ-tubulin dimers from parallel protofilaments. Recent site-directed mutagenesis experiments confirmed the existence of a unique β-tubulin site mutation (Gln293Met) that specifically increased the activity of PLA and caused resistance to LAU, without affecting the stability of microtubules in the absence of the ligands. In this work, fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to examine the PLA and LAU association with native and mutated αβ-tubulin in the search for structural and energetic evidence to explain the role of Gln293Met mutation on determining the activity of these ligands. Our results revealed that Gln293Met mutation induced the loss of relevant LAU-tubulin contacts but exerted negligible changes in the interaction networks responsible for PLA-tubulin association. Binding free energy calculations (MM/GBSA and MM/PBSA), and weak interaction analysis (aNCI) predicted an increased affinity for PLA, and a weakened association for LAU after mutation, thus suggesting that Gln293Met mutation exerts its action by a modulation of drug-tubulin interactions. These results are valuable to increase understanding about PLA and LAU activity and to assist the future design of novel agents targeting the PLA/LAU binding pocket.

  18. Weak bond screening system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, S. Y.; Chang, F. H.; Bell, J. R.

    Consideration is given to the development of a weak bond screening system which is based on the utilization of a high power ultrasonic (HPU) technique. The instrumentation of the prototype bond strength screening system is described, and the adhesively bonded specimens used in the system developmental effort are detailed. Test results obtained from these specimens are presented in terms of bond strength and level of high power ultrasound irradiation. The following observations were made: (1) for Al/Al specimens, 2.6 sec of HPU irradiation will screen weak bond conditions due to improper preparation of bonding surfaces; (2) for composite/composite specimens, 2.0 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to under-cured conditions; (3) for Al honeycomb core with composite skin structure, 3.5 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive or oils contamination of bonding surfaces; and (4) for Nomex honeycomb with Al skin structure, 1.3 sec of HPU irradiation will disrupt weak bonds due to bad adhesive.

  19. Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by quantum measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

    Quantum systems, ranging from atomic systems to field modes and mechanical devices are useful precision probes for a variety of physical properties and phenomena. Measurements by which we extract information about the evolution of single quantum systems yield random results and cause a back actio...... strategies, we address the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound. We investigate monitoring by photon counting, homodyne detection and frequent projective measurements respectively, and exemplify by Rabi frequency estimation in a driven two-level system....

  20. First Measurement of Neutrino Interactions in MicroBooNE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Pip [Fermilab

    2016-11-02

    The MicroBooNE detector has recently completed its first year of neutrino beam data-taking in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab, having collected approximately half of its intended data ($3.4\\times10^{20}$ of $6.6\\times10^{20}$ protons on target). We present kinematic distributions of neutrino interactions observed from a small subset of this data (equivalent to $5\\times10^{19}$ protons on target), both as a first step towards a charged-current muon neutrino cross-section on argon, and as an exploration of the capabilities and operational challenges of large liquid argon time projection chambers as neutrino detectors. These distributions have been assessed using fully automated event selection and reconstruction.

  1. The synthesis of weak acidic type hybrid monolith via thiol-ene click chemistry and its application in hydrophilic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jiao; Liu, Shengquan; Wang, Menglin; Yao, Shouzhuo; Chen, Yingzhuang

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a porous structure and good permeability monolithic column was polymerized in UV transparent fused-silica capillaries via photo-initiated thiol-ene click polymerization of 2,4,6,8-tetravinyl-2,4,6,8-tetramethylcyclotetrasiloxane (TMTVS), pentaerythritol tetra(3-mercaptopropionate)(PETMP), itaconic acid, respectively, in the presence of porogenic solvents (tetrahydrofuranand methanol) and an initiator (2,2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone) (DMPA) within 30 min. The physical properties of this monolith were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. For an overall evaluation of the monolith in chromatographic application, separations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenols, amides and bases were carried out. The column efficiency of this monolith could be as high as 112 560 N/m. It also possesses a potential application in fabrication of monoliths with high efficiency for c-LC. In addition, the resulting monolithic column demonstrated the potential use in analysis of environment waters. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Weak polyelectrolytes in Confined Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmer, Jonathan K.; Rathee, Vikramjit S.; Sikora, Benjamin

    Crucial to the behavior of recently designed charge-rejection and mosaic membranes are the conformations of polyelectrolyte brushes and oligomeric grafts used to control the membranes' surface charge. The use of pH-tunable weak polyelectrolytes with associative interactions enables fine tuning of material transport properties. Here, we apply constant-pH molecular dynamics along with free energy sampling algorithms to understand the subtle tug-of-war between pH, salt concentrations, and solvation forces in confined systems, and determine how each of these effects alters transport within the system. We further discuss the implications of our findings for the design of electrolyte separation membranes.

  3. Dynamic Classifier Aggregation using Interaction-Sensitive Fuzzy Measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefka, D.; Holeňa, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 270, 1 July (2015), s. 25-52 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17187S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Fuzzy integral * Fuzzy measure * Dynamic classifier aggregation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 2.098, year: 2015

  4. EOG Artifacts Removal in EEG Measurements for Affective Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qi, Wen

    2014-01-01

    A brain-computer interface (BCI) is a direct link between the brain and a computer. Multi-modal input with BCI forms a promising solution for creating rich gaming experience. Electroencephalography (EEG) measurement is the sole necessary component for a BCI system. EEG signals have the

  5. Assimilation of multispectral measurements in interactive land surface models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menenti, M.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents highlights of a five-years investigation on the use of airborne and space observations to study the heat and water balance of heterogeneous land surfaces. Three algorithms to estimate heat fluxes using satellite observations were developed and evaluated against ground measurements

  6. Air-Sea Interaction Measurements from the Controlled Towed Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelif, D.; Bluth, R. T.; Jonsson, H.; Barge, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Controlled Towed Vehicle (CTV) uses improved towed drone technology to actively maintain via a radar altimeter and controllable wing a user-set height that can be as low as the canonical reference height of 10 m above the sea surface. After take-off, the drone is released from the tow aircraft on a ~700-m stainless steel cable. We have instrumented the 0.23 m diameter and 2.13 m long drone with high fidelity instruments to measure the means and turbulent fluctuations of 3-D wind vector, temperature, humidity, pressure, CO2 and IR sea surface temperature. Data are recorded internally at 40 Hz and simultaneously transmitted to the tow aircraft via dedicated wireless Ethernet link. The CTV accommodates 40 kg of instrument payload and provides it with 250 W of continuous power through a ram air propeller-driven generator. Therefore its endurance is only limited by that of the tow aircraft.We will discuss the CTV development, the engineering challenges and solutions that have been successfully implemented to overcome them. We present results from recent flights as low as 9 m over the coastal ocean and comparisons of profiles and turbulent fluxes from the CTV and the tow aircraft. Manned aircraft operation at low-level boundary-layer flights is very limited. Dropsondes and UAS (Unmanned Aerial Systems) and UAS are alternates for measurements near the ocean surface. However, dropsondes have limited sensor capability and do not measure fluxes, and most present UAS vehicles do not have the payload and power capacity nor the low-flying ability in high winds over the oceans. The CTV therefore, fills a needed gap between the dropsondes, in situ aircraft, and UAS. The payload, capacity and power of the CTV makes it suitable for a variety of atmospheric research measurements. Other sensors to measure aerosol, chemistry, radiation, etc., could be readily accommodated in the CTV.

  7. Measured Gene-by-Environment Interaction in Relation to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel; Nikolas, Molly; Burt, S. Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To summarize and evaluate the state of knowledge regarding the role of measured gene-by-environment interactions in relation to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Method: A selective review of methodologic issues was followed by a systematic search for relevant articles on measured gene-by-environment interactions; the search…

  8. Competing weak localization and weak antilocalization in ultrathin topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Murong; He, Liang; Kou, Xufeng; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Fan, Yabin; Chu, Hao; Jiang, Ying; Bardarson, Jens H; Jiang, Wanjun; Choi, Eun Sang; Wang, Yong; Yeh, Nai-Chang; Moore, Joel; Wang, Kang L

    2013-01-09

    We demonstrate evidence of a surface gap opening in topological insulator (TI) thin films of (Bi(0.57)Sb(0.43))(2)Te(3) below six quintuple layers through transport and scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements. By effective tuning the Fermi level via gate-voltage control, we unveil a striking competition between weak localization and weak antilocalization at low magnetic fields in nonmagnetic ultrathin films, possibly owing to the change of the net Berry phase. Furthermore, when the Fermi level is swept into the surface gap of ultrathin samples, the overall unitary behaviors are revealed at higher magnetic fields, which are in contrast to the pure WAL signals obtained in thicker films. Our findings show an exotic phenomenon characterizing the gapped TI surface states and point to the future realization of quantum spin Hall effect and dissipationless TI-based applications.

  9. First observation and branching fraction and decay parameter measurements of the weak radiative decay $\\Xi^0 \\to \\Lambda e^{+}e^{-}$

    CERN Document Server

    Batley, J Richard; Lazzeroni, C; Munday, D J; Patel, M; Slater, M W; Wotton, S A; Arcidiacono, R; Bocquet, G; Ceccucci, A; Cundy, Donald C; Doble, N; Falaleev, V; Gatignon, L; Gonidec, A; Grafstrm, P; Kubischta, Werner; Mikulec, I; Norton, A; Panzer-Steindel, B; Rubin, P; Wahl, H; Goudzovski, E; Khristov, P Z; Kekelidze, V D; Litov, L; Madigozhin, D T; Molokanova, N A; Potrebenikov, Yu K; Stoynev, S; Zinchenko, A I; Monnier, E; Swallow, E; Winston, R; Sacco, R; Walker, A; Baldini, W; Dalpiaz, P; Frabetti, P L; Gianoli, A; Martini, M; Petrucci, F; Savrié, M; Scarpa, M; Bizzeti, A; Calvetti, M; Collazuol, G; Iacopini, E; Lenti, M; Veltri, M; Ruggiero, G; Behler, M; Eppard, K; Eppard, M; Hirstius, A; Kleinknecht, K; Koch, U; Marouelli, P; Masetti, L; Moosbrugger, U; Morales-Morales, C; Peters, A; Wanke, R; Winhart, A; Dabrowski, A; Fonseca-Martin, T; Velasco, M; Anzivino, Giuseppina; Cenci, P; Imbergamo, E; Lamanna, G; Lubrano, P; Michetti, A; Nappi, A; Pepé, M; Valdata, M; Petrucci, M C; Piccini, M; Cerri, C; Costantini, F; Fantechi, R; Fiorini, L; Giudici, S; Mannelli, I; Pierazzini, G M; Sozzi, M; Cheshkov, C; Chèze, J B; De Beer, M; Debu, P; Gouge, G; Marel, Gérard; Mazzucato, E; Peyaud, B; Vallage, B; Holder, M; Maier, A; Ziolkowski, M; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Clemencic, M; Goy-Lopez, S; Marchetto, F; Menichetti, E; Pastrone, N; Wislicki, W; Dibon, Heinz; Jeitler, Manfred; Markytan, Manfred; Neuhofer, G; Widhalm, L

    2007-01-01

    The weak radiative decay $Xi^0 -> \\Lambda e^+ e^- $ has been detected for the first time. We find 412 candidates in the signal region, with an estimated background of $15pm 5$ events. We determine the branching fraction ${cal{B}}(\\Xi^0 -> \\Lambda e^+ e^- ) = [7.6pm 0.4({m stat})pm 0.4({m syst})pm 0.2({m norm})] imes 10^{-6}$, consistent with an internal bremsstrahlung process, and the decay asymmetry parameter $\\alpha_{\\Xi \\Lambda ee} = -0.8pm 0.2$, consistent with that of $\\Xi^0 -> \\Lambda \\gamma$. The charge conjugate reaction $\\overline{\\Xi^{0}} -> \\overline{\\Lambda} e^+ e^- $ has also been observed.

  10. Measuring signatures of quantum chaos in strongly-interacting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentsen, Gregory; Swingle, Brian; Schleier-Smith, Monika; Hayden, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Strongly-coupled many-body quantum systems generically exhibit signatures of quantum chaos. Recent theoretical work on black holes has focused on probing these signatures using so-called ``out-of-time-order'' (OTO) correlation functions, which measure a quantum-mechanical version of the classical butterfly effect. We propose a general echo-type protocol to experimentally measure these correlators in arbitrary many-body systems that involves reversing the sign of the Hamiltonian. We detail a realistic implementation in a single-body system employing cold atoms and cavity quantum electrodynamics to verify feasibility with current technology. Applying this protocol to diverse experimental systems could place bounds on quantum information processing, uncover new bounds on transport coefficients, offer insight into closed-system thermalization, and perhaps even enable experimental tests of the holographic principle. NSF, AFOSR, Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, Simons Foundation, CIFAR.

  11. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor...... variables. The predictor is based on a test for finitesample predictive ability. Our predictor shrinks the OLS estimate not to zero, but towards the null of the test which equates squared bias with estimation variance. We derive the asymptotic distribution and show that the predictor can substantially lower...

  12. Measurements of Protein-Protein Interactions by Size Exclusion Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Bloustine, J.; Berejnov, V.; Fraden, S.

    2003-01-01

    A method is presented for determining second virial coefficients (B2) of protein solutions from retention time measurements in size exclusion chromatography. We determine B2 by analyzing the concentration dependence of the chromatographic partition coefficient. We show the ability of this method to track the evolution of B2 from positive to negative values in lysozyme and bovine serum albumin solutions. Our size exclusion chromatography results agree quantitatively with data obtained by light...

  13. Interaction between policy measures. Analysis tool in the MURE database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Faberi, S. [Institute of Studies for the Integration of Systems ISIS, Rome (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    The ODYSSEE database on energy efficiency indicators (www.odyssee-indicators.org) has been set up to enable the monitoring and evaluation of realised energy efficiency improvements and related energy savings. The database covers the 27 EU countries as well as Norway and Croatia and data are available from 1990 on. This report describes how sets of mutually consistent impacts for packages as well as individual policy measures can be determined in the MURE database (MURE is the French abbreviation for Mesures d'Utilisation Rationnelle de l'Energie)

  14. Charged weak currents

    CERN Document Server

    Turlay, René

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents the author concentrates on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. The authors discusses the general structure of charged currents, new results on total cross- sections, the Callan-Gross relation, antiquark distributions, scaling violations and tests of QCD. A very short summary on multilepton physics is given. (44 refs).

  15. On Weak Markov's Principle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlenbach, Ulrich Wilhelm

    2002-01-01

    We show that the so-called weak Markov's principle (WMP) which states that every pseudo-positive real number is positive is underivable in E-HA + AC. Since allows one to formalize (atl eastl arge parts of) Bishop's constructive mathematics, this makes it unlikely that WMP can be proved within...

  16. An examination of social interaction profiles based on the factors measured by the screen for social interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Emery B; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Leone, Sarah L; Ghuman, Jaswinder Kaur

    2014-10-01

    Deficits in the capacity to engage in social interactions are a core deficit associated with Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These deficits emerge at a young age, making screening for social interaction deficits and interventions targeted at improving capacity in this area important for early identification and intervention. Screening and early intervention efforts are particularly important given the poor short and long term outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) who experience social interaction deficits. The Screen for Social Interaction (SSI) is a well-validated screening measure that examines a child's capacity for social interaction using a developmental approach. The present study identified four underlying factors measured by the SSI, namely, Connection with Caregiver, Interaction/Imagination, Social Approach/Interest, and Agreeable Nature. The resulting factors were utilized to compare social interaction profiles across groups of children with AD, PDD-NOS, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions and typically developing children. The results indicate that children with AD and those with PDD-NOS had similar social interaction profiles, but were able to be distinguished from typically developing children on every factor and were able to be distinguished from children with non-ASD psychiatric conditions on every factor except the Connection with Caregiver factor. In addition, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions could be distinguished from typically developing children on the Connection with Caregiver factor and the Social Approach/Interest factor. These findings have implications for screening and intervention for children with ASDs and non-ASD psychiatric conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Interaction Weaknesses of Personal Navigation Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hipp, Markus; Schaub, Florian; Kargl, Frank; Weber, M.

    2010-01-01

    Automotive navigation systems, especially portable navigation devices (PNDs), are gaining popularity worldwide. Drivers increasingly rely on these devices to guide them to their destination. Some follow them almost blindly, with devastating consequences if the routing goes wrong. Wrong messages as

  18. On modeling weak sinks in MODPATH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel B.; Haitjema, Henk; Kauffman, Leon J.

    2012-01-01

    Regional groundwater flow systems often contain both strong sinks and weak sinks. A strong sink extracts water from the entire aquifer depth, while a weak sink lets some water pass underneath or over the actual sink. The numerical groundwater flow model MODFLOW may allow a sink cell to act as a strong or weak sink, hence extracting all water that enters the cell or allowing some of that water to pass. A physical strong sink can be modeled by either a strong sink cell or a weak sink cell, with the latter generally occurring in low resolution models. Likewise, a physical weak sink may also be represented by either type of sink cell. The representation of weak sinks in the particle tracing code MODPATH is more equivocal than in MODFLOW. With the appropriate parameterization of MODPATH, particle traces and their associated travel times to weak sink streams can be modeled with adequate accuracy, even in single layer models. Weak sink well cells, on the other hand, require special measures as proposed in the literature to generate correct particle traces and individual travel times and hence capture zones. We found that the transit time distributions for well water generally do not require special measures provided aquifer properties are locally homogeneous and the well draws water from the entire aquifer depth, an important observation for determining the response of a well to non-point contaminant inputs.

  19. Renormalization Group in the uniqueness region weak Gibbsianity and convergence.

    CERN Document Server

    Bertini, L; Olivieri, E

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the block averaging transformation applied to lattice gas models with short range interaction in the uniqueness region below the critical temperature. %We discuss the %Gibbs property of the renormalized measure and the convergence of %renormalized potential under iteration of the map. We prove weak Gibbsianity of the renormalized measure and convergence of the renormalized potential in a weak sense. Since we are arbitrarily close to the coexistence region we have a diverging characteristic length of the system: the correlation length or the critical length for metastability, or both. Thus, to perturbatively treat the problem we have to use a scale--adapted expansion. Moreover, such a model below the critical temperature resembles a disordered system in presence of Griffiths' singularity. Then the cluster expansion that we use must be graded with its minimal scale length diverging when the coexistence line is approached.

  20. Weak lensing with GEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, J. D.; Bennett, D. P.; Kaiser, N.

    2001-12-01

    Weak lensing by large-scale structure (cosmic shear) provides an opportunity to directly observe the dark matter in the universe. Current ground-based and space-based surveys have demonstrated the efficacy of this technique in determining the mass distribution and thus placing constraints on cosmological parameters such as Ω m, σ 8, and the bias parameter b. Current surveys have been hampered by the comparatively low resolution of ground-based telescopes and the small field of view of HST. To make significant progress in this field, wide field space-based surveys are needed. The Galactic Exoplanet Survey Telescope (GEST) will be able to provide 500- 1000 sqare degrees with a resolution of better than 0.2 arcseconds in multiple filters. This will make it an ideal instrument for a weak lensing survey.

  1. Weak Decays of Charmed Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turcotte, Marc Gilles [McGill Univ., Montreal, QC (Canada)

    1986-05-01

    The lifetimes of charmed particles produced in interactions of high energy neutrinos with nucleons have been measured using a combination of a very high resolution emulsion-based vertex detector and a spectrometer allowing full kinematical reconstruction of the decays.

  2. Measurement of the Effective Weak Mixing Angle in pp¯Z/γ*e+e- Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Agnew, J. P.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Askew, A.; Atkins, S.; Augsten, K.; Avila, C.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besançon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatia, S.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Borysova, M.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Buszello, C. P.; Camacho-Pérez, E.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Caughron, S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chapon, E.; Chen, G.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M. -C.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Déliot, F.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Fauré, A.; Feng, L.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garbincius, P. H.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; García-González, J. A.; Gavrilov, V.; Geng, W.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Gogota, O.; Golovanov, G.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J. -F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grünendahl, S.; Grünewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hogan, J.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holzbauer, J. L.; Howley, I.; Hubacek, Z.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffré, M.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jeong, M. S.; Jesik, R.; Jiang, P.; Johns, K.; Johnson, E.; Johnson, M.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Katsanos, I.; Kaur, M.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kiselevich, I.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kurča, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Lammers, S.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lei, X.; Lellouch, J.; Li, D.; Li, H.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Madar, R.; Magaña-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Mansour, J.; Martínez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Nunnemann, T.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Pétroff, P.; Pleier, M. -A.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Sajot, G.; Sánchez-Hernández, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Savitskyi, M.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shaw, S.; Shchukin, A. A.; Simak, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Snow, G. R.; Snow, J.; Snyder, S.; Söldner-Rembold, S.; Sonnenschein, L.; Soustruznik, K.; Stark, J.; Stoyanova, D. A.; Strauss, M.; Suter, L.; Svoisky, P.; Titov, M.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Tsai, Y. -T.; Tsybychev, D.; Tuchming, B.; Tully, C.; Uvarov, L.; Uvarov, S.; Uzunyan, S.; Van Kooten, R.; van Leeuwen, W. M.; Varelas, N.; Varnes, E. W.; Vasilyev, I. A.; Verkheev, A. Y.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Verzocchi, M.; Vesterinen, M.; Vilanova, D.; Vokac, P.; Wahl, H. D.; Wang, M. H. L. S.; Warchol, J.; Watts, G.; Wayne, M.; Weichert, J.; Welty-Rieger, L.; Williams, M. R. J.; Wilson, G. W.; Wobisch, M.; Wood, D. R.; Wyatt, T. R.; Xie, Y.; Yamada, R.; Yang, S.; Yasuda, T.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Ye, W.; Ye, Z.; Yin, H.; Yip, K.; Youn, S. W.; Yu, J. M.; Zennamo, J.; Zhao, T. G.; Zhou, B.; Zhu, J.; Zielinski, M.; Zieminska, D.; Zivkovic, L.

    2015-07-22

    We present a measurement of the fundamental parameter of the standard model, the weak mixing angle sin2θeff which determines the relative strength of weak and electromagnetic interactions, in pp¯→Z/γ*→e+e- events at a center of mass energy of 1.96 TeV, using data corresponding to 9.7 fb-1 of integrated luminosity collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The effective weak mixing angle is extracted from the forward-backward charge asymmetry as a function of the invariant mass around the Z boson pole. The measured value of sin2θeff=0.23147±0.00047 is the most precise measurement from light quark interactions to date, with a precision close to the best LEP and SLD results.

  3. Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters: Measurements of ion emission, simulations and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisch, J.W.G. E-mail: john.tisch@ic.ac.uk; Hay, N.; Mendham, K.J.; Springate, E.; Symes, D.R.; Comley, A.J.; Mason, M.B.; Gumbrell, E.T.; Ditmire, T.; Smith, R.A.; Marangos, J.P.; Hutchinson, M.H.R

    2003-05-01

    This review paper provides a general introduction to the interaction of intense (>10{sup 15} W cm{sup -2}), femtosecond laser pulses with atomic clusters in the size range 500-10{sup 5} atoms. A nanoplasma model of the laser-cluster interaction is used to elucidate the underlying physics. Measurements of ion emission from the laser-cluster interaction are presented together with numerical simulations. Emerging applications are described.

  4. The development of an instrument to measure different levels of interactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, C.M.; Bos, M.J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers suggest that communication is most effective if a high level of interactivity between participants is involved. As yet, however, there is neither consensus on how interactivity is defined, nor on how it can be measured. The present study is aimed at finding an operational definition

  5. Influence of biosurfactant on interactive forces between mutans streptococci and enamel measured by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogmoed, CG; Dijkstra, RJB; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    Although interactive forces, influenced by environmental conditions, between oral bacteria and tooth surfaces are important for the development of plaque, they have never been estimated. It is hypothesized that interactive forces, as measured by atomic force microscopy, between enamel with or

  6. Interaction of the solar wind with Venus. [plasma measurements by Mariner space probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, H. S.; Lazarus, A. J.; Siscoe, G. L.; Hartle, R. E.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Yeates, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    Two topics related to the interaction of the solar wind with Venus are considered. First, a short review of the experimental evidence with particular attention to plasma measurements carried out on Mariner-5 and Mariner-10 is given. Secondly, the results of some recent theoretical work on the interaction of the solar wind with the ionosphere of Venus are summarized.

  7. The Weak Haagerup Property II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagerup, Uffe; Knudby, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The weak Haagerup property for locally compact groups and the weak Haagerup constant were recently introduced by the second author [27]. The weak Haagerup property is weaker than both weak amenability introduced by Cowling and the first author [9] and the Haagerup property introduced by Connes [6......] and Choda [5]. In this paper, it is shown that a connected simple Lie group G has the weak Haagerup property if and only if the real rank of G is zero or one. Hence for connected simple Lie groups the weak Haagerup property coincides with weak amenability. Moreover, it turns out that for connected simple...... Lie groups the weak Haagerup constant coincides with the weak amenability constant, although this is not true for locally compact groups in general. It is also shown that the semidirect product R2 × SL(2,R) does not have the weak Haagerup property....

  8. Measurement of inclusive charged current interactions on carbon in a few-GeV neutrino beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; jima, Y.Naka; Alcaraz-Aunion, J.L.; Brice, S.J.; Bugel, L.; Catala-Perez, J.; Cheng, G.; Conrad, J.M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dore, U.; Finley, D.A.; /Kyoto U. /Barcelona, IFAE /Fermilab /MIT /Valencia U. /Columbia U. /MIT /Columbia U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U. /Fermilab /Columbia U. /INFN, Rome /Rome U.

    2010-11-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports a measurement of inclusive charged current interactions of muon neutrinos on carbon with an average energy of 0.8 GeV using the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. We compare our measurement with two neutrino interaction simulations: NEUT and NUANCE. The charged current interaction rates (product of flux and cross section) are extracted by fitting the muon kinematics, with a precision of 6-15% for the energy dependent and 3% for the energy integrated analyses. We also extract CC inclusive interaction cross sections from the observed rates, with a precision of 10-30% for the energy dependent and 8% for the energy integrated analyses. This is the first measurement of the CC inclusive cross section on carbon around 1 GeV. These results can be used to convert previous SciBooNE cross section ratio measurements to absolute cross section values.

  9. Measurement of inclusive charged current interactions on carbon in a few-GeV neutrino beam

    CERN Document Server

    jima, Y Naka; Brice, S J; Bugel, L; Catala-Perez, J; Cheng, G; Conrad, J M; Djurcic, Z; Dore, U; Finley, D A; Franke, A J; Giganti, C; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Guzowski, P; Hanson, A; Hayato, Y; Hiraide, K; Jover-Manas, G; Karagiorgi, G; Katori, T; Kobayashi, Y K; Kobilarcik, T; Kubo, H; Kurimoto, Y; Louis, W C; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Mahn, K B M; Mariani, C; Masuike, S; Matsuoka, K; McGary, V T; Metcalf, W; Mills, G B; Mitsuka, G; Miyachi, Y; Mizugashira, S; Moore, C D; Nakaya, T; Napora, R; Nienaber, P; Orme, D; Otani, M; Russell, A D; Sanchez, F; Shaevitz, M H; Shibata, T -A; Sorel, M; Stefanski, R J; Takei, H; Tanaka, H -K; Tanaka, M; Tayloe, R; Taylor, I J; Tesarek, R J; Uchida, Y; Van de Water, R; Walding, J J; Wascko, M O; White, H B; Yokoyama, M; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2010-01-01

    The SciBooNE Collaboration reports a measurement of inclusive charged current interactions of muon neutrinos on carbon with an average energy of 0.8~GeV using the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. We compare our measurement with two neutrino interaction simulations: NEUT and NUANCE. The charged current interaction rates (product of flux and cross section) are extracted by fitting the muon kinematics, with a precision of 6-15% for the energy dependent and 3% for the energy integrated analyses. We also extract CC inclusive interaction cross sections from the observed rates, with a precision of 10-30% for the energy dependent and 8% for the energy integrated analyses. This is the first measurement of the CC inclusive cross section on carbon around 1 GeV. These results can be used to convert previous SciBooNE cross section ratio measurements to absolute cross section values.

  10. Measurement of inclusive charged current interactions on carbon in a few-GeV neutrino beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Y.; Alcaraz-Aunion, J. L.; Brice, S. J.; Bugel, L.; Catala-Perez, J.; Cheng, G.; Conrad, J. M.; Djurcic, Z.; Dore, U.; Finley, D. A.; Franke, A. J.; Giganti, C.; Gomez-Cadenas, J. J.; Guzowski, P.; Hanson, A.; Hayato, Y.; Hiraide, K.; Jover-Manas, G.; Karagiorgi, G.; Katori, T.; Kobayashi, Y. K.; Kobilarcik, T.; Kubo, H.; Kurimoto, Y.; Louis, W. C.; Loverre, P. F.; Ludovici, L.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mariani, C.; Masuike, S.; Matsuoka, K.; McGary, V. T.; Metcalf, W.; Mills, G. B.; Mitsuka, G.; Miyachi, Y.; Mizugashira, S.; Moore, C. D.; Nakaya, T.; Napora, R.; Nienaber, P.; Orme, D.; Otani, M.; Russell, A. D.; Sanchez, F.; Shaevitz, M. H.; Shibata, T.-A.; Sorel, M.; Stefanski, R. J.; Takei, H.; Tanaka, H.-K.; Tanaka, M.; Tayloe, R.; Taylor, I. J.; Tesarek, R. J.; Uchida, Y.; van de Water, R.; Walding, J. J.; Wascko, M. O.; White, H. B.; Yokoyama, M.; Zeller, G. P.; Zimmerman, E. D.

    2011-01-01

    We report a measurement of inclusive charged current interactions of muon neutrinos on carbon with an average energy of 0.8 GeV using the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. We compare our measurement with two neutrino interaction simulations: NEUT and NUANCE. The charged current interaction rates (product of flux and cross section) are extracted by fitting the muon kinematics, with a precision of 6%-15% for the energy dependent and 3% for the energy integrated analyses. We also extract charged current inclusive interaction cross sections from the observed rates, with a precision of 10%-30% for the energy dependent and 8% for the energy integrated analyses. This is the first measurement of the charged current inclusive cross section on carbon around 1 GeV. These results can be used to convert previous SciBooNE cross-section ratio measurements to absolute cross-section values.

  11. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.......The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results....

  12. Habitats of Weak Salmon Stocks of the Snake River Basin and Feasible Recovery Measures : Recovery Issues for Threatened and Endangered Snake River Salmon : Technical Report 1 of 11.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, D.W.; Witty, Kenneth L.

    1993-06-01

    This report describes spawning aggregations of Snake River salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and numerical status of aggregations. It summarizes habitat quality and problems between the natal area and the open ocean. It reviews critical habitat designation, identifies mitigative measures and suggests monitoring and research.

  13. Search for long-lived, weakly interacting particles that decay to displaced hadronic jets in proton--proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=8$ TeV with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; do Vale, Maria Aline Barros; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire, Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty,