WorldWideScience

Sample records for wdm tdm local

  1. Massive WDM and TDM Soliton Transmission Systems : a ROSC Symposium

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    This book summarizes the proceedings of the invited talks presented at the “International Symposium on Massive TDM and WDM Optical Soliton Tra- mission Systems” held in Kyoto during November 9–12, 1999. The symposium is the third of the series organized by Research Group for Optical Soliton C- munications (ROSC) chaired by Akira Hasegawa. The research group, ROSC, was established in Japan in April 1995 with a support of the Japanese Ministry of Post and Telecommunications to promote collaboration and information - change among communication service companies, communication industries and academic circles in the theory and application of optical solitons. The symposium attracted enthusiastic response from worldwide researchers in the field of soliton based communications and intensive discussions were made. In the symposium held in 1997, new concept of soliton transmission based on dispersion management of optical fibers were presented. This new soliton is now called the dispersion managed soliton. The p...

  2. A new architecture and MAC protocol for fully flexible hybrid WDM/TDM PON

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, G.; Lannoo, B.; Jung, H.D.; Koonen, A.M.J.; Colle, D.; Pickavet, M.; Demeester, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a novel architecture and MAC protocol for a scalable, cost effective WDM / TDM PON providing fully flexible dynamic bandwidth allocation for upstream and downstream data transmission.

  3. Performance comparison of a wdm pon with tdm pon at 10 gbps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in optical technologies have realized wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM PON) as a promising and a cost-effective solution for the next generation networks. Due to the intrinsic optical transparency and extremely high transmission capacity, WDM PON is considered more future oriented than conventional TDM PON. In this paper we compare an eight channel WDM PON with an eight channel TDM PON, both operating at 10 Gbps data rate. Network parameters like input laser power, optical fiber length and optical amplifier gain are varied and their impact on performance parameters i.e. Q-factor, BER, OSNR, Eye opening and Extinction ratio penalty is recorded. Results reveal that WDM PON exhibits superior performance than TDM PON in each case. (author)

  4. Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation with Effective Utilization of Polling Interval over WDM/TDM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Cuiping; Gan, Chaoqin; Gao, Ziyue

    2014-12-01

    WDM/TDM (wavelength-division multiplexing/time-division multiplexing) PON (passive optical network) appears to be an attractive solution for the next generation optical access networks. Dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) plays a crucial role in efficiently and fairly allocating the bandwidth among all users in WDM/TDM PON. In this paper, two dynamic bandwidth allocation schemes (DBA1 and DBA2) are proposed to eliminate the idle time of polling cycles (i.e. polling interval), improve bandwidth utilization and make full use of bandwidth resources. The two DBA schemes adjust the time slot of sending request information and make fair scheduling among users to achieve the effective utilization of polling interval in WDM/TDM PON. The simulation and theoretical analyses verify that the proposed schemes outperform the conventional DBA scheme. We also make comparisons between the two schemes in terms of bandwidth utilization and average packet delay to further demonstrate the effectiveness of the scheme of DBA2.

  5. An enhanced DWBA algorithm in hybrid WDM/TDM EPON networks with heterogeneous propagation delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengjun; Guo, Wei; Jin, Yaohui; Sun, Weiqiang; Hu, Weisheng

    2011-12-01

    An enhanced dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation (DWBA) algorithm in hybrid WDM/TDM PON is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In addition to the fairness of bandwidth allocation, this algorithm also considers the varying propagation delays between ONUs and OLT. The simulation based on MATLAB indicates that the improved algorithm has a better performance compared with some other algorithms.

  6. Analizar el rendimiento de los receptores en una red TDM/WDM pon (red óptica pasiva)

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Chafla, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    The rapid increase of Internet users deserve transmission rates higher data rates and greater capacity in terms of number of users. However, this should be achieved at a reasonable cost. TDM (Time Division Multiplexing) and WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) technologies are most used. TDM allows us to offer extend services to many users (sacrificing bandwidth), low speed, at a reasonable cost. WDM meanwhile has the capacity to serve a greater number of users and provide higher transmissi...

  7. A novel survivable architecture for hybrid WDM/TDM passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2014-02-01

    A novel tree-ring survivable architecture, which consists of an organization of a wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) tree from optical line terminal (OLT) to remote nodes (RNs) and a time division multiplexing (TDM) ring in each RN, is proposed for hybrid WDM/TDM passive optical networks. By utilizing the cyclic property of arrayed waveguide gratings (AWGs) and the single-ring topology among a group of optical network units (ONUs) in the remote node, not only the feeder and distribution fibers, but also any fiber failures in the RN rings are protected simultaneously. Five-Gbit/s transmissions under both normal working and protection modes were experimentally demonstrated and a traffic restoration time was successfully measured.

  8. Energy-Saving Mechanism in WDM/TDM-PON Based on Upstream Network Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Garfias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges of Passive Optical Networks (PONs is the resource (bandwidth and wavelength management. Since it has been shown that access networks consume a significant part of the overall energy of the telecom networks, the resource management schemes should also consider energy minimization strategies. To sustain the increased bandwidth demand of emerging applications in the access section of the network, it is expected that next generation optical access networks will adopt the wavelength division/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM technique to increase PONs capacity. Compared with traditional PONs, the architecture of a WDM/TDM-PON requires more transceivers/receivers, hence they are expected to consume more energy. In this paper, we focus on the energy minimization in WDM/TDM-PONs and we propose an energy-efficient Dynamic Bandwidth and Wavelength Allocation mechanism whose objective is to turn off, whenever possible, the unnecessary upstream traffic receivers at the Optical Line Terminal (OLT. We evaluate our mechanism in different scenarios and show that the proper use of upstream channels leads to relevant energy savings. Our proposed energy-saving mechanism is able to save energy at the OLT while maintaining the introduced penalties in terms of packet delay and cycle time within an acceptable range. We might highlight the benefits of our proposal as a mechanism that maximizes the channel utilization. Detailed implementation of the proposed algorithm is presented, and simulation results are reported to quantify energy savings and effects on network performance on different network scenarios.

  9. Multi-granularity Bandwidth Allocation for Large-Scale WDM/TDM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ziyue; Gan, Chaoqin; Ni, Cuiping; Shi, Qiongling

    2017-12-01

    WDM (wavelength-division multiplexing)/TDM (time-division multiplexing) PON (passive optical network) is being viewed as a promising solution for delivering multiple services and applications, such as high-definition video, video conference and data traffic. Considering the real-time transmission, QoS (quality of services) requirements and differentiated services model, a multi-granularity dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) in both domains of wavelengths and time for large-scale hybrid WDM/TDM PON is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme achieves load balance by using the bandwidth prediction. Based on the bandwidth prediction, the wavelength assignment can be realized fairly and effectively to satisfy the different demands of various classes. Specially, the allocation of residual bandwidth further augments the DBA and makes full use of bandwidth resources in the network. To further improve the network performance, two schemes named extending the cycle of one free wavelength (ECoFW) and large bandwidth shrinkage (LBS) are proposed, which can prevent transmission from interruption when the user employs more than one wavelength. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  10. Two-dimensional priority-based dynamic resource allocation algorithm for QoS in WDM/TDM PON networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yixin; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Lijia; Xin, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qi; Rao, Lan

    2018-01-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) passive optical networks (PON) is being viewed as a promising solution for delivering multiple services and applications. The hybrid WDM / TDM PON uses the wavelength and bandwidth allocation strategy to control the distribution of the wavelength channels in the uplink direction, so that it can ensure the high bandwidth requirements of multiple Optical Network Units (ONUs) while improving the wavelength resource utilization. Through the investigation of the presented dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms, these algorithms can't satisfy the requirements of different levels of service very well while adapting to the structural characteristics of mixed WDM / TDM PON system. This paper introduces a novel wavelength and bandwidth allocation algorithm to efficiently utilize the bandwidth and support QoS (Quality of Service) guarantees in WDM/TDM PON. Two priority based polling subcycles are introduced in order to increase system efficiency and improve system performance. The fixed priority polling subcycle and dynamic priority polling subcycle follow different principles to implement wavelength and bandwidth allocation according to the priority of different levels of service. A simulation was conducted to study the performance of the priority based polling in dynamic resource allocation algorithm in WDM/TDM PON. The results show that the performance of delay-sensitive services is greatly improved without degrading QoS guarantees for other services. Compared with the traditional dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithms, this algorithm can meet bandwidth needs of different priority traffic class, achieve low loss rate performance, and ensure real-time of high priority traffic class in terms of overall traffic on the network.

  11. Optical chaos and hybrid WDM/TDM based large capacity quasi-distributed sensing network with real-time fiber fault monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yiyang; Xia, Li; Xu, Zhilin; Yu, Can; Sun, Qizhen; Li, Wei; Huang, Di; Liu, Deming

    2015-02-09

    An optical chaos and hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/time division multiplexing (WDM/TDM) based large capacity quasi-distributed sensing network with real-time fiber fault monitoring is proposed. Chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) intensity demodulation is adopted to improve the dynamic range of the measurements. Compared with the traditional sensing interrogation methods in time, radio frequency and optical wavelength domains, the measurand sensing and the precise locating of the proposed sensing network can be simultaneously interrogated by the relative amplitude change (RAC) and the time delay of the correlation peak in the cross-correlation spectrum. Assisted with the WDM/TDM technology, hundreds of sensing units could be potentially multiplexed in the multiple sensing fiber lines. Based on the proof-of-concept experiment for axial strain measurement with three sensing fiber lines, the strain sensitivity up to 0.14% RAC/με and the precise locating of the sensors are achieved. Significantly, real-time fiber fault monitoring in the three sensing fiber lines is also implemented with a spatial resolution of 2.8 cm.

  12. Protocol and networking design issues for local access WDM networks

    OpenAIRE

    Salvador, M.R.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report gives an overview of some of the protocol and networking design issues that have been addressed in Flamingo, a major ongoing project which investigates the use of WDM optical technology in local access networks. Quality of service delivery and wavelength assignment are focused on in this report. A brief introduction to optical networks and WDM as well as a brief description of Flamingo are also included in this report.

  13. Protocol and networking design issues for local access WDM networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salvador, M.R.; Heemstra de Groot, S.M.; Niemegeers, I.G.M.M.

    This report gives an overview of some of the protocol and networking design issues that have been addressed in Flamingo, a major ongoing project which investigates the use of WDM optical technology in local access networks. Quality of service delivery and wavelength assignment are focused on in this

  14. Konsep Dan Kinerja Dari Sistem Hybrid OCDMA/WDM Untuk Local Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Nasaruddin, Nasaruddin

    2011-01-01

    Peningkatan kapasitas, distribusi bandwidth dan daya merupakan beberapa isu penting untuk aplikasi local area network (LAN). Saat ini, teknologi fiber optik sudah dapat mendukung jaringan akses dengan kecepatan tinggi untuk layanan multimedia diantaranya teknologi OCDMA dan WDM. Penambahan kapasitas transmisi LAN bisa dilakukan dengan penggabungan sistem transmisi OCDMA dengan WDM. Untuk itu, paper ini mengusulkan konsep dan kinerja dari sistem hybrid OCDMA/WDM. Sistem hybrid OCDMA/WDM ini be...

  15. The emerging WDM EPON

    CERN Document Server

    Radivojević, Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    This book proposes dynamic wavelength and bandwidth allocation (DWBA), a hybrid of time-division multiplexing (TDM) and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM), which offers a solution for service providers faced with multiservice networks. It discusses different models, architectures and implementations and evaluates their performance.

  16. Synchronization Algorithm for SDN-controlled All-Optical TDM Switching in a Random Length Ring Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija; Cristofori, Valentina; Da Ros, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an algorithm that allows for automatic synchronization of SDN-controlled all-optical TDM switching nodes connected in a ring network. We experimentally show successful WDM-SDM transmission of data bursts between all ring nodes.......We propose and demonstrate an algorithm that allows for automatic synchronization of SDN-controlled all-optical TDM switching nodes connected in a ring network. We experimentally show successful WDM-SDM transmission of data bursts between all ring nodes....

  17. A hybrid WDM/OCDMA ring with a dynamic add/drop function based on Fourier code for local area networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yong-Kyu; Hosoya, Kenta; Lee, Chung Ghiu; Hanawa, Masanori; Park, Chang-Soo

    2011-03-28

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a hybrid WDM/OCDMA ring with a dynamic add/drop function based on Fourier code for local area networks. Dynamic function is implemented by mechanically tuning the Fourier encoder/decoder for optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) encoding/decoding. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is utilized for node assignment and 4-chip Fourier code recovers the matched signal from the codes. For an optical source well adapted to WDM channels and its short optical pulse generation, reflective semiconductor optical amplifiers (RSOAs) are used with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and gain-switched. To demonstrate we experimentally investigated a two-node hybrid WDM/OCDMA ring with a 4-chip Fourier encoder/decoder fabricated by cascading four FBGs with the bit error rate (BER) of <10(-9) for the node span of 10.64 km at 1.25 Gb/s.

  18. Upstream vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers for fault monitoring and localization in WDM passive optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Elaine; Zhao, Xiaoxue; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.

    2008-04-01

    As wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs) are expected to be first deployed to transport high capacity services to business customers, real-time knowledge of fiber/device faults and the location of such faults will be a necessity to guarantee reliability. Nonetheless, the added benefit of implementing fault monitoring capability should only incur minimal cost associated with upgrades to the network. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a fault monitoring and localization scheme based on a highly-sensitive and potentially low-cost monitor in conjunction with vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The VCSELs are used as upstream transmitters in the WDM-PON. The proposed scheme benefits from the high reflectivity of the top distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) mirror of optical injection-locked (OIL) VCSELs to reflect monitoring channels back to the central office for monitoring. Characterization of the fault monitor demonstrates high sensitivity, low bandwidth requirements, and potentially low output power. The added advantage of the proposed fault monitoring scheme incurs only a 0.5 dB penalty on the upstream transmissions on the existing infrastructure.

  19. THE VELOCITY FUNCTION IN THE LOCAL ENVIRONMENT FROM ΛCDM AND ΛWDM CONSTRAINED SIMULATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavala, J.; Jing, Y. P.; Faltenbacher, A.; Yepes, G.; Hoffman, Y.; Gottloeber, S.; Catinella, B.

    2009-01-01

    Using constrained simulations of the local universe for generic cold dark matter (CDM) and for 1 keV warm dark matter (WDM), we investigate the difference in the abundance of dark matter halos in the local environment. We find that the mass function (MF) within 20 h -1 Mpc of the Local Group is ∼2 times larger than the universal MF in the 10 9 -10 13 h -1 M sun mass range. Imposing the field of view of the ongoing H I blind survey Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) in our simulations, we predict that the velocity function (VF) in the Virgo-direction region (VdR) exceeds the universal VF by a factor of 3. Furthermore, employing a scheme to translate the halo VF into a galaxy VF, we compare the simulation results with a sample of galaxies from the early catalog release of ALFALFA. We find that our simulations are able to reproduce the VF in the 80-300 km s -1 velocity range, having a value ∼10 times larger than the universal VF in the VdR. In the low-velocity regime, 35-80 km s -1 , the WDM simulation reproduces the observed flattening of the VF. In contrast, the simulation with CDM predicts a steep rise in the VF toward lower velocities; for V max = 35 km s -1 , it forecasts ∼10 times more sources than the ones observed. If confirmed by the complete ALFALFA survey, our results indicate a potential problem for the CDM paradigm or for the conventional assumptions about energetic feedback in dwarf galaxies.

  20. Patient-reported outcomes from EMILIA, a randomized phase 3 study of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) versus capecitabine and lapatinib in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welslau, Manfred; Diéras, Veronique; Sohn, Joo-Hyuk; Hurvitz, Sara A; Lalla, Deepa; Fang, Liang; Althaus, Betsy; Guardino, Ellie; Miles, David

    2014-03-01

    This report describes the results of an analysis of patient-reported outcomes from EMILIA (TDM4370g/BO21977), a randomized phase 3 study of the antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) versus capecitabine and lapatinib in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. A secondary endpoint of the EMILIA study was time to symptom worsening (time from randomization to the first documentation of a ≥ 5-point decrease from baseline) as measured by the Trial Outcome Index Physical/Functional/Breast (TOI-PFB) subset of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast questionnaire. Predefined exploratory patient-reported outcome endpoints included proportion of patients with a clinically significant improvement in symptoms (per TOI-PFB) and proportion of patients with diarrhea symptoms (per Diarrhea Assessment Scale). In the T-DM1 arm, 450 of 495 patients had a baseline and ≥ 1 postbaseline TOI-PFB score versus 445 of 496 patients in the capecitabine-plus-lapatinib arm. Time to symptom worsening was delayed in the T-DM1 arm versus the capecitabine-plus-lapatinib arm (7.1 months versus 4.6 months, respectively; hazard ratio = 0.796; P = .0121). In the T-DM1 arm, 55.3% of patients developed clinically significant improvement in symptoms from baseline versus 49.4% in the capecitabine-plus-lapatinib arm (P = .0842). Although similar at baseline, the number of patients reporting diarrhea symptoms increased 1.5- to 2-fold during treatment with capecitabine and lapatinib but remained near baseline levels in the T-DM1 arm. Together with the EMILIA primary data, these results support the concept that T-DM1 has greater efficacy and tolerability than capecitabine plus lapatinib, which may translate into improvements in health-related quality of life. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  1. Estudo de topologias para redes WDM-PON

    OpenAIRE

    Guilherme Enéas Vaz Silva

    2010-01-01

    A demanda de largura de banda exigida pelos usuários de redes de acesso vem aumentando rapidamente e a rede óptica passiva baseada em multiplexação por divisão de comprimento de onda (WDM-PON) tem se destacado como a tecnologia capaz de suprir essa demanda. Dessa forma, este trabalho conduz, inicialmente, uma comparação entre uma rede WDM-PON ideal e uma rede TDM-PON, discutindo também aspectos de segurança desta última, bem como estratégias de migração entre estes dois esquemas. Devido ao cu...

  2. WDM Research Series: Working Paper No. 2

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    The other three papers of the Series focus on the issues of institutional structures ... Any approach that relates WDM to poverty and equity requires a set of working ..... If local irrigation system operation and maintenance investments and.

  3. The Advent of WDM and the All-Optical Network: A Reality Check.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutkowitz, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the telecommunications industry focuses on WDM (wavelength division multiplexing) as a solution for dealing with capacity constraints. Highlights include fiber optic technology; cross-connecting and switching wavelengths; SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) and wavelength networking; and optical TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). (LRW)

  4. FutureTDM Communication and Exploitation Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Frew, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This report is designed to meet the overall objective of FutureTDM – to identify and remove TDM uptake barriers in the EU through an effective and sustainable communications strategy. It sets out a strategy to engage, to inform (showing our expertise), to be accessible and to be relevant now and post project end date. The plan explains how we are going to communicate the project, offering options both on‐line and in person, with user friendly language and a recognisable slogan...

  5. WDM PONs based on colorless technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliou, Fabienne; Simon, Gael; Chanclou, Philippe; Pizzinat, Anna; Lin, Huafeng; Zhou, Enyu; Xu, Zhiguang

    2015-12-01

    Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) Passive Optical Network (PON) is foreseen to be part of the Next Generation Passive Optical Networks. Business and mobile fronthaul networks already express the need to develop WDM PONs in the access segment. Fixed wavelength transceivers based on Coarse WDM are already available to respond to today's market needs but Dense WDM technologies will be needed and colorless technologies are essential to provide simple and cost-effective WDM PON systems. We propose in this paper to demonstrate the capabilities of a DWDM PON system prototype based on self-seeded RSOAs and designed to transmit CPRI over 60 km of fiber at 2.5 Gbit/s.

  6. The Argo NOC: Combining TDM and GALS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasapaki, Evangelia; Sparsø, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Argo is a network-on-chip developed for use in a multi-core platform designed specifically for hard real-time applications and it supports message passing across virtual end-to-end channels. Argo implements these channels using time-division-multiplexing (TDM) of the resources in the NOC following...

  7. Crosstalk in WDM communication networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tafur Monroy, I.; Tangdiongga, E.

    2002-01-01

    The use of advanced transmission and switching techniques such as reconfigurable WDM optical crossconnects is enabling high capacity and flexible optical networking at ultra bit-rates reaching multi-terabits per second. These techniques also offer creative ways to improve the network connectivity

  8. A novel WDM monitoring method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, van de M.P.H.; Tol, van der J.J.G.M.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    1999-01-01

    A novel method to monitor the performance of WDM channels in an optical network is presented by analyzing the photo-diode current of a detected optical signal. From the photo-diode current, an amplitude histogram is generated, hereafter to be called the probability density function (PDF). By

  9. Ultrafast Hierarchical OTDM/WDM Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Sotobayashi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafast hierarchical OTDM/WDM network is proposed for the future core-network. We review its enabling technologies: C- and L-wavelength-band generation, OTDM-WDM mutual multiplexing format conversions, and ultrafast OTDM wavelengthband conversions.

  10. Pitfalls in TDM of antibiotic drugs : Analytical and modelling issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neef, C.; Touw, D. J.; Harteveld, A. R.; Eerland, J. J.; Uges, D. R. A.

    2006-01-01

    The quality assurance program of the Dutch KKGT [Association for Quality Assessment in therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) and Clinical Toxicology] has been running for more than 25 years. One of these programs concerns TDM of the antibiotic drugs gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, and vancomycin. We

  11. Water brief-WDM & wastewater reuse

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    aalfouns

    Wastewater Reuse for Water Demand Management in the Middle East and ... Among the substantial WDM tools in MENA is the use of wastewater to reduce the pressure on scarce freshwater .... recycled water to irrigate crops with associated ...

  12. WDM Question and Answers | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-04

    Jan 4, 2011 ... Why is there growing concern about water issues in the MENA region? ... tend to leak, taps tend to drip and little is done to prevent water pollution. ... water demand management (WDM) and water supply management (WSM)?.

  13. Monolithically integrated 8-channel WDM reflective modulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stopinski, S.T.; Malinowski, M.; Piramidowicz, R.; Smit, M.K.; Leijtens, X.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In this work the design and characterization of a monolithically integrated photonic circuit acting as a reflective modulator for eight WDM channels is presented. The chip was designed and fabricated in a generic integration technology

  14. WDM Network and Multicasting Protocol Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Kirci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical technology gains extensive attention and ever increasing improvement because of the huge amount of network traffic caused by the growing number of internet users and their rising demands. However, with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM, it is easier to take the advantage of optical networks and optical burst switching (OBS and to construct WDM networks with low delay rates and better data transparency these technologies are the best choices. Furthermore, multicasting in WDM is an urgent solution for bandwidth-intensive applications. In the paper, a new multicasting protocol with OBS is proposed. The protocol depends on a leaf initiated structure. The network is composed of source, ingress switches, intermediate switches, edge switches, and client nodes. The performance of the protocol is examined with Just Enough Time (JET and Just In Time (JIT reservation protocols. Also, the paper involves most of the recent advances about WDM multicasting in optical networks. WDM multicasting in optical networks is given as three common subtitles: Broadcast and-select networks, wavelength-routed networks, and OBS networks. Also, in the paper, multicast routing protocols are briefly summarized and optical burst switched WDM networks are investigated with the proposed multicast schemes.

  15. TDM interrogation of intensity-modulated USFBGs network based on multichannel lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohollahnejad, Jalal; Xia, Li; Cheng, Rui; Ran, Yanli; Rahubadde, Udaya; Zhou, Jiaao; Zhu, Lin

    2017-01-23

    We report a large-scale multi-channel fiber sensing network, where ultra-short FBGs (USFBGs) instead of conventional narrow-band ultra-weak FBGs are used as the sensors. In the time division multiplexing scheme of the network, each grating response is resolved as three adjacent discrete peaks. The central wavelengths of USFBGs are tracked with the differential detection, which is achieved by calculating the peak-to-peak ratio of two maximum peaks. Compared with previous large-scale hybrid multiplexing sensing networks (e.g., WDM/TDM) which typically have relatively low interrogation speed and very high complexity, the proposed system can achieve interrogation of all channel sensors through very fast and simple intensity measurements with a broad dynamic range. A proof-of-concept experiment with twenty USFBGs, at two wavelength channels, was performed and a fast static strain measurements were demonstrated, with a high average sensitivity of ~0.54dB/µƐ and wide dynamic range of over ~3000µƐ. The channel to channel switching time was 10ms and total network interrogation time was 50ms.

  16. A multicast tree aggregation algorithm in wavelength-routed WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hsu-Chen; Kuo, Chin-Chun; Lin, Frank Y.

    2005-02-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) has been considered a promising transmission technology in optical communication networks. With the continuous advance in optical technology, WDM network will play an important role in wide area backbone networks. Optical wavelength switching, compared with optical packet switching, is a more mature and more cost-effective choice for optical switching technologies. Besides, the technology of time division multiplexing in optical communication networks has been working smoothly for a long time. In the proposed research, the problem of multicast groups aggregation and multicast routing and wavelength assignment in wavelength-routed WDM network is studied. The optical cross connect switches in the problem are assumed to have limited optical multicast/splitting and TDM functionalities. Given the physical network topology and capacity, the objective is to maximize the total revenue by means of utmost merging multicast groups into larger macro-groups. The groups in the same macro-group will share a multicast tree to conduct data transmission. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem, where the objective function is to maximize the total revenue subject to capacity constraints of components in the optical network, wavelength continuity constraints, and tree topology constraints. The decision variables in the formulations include the merging results between groups, multicast tree routing assignment and wavelength assignment. The basic approach to the algorithm development for this model is Lagrangean relaxation in conjunction with a number of optimization techniques. In computational experiments, the proposed algorithms are evaluated on different network topologies and perform efficiently and effectively according to the experiment results.

  17. Low-cost interferometric TDM technology for dynamic sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Jeff; Cekorich, Allen

    2004-12-01

    A low-cost design approach for Time Division Multiplexed (TDM) fiber-optic interferometric interrogation of multi-channel sensor arrays is presented. This paper describes the evolutionary design process of the subject design. First, the requisite elements of interferometric interrogation are defined for a single channel sensor. The concept is then extended to multi-channel sensor interrogation implementing a TDM multiplex scheme where "traditional" design elements are utilized. The cost of the traditional TDM interrogator is investigated and concluded to be too high for entry into many markets. A new design approach is presented which significantly reduces the cost for TDM interrogation. This new approach, in accordance with the cost objectives, shows promise to bring this technology to within the threshold of commercial acceptance for a wide range of distributed fiber sensing applications.

  18. Working Paper 2: WDM, Poverty & Equity | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... This paper shows that WDM can contribute to poverty reduction, defined ... Series contributes to setting the stage for the next phase of WDM research. ... that 20% of the country's population has some form of physical disability.

  19. A 10 Gb/s passive-components-based WDM-TDM reconfigurable optical access network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.C.; Jung, H.D.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cost-effective, reconfigurable optical access network by employing passive components in the remote node and dual conventional optical transceivers in ONUs. The architecture is demonstrated with bidirectional transmission at 10 Gb/s.

  20. Key lessons — Twelve factors critical to the success of WDM at the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-22

    Dec 22, 2010 ... Water demand management (WDM) programs have been widely ... The criteria below are intended to help policymakers determine how best to ... implement and monitor WDM activities and to further the concept of WDM as ...

  1. Traffic Scheduling in WDM Passive Optical Network with Delay Guarantee

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    WDM passive optical network becomes more favorable as the required bandwidth increases, but currently few media access control algorithms adapted to WDM access network. This paper presented a new scheduling algorithm for bandwidth sharing in WDM passive optical networks, which provides per-flow delay guarantee and supports variable-length packets scheduling. Through theoretical analysis and simulation, the end-to-end delay bound and throughput fairness of the algorithm was demonstrated.

  2. Experimental demonstrations of all-optical networking functions for WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurkan, Deniz

    The deployment of optical networks will enable high capacity links between users but will introduce the problems associated with transporting and managing more channels. Many network functions should be implemented in optical domain; main reasons are: to avoid electronic processing bottlenecks, to achieve data-format and data-rate independence, to provide reliable and cost efficient control and management information, to simultaneously process multiple wavelength channel operation for wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) optical networks. The following novel experimental demonstrations of network functions in the optical domain are presented: Variable-bit-rate recognition of the header information in a data packet. The technique is reconfigurable for different header sequences and uses optical correlators as look-up tables. The header is processed and a signal is sent to the switch for a series of incoming data packets at 155 Mb/s, 622 Mb/s, and 2.5 Gb/s in a reconfigurable network. Simultaneous optical time-slot-interchange and wavelength conversion of the bits in a 2.5-Gb/s data stream to achieve a reconfigurable time/wavelength switch. The technique uses difference-frequency-generation (DFG) for wavelength conversion and fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) as wavelength-dependent optical time buffers. The WDM header recognition module simultaneously recognizing two header bits on each of two 2.5-Gbit/s WDM packet streams. The module is tunable to enable reconfigurable look-up tables. Simultaneous and independent label swapping and wavelength conversion of two WDM channels for a multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) network. Demonstration of label swapping of distinct 8-bit-long labels for two WDM data channels is presented. Two-dimensional code conversion module for an optical code-division multiple-access (O-CDMA) local area network (LAN) system. Simultaneous wavelength conversion and time shifting is achieved to enable flexible code conversion and increase code re

  3. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaioannou, S.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Vyrsokinos, K.

    2012-01-01

    -enabling characteristics of active plasmonic circuits with an ultra-low power 3 response time product represents a crucial milestone in the development of active plasmonics towards real telecom and datacom applications, where low-energy and fast TO operation with small-size circuitry is targeted........ The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce...... active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4310 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM...

  4. A Novel Reliable WDM-PON System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Benyang; Gan, Chaoqin; Qi, Yongqian; Xia, Lei

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a reliable Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON) system is proposed. It can provide the protection against both the feeder fiber failure and the distribution fiber failure. When the fiber failure occurs, the corresponding switches in the OLT and in the ONU can switch to the protection link without affecting the users in normal status. That is to say, the protection for one ONU is independent of the other ONUs.

  5. Concurrent support of higher-layer protocols over WDM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, B.D.; Voeten, J.P.M.; Putten, van der P.H.A.; Stevens, M.P.J.; Dorren, H.J.S.

    2002-01-01

    To satisfy the severe requirements involved in future communication networks, commercial and research interest in the applicability of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) is growing. However, since WDM is merely concerned with transmitting bits over optical fibers, full advantage can only be

  6. Working Paper 2: WDM, Poverty & Equity | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-23

    Jan 23, 2012 ... Despite the growing practical and policy-level engagement with WDM, there has been little analytical or empirical effort devoted to its potential social implications. Establishing a better foundation for understanding the linkages between WDM and poverty is, therefore, very important. This paper shows that ...

  7. POLICY BRIEF 1 - WDM Criteria | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-18

    Jan 18, 2012 ... Water demand management ― WDM ― can be hard to define. More an issue of policy than of technology, it is about managing and moderating our ... critical to the success of WDM at the policy and at the operational levels.

  8. Wavelength-agnostic WDM-PON System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Zou, S.

    2016-01-01

    on the standardization status of this lowcost system in the new ITU-T G.metro draft recommendation, in the context of autonomous tuning. We also discuss some low-effort implementations of the pilot-tone labels and investigate the impact of these labels on the transmission channels.......Next-generation WDM-PON solutions for metro and access systems will take advantage of remotely controlled wavelength-tunable ONUs to keep system costs as low as possible. For such a purpose, each ONU signal can be labeled by a pilot tone modulated onto the optical data stream. We report...

  9. Grant management procedure for energy saving TDM-PONs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaelddin, Fuad Yousif Mohammed; Newaz, S. H. Shah; AL-Hazemi, Fawaz; Choi, Jun Kyun

    2018-01-01

    In order to minimize energy consumption in Time Division Multiplexing-Passive Optical Network (TDM-PON), IEEE and ITU-T have mandated sleep mode mechanism for Optical Network Units (ONUs) in the latest TDM-PON standards (e.g. IEEE P1904.1 SIEPON, ITU-T G.sup45). The sleep mode mechanism is a promising mean for maximizing energy saving in an ONU. An ONU in sleep mode flips between sleep and active state depending on the presence or absent of upstream and downstream frames. To ensure Quality of Service (QoS) of upstream frames, the recent TDM-PON standards introduced an early wake-up mechanism, in which an ONU is forced to leave the sleep state on upstream frame arrival. When the Optical Line Terminal (OLT) of a TDM-PON allows early wake-up of its connected ONUs, it allocates gratuitous grants for the sleeping ONUs along with allocating upstream grants for the ONUs in active state. Note that, the gratuitous grants control message sent periodically by the OLT on Inter-Gratuitous grant Interval (IGI) time. After leaving sleep state due to the arrival of upstream frame, the ONU uses its allocated gratuitous grant to send a control message mentioning the amount of upstream bandwidth (upstream grant) required in order to forward the remaining frames in its buffer. However, the existing early wake-up process of ONU can lead to increase the energy consumption of an ONU. It is because of the ONU wakes-up immediately from the sleep state on arrival of the upstream frame, but even so, it needs to wait for forwarding the frame until its allocated gratuitous grant period, resulting in spending energy unnecessarily. In addition, current energy saving solution for TDM-PONs do not provide a clear solution on how to manage different types of grants (e.g. listening grant, upstream transmission grant) within a Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation (DBA) polling cycle. To address this problem, we propose a state-of-art Grant Management Procedure (GMP) in order to maximize energy saving in a TDM

  10. QoS support over ultrafast TDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Paolo; Siu, Kai-Yeung; Finn, Steven G.

    1999-08-01

    HLAN is a promising architecture to realize Tb/s access networks based on ultra-fast optical TDM technologies. This paper presents new research results on efficient algorithms for the support of quality of service over the HLAN network architecture. In particular, we propose a new scheduling algorithm that emulates fair queuing in a distributed manner for bandwidth allocation purpose. The proposed scheduler collects information on the queue of each host on the network and then instructs each host how much data to send. Our new scheduling algorithm ensures full bandwidth utilization, while guaranteeing fairness among all hosts.

  11. Gender & WDM in the Middle East & North Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    nkhaled

    WDM Research Report Series: Working Paper No. ... water-users themselves, coupled with an adequate enabling policy environment with the commitment ..... affect water quality, as well as, decrease food security and safety and are exposed ...

  12. Gaussian Process Regression for WDM System Performance Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wass, Jesper; Thrane, Jakob; Piels, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Gaussian process regression is numerically and experimentally investigated to predict the bit error rate of a 24 x 28 CiBd QPSK WDM system. The proposed method produces accurate predictions from multi-dimensional and sparse measurement data.......Gaussian process regression is numerically and experimentally investigated to predict the bit error rate of a 24 x 28 CiBd QPSK WDM system. The proposed method produces accurate predictions from multi-dimensional and sparse measurement data....

  13. Export policies for multi-domain WDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Anna Vasileva; Ruepp, Sarah Renée

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the performance of six export policies for a multi-domain routing protocol in WDM networks. We show that providing many AS-disjoint paths for survivability and load-balancing does not necessarily guarantee the lowest connection blocking......We analyze the performance of six export policies for a multi-domain routing protocol in WDM networks. We show that providing many AS-disjoint paths for survivability and load-balancing does not necessarily guarantee the lowest connection blocking...

  14. Transportation Demand Management Planning At Multi-Tenant Buildings, An Example Of Tdm Planning During Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    THIS GUIDE FOR DEVELOPERS, BUILDING OWNERS AND BUILDING MANAGERS IS ONE IN A SERIES OF SAMPLES OF TDM PLANS THAT ILLUSTRATE THE DESIGN AND PROPOSED APPLICATION OF TDM STRATEGIES. THIS SAMPLE PLAN WAS PREPARED FOR A FICTITIOUS BUILDING MANAGER NEAR DO...

  15. WDM production with intense relativistic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Josh; Andrews, Heather; Klasky, Mark; Colgan, James; Burris-Mog, Trevor; Creveling, Dan; Miller, Craig; Welch, Dale; Berninger, Mike

    2016-10-01

    The production of warm dense matter (WDM) through collisional heating with intense relativistic electrons is underway. A 100-ns-long monochromatic bunch of electrons with energies of 19.1-19.8 MeV and currents of 0.2-1.7 kA is used to heat 100- μm-thick foils with Z measuring the equation of state with particle beams and benchmark numerical models. Measurements indicate the formation of a warm dense plasma near the end of the pulse, which is on the order of the beam size. These plasmas expand 5 mm in the first microsecond and slow down to 1018 cm-3. At these densities our plasma is collisionally dominated making it possible to spectrally model the density and temperature in LTE. Preliminary density gradient measurements will also be presented indicating the spatial extent of the solid density cutoff. This work was supported by the National Nuclear Se- curity Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  16. Improving the cost effectiveness of financial incentives in managing travel demand management (TDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Providing financial incentives to commuters to use alternative modes is a common element of managing transportation demand. Although these incentives have become common during the past two decades as elements of transportation demand management (TDM)...

  17. Multichannel silicon WDM ring filters fabricated with DUV lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Moo; Park, Sahnggi; Kim, Gyungock

    2008-09-01

    We have fabricated 9-channel silicon wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) ring filters using 193 nm deep-ultraviolet (DUV) lithography and investigated the spectral properties of the ring filters by comparing the transmission spectra with and without an upper cladding. The average channel-spacing of the 9-channel WDM ring filter with a polymeric upper cladding is measured about 1.86 nm with the standard deviation of the channel-spacing about 0.34 nm. The channel crosstalk is about -30 dB, and the minimal drop loss is about 2 dB.

  18. Advanced integrated WDM system for POF communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, M.; Fischer, U. H. P.

    2009-01-01

    Polymer Optical Fibres (POFs) show clear advantages compared to copper and glass fibres. In essence, POFs are inexpensive, space-saving and not susceptible to electromagnetic interference. Thus, the usage of POFs have become a reasonable alternative in short distance data communication. Today, POFs are applied in a wide number of applications due to these specific advantages. These applications include automotive communication systems and in-house-networks. State-of-the-art is to transmit data with only one channel over POF, this limits the bandwidth. To solve this problem, an integrated MUX/DEMUX-element for WDM over POF is designed and developed to use multiple channels. This integration leads to low costs, therefore this component is suitable for mass market applications. The fundamental idea is to separate the chromatic parts of the light in its monochromatic components by means of a grating based on an aspheric mirror. Due to the high NA of the POF the setup has to be designed in a 3D-approach. Therefore this setup cannot be compared with the planar solutions available on market, they would result high losses in the 3rd dimension. To achieve a fast and optimized design an optical simulation program is used. Particular attention has to be paid to the design of the POF as a light source in the simulation program and the optimisation of the grating. The following realization of the demultiplexer is planed to be done with injection molding. This technology offers easy and very economical processing. These advantages make this technology first choice for optical components in the low-cost array.

  19. Go green choices : a regional employer TDM program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackniak, C.; Hartley-Folz, S. [Better Environmentally Sound Transportation (BEST), Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Go Green Choices is a regional, voluntary, employer-based trip reduction program initiated in 1994 by BC Transit. It is now funded by the TransLink Regional Transportation Authority in Vancouver. This presentation described how the program got started and the services it delivers. The 1990 Go Green Campaign in Vancouver increased awareness about transportation issues and air quality problems. Transportation demand management (TDM) was used to address traffic congestion issues and to help reduce the number of car trips. The presentation demonstrated how workplace trip reduction programs can be promoted by highlighting their benefits such as reduced stress for employees, retaining and recruiting valuable staff, higher productivity and performance due to low absenteeism. It also reduces the need for parking. The following case studies were presented: (1) Crystal Decision wanted to attract high quality young employees, so their choice of location was near walking and cycling paths, and they had no subsidized parking, and (2) the Vancouver Airport Authority developed innovative trip reduction plans and are considering the possibility of a new express bus to the airport.

  20. Flexible Transport Network Expansion via Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Skjoldstrup, Bjarke

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a successful test-bed implementation of a multi-vendor transport network interconnection via open WDM interfaces. The concept of applying Alien Wavelengths (AWs) for network expansion was successfully illustrated via deployment of multi-domain/multi-vendor end-to-end OTN servi...

  1. POLICY BRIEF 1 - WDM Criteria | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    18 janv. 2012 ... Water demand management ― WDM ― can be hard to define. More an issue of policy than of technology, it is about managing and moderating our demands for good quality fresh water. It is less a matter of piping and pumps and more a tool for changing the ways we use water and the rates at which we ...

  2. WDM hybrid microoptical transceiver with Bragg volume grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeřábek, Vitezslav; Armas, Julio; Mareš, David; Prajzler, Václav

    2012-02-01

    The paper presents the design, simulation and construction results of the wavelength division multiplex bidirectional transceiver module (WDM transceiver) for the passive optical network (PON) of a fiber to the home (FTTH) topology network. WDM transceiver uses a microoptical hybrid integration technology with volume holographic Bragg grating triplex filter -VHGT and a collimation lenses imagine system for wavelength multiplexing/ demultiplexing. This transmission type VHGT filter has high diffraction angle, very low insertion loses and optical crosstalk, which guide to very good technical parameters of transceiver module. WDM transceiver has been constructed using system of a four micromodules in the new circle topology. The optical micromodule with VHGT filter and collimation and decollimation lenses, two optoelectronics microwave receiver micromodules for receiving download information (internet and digital TV signals) and optoelectronic transmitter micromodule for transmitting upload information. In the paper is presented the optical analysis of the optical imagine system by ray-transfer matrix. We compute and measure VHGT characteristics such as diffraction angle, diffraction efficiency and diffraction crosstalk of the optical system for 1310, 1490 and 1550 nm wavelength radiation. For the design of optoelectronic receiver micromodule was used the low signal electrical equivalent circuit for the dynamic performance signal analysis. In the paper is presented the planar form WDM transceiver with polymer optical waveguides and two stage interference demultiplexing optical filter as well.

  3. Temporal Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for WDM Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Finite state machine sources transmitting QPSK are studied as input to WDM optical fiber systems with ideal distributed Raman amplification. The probabilities of successive constellation symbols are shaped for nonlinear transmission and gains of around 500km (5-10%) are demonstrated...

  4. Temporal Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for WDM Optical Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Finite state machine sources transmitting QPSK are studied as input to WDM optical fiber systems with ideal distributed Raman amplification. The probabilities of successive constellation symbols are shaped for nonlinear transmission and gains of around 500km (5-10%) are demonstrated

  5. WDM Question and Answers | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Why is there growing concern about water issues in the MENA region? ... Sometimes it is easier to define what is WDM is not about than to define what it is about. ... You can take part in this on-going regional effort by writing articles and ...

  6. 100G WDM Transmission over 100 meter Multimode Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Bruno; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Guillermo Arturo

    We present a comparative performance analysis for wavelength-grid selection in WDM shortrange multimode-fibers. We study 100Gbps links over OM2, OM3 and OM4 fibers and show it is feasible to reach over 100 m transmission distances....

  7. Five Wavelength DFB Fibre Laser Source for WDM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Varming, Poul; Kristensen, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Singlemode UV-induced distributed feedback (DFB) fibre lasers with a linewidth of lasers is verified by a 10 Gbit/s transmission experiment. Five DFB fibre lasers are cascaded and pumped by a single...... semiconductor laser, thereby forming a multiwavelength source for WDM systems...

  8. All-optical ultra-high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2015-01-01

    We propose an all-optical ultra-high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion scheme based on complete OFT. An 8-subcarrier 640 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM super-channel is converted to eight 80-Gbit/s Nyquist-WDM channels with BER <10−9 performance for all channels.......We propose an all-optical ultra-high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion scheme based on complete OFT. An 8-subcarrier 640 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM super-channel is converted to eight 80-Gbit/s Nyquist-WDM channels with BER

  9. All-optical WDM Regeneration of DPSK Signals using Optical Fourier Transformation and Phase Sensitive Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time.......We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time....

  10. A SURVEY ON WAVELENGTH DIVISION MULTIPLEXING (WDM NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ramesh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Communication networks have emerged as a source of empowerment in today’s society. At the global level, the Internet is becoming the backbone of the modern economy. The new generations in developed countries cannot even conceive of a world without broadband access to the Internet. The inability of the current Internet infrastructure to cope with the wide variety and ever growing number of users, emerging networked applications, usage patterns and business models is increasingly being recognized worldwide. The dynamic growth of Internet traffic and its bursty nature requires high transmission rate. With the advances and the progress in Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM technology, the amount of raw bandwidth available in fiber links has increased to high magnitude. This paper presents a survey on WDM networks from its development to the current status. Also an analysis on buffer size in optical networks for real time traffic was performed.

  11. WDM Systems and Networks Modeling, Simulation, Design and Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ellinas, Georgios; Roudas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    WDM Systems and Networks: Modeling, Simulation, Design and Engineering provides readers with the basic skills, concepts, and design techniques used to begin design and engineering of optical communication systems and networks at various layers. The latest semi-analytical system simulation techniques are applied to optical WDM systems and networks, and a review of the various current areas of optical communications is presented. Simulation is mixed with experimental verification and engineering to present the industry as well as state-of-the-art research. This contributed volume is divided into three parts, accommodating different readers interested in various types of networks and applications. The first part of the book presents modeling approaches and simulation tools mainly for the physical layer including transmission effects, devices, subsystems, and systems), whereas the second part features more engineering/design issues for various types of optical systems including ULH, access, and in-building system...

  12. The Gain of Performance of Optical WDM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Bahleda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the blocking probability and performance of single-fiber and multifiber optical networks with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM. We extend the well-known analytical blocking probability model by Barry and Humblet to the general model, which is proposed for both single-fiber and multifiber network paths with any kind of wavelength conversion (no, limited, or full wavelength conversion and for uniform and nonuniform link loads. We investigate the effect of the link load, wavelength conversion degree, and the number of wavelengths, fibers, and hops on blocking probability. We also extend the definition of the gain of wavelength conversion by Barry and Humblet to the gain of performance, which is fully general. Thanks to this definition and implementation of our model, we compare different WDM node architectures and present interesting results.

  13. WDM Phase-Modulated Millimeter-Wave Fiber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Prince, Kamau; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents a computer simulation case study of two typical WDM phase-modulated millimeter-wave systems. The phase-modulated 60 GHz fiber multi-channel transmission systems employ single sideband (SSB) and double sideband subcarrier modulation (DSB-SC) schemes and present one of the lat......This chapter presents a computer simulation case study of two typical WDM phase-modulated millimeter-wave systems. The phase-modulated 60 GHz fiber multi-channel transmission systems employ single sideband (SSB) and double sideband subcarrier modulation (DSB-SC) schemes and present one...... of the latest research efforts in the rapidly emerging Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) application space for in-house access networks....

  14. An area-efficient network interface for a TDM-based Network-on-Chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparsø, Jens; Kasapaki, Evangelia; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    used by the routers and links in the NOC. The paper addresses the design of a NI for a NOC that uses time division multiplexing (TDM). By keeping the essence of TDM in mind, we have developed a new area-efficient NI micro-architecture. The new design completely eliminates the need for FIFO buffers...... and credit based flow control - resources which are reported to account for 50–85% of the area in existing NI designs. The paper discusses the design considerations, presents the new NI micro-architecture, and reports area figures for a range of implementations....

  15. An OTDM-To-WDM Converter Using Optical Fourier Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Khin Su Myat Min; Zaw Myo Lwin; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate serial-to-parallel conversion of 40 Gbps optical time division multiplexed OTDM signal to 4x10 Gbps wavelength division-multiplexed WDM individual channels by using Optical Fourier Transformation OFT method. OFT is also called time lens technique and it is implemented by the combination of dispersive fiber and phase modulation. In this research electro-optic phase modulator EOM is used as time lens. As our investigations simulation results and bit error rate BER measurements ar...

  16. Ultra-wideband WDM VCSEL arrays by lateral heterogeneous integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon

    Advancements in heterogeneous integration are a driving factor in the development of evermore sophisticated and functional electronic and photonic devices. Such advancements will merge the optical and electronic capabilities of different material systems onto a common integrated device platform. This thesis presents a new lateral heterogeneous integration technology called nonplanar wafer bonding. The technique is capable of integrating multiple dissimilar semiconductor device structures on the surface of a substrate in a single wafer bond step, leaving different integrated device structures adjacent to each other on the wafer surface. Material characterization and numerical simulations confirm that the material quality is not compromised during the process. Nonplanar wafer bonding is used to fabricate ultra-wideband wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays. The optically-pumped VCSEL arrays span 140 nm from 1470 to 1610 nm, a record wavelength span for devices operating in this wavelength range. The array uses eight wavelength channels to span the 140 nm with all channels separated by precisely 20 nm. All channels in the array operate single mode to at least 65°C with output power uniformity of +/- 1 dB. The ultra-wideband WDM VCSEL arrays are a significant first step toward the development of a single-chip source for optical networks based on coarse WDM (CWDM), a low-cost alternative to traditional dense WDM. The CWDM VCSEL arrays make use of fully-oxidized distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) to provide the wideband reflectivity required for optical feedback and lasing across 140 rim. In addition, a novel optically-pumped active region design is presented. It is demonstrated, with an analytical model and experimental results, that the new active-region design significantly improves the carrier uniformity in the quantum wells and results in a 50% lasing threshold reduction and a 20°C improvement in the peak

  17. Solutions for 400 Gbit/s inter data center WDM transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dochhan, Annika; Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    We review some currently discussed solutions for 400 Gbit/s inter-data center WDM transmission for up to 100 km. We focus on direct detected solutions, namely PAM4 and DMT, and present two WDM systems based on these formats....

  18. Twelve factors critical to the success of WDM at the policy and at the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    and monetary units. A WDM agency has to be able to show results (such as water savings measured in cubic meters for example) in order to compete for attention with older and better established supply-side agencies. Such data may be hard to find, or estimate, but it can be very persuasive in furthering the WDM agenda.

  19. O2 -independent demethylation of trimethylamine N-oxide by Tdm of Methylocella silvestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yijun; Ksibe, Amira Z; Schäfer, Hendrik; Blindauer, Claudia A; Bugg, Timothy D H; Chen, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) demethylase, Tdm, carries out an unusual oxygen-independent demethylation reaction, resulting in the formation of dimethylamine and formaldehyde. In this study, site-directed mutagenesis, homology modelling and metal analyses by inorganic mass spectrometry have been applied to gain insight into metal stoichiometry and underlying catalytic mechanism of Tdm of Methylocella silvestris BL2. Herein, we demonstrate that active Tdm has 1 molar equivalent of Zn 2+ and 1 molar equivalent of non-haem Fe 2+ . We further investigated Zn 2+ - and Fe 2+ -binding sites through homology modelling and site-directed mutagenesis and found that Zn 2+ is coordinated by a 3-sulfur-1-O motif. An aspartate residue (D198) likely bridges Fe 2+ and Zn 2+ centres, either directly or indirectly via H-bonding through a neighbouring H 2 O molecule. H276 contributes to Fe 2+ binding, mutation of which results in an inactive enzyme, and the loss of iron, but not zinc. Site-directed mutagenesis of Tdm also led to the identification of three hydrophobic aromatic residues likely involved in substrate coordination (F259, Y305, W321), potentially through a cation-π interaction. Furthermore, a crossover experiment using a substrate analogue gave direct evidence that a trimethylamine-alike intermediate was produced during the Tdm catalytic cycle, suggesting TMAO has a dual role of being both a substrate and an oxygen donor for formaldehyde formation. Together, our results provide novel insight into the role of Zn 2+ and Fe 2+ in the catalysis of TMAO demethylation by this unique oxygen-independent enzyme. © 2016 The Authors. The FEBS Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  20. High-fidelity and low-latency mobile fronthaul based on segment-wise TDM and MIMO-interleaved arraying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Longsheng; Bi, Meihua; Miao, Xin; Fu, Yan; Hu, Weisheng

    2018-01-22

    In this paper, we firstly demonstrate an advanced arraying scheme in the TDM-based analog mobile fronthaul system to enhance the signal fidelity, in which the segment of the antenna carrier signal (AxC) with an appropriate length is served as the granularity for TDM aggregation. Without introducing extra processing, the entire system can be realized by simple DSP. The theoretical analysis is presented to verify the feasibility of this scheme, and to evaluate its effectiveness, the experiment with ~7-GHz bandwidth and 20 8 × 8 MIMO group signals are conducted. Results show that the segment-wise TDM is completely compatible with the MIMO-interleaved arraying, which is employed in an existing TDM scheme to improve the bandwidth efficiency. Moreover, compared to the existing TDM schemes, our scheme can not only satisfy the latency requirement of 5G but also significantly reduce the multiplexed signal bandwidth, hence providing higher signal fidelity in the bandwidth-limited fronthaul system. The experimental result of EVM verifies that 256-QAM is supportable using the segment-wise TDM arraying with only 250-ns latency, while with the ordinary TDM arraying, only 64-QAM is bearable.

  1. Feasibility analysis of WDM links for radar applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Meena

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Active phased array antennas enhances the performance of modern radars by using multiple low power transmit/receive modules in place of a high power transmitter in conventional radars. Fully distributed phased array radars demand the distribution of various signals in radio frequency (RF and digital domain for real time operation. This is normally achieved through complex and bulky coaxial distribution networks. In this work, we intend to tap the inherent advantages of fiber links with wavelength division multiplexed (WDM technology and a feasibility study to adapt these links for radar applications is carried out. This is done by analysing various parameters like amplitude, delay, frequency and phase variation response of various radar waveforms over WDM links. This also includes performance evaluation of non-linear frequency modulation (NLFM signals, known for better signal to noise ratio (SNR to specific side lobe levels. NLFM waveforms are further analysed using pulse compression (PC technique. Link evaluation is also carried out using a standard simulation environment and is then experimentally verified with other waveforms like RF continuous wave (CW, pulsed RF and digital signals. Synchronization signals are generated from this variable duty cycle digital signals during real time radar operation. During evaluation of digital signals, variable transient effects for different duty cycles are observed from an amplifier configuration. A suppression method is proposed to eliminate this transient effects. Further, the link delay response is investigated using different lengths of fiber spools. It can be inferred from the experimental results that WDM links are capable of handling various signals significant to radar applications.

  2. Bandwidth Allocation Method by Service for WDM EPON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongseok; Chang; Changgyu; Choi; Jonghoon; Eom; Sungho; Kim

    2003-01-01

    A WDM(Wavelength Division Multiplexing) EPON(Ethernet Passive Optical Network) is an economical and efficient access network that has attracted significant research attention in recent years. A MAC(Media Access Control) Protocol of PON is based on TDMA(Time Division Multiple Access) basically, we can classify this protocol into a fixed length slot assignment method suitable for leased line supporting Qos(Quality of Service) and a variable length slot assignment method suitable for LAN/MAN with the best ...

  3. Self-healing ring-based WDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yang; Gan, Chaoqin; Zhu, Long

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, a survivable ring-based wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM)-passive optical network (PON) for fiber protection is proposed. Protections for feeder fiber and distributed fiber are independent in the scheme. Optical line terminal (OLT) and optical network units (ONUs) can automatically switch to protection link when fiber failure occurs. Protection distributed fiber is not required in the scheme. Cost-effective components are used in ONUs to minimize costs of network. A simulation study is performed to demonstrate the scheme. Its result shows good performance of upstream and downstream signals.

  4. An OTDM-To-WDM Converter Using Optical Fourier Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Su Myat Min

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate serial-to-parallel conversion of 40 Gbps optical time division multiplexed OTDM signal to 4x10 Gbps wavelength division-multiplexed WDM individual channels by using Optical Fourier Transformation OFT method. OFT is also called time lens technique and it is implemented by the combination of dispersive fiber and phase modulation. In this research electro-optic phase modulator EOM is used as time lens. As our investigations simulation results and bit error rate BER measurements are expressed.

  5. Synchronization in a Random Length Ring Network for SDN-Controlled Optical TDM Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija; Cristofori, Valentina; Da Ros, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    . In addition, we propose a novel synchronization algorithm that enables automatic synchronization of software defined networking controlled all-optical TDM switching nodes connected in a ring network. Besides providing synchronization, the algorithm also can facilitate dynamic slot size change and failure......In this paper we focus on optical time division multiplexed (TDM) switching and its main distinguishing characteristics compared with other optical subwavelength switching technologies. We review and discuss in detail the synchronization requirements that allow for proper switching operation...... detection. We experimentally validate the algorithm behavior and achieve correct operation for three different ring lengths. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate data plane connectivity in a ring network composed of three nodes and show successful wavelength division multiplexing space division...

  6. A slotted access control protocol for metropolitan WDM ring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziana, P. A.; Pountourakis, I. E.

    2009-03-01

    In this study we focus on the serious scalability problems that many access protocols for WDM ring networks introduce due to the use of a dedicated wavelength per access node for either transmission or reception. We propose an efficient slotted MAC protocol suitable for WDM ring metropolitan area networks. The proposed network architecture employs a separate wavelength for control information exchange prior to the data packet transmission. Each access node is equipped with a pair of tunable transceivers for data communication and a pair of fixed tuned transceivers for control information exchange. Also, each access node includes a set of fixed delay lines for synchronization reasons; to keep the data packets, while the control information is processed. An efficient access algorithm is applied to avoid both the data wavelengths and the receiver collisions. In our protocol, each access node is capable of transmitting and receiving over any of the data wavelengths, facing the scalability issues. Two different slot reuse schemes are assumed: the source and the destination stripping schemes. For both schemes, performance measures evaluation is provided via an analytic model. The analytical results are validated by a discrete event simulation model that uses Poisson traffic sources. Simulation results show that the proposed protocol manages efficient bandwidth utilization, especially under high load. Also, comparative simulation results prove that our protocol achieves significant performance improvement as compared with other WDMA protocols which restrict transmission over a dedicated data wavelength. Finally, performance measures evaluation is explored for diverse numbers of buffer size, access nodes and data wavelengths.

  7. Digital non-linear equalization for flexible capacity ultradense WDM channels for metro core networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arlunno, Valeria; Zhang, Xu; Larsen, Knud J.

    2011-01-01

    carriers, we demonstrate that a digital non-linear equalization allow to mitigate inter-channel interference and improve overall system performance in terms of OSNR. Evaluation of the algorithm and comparison with an ultradense WDM system with coherent carriers generated from a single laser are also......An experimental demonstration of Ultradense WDM with advanced digital signal processing is presented. The scheme proposed allows the use of independent tunable DFB lasers spaced at 12.5 GHz for ultradense WDM PM-QPSK flexible capacity channels for metro core networking. To allocate extremely closed...

  8. Throughput of Type II HARQ-OFDM/TDM Using MMSE-FDE in a Multipath Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Gacanin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In type II hybrid ARQ (HARQ schemes, the uncoded information bits are transmitted first, while the error correction parity bits are sent upon request. Consequently, frequency diversity cannot be exploited during the first transmission. In this paper, we present the use of OFDM/TDM with MMSE-FDE and type II HARQ to increase throughput of OFDM due to frequency diversity gain.

  9. On Channel Estimation for OFDM/TDM Using MMSE-FDE in a Fast Fading Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gacanin Haris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract MMSE-FDE can improve the transmission performance of OFDM combined with time division multiplexing (OFDM/TDM, but knowledge of the channel state information and the noise variance is required to compute the MMSE weight. In this paper, a performance evaluation of OFDM/TDM using MMSE-FDE with pilot-assisted channel estimation over a fast fading channel is presented. To improve the tracking ability against fast fading a robust pilot-assisted channel estimation is presented that uses time-domain filtering on a slot-by-slot basis and frequency-domain interpolation. We derive the mean square error (MSE of the channel estimator and then discuss a tradeoff between improving the tracking ability against fading and the noise reduction. The achievable bit error rate (BER performance is evaluated by computer simulation and compared with conventional OFDM. It is shown that the OFDM/TDM using MMSE-FDE achieves a lower BER and a better tracking ability against fast fading in comparison with conventional OFDM.

  10. Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Parallel Multiple Beam Selection Scheme for WDM FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ko, Young-Chai

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for a free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred

  11. A reconfigurable all-optical VPN based on XGM effect of SOA in WDM PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Liang; Cao, Pan; Wang, Tao; Su, Yikai

    2010-12-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a reconfigurable all-optical VPN scheme enabling intercommunications among different ONUs in a WDM PON. Reconfiguration is realized by dynamically setting wavelength conversion of optical VPN signal using a SOA in the OLT.

  12. SDN-enabled dynamic WDM networks to address routing information inaccuracy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ravhuanzwo, Lusani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Large dynamic wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) networks based on the distributed control mechanism are susceptible to routing information inaccuracies. Factors such as non-negligible propagation delays, infrequent network state updates...

  13. Imaging HER2 in response to T-DM1 therapy in breast cancer xenografts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massicano, Adriana Vidal; Aweda, Tolulope; Marqueznostra, Bernadette; El Sayed, Reeta; Beacham, Rebecca; Lapi, Suzanne [University Of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have become broadly used for the treatment of cancer because they can be engineered to bind specifically to the target and therefore typically have less toxicity compared to broad spectrum chemotherapies (Jauw YWS, Menke-van der Houven van Oordt CW, Hoekstra OS, et al. Front Pharmacol 2016, 7:1-15). Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (TDM1) is a newly approved HER2 targeted therapy which consists of a cytotoxic agent (DM1) linked to trastuzumab and has shown promising results in patients with HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer (Barok MT, Köninki M, Isola K et al. Breast Cancer Res 2011, 13:1465-5411). Although {sup 18}F-FDG is considered the gold standard in the diagnosis and staging of various types of cancer, it is a relatively non-specific marker (Janjigian YY, Viola-Villegas N, Holland JP, Divilov V, Carlin SD et al. J Nucl Med 2013;54:936-43). Alternatively, {sup 89}Zr-Pertuzumab which binds to a different epitope than trastuzumab on the HER2 receptor has shown high selectively in imaging variations in HER2 expression in breast cancer xenograft models (Marquez BV, Ikotun OF, Zheleznyak A, Wright B et al. Mol Pharm 2014;11:3988-95). Therefore, in this work, we investigated the specificity of {sup 89}Zr-Pertuzumab compared to {sup 18}F-FDG to identify early response to ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in a breast cancer xenograft model. Methods: Pertuzumab was conjugated top-NCS-Bz-DFO at varying molar ratios and labeled with {sup 89}Zr in different conditions. The optimal conditions were used in further in vitro and in vivo studies. In vivo PET imaging was conducted in nude female mice implanted with 17β-estradiol pellets and inoculated with 1 x 107 BT-474 HER2 positive breast cancer cells. In order to acquire baseline images, mice were injected via tail-vein with 200 μCi of 18F-FDG and imaged after 1 hour. The following day, they were injected with 100 μCi of {sup 89}Zr-Pertuzumab (20 μCi/μg) imaged 5

  14. Remotely controllable WDM-PON technology for wireless fronthaul/backhaul application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Michael H.; Wagner, Christoph; Lawin, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Low-cost WDM-PON solutions for fronthaul and backhaul applications will include remotely controlled tail-end transceivers. We report on control aspects of these transceivers and how standardization is evolving to enable these applications.......Low-cost WDM-PON solutions for fronthaul and backhaul applications will include remotely controlled tail-end transceivers. We report on control aspects of these transceivers and how standardization is evolving to enable these applications....

  15. Real time algorithm temperature compensation in tunable laser / VCSEL based WDM-PON system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We report on a real time experimental validation of a centralized algorithm for temperature compensation of tunable laser/VCSEL at ONU and OLT, respectively. Locking to a chosen WDM channel is shown for temperature changes over 40°C.......We report on a real time experimental validation of a centralized algorithm for temperature compensation of tunable laser/VCSEL at ONU and OLT, respectively. Locking to a chosen WDM channel is shown for temperature changes over 40°C....

  16. OFDM RF power-fading circumvention for long-reach WDM-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, C W; Yeh, C H; Sung, J Y

    2014-10-06

    We propose and demonstrate an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) radio-frequency (RF) power-fading circumvention scheme for long-reach wavelength-division-multiplexed passive-optical-network (LR-WDM-PON); hence the same capacity of 40 Gb/s can be provided to all the optical-networking-units (ONUs) in the LR-WDM-PON. Numerical analysis and proof-of-concept experiment are performed.

  17. Optical fronthauling for 5G mobile: A perspective of passive metro WDM technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Shihuan Jim; Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the necessity of passive WDM technology in the 5G fronthaul application. The proof-of-concept field trial showed that the proposed system integrated seamlessly with the current wireless equipment and had no impact on services.......We discuss the necessity of passive WDM technology in the 5G fronthaul application. The proof-of-concept field trial showed that the proposed system integrated seamlessly with the current wireless equipment and had no impact on services....

  18. Novel OSNR Monitoring Technique in Dense WDM Systems using Inherently Generated CW Monitoring Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple, yet effective OSNR monitoring technique based on an inherent effect in the optical modulator. Highly accurate OSNR monitoring is demonstrated in a 40 Gb/s dense WDM system with 50 GHz channel spacing.......We present a simple, yet effective OSNR monitoring technique based on an inherent effect in the optical modulator. Highly accurate OSNR monitoring is demonstrated in a 40 Gb/s dense WDM system with 50 GHz channel spacing....

  19. Polarization Insensitive One-to-Six WDM Multicasting in a Silicon Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Peucheret, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    We present polarization insensitive one-to-six WDM multicasting based on nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with angled-pump scheme. Bit-error rate measurements are performed and error-free operation is achieved.......We present polarization insensitive one-to-six WDM multicasting based on nondegenerate four-wave mixing in a silicon nanowire with angled-pump scheme. Bit-error rate measurements are performed and error-free operation is achieved....

  20. Comparison of WDM/Pulse-Position-Modulation (WDM/PPM) with Code/Pulse-Position-Swapping (C/PPS) Based on Wavelength/Time Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez, A J; Hernandez, V J; Gagliardi, R M; Bennett, C V

    2009-06-19

    Pulse position modulation (PPM) signaling is favored in intensity modulated/direct detection (IM/DD) systems that have average power limitations. Combining PPM with WDM over a fiber link (WDM/PPM) enables multiple accessing and increases the link's throughput. Electronic bandwidth and synchronization advantages are further gained by mapping the time slots of PPM onto a code space, or code/pulse-position-swapping (C/PPS). The property of multiple bits per symbol typical of PPM can be combined with multiple accessing by using wavelength/time [W/T] codes in C/PPS. This paper compares the performance of WDM/PPM and C/PPS for equal wavelengths and bandwidth.

  1. Clinical efficacy and safety of T-DM1 for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma B

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Bo Ma,1 Qianqian Ma,2 Hongqiang Wang,3 Guolei Zhang,1 Huiying Zhang,1 Xiaohong Wang1 1Affiliated Central Hospital of Huzhou Teachers College, Huzhou, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China; 2University Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 3Department of Oncology, Hospital of Zhoushan, Zhoushan, Zhejiang, People’s Republic of China Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy and safety of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1 for the treatment of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer.  Methods: We performed a systemic review and meta-analysis of the relevant published clinical studies. A computerized search was performed for controlled clinical trials of T-DM1 in targeted treatment. Overall survival, progression-free survival, objective response rate, symptom progression free, and adverse events (AEs were evaluated.  Results: Eight eligible trials with a total of 2,016 patients with breast cancer were included in the present meta-analysis. The treatment of patients with breast cancer with T-DM1 was associated with significantly increased overall and progression-free survival when compared with controls (P<0.0001. An analysis of the objective response rate and symptom progression free also demonstrated favorable results for T-DM1 treatment (P≤0.0001. There was no significant difference between the T-DM1 and control groups with respect to nonhematologic or hematologic AEs (P=0.99 and P=0.30, respectively.  Conclusion: Overall, T-DM1 is efficacious in the treatment of patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive breast cancer and low rates of AEs compared with controls. Keywords: breast cancer, meta-analysis, HER2, T-DM1, efficacy

  2. An efficient mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaojun; Xiao, Gaoxi; Cheng, Tee Hiang

    2014-08-01

    This paper proposes an efficient overlay multicast provisioning (OMP) mechanism for dynamic multicast traffic grooming in overlay IP/MPLS over WDM networks. To facilitate request provisioning, OMP jointly utilizes a data learning (DL) scheme on the IP/MPLS layer for logical link cost estimation, and a lightpath fragmentation (LPF) based method on the WDM layer for improving resource sharing in grooming process. Extensive simulations are carried out to evaluate the performance of OMP mechanism under different traffic loads, with either limited or unlimited port resources. Simulation results demonstrate that OMP significantly outperforms the existing methods. To evaluate the respective influences of the DL scheme and the LPF method on OMP performance, provisioning mechanisms only utilizing either the IP/MPLS layer DL scheme or the WDM layer LPF method are also devised. Comparison results show that both DL and LPF methods help improve OMP blocking performance, and contribution from the DL scheme is more significant when the fixed routing and first-fit wavelength assignment (RWA) strategy is adopted on the WDM layer. Effects of a few other factors, including definition of connection cost to be reported by the WDM layer to the IP/MPLS layer and WDM-layer routing method, on OMP performance are also evaluated.

  3. Monitoring burst (M-burst) — A novel framework of failure localization in all-optical mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Mohammed L.; Ho, Pin-Han; Wu, Bin; Tapolcai, Janos; Shihada, Basem

    2011-01-01

    Achieving instantaneous and precise failure localization in all-optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks has been an attractive feature of network fault management systems, and is particularly important when failure

  4. TDM in psychiatry and neurology: A comprehensive summary of the consensus guidelines for therapeutic drug monitoring in neuropsychopharmacology, update 2017; a tool for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoretsanitis, Georgios; Paulzen, Michael; Unterecker, Stefan; Schwarz, Markus; Conca, Andreas; Zernig, Gerald; Gründer, Gerhard; Haen, Ekkerhard; Baumann, Pierre; Bergemann, Niels; Clement, Hans Willi; Domschke, Katharina; Eckermann, Gabriel; Egberts, Karin; Gerlach, Manfred; Greiner, Christine; Havemann-Reinecke, Ursula; Hefner, Gudrun; Helmer, Renate; Janssen, Ger; Jaquenoud-Sirot, Eveline; Laux, Gerd; Messer, Thomas; Mössner, Rainald; Müller, Matthias J; Pfuhlmann, Bruno; Riederer, Peter; Saria, Alois; Schoppek, Bernd; Silva Gracia, Margarete; Stegmann, Benedikt; Steimer, Werner; Stingl, Julia C; Uhr, Manfred; Ulrich, Sven; Waschgler, Roland; Zurek, Gabriela; Hiemke, Christoph

    2018-04-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) combines the quantification of drug concentrations in blood, pharmacological interpretation and treatment guidance. TDM introduces a precision medicine tool in times of increasing awareness of the need for personalized treatment. In neurology and psychiatry, TDM can guide pharmacotherapy for patient subgroups such as children, adolescents, pregnant women, elderly patients, patients with intellectual disabilities, patients with substance use disorders, individuals with pharmacokinetic peculiarities and forensic patients. Clear indications for TDM include lack of clinical response in the therapeutic dose range, assessment of drug adherence, tolerability issues and drug-drug interactions. Based upon existing literature, recommended therapeutic reference ranges, laboratory alert levels, and levels of recommendation to use TDM for dosage optimization without specific indications, conversion factors, factors for calculation of dose-related drug concentrations and metabolite-to-parent ratios were calculated. This summary of the updated consensus guidelines by the TDM task force of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie offers the practical and theoretical knowledge for the integration of TDM as part of pharmacotherapy with neuropsychiatric agents into clinical routine. The present guidelines for TDM application for neuropsychiatric agents aim to assist clinicians in enhancing safety and efficacy of treatment.

  5. All-optical OXC transition strategy from WDM optical network to elastic optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Li, Juhao; Guo, Bingli; Zhu, Paikun; Tang, Ruizhi; Chen, Zhangyuan; He, Yongqi

    2016-02-22

    Elastic optical network (EON) has been proposed recently as a spectrum-efficient optical layer to adapt to rapidly-increasing traffic demands instead of current deployed wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical network. In contrast with conventional WDM optical cross-connect (OXCs) based on wavelength selective switches (WSSs), the EON OXCs are based on spectrum selective switches (SSSs) which are much more expensive than WSSs, especially for large-scale switching architectures. So the transition cost from WDM OXCs to EON OXCs is a major obstacle to realizing EON. In this paper, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a transition OXC (TOXC) structure based on 2-stage cascading switching architectures, which make full use of available WSSs in current deployed WDM OXCs to reduce number and port count of required SSSs. Moreover, we propose a contention-aware spectrum allocation (CASA) scheme for EON built with the proposed TOXCs. We show by simulation that the TOXCs reduce the network capital expenditure transiting from WDM optical network to EON about 50%, with a minor traffic blocking performance degradation and about 10% accommodated traffic number detriment compared with all-SSS EON OXC architectures.

  6. System performance of a 4-channel PHASAR WDM receiver operating at 1.2 Gbit/s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, C.A.M.; van Deventer, M.O.; Vreede, de L.C.N.; Dam, van C.; Smit, M.K.; Verbeek, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    Phased arrays are important key components in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) systems. We have realized a 4-channel WDM receiver combining a phased array with photodetectors on InP with a Si bipolar transimpedance amplifier. The channels are spaced at 2.0 nm with a 1.0-nm flat passband. On

  7. Adaptive Rates of High-Spectral-Efficiency WDM/SDM Channels Using PDM-1024-QAM Probabilistic Shaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Da Ros, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate adaptive rates and spectral efficiencies in WDM/SDM transmission using probabilistically shaped PDM-1024-QAM signals, achieving up to 7-Tbit/s data rates per spatial-superchannel and up to 297.8-bit/s/Hz aggregate spectral efficiency using a 30-core fiber on 12.5 and 25GHz WDM grids...

  8. All-Optical Ultra-High-Speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM Conversion Based on Complete Optical Fourier Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2016-01-01

    We propose a novel all-optical ultra-high-speed orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) to Nyquist wavelength-division multiplexing (Nyquist-WDM) conversion scheme, achieved by exchanging the temporal and spectral profiles using a complete optical Fourier transformation (OFT). This scheme...... enables high-speed OFDM to Nyquist-WDM conversion without complex optical/electrical/optical conversion. The all-optical OFDM transmitter is based on the generation of OFDM symbols with a low duty cycle by rectangular temporal gating, which in combination with optical time-division multiplexing yields...... a higher symbol-rate OFDM signal. In the receiver, the converted Nyquist-WDM super-channel is WDM demultiplexed into individual Nyquist-WDM channels using a rectangular optical bandpass filter, followed by optical sampling at the intersymbol-interference free point. In the experimental demonstration...

  9. Fiber-optic perimeter security system based on WDM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Alexandre V.

    2017-10-01

    Intelligent underground fiber optic perimeter security system is presented. Their structure, operation, software and hardware with neural networks elements are described. System allows not only to establish the fact of violation of the perimeter, but also to locate violations. This is achieved through the use of WDM-technology division spectral information channels. As used quasi-distributed optoelectronic recirculation system as a discrete sensor. The principle of operation is based on registration of the recirculation period change in the closed optoelectronic circuit at different wavelengths under microstrain exposed optical fiber. As a result microstrain fiber having additional power loss in a fiber optical propagating pulse, which causes a time delay as a result of switching moments of the threshold device. To separate the signals generated by intruder noise and interference, the signal analyzer is used, based on the principle of a neural network. The system detects walking, running or crawling intruder, as well as undermining attempts to register under the perimeter line. These alarm systems can be used to protect the perimeters of facilities such as airports, nuclear reactors, power plants, warehouses, and other extended territory.

  10. Performance evaluation of distributed wavelength assignment in WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Tomohiro; Wang, Xi; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Tomonori

    2004-04-01

    In WDM wavelength routed networks, prior to a data transfer, a call setup procedure is required to reserve a wavelength path between the source-destination node pairs. A distributed approach to a connection setup can achieve a very high speed, while improving the reliability and reducing the implementation cost of the networks. However, along with many advantages, several major challenges have been posed by the distributed scheme in how the management and allocation of wavelength could be efficiently carried out. In this thesis, we apply a distributed wavelength assignment algorithm named priority based wavelength assignment (PWA) that was originally proposed for the use in burst switched optical networks to the problem of reserving wavelengths of path reservation protocols in the distributed control optical networks. Instead of assigning wavelengths randomly, this approach lets each node select the "safest" wavelengths based on the information of wavelength utilization history, thus unnecessary future contention is prevented. The simulation results presented in this paper show that the proposed protocol can enhance the performance of the system without introducing any apparent drawbacks.

  11. Dynamic multicast routing scheme in WDM optical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yonghua; Dong, Zhiling; Yao, Hong; Yang, Jianyong; Liu, Yibin

    2007-11-01

    During the information era, the Internet and the service of World Wide Web develop rapidly. Therefore, the wider and wider bandwidth is required with the lower and lower cost. The demand of operation turns out to be diversified. Data, images, videos and other special transmission demands share the challenge and opportunity with the service providers. Simultaneously, the electrical equipment has approached their limit. So the optical communication based on the wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) and the optical cross-connects (OXCs) shows great potentials and brilliant future to build an optical network based on the unique technical advantage and multi-wavelength characteristic. In this paper, we propose a multi-layered graph model with inter-path between layers to solve the problem of multicast routing wavelength assignment (RWA) contemporarily by employing an efficient graph theoretic formulation. And at the same time, an efficient dynamic multicast algorithm named Distributed Message Copying Multicast (DMCM) mechanism is also proposed. The multicast tree with minimum hops can be constructed dynamically according to this proposed scheme.

  12. Dispersion Compensation Requirements for Optical CDMA Using WDM Lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez, A J; Hendandez, V J; Feng, H X C; Heritage, J P; Lennon, W J

    2001-01-01

    Optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) uses very narrow transmission pulses and is thus susceptible to fiber optic link impairments. When the O-CDMA is implemented as wavelength/time (W/T) matrices which use wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) sources such as multi-frequency laser transmitters, the susceptibility may be higher due to: (a) the large bandwidth utilized and (b) the requirement that the various wavelength components of the codes be synchronized at the point of modulation and encoding as well as after (optical) correlation. A computer simulation based on the nonlinear Schroedinger equation, developed to study optical networking on the National Transparent Optical Network (NTON), was modified to characterize the impairments on the propagation and decoding of W/T matrix codes over a link of the NTON. Three critical link impairments were identified by the simulation: group velocity dispersion (GVD); the flatness of the optical amplifier gain; and the slope of the GVD. Subsequently, experiments were carried out on the NTON link to verify and refine the simulations as well as to suggest improvements in the W/T matrix signal processing design. The NTON link measurements quantified the O-CDMA dispersion compensation requirements. Dispersion compensation management is essential to assure the performance of W/T matrix codes

  13. Dynamic wired-wireless architecture for WDM stacking access networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Adolfo Puerto-Leguizamón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta una arquitectura dinámica para redes de acceso convergentes fijas e inalámbricas en red óptica pasiva ( PON basada en multiplexación en división de tiempo (TDM bajo el pa radigma de apilamiento de longitudes de onda. Cuatro longitudes de onda para servicios fijos transportando una carga de tráfico de 10 Gb/s, una longitud de onda reconfigurable extra y una longi tud de onda común a todas las unidades de red óptica (ONU para el transpor te de servicios inalámbricos se enviaron a una PON con un relac ión de división de 1:64. En la ONU un filtro sintonizable basado en óp tica de Fourier de espacio libre selecciona una de las longitud es de onda que transporta servicios fijos y un filtro basado en redes de d ifracción de Bragg (FBG extrae la longitud de onda que transpo rta servicios inalámbricos. En el enlace de subida se utilizó multiplexación por división de subportadora (SCM para el transporte combinado de señales en banda base e inalámbricas a la oficina central (CO.

  14. Combined Optical and Electrical Spectrum Shaping for High-Baud-Rate Nyquist-WDM Transceivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Borkowski, Robert; Preussler, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    bandwidth is related to the optical comb parameters 25 and the pulse shaping of the modulating waveforms in the electrical domain. Such de- 26 pendence may result in broadening of the modulated spectra, which can degrade the 27 performance of Nyquist-WDM systems due to interchannel crosstalk penalties....... To investigate the benefits of the proposed approach, we demonstrate 32 the first WDM Nyquist-OTDM signal generation based on the periodic train of sinc pulses 33 and electrical spectrum shaping. Straight line transmission of five 112.5-Gbd Nyquist- 34 OTDM dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK......We discuss the benefits and limitations of optical time-division multiplexing 22 (OTDM) techniques based on the optical generation of a periodic train of sinc pulses for 23 wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission at high baud rates. It is shown 24 how the modulated OTDM spectrum...

  15. Energy-efficient WDM-OFDM-PON employing shared OFDM modulation modules in optical line terminal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Liang; Cao, Pan; Wang, Kongtao; Su, Yikai

    2012-03-26

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme to improve the energy efficiency of wavelength division multiplexing - orthogonal frequency division multiplexing - passive optical networks (WDM-OFDM-PONs). By using an N × M opto-mechanic switch in optical line terminal (OLT), an OFDM modulation module is shared by several channels to deliver data to multiple users with low traffic demands during non-peak hours of the day, thus greatly reducing the number of operating devices and minimizing the energy consumption of the OLT. An experiment utilizing one OFDM modulation module to serve three optical network units (ONUs) in a WDM-OFDM-PON is performed to verify the feasibility of our proposal. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculation show that the proposed scheme can achieve a saving of 23.6% in the energy consumption of the OFDM modulation modules compared to conventional WDM-OFDM-PON.

  16. A Novel Line Coding Pair for Fully Passive Long Reach {WDM-PON}s

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presi, Marco; Proietti, Roberto; Prince, Kamau

    2008-01-01

    A novel line coding pair allows to use unsaturated flective-SOAs as upstream remodulator in long-reach WDM-PONs. Full-duplex and symmetric 80 km reach is demonstrated without in-line amplification at 1.25 Gb/s......A novel line coding pair allows to use unsaturated flective-SOAs as upstream remodulator in long-reach WDM-PONs. Full-duplex and symmetric 80 km reach is demonstrated without in-line amplification at 1.25 Gb/s...

  17. A 80 km reach fully passive WDM-PON based on reflective ONUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Presi, Marco; Proietti, Roberto; Prince, Kamau

    2008-01-01

    We propose a novel line coding combination (Inverse RZ coding in downlink and RZ in uplink) that extends the reach of WDM Passive Optical Networks based on Reflective SOAs with no in-line amplification. We achieved full downstream remodulation even when feeding the reflective SOA with power level...... as low as -35dBm, thus increasing the system power budget. We experimentally assessed this scheme for a fully passive, full-duplex and symmetrical 1.25Gb/s WDM-PON over a 80km G.652 feeder....

  18. OTDM-WDM Conversion Based on Time-Domain Optical Fourier Transformation with Spectral Compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen; Palushani, Evarist; Galili, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme enabling direct serial-to-parallel conversion of OTDM data tributaries onto a WDM grid, based on optical Fourier transformation with spectral compression. Demonstrations on 320 Gbit/s and 640 Gbit/s OTDM data are shown.......We propose a scheme enabling direct serial-to-parallel conversion of OTDM data tributaries onto a WDM grid, based on optical Fourier transformation with spectral compression. Demonstrations on 320 Gbit/s and 640 Gbit/s OTDM data are shown....

  19. Expansive hematoma in delayed cerebral radiation necrosis in patients treated with T-DM1: a report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuya, Koichi; Watanabe, Junichiro; Nakasu, Yoko; Hayashi, Nakamasa; Harada, Hideyuki; Ito, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Multiple new targeted agents have been developed for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) – positive breast cancer. Patients with HER2– positive breast cancer will develop brain metastases with greater incidence than patients with non-HER2 cancers, and many of them will undergo stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) or other CNS radiotherapy. The interaction between radiation effects and new targeted agents is not well understood. We report two cases suggesting a novel adverse effect of T-DM1 (trastuzumab emtansine) on symptomatic enlargement of radiation necrosis (RN) after SRS. Two patients with HER2-positive breast cancer had received SRS for single brain metastasis more than 5-years ago. They had been heavily treated for HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (trastuzumab and pacritaxel, lapatinib and capecitabine). They initiated T-DM1 therapy for progressive systematic disease 5.5 years after stereotactic irradiation, when a small RN was recognized on brain MR images of each patient. The RN lesions increased in size and became symptomatic during 13 or 14 months of T-DM1 treatment. The patients underwent surgical resection of the lesion. Pathological examination revealed necrosis, hematoma, granulation tissue and telangiectasia without neoplastic cells. A potential enhancement of RN by T-DM1 in the brain may be one of important adverse events associated with the use of T-DM1 for patients after SRS. These cases highlight the need of careful follow-up when combining new systemic targeted therapies and SRS for brain metastases

  20. Multicast traffic grooming in flexible optical WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ankitkumar N.; Ji, Philip N.; Jue, Jason P.; Wang, Ting

    2012-12-01

    In Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs), point-to-multipoint applications, such as IPTV, video-on-demand, distance learning, and content distribution, can be efficiently supported through light-tree-based multicastcommunications instead of lightpath-based unicast-communications. The application of multicasting for such traffic is justified by its inherent benefits of reduced control and management overhead and elimination of redundant resource provisioning. Supporting such multicast traffic in Flexible optical WDM (FWDM) networks that can provision light-trees using optimum amount of spectrum within flexible channel spacing leads to higher wavelength and spectral efficiencies compared to the conventional ITU-T fixed grid networks. However, in spite of such flexibility, the residual channel capacity of stranded channels may not be utilized if the network does not offer channels with arbitrary line rates. Additionally, the spectrum allocated to guard bands used to isolate finer granularity channels remains unutilized. These limitations can be addressed by using traffic grooming in which low-rate multicast connections are aggregated and switched over high capacity light-trees. In this paper, we address the multicast traffic grooming problem in FWDM networks, and propose a novel auxiliary graph-based algorithm for the first time. The performance of multicast traffic grooming is evaluated in terms of spectral, cost, and energy efficiencies compared to lightpath-based transparent FWDM networks, lightpathbased traffic grooming-capable FWDM networks, multicast-enabled transparent FWDM networks, and multicast traffic grooming-capable fixed grid networks. Simulation results demonstrate that multicast traffic grooming in FWDM networks not only improves spectral efficiency, but also cost, and energy efficiencies compared to other multicast traffic provisioning approaches of FWDM and fixed grid networks.

  1. T-DM1, a novel antibody–drug conjugate, is highly effective against primary HER2 overexpressing uterine serous carcinoma in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, Diana P; Bellone, Stefania; Schwab, Carlton L; Bortolomai, Ileana; Bonazzoli, Elena; Cocco, Emiliano; Buza, Natalia; Hui, Pei; Lopez, Salvatore; Ratner, Elena; Silasi, Dan-Arin; Azodi, Masoud; Schwartz, Peter E; Rutherford, Thomas J; Santin, Alessandro D

    2014-01-01

    Amplification of c-erbB2 has been reported in over 30% of uterine serous carcinoma (USC) and found to confer poor survival because of high proliferation and increased resistance to therapy. In this study, we evaluated for the first time Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), a novel antibody–drug conjugate, against multiple epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive USC cells in vitro followed by developing a supportive in vivo model. Fifteen primary USC cell lines were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and flow cytometry for HER2 protein expression. C-erbB2 gene amplification was evaluated using fluorescent in situ hybridization. Sensitivity to T-DM1 and trastuzumab (T)-induced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity was evaluated in 5-h chromium release assays. T-DM1 and T cytostatic and apoptotic activities were evaluated using flow-cytometry-based proliferation assays. In vivo activity of T-DM1 versus T in USC xenografts in SCID mice was also evaluated. High levels of HER2 protein overexpression and HER2 gene amplification were detected in 33% of USC cell lines. T-DM1 was considerably more effective than trastuzumab in inhibiting cell proliferation and in causing apoptosis (P = 0.004) of USC showing HER2 overexpression. Importantly, T-DM1 was highly active at reducing tumor formation in vivo in USC xenografts overexpressing HER2 (P = 0.04) and mice treated with TDM-1 had significantly longer survival when compared to T-treated mice and control mice (P ≤ 0.0001). T-DM1 shows promising antitumor effect in HER2-positive USC cell lines and USC xenografts and its activity is significantly higher when compared to T. T-DM1 may represent a novel treatment option for HER2-positive USC patients with disease refractory to trastuzumab and traditional chemotherapy

  2. Impairment analysis of WDM-PON based on low-cost tunable lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael H.; Lawin, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    channel must be kept below 15%. Similar values result for the upstream pilot tones. In order to limit crosstalk, such systems require reduced launch power during wavelength tuning and can cover up to 40 km differential reach. These results confirm that WDM-PON based on low-cost lasers is a technically...

  3. Cost and Availability Analysis of 2- and 3-Connected WDM Networks Physical Interconnection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2012-01-01

    for the best trade-off among the relevant parameters for the network. In this paper we analyze this trade-off by studying 2-and 3-connected graphs to be used as WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing) networks physical infrastructure. The experiments show how the way links are distributed to interconnect...

  4. Field Trial of 40 Gb/s Optical Transport Network using Open WDM Interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Petersen, Martin Nordal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental field-trail deployment of a 40Gb/s open WDM interface in an operational network is presented, in cross-carrier interconnection scenario. Practical challenges of integration and performance measures for both native and alien channels are outlined....

  5. Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Jopson, R. M.; Dinu, M.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate compensation of fiber nonlinearities using optical phase conjugation of an 8-chamiel WDM 32-Gbaud PDM QPSK signal. Conjugating phase every 600 km in a fiber loop enabled a 6000 km transmission over True Wave fiber. © 2013 Optical Society of America....

  6. Demonstration of digital fronthaul over self-seeded WDM-PON in commercial LTE environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yiran; Xu, Zhiguang; Zhang, Chengliang; Lin, Huafeng; Wang, Qing; Zhou, Min; Wang, Heng; Yu, Jingwen; Wang, Xiaomu

    2015-05-04

    CPRI between BBU and RRU equipment is carried by self-seeded WDM-PON prototype system within commercial LTE end-to-end environment. Delay and jitter meets CPRI requirements while services demonstrated show the same performance as bare fiber.

  7. Key lessons: Twelve factors critical to the success of WDM at the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    English · Français ... Key lessons: Twelve factors critical to the success of WDM at the policy and at the operational levels ... from slums in central New Delhi to the city's desolate periphery face daily indignities and danger as they collect water o.

  8. GigaWaM—Next-Generation WDM-PON Enabling Gigabit Per-User Data Bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood; Rodes Lopez, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The “Gigabit access passive optical network using wavelength division multiplexing” project aims to implement 64-Gb/s data transmission over 20-km single-mode fiber. Per-user symmetric data rates of 1-Gb/s will be achieved using wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) a...

  9. Integration of Optically Generated Impulse Radio UWB Signals into Baseband WDM-PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tien Thang; Yu, Xianbin; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    We propose a compact integration system to simultaneously provide wireline and wireless (baseband and ultra-wide band (UWB)) services to end-users in a WDM-PON. A 1-Gbps UWB signal is optically generated and shares the same wavelength with the baseband signal. Error-free performance was achieved...

  10. 16 channel WDM regeneration in a single phase-sensitive amplifier through optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...

  11. Experimental Study of Nonlinear Phase Noise and its Impact on WDM Systems with DP-256QAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Da Ros, Francesco; Porto da Silva, Edson

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic method for mitigating the phase noise component of the non-linear interference in WDM systems with Raman amplification is experimentally demonstrated. The achieved gains increase with distance and are comparable to the gains of single-channel digital back-propagation....

  12. MIMO-OFDM WDM PON with DM-VCSEL for femtocells application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binti Othman, Maisara; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan

    2011-01-01

    We report on experimental demonstration of 2x2 MIMO-OFDM 5.6-GHz radio over fiber signaling over 20 km WDM-PON with directly modulated (DM) VCSELs for femtocells application. MIMO-OFDM algorithms effectively compensate for impairments in the wireless link. Error-free signal demodulation of 64...

  13. BER and total throughput of asynchronous DS-OCDMA/WDM systems with multiple user interference

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiringhelli, F.; Zervas, M.N.

    2003-01-01

    The BER and throughput of Direct-Sequence OCDMA/WDM systems based on quadripolar codes and superstructured fiber Bragg gratings are statistically derived under asynchronous operation, intensity detection, and Multiple User Interference. Performance improvements with Forward Error Correction are included.

  14. 300 Gb/s IM/DD based SDM-WDM-PON with laserless ONUs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Fangdi; Morioka, Toshio; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2018-01-01

    A low-cost, high-speed SDM-WDM-PON architecture is proposed by using a multi-core fiber (MCF) and intensity modulation/directly detection (IM/DD). One of the MCF cores is used for sending laser sources from optical line terminal (OLT) to optical network unit (ONU), thus facilitating laserless...

  15. Design of device driver program for PCI data acquisition adapters based on WDM of windows 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Weihua; Qiao Weimin; Jing Lan; Zhu Haijun

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the design of device driver program for PCI data acquisition adapters based on WDM of Windows 2000. Give an actual example of PCI6208. Now, several data acquisition adapters based in this method are using in national big science engineer HIRFL-CSR. (authors)

  16. Ultra-high capacity WDM-SDM optical access network with self-homodyne detection downstream and 32QAM-FBMC upstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhenhua; Xu, Liang; Wu, Qiong; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Tong, Weijun; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2017-03-20

    Towards 100G beyond large-capacity optical access networks, wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) techniques incorporating with space division multiplexing (SDM) and affordable spectrally efficient advanced modulation formats are indispensable. In this paper, we proposed and experimentally demonstrated a cost-efficient multicore fiber (MCF) based hybrid WDM-SDM optical access network with self-homodyne coherent detection (SHCD) based downstream (DS) and direct detection optical filter bank multi carrier (DDO-FBMC) based upstream (US). In the DS experiments, the inner core of the 7-core fiber is used as a dedicated channel to deliver the local oscillator (LO) lights while the other 6 outer cores are used to transmit 4 channels of wavelength multiplexed 200-Gb/s PDM-16QAM-OFDM signals. For US transmission, 4 wavelengths with channel spacing of 100 GHz are intensity modulated with 30 Gb/s 32-QAM-FBMC and directly detected by a ~7 GHz bandwidth receiver after transmission along one of the outer core. The results show that a 4 × 6 × 200-Gb/s DS transmission can be realized over 37 km 7-core fiber without carrier frequency offset (CFO) and phase noise (PN) compensation even using 10 MHz linewidth DFB lasers. The SHCD based on MCF provides a compromise and cost efficient scheme between conventional intradyne coherent detection and intensity modulation and direct detection (IM/DD) schemes. Both US and DS have acceptable BER performance and high spectral efficiency.

  17. Preclinical safety profile of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1): Mechanism of action of its cytotoxic component retained with improved tolerability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poon, Kirsten Achilles, E-mail: achilles.kirsten@gene.com [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Flagella, Kelly; Beyer, Joseph [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States); Tibbitts, Jay [UCB, Brussels (Belgium); Kaur, Surinder; Saad, Ola; Yi, Joo-Hee; Girish, Sandhya; Dybdal, Noel; Reynolds, Theresa [Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) is the first antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) approved for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer. The therapeutic premise of ADCs is based on the hypothesis that targeted delivery of potent cytotoxic drugs to tumors will provide better tolerability and efficacy compared with non-targeted delivery, where poor tolerability can limit efficacious doses. Here, we present results from preclinical studies characterizing the toxicity profile of T-DM1, including limited assessment of unconjugated DM1. T-DM1 binds primate ErbB2 and human HER2 but not the rodent homolog c-neu. Therefore, antigen-dependent and non-antigen-dependent toxicity was evaluated in monkeys and rats, respectively, in both single- and repeat-dose studies; toxicity of DM1 was assessed in rats only. T-DM1 was well tolerated at doses up to 40 mg/kg (∼ 4400 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) and 30 mg/kg (∼ 6000 μg DM1/m{sup 2}) in rats and monkeys, respectively. In contrast, DM1 was only tolerated up to 0.2 mg/kg (1600 μg DM1/m{sup 2}). This suggests that at least two-fold higher doses of the cytotoxic agent are tolerated in T-DM1, supporting the premise of ADCs to improve the therapeutic index. In addition, T-DM1 and DM1 safety profiles were similar and consistent with the mechanism of action of DM1 (i.e., microtubule disruption). Findings included hepatic, bone marrow/hematologic (primarily platelet), lymphoid organ, and neuronal toxicities, and increased numbers of cells of epithelial and phagocytic origin in metaphase arrest. These adverse effects did not worsen with chronic dosing in monkeys and are consistent with those reported in T-DM1-treated patients to date. - Highlights: • T-DM1 was well tolerated in preclinical studies in rats and cynomolgus monkeys. • T-DM1 is associated with bone marrow/hematologic, hepatic, and neuronal toxicities. • T-DM1 toxicities are related to DM1 mechanisms of action and pharmacologic

  18. 200 Gbit/s 16QAM WDM transmission over a fully integrated cladding pumped 7-Core MCF System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, C.; Jain, S.; Jung, Y.

    2017-01-01

    A complete, realistic integrated system is investigated, consisting of directly spliced 7-core MCF, cladding-pumped 7-core amplifiers, isolators, and couplers. The system is demonstrated in a 16QAM C-band WDM scenario over 720 km....

  19. Photonic crystal fibers used in a multi-wavelength source and as transmission fiber in a WDM system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Andreas; Zsigri, Beata; Peucheret, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    We present a WDM system based entirely on photonic crystal fibers. It includes a novel dispersion flattened highly nonlinear PCF to generate supercontinuum used in a multiwavelength pulse source and a 5.6 km transmission PCF.......We present a WDM system based entirely on photonic crystal fibers. It includes a novel dispersion flattened highly nonlinear PCF to generate supercontinuum used in a multiwavelength pulse source and a 5.6 km transmission PCF....

  20. Time lens based optical fourier transformation for advanced processing of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Morioka, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals.......We review recent progress in the use of time lens based optical Fourier transformation for advanced optical signal processing, with focus on all-optical generation, detection and format conversion of spectrally-efficient OFDM and N-WDM signals....

  1. The Chromatin Protein DUET/MMD1 Controls Expression of the Meiotic Gene TDM1 during Male Meiosis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreuzza, Sébastien; Nishal, Bindu; Singh, Aparna; Siddiqi, Imran

    2015-09-01

    Meiosis produces haploid cells essential for sexual reproduction. In yeast, entry into meiosis activates transcription factors which trigger a transcriptional cascade that results in sequential co-expression of early, middle and late meiotic genes. However, these factors are not conserved, and the factors and regulatory mechanisms that ensure proper meiotic gene expression in multicellular eukaryotes are poorly understood. Here, we report that DUET/MMD1, a PHD finger protein essential for Arabidopsis male meiosis, functions as a transcriptional regulator in plant meiosis. We find that DUET-PHD binds H3K4me2 in vitro, and show that this interaction is critical for function during meiosis. We also show that DUET is required for proper microtubule organization during meiosis II, independently of its function in meiosis I. Remarkably, DUET protein shows stage-specific expression, confined to diplotene. We identify two genes TDM1 and JAS with critical functions in cell cycle transitions and spindle organization in male meiosis, as DUET targets, with TDM1 being a direct target. Thus, DUET is required to regulate microtubule organization and cell cycle transitions during male meiosis, and functions as a direct transcription activator of the meiotic gene TDM1. Expression profiling showed reduced expression of a subset comprising about 12% of a known set of meiosis preferred genes in the duet mutant. Our results reveal the action of DUET as a transcriptional regulator during male meiosis in plants, and suggest that transcription of meiotic genes is under stagewise control in plants as in yeast.

  2. Exploring crosstalk noise generated in the N-port router used in the WDM-based ONoC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhendong; Xie, Yiyuan; Song, Tingting; He, Chao; Li, Jiachao; Liu, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Compared with optical network-on-chip (ONoC) with single wavelength, ONoC adopting wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology possesses a very prominent advantage-higher bandwidth. Therefore, WDM-based ONoC has been considered one of the most promising ways to relieve the rapidly increasing traffic load in communication systems. A WDM-based router, as the core equipment of WDM-based ONoC, is influenced by crosstalk noise, especially the nonlinear crosstalk noise generated by the four-wave mixing effect. Thus, to explore the performance of the N-port nonblocking optical router using WDM, we propose a universal analytic model to analyze the transmission loss, crosstalk noise, optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), and bit error ratio (BER). The research results show that crosstalk noise varies along with signals at different wavelengths in the same channel. For signals with the same wavelength, the noises generated in the different transmission paths are obviously different from each other. For research of transmission loss, OSNR, and BER, similar results can be obtained. Based on the eye diagrams, we can learn that crosstalk noise will cause signal distortion to a certain extent. With this model, capability of this kind of multiport optical router using WDM can be understood conveniently.

  3. A Grooming Nodes Optimal Allocation Method for Multicast in WDM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengying Wei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The grooming node has the capability of grooming multicast traffic with the small granularity into established light at high cost of complexity and node architecture. In the paper, a grooming nodes optimal allocation (GNOA method is proposed to optimize the allocation of the grooming nodes constraint by the blocking probability for multicast traffic in sparse WDM networks. In the proposed GNOA method, the location of each grooming node is determined by the SCLD strategy. The improved smallest cost largest degree (SCLD strategy is designed to select the nongrooming nodes in the proposed GNOA method. The simulation results show that the proposed GNOA method can reduce the required number of grooming nodes and decrease the cost of constructing a network to guarantee a certain request blocking probability when the wavelengths per fiber and transmitter/receiver ports per node are sufficient for the optical multicast in WDM networks.

  4. Multicast backup reprovisioning problem for Hamiltonian cycle-based protection on WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Der-Rong; Huang, Jen-Shen

    2014-03-01

    As networks grow in size and complexity, the chance and the impact of failures increase dramatically. The pre-allocated backup resources cannot provide 100% protection guarantee when continuous failures occur in a network. In this paper, the multicast backup re-provisioning problem (MBRP) for Hamiltonian cycle (HC)-based protection on WDM networks for the link-failure case is studied. We focus on how to recover the protecting capabilities of Hamiltonian cycle against the subsequent link-failures on WDM networks for multicast transmissions, after recovering the multicast trees affected by the previous link-failure. Since this problem is a hard problem, an algorithm, which consists of several heuristics and a genetic algorithm (GA), is proposed to solve it. The simulation results of the proposed method are also given. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm can solve this problem efficiently.

  5. A method of simulating intensity modulation-direct detection WDM systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jing; YAO Jian-quan; LI En-bang

    2005-01-01

    In the simulation of Intensity Modulation-Direct Detection WDM Systems,when the dispersion and nonlinear effects play equally important roles,the intensity fluctuation caused by cross-phase modulation may be overestimated as a result of the improper step size.Therefore,the step size in numerical simulation should be selected to suppress false XPM intensity modulation (keep it much less than signal power).According to this criterion,the step size is variable along the fiber.For a WDM system,the step size depends on the channel separation.Different type of transmission fiber has different step size.In the split-step Fourier method,this criterion can reduce simulation time,and when the step size is bigger than 100 meters,the simulation accuracy can also be improved.

  6. Real-time distributed scheduling algorithm for supporting QoS over WDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Anthony C.; Siu, Kai-Yeung

    1998-10-01

    Most existing or proposed WDM networks employ circuit switching, typically with one session having exclusive use of one entire wavelength. Consequently they are not suitable for data applications involving bursty traffic patterns. The MIT AON Consortium has developed an all-optical LAN/MAN testbed which provides time-slotted WDM service and employs fast-tunable transceivers in each optical terminal. In this paper, we explore extensions of this service to achieve fine-grained statistical multiplexing with different virtual circuits time-sharing the wavelengths in a fair manner. In particular, we develop a real-time distributed protocol for best-effort traffic over this time-slotted WDM service with near-optical fairness and throughput characteristics. As an additional design feature, our protocol supports the allocation of guaranteed bandwidths to selected connections. This feature acts as a first step towards supporting integrated services and quality-of-service guarantees over WDM networks. To achieve high throughput, our approach is based on scheduling transmissions, as opposed to collision- based schemes. Our distributed protocol involves one MAN scheduler and several LAN schedulers (one per LAN) in a master-slave arrangement. Because of propagation delays and limits on control channel capacities, all schedulers are designed to work with partial, delayed traffic information. Our distributed protocol is of the `greedy' type to ensure fast execution in real-time in response to dynamic traffic changes. It employs a hybrid form of rate and credit control for resource allocation. We have performed extensive simulations, which show that our protocol allocates resources (transmitters, receivers, wavelengths) fairly with high throughput, and supports bandwidth guarantees.

  7. SPM and XPM crosstalk in WDM systems with DRA: Channel spacing and attenuation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Emadeldeen; Fayed, Heba A.; Abd El Aziz, Ahmed; Aly, Moustafa H.

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of a closed formula for nonlinear crosstalk due to self-phase modulation (SPM) and cross phase modulation (XPM) in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems. The influence of channel spacing and attenuation on the system behavior is modeled and investigated. The system under consideration is a standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) with a single-span distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) and is operating at 100 Gbps.

  8. Low-Complexity Tracking of Laser and Nonlinear Phase Noise in WDM Optical Fiber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Fehenberger, Tobias; Barletta, Luca

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) fiber optic channel is considered. It is shown that for ideal distributed Raman amplification (IDRA), the Wiener process model is suitable for the non-linear phase noise due to cross phase modulation from neighboring channels. Based......, at the moderate received SNR region. The performance in these cases is close to the information rate achieved by the above mentioned trellis processing....

  9. A CLS-based survivable and energy-saving WDM-PON architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Zhong, Wen-De; Zhang, Zhenrong; Luan, Feng

    2013-11-01

    We propose and demonstrate an improved survivable and energy-saving WDM-PON with colorless ONUs. It incorporates both energy-saving and self-healing operations. A simple effective energy-saving scheme is proposed by including an energy-saving control unit in the OLT and a control unit at each ONU. The energy-saving scheme realizes both dozing and sleep (offline) modes, which greatly improves the energy-saving efficiency for WDM-PONs. An intelligent protection switching scheme is designed in the OLT, which can distinguish if an ONU is in dozing/sleep (offline) state or a fiber is faulty. Moreover, by monitoring the optical power of each channel on both working and protection paths, the OLT can know the connection status of every fiber path, thus facilitating an effective protection switching and a faster failure recovery. The improved WDM-PON architecture not only significantly reduces energy consumption, but also performs self-healing operation in practical operation scenarios. The scheme feasibility is experimentally verified with 10 Gbit/s downstream and 1.25 Gbit/s upstream transmissions. We also examine the energy-saving efficiency of our proposed energy-saving scheme by simulation, which reveals that energy saving mainly arises from the dozing mode, not from the sleep mode when the ONU is in the online state.

  10. Addressing BI Transactional Flows in the Real-Time Enterprise Using GoldenGate TDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareek, Alok

    It's time to visit low latency and reliable real-time (RT) infrastructures to support next generation BI applications instead of continually debating the need and notion of real-time. The last few years have illuminated some key paradigms affecting data management. The arguments put forth to move away from traditional DBMS architectures have proven persuasive - and specialized architectural data stores are being adopted in the industry [1]. The change from traditional database pull methods towards intelligent routing/push models is underway, causing applications to be redesigned, redeployed, and re-architected. One direct result of this is that despite original warnings about replication [2] - enterprises continue to deploy multiple replicas to support both performance, and high availability of RT applications, with an added complexity around manageability of heterogeneous computing systems. The enterprise is overflowing with data streams that require instantaneous processing and integration, to deliver faster visibility and invoke conjoined actions for RT decision making, resulting in deployment of advanced BI applications as can be seen by stream processing over RT feeds from operational systems for CEP [3]. Given these various paradigms, a multitude of new challenges and requirements have emerged, thereby necessitating different approaches to management of RT applications for BI. The purpose of this paper is to offer a viewpoint on how RT affects critical operational applications, evolves the weight of non-critical applications, and pressurizes availability/data-movement requirements in the underlying infrastructure. I will discuss how the GoldenGate TDM platform is being deployed within the RTE to manage some of these challenges particularly around RT dissemination of transactional data to reduce latency in data integration flows, to enable real-time reporting/DW, and to increase availability of underlying operational systems. Real world case studies will be

  11. Technology Maturation in Preparation for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Doherty, Michael P.; Moder, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    In support of its goal to find an innovative path for human space exploration, NASA embarked on the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Project, a Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) to test and validate key cryogenic capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements, opening up the architecture for large in-space cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots. Recognizing that key Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) technologies anticipated for on-orbit (flight) demonstration would benefit from additional maturation to a readiness level appropriate for infusion into the design of the flight demonstration, the NASA Headquarters Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) authorized funding for a one-year technology maturation phase of the CPST project. The strategy, proposed by the CPST Project Manager, focused on maturation through modeling, concept studies, and ground tests of the storage and fluid transfer of CFM technology sub-elements and components that were lower than a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. A technology maturation plan (TMP) was subsequently approved which described: the CFM technologies selected for maturation, the ground testing approach to be used, quantified success criteria of the technologies, hardware and data deliverables, and a deliverable to provide an assessment of the technology readiness after completion of the test, study or modeling activity. The specific technologies selected were grouped into five major categories: thick multilayer insulation, tank applied active thermal control, cryogenic fluid transfer, propellant gauging, and analytical tool development. Based on the success of the technology maturation efforts, the CPST project was approved to proceed to flight system development.

  12. High performance architecture design for large scale fibre-optic sensor arrays using distributed EDFAs and hybrid TDM/DWDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi; Austin, Ed; Nash, Philip J.; Kingsley, Stuart A.; Richardson, David J.

    2013-09-01

    A distributed amplified dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) array architecture is presented for interferometric fibre-optic sensor array systems. This architecture employs a distributed erbium-doped fibre amplifier (EDFA) scheme to decrease the array insertion loss, and employs time division multiplexing (TDM) at each wavelength to increase the number of sensors that can be supported. The first experimental demonstration of this system is reported including results which show the potential for multiplexing and interrogating up to 4096 sensors using a single telemetry fibre pair with good system performance. The number can be increased to 8192 by using dual pump sources.

  13. One-to-six WDM multicasting of DPSK signals based on dual-pump four-wave mixing in a silicon waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Hu, Hao; Ji, Hua

    2011-01-01

    We present WDM multicasting based on dual-pump four-wave mixing in a 3-mm long dispersion engineered silicon waveguide. One-to-six phase-preserving WDM multicasting of 10-Gb/s differential phase-shiftkeying (DPSK) data is experimentally demonstrated with bit-error rate measurements. All the six...

  14. Building new WDM regulations for the Namibian tourism sector on factors influencing current water-management practices at the enterprise level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschneider, Klaudia

    Namibia's aridity is forcing its water sector to resort to new water resource management approaches, including water demand management (WDM). Such a change in management approach is facilitated through the country's opportunity at independence to rewrite and adapt its old policies, including those for water and tourism. Legal support for WDM through the Water Act and other sector-specific Acts is crucial to plan the practical implementation of WDM throughout the different water use sectors of Namibia. In order to be able to put the policy into practice, it is imperative to understand which factors motivate people to adopt WDM initiatives. Within the Namibian tourism industry three main factors have been identified which influence the water-management approaches at tourist facilities. This paper discusses how the water and tourism decision makers can consider these factors when developing new regulations to introduce WDM in the tourism sector.

  15. Transmission of 2.5 Gbit/s Spectrum-sliced WDM System for 50 km Single-mode Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Nasim; Aljunid, Sayed Alwee; Ahmad, R. Badlisha; Fadil, Hilal Adnan; Rashid, Mohd Abdur

    2011-06-01

    The transmission of a spectrum-sliced WDM channel at 2.5 Gbit/s for 50 km of single mode fiber using an system channel spacing only 0.4 nm is reported. We have investigated the system performance using NRZ modulation format. The proposed system is compared with conventional system. The system performance is characterized as the bit-error-rate (BER) received against the system bit rates. Simulation results show that the NRZ modulation format performs well for 2.5 Gbit/s system bit rates. Using this narrow channel spectrum-sliced technique, the total number of multiplexed channels can be increased greatly in WDM system. Therefore, 0.4 nm channel spacing spectrum-sliced WDM system is highly recommended for the long distance optical access networks, like the Metro Area Network (MAN), Fiber-to-the-Building (FTTB) and Fiber-to-the-Home (FTTH).

  16. 40Gbit/s MDM-WDM Laguerre-Gaussian Mode with Equalization for Multimode Fiber in Access Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazea, Yousef; Amphawan, Angela

    2018-04-01

    Modal dispersion is seen as the primary impairment for multimode fiber. Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is a promising technology that has been realized as a favorable technology for considerably upsurges the capacity and distance of multimode fiber in conjunction with Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) for fiber-to-the-home. This paper reveals the importance of an equalization technique in conjunction with controlling the modes spacing of mode division multiplexing-wavelength division multiplexing of Laguerre-Gaussian modes to alleviate modal dispersion for multimode fiber. The effects of channel spacing of 20 channels MDM-WDM were examined through controlling the azimuthal mode number and the radial mode number of Laguerre-Gaussian modes. A data rate of 40Gbit/s was achieved for a distance of 1,500 m for MDM-WDM.

  17. A large capacity time division multiplexed (TDM) laser beam combining technique enabled by nanosecond speed KTN deflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Stuart (Shizhuo); Chao, Ju-Hung; Zhu, Wenbin; Chen, Chang-Jiang; Campbell, Adrian; Henry, Michael; Dubinskiy, Mark; Hoffman, Robert C.

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we present a novel large capacity (a 1000+ channel) time division multiplexing (TDM) laser beam combining technique by harnessing a state-of-the-art nanosecond speed potassium tantalate niobate (KTN) electro-optic (EO) beam deflector as the time division multiplexer. The major advantages of TDM approach are: (1) large multiplexing capability (over 1000 channels), (2) high spatial beam quality (the combined beam has the same spatial profile as the individual beam), (3) high spectral beam quality (the combined beam has the same spectral width as the individual beam, and (4) insensitive to the phase fluctuation of individual laser because of the nature of the incoherent beam combining. The quantitative analyses show that it is possible to achieve over one hundred kW average power, single aperture, single transverse mode solid state and/or fiber laser by pursuing this innovative beam combining method, which represents a major technical advance in the field of high energy lasers. Such kind of 100+ kW average power diffraction limited beam quality lasers can play an important role in a variety of applications such as laser directed energy weapons (DEW) and large-capacity high-speed laser manufacturing, including cutting, welding, and printing.

  18. local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abílio Amiguinho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of socio-educational territorialisation in rural contexts is the topic of this text. The theme corresponds to a challenge to address it having as main axis of discussion either the problem of social exclusion or that of local development. The reasons to locate the discussion in this last field of analysis are discussed in the first part of the text. Theoretical and political reasons are there articulated because the question is about projects whose intentions and practices call for the political both in the theoretical debate and in the choices that anticipate intervention. From research conducted for several years, I use contributions that aim at discuss and enlighten how school can be a potential locus of local development. Its identification and recognition as local institution (either because of those that work and live in it or because of those that act in the surrounding context are crucial steps to progressively constitute school as a partner for development. The promotion of the local values and roots, the reconstruction of socio-personal and local identities, the production of sociabilities and the equation and solution of shared problems were the dimensions of a socio-educative intervention, markedly globalising. This scenario, as it is argued, was also, intentionally, one of transformation and of deliberate change of school and of the administration of the educative territoires.

  19. A novel WDM passive optical network architecture supporting two independent multicast data streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yang; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel scheme to perform optical multicast overlay of two independent multicast data streams on a wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) passive optical network. By controlling a sinusoidal clock signal and shifting the wavelength at the optical line terminal (OLT), the delivery of the two multicast data, being carried by the generated optical tones, can be independently and flexibly controlled. Simultaneous transmission of 10-Gb/s unicast downstream and upstream data as well as two independent 10-Gb/s multicast data was successfully demonstrated.

  20. Single channel and WDM transmission of 28 Gbaud zero-guard-interval CO-OFDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuge, Qunbi; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Mousa-Pasandi, Mohammad E; Xu, Xian; Chagnon, Mathieu; El-Sahn, Ziad A; Chen, Chen; Plant, David V

    2012-12-10

    We report on the experimental demonstration of single channel 28 Gbaud QPSK and 16-QAM zero-guard-interval (ZGI) CO-OFDM transmission with only 1.34% overhead for OFDM processing. The achieved transmission distance is 5120 km for QPSK assuming a 7% forward error correction (FEC) overhead, and 1280 km for 16-QAM assuming a 20% FEC overhead. We also demonstrate the improved tolerance of ZGI CO-OFDM to residual inter-symbol interference compared to reduced-guard-interval (RGI) CO-OFDM. In addition, we report an 8-channel wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission of 28 Gbaud QPSK ZGI CO-OFDM signals over 4160 km.

  1. WDM packet switch architectures and analysis of the influence of tunable wavelength converters on the performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    A detailed analytical traffic model for a photonic wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) packet switch block is presented and the requirements to the buffer size is analyzed. Three different switch architectures are considered, each of them representing different complexities in terms of component.......e., the possibility of several outlets sharing the same physical buffer. For the three architectures presented here, a tradeoff in the buffer architectures is addressed: a buffer physically shared among an outlets requires many wavelengths internally in the switch block, whereas, architectures with buffers dedicated...

  2. Remote-seeded WDM-PON upgrade using linear semiconductor opticalamplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J. J.; Merayo, N.; Villafranca, A.; Garcés, I.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we have assessed the capacity of a linear (gain-clamped) semiconductor optical amplifier to enhance the budget of WDM PON network links for their evolution from FTTC to FTTH access. A wavelength-seeded network architecture has been considered, evaluating the performance improvement obtained by the use of an amplifier for the cases of link reach extension and optical splitting to reach end users. The evaluation measurements have shown that the extra budget is enough to compensate for the losses of a passive splitter up to atleast 1:16 division rate or to highly increment reach of the network.

  3. Tradeoffs in process strategy games with application in the WDM reconfiguration problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Nathann; Coudert, David; Mazauric, Dorian

    2011-01-01

    We consider a variant of the graph searching games that models the routing reconfiguration problem in WDM networks. In the digraph processing game, a team of agents aims at processing, or clearing, the vertices of a digraph D. We are interested in two different measures: (1) the total number...... tradeoffs may happen even for a basic class of digraphs. On the other hand, we exhibit classes of graphs for which good tradeoffs can be achieved. We finally detail the relationship between this game and the routing reconfiguration problem. In particular, we prove that any instance of the processing game, i...

  4. Reconfigurable WDM-PON empowered by a low-cost 8-channel directly modulated laser module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-ming; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Zhi-ke; Zhao, Ze-ping; Tian, Ye; Zhu, Ning-hua

    2017-11-01

    A 10 Gbit/s 16-km-long reconfigurable wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) is presented empowered by a low-cost multi-channel directly modulated laser (DML) module. Compared with the case using discrete devices in conventional scheme, the proposed DML module provides a cost-effective solution with reduced complexity. The clear eye diagram and the bit error rate ( BER) of less than 2×10-7 with a sensitivity of -7 dBm are obtained. Due to the special packaging design, the crosstalk between channels under condition of simultaneous operation can be negligible.

  5. Traffic grooming in WDM optical network with grooming resources at Max Connectivity nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Partha; Rawat, Balbeer Singh; Ghorai, S. K.

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose Max Connectivity grooming in WDM mesh networks under static lightpath connection requests. The grooming and wavelength conversion resources are placed at the nodes having maximum connections. We propose a heuristic genetic algorithm (GA) model to solve grooming, routing and wavelength assignment. The GA algorithm has been used to optimize the cost of grooming and wavelength conversion resources. The blocking probability has been investigated under different lightpath connections. The performance of Max Connectivity grooming has been compared with other grooming policies. Our results indicate the improvement of resource utilization with minimum blocking probability.

  6. A 10-Year Experience of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) of Linezolid in a Hospital-wide Population of Patients Receiving Conventional Dosing: Is there Enough Evidence for Suggesting TDM in the Majority of Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pea, Federico; Cojutti, Pier Giorgio; Baraldo, Massimo

    2017-10-01

    A retrospective study was conducted to assess our 10-year experience of therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of linezolid in a large patient population to establish whether conventional dosing may result in adequate drug exposure in the majority of patients. Patients included in this study underwent TDM of linezolid trough concentration (C min ) during treatment with conventional doses of 600 mg every 12 hr in the period between January 2007 and June 2016. The desired range of C min was set between 2 and 7 mg/L (underexposure, C min   7 mg/L). Multivariate logistic regression analysis investigated variables potentially correlated with linezolid C min . One thousand and forty-nine patients had 2484 linezolid C min assessed during treatment with conventional doses. Median (IQR) linezolid C min was 5.08 mg/L (2.78-8.52 mg/L). Linezolid C min was within the desired range in 50.8% of cases (1262/2484). Overexposure (n = 821; 33%) occurred much more frequently than underexposure (n = 401; 16.2%) and was severe (>20 mg/L) in 3.9% of cases (98/2484). Linezolid overexposure was significantly associated with CrCL C -G estimates ≤40 mL/min. (OR 1.463; 95% CI 1.124-1.904, p = 0.005). Linezolid underexposure was significantly associated with CrCL C -G estimates >100 mL/min. (OR 3.046; 95% CI 2.234-4.152, p Linezolid C min was not correlated linearly with CrCL C -G (R 2  = 0.061). Variability in renal function explained only partially the very wide interindividual linezolid C min variability. Our study suggests that TDM could represent a valuable approach in optimizing linezolid exposure in the majority of patients. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  7. An agent-based QoS provisioning mechanism for WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Yong; Zeng, Qingji; Yue, Ling

    2004-04-01

    This paper addresses QoS provisioning mechanisms in the WDM optical networks. With the appearance of metropolitan optical network, a hierarchical metro and wide area optical network will be envisioned in the near future. This hierarchical optical transport network is often divided into optical domains by geography, administration and technology, which usually employ different QoS routing algorithms and policies. To provide end-to-end optical QoS is becoming a new challenge for the optical network design. In this paper, we first give an overview of issues on the QoS provisioning in data, control and management planes of the WDM optical network. And then three provisioning approaches are analyzed and compared. Finally, we propose an agent-based hybrid centralized/distributed QoS provisioning mechanism based on the concept of domain agent. This agent-based hybrid mechanism employs centralized approach in the domain and distributed approach between domains. It offers scalability and intra-domain optimal QoS routing. It also keeps independence and interoperability between domains.

  8. Multicast routing for wavelength-routed WDM networks with dynamic membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Nen-Fu; Liu, Te-Lung; Wang, Yao-Tzung; Li, Bo

    2000-09-01

    Future broadband networks must support integrated services and offer flexible bandwidth usage. In our previous work, we explore the optical link control layer on the top of optical layer that enables the possibility of bandwidth on-demand service directly over wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks. Today, more and more applications and services such as video-conferencing software and Virtual LAN service require multicast support over the underlying networks. Currently, it is difficult to provide wavelength multicast over the optical switches without optical/electronic conversions although the conversion takes extra cost. In this paper, based on the proposed wavelength router architecture (equipped with ATM switches to offer O/E and E/O conversions when necessary), a dynamic multicast routing algorithm is proposed to furnish multicast services over WDM networks. The goal is to joint a new group member into the multicast tree so that the cost, including the link cost and the optical/electronic conversion cost, is kept as less as possible. The effectiveness of the proposed wavelength router architecture as well as the dynamic multicast algorithm is evaluated by simulation.

  9. On the fly all-optical packet switching based on hybrid WDM/OCDMA labeling scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Houssem; Giannoulis, Giannis; Menif, Mourad; Katopodis, Vasilis; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitrios; Kouloumentas, Christos; Groumas, Panos; Kanakis, Giannis; Stamatiadis, Christos; Avramopoulos, Hercules; Erasme, Didier

    2014-02-01

    We introduce a novel design of an all-optical packet routing node that allows for the selection and forwarding of optical packets based on the routing information contained in hybrid wavelength division multiplexing/optical code division multiple access (WDM/OCDMA) labels. A stripping paradigm of optical code-label is adopted. The router is built around an optical-code gate that consists in an optical flip-flop controlled by two fiber Bragg grating correlators and is combined with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)-based forwarding gate. We experimentally verify the proof-of-principle operation of the proposed self-routing node under NRZ and OCDMA packet traffic conditions. The successful switching of elastic NRZ payload at 40 Gb/s controlled by DS-OCDMA coded labels and the forwarding operation of encoded data using EQC codes are presented. Proper auto-correlation functions are obtained with higher than 8.1 dB contrast ratio, suitable to efficiently trigger the latching device with a contrast ratio of 11.6 dB and switching times below 3.8 ns. Error-free operation is achieved with 1.5 dB penalty for 40 Gb/s NRZ data and with 2.1 dB penalty for DS-OCDMA packets. The scheme can further be applied to large-scale optical packet switching networks by exploiting efficient optical coders allocated at different WDM channels.

  10. THEORETICAL EVALUATION OF NONLINEAR EFFECTS ON OPTICAL WDM NETWORKS WITH VARIOUS FIBER TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YASIN M. KARFAA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study is carried out to evaluate the performance of an opticalwavelength division multiplexing (WDM network transmission system in the presenceof crosstalk due to optical fiber nonlinearities. The most significant nonlinear effects inthe optical fiber which are Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM, Four-Wave Mixing (FWM,and Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS are investigated. Four types of optical fiber areincluded in the analysis; these are: single-mode fiber (SMF, dispersion compensationfiber (DCF, non-zero dispersion fiber (NZDF, and non-zero dispersion shifted fiber(NZDSF. The results represent the standard deviation of nonlinearity induced crosstalknoise power due to FWM and SRS, XPM power penalty for SMF, DCF, NZDF, andNZDSF types of fiber, besides the Bit Error Rate (BER for the three nonlinear effectsusing standard fiber type (SMF. It is concluded that three significant fiber nonlinearitiesare making huge limitations against increasing the launched power which is desired,otherwise, lower values of launched power limit network expansion including length,distance, covered areas, and number of users accessing the WDM network, unlesssuitable precautions are taken to neutralize the nonlinear effects. Besides, various fibertypes are not behaving similarly towards network parameters.

  11. An Optical Multicast Routing with Minimal Network Coding Operations in WDM Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanlin Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Network coding can improve the optical multicast routing performance in terms of network throughput, bandwidth utilization, and traffic load balance. But network coding needs high encoding operations costs in all-optical WDM networks due to shortage of optical RAM. In the paper, the network coding operation is defined to evaluate the number of network coding operation cost in the paper. An optical multicast routing algorithm based on minimal number of network coding operations is proposed to improve the multicast capacity. Two heuristic criteria are designed to establish the multicast routing with low network coding cost and high multicast capacity. One is to select one path from the former K shortest paths with the least probability of dropping the multicast maximal capacity. The other is to select the path with lowest potential coding operations with the highest link shared degree among the multiple wavelength disjoint paths cluster from source to each destination. Comparing with the other multicast routing based on network coding, simulation results show that the proposed multicast routing algorithm can effectively reduce the times of network coding operations, can improve the probability of reaching multicast maximal capacity, and can keep the less multicast routing link cost for optical WDM networks.

  12. Testing FSO WDM communication system in simulation software optiwave OptiSystem in different atmospheric environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderka, Ales; Hajek, Lukas; Bednarek, Lukas; Latal, Jan; Vitasek, Jan; Hejduk, Stanislav; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    In this article the author's team deals with using Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) for Free Space Optical (FSO) Communications. In FSO communication occurs due to the influence of atmospheric effect (attenuation, and fluctuation of the received power signal, influence turbulence) and the WDM channel suffers from interchannel crosstalk. There is considered only the one direction. The behavior FSO link was tested for one or eight channels. Here we will be dealing with modulation schemes OOK (On-Off keying), QAM (Quadrature Amplitude Modulation) and Subcarrier Intensity Modulation (SIM) based on a BPSK (Binary Phase Shift Keying). Simulation software OptiSystem 14 was used for tasting. For simulation some parameters were set according to real FSO link such as the datarate 1.25 Gbps, link range 1.4 km. Simulated FSO link used wavelength of 1550 nm with 0.8 nm spacing. There is obtained the influence of crosstalk and modulation format for the BER, depending on the amount of turbulence in the propagation medium.

  13. Hybrid imaging (SPECT/CT, PET/CT) in differentiated thyroid cancer; Imagerie hybride (TEMP/TDM, TEP/TDM) et cancer differencie de la thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardet, S.; Ciappuccini, R.; Aide, N. [Unite de concertation pluridisciplinaire thyroide, service de medecine nucleaire, centre Francois-Baclesse, 14 - Caen (France); Barraux, V. [Unite de radiophysique, centre Francois-Baclesse, 14 - Caen (France); Rame, J.P. [Chirurgie ORL, centre Francois-Baclesse, 14 - Caen (France)

    2010-08-15

    Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is generally associated with a good prognosis. Local recurrences, mainly lymph-node involvement, account for 15-20% of cases and are surgically treated. Distant metastases, mostly in lungs and more rarely in bones, are present in 5% of patients. When iodine uptake is sufficient (in approximately 60% of patients), distant metastases can be destroyed by iterative activities of iodine 131. Serum thyroglobulin (Tg), which can be assessed either on hormonal treatment or on TSH stimulation is considered as the tumour marker in DTC. Functional (iodine 131 scintigraphy, FDG PET, bone scintigraphy) or anatomical (neck ultrasound, thoracic CT, bone MRI) imaging methods can be performed when Tg increases in order to show residual/recurrent disease. In recent years, new hybrid equipments integrating both a gamma camera and CT scan (SPECT/CT) have been commercialized while positron emission tomography cameras associated with CT (PET/CT) have been installed on the whole French territory. These equipments, which allow us to directly correlate functional and anatomical images, greatly improve the interpretation of planar scintigraphy or that of PET alone. Hybrid imaging enables us to precisely localize scintigraphic foci and most often, to immediately verify whether they correspond to tumour lesions. The aim of this article is to review the role of SPECT/CT and PET/CT in the management of patients with DTC in 2010. (authors)

  14. Parametric Amplification, Wavelength Conversion, and Phase Conjugation of a 2.048-Tbit/s WDM PDM 16-QAM Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Jopson, R. M.; Gnauck, A. H.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate polarization-independent parametric amplification of a 2.048-Tbit/s 8-WDM PDM 16-QAM signal and simultaneous wavelength conversion and phase conjugation in a highly nonlinear fiber. Two high-power continuous-wave pumps with orthogonal polarizations and counter-phase modulation are ...

  15. Parametric amplification and wavelength conversion of a 2.048-Tbit/s WDM PDM 16-QAM signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Jopson, R. M.; Gnauck, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate polarisation-insensitive parametric amplification in highly nonlinear fibre of a 2.048-Tbit/s dense WDM PDM 16-QAM signal with ∼10 dB on-off gain and simultaneous wavelength conversion and phase conjugation, with mean Q2 penalties of only 0.6 dB and 0.4 dB....

  16. Evaluation of the Impact of Coherent and Incoherent Crosstalk on the Performance of Wavelength-agnostic WDM-PON Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Grobe, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Wavelength-agnostic WDM-PON systems recently got a lot of interest as low-cost solution for metro area networking. Here, wavelength-agnostic means that the wavelength from the optical network unit to the optical line terminal is not known by the optical network unit a priori. Furthermore, calibra...

  17. Integrated 1 GHz 4-channel InP phasar based WDM-receiver with Si bipolar frontend array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, C.A.M.; Vreede, de L.C.N.; Dam, van C.; Scholtes, T.L.M.; Smit, M.K.; Tauritz, J.L.; Pedersen, J.W.; Moerman, I.; Verbeek, B.H.; Baets, R.G.F.

    1995-01-01

    An integrated 4-channel WDM-receiver frontend with 1 GHz channel bandwidth is described. The receiver consists of an integrated wavelength demultiplexer with photodiodes in InP technology connected through bond wires with a 4 channel Si bipolar transimpedance amplifier mounted on an epoxy board. The

  18. 2x2 MIMO-OFDM Gigabit fiber-wireless access system based on polarization division multiplexed WDM-PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying

    2012-01-01

    We propose a spectral efficient radio over wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) system by combining optical polarization division multiplexing (PDM) and wireless multiple input multiple output (MIMO) spatial multiplexing techniques. In our experiment, a training-based...

  19. Ultrahigh-Spectral-Efficiency WDM/SDM Transmission Using PDM-1024-QAM Probabilistic Shaping With Adaptive Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Da Ros, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    We demonstrate wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) and space-division-multiplexed (SDM) transmission of probabilistically shaped polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM) 1024-state quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) channels over a 9.7-km single-mode 30-core fiber, achieving aggregated spectr...

  20. OSD1 promotes meiotic progression via APC/C inhibition and forms a regulatory network with TDM and CYCA1;2/TAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromer, Laurence; Heyman, Jefri; Touati, Sandra; Harashima, Hirofumi; Araou, Emilie; Girard, Chloe; Horlow, Christine; Wassmann, Katja; Schnittger, Arp; De Veylder, Lieven; Mercier, Raphael

    2012-01-01

    Cell cycle control is modified at meiosis compared to mitosis, because two divisions follow a single DNA replication event. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) promote progression through both meiosis and mitosis, and a central regulator of their activity is the APC/C (Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome) that is especially required for exit from mitosis. We have shown previously that OSD1 is involved in entry into both meiosis I and meiosis II in Arabidopsis thaliana; however, the molecular mechanism by which OSD1 controls these transitions has remained unclear. Here we show that OSD1 promotes meiotic progression through APC/C inhibition. Next, we explored the functional relationships between OSD1 and the genes known to control meiotic cell cycle transitions in Arabidopsis. Like osd1, cyca1;2/tam mutation leads to a premature exit from meiosis after the first division, while tdm mutants perform an aberrant third meiotic division after normal meiosis I and II. Remarkably, while tdm is epistatic to tam, osd1 is epistatic to tdm. We further show that the expression of a non-destructible CYCA1;2/TAM provokes, like tdm, the entry into a third meiotic division. Finally, we show that CYCA1;2/TAM forms an active complex with CDKA;1 that can phosphorylate OSD1 in vitro. We thus propose that a functional network composed of OSD1, CYCA1;2/TAM, and TDM controls three key steps of meiotic progression, in which OSD1 is a meiotic APC/C inhibitor.

  1. Femoral chondrosarcoma discovered by SPECT-T.D.M. osseous scintigraphy; Chondrosarcome femoral decouvert par scintigraphie osseuse SPECT-TDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourahla, K.; Nguyen, L.; Rolling, P.; Schott, A.; Di Salvo, R. [CLCC Paul-Strauss, Strasbourg, (France)

    2009-05-15

    Objectives: the SPECT/T.D.M. imaging can allow a quick diagnosis direction by the concomitant exploitation of scintigraphy data and morphological data brought by the T.D.M.. We present the case of a chondrosarcoma diagnosed in nuclear medicine thanks to the exploitation of the data supplied by the SPECT/T.D.M. that allowed to direct rapidly the later explorations while reducing the time of the patient coverage. Conclusions: A knowledge of the most characteristic morphological data allows to give some diagnosis at first sight during the scintigraphy explorations coupled SPECT/T.D.M. and this in the interest of the patient by reducing his coverage while including the nuclear doctor more broadly in some diagnosis approaches previously remote from his reach. (N.C.)

  2. Optical power equalization for upstream traffic with injection-locked Fabry-Perot lasers in TDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Tsan; Sheu, Lih-Gen; Chi, Sien

    2010-10-01

    An optical power equalization of upstream traffic in time-division-multiplexed passive optical network (TDM-PON) based on injection-locked Fabry-Perot lasers has been experimentally investigated. The upstream transmitters with stable spectrum are achieved by using an external injection light source in the optical line terminal (OLT). The different upstream powers can be equalized by injection locking a Fabry-Perot laser diode (FP-LD) biased below threshold current in OLT. The dynamic upstream power range from - 8.5 to - 19.5 db m is reduced to a 1.6 dB maximal power variation, when the uplink signal is directly modulated at 1.25 Gb/s.

  3. Performance analysis of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for WDM-based systems for Gamma-Gamma distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Yoon, Chang Seok; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme (TPMBS) for Free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has

  4. All-optical equalization of power transients on four 40 Gbit/s WDM channels using a fiber-based device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Palsdottir, Bera

    2008-01-01

    Simultaneous transient suppression of four transient-impaired 40 Gbit/s RZ-ASK WDM channels is demonstrated. Sensitivity improvements are in excess of 5 dB and transmission penalties are significantly reduced.......Simultaneous transient suppression of four transient-impaired 40 Gbit/s RZ-ASK WDM channels is demonstrated. Sensitivity improvements are in excess of 5 dB and transmission penalties are significantly reduced....

  5. Mathematical Verification for Transmission Performance of Centralized Lightwave WDM-RoF-PON with Quintuple Services Integrated in Each Wavelength Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wavelength-division-multiplexing passive-optical-network (WDM-PON has been recognized as a promising solution of the “last mile” access as well as multibroadband data services access for end users, and WDM-RoF-PON, which employs radio-over-fiber (RoF technique in WDM-PON, is even a more attractive approach for future broadband fiber and wireless access for its strong availability of centralized multiservices transmission operation and its transparency for bandwidth and signal modulation formats. As for multiservices development in WDM-RoF-PON, various system designs have been reported and verified via simulation or experiment till now, and the scheme with multiservices transmitted in each single wavelength channel is believed as the one that has the highest bandwidth efficiency; however, the corresponding mathematical verification is still hard to be found in state-of-the-art literature. In this paper, system design and data transmission performance of a quintuple services integrated WDM-RoF-PON which jointly employs carrier multiplexing and orthogonal modulation techniques, have been theoretically analyzed and verified in detail; moreover, the system design has been duplicated and verified experimentally and the theory system of such WDM-RoF-PON scheme has thus been formed.

  6. Integration of FBG Strain Sensors in WDM Networks, Effects on Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al-Lawati

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of integrating an FBG sensor in a four wavelength WDM communications system operating at 1550 nm is presented. The simulations considered focus on the mutual effects of both the sensing and the communications systems. The effect of power levels of the interrogating optical source on the performance of the two systems is also investigated under excitation levels of up to 10 dBm. The network layout used in the simulations is based on an actual optical link in Oman having a variety of spans. The results obtained at data rates of 2.5 and 10 Gbps with variable strains up to ±600 μs show a good tolerance in terms of quality of transmission for the two systems. However, the greater the strain values, the more noticeable are the degradations of transmission quality parameters of the communications system.

  7. Cost-effective TCM-based WDM-PON for highly asymmetric traffic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Danbi; Kwon, Won-Bae; Chae, Chang-Joon; Park, Chang-Soo

    2015-11-16

    A time compression multiplexing (TCM)-based wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) using a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) is proposed, and its feasibility is experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed system, the RSOA pre-amplifies a 10 Gb/s downstream signal and modulates the RSOA output, wavelength-locked to the downstream signal, with a 1.25 Gb/s upstream signal simultaneously. The sensitivity of the downstream signal is improved by about 3 dB through the RSOA. The downstream and upstream signals have power penalties of about 0.1 dB and 1.1 dB, respectively, at bit error rates (BERs) of 10(-9) after 20 km transmission.

  8. Optical RAM row access using WDM-enabled all-passive row/column decoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Sotirios; Alexoudi, Theoni; Kanellos, George T.; Miliou, Amalia; Pleros, Nikos

    2014-03-01

    Towards achieving a functional RAM organization that reaps the advantages offered by optical technology, a complete set of optical peripheral modules, namely the Row (RD) and Column Decoder (CD) units, is required. In this perspective, we demonstrate an all-passive 2×4 optical RAM RD with row access operation and subsequent all-passive column decoding to control the access of WDM-formatted words in optical RAM rows. The 2×4 RD exploits a WDM-formatted 2-bit-long memory WordLine address along with its complementary value, all of them encoded on four different wavelengths and broadcasted to all RAM rows. The RD relies on an all-passive wavelength-selective filtering matrix (λ-matrix) that ensures a logical `0' output only at the selected RAM row. Subsequently, the RD output of each row drives the respective SOA-MZI-based Row Access Gate (AG) to grant/block the entry of the incoming data words to the whole memory row. In case of a selected row, the data word exits the row AG and enters the respective CD that relies on an allpassive wavelength-selective Arrayed Waveguide Grating (AWG) for decoding the word bits into their individual columns. Both RD and CD procedures are carried out without requiring any active devices, assuming that the memory address and data word bits as well as their inverted values will be available in their optical form by the CPU interface. Proof-of-concept experimental verification exploiting cascaded pairs of AWGs as the λ-matrix is demonstrated at 10Gb/s, providing error-free operation with a peak power penalty lower than 0.2dB for all optical word channels.

  9. Upgrade of optical WDM transport systems introducing linerates at 40 Gbit/s per channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiders, Malte; Vorbeck, Sascha; Aust, Nora

    2006-10-01

    Driven by high growth rates of internet traffic the question of upgrading existing optical metro-, regio- and long haul transport networks introducing 40 Gbit/s/λ is one of the most important questions today and in the near future. Current WDM Systems in photonic networks are commonly operated at linerates of 2.5 and 10 Gbit/s/λ. Induced by market analyses and the historical development of transport systems some work has already been carried out to evaluate update scenarios from 10 to 40 Gbit/s channel data rates. Due to the inherent quadruplication of the bandwidth per channel, limitations due to linear and non-linear transmission impairments become stronger resulting in a highly increased complexity of link engineering, potentially increasing the capital and operational expenditures. A lot of work is therefore in progress, which targets at the relaxation of constraints for 40 Gbit/s transmission to find the most efficient upgrade strategies. One approach towards an increased robustness against signal distortions is the introduction of more advanced modulation formats. Different modulation schemes show strongly different optical WDM transmission characteristics. The choice of the appropriate format does not only depend on the technical requirements, but also on economical considerations as an increased transmitter- and receiver-complexity will drive the transponder price. This article presents investigations on different modulation formats for the upgrade of existing metro-/ regio and long haul transport networks. Tolerances and robustness against the main degrading effects dispersion, noise and nonlinearities are considered together with mitigation strategies like the adaptation of dispersion maps. Results from numerical simulations are provided for some of the most promising modulation formats like NRZ, RZ, CS-RZ, Optical Duobinary and DPSK.

  10. Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Technology Maturation: Establishing a Foundation for a Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Meyer, Michael L.; Motil, Susan M.; Ginty, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of U.S. National Space Policy, NASA is seeking an innovative path for human space exploration, which strengthens the capability to extend human and robotic presence throughout the solar system. NASA is laying the groundwork to enable humans to safely reach multiple potential destinations, including asteroids, Lagrange points, the Moon and Mars. In support of this, NASA is embarking on the Technology Demonstration Mission Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (TDM CPST) Project to test and validate key cryogenic capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements, opening up the architecture for large cryogenic propulsion stages (CPS) and propellant depots. The TDM CPST project will provide an on-orbit demonstration of the capability to store, transfer, and measure cryogenic propellants for a duration which is relevant to enable long term human space exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). Recognizing that key cryogenic fluid management technologies anticipated for on-orbit (flight) demonstration needed to be matured to a readiness level appropriate for infusion into the design of the flight demonstration, the NASA Headquarters Space Technology Mission Directorate authorized funding for a one-year (FY12) ground based technology maturation program. The strategy, proposed by the CPST Project Manager, focused on maturation through modeling, studies, and ground tests of the storage and fluid transfer Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) technology sub-elements and components that were not already at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. A technology maturation plan (TMP) was subsequently approved which described: the CFM technologies selected for maturation, the ground testing approach to be used, quantified success criteria of the technologies, hardware and data deliverables, and a deliverable to provide an assessment of the technology readiness after completion of the test, study or modeling activity. This paper will present

  11. Study on the capability of four-level partial response equalization in RSOA-based WDM-PON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qi; Tran, An Vu

    2010-12-01

    The expected development of advanced video services with HDTV quality demands the delivery of more than Gb/s link to end users across the last mile connection. Future access networks are also required to have long reach for reduction in the number of central offices (CO). Fueled by those requirements, we propose a novel equalization scheme that increases the capacity and reach of the wavelength division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) based on a low bandwidth reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). We investigate the characteristics of 10 Gb/s upstream transmission in WDM-PON using RSOA with only 1.2 GHz electrical bandwidth and various lengths of fiber. It is proven that the proposed four-level partial response equalizer (PRE) is capable of mitigating the impact of ISI in the received signals from optical network units (ONU) located 0 km to 75 km away from the optical line terminal (OLT).

  12. WDM-Coherent OCDMA over one single device based on short chip Super Structured Fiber Bragg Gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya, Waldimar; Pastor, Daniel; Baños, Rocio; Garcia-Munoz, Victor

    2011-11-21

    We theoretically propose and demonstrate experimentally a Coherent Direct Sequence OCDMA en/decoder for multi-channel WDM operation based on a single device. It presents a broadband spectral envelope and a periodic spectral pattern that can be employed for en/decoding multiple sub-bands simultaneously. Multi-channel operation is verified experimentally by means of Multi-Band Super Structured Fiber Bragg Gratings with binary phase encoded chips fabricated with 1mm inter-chip separation that provides 4x100 GHz ITU sub-band separation at 1.25 Gbps. The WDM-OCDMA system verification was carried out employing simultaneous encoding of four adjacent sub-bands and two different OCDMA codes. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  13. Performance Analysis of a Threshold-Based Parallel Multiple Beam Selection Scheme for WDM FSO Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2018-04-09

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for a free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred under independent identically distributed Gamma-Gamma fading conditions. To simplify the mathematical analysis, we additionally consider Gamma turbulence conditions, which are a good approximation of Gamma-Gamma distribution. Specifically, we statistically analyze the characteristics in operation under conventional detection schemes (i.e., heterodyne detection (HD) and intensity modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) techniques) for both adaptive modulation (AM) case in addition to non-AM case (i.e., coherent/non-coherent binary modulation). Then, based on the statistically derived results, we evaluate the outage probability of a selected beam, the average spectral efficiency (ASE), the average number of selected beams (ANSB) and the average bit error rate (BER). Selected results show that we can obtain higher spectral efficiency and simultaneously reduce the potential for increasing the complexity of implementation caused by applying the selection-based beam selection scheme without considerable performance loss. Especially for the AM case, the ASE can be increased further compared to the non- AM cases. Our derived results based on the Gamma distribution as an approximation of the Gamma-Gamma distribution can be used as approximated performance measure bounds, especially, they may lead to lower bounds on the approximated considered performance measures.

  14. Optical switching properties of VO2 films driven by using WDM-aligned lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, K.Y.; Wu, F.-H.; Shieh, H.-P.D.; Chin, T.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) film had been demonstrated a high speed IR shutter driven by total optical modulation. However, it usually required a higher power heating laser of high power and precise optical systems to cover the probe beam on the sample with a heating beam of larger area. A new optical system, simply composed of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), fiber lens or convex lens system, and a glass sheet with VO 2 thin film on it, was easily assembled to utilize VO 2 film as an IR shutter, implying the possibility to highly miniaturize the VO 2 -based optical shutter. A permanent low-transmittance (PLT) region forms on the film within the probe beam, resulting in a decrease in average power of the probe beam. Another ring-type switching area (switching ring) forms around the PLT region, resulting in the transmittance switching of the probe beam synchronously with the heating signal. VO 2 films can be switched with the highest rate of a continuous square heating signal of 3 mW at 120 kHz. A heating pulse of 0.7 ns and 13 mW can be used to stimulate an IR pulse with fiber lens

  15. A Multicast Sparse-Grooming Algorithm Based on Network Coding in WDM Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfeng; Peng, Han; Sui, Meng; Liu, Huanlin

    2015-03-01

    To improve the limited number of wavelength utilization and decrease the traffic blocking probability in sparse-grooming wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) networks, a multicast sparse-grooming algorithm based on network coding (MCSA-NC) is put forward to solve the routing problem for dynamic multicast requests in this paper. In the proposed algorithm, a traffic partition strategy, that the coarse-granularity multicast request with grooming capability on the source node is split into several fine-granularity multicast requests, is designed so as to increase the probability for traffic grooming successfully in MCSA-NC. Besides considering that multiple destinations should receive the data from source of the multicast request at the same time, the traditional transmission mechanism is improved by constructing edge-disjoint paths for each split multicast request. Moreover, in order to reduce the number of wavelengths required and further decrease the traffic blocking probability, a light-tree reconfiguration mechanism is presented in the MCSA-NC, which can select a minimal cost light tree from the established edge-disjoint paths for a new multicast request.

  16. Fiber nonlinearity mitigation of WDM-PDM QPSK/16-QAM signals using fiber-optic parametric amplifiers based multiple optical phase conjugations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Jopson, Robert M.; Gnauck, Alan H.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate fiber nonlinearity mitigation by using multiple optical phase conjugations (OPCs) in the WDM transmission systems of both 8 x 32-Gbaud PDM QPSK channels and 8 x 32-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM channels, showing improved performance over a single mid-span OPC and no OPC in terms of nonlinear...... threshold and a best achievable Q(2) factor after transmission. In addition, after an even number of OPCs, the signal wavelength can be preserved after transmission. The performance of multiple OPCs for fiber nonlinearity mitigation was evaluated independently for WDM PDM QPSK signals and WDM PDM 16QAM...... to 1 dB compared to the case of mid-span OPC. The improvements in the best achievable Q(2) factors were more modest, ranging from 0.2 dB to 1.1 dB for the results presented. (C) 2017 Optical Society of America...

  17. Revenue-driven Lightpaths Provisioning over Optical WDM Networks Using Bee Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Z. Marković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Revenue-driven Lightpaths Provisioning over Optical WDM Networks Using Bee Colony Optimization Goran Z. Markovic University of Belgrade n Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering, Vojvode Stepe 305, Belgrade, 11000, Serbia E-mail: g.markovic@sf.bg.ac.rs Abstract This paper aims to study the lightpaths provisioning problem in optical WDM networks with scarce available wavelengths under the static (off-line traffic demands such that network operatorrs (NOrs revenue is maximized. To achieve this goal, a NO has to be addressed with the issue how to solve the call admission control jointly with the lightpaths routing and wavelength assignment (RWA problem in efficient manner. The improved bee colony optimization (BCOi metaheuristic is applied to solve the considered revenue maximization (Max-Rev problem. We evaluated the performances of the proposed BCOi Max-Rev framework by performing numerous simulation experiments in different realistic WDM optical network topologies. We observed that our BCOi Max-Rev algorithm is an efficient tool to produce high quality solutions within reasonable amount of CPU time. It has been proved that BCOi Max-Rev solutions just slightly deviate from optimal solutions (at most 1% and considerably outperform some heuristic algorithms, such as the Max-Profit and FCFS. In addition, our Max-Rev BCOi algorithm is able to produce better solution quality compared to the constructive BCO approach (up to 3.5% in the case of NSFNet and 5% in the case of EON. Finally, we compared the BCOi to differential evolution (DE approach in the case of more complex networks, such as the USA optical network topology. The results show that our BCOi always outperforms DE metaheuristic, whereby the profit improvement could reach up to 20 % in some instances. Keywords: bee colony optimization (BCO, lightpath, optical network, routing and wavelength assignment (RWA, revenue maximization. 1. Introduction Optical networks employing wavelength

  18. Quad 14Gbps L-Band VCSEL-based System for WDM Migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty.......We report on migrating multiple lane link into a single WDM L-band VCSEL-based system. Experimental validation successfully achieves 10 km of SMF reach with 4x14Gbps and less than 0.5dB inter-channel crosstalk penalty....

  19. Multi-channel WDM RZ-to-NRZ format conversion at 50 Gbit/s based on single silicon microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Peucheret, Christophe; Pu, Minhao

    2010-01-01

    We comprehensively analyze multiple WDM channels RZ-to- NRZ format conversion using a single microring resonator. The scheme relies on simultaneous suppression of the first order harmonic components in the spectra of all the RZ channels. An optimized silicon microring resonator with free spectral...... range of 100 GHz and Q value of 7900 is designed and fabricated for this purpose. Multi-channel RZ-to-NRZ format conversion is demonstrated experimentally at 50 Gbit/s for WDM channels with 200 GHz channel spacing using the fabricated device. Bit error rate (BER)measurements show very good conversion...

  20. A New Wavelength Optimization and Energy-Saving Scheme Based on Network Coding in Software-Defined WDM-PON Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Danping; Wu, Shanshan; Zhang, Lijing

    2016-09-01

    In view of the characteristics of the global control and flexible monitor of software-defined networks (SDN), we proposes a new optical access network architecture dedicated to Wavelength Division Multiplexing-Passive Optical Network (WDM-PON) systems based on SDN. The network coding (NC) technology is also applied into this architecture to enhance the utilization of wavelength resource and reduce the costs of light source. Simulation results show that this scheme can optimize the throughput of the WDM-PON network, greatly reduce the system time delay and energy consumption.

  1. Optimal Golomb Ruler Sequences Generation for Optical WDM Systems: A Novel Parallel Hybrid Multi-objective Bat Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Shonak; Singh, Arun Kumar; Gupta, Neena

    2017-02-01

    In real-life, multi-objective engineering design problems are very tough and time consuming optimization problems due to their high degree of nonlinearities, complexities and inhomogeneity. Nature-inspired based multi-objective optimization algorithms are now becoming popular for solving multi-objective engineering design problems. This paper proposes original multi-objective Bat algorithm (MOBA) and its extended form, namely, novel parallel hybrid multi-objective Bat algorithm (PHMOBA) to generate shortest length Golomb ruler called optimal Golomb ruler (OGR) sequences at a reasonable computation time. The OGRs found their application in optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems as channel-allocation algorithm to reduce the four-wave mixing (FWM) crosstalk. The performances of both the proposed algorithms to generate OGRs as optical WDM channel-allocation is compared with other existing classical computing and nature-inspired algorithms, including extended quadratic congruence (EQC), search algorithm (SA), genetic algorithms (GAs), biogeography based optimization (BBO) and big bang-big crunch (BB-BC) optimization algorithms. Simulations conclude that the proposed parallel hybrid multi-objective Bat algorithm works efficiently as compared to original multi-objective Bat algorithm and other existing algorithms to generate OGRs for optical WDM systems. The algorithm PHMOBA to generate OGRs, has higher convergence and success rate than original MOBA. The efficiency improvement of proposed PHMOBA to generate OGRs up to 20-marks, in terms of ruler length and total optical channel bandwidth (TBW) is 100 %, whereas for original MOBA is 85 %. Finally the implications for further research are also discussed.

  2. WDM Optical Access Network for Full-Duplex and Reconfigurable Capacity Assignment Based on PolMUX Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mora

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel bidirectional WDM-based optical access network featuring reconfigurable capacity assignment. The architecture relies on the PolMUX technique allowing a compact, flexible, and bandwidth-efficient router in addition to source-free ONUs and color-less ONUs for cost/complexity minimization. Moreover, the centralized architecture contemplates remote management and control of polarization. High-quality transmission of digital signals is demonstrated through different routing scenarios where all channels are dynamically assigned in both downlink and uplink directions.

  3. Projeto de EDFAs com controle automatico de ganho totalmente optico para aplicações em redes WDM

    OpenAIRE

    Julio Cesar Rodrigues Fernandes de Oliveira

    2004-01-01

    Resumo: A variação na potência da entrada em amplificadores ópticos a fibra dopada com Érbio (EDFAs) induz alterações em seu ganho. No caso de sistemas ou redes WDM onde o número de canais acoplados ao amplificador varia, o ganho torna-se dependente do número de canais que estão sendo transmitidos, especialmente se o amplificador opera saturado. Este trabalho apresenta o desenvolvimento e a avaliação experimental de uma técnica de controle de ganho totalmente óptica para EDFAs. Esta técnica d...

  4. Silicon photonics WDM transmitter with single section semiconductor mode-locked laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Juliana; Hauck, Johannes; Shen, Bin; Romero-García, Sebastian; Islamova, Elmira; Azadeh, Saeed Sharif; Joshi, Siddharth; Chimot, Nicolas; Moscoso-Mártir, Alvaro; Merget, Florian; Lelarge, François; Witzens, Jeremy

    2015-04-01

    We demonstrate a wavelength domain-multiplexed (WDM) optical link relying on a single section semiconductor mode-locked laser (SS-MLL) with quantum dash (Q-Dash) gain material to generate 25 optical carriers spaced by 60.8 GHz, as well as silicon photonics (SiP) resonant ring modulators (RRMs) to modulate individual optical channels. The link requires optical reamplification provided by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in the system experiments reported here. Open eye diagrams with signal quality factors (Q-factors) above 7 are measured with a commercial receiver (Rx). For higher compactness and cost effectiveness, reamplification of the modulated channels with a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) operated in the linear regime is highly desirable. System and device characterization indicate compatibility with the latter. While we expect channel counts to be primarily limited by the saturation output power level of the SOA, we estimate a single SOA to support more than eight channels. Prior to describing the system experiments, component design and detailed characterization results are reported including design and characterization of RRMs, ring-based resonant optical add-drop multiplexers (RR-OADMs) and thermal tuners, S-parameters resulting from the interoperation of RRMs and RR-OADMs, and characterization of Q-Dash SS-MLLs reamplified with a commercial SOA. Particular emphasis is placed on peaking effects in the transfer functions of RRMs and RR-OADMs resulting from transient effects in the optical domain, as well as on the characterization of SS-MLLs in regard to relative intensity noise (RIN), stability of the modes of operation, and excess noise after reamplification.

  5. Modelisation et simulation d'un PON (Passive Optical Network) base ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    English Title: Modeling and simulation of a PON (Passive Optical Network) Based on hybrid technology WDM/TDM. English Abstract. This development is part of dynamism of design for a model combining WDM and TDM multiplexing in the optical network of PON (Passive Optical Network) type, in order to satisfy the high bit ...

  6. TDM Status Report - Telecommuting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-01

    Experience with telecommuting suggests it can be an effective strategy for : reducing commuter traffic. However, home based and satellite strategies deserve : careful planning, assessment and evaluation in future applications. Specific : effectivenes...

  7. Constraining the Nature of Dark Matter with the Star-formation History of the Faintest Local Group Dwarf Galaxy Satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, Alice; Mayer, Lucio; Governato, Fabio

    2017-01-01

    Λ warm dark matter (ΛWDM), realized by collisionless particles of 1–3 keV, has been proposed as an alternative scenario to Λ-Cold-Dark Matter (ΛCDM) for the dwarf galaxy scale discrepancies. We present an approach to test the viability of such WDM models using star-formation histories (SFHs) of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Local Group. We compare their high-time-resolution SFHs with the collapse redshift of their dark halos in CDM and WDM. Collapse redshift is inferred after determining the subhalo infall mass. This is based on the dwarf current mass inferred from stellar kinematics, combined with cosmological simulation results on subhalo evolution. WDM subhalos close to the filtering mass scale, forming significantly later than CDM, are the most difficult to reconcile with early truncation of star formation ( z ≥ 3). The ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs) provide the most stringent constraints. Using six UFDs and eight classical dSphs, we show that a 1 keV particle is strongly disfavored, consistently with other reported methods. Excluding other models is only hinted for a few UFDs. Other UFDs for which the lack of robust constraints on halo mass prevents us from carrying out our analysis rigorously, show a very early onset of star formation that will strengthen the constraints delivered by our method in the future. We discuss the various caveats, notably the low number of dwarfs with accurately determined SFHs and the uncertainties when determining the subhalo infall mass, most notably the baryonic physics. Our preliminary analysis may serve as a pathfinder for future investigations that will combine accurate SFHs for local dwarfs with direct analysis of WDM simulations with baryons.

  8. Constraining the Nature of Dark Matter with the Star-formation History of the Faintest Local Group Dwarf Galaxy Satellites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Alice; Mayer, Lucio [Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Governato, Fabio [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 351580, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States)

    2017-08-10

    Λ warm dark matter (ΛWDM), realized by collisionless particles of 1–3 keV, has been proposed as an alternative scenario to Λ-Cold-Dark Matter (ΛCDM) for the dwarf galaxy scale discrepancies. We present an approach to test the viability of such WDM models using star-formation histories (SFHs) of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) in the Local Group. We compare their high-time-resolution SFHs with the collapse redshift of their dark halos in CDM and WDM. Collapse redshift is inferred after determining the subhalo infall mass. This is based on the dwarf current mass inferred from stellar kinematics, combined with cosmological simulation results on subhalo evolution. WDM subhalos close to the filtering mass scale, forming significantly later than CDM, are the most difficult to reconcile with early truncation of star formation ( z ≥ 3). The ultra-faint dwarfs (UFDs) provide the most stringent constraints. Using six UFDs and eight classical dSphs, we show that a 1 keV particle is strongly disfavored, consistently with other reported methods. Excluding other models is only hinted for a few UFDs. Other UFDs for which the lack of robust constraints on halo mass prevents us from carrying out our analysis rigorously, show a very early onset of star formation that will strengthen the constraints delivered by our method in the future. We discuss the various caveats, notably the low number of dwarfs with accurately determined SFHs and the uncertainties when determining the subhalo infall mass, most notably the baryonic physics. Our preliminary analysis may serve as a pathfinder for future investigations that will combine accurate SFHs for local dwarfs with direct analysis of WDM simulations with baryons.

  9. All-optical multi-wavelength conversion with negative power penalty by a commercial SOA-MZI for WDM wavelength multicast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, N.; Jung, H.D.; Tafur Monroy, I.; Waardt, de H.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2007-01-01

    WDM wavelength multicast is demonstrated by all-optical multi-wavelength conversion at 10 Gb/s using a commercial SOA-MZI. We report for the first time simultaneous one-to-four conversion with negative power penalty of 1.84 dB.

  10. Compact and high-sensitivity 100-Gb/s (4 × 25 Gb/s) APD-ROSA with a LAN-WDM PLC demultiplexer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Toshihide; Nada, Masahiro; Oguma, Manabu; Yokoyama, Haruki; Ohno, Tetsuichiro; Doi, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Ikuo; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Eiji

    2012-12-10

    We demonstrate an integrated 100 GbE receiver optical sub-assembly (ROSA) that incorporates a monolithic four-channel avalanche photodiode (APD) array and a planer lightwave circuit (PLC) based LAN-WDM demultiplexer. A record minimum receiver sensitivity of -20 dBm and 50-km error-free SMF transmission without an optical amplifier have been achieved.

  11. Experimental Comparison of Gains in Achievable Information Rates from Probabilistic Shaping and Digital Backpropagation for DP-256QAM/1024QAM WDM Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Da Ros, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Gains in achievable information rates from probabilistic shaping and digital backpropagation are compared for WDM transmission of 5 × 10 GBd DP-256QAM/1024QAM up to 1700 km of reach. The combination of both techniques its shown to provide gains of up to ∼0.5 bits/QAM symbol...

  12. Experimental 2.5 Gbit/s QPSK WDM coherent phase modulated radio-over-fibre link with digital demodulation by a K-means algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando

    2009-01-01

    Highest reported bit rate of 2.5 Gbit/s for optically phase modulated radio-over-fibre link employing coherent detection is demonstrated. Demodulation of 3·2.5 Gbit/s QPSK modulated WDM channels, is achieved after 79km of transmission through deployed fiber....

  13. Quad 14 Gbps L-band VCSEL-based system for WDM migration of 4-lanes 56 Gbps optical data links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Pham, Tien Thang

    2012-01-01

    We report on migrating multiple-lane link into an L-band VCSEL-based WDM system. Experimental validation achieves successful transmission over 10 km of SMF at 4x14Gbps. Inter-channel crosstalk penalty is observed to be less than 0.5 dB and a transmission penalty around 1 dB. The power budget margin...

  14. Different TDM/CH4 hydrothermal plume signatures: TAG site at 26N and serpentinized ultrabasic diapir at 15 degrees 05'N on the Mid-Atlantic ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlou, J.L.; Bougault, H. (IFREMER Centre de Brest, Plouzane (France)); Appriou, P. (Univ. de Bretagne Occidentale, Brest (France)); Nelsen, T.; Rona, P. (NOAA-AOML-OCD, Miami, FL (United States))

    1991-11-01

    As a part of the 1988 NOAA VENTS Program, CH{sub 4} and Mn tracers were used to identify and compare hydrothermal plumes found above the TAG Field (26{degrees}N) and in the rift valley at 15{degrees}N close to the eastern intersection of the ridge axis with the 15{degrees}20'N Fracture Zone at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Active hydrothermal venting was confirmed at TAG, based on elevated concentrations of total dissolved Mn (TDM up to 30 nmol/kg), high CH{sub 4} concentrations (up to 200 nL/L), and elevated nephelometry signals. Plumes of a different composition were identified at 15{degree}N with high CH{sub 4} concentrations (up to 400 nL/L), low total dissolved Mn concentrations (TDM < 1 nmol/kg) and no significant nephelometry signal. The different properties of these tracers and the different tracer ratios can be used to deduce vent fluid characteristics and compare one hydrothermal area to another. TDM/CH{sub 4} and Nephel/CH{sub 4} ratios at TEG are of the same order of magnitude as those observed at other spreading axis hydrothermal fields. At 15{degrees}N, the low TDM/CH{sub 4} ratio provides evidence of fluid circulation into ultrabasic rocks and offers a potentially useful and single method of exploring for hydrothermal activity associated with serpentinization. Mantle degassing through hydrothermal activity associated with serpentinization is an important process with respect to chemical and thermal exchanges between the upper mantle and the ocean. Different ratios of hydrothermal tracers (i.e., TDM/CH{sub 4}) provide a useful framework for identifying subseafloor processes along mid-oceanic ridges.

  15. WDM-PON-compatible system for simultaneous distribution of gigabit baseband and wireless ultrawideband services with flexible bandwidth allocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tien Thang; Yu, Xianbin; Gibbon, Timothy Braidwood

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a novel and simple scheme to realize flexible access for gigabit wireline and impulse radio ultrawideband (IR-UWB) wireless services is proposed. The UWB signals are generated by multi-carrier upconverting and reshaping the baseband signals.The proposed system was experimentally...... demonstrated with the performances of 2.0-Gbps data in both baseband and UWB formats after 46-km single mode fiber transmission and further 0.5-m wireless for UWB data. The flexibility of the system is confirmed by investigating the system performance at different data rates including 1.0 Gbps and 1.6 Gbps....... Optical wavelength independency and data-rate variability of UWB signal generation makes the system attractive for potential wireline and wireless applications in existing WDM-PON systems....

  16. Bandwidth efficient bidirectional 5 Gb/s overlapped-SCM WDM PON with electronic equalization and forward-error correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buset, Jonathan M; El-Sahn, Ziad A; Plant, David V

    2012-06-18

    We demonstrate an improved overlapped-subcarrier multiplexed (O-SCM) WDM PON architecture transmitting over a single feeder using cost sensitive intensity modulation/direct detection transceivers, data re-modulation and simple electronics. Incorporating electronic equalization and Reed-Solomon forward-error correction codes helps to overcome the bandwidth limitation of a remotely seeded reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA)-based ONU transmitter. The O-SCM architecture yields greater spectral efficiency and higher bit rates than many other SCM techniques while maintaining resilience to upstream impairments. We demonstrate full-duplex 5 Gb/s transmission over 20 km and analyze BER performance as a function of transmitted and received power. The architecture provides flexibility to network operators by relaxing common design constraints and enabling full-duplex operation at BER ∼ 10(-10) over a wide range of OLT launch powers from 3.5 to 8 dBm.

  17. WDM compatible and electrically tunable SPE-OCDMA system based on the temporal self-imaging effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainta, S; Amaya, W; Erro, M J; Garde, M J; Sales, S; Muriel, M A

    2011-02-01

    A coding/decoding setup for a spectral phase encoding optical code-division multiple access (SPE-OCDMA) system has been developed. The proposal is based on the temporal self-imaging effect and the use of an easily tunable electro-optic phase modulator to achieve line-by-line coding of the transmitted signal, thus assuring compatibility with WDM techniques. Modulation of the code is performed at the same rate as the data, avoiding the use of high-bandwidth electro-optic modulators. As proof of concept of the technique, experimental results are presented for a back-to-back coder/decoder setup transmitting a 10 GHz unmodulated optical pulse train within an 80 GHz optical window and using 8-chip Hadamard codes.

  18. A cost-effective structure of a centralized-light-source WDM-PON utilizing inverse-duobinary-RZ downstream and DPSK upstream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Long-Quan; Qiao Yao-Jun; Ji Yue-Feng

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new structure of a centralized-light-source wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) utilizing inverse-duobinary-return-to-zero (inverse-duobinary-RZ) downstream and DPSK upstream. It reuses downstream light for the upstream modulation, which retrenches lasers assembled at each optical network unit (ONU), and ultimately cuts down the cost of ONUs a great deal. Meanwhile, a 50-km-reach WDM-PON experiment with 10-Gb/s inverse-duobinary-RZ downstream and 6-Gb/s DPSK upstream is demonstrated here. It is revealed to be a novel cost-effective alternative for the next generation access network. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. A rigorous analysis of digital pre-emphasis and DAC resolution for interleaved DAC Nyquist-WDM signal generation in high-speed coherent optical transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2018-02-01

    The Nyquist spectral shaping techniques facilitate a promising solution to enhance spectral efficiency (SE) and further reduce the cost-per-bit in high-speed wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission systems. Hypothetically, any Nyquist WDM signals with arbitrary shapes can be generated by the use of the digital signal processing (DSP) based electrical filters (E-filter). Nonetheless, in actual 100G/ 200G coherent systems, the performance as well as DSP complexity are increasingly restricted by cost and power consumption. Henceforward it is indispensable to optimize DSP to accomplish the preferred performance at the least complexity. In this paper, we systematically investigated the minimum requirements and challenges of Nyquist WDM signal generation, particularly for higher-order modulation formats, including 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) or 64QAM. A variety of interrelated parameters, such as channel spacing and roll-off factor, have been evaluated to optimize the requirements of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) resolution and transmitter E-filter bandwidth. The impact of spectral pre-emphasis has been predominantly enhanced via the proposed interleaved DAC architecture by at least 4%, and hence reducing the required optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) at a bit error rate (BER) of 10-3 by over 0.45 dB at a channel spacing of 1.05 symbol rate and an optimized roll-off factor of 0.1. Furthermore, the requirements of sampling rate for different types of super-Gaussian E-filters are discussed for 64QAM Nyquist WDM transmission systems. Finally, the impact of the non-50% duty cycle error between sub-DACs upon the quality of the generated signals for the interleaved DAC structure has been analyzed.

  20. Design and implementation of flexible TWDM-PON with PtP WDM overlay based on WSS for next-generation optical access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Yin, Hongxi; Qin, Jie; Liu, Chang; Liu, Anliang; Shao, Qi; Xu, Xiaoguang

    2016-09-01

    Aiming at the increasing demand of the diversification services and flexible bandwidth allocation of the future access networks, a flexible passive optical network (PON) scheme combining time and wavelength division multiplexing (TWDM) with point-to-point wavelength division multiplexing (PtP WDM) overlay is proposed for the next-generation optical access networks in this paper. A novel software-defined optical distribution network (ODN) structure is designed based on wavelength selective switches (WSS), which can implement wavelength and bandwidth dynamical allocations and suits for the bursty traffic. The experimental results reveal that the TWDM-PON can provide 40 Gb/s downstream and 10 Gb/s upstream data transmission, while the PtP WDM-PON can support 10 GHz point-to-point dedicated bandwidth as the overlay complement system. The wavelengths of the TWDM-PON and PtP WDM-PON are allocated dynamically based on WSS, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed structure.

  1. The radio-on-fiber-wavelength-division-multiplexed-passive-optical network (WDM-RoF-PON) for wireless and wire layout with linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and carrier reusing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Chang, Jun

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we design a WDM-RoF-PON based on linearly-polarized dual-wavelength fiber laser and CSRZ-DPSK, which can achieve wire-line and wireless access synchronously. With the CSRZ-DPSK modulation, the wireless access in ONU can save RF source and the frequency of radio carrier can be controlled by OLT. The dual-wavelength fiber laser is the union light source of WDM-PON with polarization multiplexing. By the RSOA and downstream light source reusing, the ONU can save omit laser source and makes the WDM-PON to be colorless. The networking has the credible transmission property, including wireless access and fiber transmission. The networking also has excellent covering range.

  2. Contribución al estudio y optimización de dispositivos basados en holografía dinámica para su uso en redes ópticas pasivas multiplexadas en longitud de onda Wdm-Pon

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Minguez, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    La utilización de Redes Ópticas Pasivas Multiplexadas por División en el Tiempo (TDMPON), y más recientemente de las Redes Ópticas Pasivas Multiplexadas en Longitud de Onda (WDM-PON), con sus dos principales tecnologías, CWDM y DWDM, en distintas topologías de red para optimizar los recursos disponibles, implica el uso de diversos componentes ópticos como transmisores, receptores, de/multiplexores, filtros, etc. Es en este contexto donde el uso de dispositivos holográficos, WDM sintonizables,...

  3. Watershed Data Management (WDM) database for West Branch DuPage River streamflow simulation, DuPage County, Illinois, January 1, 2007, through September 30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Maitreyee

    2017-10-16

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DuPage County Stormwater Management Department, maintains a database of hourly meteorological and hydrologic data for use in a near real-time streamflow simulation system. This system is used in the management and operation of reservoirs and other flood-control structures in the West Branch DuPage River watershed in DuPage County, Illinois. The majority of the precipitation data are collected from a tipping-bucket rain-gage network located in and near DuPage County. The other meteorological data (air temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation) are collected at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Ill. Potential evapotranspiration is computed from the meteorological data using the computer program LXPET (Lamoreux Potential Evapotranspiration). The hydrologic data (water-surface elevation [stage] and discharge) are collected at U.S.Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in and around DuPage County. These data are stored in a Watershed Data Management (WDM) database.This report describes a version of the WDM database that is quality-assured and quality-controlled annually to ensure datasets are complete and accurate. This database is named WBDR13.WDM. It contains data from January 1, 2007, through September 30, 2013. Each precipitation dataset may have time periods of inaccurate data. This report describes the methods used to estimate the data for the periods of missing, erroneous, or snowfall-affected data and thereby improve the accuracy of these data. The other meteorological datasets are described in detail in Over and others (2010), and the hydrologic datasets in the database are fully described in the online USGS annual water data reports for Illinois (U.S. Geological Survey, 2016) and, therefore, are described in less detail than the precipitation datasets in this report.

  4. Evaluation of correlated digital back propagation and extended Kalman filtering for non-linear mitigation in PM-16-QAM WDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakala, Lalitha; Schmauss, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the individual and combined performance of correlated digital back propagation (CDBP) and extended Kalman filtering (EKF) in mitigating inter and intra-channel non-linearities in wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) systems. The afore-mentioned algorithms are verified through numerical simulations on 28 Gbaud polarization multiplexed (PM) 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) 9-channel WDM system with 50 GHz spacing. A single channel CDBP with one-step-per-span based on asymmetric split step Fourier method (A-SSFM) with optimized non-linear coefficient has been employed. We also study an amplitude dependent optimization (AO) of the non-linear coefficient for CDBP which shows an improvement of ≍ 0.8 dB compared to the conventional optimized CDBP, in the non-linear regime. Moreover, our proposed carrier phase and amplitude noise estimation (CPANE) algorithm based on EKF outperforms AO-CDBP in both linear and non-linear regimes with an enhanced performance besides significantly reduced complexity. We further investigate the combined performance of AO-CDBP and EKF which results in an enhanced non-linear tolerance at the expense of increased computational cost trading off to the number of required CDBP steps per span. Furthermore, we also analyze the impact of cross phase modulation (XPM) on the combined performance of AO-CDBP and EKF by varying the number of WDM channels. Numerical results show that the obtained gain from employing AO-CDBP prior to EKF reduces with increasing effects of XPM. Additionally, we also discuss the computational complexity of the aforementioned algorithms.

  5. Self-homodyne optical OFDM for broadband WDM-PONs with crosstalk-free remodulation and enhanced tolerance to Rayleigh noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, WeiChao; Wang, Andong; Xie, Dequan; Zhu, Long; Guan, Xun; Wang, Jian; Xu, Jing

    2018-05-01

    We propose a novel architecture for wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) that can simultaneously circumvent both remodulation crosstalk and Rayleigh noise, based on self-homodyne detection and optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) remodulation. The proposed self-homodyne detection at optical network unit (ONU) requires neither frequency offset compensation nor phase noise compensation, and thus can significantly reduce system complexity and power consumption. Bidirectional transmission of 12.5 Gb/s down- and up-stream signals, via single 25 km single-mode fiber without dispersion compensation, is demonstrated in a proof-of-concept experiment.

  6. Cascaded Mach-Zehnder wavelength filters in silicon photonics for low loss and flat pass-band WDM (de-)multiplexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, Folkert; Green, William M J; Assefa, Solomon; Shank, Steven M; Vlasov, Yurii A; Offrein, Bert Jan

    2013-05-20

    We present 1-to-8 wavelength (de-)multiplexer devices based on a binary tree of cascaded Mach-Zehnder-like lattice filters, and manufactured using a 90 nm CMOS-integrated silicon photonics technology. We demonstrate that these devices combine a flat pass-band over more than 50% of the channel spacing with low insertion loss of less than 1.6 dB, and have a small device size of approximately 500 × 400 µm. This makes this type of filters well suited for application as WDM (de-)multiplexer in silicon photonics transceivers for optical data communication in large scale computer systems.

  7. INFLUENCE OF POLARIZATION MODE DISPERSION ON THE EFFECT OF CROSS-PHASE MODULATION IN INTENSITY MODULATION-DIRECT DETECTION WDM TRANSMISSION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Islam

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-phase modulation (XPM changes the state-of-polarization (SOP of the channels through nonlinear polarization rotation and induces nonlinear time dependent phase shift for polarization components that leads to amplitude modulation of the propagating waves in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM system. Due to the presence of birefringence, the angle between the SOP changes randomly and as a result polarization mode dispersion (PMD causes XPM modulation amplitude fluctuation random in the perturbed channel. In this paper we analytically determine the probability density function of the random angle between the SOP of pump and probe, and evaluate the impact of polarization mode dispersion on XPM in terms of bit error rate, channel spacing etc for a two channel intensity modulation-direct detection WDM system at 10 Gb/s. It is found that the XPM induced crosstalk is polarization independent for channel spacing greater than 3 nm or PMD coefficient larger than 2 ps/√km. We also investigate the dependence of SOP variance on PMD coefficient and channel spacing.

  8. Enhanced noise tolerance for 10 Gb/s Bi-directional cross-wavelength reuse colorless WDM-PON by using spectrally shaped OFDM signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Pallab K.

    2018-05-01

    Spectrally shaped orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) signal for symmetric 10 Gb/s cross-wavelength reuse reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA) based colorless wavelength division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM-PON) is proposed and further analyzed to support broadband services of next generation high speed optical access networks. The generated OFDM signal has subcarriers in separate frequency ranges for downstream and upstream, such that the re-modulation noise can be effectively minimized in upstream data receiver. Moreover, the cross wavelength reuse approach improves the tolerance against Rayleigh backscattering noise due to the propagation of different wavelengths in the same feeder fiber. The proposed WDM-PON is successfully demonstrated for 25 km fiber with 16-QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) OFDM signal having bandwidth of 2.5 GHz for 10 Gb/s operation and subcarrier frequencies in 3-5.5 GHz and DC-2.5 GHz for downstream (DS) and upstream (US) transmission respectively. The result shows that the proposed scheme maintains a good bit error rate (BER) performance below the forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8 × 10-3 at acceptable receiver sensitivity and provides a high resilience against re-modulation and Rayleigh backscattering noises as well as chromatic dispersion.

  9. Femtosecond Laser System for Research on High-Speed Optical Transmultiplexing and Coding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiner, Andrew

    1997-01-01

    .... This would fill an important need in both TDM packet networks and bit-parallel WDM linds. The research also aims at experimental tests of an ultrashort pulse code-division, multiple-access (CDMA...

  10. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves through polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplification enabling transmission over 4000-km dispersion-managed TWRS fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the first Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin waves, consisting of eight 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier, enabling more than doubled reach in dispersion-managed transmission. © ...

  11. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all...

  12. Single Source 5-dimensional (Space-, Wavelength-, Time-, Polarization-, Quadrature-) 43 Tbit/s Data Transmission of 6 SDM × 6 WDM × 1.2 Tbit/s Nyquist-OTDM-PDM-QPSK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Ye, Feihong; Medhin, Ashenafi Kiros

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate 43-Tbit/s transmission over 67.4-km seven-core fiber using a single source. Each of the 6 outer cores carries 6 Nyquist-WDM channels using 320-Gbaud Nyquist- OTDM-PDM-QPSK 330-GHz spaced, and the center core carries 10-GHz clock pulses....

  13. High-efficient full-duplex WDM-RoF system with sub-central station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anliang; Yin, Hongxi; Wu, Bin

    2018-05-01

    With an additional sub-central station (S-CS), a high-efficient full-duplex radio-over-fiber (RoF) system compatible with the wavelength-division-multiplexing technology is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this paper. To improve the dispersion tolerance of the RoF system, the baseband data format for the downlink and an all-optical down-conversion approach for the uplink are employed. In addition, this RoF system can not only make full use of the fiber link resources but also realize the upstream transmission without any local light sources at remote base stations (BSs). A 10-GHz RoF experimental system with a 1.25-Gb/s rate bidirectional transmission is established based on the S-CS structure. The feasibility and reliability of this RoF system are verified through eye diagrams and bit error rate (BER) curves experimentally obtained.

  14. Optimal multicasting in a multi-line-rate ethernet-over-WDM network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harve, Shruthi; Batayneh, Marwan; Mukherjee, Biswanath

    2009-11-01

    Ethernet is the dominant transport technology for Local Area Networks. Efforts are now under way to use carrier-grade Ethernet in backbone networks of different service providers. With the advent of applications such as IPTV and Videoon- Demand, there is need for techniques to route multicast traffic over the Ethernet backbone networks. Here, we address the problem of Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) of a set of multicast requests in a Multi-Line-Rate Ethernet backbone network with the objective of minimizing the cost of setting up the network, in terms of the Service Provider's Capital Expenditure (CAPEX). We present an Auxiliary Graph based heuristic algorithm that routes each multicast request on a light-tree structure, and assigns minimum cost wavelengths along the route. We compare the properties of the algorithm to the optimal solution given by a mathematical model formulated as an Integer Linear Program (ILP), and show that they compare very well. We also find that the algorithm is most cost-effective when the incoming requests are processed in descending order of their bandwidth requirements.

  15. Analizar y simular los efectos no lineales causados por el fenómeno de índice de refracción en la capa física de una red por de nueva generación.

    OpenAIRE

    Proaño Gavilanes, Víctor Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The demand from subscribers for the services they receive through internet, makes companies providing Internet services search new ways to transmit information with the highest possible quality. That is why the optical networks are one alternative to provide a high bandwidth to users, and where PON are used, because they are composed of passive elements. In optical networks using transmission techniques used are the time division (TDM) technique and wave division (WDM). A TDM-WDM-PON hybrid n...

  16. 6.4 Tb/s (32 × 200 Gb/s) WDM direct-detection transmission with twin-SSB modulation and Kramers-Kronig receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yixiao; Jiang, Mingxuan; Ruan, Xiaoke; Chen, Zeyu; Li, Chenjia; Zhang, Fan

    2018-05-01

    We experimentally demonstrate 6.4 Tb/s wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) direct-detection transmission based on Nyquist twin-SSB modulation over 25 km SSMF with bit error rates (BERs) below the 20% hard-decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) threshold of 1.5 × 10-2. The two sidebands of each channel are separately detected using Kramers-Kronig receiver without MIMO equalization. We also carry out numerical simulations to evaluate the system robustness against I/Q amplitude imbalance, I/Q phase deviation and the extinction ratio of modulator, respectively. Furthermore, we show in simulation that the requirement of steep edge optical filter can be relaxed if multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) equalization between the two sidebands is used.

  17. On-the-field performance of quintuple-play long-reach OFDM-based WDM-PON optical access networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Roberto; Morant, Maria; Pellicer, Eloy; Herman, Milan; Nagy, Zsolt; Alves, Tiago; Cartaxo, Adolfo; Herrera, Javier; Correcher, Jose; Quinlan, Terence; Walker, Stuart; Rodrigues, Cláudio; Cluzeaud, Pierre; Schmidt, Axel; Piesiewicz, Radoslaw; Sambaraju, Rakesh

    2014-03-24

    In this paper the on-the-field performance of a WDM-PON optical access providing quintuple-play services using orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation is evaluated in a real fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) network deployed by Towercom operator in Bratislava (Slovakia). A bundle of quintuple-play services comprising full-standard OFDM-based signals (LTE, WiMAX, UWB and DVB-T) and an ad-hoc OFDM-GbE signal is transmitted in coexistence per single user. Both downstream and upstream transmission performances are evaluated in different on-the-field long-reach optical link distance configurations. Four wavelength multi-user transmission of quintuple-play OFDM services is demonstrated exceeding 60.8 km reach in standard single mode fiber.

  18. 3.375-Gb/s RGB-LED based WDM visible light communication system employing PAM-8 modulation with phase shifted Manchester coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Nan; Zhang, Mengjie; Zhou, Yingjun; Zhao, Jiaqi

    2016-09-19

    Optical background noise and second-order nonlinear distortions are two main challenges faced by indoor high-speed VLC system. In this paper, a novel phase shifted Manchester (PS-Manchester) coding based on PAM-8 is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to mitigate these noise and distortions. With the aid of PS-Manchester coding and WDM, a total data rate of 3.375-Gb/s can be successfully achieved in the RGB-LED based VLC system. The BER is under 7% HD-FEC limit of 3.8x10-3 after 1-m indoor free space transmission. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate ever achieved in PAM VLC systems.

  19. Internet Protocol-Hybrid Opto-Electronic Ring Network (IP-HORNET): A Novel Internet Protocol-Over-Wavelength Division Multiplexing (IP-Over-WDM) Multiple-Access Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    IP-HORNET, Metropolitan Optical Networks 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT UNCLASSIFIED 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...OF THIS PAGE UNCLASSIFIED 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UL NSN 7540-01-280-5500...Gemelos, and L. G. Kazovsky, “CSMA/CA MAC protocols for IP-HORNET: An IP over WDM metropolitan area ring netowrk ,” in Proceedings of GLOBE- COM’00

  20. Monitoring burst (M-burst) — A novel framework of failure localization in all-optical mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Mohammed L.; Ho, Pin-Han; Wu, Bin; Tapolcai, Janos; Shihada, Basem

    2011-01-01

    Achieving instantaneous and precise failure localization in all-optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks has been an attractive feature of network fault management systems, and is particularly important when failure-dependent protection is employed. The paper introduces a novel framework of real-time failure localization in all-optical WDM mesh networks, called monitoring-burst (m-burst), which aims to initiate a graceful compromise between consumed monitoring resources and monitoring delay. Different from any previously reported solution, the proposed m-burst framework has a single monitoring node (MN) which launches optical bursts along a set of pre-defined close-loop routes, called monitoring cycles (m-cycles), to probe the links along the m-cycles. Bursts along different m-cycles are kept non-overlapping through any link of the network. By identifying the lost bursts due to single link failure events only, the MN can unambiguously localize the failed link in at least 3-connected networks. We will justify the feasibility and applicability of the proposed m-burst framework in the scenario of interest. To avoid possible collision among optical bursts launched by the MN, we define the problem of collision-free scheduling and formulate it into an integer linear program (ILP) in order to minimize the monitoring delay. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework and the proposed solution.

  1. Monitoring burst (M-burst) — A novel framework of failure localization in all-optical mesh networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ali, Mohammed L.

    2011-10-10

    Achieving instantaneous and precise failure localization in all-optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks has been an attractive feature of network fault management systems, and is particularly important when failure-dependent protection is employed. The paper introduces a novel framework of real-time failure localization in all-optical WDM mesh networks, called monitoring-burst (m-burst), which aims to initiate a graceful compromise between consumed monitoring resources and monitoring delay. Different from any previously reported solution, the proposed m-burst framework has a single monitoring node (MN) which launches optical bursts along a set of pre-defined close-loop routes, called monitoring cycles (m-cycles), to probe the links along the m-cycles. Bursts along different m-cycles are kept non-overlapping through any link of the network. By identifying the lost bursts due to single link failure events only, the MN can unambiguously localize the failed link in at least 3-connected networks. We will justify the feasibility and applicability of the proposed m-burst framework in the scenario of interest. To avoid possible collision among optical bursts launched by the MN, we define the problem of collision-free scheduling and formulate it into an integer linear program (ILP) in order to minimize the monitoring delay. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework and the proposed solution.

  2. Performance analysis of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme for WDM-based systems for Gamma-Gamma distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik

    2017-03-02

    In this paper, we statistically analyze the performance of a threshold-based parallel multiple beam selection scheme (TPMBS) for Free-space optical (FSO) based system with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) in cases where a pointing error has occurred for practical consideration over independent identically distributed (i.i.d.) Gamma-Gamma fading conditions. Specifically, we statistically analyze the characteristics in operation under conventional heterodyne detection (HD) scheme for both adaptive modulation (AM) case in addition to non-AM case (i.e., coherentnon-coherent binary modulation). Then, based on the statistically derived results, we evaluate the outage probability (CDF) of a selected beam, the average spectral efficiency (ASE), the average number of selected beams (ANSB), and the average bit error rate (BER). Some selected results shows that we can obtain the higher spectral efficiency and simultaneously reduce the potential increasing of the complexity of implementation caused by applying the selection based beam selection scheme without a considerable performance loss.

  3. Sub-symbol-rate sampling for PDM-QPSK signals in super-Nyquist WDM systems using quadrature poly-binary shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Cheng; Gao, Guanjun; Chen, Sai; Zhang, Jie; Luo, Ming; Hu, Rong; Yang, Qi

    2016-11-14

    We compare the performance of sub-symbol-rate sampling for polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) signals in super-Nyquist wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system by using quadrature duo-binary (QDB) and quadrature four-level poly-binary (4PB) shaping together with maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE). PDM-16QAM is adopted in the simulation to be compared with PDM-QPSK. The numerical simulations show that, for a software defined communication system, the level number of quadrature poly-binary modulation should be adjusted to achieve the optimal performance according to channel spacing, required OSNR and sampling rate restrictions of optics. In the experiment, we demonstrate 3-channel 12-Gbaud PDM-QPSK transmission with 10-GHz channel spacing and only 8.4-GSa/s ADC sampling rate at lowest. By using QDB or 4PB shaping with 3tap-MLSE, the sampling rate can be reduced to the signal baud rate (1 samples per symbol) without penalty.

  4. All-VCSEL based digital coherent detection link for multi Gbit/s WDM passive optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Zibar, Darko

    2010-01-01

    with record receiver sensitivity of -36 dBm after transmission over 40 km standard single mode fiber. Digital signal processing compensates for frequency offset between the transmitter and the local oscillator VCSELs, and for chromatic dispersion. This system allows for uncooled VCSEL operation and fully...

  5. λ-Selection Strategy in C+L Band 1-Pbit/s (448 WDM/19-Core/128 Gbit/s/channel) Flex-Grid Space Division Multiplexed Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asif, Rameez; Ye, Feihong; Morioka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an inter-core crosstalk based wavelength selection scheme has been proposed for flex-grid superchannels in space division multiplexed transmission. The two λ-selection strategies are categorized as: (a) aligned wavelength super-channels (Aλ-SCs), where all super-channels are placed...... at same λ in all the cores and (b) interleaved wavelength super-channels (Iλ-SCs), where all super-channels are placed at different λ in all the neighboring cores. It is depicted that system performance is improved for DP-16QAM channels in 1-Pbit/s (448 WDM/19 Core/128 Gbit/s/channel) 60 km fiber link...

  6. Combining DPSK and duobinary for the downstream in 40-Gb/s long-reach WDM-PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Bo; An, Yi; Chi, Nan

    2013-01-01

    detection at the ONUs. DPSK is deployed in the trunk span as it provides stronger robustness to fiber nonlinearity. Duobinary is used in the access span where its higher chromatic dispersion tolerance relieves the need for dispersion compensation. All-optical multichannel modulation format conversion from...... DPSK to duobinary is realized in the local exchange in a single delay interferometer to reduce system cost. Single and multi-channel 80-km long-reach DPSK transmission and up to 5-km duobinary access transmission are experimentally demonstrated at 40Gb/s. The proposed approach shows great potential...... for future high data rate optical access networks....

  7. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more......Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... perspectives on local food, namely experience economy, local food systems and what is termed pro-industrialism. These have differing and sometimes opposite conceptualisations and aims for the concept of local food. Using the perspective of experience economy as theoretical background, the concept of local food...

  8. Local Content

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Local content refers to materials and products made in a country as opposed those that are imported. There is an increasing interest in the concept of local content as a means of supporting local economies and providing jobs (Belderbos & Sleuwaegen...

  9. Distinct enlargement of network size or measurement speed for serial FBG sensor networks utilizing SIK-DS-CDMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbenseth, S; Lochmann, S I [Hochschule Wismar, Univ. of Technology, Business and Design, Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Informatics, Philipp-Mueller-Strasse, 23952, Wismar (Germany)

    2005-01-01

    Using the spectral selectivity and adjustable reflectivity FBGs are predestined for serial networking. Presently the addressing is realised by time division multiplex (TDM) or wavelength division multiplex (WDM). But these technologies have big disadvantages regarding the effective use of the prevailing resources time and wavelength, respectively. In this paper a new scheme capable of addressing a large number of FBGs in a single serial network is proposed and compared to TDM and WDM. Using all optical sequence inversion keyed (SIK) direct sequence (DS) code division multiplex (CDM) it overcomes the restrictions handling the resources time and wavelength without losing accuracy.

  10. Distinct enlargement of network size or measurement speed for serial FBG sensor networks utilizing SIK-DS-CDMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbenseth, S; Lochmann, S I

    2005-01-01

    Using the spectral selectivity and adjustable reflectivity FBGs are predestined for serial networking. Presently the addressing is realised by time division multiplex (TDM) or wavelength division multiplex (WDM). But these technologies have big disadvantages regarding the effective use of the prevailing resources time and wavelength, respectively. In this paper a new scheme capable of addressing a large number of FBGs in a single serial network is proposed and compared to TDM and WDM. Using all optical sequence inversion keyed (SIK) direct sequence (DS) code division multiplex (CDM) it overcomes the restrictions handling the resources time and wavelength without losing accuracy

  11. Modelo de asignación predictivo de longitudes de ondas en redes WDM teniendo en cuenta dispersión residual y tráficos unicast/multicast con QoS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sierra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El tráfico de Internet está en constante crecimiento y con él las aplicaciones del tipo unicast/multicast con diferentes requerimientos de Calidad de Servicio (QoS. Esto es motivo para que las Redes de Transporte Ópticas (OTN deban continuar su evolución hacia redes completamente ópticas (sin conversiones Óptico-Electrónico-Óptico: OEO. S/G Light-tree es una arquitectura de los nodos de las redes all-OTN que permite el optimo enrutamiento y/o manejo de tráficos unicast/multicast empleando el concepto de Traffic Grooming (TG, granularidad de tráfico en un ambiente óptico. Las técnicas de grooming así como los algoritmos de asignación y enrutamiento propuestos hasta el momento no tienen en cuenta los fenómenos que se pueden prestar en la fibra óptica, los cuales atenúan o alteran las diferentes longitudes de onda en las redes WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing. La dispersión cromática es un fenómeno que deforma los pulsos transmitidos en una fibra óptica y el efecto depende de la longitud de onda empleada en la transmisión. En este artículo, se propone un modelo predictivo de asignación de longitudes de ondas basado en cadenas de Markov que tiene en cuenta la dispersión residual en redes WDM que soportan traffic grooming y tráficos unicast/multicast con requerimientos de QoS. Los resultados de las simulaciones realizadas muestran que el modelo propuesto mejora la probabilidad de bloqueo de tráficos con requerimientos de QoS.

  12. Off ramp : a secondary school TDM program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haq, F. [Better Environmentally Sound Transportation (BEST), Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    The cities of Vancouver and Victoria in British Columbia have implemented a high school vehicle trip reduction program entitled Off-Ramp. The program, created by BEST, is about youth empowerment to help youths lead their peers to walk, cycle, skateboard, in-line skate, or carpool to school for a sustainable environment. Students raise awareness through media and drama to counter pop images of driving as being cool. Sponsorship is very important to the success of the program.

  13. Transmission analysis in WDM networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a computer-based simulator for transmission analysis in optical wavelength division multiplexing networks. A great part of the work concerns fundamental optical network simulator issues. Among these issues are identification of the versatility and user...... the different component models are invoked during the simulation of a system. A simple set of rules which makes it possible to simulate any network architectures is laid down. The modelling of the nonlinear fibre and the optical receiver is also treated. The work on the fibre concerns the numerical solution...

  14. Localized superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, M.; Lee, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    We study the effects of Anderson localization on superconductivity by using a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)-type trial wave function which pairs electrons in exact time-reversed eigenstates of the single-particle Hamiltonian. Within this approximation, and neglecting localization effects on the effective Coulomb repulsion and the electron-phonon coupling, we find that superconductivity persists below the mobility edge. In fact, Anderson's theorem is valid in the localized phase as long as rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ > 1 (rho is the density of states averaged over +- Δ 0 of the Fermi energy, Δ 0 the BCS gap parameter, and L the localization length). Hence the gap order parameter Δ(r) remains uniform in space at the BCS value Δ 0 . The superfluid density and response to electromagnetic perturbations, however, show marked differences from the ''dirty superconductor'' regime. For rhoΔ 0 L/sup d/ < 1, Δ(r) fluctuates spatially and eventually drops to zero. In the limit when states are site localized, the system crosses over into the ''Anderson negative-U glass.'' Considerations beyond the trial wave-function approximation will speed up the destruction of superconductivity. The superconductor formed from localized states has the property that its quasiparticle excitations are also localized. Such excitations can be probed by observing the normal current in a tunneling junction

  15. Localized Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Is Localized Scleroderma Diagnosed? Doctors who are familiar with scleroderma, or who are experts at examining ... systemic treatment with a medication or other treatment interventions (for example, ultraviolet light), are reserved for more ...

  16. Diagnosis and evaluation of the treatment by PET-T.D.M. with 18 F.D.G. of the digestive origin of an infectious endocarditis complicated with stroke (C.V.A.); Diagnostic et evaluation du traitement, par la TEP-TDM au 18 FDG, de l'origine digestive d'une endocardite infectieuse compliquee d'AVC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessonnier, L.; Guedj, E.; Mundler, O. [Service central de medecine nucleaire, CHU de La-Timone, Marseille, (France); Maurel, B. [c service deneuroradiologie, CHU de La-Timone, Marseille, (France); Habib, G. [service de cardiologie, CHU de La-Timone, Marseille, (France); Nicoli, F. [service de neurologie, CHU de La-Timone, Marseille, (France)

    2009-05-15

    (We report the case of a seventeen years old patient sent for an etiological evaluation of an endocarditis, complicated with a cerebral vascular accident, for who the results of conventional imaging examinations were negative. The PET T.D.M. with {sup 18}F.D.G. was realized for the detection of a front door. Effectively, this examination allowed to find a digestive front door in the frame of an infectious endocarditis and direct the complementary adequate explorations. The following of studies will allow to give correctly the contribution of the PET-T.D.M. in infectious and inflammatory pathologies, whether it is in terms of diagnosis, of extension assessment or therapeutic evaluation. (N.C.)

  17. Locals Collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Hastings-King

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A locals collection is a set of parameters that are used to delimit data-mining operations. This piece uses a collection of locals from around Essex Massachusetts to shape and delimit an interrogation of post-reality in contemporary America. It explores the notion of crisis, the possibility of a crisis of empire that may or may not emerge in a media-space that does not allow crisis of empire to be mentioned and relations this maybe-crisis to the various levels of economic dysfunction that have become evident since late 2008. But mostly this piece explores ways in which particular stories about particular people do and do not link/link to these larger-scale narratives. This is the first of a potential series of locals collections that will mine the American post-real.

  18. Local equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-12-15

    From 3-6 September the First International Workshop on Local Equilibrium in Strong Interaction Physics took place in Bad-Honnef at the Physics Centre of the German Physical Society. A number of talks covered the experimental and theoretical investigation of the 'hotspots' effect, both in high energy particle physics and in intermediate energy nuclear physics.

  19. Net Locality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Souza e Silva, Adriana Araujo; Gordon, Eric

    Provides an introduction to the new theory of Net Locality and the profound effect on individuals and societies when everything is located or locatable. Describes net locality as an emerging form of location awareness central to all aspects of digital media, from mobile phones, to Google Maps......, to location-based social networks and games, such as Foursquare and facebook. Warns of the threats these technologies, such as data surveillance, present to our sense of privacy, while also outlining the opportunities for pro-social developments. Provides a theory of the web in the context of the history...... of emerging technologies, from GeoCities to GPS, Wi-Fi, Wiki Me, and Google Android....

  20. Local supertwistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Geometry of local supertwistors is investigated. It is proved that the Yang-Mills equations for the introduced ansatz for supertwistor connection are equivalent to free bach equations, describing the dynamics of N=1 conformal supergravity. Analogous interpretation of the dynamics of N=1 conformal supergravity coupled to a vector superfield is proposed. It is proved that any complex conformally right or left flat superspace automatically satisfies the Bach equations

  1. Demonstration of 575-Mb/s downlink and 225-Mb/s uplink bi-directional SCM-WDM visible light communication using RGB LED and phosphor-based LED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuanquan; Wang, Yiguang; Chi, Nan; Yu, Jianjun; Shang, Huiliang

    2013-01-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel full-duplex bi-directional subcarrier multiplexing (SCM)-wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) visible light communication (VLC) system based on commercially available red-green-blue (RGB) light emitting diode (LED) and phosphor-based LED (P-LED) with 575-Mb/s downstream and 225-Mb/s upstream transmission, employing various modulation orders of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM). For the downlink, red and green colors/wavelengths are assigned to carry useful information, while blue chip is just kept lighting to maintain the white color illumination, and for the uplink, the low-cost P-LED is implemented. In this demonstration, pre-equalization and post-equalization are also adopted to compensate the severe frequency response of LEDs. Using this scheme, 4-user downlink and 1-user uplink transmission can be achieved. Furthermore, it can support more users by adjusting the bandwidth of each sub-channel. Bit error rates (BERs) of all links are below pre-forward-error-correction (pre-FEC) threshold of 3.8x 10(-3) after 66-cm free-space delivery. The results show that this scheme has great potential in the practical VLC system.

  2. Local supertwistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkulov, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The geometry of local supertwistors is investigated. An ansatz on the form of the supertwistor superconnection is introduced. Because of this restriction on the form of such a superconnection the Yang-Mills equations for the superconnection turn out to be equivalent to the free Bach equations describing the dynamics of simple conformal supergravity. It is shown that the equations of motion of conformal supergravity interacting with a vector superfield admit an analogous interpretation. It is proved that an arbitrary conformally right-flat or left-flat superspace is automatically a solution of the Bach equations

  3. Local Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizosa Umana, Julio

    1998-01-01

    The current polemic about the possibilities of sustainable development has led to a renovated interest for the topic of the sustainability of the communities and the local sustainability. In front of the global sustainability whose conditions have been exposed by systemic ecologists and for macro economists, the sustainability of specific places arises in the planet whose conditions are object of study of the ecology of landscapes, of the ecological economy, of the cultural anthropology, of the environmental sociology and naturally, of the integral environmentalism. In this discussion the Colombian case charges unusual interest to be one of the few countries of Latin America, where a very dense net of municipalities exists, each one with its urban helmet and with a position and some functions defined by the political constitution of the nation. This net of municipalities and of urban helmets it also constitutes net of alternative to the current macro-cephalic situation. As well as Bogota grew, in a hundred years, of less than a hundred thousand inhabitants to six million inhabitants, each one of these municipalities contains a potential of growth that depends on the characteristics of its ecological, social, economic and politic sustainability

  4. Quantum Locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2012-05-01

    , in response to Griffiths' challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has described is flawed.

  5. Local Foods, Local Places Summary Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    These reports summarize community projects done with Local Foods, Local Places assistance, including farmers markets, cooperatives, community gardens, and other food-related enterprises that can boost local economies and drive revitalization.

  6. Quantum Locality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, Henry

    2011-11-10

    vagaries that he cites do not upset the proof in question. It is show here in detail why the precise statement of this theorem justifies the specified application of CQT. It is also shown, in response to his challenge, why a putative proof of locality that he has proposed is not valid.

  7. Local Stereo Matching Using Adaptive Local Segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damjanovic, S.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan

    We propose a new dense local stereo matching framework for gray-level images based on an adaptive local segmentation using a dynamic threshold. We define a new validity domain of the fronto-parallel assumption based on the local intensity variations in the 4-neighborhood of the matching pixel. The

  8. An osteomalacia related to phosphate diabetes - bone scintigraphy with SPECT/CT contribution; Une osteomalacie liee a un diabete phosphore - role de la scintigraphie osseuse couplee a la TEMP-TDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruyer, A.; Granier, P.; Mourad, M. [Centre Hospitalier Antoine-Gayraud, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 11 - Carcassonne (France)

    2009-12-15

    We report the case of a 59-year-old woman, investigated for disabling pain of the left thigh, unrelated to any traumatic event. Interrogation had found diffuse pain of myalgia-type and arthralgia-type for approximately a year without local inflammatory signs and insufficiency fractures of both calcaneus two years before. The Technetium {sup 99m}-labeled hydroxy-methylene diphosphonate ({sup 99m}Tc-H.D.P.) whole-body bone scintigraphy evidenced multiple hot spots on the higher third of left femur, rib cage, sternum, scapula, pelvis, right hip and both calcaneus. Moreover, a more diffuse and heterogeneous prominent uptake appeared on rib cage, spine and pelvis. These images suggested a diffuse metastatic disease of the skeleton. The single photon emission computerized tomography guided by computerized tomography (SPECT/CT), centered on lumbar spine, pelvis and the upper end of femurs showed that the multiple hot spots were in fact bone fractures. These findings pointed diagnosis to a metabolic disease. The clinical context was in favour of an osteomalacia. Further explorations showed an osteomalacia related to phosphate diabetes. A thorough work-up did not reveal any known aetiology. To date, idiopathic phosphate diabetes seems the most likely diagnosis. Nuclear medicine input in osteomalacia is discussed. (authors)

  9. Locally Finite Root Supersystems

    OpenAIRE

    Yousofzadeh, Malihe

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of locally finite root supersystems as a generalization of both locally finite root systems and generalized root systems. We classify irreducible locally finite root supersystems.

  10. Local duality for 2-dimensional local ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimensional complete local ring whose residue field is an n-dimensional local field in the sense of. Kato–Parshin. Our results generalize the Saito works in the case n = 0 and are applied to study the Bloch–Ogus complex for such rings in various cases.

  11. Local food and tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Morten; Sundbo, Donna; Sundbo, Jon

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the question: Why local food networks succeed or fail in collaborating with local tourism actors to create more tourism based on local food? The article focuses on entrepreneurial local food networks and their collaboration with local tourism actors. Emphasis...... is on the actions and attitude logics of local food networks and tourism actors, and whether their respective logics fit as a factor to explain why or why not development of local food concepts lead to increased local tourism. Six local food networks and their collaboration with local tourism actors are studied...... by using observation supplemented with other qualitative methods. Analysis of these networks reveals that successful collaboration is characterised by the food networks and tourism actors having at least one logic in common. The fitting logics that lead to success are primarily celebrity and civic logics...

  12. Defining local food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Safania Normann

    2013-01-01

    Despite evolving local food research, there is no consistent definition of “local food.” Various understandings are utilized, which have resulted in a diverse landscape of meaning. The main purpose of this paper is to examine how researchers within the local food systems literature define local...... food, and how these definitions can be used as a starting point to identify a new taxonomy of local food based on three domains of proximity....

  13. Photonic quasicrystals for application in WDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romero-Vivas, J.; Chigrin, D. N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Photonic quasicrystals can possess an isotropic (complete) photonic bandgap even in the case of low refractive indices of the constitutive materials, which makes them atrractive optical materials with important technological applications. In this work, several aspects related to the design...... of waveguides and cavities using the two-dimensional (2D) octagonal quasiperiodic lattice are investigated numerically. As an example, the integration of waveguides and a resonating cavity to design an add/drop filer for wavelength division multiplexing applications is brieflydescribed....

  14. Institutional Assessment for Effective WDM Implementation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    nkhaled

    and sustainable use of existing water resources from a multi-disciplinary and multi-stakeholder perspective. .... infrastructure's level financial and physical deterioration (Saleth and Dinar 2000). .... reduction and eventual withdrawal of the electricity and diesel subsidy. ... Sector” was developed for the following reasons:.

  15. WDM Questions and Answers-Eng

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    rsamir

    volumes of untreated sewage are being produced and dumped, making their way ... accounting for approximately 85% of the total water consumption. ... supports wider participation in decision-making and saves freshwater for other uses.

  16. Institutional Assessment for Effective WDM Implementation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    In MENA, much work has been advanced on the technical side and through public .... environment, its mandate and its priorities, as well as the availability of a ... of services to the 14 million people without access to safe drinking water and the ...

  17. WDM networking on a European Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnis, Noel; Limal, Emmanuel; Hjelme, Dag R.

    1998-01-01

    Four different topological approaches to designing a pan-European optical network are discussed. For such an ultra-high capacity large-scale network, it is necessary to overcome physical path length limitations and to limit Optical Cross-Connect (OXC) complexity.......Four different topological approaches to designing a pan-European optical network are discussed. For such an ultra-high capacity large-scale network, it is necessary to overcome physical path length limitations and to limit Optical Cross-Connect (OXC) complexity....

  18. Local perturbations perturb—exponentially–locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Roeck, W.; Schütz, M.

    2015-01-01

    We elaborate on the principle that for gapped quantum spin systems with local interaction, “local perturbations [in the Hamiltonian] perturb locally [the groundstate].” This principle was established by Bachmann et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 309, 835–871 (2012)], relying on the “spectral flow technique” or “quasi-adiabatic continuation” [M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. B 69, 104431 (2004)] to obtain locality estimates with sub-exponential decay in the distance to the spatial support of the perturbation. We use ideas of Hamza et al. [J. Math. Phys. 50, 095213 (2009)] to obtain similarly a transformation between gapped eigenvectors and their perturbations that is local with exponential decay. This allows to improve locality bounds on the effect of perturbations on the low lying states in certain gapped models with a unique “bulk ground state” or “topological quantum order.” We also give some estimate on the exponential decay of correlations in models with impurities where some relevant correlations decay faster than one would naively infer from the global gap of the system, as one also expects in disordered systems with a localized groundstate

  19. New model. Local financing for local energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detroy, Florent

    2015-01-01

    While evoking the case of the VMH Energies company in the Poitou-Charentes region, and indicating the difference between France and Germany in terms of wind and photovoltaic energy production potential, of number of existing local companies, and of citizen-based funding, this article shows that renewable energies could put the energy production financing in France into question again, with a more important participation of local communities and of their inhabitants. The author describes how the law on energy transition makes this possible, notably with the strengthening of citizen participation. The author evokes some French local experiments and the case of Germany where this participation is already very much developed

  20. The PET/T.D.M. with F.D.G. -({sup 18}F) appears more noticeable than the osseous scintigraphy in the Ewing sarcoma with osteo-medullar localizations; La TEP/TDM au FDG-(18F) apparait plus sensible que la scintigraphie osseuse dans le sarcome d'Ewing a localisations osteomedullaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girma, A.; Razzouk, M.; Carrier, P.; Darcourt, J. [Unite de medecine nucleaire, CHU l' Archet, Nice, (France); Paycha, F. [unite de medecine nucleaire, CHU Louis-Mourier, Colombes, (France); Deville, A. [unite de pediatrie, CHU l' Archet, Nice, (France); Boyer, C. [unite de radiologie, CHU l' Archet, Nice, (France); Piche, M. [unite d' anatomopathologie, CHU l' Archet, Nice, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The clinical case reported here illustrates the superiority of the PET/T.D.M. with F.D.G.({sup 18}F) on the osseous scintigraphy in the Ewing sarcoma. This difference comes from probably a major inter trabecular medullary injury that arouses only a limited cortical osteoblastic reaction, what explains its appellation of pass-wall tumor by the anatomical pathologists. (N.C.)

  1. Locally analytic vectors in representations of locally

    CERN Document Server

    Emerton, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this memoir is to provide the foundations for the locally analytic representation theory that is required in three of the author's other papers on this topic. In the course of writing those papers the author found it useful to adopt a particular point of view on locally analytic representation theory: namely, regarding a locally analytic representation as being the inductive limit of its subspaces of analytic vectors (of various "radii of analyticity"). The author uses the analysis of these subspaces as one of the basic tools in his study of such representations. Thus in this memoir he presents a development of locally analytic representation theory built around this point of view. The author has made a deliberate effort to keep the exposition reasonably self-contained and hopes that this will be of some benefit to the reader.

  2. Active Neural Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Chaplot, Devendra Singh; Parisotto, Emilio; Salakhutdinov, Ruslan

    2018-01-01

    Localization is the problem of estimating the location of an autonomous agent from an observation and a map of the environment. Traditional methods of localization, which filter the belief based on the observations, are sub-optimal in the number of steps required, as they do not decide the actions taken by the agent. We propose "Active Neural Localizer", a fully differentiable neural network that learns to localize accurately and efficiently. The proposed model incorporates ideas of tradition...

  3. Representative of local committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelo, C.

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Barcelo, spoke about the involvement of local companies in the dismantling project. Local companies realised that they could not undertake the whole project, and informed ENRESA of the tasks in which they would be able to co-operate. On the whole, during the course of the 5-year project the local and regional firms were given more work than they had originally expected. Mr. Barcelo praised the good partnership that evolved between the local firms and the implementer. (author)

  4. Local network assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, D. V.

    1985-04-01

    Local networks, related standards activities of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers the American National Standards Institute and other elements are presented. These elements include: (1) technology choices such as topology, transmission media, and access protocols; (2) descriptions of standards for the 802 local area networks (LAN's); high speed local networks (HSLN's) and military specification local networks; and (3) intra- and internetworking using bridges and gateways with protocols Interconnection (OSI) reference model. The convergence of LAN/PBX technology is also described.

  5. Apport de la tomodensitometrie (TDM) cerebrale chez le sujet adulte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology : It is about a descriptive and analytical retrospective study over one 36 months period (Mars 1998 at Mars 2001) relating to 68 files of adult patients HIV positive, having made the cerebral. CT with the CHU-Campus or the ... years at the men and 38.5 years among women. The lesions found with cerebral ...

  6. Managing the TDM process : developing MPO institutional capacity - technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Within Texas, the development of urban travel demand models (TDMs) is a cooperative process between the : Texas Department of Transportation and Metropolitan Planning Organizations (MPOs). Though TxDOT-Transportation Planning and Programming Division...

  7. Modélisation d'impulsions lasers ultra-brèves Résumé Abstract

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AKA Boko

    l'emploi de différentes techniques de multiplexage temporel (TDM) et/ ou fréquentiel. (WDM, DWDM) [1]. L'optique ultra-rapide s'établit comme un champ de recherches important ... De plus, ce type d'impulsions présente une grande largeur spectrale due à l'interdépendance des domaines temps-fréquence déduite de la.

  8. Health monitoring of unmanned aerial vehicle based on optical fiber sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxiang; Shen, Jingshi; Shao, Fei; Guo, Chunhui; Yang, Ning; Zhang, Jiande

    2017-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in flight needs to face the complicated environment, especially to withstand harsh weather conditions, such as the temperature and pressure. Compared with conventional sensors, fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor has the advantages of small size, light weight, high reliability, high precision, anti-electromagnetic interference, long lift-span, moistureproof and good resistance to causticity. It's easy to be embedded in composite structural components of UAVs. In the paper, over 1000 FBG sensors distribute regularly on a wide range of UAVs body, combining wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), time division multiplexing (TDM) and multichannel parallel architecture. WDM has the advantage of high spatial resolution. TDM has the advantage of large capacity and wide range. It is worthful to constitute a sensor network by different technologies. For the signal demodulation of FBG sensor array, WDM works by means of wavelength scanning light sources and F-P etalon. TDM adopts the technology of optical time-domain reflectometry. In order to demodulate efficiently, the most proper sensor multiplex number with some reflectivity is given by the curves fitting. Due to the regular array arrangement of FBG sensors on the UAVs, we can acquire the health state of UAVs in the form of 3D visualization. It is helpful to master the information of health status rapidly and give a real-time health evaluation.

  9. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions.

  10. Local quantum thermal susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pasquale, Antonella; Rossini, Davide; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamics relies on the possibility to describe systems composed of a large number of constituents in terms of few macroscopic variables. Its foundations are rooted into the paradigm of statistical mechanics, where thermal properties originate from averaging procedures which smoothen out local details. While undoubtedly successful, elegant and formally correct, this approach carries over an operational problem, namely determining the precision at which such variables are inferred, when technical/practical limitations restrict our capabilities to local probing. Here we introduce the local quantum thermal susceptibility, a quantifier for the best achievable accuracy for temperature estimation via local measurements. Our method relies on basic concepts of quantum estimation theory, providing an operative strategy to address the local thermal response of arbitrary quantum systems at equilibrium. At low temperatures, it highlights the local distinguishability of the ground state from the excited sub-manifolds, thus providing a method to locate quantum phase transitions. PMID:27681458

  11. [Local anaesthesia in ruminants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Karl; Schwarz, Andrea; Ringer, Simone

    2017-06-20

    The use of local anaesthesia in ruminants allows many surgical procedures to be conducted free of pain, efficiently and inexpensively in the field. Local anaesthesia combined with sedation and immobilisation of the animal can replace general anaesthesia for many procedures (e. g. castration, claw amputation). The level of difficulty differs among various local anaesthetic techniques: local infiltration of tissue or anaesthesia of the cornual nerve are easily performed, whereas local anaesthesia of the eye, regional anaesthesia in limbs or anaesthesia for umbilical surgery are more difficult to carry out. This article presents an illustrated overview of the most common local anaesthetic procedures in cattle as well as in small ruminants and serves as a practical guide for veterinarians in the field. In principle, these techniques can likewise be applied in other ruminants or artiodactyls.

  12. Local Worlds of Activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsson, Kerstin; Hollertz, Katarina; Garsten, Christina

    2017-01-01

    arrangements and the role of private services and actors in service delivery differed significantly too, ranging from strictly market-based forms of governance to classical public administration. The article moreover shows how the different activation approaches were reflected in the radically different usages...... from local politics, established local traditions, patterns of networking and modes of collaborating, as the notion of ‘local words of activation’ intends to capture....

  13. Quantification of local mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Y. B.

    2018-01-01

    A new method for quantification of mobilities of local recrystallization boundary segments is presented. The quantification is based on microstructures characterized using electron microscopy and on determination of migration velocities and driving forces for local boundary segments. Pure aluminium...... is investigated and the results show that even for a single recrystallization boundary, different boundary segments migrate differently, and the differences can be understood based on variations in mobilities and local deformed microstructures. The present work has important implications for understanding...

  14. Local Social Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sapuppo, Antonio; Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup

    2011-01-01

    Online social networks have become essential for many users in their daily communication. Through a combination of the online social networks with opportunistic networks, a new concept arises: Local Social Networks. The target of local social networks is to promote social networking benefits...... in physical environment in order to leverage personal affinities in the users' surroundings. The purpose of this paper is to present and discuss the concept of local social networks as a new social communication system. Particularly, the preliminary architecture and the prototype of local social networks...

  15. Local Estuary Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides information about Local Individual Estuary Programs including links to their NEP homepages, social media, Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plans, and state of the bay reports.

  16. Local Exhaust Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ulla; Breum, N. O.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation of the capt......Capture efficiency of a local exhaust system, e.g. a kitchen hood, should include only contaminants being direct captured. In this study basic concepts of local exhaust capture efficiency are given, based on the idea of a control box. A validated numerical model is used for estimation...

  17. Locally orderless registration code

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows.......This is code for the TPAMI paper "Locally Orderless Registration". The code requires intel threadding building blocks installed and is provided for 64 bit on mac, linux and windows....

  18. Local anaesthetic toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Local anaesthetic toxicity has been known since the introduction of local anaesthetic drugs into anaesthetic practice more than a hundred ... was the first to think of cocaine as a narcotic. ..... anaesthetics act as Na+ channel-blocking agents, they slow down .... all neurons, leading to global CNS depression, slowing and.

  19. LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prof. B. B. P. Gupta

    INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. Bengaluru. 83rd ANNUAL MEETING. 3–5 November 2017, NEHU, Shillong. LOCAL ORGANIZING COMMITTEE. Local Organizing Committee. 1. Prof. S. K. Srivastava. Chairman. Vice-Chancellor, NEHU, Shillong. 2. Prof. B. B. P. Gupta. Organising Secretary. Department of Zoology ...

  20. Transverse Localization of Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raedt, Hans De; Lagendijk, Ad; Vries, Pedro de

    1989-01-01

    We study the propagation of light through a semi-infinite medium with transverse disorder (that is, disorder in two directions only). We show that such a system exhibits strong two-dimensional localization by demonstrating that on propagation a beam expands until the transverse localization length

  1. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface

  2. Localizing Expression of Ambiguity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bear, John; Hobbs, Sr, Jerry R

    1987-01-01

    In this paper we describe an implemented program for localizing the expression of many types of syntactic ambiguity, in the logical forms of sentences, in a manner convenient for subsequent inferential processing...

  3. RNA Localization in Astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rune

    2012-01-01

    , regulation of the blood brain barrier and glial scar tissue formation. Despite the involvement in various CNS functions only a limited number of studies have addressed mRNA localization in astrocytes. This PhD project was initially focused on developing and implementing methods that could be used to asses mRNA......Messenger RNA (mRNA) localization is a mechanism by which polarized cells can regulate protein synthesis to specific subcellular compartments in a spatial and temporal manner, and plays a pivotal role in multiple physiological processes from embryonic development to cell differentiation...... localization in astrocyte protrusions, and following look into the subcellular localization pattern of specific mRNA species of both primary astrocytes isolated from cortical hemispheres of newborn mice, and the mouse astrocyte cell line, C8S. The Boyden chamber cell fractionation assay was optimized, in a way...

  4. Nilpotent -local finite groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero, José; Scherer, Jérôme; Viruel, Antonio

    2014-10-01

    We provide characterizations of -nilpotency for fusion systems and -local finite groups that are inspired by known result for finite groups. In particular, we generalize criteria by Atiyah, Brunetti, Frobenius, Quillen, Stammbach and Tate.

  5. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-01-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis

  6. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarov, S S

    2000-08-31

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  7. Stereotype locally convex spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbarov, S. S.

    2000-08-01

    We give complete proofs of some previously announced results in the theory of stereotype (that is, reflexive in the sense of Pontryagin duality) locally convex spaces. These spaces have important applications in topological algebra and functional analysis.

  8. Focus on Local Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Rod

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how the student newspaper "The Lance" (at Westside High School in Omaha, Nebraska) covered the shootings at Columbine High School. Notes that the staff localized the event and brought the student body into the story. (RS)

  9. Local variances in biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolterbeek, H.Th; Verburg, T.G.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore possibilities to judge survey quality on basis of a limited and restricted number of a-priori observations. Here, quality is defined as the ratio between survey and local variance (signal-to-noise ratio). The results indicate that the presented surveys do not permit such judgement; the discussion also suggests that the 5-fold local sampling strategies do not merit any sound judgement. As it stands, uncertainties in local determinations may largely obscure possibilities to judge survey quality. The results further imply that surveys will benefit from procedures, controls and approaches in sampling and sample handling, to assess both average, variance and the nature of the distribution of elemental concentrations in local sites. This reasoning is compatible with the idea of the site as a basic homogeneous survey unit, which is implicitly and conceptually underlying any survey performed. (author)

  10. EPR and Bell Locality

    OpenAIRE

    Norsen, Travis

    2004-01-01

    A new formulation of the EPR argument is presented, one which uses John Bell's mathematically precise local causality condition in place of the looser locality assumption which was used in the original EPR paper and on which Niels Bohr seems to have based his objection to the EPR argument. The new formulation of EPR bears a striking resemblance to Bell's derivation of his famous inequalities. The relation between these two arguments -- in particular, the role of EPR as part one of Bell's two-...

  11. Local Governance and Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Marius PROFIROIU; Tudorel ANDREI; Gheorghe POPESCU; Alina PROFIROIU

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of ...

  12. Local E11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccioni, Fabio; West, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We give a method of deriving the field-strengths of all massless and massive maximal supergravity theories in any dimension starting from the Kac-Moody algebra E 11 . Considering the subalgebra of E 11 that acts on the fields in the non-linear realisation as a global symmetry, we show how this is promoted to a gauge symmetry enlarging the algebra by the inclusion of additional generators. We show how this works in eleven dimensions, and we call the resulting enlarged algebra E 11 local . Torus reduction to D dimensions corresponds to taking a subalgebra of E 11 local , called E 11,D local , that encodes the full gauge algebra of the corresponding D-dimensional massless supergravity. We show that each massive maximal supergravity in D dimensions is a non-linear realisation of an algebra E-tilde 11,D local . We show how this works in detail for the case of Scherk-Schwarz reduction of IIB to nine dimensions, and in particular we show how E-tilde 11,9 local arises as a subalgebra of the algebra E 11,10B local associated to the ten-dimensional IIB theory. This subalgebra corresponds to taking a combination of generators which is different to the massless case. We then show that E-tilde 11,D local appears as a deformation of the massless algebra E 11,D local in which the commutation relations between the E 11 and the additional generators are modified. We explicitly illustrate how the deformed algebra is constructed in the case of massive IIA and of gauged five-dimensional supergravity. These results prove the naturalness and power of the method.

  13. Desempleo y justicia local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elster, Jon

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper Jon Elster presents a set of criteria of local justice that regulate dismissals. In situations where work is limited and companies adopt means of employment redundancy, the decision of dismissing certain workers —when this one tries not to be arbitrary— can be based on local criteria of fairness like merit, efficiency, age or other analysed in this work. So, after defining the concept of local justice and presenting some examples, the paper focuses on the importance of the work to organize and structure the life of people. Unemployment has serious consequences for the persons who suffer it and the author advises that it is necessary to subordinate dismissals to criteria of local justice.

    En este artículo se presentan una serie de criterios de justicia local para regular los despidos. En situaciones en las que el trabajo es escaso y las empresas adoptan medidas de regulación de empleo, la decisión de despedir a unos trabajadores o a otros se puede basar, cuando se intenta que no sea arbitraria, en criterios locales de equidad como el mérito, la eficacia, la edad u otros que se analizan en este trabajo. Así, tras definir el concepto de justicia local y presentar algunos ejemplos, el artículo se centra en la importancia del trabajo para organizar y estructurar la vida de la gente. Las graves consecuencias que tiene, por ello, el desempleo para quien lo sufre, aconseja que los despidos se sometan a criterios de justicia local.

  14. Oleotourism: Local Actors for Local Tourism Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tregua

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil consumption has grown substantially in recent years, due in part to the fact that olive oil is healthy. Much of the global olive oil production comes from the rural areas of Jaén in southern Spain. Surrounding this industry, services such as oleotourism are increasing. This paper aims to identify the key elements supporting the development of oleotourism. After a preliminary exploratory analysis of the existing data, a qualitative analysis was performed with actors directly involved in the industry in Jaén. The results helped us define the level of the stakeholders’ involvement and the sustainability, the opportunities, and the constraints affecting oleotourism in this area. The practical implications of this investigation can be useful for governing agencies, local firms, and the tourism industry in support of oleotourism development.

  15. Factors Affecting Quality of Life at Different Intervals After Treatment of Localized Prostate Cancer: Unique Influence of Treatment Decision Making Satisfaction, Personality and Sexual Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorson, David E; Schuette, Stephanie; Schalet, Benjamin D; Kundu, Shilajit D; Helfand, Brian T; Novakovic, Kristian; Sufrin, Nathaniel; McGuire, Michael; Brendler, Charles

    2016-11-01

    Using patient reported outcomes measures we identified the most informative set of factors associated with quality of life in a large sample of men treated for localized prostate cancer. We examined relationships with quality of life using FACIT (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy). We also hypothesized variables in a sample of men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer who represented different time points since treatment, including less than 12 months in 70, 1 to 3 years in 344, greater than 3 to 5 years in 291 and greater than 5 years in 97. Correlative measures included subscales of MAX-PC (Memorial Anxiety Scale for Prostate Cancer), short forms of PROMIS® and SOMS (Surgical Outcomes Measurement System), TDM-SATS (Treatment Decision-Making Satisfaction Scale) and subscales of the BFI (Big Five Inventory) of personality. Quality of life was significantly associated with hypothesized variables across different time cohorts. In regression models several factors accounted for most of the variability in quality of life scores depending on time since treatment, including 47%, 22%, 29% and 27% at less than 12 months, 1 to 3 years, greater than 3 to 5 years and greater than 5 years, respectively. Upon examining the unique contribution of these variables, treatment decision making satisfaction was the only variable to have a significant and unique contribution to quality of life across all 4 time cohorts (standardized coefficients 0.33, 0.27, 0.31 and 0.49, respectively, p personality style also had unique associations with quality of life (standardized coefficients 0.25 and -0.20, respectively). When considering the short-term and the longer term quality of life of a man after treatment for localized prostate cancer, our findings highlight the importance of treatment decision making satisfaction, erectile function and personality. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  16. Tackling Health Inequalities Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diderichsen, Finn; Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild Gundersen

    of this study. It is based on three sources: 1. Interviews with policymakers (administrators and politicians) within healthcare administrations, childhood/education, and labour market administrations from September 2014 to March 2015*. 2. Textual analysis of available policy documents from regions...... of translating small inequalities in wealth into small inequalities in health. Denmark, Norway and Sweden all have legislation that indifferent ways offers local governments key roles in public health. This is partly due to local governments’ responsibility for many policy areas of great relevance to health...... state model, including its health policy, as an area of Nordic collaboration (104). However, realising the principle of health (equity) in all policiesis no simple matter. The national authorities and local government federations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden have therefore initiated various activities...

  17. Local homotopy theory

    CERN Document Server

    Jardine, John F

    2015-01-01

    This monograph on the homotopy theory of topologized diagrams of spaces and spectra gives an expert account of a subject at the foundation of motivic homotopy theory and the theory of topological modular forms in stable homotopy theory. Beginning with an introduction to the homotopy theory of simplicial sets and topos theory, the book covers core topics such as the unstable homotopy theory of simplicial presheaves and sheaves, localized theories, cocycles, descent theory, non-abelian cohomology, stacks, and local stable homotopy theory. A detailed treatment of the formalism of the subject is interwoven with explanations of the motivation, development, and nuances of ideas and results. The coherence of the abstract theory is elucidated through the use of widely applicable tools, such as Barr's theorem on Boolean localization, model structures on the category of simplicial presheaves on a site, and cocycle categories. A wealth of concrete examples convey the vitality and importance of the subject in topology, n...

  18. Localization of relativistic particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1997-01-01

    In order to discuss localization experiments and also to extend the consistent history interpretation of quantum mechanics to relativistic properties, the techniques introduced in a previous paper [J. Math. Phys. 38, 697 (1997)] are applied to the localization of a photon in a given region of space. An essential requirement is to exclude arbitrarily large wavelengths. The method is valid for a particle with any mass and spin. Though there is no proper position operator for a photon, one never needs one in practice. Causality is valid up to exponentially small corrections. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Control of dynamical localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Jiangbin; Woerner, Hans Jakob; Brumer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Control over the quantum dynamics of chaotic kicked rotor systems is demonstrated. Specifically, control over a number of quantum coherent phenomena is achieved by a simple modification of the kicking field. These include the enhancement of the dynamical localization length, the introduction of classical anomalous diffusion assisted control for systems far from the semiclassical regime, and the observation of a variety of strongly nonexponential line shapes for dynamical localization. The results provide excellent examples of controlled quantum dynamics in a system that is classically chaotic and offer opportunities to explore quantum fluctuations and correlations in quantum chaos

  20. Local versus national

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Bojesen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    of individual energy supply systems based on on-site weather and building conditions, as well as considering the expected energy consumption profile. However, local planning processes are problematic if they do not take regional or national impacts into account. Given the grid connection, the local building...... solution also has an impact on a national scale by exchanging electricity. Therefore it is important to implement respective grid loads into the planning process in order to avoid technology choices, which might counteract grid stability or cost inefficiencies at other sites. The aim of this paper...

  1. Locality and quantum mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, W G

    2018-07-13

    It is argued that it is best not to think of quantum mechanics as non-local, but rather that it is non-realistic.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  2. Extent of local participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albisu, F.

    1977-01-01

    After a brief historical comment on national participation on past nuclear projects, a description is made of the desirable situation to be achieved as regards local content. The reasons, the procedures and the areas for that participation (i.e., the why, how and where) are suggested, as well as the means to promote it. (orig.) [de

  3. Local Area Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Kenneth E.; Nielsen, Steven

    1991-01-01

    Discusses cabling that is needed in local area networks (LANs). Types of cables that may be selected are described, including twisted pair, coaxial cables (or ethernet), and fiber optics; network topologies, the manner in which the cables are laid out, are considered; and cable installation issues are discussed. (LRW)

  4. Local government in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LAW

    accompanied by the policy and practice of using local authorities for ... labour and revenue in the form of taxation and tribute for the centre. .... Menilik put under his direct administration the regions which resisted his expansionist move.25 This ...

  5. Local control room

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1972-01-01

    Local control room in the ejection building : all electronics pertaining to proton distribution and concomitants such as beam gymnastics and diagnostics at high energies will eventually be gathered here. Shown is the first of two rows of fast ejection electronic racks. It includes only what is necessary for operation.

  6. Test of Einstein locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, Matts

    1980-11-01

    Einstein locality imples that spacelike separated coherent quantum systems do not interfere, and that all interferences must propagate with at most the speed of light. It then follows that the reaction e + e - →K 0 antiK 0 must yield some Ksub(s)Ksuu(s) decays in apparent violation of P and C conservation. (author)

  7. Beyond local climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'haen, Sarah Ann Lise; Nielsen, Jonas Østergaard; Lambin, Eric F.

    2014-01-01

    At the household level, nonfarm activities are thought to help rural poor households buffer against agricultural risks related to local climate variability by providing them with cash to buy food in the case of harvest shortfalls. Over the recent decades, households in rural Sub-Sahara have been...

  8. Statistics of Local Extremes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Bierbooms, W.; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose

    2003-01-01

    . A theoretical expression for the probability density function associated with local extremes of a stochasticprocess is presented. The expression is basically based on the lower four statistical moments and a bandwidth parameter. The theoretical expression is subsequently verified by comparison with simulated...

  9. Local youth policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Gilsing

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Lokaal jeugdbeleid. Local authorities have been given an important role in youth policy in the Netherlands. They are expected to develop preventive youth policy to increase the opportunities of young people and prevent them dropping out from society. At the request of the

  10. Stroke? Localized, otogenic meningitis!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingolfsdottir, Harpa Maria; Thomasen, Per Caye

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a patient admitted with aphasia, treated for a stroke. Subsequently, it was revealed that the symptoms were caused by complicated otitis media with localized meningitis. This case draws attention to the possible intracranial spread of infection when neurological symptoms occur...

  11. Fiber to the Home Using a PON Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hee; Sorin, Wayne V.; Kim, Byoung Yoon

    2006-12-01

    Traffic patterns in access networks have evolved from voice- and text-oriented services to video- and image-based services. This change will require new access networks that support high-speed (> 100 Mb/s), symmetric, and guaranteed bandwidths for future video services with high-definition TV quality. To satisfy the required bandwidth over a 20-km transmission distance, single-mode optical fiber is currently the only practical choice. To minimize the cost of implementing an FTTP solution, a passive optical network (PON) that uses a point-to-multipoint architecture is generally considered to be the best approach. There are several multiple-access techniques to share a single PON architecture, and the authors addressed several of these approaches such as time-division multiple access, wavelength-division multiple access, subcarrier multiple access, and code-division multiple access. Among these multiple techniques, they focus on time-division multiplexing (TDM)-PON and wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)-PON, which will be the most promising candidates for practical future systems. A TDM-PON shares a single-transmission channel with multiple subscribers in time domain. Then, there exists tight coupling between subscribers. A WDM-PON provides point-to-point optical connectivity using a dedicated pair of wavelengths per user. While a TDM-PON appears to be a satisfactory solution for current bandwidth demands, the combination of future data-rate projections and traffic patterns coupled with recent advances in WDM technology may result in WDM-PON becoming the preferred solution for a future proof fiber-based access network.

  12. Local Governance and Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius PROFIROIU

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to examine, from the Romanian perspective, the degree to which decentralization process and improvement of local governance contributes to the reduction of corruption in the short and medium term. Through the methodology that is used the paper is consistent with the international trend that endeavors to analyze the impact of corruption on economic and social processes at the local level. In addition, recent research on corruption issues has focused upon the measurement of the level of corruption level and on its impact on the growing rate of the GDP (Mauro [1995]1, Abed and Davoodi2, Krueger [1974]3, on the impact upon some of the national economical sectors (Tanzi [1998]4, Shang-Jin Wei [2001]5, or on the decentralization processes (Shah [2006]6.

  13. Cerebral localization in antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, F Clifford

    2009-07-01

    Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus describes hemiplegia after a head injury. Similar echoes can be seen in Homer, the Bible, and the pre-Hippocratic writer Alcmaeon of Croton. While Biblical writers thought that the heart was the seat of the soul, Hippocratic writers located it in the head. Alexandrian anatomists described the nerves, and Galen developed the ventricular theory of cognition whereby mental functions are classified and localized in one of the cerebral ventricles. Medieval scholars, including the early Church Fathers, modified Galenic ventricular theory so as to make it a dynamic model of cognition. Physicians in antiquity subdivided the brain into separate areas and attributed to them different functions, a phenomenon that connects them with modern neurologists.

  14. Are quasars local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrell, J.

    1974-01-01

    The problems of interpreting quasars as galaxies, at distances of billions of light-years, seem to be increasing with time and with observational knowledge. The incredibly large energy and brightness requirements, the very small size and thus high surface brightness required by their rapid fluctuations in luminosity, the recently-discovered radio-source separation speeds apparently much greater than the speed of light, their general lack of association with distant galaxies, and many other properties are all very difficult to explain on the basis of cosmological distance. The very local quasar model, involving much less massive and bright objects--perhaps similar to Type O stars--emitted at relativistic speeds by the center of our own galaxy, greatly eases these difficulties. Since such ejected objects also seem necessary to explain the similarly strange properties of radio galaxies, the emission of local quasars from some galaxies might be deduced on this basis alone. (6 figures) (U.S.)

  15. Locality of Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliesch, M.; Gogolin, C.; Kastoryano, M. J.; Riera, A.; Eisert, J.

    2014-07-01

    This work is concerned with thermal quantum states of Hamiltonians on spin- and fermionic-lattice systems with short-range interactions. We provide results leading to a local definition of temperature, thereby extending the notion of "intensivity of temperature" to interacting quantum models. More precisely, we derive a perturbation formula for thermal states. The influence of the perturbation is exactly given in terms of a generalized covariance. For this covariance, we prove exponential clustering of correlations above a universal critical temperature that upper bounds physical critical temperatures such as the Curie temperature. As a corollary, we obtain that above the critical temperature, thermal states are stable against distant Hamiltonian perturbations. Moreover, our results imply that above the critical temperature, local expectation values can be approximated efficiently in the error and the system size.

  16. Brane-Localized Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mannheim, Philip D

    2005-01-01

    This timely and valuable book provides a detailed pedagogical introduction and treatment of the brane-localized gravity program of Randall and Sundrum, in which gravitational signals are able to localize around our four-dimensional world in the event that it is a brane embedded in an infinitely-sized, higher dimensional anti-de Sitter bulk space. A completely self-contained development of the material needed for brane-world studies is provided for both students and workers in the field, with a significant amount of the material being previously unpublished. Particular attention is given to issues not ordinarily treated in the brane-world literature, such as the completeness of tensor gravitational fluctuation modes, the causality of brane-world propagators, and the status of the massless graviton fluctuation mode in brane worlds in which it is not normalizable.

  17. Local area networking handbook

    OpenAIRE

    O'Hara, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis provides Navy shore based commands with sufficient information on local area networking to (1) decide if they need a LAN, (2) determine what their networking requirements are, and (3) select a LAN that satisfies their requirements. LAN topologies, transmission media, and medium access methods are described. In addition, the OSI reference model for computer networking and the IEEE 802 LAN standards are explained in detail. ...

  18. Rationalising localism and brokerage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusche, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    . The article employs the notion of global scripts and the concept of domestication of global trends in order to analyse how the question of the appropriate relationship between deputies and voters is informed both by a general trend towards the professionalisation of politicians and a domestic tradition...... of the domestic setting on the other. In this way the article contributes to a better understanding of the entanglement of the global and the local....

  19. Local dependency in networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudĕlka Miloš

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many real world data and processes have a network structure and can usefully be represented as graphs. Network analysis focuses on the relations among the nodes exploring the properties of each network. We introduce a method for measuring the strength of the relationship between two nodes of a network and for their ranking. This method is applicable to all kinds of networks, including directed and weighted networks. The approach extracts dependency relations among the network’s nodes from the structure in local surroundings of individual nodes. For the tasks we deal with in this article, the key technical parameter is locality. Since only the surroundings of the examined nodes are used in computations, there is no need to analyze the entire network. This allows the application of our approach in the area of large-scale networks. We present several experiments using small networks as well as large-scale artificial and real world networks. The results of the experiments show high effectiveness due to the locality of our approach and also high quality node ranking comparable to PageRank.

  20. Local orbit feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Critically aligned experiments are sensitive to small changes in the electron beam orbit. At the NSLS storage rings, the electron beam and photon beam motions have been monitored over the past several years. In the survey conducted in 1986 by the NSLS Users Executive Committee, experimenters requested the vertical beam position variation and the vertical angle variation, within a given fill, remain within 10 μm and 10 μr, respectively. This requires improvement in the beam stability by about one order of magnitude. At the NSLS and SSRL storage rings, the beam that is originally centered on the position monitor by a dc orbit correction is observed to have two kinds of motion: a dc drift over a storage period of several hours and a beam bounce about its nominal position. These motions are a result of the equilibrium orbit not being held perfectly stable due to time-varying errors introduced into the magnetic guide field by power supplies, mechanical vibration of the magnets, cooling water temperature variations, etc. The approach to orbit stabilization includes (1) identifying and suppressing as many noise sources on the machine as possible, (2) correcting the beam position globally (see Section 6) by controlling a number of correctors around the circumference of the machine, and (3) correcting the beam position and angle at a given source location by position feedback using local detectors and local orbit bumps. The third approach, called Local Orbit Feedback will be discussed in this section

  1. Local variances in biomonitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolterbeek, H.T.

    1999-01-01

    The present study deals with the (larger-scaled) biomonitoring survey and specifically focuses on the sampling site. In most surveys, the sampling site is simply selected or defined as a spot of (geographical) dimensions which is small relative to the dimensions of the total survey area. Implicitly it is assumed that the sampling site is essentially homogeneous with respect to the investigated variation in survey parameters. As such, the sampling site is mostly regarded as 'the basic unit' of the survey. As a logical consequence, the local (sampling site) variance should also be seen as a basic and important characteristic of the survey. During the study, work is carried out to gain more knowledge of the local variance. Multiple sampling is carried out at a specific site (tree bark, mosses, soils), multi-elemental analyses are carried out by NAA, and local variances are investigated by conventional statistics, factor analytical techniques, and bootstrapping. Consequences of the outcomes are discussed in the context of sampling, sample handling and survey quality. (author)

  2. New Communication Technologies, Local Journalism and the Perception of Locality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ÖZCAN

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on local journalism as an important element of participatory democracy generally focus on the history of the local press, the financial insufficiencies of local newspapers as well as technical/ technological incompetency that occurs as a result of these factors. This research analyzes local newspapers with a new scientific point of view by focusing on the perception of locality as a mental projection of geographical constraint. Perspectives regarding the transformations on perceptions of locality as a result of the disappearance of time and space constraints due to new communication technologies, and the opportunities that new communication environments offer to local newspapers will be provided. Moreover, the ways in which local newspapers reflect on locality with their printed versions under time and space constraints will be analyzed. The research scope of the study has been limited to 15 newspapers in Konya. Structured interviews and content analysis methods were used for data collection and analysis.

  3. Particle localization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allemand, R.

    1976-01-01

    A proportional detector for the localization of particles comprises a leak-tight chamber filled with fluid and fitted with an electrode of a first type consisting of one or more conducting wires and with an electrode of a second type consisting of one or more conducting plates having the shape of a portion of cylindrical surface and a contour which provides a one-to-one correspondence between the position of a point of the wires and the solid angle which subtends the plate at that point, means being provided for collecting the electrical signal which appears on the plates. 12 Claims, 10 Drawing Figures

  4. 'Think globally, act locally'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Jens Villiam

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that citizen participation in environmental and climate policies has moved through four phases from the early 1960s until today. The most recent phase is characterised by a ‘reorientation towards the local’, a move which is increasingly supported by actors at both national...... and international levels. For local governments, the task of initiating or facilitating citizen action concerning climate change mitigation has generated the development of new policy instruments that increasingly target people’s everyday lives, homes and workplaces. Examples of the use of these new policy...

  5. Localization of CANDU technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alizadeh, Ala

    2010-09-15

    The CANDU pressurized heavy water reactor's principal design features suit it particularly well for technology transfer and localization. When the first commercial CANDU reactors of 540 MWe entered service in 1971, Canada's population of less than 24 million supported a 'medium' level of industrial development, lacking the heavy industrial capabilities of larger countries like the USA, Japan and Europe. A key motivation for Canada in developing the CANDU design was to ensure that Canada would have the autonomous capacity to build and operate nuclear power reactors without depending on foreign sources for key components or enriched fuel.

  6. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  7. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  8. Pattern Driven Stress Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croll, Andrew; Crosby, Alfred

    2010-03-01

    The self-assembly of patterns from isotropic initial states is a major driver of modern soft-matter research. This avenue of study is directed by the desire to understand the complex physics of the varied structures found in Nature, and by technological interest in functional materials that may be derived through biomimicry. In this work we show how a simple striped phase can respond with significant complexity to an appropriately chosen perturbation. In particular, we show how a buckled elastic plate transitions into a state of stress localization using a simple, self-assembled variation in surface topography. The collection of topographic boundaries act in concert to change the state from isotropic sinusoidal wrinkles, to sharp folds or creases separated by relatively flat regions. By varying the size of the imposed topographic pattern or the wavelength of the wrinkles, we construct a state diagram of the system. The localized state has implications for both biological systems, and for the control of non-linear pattern formation.

  9. [Localized scleroderma (morphea)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bono, Waafa; Dupin, Nicolas

    2006-12-01

    DEFINITION AND FREQUENCY: Localized scleroderma, also known as morphea, is a sclerotic condition limited to the skin. The specific clinical entity depends on the extent, linear disposition and depth of the lesions. Morphea is ten times more prevalent than systemic sclerosis, and its prognosis is generally good: superficial forms resolve within 3 years. In the absence of symptoms, examinations to detect systemic involvement are purposeless. Plaque morphea is the most frequent clinical presentation. Serious manifestations include extensive morphea that may involve the entire skin or linear forms, especially in children, where they may be severe, especially on the face. There are no immunological markers clearly associated with morphea and no causative agents have been implicated in its pathogenesis, although sclerodermiform dermatitis is reported to be associated with some drugs and toxic agents. There is no consensual treatment for morphea. Treatment should be decided according to severity and extent of lesions. Limited lesions may be treated with local steroids such as class IV corticosteroids. Systemic treatment (methotrexate) should be discussed in extensive and linear forms when there is a risk of functional or esthetic complications.

  10. Locality and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1980-01-01

    Einstein's principle that no signal travels faster than light suggests that observations in one spacetime region should not depend on whether or not a radioactive decay is detected in a spacelike-separated region. This locality property is incompatible with the predictions of quantum theory, and this incompatibility holds independently of the questions of realism, objective reality, and hidden variables. It holds both in the pragmatic quantum theory of Bohr and in realistic frameworks. It is shown here to hold in a completed realistic quantum theory that reconciles Einstein's demand for a description of reality itself with Bohr's contention that quantum theory is complete. This completed realistic quantum theory has no hidden variables, and no objective reality in which observable attributes can become definite independently of observers. The theory is described in some detail, with particular attention to those aspects related to the question of locality. This completed realistic quantum theory is in principle more comprehensive than Bohn's pragmatic quantum theory because it is not limited in principle by the requirement that the observed system be physically separated from the observing one. Applications are discussed

  11. Act local, think global

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Chris; McRoberts, Doug

    2002-01-01

    Tip O'Neill, one of the grand old men of modem US politics, once famously remarked that all politics is local. Like most politicians who succeed on the national stage - and not just in the US - it was a truth he never lost sight of. What is true for politicians is equally true in the communications business. We may increasingly live in a global village, but successful companies - even multi-nationals - forget the importance of local and regional public relations at their peril. Think of Douglas Ivester, the CEO of Coca-Cola at the time of the 1999 Belgian contamination scandal, who allegedly reacted to first reports of the crisis by asking: 'Where the hell is Belgium?' A more appropriate question today - several years after Coke's share price toppled and the CEO was unceremoniously sacked - might be: 'Who the hell is Douglas Nester?' But - to adapt another famous phrase - the fact that communications (and marketing) professionals still need to 'act local' as much as ever before should not blind us to the growing need to 'think global'. In the nuclear industry, as in the world economy generally, increasing global integration is a reality, as are the international nature of the news media and the increasingly global nature of the anti-nuclear pressure groups. Indeed, it was the growing need for a truly global information network to counter these trends, by increasing the overall speed and accuracy of the worldwide nuclear information flow, that led the nuclear community to establish NucNet in 1991. So where exactly is the line between local and regional nuclear communications on the one hand, and global communications on the other? Is there one spin for a regional audience, and another for a global audience? This presentation proposes some guiding principles, by examining the response of nuclear communicators world-wide to the new communications agenda imposed in the wake of the September 11th suicide attacks in the US. NucNet President Doug McRoberts and Executive

  12. A digital local studies collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Resman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Local studies and local studies departments reflect the entire spectrum of knowledge within the local community. Transition to the new digital environment means just continuing the basic functions of local studies collections: acquisition, cataloguing and preservation of materials in different formats on different media. The background of each digital library is the technical architecture of system that enables interaction between the user and the library, saving digital material and building a platform for searching and indexing digital objects. Using advanced ICT requests from librarians, designers of digital local studies collections a reflection about traditional roles. A digital local studies collection with new technology enlarges local boarders, local contents become more and more interesting for a wider sphere of people. In collecting of local materials a collaboration with archives and museums, with academic community, with community groups and with individuals comes in forefront. Digital local studies collections with their contents support local diversity, lifelong learning and social inclusion. The crucial elements of a digital local studies collection are attractive local contents with fast and simple access from one place – a portal. In the digital age public libraries become managers of knowledge also by establishing digital local studies collections.

  13. Local Agenda 21 - from global idea to local action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte

    1999-01-01

    The article give a status of the Danish works with Local Agenda 21 and discusses Local Agenda 21 as a planning tool. It describes the idea of Local Agenda 21 as a large meeting, which everybody attends. This picture is elaborated and discussed form different angles: the items on the agenda...

  14. Natural resources management by local associations in Ifedore local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of natural resource by local associations not only in its socio ecological but also in its socio economic context will go a long way in reducing environmental degradation in some local communities. This study examined the operational capacity for natural resource management by local associations in Ifedore ...

  15. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  16. Local Democracy in Myanmar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyed, Helene Maria; Harrisson, Annika Pohl; McCarthy, Gerard

    Myanmar is undergoing a comprehensive political transition. In April this year the first democratically elected government in six decades came into power under the leadership of NLD, the pro-democracy party headed by Aung San Suu Kyi. The largest peace conference in the country’s history was held...... in early September, and Myanmar again made the international headlines a week later when Kofi Annan visited the country to head a commission for addressing communal violence. These national events are crucial to the democratization process in Myanmar and for ending the almost seven decades of civil war....... However, often overlooked in this larger picture of transition is the state of local democracy, including village level governance and everyday state-citizen engagements. Political changes at this level are equally crucial for the wider democratization process. This roundtable summary discusses the 2016...

  17. Localized folicular lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soubeyran, P.; Eghbali, H.; Bonichon, F.; Coindre, J.M.; Richaud, P.; Hoerni, B.

    1988-01-01

    From 1966 to 1985, 103 patients with a localized follicular lymphoma were treated at the Fondation Bergonie. Clinical staging was performed using, after physical examination, chest X-rays, bipedal lymphangiography and unilateral bone marrow biopsy (BMB). The patients were then treated by radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy. Overall survival (OS) at 5 and 10 years is 69 and 56.3%, respectively. Relapse-free survival (RFS) is 53.7 and 49%. Unifactorial analysis shows three prognostic parameters to be independently significant in terms of OS: age, stage and B symptons. In terms of RFS, only 2 factors are significant: age and B symptons. Multivariate analysis (Cox model) shows that age is a more important prognostic factor than stage. 40 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  18. Changing local land systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Cecilie; Reenberg, Anette; Heinimann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    . Combining the conceptual lenses of land systems and livelihood approaches, this paper demonstrates how the land use system has changed substantially because of the establishment of the rubber plantation by the company, notably in the linkages between livestock rearing, upland shifting cultivation......This paper investigates the direct and cascading land system consequences of a Chinese company's land acquisition for rubber cultivation in northern Laos. Transnational land acquisitions are increasingly acknowledged as an important driver of direct land use conversion with implications for local...... land-based livelihoods. The paper presents an empirical case study of the village of Na Nhang Neua in Nambak District, Luang Prabang Province, using a mixed methods approach to investigate the positive and negative implications for household agricultural strategies, income generation and food security...

  19. The Local Fractional Bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel; Hounyo, Ulrich; Lunde, Asger

    We introduce a bootstrap procedure for high-frequency statistics of Brownian semistationary processes. More specifically, we focus on a hypothesis test on the roughness of sample paths of Brownian semistationary processes, which uses an estimator based on a ratio of realized power variations. Our...... new resampling method, the local fractional bootstrap, relies on simulating an auxiliary fractional Brownian motion that mimics the fine properties of high frequency differences of the Brownian semistationary process under the null hypothesis. We prove the first order validity of the bootstrap method...... and in simulations we observe that the bootstrap-based hypothesis test provides considerable finite-sample improvements over an existing test that is based on a central limit theorem. This is important when studying the roughness properties of time series data; we illustrate this by applying the bootstrap method...

  20. Document Management in Local Government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bernard J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The latest in electronic document management in British local government is discussed. Finance, revenues, and benefits systems of leading vendors to local authorities are highlighted. A planning decisions archive management system and other information services are discussed. (AEF)

  1. Inference for local autocorrelations in locally stationary models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhibiao

    2015-04-01

    For non-stationary processes, the time-varying correlation structure provides useful insights into the underlying model dynamics. We study estimation and inferences for local autocorrelation process in locally stationary time series. Our constructed simultaneous confidence band can be used to address important hypothesis testing problems, such as whether the local autocorrelation process is indeed time-varying and whether the local autocorrelation is zero. In particular, our result provides an important generalization of the R function acf() to locally stationary Gaussian processes. Simulation studies and two empirical applications are developed. For the global temperature series, we find that the local autocorrelations are time-varying and have a "V" shape during 1910-1960. For the S&P 500 index, we conclude that the returns satisfy the efficient-market hypothesis whereas the magnitudes of returns show significant local autocorrelations.

  2. Local democracy in large municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Annette Aagaard

    2017-01-01

    Municipal amalgamations in Denmark in 2007 led to concern for local rural democracy, as the number of politicians from rural areas dropped after the reform. To preserve rural democracy, local councils at the village level were established in some municipalities, and they have begun to prepare local...

  3. String-localized quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mund, Jens; Santos, Jose Amancio dos; Silva, Cristhiano Duarte; Oliveira, Erichardson de

    2009-01-01

    Full text. The principles of physics admit (unobservable) quantum fields which are localized not on points, but on strings in the sense of Mandelstam: a string emanates from a point in Minkowski space and extends to infinity in some space-like direction. This type of localization might permit the construction of new models, for various reasons: (a) in general, weaker localization implies better UV behaviour. Therefore, the class of renormalizable interactions in the string-localized has a chance to be larger than in the point-localized case; (b) for certain particle types, there are no point-localized (free) quantum fields - for example Anyons in d = 2 + 1, and Wigner's massless 'infinite spin' particles. For the latter, free string-localized quantum fields have been constructed; (c) in contrast to the point-localized case, string-localization admits covariant vector/tensor potentials for fotons and gravitons in a Hilbert space representation with positive energy. We shall present free string-localized quantum fields for various particle types, and some ideas about the perturbative construction of interacting string-localized fields. A central point will be an analogue of gauge theories, completely within a Hilbert space and without ghosts, trading gauge dependence with dependence on the direction of the localization string. In order to discuss renormalizability (item (a)), methods from microlocal analysis (wave front set and scaling degree) are needed. (author)

  4. [Local treatment of liver tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, T.K.; Skjoldbye, Bjørn Ole

    2008-01-01

    Local treatment of non-resectable liver tumors is common. This brief review describes the local treatment techniques used in Denmark. The techniques are evaluated according to the evidence in literature. The primary local treatment is Radiofrequency Ablation of both primary liver tumors and liver...

  5. High capacity fiber optic sensor networks using hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qizhen; Li, Xiaolei; Zhang, Manliang; Liu, Qi; Liu, Hai; Liu, Deming

    2013-12-01

    Fiber optic sensor network is the development trend of fiber senor technologies and industries. In this paper, I will discuss recent research progress on high capacity fiber sensor networks with hybrid multiplexing techniques and their applications in the fields of security monitoring, environment monitoring, Smart eHome, etc. Firstly, I will present the architecture of hybrid multiplexing sensor passive optical network (HSPON), and the key technologies for integrated access and intelligent management of massive fiber sensor units. Two typical hybrid WDM/TDM fiber sensor networks for perimeter intrusion monitor and cultural relics security are introduced. Secondly, we propose the concept of "Microstructure-Optical X Domin Refecltor (M-OXDR)" for fiber sensor network expansion. By fabricating smart micro-structures with the ability of multidimensional encoded and low insertion loss along the fiber, the fiber sensor network of simple structure and huge capacity more than one thousand could be achieved. Assisted by the WDM/TDM and WDM/FDM decoding methods respectively, we built the verification systems for long-haul and real-time temperature sensing. Finally, I will show the high capacity and flexible fiber sensor network with IPv6 protocol based hybrid fiber/wireless access. By developing the fiber optic sensor with embedded IPv6 protocol conversion module and IPv6 router, huge amounts of fiber optic sensor nodes can be uniquely addressed. Meanwhile, various sensing information could be integrated and accessed to the Next Generation Internet.

  6. Distributed Weak Fiber Bragg Grating Vibration Sensing System Based on 3 × 3 Fiber Coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Zhang, Jian

    2018-06-01

    A novel distributed weak fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) vibration sensing system has been designed to overcome the disadvantages of the conventional methods for optical fiber sensing networking, which are: low signal intensity in the usually adopted time-division multiplexing (TDM) technology, insufficient quantity of multiplexed FBGs in the wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) technology, and that the mixed WDM/TDM technology measures only the physical parameters of the FBG locations but cannot perform distributed measurement over the whole optical fiber. This novel system determines vibration events in the optical fiber line according to the intensity variation of the interference signals between the adjacent weak FBG reflected signals and locates the vibration points accurately using the TDM technology. It has been proven by tests that this system performs vibration signal detection and demodulation in a way more convenient than the conventional methods for the optical fiber sensing system. It also measures over the whole optical fiber, therefore, distributed measurement is fulfilled, and the system locating accuracy is up to 20 m, capable of detecting any signals of whose drive signals lower limit voltage is 0.2 V while the frequency range is 3 Hz‒1 000 Hz. The system has the great practical significance and application value for perimeter surveillance systems.

  7. Local strategies for decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubert, P [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); Ramzaev, V [Branch of Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Novozybkov, Bryansk region (Russian Federation); Antsypov, G [Chernnobyl State Committee of the Republic of Belarus, Minsk (Belarus); Sobotovich, E [Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore formation, Kiev (Ukraine); Anisimova, L [EMERCOM, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-07-01

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, t and return from experience allowed to assess radiological efficiencies (e.g. 'decontamination factor') and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then, those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimization of decontamination strategies. Results will be presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies, and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement, and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined here.

  8. Localized scleroderma: imaging features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, P.; Uziel, Y.; Chuang, S.; Silverman, E.; Krafchik, B.; Laxer, R.

    1994-01-01

    Localized scleroderma is distinct from the diffuse form of scleroderma and does not show Raynaud's phenomenon and visceral involvement. The imaging features in 23 patients ranging from 2 to 17 years of age (mean 11.1 years) were reviewed. Leg length discrepancy and muscle atrophy were the most common findings (five patients), with two patients also showing modelling deformity of the fibula. One patient with lower extremity involvement showed abnormal bone marrow signals on MR. Disabling joint contracture requiring orthopedic intervention was noted in one patient. In two patients with ''en coup de sabre'' facial deformity, CT and MR scans revealed intracranial calcifications and white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral frontal lobes, with one also showing migrational abnormality. In a third patient, CT revealed white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral parietal lobe. In one patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy, CT and MR scans showed the underlying hypoplastic left maxillary antrum and cheek. Imaging studies of areas of clinical concern revealed positive findings in half our patients. (orig.)

  9. Localized scleroderma: imaging features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P. (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Uziel, Y. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Chuang, S. (Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Silverman, E. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Krafchik, B. (Div. of Dermatology, Dept. of Pediatrics, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada)); Laxer, R. (Div. of Rheumatology, Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1994-06-01

    Localized scleroderma is distinct from the diffuse form of scleroderma and does not show Raynaud's phenomenon and visceral involvement. The imaging features in 23 patients ranging from 2 to 17 years of age (mean 11.1 years) were reviewed. Leg length discrepancy and muscle atrophy were the most common findings (five patients), with two patients also showing modelling deformity of the fibula. One patient with lower extremity involvement showed abnormal bone marrow signals on MR. Disabling joint contracture requiring orthopedic intervention was noted in one patient. In two patients with ''en coup de sabre'' facial deformity, CT and MR scans revealed intracranial calcifications and white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral frontal lobes, with one also showing migrational abnormality. In a third patient, CT revealed white matter abnormality in the ipsilateral parietal lobe. In one patient with progressive facial hemiatrophy, CT and MR scans showed the underlying hypoplastic left maxillary antrum and cheek. Imaging studies of areas of clinical concern revealed positive findings in half our patients. (orig.)

  10. Local supervision of solariums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In Norway, new regulations on radiation protection and application of radiation came into force on the first of January 2004. Local authorities may now perform the supervision of solariums. There are over 500 solar studios in Norway, with over 5000 solariums accessible to the public. An unknown number of solariums are in private homes, on workplaces, and in hotels and fitness studios. Norway currently has the highest frequency of skin cancer in Europe. The frequency of mole cancer has increased sixfold during the last 30 years, and 200 people die each year of this type of cancer. The Nordic cancer registers estimate that 95 per cent of the skin cancer incidences would have been avoided by limiting sunbathing. It is unknown how many cases are due to the use of solariums. But several studies indicate increased risk of mole cancer caused by solariums. It was found in previous inspection of 130 solariums that only 30 per cent had correct tubes and lamps. Only one solarium satisfied all the requirements of the regulations. But this has since improved. With the new regulations, all solarium businesses offering cosmetic solariums for sale, renting out or use have an obligation to submit reports to the Radiation Protection Authority

  11. Local strategies for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Ramzaev, V.; Antsypov, G.; Sobotovich, E.; Anisimova, L.

    1996-01-01

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, t and return from experience allowed to assess radiological efficiencies (e.g. 'decontamination factor') and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then, those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimization of decontamination strategies. Results will be presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies, and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement, and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined here

  12. On the local equilibrium condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessling, H.

    1994-11-01

    A physical system is in local equilibrium if it cannot be distinguished from a global equilibrium by ''infinitesimally localized measurements''. This should be a natural characterization of local equilibrium, but the problem is to give a precise meaning to the qualitative phrase ''infinitesimally localized measurements''. A solution is suggested in form of a Local Equilibrium Condition (LEC), which can be applied to linear relativistic quantum field theories but not directly to selfinteracting quantum fields. The concept of local temperature resulting from LEC is compared to an old approach to local temperature based on the principle of maximal entropy. It is shown that the principle of maximal entropy does not always lead to physical states if it is applied to relativistic quantum field theories. (orig.)

  13. Localization of primary aldosteronism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagny, J.Y.; Chatellier, G.; Raynaud, A.; Plouin, P.F.; Corvol, P.

    1988-01-01

    After diagnosis of primary aldosteronism on the basis of biochemical evidence, the detection of the tumour is of crucial importance in the management of the disease. The efficacy of CT-Scan, Iodo-Cholesterol Scintigraphy, digitalized phlebography, adrenal vein sampling for steroid measurements (AVS), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) in 160 hypertensive patients with primary aldosteronism was reviewed. Diagnosis of Conn's adenoma (n=96) or Adrenal Hyperplasia (n=40) was confirmed by surgery or at least two concordant tumour localization tests. Scintigraphy gave a correct diagnosis in 53% of the 51 exams, CT-Scan in 82% of the 85 exams, and phlebography in 79% of 61 exams. Plasma Aldosterone/ Cortisol ratio was 5 times higher on the side of adenoma in 55% of the 47 cases but this ratio was also present in 23% of 22 patients with adrenal hyperplasia. Each procedure exhibited few false positive and false negative cases. NMR performed in 15 patients with Conn's adenoma identified all the cases. But tumours displayed a signal close to the liver signal and identical to the normal adrenal. These results and the risk of invasive procedure (failure of catheterization of the right adrenal vein (n=6) and adrenal haematoma (n=2) lead to propose a schema of exploration of patients with primary aldosteronism. The CT-Scan could be performed at the first step once the biological diagnosis confirmed. Phlebography and AVS will be performed only if tumour was less than 1 cm at the CT-Scan despite important biological abnormalities. This schema requires to be validated by a prospective evaluation [fr

  14. Indigeneity: global and local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlan, Francesca

    2009-06-01

    The term indigenous, long used to distinguish between those who are "native" and their "others" in specific locales, has also become a term for a geocultural category, presupposing a world collectivity of "indigenous peoples" in contrast to their various "others." Many observers have noted that the stimuli for internationalization of the indigenous category originated principally from particular nation-states-Anglo-American settler colonies and Scandinavia. All, I argue, are relevantly political cultures of liberal democracy and weighty (in different ways) in international institutional affairs. However, international indigeneity has not been supported in any unqualified way by actions taken in the name of several nation-states that were among its main points of origin. In fact, staunch resistance to the international indigenous project has recently come from four of them. In 2007, the only four voting countries to reject the main product of international indigenist activity over the past 30 years, the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, were Australia, the United States, Canada, and New Zealand. In these locations, forms of "indigenous relationship" emerged that launched international indigeneity and that strongly influenced international perceptions of what "indigeneity" is and who "indigenous peoples" may be. Some other countries say the model of indigenous relationship that they see represented by the "establishing" set is inapplicable to themselves (but have nonetheless had to take notice of expanding internationalist indigenism). The apparently paradoxical rejection of the draft declaration by the establishing countries is consistent with the combination of enabling and constraining forces that liberal democratic political cultures offer.

  15. All strategy is local.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Bruce; Kahn, Judd

    2005-09-01

    The aim of strategy is to master a market environment by understanding and anticipating the actions of other economic agents, especially competitors. A firm that has some sort of competitive advantage-privileged access to customers, for instance--will have relatively few competitors to contend with, since potential competitors without an advantage, if they have their wits about them, will stay away. Thus, competitive advantages are actually barriers to entry and vice versa. In markets that are exposed, by contrast, competition is intense. If the incumbents have even brief success in earning greater than normal returns on investments, new entrants will swarm in to grab a share of the profits. Sooner or later, the additional competition will push returns as far down as the firms' costs of capital. For firms operating in such markets, the only choice is to forget about strategy and run the business as efficiently as possible. Barriers to entry are easier to maintain in a competitive arena that is "local", either in the geographic sense or in the sense of being limited to one product or a handful of related ones. The two most powerful competitive advantages-customer captivity and economies of scale-are more achievable and sustainable in circumscribed markets of this kind. Their opposites are the open markets and host of rivals that are features of globalization. Compapies entering such markets risk frittering away the advantages they secured on smaller playing fields.., Ifa company wants to grow but still obtain superior returns, the authors argue, the best strategy is to dominate a series of discrete but preferably contiguous markets and then expand only at their edges. WalMart's diminishing margins over the past 15 years are strong evidence of the danger of proceeding otherwise.

  16. Performing a local barrier operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2014-03-04

    Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.

  17. Local fields and their extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Fesenko, I B

    2002-01-01

    This book offers a modern presentation of local fields whose spectacular development was initiated almost one hundred years ago by K. Hensel. The volume consists of nine chapters divided into four parts: arithmetic properties of local fields, class field theory for various types of local fields and generalizations, explicit formulas for the Hilbert pairing, and Milnor K-groups of fields and of local fields. The first three parts essentially simplify, revise, and update the first edition. This second edition contains about sixty additional pages reflecting several aspects of the developments in local number theory in the last ten years. Exercises point to many other paths for exploration. The book is designed for graduate students and research mathematicians interested in local number theory and its applications in arithmetic algebraic geometry.

  18. To renew local energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailleul, Esther; Alfano, Patrick; Ballan, Etienne; Bosboeuf, Pascale; Braun, Nicolas; Budin, Jacques-Olivier; Caron, Jean-Francois; Couturier, Christian; Dantec, Ronan; Ducolombier, Alexandre; Durand, Lucas; Haeringer, Nicolas; Izard, Charlotte; Jadot, Yannick; Joos, Marine; Landel, Pierre-Antoine; Le Du, Mathieu; Lucas, Guillaume; Maya, Michel; Moisan, Marie; Peullemeulle, Justine; Pin, Pascaline; Poize, Noemie; Regnier, Yannick; Rudinger, Andreas; Saultier, Patrick; Serne, Pierre; Zeroual, Bouchr; Arevalo, Henri; Bregeon, Anne; Vauquois, Victor; Aussavy, Gregoire

    2016-08-01

    Presented as a guide, this book proposes an operational and transverse approach to local action in the field of energy. It is illustrated by many field examples which show how actors have been able to (re)gain control of the energy issue. In the first part in which they present the main issues, the authors outline that local authorities are in front line for a European energy transition, recall the French legal framework for local energy transition, describe how to address local energy self-sufficiency, and comment stakes and levers for energy transition financing. The second part deals with action. The authors there describe how to manage a local energy transition, how to act transversally, how to get citizen involved, and how to relate energy transition and local development

  19. Local government and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, H.; Menkveld, M.; Coenen, F.H.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Local government in the Netherlands could play a greater role than they currently do in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the country. This fact formed the motivation for initiating the research project on Local Government and Climate Policy. Many local climate options are known in theory. Options for reduction that lie within the sphere of influence of Dutch local government are, for example, sustainable building or encouraging the utilisation of sustainable energy. But actual practice turns out to be rather refractory. If such options are to be implemented, then one has to overcome institutional barriers, such as the co-operation between different departments in the same local authority. The objective of this research is to improve the contribution that local government makes to climate policy

  20. Observations of Local Seychelles Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Observations of Local Seychelles Circulation Geno...goal for the proposed work is to develop predictive capabilities for physical oceanography for the Seychelles region in support of locally relevant...observations in the Seychelles region that will lead to long-term data collection efforts. In collaboration with local partnerships, we will carry out

  1. Local Agenda 21 and poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Palmans, Eva; Marysse, Stefaan

    2003-01-01

    Poverty, the increasing urbanisation of poverty and the environmental degradation are major problems facing the actual world. This is reflected in international conferences and agendas, such as Local Agenda 21. This agenda is responding to the current problems by promoting sustainable development through local action and by using participatory methods. Our major concern is to reflect on the impact of the Local Agenda 21 on the reduction of poverty in a Third World context.

  2. A Parameter Study of Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor Stephen Mester

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive work has been done on the vibration characteristics of perfectly periodic structures. Disorder in the periodic pattern has been found to lead to localization in one-dimensional periodic structures. It is important to understand localization because it causes energy to be concentrated near the disorder and may cause an overestimation of structural damping. A numerical study is conducted to obtain a better understanding of localization. It is found that any mode, even the first, can localize due to the presence of small imperfections.

  3. Local Government System in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Redko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the issues of the activities of the local government of Japan. Particular attention is drawn to the legal framework and the material basis for the functioning of local self-government bodies. The system of local self-government is considered as a special form of self-government with a specific functional and meaning; system of municipal management and delegation of authority, as well as features of interaction between civil and imperious levels. The allocation of the city with a special status, as well as the financial structure of the local government of Japan, is considered in detail.

  4. Radioprotective effect of local hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Seong-Su; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Higano, Shuichi; Nakamura, Mamoru; Hoshino, Fumihiko

    1985-01-01

    We attempted local hypothermia to prevent radiation dermatitis and stomatitis. With regard to parasternal skin reactions postoperatively irradiated breast cancer, dry and moist desquamation, which occasionally occurred with conventional irradiation was not observed in combination with local cooling. As for head and neck tumors, patients who complained of stomatitis decreased with the local cooling, and no one wanted a pause in irradiation before 40 Gy. As local hypothermia is free from danger and does not require special equipment, it was considered to be widely applicable. (author)

  5. Globalization vs. localization: global food challenges and local sollutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quaye, W.; Jongerden, J.P.; Essegbey, G.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of global-local interactions on food production and consumption in Ghana, and identify possible local solutions. Primary data were collected using a combination of quantitative-qualitative methods, which included focus group discussions and

  6. String-localized quantum fields and modular localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mund, J. [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Schroer, B. [FU-Berlin, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Yngvason, J. [Erwin Schroedinger Institute for Mathematical Physics, Vienna (Austria)

    2005-12-15

    We study free, covariant, quantum (Bose) fields that are associated with irreducible representations of the Poincare group and localized in semi-infinite strings extending to spacelike infinity. Among these are fields that generate the irreducible representations of mass zero and infinite spin that are known to be incompatible with point-like localized fields. For the massive representation and the massless representations of finite helicity, all string-localized free fields can be written as an integral, along the string, of point-localized tensor or spinor fields. As a special case we discuss the string-localized vector fields associated with the point-like electromagnetic field and their relation to the axial gauge condition in the usual setting. (author)

  7. String-localized quantum fields and modular localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mund, J.

    2005-12-01

    We study free, covariant, quantum (Bose) fields that are associated with irreducible representations of the Poincare group and localized in semi-infinite strings extending to spacelike infinity. Among these are fields that generate the irreducible representations of mass zero and infinite spin that are known to be incompatible with point-like localized fields. For the massive representation and the massless representations of finite helicity, all string-localized free fields can be written as an integral, along the string, of point-localized tensor or spinor fields. As a special case we discuss the string-localized vector fields associated with the point-like electromagnetic field and their relation to the axial gauge condition in the usual setting. (author)

  8. Local cohomology and superselection structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.E.

    1976-02-01

    A novel quantum analogue of the classical problem of cohomology incorporating locality is introduced and is shown to generate those superselection sectors whose charge can be strictly localized. In a 2-dimensional space-time there are further possibilities; in particular, soliton sectors can be generated by this procedure [fr

  9. Building Local Governance in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Bodil

    local level actors through partnerships and networks and discuss how such involvement may improve societal regulation. The paper analyses the apparent paradox that local partnerships are mandated though hierarchical structures (law) and discusses the consequences hereof with regard to central features...

  10. A survey of local cohomology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.E.

    1977-06-01

    Local cohomology is discussed in Wightman field theory and algebraic field theory. Applications are made to superselection structure, solitons, spontaneously broken gauge symmetries and quantum electrodynamics. A simplified picture of the probable relationship between gauge theories and the local 2-cohomology is presented

  11. Local coexistance of different phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1982-01-01

    Under intuitively reasonable assumptions it is shown that in two dimensions different phases cannot exist locally. In three dimensions we discuss the possibility of local coexistance of districts with different magnetization for the Heisenberg ferromagnet and show that an interaction that breaks rotational invariance is necessary for this phenomenon. (Author)

  12. Applications of locally orderless images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginneken, van B.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.

    2000-01-01

    In a recent work, J. J. Koenderink and A. J. Van Doorn considered a family of three intertwined scale-spaces coined the locally orderless image (LOI) (1999, J. Comput. Vision, 31 (2/3), 159–168). The LOI represents the image, observed at inner scale ó, as a local histogram with bin-width â, at each

  13. A geometrical perspective on localization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulman, S.O.; Baggio, A.; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Langendoen, K.G.; Zhang, Ying; Ye, Yinyu

    2008-01-01

    A large number of localization algorithms for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are evaluated against the Cramer-Rao Bound (CRB) as an indicator of how good the algorithm performs. The CRB defines the lower bound on the precision of an unbiased localization estimator. The CRB concept, borrowed from

  14. BOOK REVIEW: Improving Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaap de Visser

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This book is a compilation of ten essays on local government with an introductory and concluding chapter. The themes discussed include metropolitan governance, the role of community leadership, the value of best practice as an administration technique, indigenous knowledge, intergovernmental relations, public-private partnerships and local management.

  15. Is Local Community the Answer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole; Olwig, Mette Fog

    2015-01-01

    This article critically examines claims that “local community” and “local/traditional knowledge” are vital contributions to safeguarding socio-economic stability and securing sustainable resource uses in times of stress. The empirical focus is on Central Vietnam, but the argument is relevant...

  16. Meet the local policy workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmelmann, Camilla L.; Vallgårda, Signild; Jensen, Anja MB

    2018-01-01

    Reporting on an interview and observation based study in Danish municipalities, this article deals with local policy workers, and takes departure in the great variation we observed in implementation of centrally issued health promotion guidelines. We present five types of local policy workers, ea...

  17. Global Policies and Local Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    networks that are embedded in a wider global network, I argue that tighter couplings (within local networks) and looser couplings (between local networks) coexist. Second, I suggest that this coexistence of couplings enables MSIs to generate policy outcomes which address the conditions of a transnational...

  18. Global Policies and Local Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    networks that are embedded in a wider global network, I argue that tighter couplings (within local networks) and looser couplings (between local networks) coexist. Second, I suggest that this coexistence of couplings enables MSIs to generate policy outcomes which address the conditions of a transnational...

  19. Local initiative extrapolated to nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper; Brøgger, Morten

    In the municipality of Sønderborg, in the southern part of Jutland, there is a shining example initiated in 2007, ProjectZero, of a local initiative that have resulted in extensive energy savings in residential buildings and at the same time created local workplaces. The intension with the pilot...

  20. Local community, mobility and belonging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anja; Arp Fallov, Mia; Knudsen, Lisbeth B.

    2011-01-01

    ,recent developments in the understandings of mobility and local communities,and presents different theoretical views on local belonging.These questions highlight the necessity to discuss and investigate two overall narratives in social theory about the connection between space and social relations.Namely,1...

  1. Representations of locally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1995-09-01

    Locally symmetric spaces in reference to globally and Hermitian symmetric Riemannian spaces are studied. Some relations between locally and globally symmetric spaces are exhibited. A lucid account of results on relevant spaces, motivated by fundamental problems, are formulated as theorems and propositions. (author). 10 refs

  2. Separability of local reactivity descriptors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The size-dependence of different local reactivity descriptors of dimer A2 and AB type of sys- tems is discussed. We derive analytic results of these descriptors calculated using finite difference approximation. In particular, we studied Fukui functions, relative electrophilicity and relative nucleo- philicity, local softness ...

  3. Trastuzumab emtansine in locally advanced or metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer; GENESIS-SEFH drug evaluation report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Miranda Romero

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Trastuzumab emtansina (T-DM1 is an antibody-drug conjugate directed against the HER2 for the treatment of HER2+ mestastatic breast cancer (MBC, who has previously received trastuzumab plus a taxane. According to the results of the EMILIA trial versus lapatinib plus capecitabine T-DM1 shows an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS and the overall survival (OS. It has a favorable profile reducing the incidence of grade 3-4 adverse reactions such as hand-foot syndrome and diarrhea. On the contrary increases significantly severe thrombocytopenia; bleeding risk and liver function should also be monitored. With the current import price T-DM1 has a cost per QALY of over 120,000 €. The price of the drug for the Spanish NHS has not yet been established. Drug cost would be the key factor in the sensitivity analysis and a 50% reduction in the price of the drug would place it close to the threshold of cost-effectiveness usually considered in our midst. According to the budget impact model used, a maximum of 1,218 patients / year and the budgetary impact throughout the Spanish state would be at € 70,490,850. In the initial analysis no advantage was found for T-DM1 in those patients without visceral involvement. Although a subsequent re-analysis of the results of PFS in which the definition of visceral involvement was specified a significant benefit was shown in this subgroup. We believe that this approach introduces a high degree of uncertainty, which does not guarantee the benefit achieved for this subgroup of patients

  4. Strategy for Developing Local Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofjan Iskandar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Chicken industry in Indonesia offer jobs for people in the village areas . The balance in development industry of selected and local chicken has to be anticipated as there has been threat of reducing importation of grand parent stock of selected chicken due to global avian influenza . In the mean time, high appreciation to the local chicken has been shown by the existence of local chicken farms in the size of business scale . For local chicken business, the government has been built programs, projects, and infrastructures, although the programs and projects were dropped scattered in to several institutions, which were end up with less significant impact to the people. Therefore, it is the time that the government should put more efforts to integrate various sources . focusing in enhancing local chicken industry .

  5. An Open Localization and Local Communication Embodied Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Gutiérrez

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a localization and local communication system which allows situated agents to communicate locally, obtaining at the same time both the range and the bearing of the emitter without the need of any centralized control or any external reference. The system relies on infrared communications with frequency modulation and is composed of two interconnected modules for data and power measurement. Thanks to the open hardware license under which it is released, the research community can easily replicate the system at a low cost and/or adapt it for applications in sensor networks and in robotics.

  6. Non-local charges in local quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, D.; Lopuszanski, J.T.; Rabsztyn, S.

    1985-05-01

    Non-local charges are studied in the general setting of local quantum field theory. It is shown, that these charges can be represented as polynomials in the incoming respectively outgoing fields with coefficients (kernels) which are subject to specific constraints. For the restricted class of models of a scalar, massive, self interacting particle in four dimensions, a more detailed analysis shows that all non-local charges of the generic type (genus 2) are products of generators of the Poincare group. This analysis, which is based on the macroscopic causality properties of the S-matrix, seems to indicate that less trivial examples of non-local charges can only exist in two dimensions. (orig.)

  7. Wind energy and local development; Eolien et developpement local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depreste, B. [Ministere de l' Amenagement du Territoire et de l' Environnement, 75 - Paris (France); Beutin, Ph. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 75 - Paris (France); Cabanes, A. [Communes du Canton de Saint Agreve, 07 (France); Puig, J.; Jochen, T. [BWE, Berlin (Germany); Gunnar boye, Olesen [Danish Organisation for Renewable Energy (Denmark); Preben, Maegaard; Bidal, J.L. [FNSEA, 75 - Paris (France); Hartmann, Ch. [Confederation Paysanne, Alsace (France); Jedliczka, M.; Quantin, J.

    2002-04-01

    This issue of Cler Info journal includes a dossier about the development of wind energy in France and in some other European countries (Spain, Germany, Denmark) and about its economical impact at the local scale. (J.S.)

  8. Local/regional policies: Acting globally by thinking locally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillsman, E.L.

    1991-01-01

    Policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from present levels will require changes in local and regional decision making as well as decisions made at national and multinational scales. A number of cities and states have taken action to reduce emissions either directly or as a byproduct of solving local problems such as air quality. These initiatives represent a potential resource to be mobilized in national policy. A series of case studies is under way to understand the decision making involved and its implications, and to identify ways that national policy might support and benefit from local efforts. Preliminary results from the first of these case studies indicate that reductions in greenhouse gas emissions may be greater when set as a direct target than when resulting as a byproduct of other local problem solving

  9. Afghanistan’s Local War: Building Local Defense Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Afghanistan’s Local War: Building Local Defense Forces economic and other development conditions. As the Nobel Prize- winning economist Amartya Sen ...strengthen warlords 9 Amartya Sen , Development as Freedom, New York: Anchor Books, 2000, p. 11. Mitigating Risks 77 • weaken central government forces...Taliban Afghanistan, Bonn: Bonn International Center for Conversion, 2002. Sen , Amartya , Development as Freedom, New York: Anchor Books, 2000. Shahrani

  10. Efficient Topological Localization Using Global and Local Feature Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junqiu Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We present an efficient vision-based global topological localization approach in which different image features are used in a coarse-to-fine matching framework. Orientation Adjacency Coherence Histogram (OACH, a novel image feature, is proposed to improve the coarse localization. The coarse localization results are taken as inputs for the fine localization which is carried out by matching Harris-Laplace interest points characterized by the SIFT descriptor. The computation of OACHs and interest points is efficient due to the fact that these features are computed in an integrated process. The matching of local features is improved by using approximate nearest neighbor searching technique. We have implemented and tested the localization system in real environments. The experimental results demonstrate that our approach is efficient and reliable in both indoor and outdoor environments. This work has also been compared with previous works. The comparison results show that our approach has better performance with higher correct ratio and lower computational complexity.

  11. Comparison of target volumes in radiotherapy defined on scanner and on PET-T.D.M. with {sup 18}F-F.D.G. in the frame of head and neck cancers; Comparaison des volumes cibles en radiotherapie definis sur scanner et sur TEP-TDM au 18F FDG dans le cadre des cancers de la tete et du cou

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriques De Figueiredo, B.; Barret, O.; Allard, M.; Fernandez, P. [Service de medecine nucleaire, CHU de Pellegrin, Bordeaux, (France); Demeaux, H.; Maire, J.P.; Lagarde, P. [service de radiotherapie, hopital Saint-Andre, Bordeaux, (France); Kantor, G.; Richau, P. [departement de radiotherapie, institut Bergonie, Bordeaux, (France); De Mones Del Pujol, E. [service d' ORL, hopital Pellegrin, Bordeaux, (France)

    2009-05-15

    The objective is to study in a prospective way, in the frame of head and neck cancers, the impact of the positron computed tomography with {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-F.D.G.) on the limitation of target volumes in radiotherapy. In conclusions, the gross tumor volume (G.T.V.) defined on PET is smaller than this one defined on scanner, that could be interesting in radiotherapy, in the perspective of a dose escalation. In addition, areas of discordance exist between the clinical target volumes (C.T.V.70 and C.T.V.50) defined on PET and on scanner. These discordances, synonyms of under or over estimation of target volumes, could have important clinical consequences in term of local control and toxicity. (N.C.)

  12. The Analysis of SARDANA HPON Networks Using the HPON Network Configurator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Roka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NG-PON systems present optical access infrastructures to support various applications of the many service providers. In the near future, we can expect NG-PON technologies with different motivations for developing of HPON networks. The HPON is a hybrid passive optical network in a way that utilizes on a physical layer both TDM and WDM multiplexing principles together. The HPON network utilizes similar or soft revised topologies as TDM-PON architectures. In this second paper, requirements for the SARDANA HPON networks are introduced. A main part of the paper is dedicated to presentation of the HPON network configurator that allows configurating and analyzing the SARDANA HPON characteristics from a viewpoint of various specific network parameters. Finally, a short introduction to the comparison of the SARDANA and SUCCESS HPON networks based on simulation results is presented.

  13. The Analysis of SUCCESS HPON Networks Using the HPON Network Configurator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Roka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NG-PON systems present optical access infrastructures to support various applications of the many service providers. In the near future, we can expect NG-PON technologies with different motivations for developing of HPON networks. The HPON is a hybrid passive optical network in a way that utilizes on a physical layer both TDM and WDM multiplexing principles together. The HPON network utilizes similar or soft revised topologies as TDM-PON architectures. In this first paper, design requirements for SUCCESS HPON networks are introduced. A main part of the paper is dedicated to presentation of the HPON network configurator that allows configurating and analyzing the SUCCESS HPON characteristics from a viewpoint of various specific network parameters. Finally, a short introduction to the comparison of the SUCCESS and SARDANA HPON networks based on simulation results is presented.

  14. The Local-Cosmopolitan Scientist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D., Hon. Ph.D.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to previous discussions in the literature treating cosmopolitan and local as two distinct groups of scientists, this paperi demonstrates the notion of cosmopolitan and local as a dual orientation of highly motivated scientists. This dual orientation is derived from institutional motivation, which is a determinant of both high quality basic research and accomplishment of non-research organizational activities. The dual orientation arises in a context of similarity of the institutional goal of science with the goal of the organization; the distinction between groups of locals and cosmopolitans derives from a conflict between two goals.

  15. Local cases of institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Leick, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Population ageing and population decline are two contemporary phenomena that imply a tremendous transformation of local markets across many European regions and challenge their economic growth and development in the longer run. In such contexts of market change and, perhaps, crisis, institutional...... agendas and frameworks (including the institutionalised practices used in the local economy) can be stabilising anchors for the strategic planning of firms and public organisations. However, demographic challenges will also put a strain on these institutions that become subject to change themselves...... to support the local economy in coping with demographic challenges....

  16. IT Management in Local Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2010-01-01

    The use of information technology (IT) is increasingly important for local governments (municipalities) in adhering to their responsibilities for providing services to citizens and this requires effective IT management. We present an engaged scholarship approach to formulating the IT management...... problems with local government – not for local government. We define such engaged problem formulation as joint learning and definition of a contemporary and complex problem by researchers and those who experience and know the problem. This engaged problem formulation process was carried out...

  17. Quantum theory and local causality

    CERN Document Server

    Hofer-Szabó, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    This book summarizes the results of research the authors have pursued in the past years on the problem of implementing Bell's notion of local causality in local physical theories and relating it to other important concepts and principles in the foundations of physics such as the Common Cause Principle, Bell's inequalities, the EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) scenario, and various other locality and causality concepts. The book is intended for philosophers of science with an interest in the formal background of sciences, philosophers of physics and physicists working in foundation of physics.

  18. Bound entanglement and local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Zukowski, Marek; Gnacinski, Piotr

    2002-01-01

    We show using a numerical approach, which gives necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of local realism, that the bound entangled state presented in Bennett et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 5385 (1999)] admits a local and realistic description. We also find the lowest possible amount of some appropriate entangled state that must be ad-mixed to the bound entangled state so that the resulting density operator has no local and realistic description and as such can be useful in quantum communication and quantum computation

  19. Lens design and local minima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixner, B.

    1981-01-01

    The widespread belief that local minima exist in the least squares lens-design error function is not confirmed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) optimization program. LASL finds the optimum-mimimum region, which is characterized by small parameter gradients of similar size, small performance improvement per iteration, and many designs that give similar performance. Local minima and unique prescriptions have not been found in many-parameter problems. The reason for these absences is that image errors caused by a change in one parameter can be compensated by changes in the remaining parameters. False local minima have been found, and four cases are discussed

  20. Local Area Networks (The Printout).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Helen; Balajthy, Ernest

    1989-01-01

    Describes the Local Area Network (LAN), a project in which students used LAN-based word processing and electronic mail software as the center of a writing process approach. Discusses the advantages and disadvantages of networking. (MM)

  1. Going Local to Find Help

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents ... phone numbers, maps and directions, such as To Find Out More: Visit www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/ ...

  2. HELAS: local helioseismology data website

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunker, Hannah; Gizon, Laurent; Roth, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The Local Helioseismology Network Activity is part of the European Helio-and Asteroseismology Network (HELAS). One aspect of the network activity is to collate multipurpose data sets and make them available to the community for local helioseismic analysis. The first stage of the project is underway whereby high quality and useful data sets have been selected and acquired. The HELAS Local Helioseismology Network Activity website at http://www.mps.mpg.de/projects/seismo/NA4/ provides this data ready to download. Furthermore, the data is supplemented with relevant documentation necessary for further analysis, including details about the data reduction process that has already been applied. The data primarily consists of Doppler velocity observations but also includes observations of the line-of-sight magnetic field, vector magnetic field measurements, intensity and travel time maps. The website will be continuously updated with data thereby providing convenient access to comprehensive data sets appropriate for use in local helioseismology.

  3. Local Climatological Data (LCD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Local Climatological Data (LCD) contains summaries from major airport weather stations that include a daily account of temperature extremes, degree days,...

  4. Local Responsiveness in Distant Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lubinski, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Multinational corporations face the challenge of balancing global integration and local responsiveness. Localization strategies have been much debated in the literature, and scholars have suggested the 1980s as a watershed moment leading to the development of distinctly transnational companies se......, the political context, and the flow of information between headquarters and subsidiaries showing how and why these companies developed into transnational entities.......Multinational corporations face the challenge of balancing global integration and local responsiveness. Localization strategies have been much debated in the literature, and scholars have suggested the 1980s as a watershed moment leading to the development of distinctly transnational companies...... on the Indian market before WWI, this article traces the competition between different Western gramophone companies and their business strategies for this economically attractive market with institutional voids and rising Indian nationalism. It addresses the specificity of the gramophone and music industry...

  5. Wireless Sensor Network Localization Research

    OpenAIRE

    Liang Xin

    2014-01-01

    DV-Hop algorithm is one of the important range-free localization algorithms. It performs better in isotropic density senor networks, however, it brings larger location errors in random distributed networks. According to the localization principle of the DV-Hop algorithm, this paper improves the estimation of average single hop distance by using the Least Equal Square Error, and revises the estimated distance between the unknown node and the anchor node with compensation coefficient considerin...

  6. Intracellular localization of Arabidopsis sulfurtransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Michael; Dietrich, Christof; Nowak, Katharina; Sierralta, Walter D; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2004-06-01

    Sulfurtransferases (Str) comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in archaea, eubacteria, and eukaryota which catalyze the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors. In all organisms analyzed to date, small gene families encoding Str proteins have been identified. The gene products were localized to different compartments of the cells. Our interest concerns the localization of Str proteins encoded in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. Computer-based prediction methods revealed localization in different compartments of the cell for six putative AtStrs. Several methods were used to determine the localization of the AtStr proteins experimentally. For AtStr1, a mitochondrial localization was demonstrated by immunodetection in the proteome of isolated mitochondria resolved by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequent blotting. The respective mature AtStr1 protein was identified by mass spectrometry sequencing. The same result was obtained by transient expression of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts, whereas AtStr2 was exclusively localized to the cytoplasm by this method. Three members of the single-domain AtStr were localized in the chloroplasts as demonstrated by transient expression of green fluorescent protein fusions in protoplasts and stomata, whereas the single-domain AtStr18 was shown to be cytoplasmic. The remarkable subcellular distribution of AtStr15 was additionally analyzed by transmission electron immunomicroscopy using a monospecific antibody against green fluorescent protein, indicating an attachment to the thylakoid membrane. The knowledge of the intracellular localization of the members of this multiprotein family will help elucidate their specific functions in the organism.

  7. Regional power and local ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawrence, D.; Philip, G.; Wilkinson, K.

    2017-01-01

    Archaeological data tend to be gathered at the local level: human agency also operates at this scale. By combining data from multiple surveys conducted within a larger area, it is possible to use local datasets to obtain a perspective on regional trends in settlement, population, and human activity...... and climate are then examined side by side in order to assess long-term human interactions. Crown Copyright (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  8. Quantum redundancies and local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horodecki, R.; Horodecki, P.

    1994-01-01

    The basic properties of quantum redundancies are presented. The previous definitions of the informationally coherent quantum (ICQ) system are generalized in terms of the redundancies. The ICQ systems are also considered in the context of local realism in terms of the information integrity factor η. The classical region η≤qslant[1]/[2] for the two classes of mixed, nonfactorizable states admitting the local hidden variable model is found. ((orig.))

  9. Media Kit on WDM in MENA | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This kit contains information tailored primarily for the media community. It contains up-to-date knowledge about water demand management in the form of policy briefs, success stories, water briefs, a brochure and a CD in English, French and Arabic. This material explains water demand management and the contributions of ...

  10. Minimal-delay traffic grooming for WDM star networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongsik; Garg, Nikhil; Choi, Hyeong-Ah

    2003-10-01

    All-optical networks face the challenge of reducing slower opto-electronic conversions by managing assignment of traffic streams to wavelengths in an intelligent manner, while at the same time utilizing bandwidth resources to the maximum. This challenge becomes harder in networks closer to the end users that have insufficient data to saturate single wavelengths as well as traffic streams outnumbering the usable wavelengths, resulting in traffic grooming which requires costly traffic analysis at access nodes. We study the problem of traffic grooming that reduces the need to analyze traffic, for a class of network architecture most used by Metropolitan Area Networks; the star network. The problem being NP-complete, we provide an efficient twice-optimal-bound greedy heuristic for the same, that can be used to intelligently groom traffic at the LANs to reduce latency at the access nodes. Simulation results show that our greedy heuristic achieves a near-optimal solution.

  11. Pilot tones in WDM networks with wavelength converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Mikkelsen, Benny; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1997-01-01

    Here we investigate the transmission of a pilot tone through an interferometric wavelength converter (IWC) in conjunction with a 2.5 Gbit/s experiment. The pilot tone is added by sinusoidal modulation of the bias current to the signal laser. After the IWC (Michelson interferometer) the converted...

  12. WDM Multicast Tree Construction Algorithms and Their Comparative Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makabe, Tsutomu; Mikoshi, Taiju; Takenaka, Toyofumi

    We propose novel tree construction algorithms for multicast communication in photonic networks. Since multicast communications consume many more link resources than unicast communications, effective algorithms for route selection and wavelength assignment are required. We propose a novel tree construction algorithm, called the Weighted Steiner Tree (WST) algorithm and a variation of the WST algorithm, called the Composite Weighted Steiner Tree (CWST) algorithm. Because these algorithms are based on the Steiner Tree algorithm, link resources among source and destination pairs tend to be commonly used and link utilization ratios are improved. Because of this, these algorithms can accept many more multicast requests than other multicast tree construction algorithms based on the Dijkstra algorithm. However, under certain delay constraints, the blocking characteristics of the proposed Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm deteriorate since some light paths between source and destinations use many hops and cannot satisfy the delay constraint. In order to adapt the approach to the delay-sensitive environments, we have devised the Composite Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm comprising the Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm and the Dijkstra algorithm for use in a delay constrained environment such as an IPTV application. In this paper, we also give the results of simulation experiments which demonstrate the superiority of the proposed Composite Weighted Steiner Tree algorithm compared with the Distributed Minimum Hop Tree (DMHT) algorithm, from the viewpoint of the light-tree request blocking.

  13. PHASAR-based WDM-devices: principles, design and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M.K.; Dam, van C.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelength multiplexers, demultiplexers and routers based on optical phased arrays play a key role in multiwavelength telecommunication links and networks. In this paper, a detailed description of phased-array operation and design is presented and an overview is given of the most important

  14. Working Paper 3: Gender & WDM in MENA region | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... ... and men manage water in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. ... role to play in water management in the process of food production. ... Solving the water crisis: Increase supplies or improve management?

  15. WDM Core Networks : regenerator placement and green networking

    OpenAIRE

    Youssef , Mayssa

    2011-01-01

    As Operators strive today to optimize their networks, considerations of cost, availability, eco-sustainability, and quality of service are beginning to converge. Solutions that reduce capital and operational expenditures not only save money, but also tend to reduce the environmental impact. In "opaque" networks, optical signals undergo expensive electrical regeneration systematically at each node. In "transparent" networks, signal quality deteriorates due to the accumulation of physical impai...

  16. Generic Local Hamiltonians are Gapless

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movassagh, Ramis

    2017-12-01

    We prove that generic quantum local Hamiltonians are gapless. In fact, we prove that there is a continuous density of states above the ground state. The Hamiltonian can be on a lattice in any spatial dimension or on a graph with a bounded maximum vertex degree. The type of interactions allowed for include translational invariance in a disorder (i.e., probabilistic) sense with some assumptions on the local distributions. Examples include many-body localization and random spin models. We calculate the scaling of the gap with the system's size when the local terms are distributed according to a Gaussian β orthogonal random matrix ensemble. As a corollary, there exist finite size partitions with respect to which the ground state is arbitrarily close to a product state. When the local eigenvalue distribution is discrete, in addition to the lack of an energy gap in the limit, we prove that the ground state has finite size degeneracies. The proofs are simple and constructive. This work excludes the important class of truly translationally invariant Hamiltonians where the local terms are all equal.

  17. Local cloning of entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghiu, Vlad; Yu Li; Cohen, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the conditions under which a set S of pure bipartite quantum states on a DxD system can be locally cloned deterministically by separable operations, when at least one of the states is full Schmidt rank. We allow for the possibility of cloning using a resource state that is less than maximally entangled. Our results include that: (i) all states in S must be full Schmidt rank and equally entangled under the G-concurrence measure, and (ii) the set S can be extended to a larger clonable set generated by a finite group G of order |G|=N, the number of states in the larger set. It is then shown that any local cloning apparatus is capable of cloning a number of states that divides D exactly. We provide a complete solution for two central problems in local cloning, giving necessary and sufficient conditions for (i) when a set of maximally entangled states can be locally cloned, valid for all D; and (ii) local cloning of entangled qubit states with nonvanishing entanglement. In both of these cases, we show that a maximally entangled resource is necessary and sufficient, and the states must be related to each other by local unitary 'shift' operations. These shifts are determined by the group structure, so need not be simple cyclic permutations. Assuming this shifted form and partially entangled states, then in D=3 we show that a maximally entangled resource is again necessary and sufficient, while for higher-dimensional systems, we find that the resource state must be strictly more entangled than the states in S. All of our necessary conditions for separable operations are also necessary conditions for local operations and classical communication (LOCC), since the latter is a proper subset of the former. In fact, all our results hold for LOCC, as our sufficient conditions are demonstrated for LOCC, directly.

  18. Local and non-local potentials for deuteron elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The nucleon--nucleus local potential (central and spin--orbit) and the deuteron--nucleus nonlocal potential (central, spin--orbit, spin--radial tensor) are calculated by the folding-model (FM). Simple analytic expressions are obtained for the nucleon--nucleus potential by the use of Gaussians to represent the nucleon--nucleus potential and the charge and mass densities of the target. The analytic expressions give qualitative descriptions of phenomenological nucleon--nucleus interactions. A systematic target--mass dependence of realistic local FM deueron potentials is also included. Local-equivalent, energy-dependent, deuteron potentials are obtained from the nonlocal FM deuteron potentials and the energy dependence of the local potential parameters are presented. The local FM deuteron potential is tested for 60 Ni(d,d) 60 Ni at E/sub α/ = 15 MeV by comparing the predictions of the FM potentials with data in which all five polarization moments were measured. A qualitative fit to the data is obtained, but it overestimates the volume integral of the central potential by 7%. Energy-dependence effects are estimated by evaluating the local-equivalent potentials at E/sub α/ = 30 MeV and comparing the predictions to the E/sub α/ = 15 MeV potentials. The energy dependence of the central potential dominates the angular dependence of all five observables while the energy dependence of the spin--orbit and tensor potentials produces only scale changes (approx. 3%) in the vector and tensor analyzing powers. The scattering formalism for a spin-1 on a spin-0 target nucleus, and a description of the coupled--channels computer code DDUNC1 which treats the spin--radial tensor potential exactly, are included

  19. Local Government Internal Audit Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Jones

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Local government councils (LGC rely on a number of funding sources including state and federal governments as well as their community constituents to enable them to provide a range of public services. Given the constraints on these funding sources councils need to have in place a range of strategies and policies capable of providing good governance and must appropriately discharge their financial accountabilities. To assist LGC with meeting their governance and accountability obligations they often seek guidance from their key stakeholders. For example, in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW, the Office of Local Government has developed a set of guidelines, the Internal Audit Guidelines. In 2010 the NSW Office of Local Government issued revised guidelines emphasising that an internal audit committee is an essential component of good governance. In addition, the guidelines explained that to improve the governance and accountability of the councils, these committees should be composed of a majority of independent members. To maintain committee independence the guidelines indicated that the Mayor should not be a member of the committee. However these are only guidelines, not legislated requirements and as such compliance with the guidelines, before they were revised, has been demonstrated to be quite low (Jones & Bowrey 2013. This study, based on a review of NSW Local Government Councils’ 2012/2013 reports, including Annual Reportsrelation to internal audit committees, to determine if the guidelines are effective in improving local government council governance.

  20. Surgical Management of Localized Scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Hyun; Lim, Soo Yeon; Lee, Jang Hyun; Ahn, Hee Chang

    2017-09-01

    Localized scleroderma is characterized by a thickening of the skin from excessive collagen deposits. It is not a fatal disease, but quality of life can be adversely affected due to changes in skin appearance, joint contractures, and, rarely, serious deformities of the face and extremities. We present six cases of localized scleroderma in face from our surgical practice. We reviewed six localized scleroderma cases that were initially treated with medication and then received follow-up surgery between April 2003 and February 2015. Six patients had facial lesions. These cases presented with linear dermal sclerosis on the forehead, oval subcutaneous and dermal depression in the cheek. En coup de sabre (n=4), and oval-shaped lesion of the face (n=2) were successfully treated. Surgical methods included resection with or without Z-plasty (n=3), fat graft (n=1), dermofat graft (n=1), and adipofascial free flap (n=1). Deformities of the affected parts were surgically corrected without reoccurrence. We retrospectively reviewed six cases of localized scleroderma that were successfully treated with surgery. And we propose an algorithm for selecting the best surgical approach for individual localized scleroderma cases. Although our cases were limited in number and long-term follow-up will be necessary, we suggest that surgical management should be considered as an option for treating scleroderma patients.

  1. Local Equilibrium and Retardation Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Scott K; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2018-01-01

    In modeling solute transport with mobile-immobile mass transfer (MIMT), it is common to use an advection-dispersion equation (ADE) with a retardation factor, or retarded ADE. This is commonly referred to as making the local equilibrium assumption (LEA). Assuming local equilibrium, Eulerian textbook treatments derive the retarded ADE, ostensibly exactly. However, other authors have presented rigorous mathematical derivations of the dispersive effect of MIMT, applicable even in the case of arbitrarily fast mass transfer. We resolve the apparent contradiction between these seemingly exact derivations by adopting a Lagrangian point of view. We show that local equilibrium constrains the expected time immobile, whereas the retarded ADE actually embeds a stronger, nonphysical, constraint: that all particles spend the same amount of every time increment immobile. Eulerian derivations of the retarded ADE thus silently commit the gambler's fallacy, leading them to ignore dispersion due to mass transfer that is correctly modeled by other approaches. We then present a particle tracking simulation illustrating how poor an approximation the retarded ADE may be, even when mobile and immobile plumes are continually near local equilibrium. We note that classic "LEA" (actually, retarded ADE validity) criteria test for insignificance of MIMT-driven dispersion relative to hydrodynamic dispersion, rather than for local equilibrium. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Noncommuting observables and local realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malley, James D.; Fine, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    A standard approach in the foundations of quantum mechanics studies local realism and hidden variables models exclusively in terms of violations of Bell-like inequalities. Thus quantum nonlocality is tied to the celebrated no-go theorems, and these comprise a long list that includes the Kochen-Specker and Bell theorems, as well as elegant refinements by Mermin, Peres, Hardy, GHZ, and many others. Typically entanglement or carefully prepared multipartite systems have been considered essential for violations of local realism and for understanding quantum nonlocality. Here we show, to the contrary, that sharp violations of local realism arise almost everywhere without entanglement. The pivotal fact driving these violations is just the noncommutativity of quantum observables. We demonstrate how violations of local realism occur for arbitrary noncommuting projectors, and for arbitrary quantum pure states. Finally, we point to elementary tests for local realism, using single particles and without reference to entanglement, thus avoiding experimental loopholes and efficiency issues that continue to bedevil the Bell inequality related tests

  3. Economic Learning Media Development Based on Local Locality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Rizali; Supriyanto; Hasanah, Mahmudah

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to describe the learning medium of economic education at senior High School in Banjarmasin with media based on local wisdom. This research uses qualitative method as developed by Miles & Huberman, starting from data collection, data reduction data display, and then made conclusion. Data were collected in the order of Basic…

  4. Local government autonomy and development of localities in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Other challenges include inadequate finances, weak intergovernmental relations, fledging democracy and grand corruption. These must be adequately tackled for LGs to make more positive impact in the localities. Some pertinent recommendations are as follows. LGs need adequate autonomy, hard work rather than verbal ...

  5. Local government autonomy and development of localities in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper found that inadequate handling of virtually all the above issues has posed some challenges for LGs' developmental efforts in the localities. Inadequate autonomy has been found to be the independent variable in the challenges. Other challenges include inadequate finances, weak intergovernmental relations, ...

  6. Theory of non-hermitian localization in one dimension: Localization ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the finite depinning field H . The degree of depinning is measured by the averaged .... system [2] shows a direct relationship between the localization length of the ... tight-binding model in a non-hermitian field h, where the discrete sites n, ..... shows that complex eigenvalues do not appear for field strengths less thanh2.

  7. Buying Local or Imported Goods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayob, Abu H.; Hussain, Wan Mohd Hirwani Wan

    2016-01-01

    ’ purchasing decisions. Data was collected on 296 university students in Malaysia and analyzed through probit regression analysis. The findings reveal that foreign products from advanced countries are preferred by male students because of the superior quality and brand image. On the other hand, family members......This study attempts to profile non-income consumers by examining their decisions to buy local or imported products. Hypotheses were drawn from discussions on the comparative advantages of advanced and developing countries, as well as the effects of a product’s country-of-origin on customers...... encourage students to buy local products because they are perceived as being less expensive. Also, students who receive scholarships are more likely to buy local products than self-sponsored students. This research offers insights into ex-ante purchasing behavior in developing countries particularly among...

  8. Local randomness: Examples and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Honghao; Miller, Carl A.

    2018-03-01

    When two players achieve a superclassical score at a nonlocal game, their outputs must contain intrinsic randomness. This fact has many useful implications for quantum cryptography. Recently it has been observed [C. Miller and Y. Shi, Quantum Inf. Computat. 17, 0595 (2017)] that such scores also imply the existence of local randomness—that is, randomness known to one player but not to the other. This has potential implications for cryptographic tasks between two cooperating but mistrustful players. In the current paper we bring this notion toward practical realization, by offering near-optimal bounds on local randomness for the CHSH game, and also proving the security of a cryptographic application of local randomness (single-bit certified deletion).

  9. Local Water Conflict and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Roberto Rivas; Hooper, Catherine; Munk Ravnborg, Helle

    2011-01-01

    in the five countries and discuss its implications. The present paper synthesizes possible ‘blind spots’ in the national policy, legal or administrative water governance frameworks with reference to the identified types of water-related conflictive and cooperative situations identified during the inventories.......In 2007 the Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS) launched the research programme “Competing for Water: Understanding conflict and cooperation in local water governance”. Along with partners in five developing countries (Bolivia, Mali, Nicaragua, Vietnam and Zambia), the programme aims...... to contribute to “sustainable local water governance in support of the rural poor and otherwise disadvantaged groups in developing countries by improving the knowledge among researchers and practitioners of the nature, extent and intensity of local water conflict and cooperation and their social, economic...

  10. 'Global' norms and 'local' agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkdahl, Annika; Gusic, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the 'liberal democratic peace package' is received in post-conflict spaces. As such, it is part of a critical peace research agenda that raises critical questions concerning the quality of peace in many post-conflict societies. A close reading of the peace-building process...... in post-conflict Kosovo provides the backdrop for the theoretical discussion that identifies friction in norm diffusion processes and the different agencies that are generated through encounters between global norms and local practices. We unpack the interplay between the 'global' and the 'local......' in peacebuilding and, through the lens of friction, we reveal the diverse and unequal encounters that produce new power relations. By foregrounding agency, we theorise different agentive subjects in the post-conflict setting, and map local agency from various segments of society that may localise, co-opt or reject...

  11. State and local safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlyle Thompson, G D [Utah State Division of Health, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    1969-07-01

    This paper will give emphasis to the need for an increasing role of the states, along with the Federal agencies, in the Plowshare Program in order to assure state and local confidence with respect to the safety of their residents as the Federal government seeks new methods to benefit society. First will be stressed the age-old principle of control at the source. Other factors to be discussed are monitoring; standards and their use; control action; public relations; predictions and the need to have certain advance knowledge of tests - even if security clearance is necessary for appropriate state representatives; the state and local government responsibility to their citizens; the isolation of national decision making from state and local concern and responsibility; cost assessments and their responsibility; and research as it relates to the ecological system as well a the direct short- or long-term effects of radioactivity on man. (author)

  12. Steady State Shift Damage Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk

    2017-01-01

    The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first......-order importance. The present paper investigates two sub-structuring approaches, in which the idea is to employ Craig-Bampton super-elements to reduce the amount of interrogation distributions while still providing an acceptable localization resolution. The first approach operates on a strict super-element level...

  13. Managing CSR Globally and Locally

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Brown, Dana; Knudsen, Jette Steen

    Corporate Responsibility (CR) is today an essential component of corporate global strategy. CR can bolster the institutional context for market expansion (Porter and Kramer 2006); fill institutional voids (Tarun, et.al. 2005); or facilitate market entry as a component of non-market strategy (Baron...... 2006). Yet, in fulfilling these functions, CR may need to be highly sensitive to local contexts. How can transnational firms organize CR so as to maximize efficiencies from globalization and to minimize the fragmentation of corporate organizational cultures? Bartlett and Ghoshal (1989) provide...... a framework for analyzing the way that corporations coordinate global and local functions. We build on this framework in a case study of Novo Nordisk and its approach to determining global and local CR policies and procedures with regard to its China and United States subsidiaries. Our findings suggest...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL BENCHMARKING FOR LOCAL AUTHORITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela GHEREŞ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to clarify and present the many definitions ofbenchmarking. It also attempts to explain the basic steps of benchmarking, toshow how this tool can be applied by local authorities as well as to discuss itspotential benefits and limitations. It is our strong belief that if cities useindicators and progressively introduce targets to improve management andrelated urban life quality, and to measure progress towards more sustainabledevelopment, we will also create a new type of competition among cities andfoster innovation. This is seen to be important because local authorities’actions play a vital role in responding to the challenges of enhancing thestate of the environment not only in policy-making, but also in the provision ofservices and in the planning process. Local communities therefore need tobe aware of their own sustainability performance levels and should be able toengage in exchange of best practices to respond effectively to the ecoeconomicalchallenges of the century.

  15. State and local safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlyle Thompson, G.D.

    1969-01-01

    This paper will give emphasis to the need for an increasing role of the states, along with the Federal agencies, in the Plowshare Program in order to assure state and local confidence with respect to the safety of their residents as the Federal government seeks new methods to benefit society. First will be stressed the age-old principle of control at the source. Other factors to be discussed are monitoring; standards and their use; control action; public relations; predictions and the need to have certain advance knowledge of tests - even if security clearance is necessary for appropriate state representatives; the state and local government responsibility to their citizens; the isolation of national decision making from state and local concern and responsibility; cost assessments and their responsibility; and research as it relates to the ecological system as well a the direct short- or long-term effects of radioactivity on man. (author)

  16. Anderson localization and ballooning eigenfunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewar, R.L.; Cuthbert, P.

    1999-01-01

    In solving the ballooning eigenvalue for a low-aspect-ratio stellarator equilibrium it is found that the quasiperiodic behaviour of the equilibrium quantities along a typical magnetic field line can lead to localization of the ballooning eigenfunction (Anderson localization) even in the limit of zero shear. This localization leads to strong field-line dependence of the ballooning eigenvalue, with different branches attaining their maximum growth rates on different field lines. A method is presented of estimating the field-line dependence of various eigenvalue branches by using toroidal and poloidal symmetry operations on the shear-free ballooning equation to generate an approximate set of eigenfunctions. These zero-shear predictions are compared with accurate numerical solutions for the H-1 Heliac and are shown to give a qualitatively correct picture, but finite shear corrections will be needed to give quantitative predictions

  17. A platform for local entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos; Lorentzen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the birth and evolution of a festival that has targeted the entrepreneurial dynamics in the provincial city of Frederikshavn (North Denmark). The festival was initiated in 2004 to confront a local economic crisis and has enjoyed support from a broad range of stakeholders. I......-in. Empirically, the article is based on interviews with a wide range of actors across the organizing network. The article offers some preliminary lessons about what such an event can contribute to local entrepreneurship.......This article discusses the birth and evolution of a festival that has targeted the entrepreneurial dynamics in the provincial city of Frederikshavn (North Denmark). The festival was initiated in 2004 to confront a local economic crisis and has enjoyed support from a broad range of stakeholders...

  18. On A Quasi-local Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiao

    2009-01-01

    We modify previous quasi-local mass definition. The new definition provides expressions of the quasi-local energy, the quasi-local linear momentum and the quasi-local mass. And they are equal to the ADM expressions at spatial infinity. Moreover, the new quasi-local energy has the positivity property.

  19. Foreign English Language Teachers' Local Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusafzai, Hamid Ali Khan

    2015-01-01

    ELT methods have been criticized for being limited and inadequate. Postmethod pedagogy has been offered as an alternate to these methods. The postmethod pedagogy emphasises localization of pedagogy and celebrates local culture, teachers and knowledge. Localizing pedagogy is easy for local teachers as knowledge and understanding of the local comes…

  20. A locally adaptive normal distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvanitidis, Georgios; Hansen, Lars Kai; Hauberg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    entropy distribution under the given metric. The underlying metric is, however, non-parametric. We develop a maximum likelihood algorithm to infer the distribution parameters that relies on a combination of gradient descent and Monte Carlo integration. We further extend the LAND to mixture models......The multivariate normal density is a monotonic function of the distance to the mean, and its ellipsoidal shape is due to the underlying Euclidean metric. We suggest to replace this metric with a locally adaptive, smoothly changing (Riemannian) metric that favors regions of high local density...

  1. 50 Years of Anderson Localization

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, Elihu

    2010-01-01

    In his groundbreaking paper Absence of diffusion in certain random lattices (1958), Philip W. Anderson originated, described and developed the physical principles underlying the phenomenon of the localization of quantum objects due to disorder. Anderson's 1977 Nobel Prize citation featured that paper, which was fundamental for many subsequent developments in condensed matter theory and technical applications. After more than a half century, the subject continues to be of fundamental importance. In particular, in the last 25 years, the phenomenon of localization has proved to be crucial for the

  2. Local fields in ionic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claro, F.

    1981-08-01

    Local fields arising from the electronic distortion in perfect ionic crystals are described in terms of multipolar excitations. Field factors for the alkali halides and chalcogenide ions are found to differ significantly from the Lorentz value of 4π/3, the correction size following an exponential dependence on the difference in ionic radii. Local fields are only slightly modified by these corrections however, and together with the Clausius-Mossotti relation may be regarded as accurate to within 2% if the Lorentz value is adopted. (author)

  3. Local distribution and franchising rights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penick, V.; Grant, R.; McKelvey, S.; Cramm, K.

    1998-01-01

    A summary of local distribution and franchising rights in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick is presented. The Gas Distribution Act calls for two distinct sets of regulations : broad regulations to be made by the provinces, and more technical procedural regulations to be made by the Utility and Review Board. The focus of this paper is on how municipalities will be affected by the regulations and how franchising within a local area will work. The overall objective is to ensure free competition in gas sales

  4. The localized quantum vacuum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoman, D

    2008-01-01

    A model for the localized quantum vacuum is proposed in which the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the quantum electromagnetic field originates in energy- and momentum-conserving transitions of material systems from their ground state to an unstable state with negative energy. These transitions are accompanied by emissions and re-absorptions of real photons, which generate a localized quantum vacuum in the neighborhood of material systems. The model could help resolve the cosmological paradox associated with the ZPE of electromagnetic fields, while reclaiming quantum effects associated with quantum vacuum such as the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift. It also offers a new insight into the Zitterbewegung of material particles

  5. The localized quantum vacuum field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dragoman, D [Physics Department, University of Bucharest, PO Box MG-11, 077125 Bucharest (Romania)], E-mail: danieladragoman@yahoo.com

    2008-03-15

    A model for the localized quantum vacuum is proposed in which the zero-point energy (ZPE) of the quantum electromagnetic field originates in energy- and momentum-conserving transitions of material systems from their ground state to an unstable state with negative energy. These transitions are accompanied by emissions and re-absorptions of real photons, which generate a localized quantum vacuum in the neighborhood of material systems. The model could help resolve the cosmological paradox associated with the ZPE of electromagnetic fields, while reclaiming quantum effects associated with quantum vacuum such as the Casimir effect and the Lamb shift. It also offers a new insight into the Zitterbewegung of material particles.

  6. Spatial localization of speech segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian Lykkegaard

    1999-01-01

    loudspeakers were suspended so that they surrounded the subjects in the horizontal plane. The subjects were required to push a button on a pad indicating where they had localized the target to in the horizontal plane. The response pad had twelve buttons arranged uniformly in a circle and two further buttons so...... that the subjects could indicate if they had not heard the target or if they had heard it, but could not localize it. The model consists of three overall parts. One part assigns directional estimates to time-frequency components on the basis of interaural time difference and front/back templates. Another part does...

  7. Internationalization and Localization in Python

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Internationalization and Localization are increasingly important in an interconnected world. Regardless of that, developers tend to treat them as secondary issues, very often choosing to address them properly when it's already too late. The fact that most programming language standard libraries choose to ignore the matter doesn't help either. In this talk we will present some useful Python libraries and tools that can help you internationalize and localize your code with minimal effort. We will also describe some common pitfalls and problems.

  8. Local distribution and franchising rights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penick, V. [McInnes, Cooper and Robertson, Halifax, NS (Canada); Grant, R.; McKelvey, S. [Stirling Scales, NB (Canada); Cramm, K. [Maritimes NRG, Halifax, NS (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    A summary of local distribution and franchising rights in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick is presented. The Gas Distribution Act calls for two distinct sets of regulations : broad regulations to be made by the provinces, and more technical procedural regulations to be made by the Utility and Review Board. The focus of this paper is on how municipalities will be affected by the regulations and how franchising within a local area will work. The overall objective is to ensure free competition in gas sales.

  9. Challenges of local water governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk Ravnborg, Helle; Bustamante, Rocio; Cissé, Abdoulaye

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the results of comprehensive inventories made of water-related conflict and cooperation occurring in five districts in Africa, Asia and Latin America between 1997 and 2007. Following a description of the conceptual and methodological framework developed for undertaking...... these inventories, the article documents the extent, nature and intensity of water-related conflict and cooperation in the five districts. The article concludes by identifying three challenges relating to the magnitude, complexity and invisibility of local-level conflict and cooperation about water, which efforts...... to improve local water governance would have to address....

  10. Localized lesions in secondary syphillis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasid, N.; Syphilis, S.

    2008-01-01

    The clinical manifestations of secondary syphilis are variable and can mimic many skin diseases, mostly being generalized and symmetrical in distribution. Localized lesions of secondary syphilis are rarely seen in dermatology clinics. We report an unusual presentation wherein a patient had localized lesions over face and soles only. There is a need for increased awareness on the part of physicians to recognize new patterns of syphilitic infection, together with a willingness to consider the diagnosis of syphilis in patients with unusual clinical features. (author)

  11. Cooperative Localization for Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Urup, Daniel Nygaard; Meyer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief approxim......We propose a hybrid message passing method for distributed cooperative localization and tracking of mobile agents. Belief propagation and mean field message passing are employed for, respectively, the motion-related and measurementrelated part of the factor graph. Using a Gaussian belief...

  12. Local models of astrophysical discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latter, Henrik N.; Papaloizou, John

    2017-12-01

    Local models of gaseous accretion discs have been successfully employed for decades to describe an assortment of small-scale phenomena, from instabilities and turbulence, to dust dynamics and planet formation. For the most part, they have been derived in a physically motivated but essentially ad hoc fashion, with some of the mathematical assumptions never made explicit nor checked for consistency. This approach is susceptible to error, and it is easy to derive local models that support spurious instabilities or fail to conserve key quantities. In this paper we present rigorous derivations, based on an asympototic ordering, and formulate a hierarchy of local models (incompressible, Boussinesq and compressible), making clear which is best suited for a particular flow or phenomenon, while spelling out explicitly the assumptions and approximations of each. We also discuss the merits of the anelastic approximation, emphasizing that anelastic systems struggle to conserve energy unless strong restrictions are imposed on the flow. The problems encountered by the anelastic approximation are exacerbated by the disc's differential rotation, but also attend non-rotating systems such as stellar interiors. We conclude with a defence of local models and their continued utility in astrophysical research.

  13. Weak localization of seismic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larose, E.; Margerin, L.; Tiggelen, B.A. van; Campillo, M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the observation of weak localization of seismic waves in a natural environment. It emerges as a doubling of the seismic energy around the source within a spot of the width of a wavelength, which is several tens of meters in our case. The characteristic time for its onset is the scattering mean-free time that quantifies the internal heterogeneity

  14. Complete local search with memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, D.; Sierksma, G.

    2000-01-01

    Neighborhood search heuristics like local search and its variants are some of the most popular approaches to solve discrete optimization problems of moderate to large size. Apart from tabu search, most of these heuristics are memoryless. In this paper we introduce a new neighborhood search heuristic

  15. Local Anesthetic-Induced Neurotoxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlinde, Mark; Hollmann, Markus W.; Stevens, Markus F.; Hermanns, Henning; Werdehausen, Robert; Lirk, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge concerning incidence, risk factors, and mechanisms of perioperative nerve injury, with focus on local anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity. Perioperative nerve injury is a complex phenomenon and can be caused by a number of clinical factors. Anesthetic risk

  16. Business Models for Local Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars; Pedersen, Maja; Pederson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    sales of food products (and vice versa) and therefore have to develop alternative marketing channels. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the practices of different small and medium-sized Danish producers of locally grown and/or processed foods in relation to developing marketing channels...

  17. Mesotherapy for local fat reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasinghe, S; Guillot, T; Bissoon, L; Greenway, F

    2013-10-01

    Mesotherapy, which is the injection of substances locally into mesodermally derived subcutaneous tissue, developed from empirical observations of a French physician in the 1950s. Although popular in Europe for many medical purposes, it is used for local cosmetic fat reduction in the United States. This paper reviews manuscripts indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE under 'mesotherapy', which pertains to local fat reduction. The history of lipolytic mesotherapy, the physiology of body fat distribution, the mechanism of action of different lipolytic stimulators and their increased efficacy in combination are reviewed. Mesotherapy falls into two categories. Lipolytic mesotherapy using lipolytic stimulators requires more frequent treatments as the fat cells are not destroyed and can refill over time. Ablative mesotherapy destroys fat cells with a detergent, causes inflammation and scarring from the fat necrosis, but requires fewer treatments. The historic and empiric mixing of sodium channel blocking local anaesthetics in mesotherapy solutions inhibits the intended lipolysis. Major mesotherapy safety concerns include injection site infections from poor sterile technique. Cosmetic mesotherapy directs the area from which fat is lost to improve self-image. Studies were of relatively small number, many with limited sample sizes. Future research should be directed towards achieving a Food and Drug Administration indication rather than continuing expansion of off-label use. © 2013 The Authors. obesity reviews © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  18. The Brainomics/Localizer database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Michel, Vincent; Schwartz, Yannick; Pinel, Philippe; Moreno, Antonio; Le Bihan, Denis; Frouin, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    The Brainomics/Localizer database exposes part of the data collected by the in-house Localizer project, which planned to acquire four types of data from volunteer research subjects: anatomical MRI scans, functional MRI data, behavioral and demographic data, and DNA sampling. Over the years, this local project has been collecting such data from hundreds of subjects. We had selected 94 of these subjects for their complete datasets, including all four types of data, as the basis for a prior publication; the Brainomics/Localizer database publishes the data associated with these 94 subjects. Since regulatory rules prevent us from making genetic data available for download, the database serves only anatomical MRI scans, functional MRI data, behavioral and demographic data. To publish this set of heterogeneous data, we use dedicated software based on the open-source CubicWeb semantic web framework. Through genericity in the data model and flexibility in the display of data (web pages, CSV, JSON, XML), CubicWeb helps us expose these complex datasets in original and efficient ways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Project LOCAL - Bridging The Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haven, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    Project LOCAL, a not-for-profit regional consortium, offers a broad spectrum of in-service training courses tailored to meet the needs of educators in various disciplines and levels of experience. The purpose of these offerings is to bridge the communication gap between innovative centers in computer-oriented education and staff members in Boston…

  20. Quantum Strategies and Local Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutoski, Gus

    2010-02-01

    This thesis is divided into two parts. In Part I we introduce a new formalism for quantum strategies, which specify the actions of one party in any multi-party interaction involving the exchange of multiple quantum messages among the parties. This formalism associates with each strategy a single positive semidefinite operator acting only upon the tensor product of the input and output message spaces for the strategy. We establish three fundamental properties of this new representation for quantum strategies and we list several applications, including a quantum version of von Neumann's celebrated 1928 Min-Max Theorem for zero-sum games and an efficient algorithm for computing the value of such a game. In Part II we establish several properties of a class of quantum operations that can be implemented locally with shared quantum entanglement or classical randomness. In particular, we establish the existence of a ball of local operations with shared randomness lying within the space spanned by the no-signaling operations and centred at the completely noisy channel. The existence of this ball is employed to prove that the weak membership problem for local operations with shared entanglement is strongly NP-hard. We also provide characterizations of local operations in terms of linear functionals that are positive and "completely" positive on a certain cone of Hermitian operators, under a natural notion of complete positivity appropriate to that cone. We end the thesis with a discussion of the properties of no-signaling quantum operations.

  1. Local Assessment Moderation in SEPUP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Lily; And Others

    Assessment moderation is a procedure in which scorers or raters meet to achieve a consensus on scores assigned to student work. In the Science Education for Public Understanding Program (SEPUP), local teams of teachers met regularly at six sites nationwide to score student work, review methods of assigning scores, discuss and resolve discrepancies…

  2. Re-thinking local causality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    There is widespread belief in a tension between quantum theory and special relativity, motivated by the idea that quantum theory violates J. S. Bell's criterion of local causality, which is meant to implement the causal structure of relativistic space-time. This paper argues that if one takes the

  3. Local Decisions and Global Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David C.; Long, Cathryn J.

    1976-01-01

    Impact of economic and urban planning on the natural environment can be studied through local situations: California conservation students realized the detrimental effects of a seemingly beneficial dam project. Students were inspired to initiate community-state action to correct damage to wildlife, sanitation, and farming. (AV)

  4. Are Local Registers the Solution?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldwin, R.; English, C.; Lemmen, C.H.J.; Rose, I.; Smith, A.; Solovov, A.; Sullivan, T.

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of using local registers to manage and update land rights. Secure land rights are largely taken for granted in the developed world. Yet for many people in developing nations, clear and enforceable land rights are not a reality. In the developed world, land rights

  5. Preoperative nonpalpable breast lesions localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardellin, G; Natale, F; Perin, B

    1986-01-01

    The effectiveness of real time sonography and mammography are examined in localizing with a hookwire (introduced via a straight needle) the nonpalpable breast lesions. The method, used for surgery or biopsy, was successful in a series of 13 patients with nonpalpable breast lesions, 4 affectd by carcinoma. 18 refs.

  6. [Localized scleroderma (morphea) in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, L

    2012-02-01

    Localized scleroderma or morphea is a sclerosing connective tissue disease of the skin, which may affect underlying tissues such as subcutis, muscle and bone. Many patients show extracutaneous symptoms and antinuclear antibodies, however, secondary transformation into systemic sclerosis does not occur. Localized scleroderma usually begins in childhood with a wide variation in its clinical spectrum. The linear variant is the most common subtype in children, associated with a progressive course and increased risk of complications. The disease may progress over years and result in severe functional and cosmetic disability. The etiology of localized scleroderma remains unknown. A genetic background is suspected, while triggers such as trauma, vaccinations and infections may lead to secondary immunologic phenomena. Localized scleroderma often remains unrecognized for a long time, resulting in substantial delay in treatment. The combination of systemic corticosteroids and methotrexate has been established as first-line therapy for progressive (usually linear) disease, whereas phototherapy (UVA-1 or UVB-narrow band) is suitable for adolescents with superficial circumscribed subtypes.

  7. Electron localization in water clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landman, U.; Barnett, R.N.; Cleveland, C.L.; Jortner, J.

    1987-01-01

    Electron attachment to water clusters was explored by the quantum path integral molecular dynamics method, demonstrating that the energetically favored localization mode involves a surface state of the excess electron, rather than the precursor of the hydrated electron. The cluster size dependence, the energetics and the charge distribution of these novel electron-cluster surface states are explored. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  8. Radiation risk education program - local

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushong, S.C.; Archer, B.R.

    1980-01-01

    This article points out the lack of knowledge by the general public and medical profession concerning the true risks of radiation exposure. The author describes an educational program which can be implemented at the local level to overcome this deficiency. The public must understand the enormous extent of benefit derived from radiation applications in our society

  9. Design approach to local blockages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roychowdhury, D.G.; Govindarajan, S.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    In LMFBR, whole core meltdown accident falls in residual risk category. Propagation of a local fault to whole core, however, needs attention. Subassembly accidents are divided into two categories, Design Basis and Beyond Design Basis accidents. Design Basis is further classified into four categories. All events affecting fuel pin performance are identified and categorised, Total Instantaneous Blockage has been identified as the envelope of all local faults and categorised as BDB event and the safety objective is to demonstrate that no damage will propagate beyond six neighbouring SA. A core catcher has been provided for retention of core debris and cooling it by natural convection. Local blockages may be active and passive. Active blockages can be detected by DND signal. For passive blockages, detection is difficult. Hence, development of a finite volume computer code based on the porous body formulation has been undertaken to define the maximum allowable defect. Experimental programmes have been undertaken to understand blockage mechanism, define maximum credible defect and the thermalhydraulic behaviour of SA with local blockages. Also an experimental programme with a totally blocked SA with a bundle of heated pins has been undertaken to understand the behaviour of the SA. (author)

  10. LOCALIZATION OF PEPTIDASES IN LACTOCOCCI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TAN, PST; CHAPOTCHARTIER, MP; POS, KM; ROUSSEAU, M; BOQUIEN, CY; GRIPON, JC; KONINGS, WN

    The localization of two aminopeptidases, an X-prolyl-dipeptidyl aminopeptidase, an endopeptidase, and a tripeptidase in Lactococcus lactis was studied. Polyclonal antibodies raised against each purified peptidase are specific and do not cross-react with other peptidases. Experiments were performed

  11. Universities: Engaging with Local Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet illustrates the many ways in which universities impact on the local area. Universities are a major contributor to the economy in their own right, both as employers and purchasers of goods. Their social and cultural influence is also felt through their provision of: (1) art galleries, museums and exhibitions; (2) cinemas and theatres;…

  12. Energy localization and molecular dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, S.; Tsironis, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    We study analytically as well as numerically the role that large-amplitude vibrations play during the process of molecular dissociation. Our model consists of a linear three-atom molecule composed of identical atoms interacting with their nearest neighbors by Morse potentials. We find a close relation between energy localization and bond breaking and evaluate numerically the corresponding reaction paths

  13. New developments for localized adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudh-hir, M.E.

    1989-02-01

    Using the diagrammatic expansion, new developments for localized adsorption are found. It is proved that the correlations in the system, in the absence of the attractive site potential, and the periodicity of the sites play a fundamental role in the adsorption phenomena. 14 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  14. Comparison of six methods of segmentation of tumor volume on the {sup 18}F-F.D.G. PET scan with reference histological volume in non small cell bronchopulmonary cancers; Comparaison de six methodes de segmentation du volume tumoral sur la {sup 18}F-FDG TEP-TDM avec le volume de reference anatomopathologique dans les cancers bronchopulmonaires non a petites cellules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venel, Y.; Garhi, H.; Baulieu, J.L.; Prunier-Aesch, C. [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 37 - Tours (France); Muret, A. de [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service de Radiotherapie, 37 - Tours (France); Barillot, I. [CHRU de Tours-Bretonneau, Service d' Anatomopathologie, 37 - Tours (France)

    2008-06-15

    's et al. method seems to be the most accurate for tumours over 2 cm of diameter. Today no method can correctly estimate the volume of smaller tumours. To improve those segmentation approaches, partial volume effect correction needs to be implemented for small tumours or tumours close to mediastinal local extension. The main indication of segmentation based on F.D.G. PET is tumour greater than 2 cm for which treatment will be radiotherapy alone or radiotherapy associated with chemotherapy. Our study is important because it compares the different methods described in the literature with the reference histological volume of the tumor, which is the only way to validate tumor segmentation method. (authors)

  15. SOCIAL ANALYSES OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT POTENTIAL OF LOCAL COMMUNITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Анатольевич Ткачев

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article looks over the system of territorial public self-government as one of the most effective figures of existing local communities in the Russian municipalities. Problems of territorial self-government are analyzed from theoretical point of view and on this basis there are four groups of problems distinguished. The authors primarily focus their attention on the social group problems. Verification conducted sociological problems of the social unit, which currently prevent the formation of an effective system of territorial self-government at the municipal level. A sociologic analysis selector management social issue allows us to make conclusion about the current lack of efficient data support system for local public selector. Diagnostics confirmed existence of barriers of a social field of the organization of territorial public self-government.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-9-66

  16. Sacroplasty for Local or Massive Localization of Multiple Myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basile, Antonio; Tsetis, Dimitrios; Cavalli, Maide; Fiumara, Paolo; Raimondo, Francesco Di; Coppolino, Francesco; Coppolino, Carmelo; Mundo, Elena; Desiderio, Carla; Granata, Antonio; Patti, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of cementoplasty in the treatment of sacral multiple myelomas. We retrospectively reviewed the records of eight patients (four women and four men; age range 47-68 years; mean age 57.8) who underwent cementoplasty for painful osteolytic localization of multiple myeloma between April 2007 and May 2009. The patients had difficulty walking because of increasing pain. Six patients had persistent pain despite other cementoplasties for vertebral and femoral localization, whereas two patients referred at the time of diagnosis had only sacral lesions. The clinical indication for treatment was (1) a pain intensity score ≥5 on visual analogue scale (VAS) and (2) pain totally or partially refractory to analgesic treatment in patients with a life expectancy >3 months. Technical planning was based on computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Six patients had previously undergone radiotherapy or chemotherapy and were receiving varying doses of analgesics, whereas sacroplasty represented the first treatment for two patients. Five patients had monolateral local involvement, and the other patients had massive involvement of the sacrum; Technical success was achieved in all cases. We had only one small and asymptomatic foraminal leak. All patients experienced improvement in symptoms after the procedure, as demonstrated by improved VAS scores and performance status (PS) and decreased analgesic dose constant during follow-up. In our experience, percutaneous stabilization can be used effectively and safely in patients with focal or extensive involvement of the sacrum by multiple myeloma.

  17. Subcellular localization of pituitary enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. E.

    1970-01-01

    A cytochemical procedure is reported for identifying subcellular sites of enzymes hydrolyzing beta-naphthylamine substrates, and to study the sites of reaction product localization in cells of various tissues. Investigations using the substrate Leu 4-methoxy-8-naphthylamine, a capture with hexonium pararosaniline, and the final chelation of osmium have identified the hydrolyzing enzyme of rat liver cells; this enzyme localized on cell membranes with intense deposition in the areas of the parcanaliculi. The study of cells in the anterior pituitary of the rat showed the deposition of reaction product on cell membrane; and on the membranes of secretion granules contained within the cell. The deposition of reaction product on the cell membrane however showed no increase or decrease with changes in the physiological state of the gland and release of secretion granules from specific cells.

  18. Local rectification of heat flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, M.; Cui, Y. Y.; Ruschhaupt, A.; Simón, M. A.; Muga, J. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present a chain-of-atoms model where heat is rectified, with different fluxes from the hot to the cold baths located at the chain boundaries when the temperature bias is reversed. The chain is homogeneous except for boundary effects and a local modification of the interactions at one site, the “impurity”. The rectification mechanism is due here to the localized impurity, the only asymmetrical element of the structure, apart from the externally imposed temperature bias, and does not rely on putting in contact different materials or other known mechanisms such as grading or long-range interactions. The effect survives if all interaction forces are linear except the ones for the impurity.

  19. Local wisdom and health promotion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demaio, Alessandro Rhyll

    2011-01-01

    The respectful, appropriate use of local wisdom (LW) in health promotion increases penetration and longevity of positive behavior change. Collaborations based on mutual respect, flexibility and trust between health program organizers, traditional and local practitioners, and the communities being...... served are the goal for public health physicians in our modern, globalized world. This meta-analysis reviewed literature from the past 18 years drawn from a wide range of sources. This investigations proposes a grassroots, material shift toward regarding health promotion interventions as partnerships...... when planning, executing, and evaluating health promotion projects. This holistic approach would be based on the premise that LW is equal to expert opinion. This article endorses the integration of LW at every stage of the health promotion process concluding that it is through empowerment...

  20. Quantum Locality in Game Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo-Luna, Carlos A; Susa, Cristian E; Ducuara, Andrés F; Barreiro, Astrid; Reina, John H

    2017-03-22

    Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players' input states. This highlights the remarkable key role played by pure quantum coherence at powering some protocols. Finally, we propose an experiment that uses separable states and basic photon interferometry to demonstrate the locally-correlated quantum advantage.