WorldWideScience

Sample records for wc-ni-co-cr cemented carbides

  1. Microstructural Study of Titanium Carbide Coating on Cemented Carbide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuorinen, S.; Horsewell, Andy

    1982-01-01

    Titanium carbide coating layers on cemented carbide substrates have been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. Microstructural variations within the typically 5µm thick chemical vapour deposited TiC coatings were found to vary with deposit thickness such that a layer structure could...

  2. Feasibility study of fluxless brazing cemented carbides to steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Sievers, N.

    2017-03-01

    One of the most important brazing processes is the joints between cemented carbides and steel for the tool industry such as in rotary drill hammers or saw blades. Even though this technique has already been used for several decades, defects in the joint can still occur and lead to quality loss. Mostly, the joining process is facilitated by induction heating and the use of a flux to enhance the wetting of the filler alloy on the surface of the steel and cemented carbide in an ambient atmosphere. However, although the use of flux enables successful joining, it also generates voids within the joint, which reduces the strength of the connection while the chemicals within the flux are toxic and polluting. In this feasibility study, a fluxless brazing process is used to examine the joint between cemented carbides and steel for the first time. For this, ultrasound is applied during induction heating to enable the wetting between the liquid filler metal and the surfaces of the cemented carbide and steel. The ultrasound generates cavitations within the liquid filler metal, which remove the oxides from the surface. Several filler metals such as a silver based alloy Ag449, pure Zn, and an AlSi-alloy were used to reduce the brazing temperature and to lower the thermal residual stresses within the joint. As a result, every filler metal successfully wetted both materials and led to a dense connection. The ultrasound has to be applied carefully to prevent a damage of the cemented carbide. In this regard, it was observed that single grains of the cemented carbide broke out and remained in the joint. This positive result of brazing cemented carbides to steel without a flux but using ultrasound, allows future studies to focus on the shear strength of these joints as well as the behavior of the thermally induced residual stresses.

  3. Microwave Sintering and Its Application on Cemented Carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Rumman Md Raihanuzzaman; Lee Chang Chuan; Zonghan Xie; Reza Ghomashchi

    2015-01-01

    Cemented carbides, owing to their excellent mechanical properties, have been of immense interest in the field of hard materials for the past few decades. A number of processing techniques have been developed to obtain high quality carbide tools, with a wide range of grain size depending on the application and requirements. Microwave sintering is one of the heating processes, which has been used to prepare a wide range of materials including ceramics. A deep understanding ...

  4. stabilization of ikpayongo laterite with cement and calcium carbide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Laterite obtained from Ikpayongo was stabilized with 2-10 % cement and 2-10 % Calcium Carbide waste, for use as pavement material. Atterberg's limits test, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted on the natural laterite and the treated soil specimens. The plasticity ...

  5. Stabilization of Ikpayongo laterite with cement and calcium carbide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laterite obtained from Ikpayongo was stabilized with 2-10 % cement and 2-10 % Calcium Carbide waste, for use as pavement material. Atterberg's limits test, California bearing ratio (CBR) and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted on the natural laterite and the treated soil specimens. The plasticity ...

  6. Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide for Industrial Applicaitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Z. Zak Fang, H. Y. Sohn

    2009-03-10

    This report contains detailed information of the research program entitled "Development of Bulk Nanocrystalline Cemented Tungsten Carbide Materials for Industrial Applications". The report include the processes that were developed for producing nanosized WC/Co composite powders, and an ultrahigh pressure rapid hot consolidation process for sintering of nanosized powders. The mechanical properties of consolidated materials using the nanosized powders are also reported.

  7. Effect of Cement Replacement with Carbide Waste on the Strength of Stabilized Clay Subgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntohar A.S.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cement is commonly used for soil stabilization and many other ground improvement techniques. Cement is believed to be very good to improve the compressive and split-tensile strength of clay subgrades. In some application cement could be partly or fully replaced with carbide waste. This research is to study the effectiveness of the cement replacement and to find the maximum carbide waste content to be allowed for a clay subgrade. The quantities of cement replaced with the carbide waste were 30, 50, 70, 90, and 100% by its mass. The results show that replacing the cement with carbide waste decreased both the compressive and split tensile strength. Replacing cement content with carbide waste reduced its ability for stabilization. The carbide waste content should be less than 70% of the cement to provide a sufficient stabilizing effect on a clay subgrade.

  8. Frictional Performance Assessment of Cemented Carbide Surfaces Textured by Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, S.; Llanes, L.; Klein, S.; Gachot, C.; Rosenkranz, A.; Bähre, D.; Mücklich, F.

    2017-10-01

    Cemented carbides are advanced engineering materials often used in industry for manufacturing cutting tools or supporting parts in tribological system. In order to improve service life, special attention has been paid to change surface conditions by means of different methods, since surface modification can be beneficial to reduce the friction between the contact surfaces as well as to avoid unintended damage. Laser surface texturing is one of the newly developed surface modification methods. It has been successfully introduced to fabricate some basic patterns on cemented carbide surfaces. In this work, Direct Laser Interference Patterning Technique (DLIP) is implemented to produce special line-like patterns on a cobalt (Co) and nickel (Ni) based cemented tungsten carbide grade. It is proven that the laser-produced patterns have high geometrical precision and quality stability. Furthermore, tribology testing using a nano-tribometer unit shows that friction is reduced by the line-like patterns, as compared to the polished one, under both lubricated and dry testing regimes, and the reduction is more pronounced in the latter case.

  9. Review on Sintering Process of WC-Co Cemented Carbide in Metal Injection Molding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathabrao, M.; Amin, Sri Yulis M.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to give an overview on sintering process of WC-Co cemented carbides in metal injection molding technology. Metal injection molding is an advanced and promising technology in producing cemented nanostructured carbides. Cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) hard metal is known for its high hardness and wear resistance in various applications. Moreover, areas include fine grained materials, alternative binders, and alternative sintering techniques has been discussed in this paper.

  10. Development of a new family of cemented carbides for geothermal drilling. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliff, D.J.

    1983-10-01

    The contractor fabricated samples of cemented carbides based on tantalum carbide and niobium carbide with cobalt and nickel binders. These materials were evaluated for use as rock-bit inserts in geothermal drilling. Carbon content in the niobium carbide (NbC/sub x/) and the tantalum carbide (TaC/sub x/) was varied (x is 0.83 to 1.0) and the effect of these changes on the carbides' mechanical properties was examined. Hardness, toughness, and abrasive wear resistance of the new materials were measured and compared to properties of tungsten carbide grades used in rock-bit inserts.

  11. Direct Electrochemical Preparation of Cobalt, Tungsten, and Tungsten Carbide from Cemented Carbide Scrap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiangjun; Xi, Xiaoli; Nie, Zuoren; Zhang, Liwen; Ma, Liwen

    2017-02-01

    A novel process of preparing cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide powders from cemented carbide scrap by molten salt electrolysis has been investigated in this paper. In this experiment, WC-6Co and NaCl-KCl salt were used as sacrificial anode and electrolyte, respectively. The dissolution potential of cobalt and WC was determined by linear sweep voltammetry to be 0 and 0.6 V ( vs Ag/AgCl), respectively. Furthermore, the electrochemical behavior of cobalt and tungsten ions was investigated by a variety of electrochemical techniques. Results of cyclic voltammetry (CV) and square-wave voltammetry show that the cobalt and tungsten ions existed as Co2+ and W2+ on melts, respectively. The effect of applied voltage, electrolysis current, and electrolysis times on the composition of the product was studied. Results showed that pure cobalt powder can be obtained when the electrolysis potential is lower than 0.6 V or during low current and short times. Double-cathode and two-stage electrolysis was utilized for the preparation of cobalt, tungsten carbide, and tungsten powders. Additionally, X-ray diffraction results confirm that the product collected at cathodes 1 and 2 is pure Co and WC, respectively. Pure tungsten powder was obtained after electrolysis of the second part. Scanning electron microscope results show that the diameters of tungsten, tungsten carbide, and cobalt powder are smaller than 100, 200, and 200 nm, respectively.

  12. Transformation-toughening in cemented carbides: Part II. Thermomechanical treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanadham, R. K.; Lindquist, P. G.

    1987-12-01

    WC-(Fe, Ni, C) cemented carbides can be successfully transformation-toughened by careful control of binder composition and taking into consideration the effect of thermal residual stress on the transformation characteristics of the binder. An additional degree of control on the metastability of the binder phase can be achieved via thermomechanical treatments. These treatments consist of transforming an austenitic binder to martensite by cooling in liquid nitrogen followed by a suitable high temperature heat treatment to reaustenitize it. The in situ deformation of the binder caused by the large shape and volume changes that accompany its transformation to martensite thus provides the mechanical component of the thermomechanical treatment. Subsequent heat treatments not only reaustenitize the binder but also modify its susceptibility to undergo stress-induced transformation. It is shown that the hardness/fracture toughness behavior of WC-(Fe, Ni, C) cemented carbides can be significantly improved by the application of such treatments. A qualitative explanation for the enhancements in fracture toughness provided by thermomechanical treatments is offered based on a careful examination of the changes in phase constitution of the binder that occur during these treatments.

  13. High-temperature plastic flow behaviour in the binder of WC-Co cemented carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Chul

    1996-04-01

    Co-rich solid solution alloys regarded as the composition of binder phasesat elevated temperatures in WC-Co cemented carbides were fabricated and the high-temperature deformation behaviour of the alloys was investigated. The logarithmic relationship between flow stress and strain rate is expressed by a single straight line with the slope of 0.15 at a constant temperature in all strain rate range examined, unlike in cemented carbides showing the sigmoidal behaviour. The solid solution hardening due to the addition of Cr3C2 and VC is negligible in the Co-9WC-lCr3C2-0.5VC alloy and the mutual relation in flow stress is different between the cemented carbides and their binder phases in region I. The plastic flow in region I in WC-Co cemented carbides cannot be explained by the flow stress or flow behaviour in the binder phase.

  14. Grinding-induced metallurgical alterations in the binder phase of WC-Co cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jing; Roa Rovira, Joan Josep; Schwind, Martin; Odén, M.; Johansonn Joesaar, M. P.; Llanes Pitarch, Luis Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The metallic binder phase dictates the toughening behavior of WC-Co cemented carbides (hardmetals), even though it occupies a relative small fraction of the composite. Studies on deformation and phase transformation of the binder constituent are scarce. Grinding represents a key manufacturing step in machining of hardmetal tools, and is well-recognized to induce surface integrity alterations. In this work, metallurgical alterations of the binder phase in ground WC-Co cemented carbides have be...

  15. MACHINING OF NICKEL BASED ALLOYS USING DIFFERENT CEMENTED CARBIDE TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BASIM A. KHIDHIR

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental work in dry turning of nickel based alloys (Haynes – 276 using Deferent tool geometer of cemented carbide tools. The turning tests were conducted at three different cutting speeds (112, 152, 201and 269 m/min while feed rate and depth of cut were kept constant at 0.2 mm/rev and 1.5 mm, respectively. The tool holders used were SCLCR with insert CCMT-12 and CCLNR – M12-4 with insert CNGN-12. The influence of cutting speed, tool inserts type and workpiece material was investigated on the machined surface roughness. The worn parts of the cutting tools were also examined under scanning electron microscope (SEM. The results showed that cutting speed significantly affected the machined surface finish values in related with the tool insert geometry. Insert type CCMT-12 showed better surface finish for cutting speed to 201 m/min, while insert type CNGN-12 surface roughness increased dramatically with increasing of speed to a limit completely damage of insert geometer beyond 152 m/min.

  16. Sliding wear of conventional and nanostructured cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, K. [Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Fischer, T.E. [Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The sliding wear mechanisms of cemented carbide and the effects of the microstructure scale on the wear resistance were investigated by performing a series of unlubricated sliding wear tests in air with pins of WC-Co composites sliding against silicon nitride disks. In the first approximation, the wear rate is proportional to the hardness with a wear coefficient k=6.9x10{sup -6} for all materials. In the conventional cermets, the wear coefficient k also depends on the grain size; materials with smaller WC grains exhibit a smaller wear resistance. This reduction, however, does not extend to the nanostructured materials which exhibit the above value for k: Their wear resistance is higher than that of conventional cermets in proportion to their hardness. The data can also be expressed in terms of cobalt content: The lower the cobalt content, the lower the wear; but two different such dependencies exist, one for the conventional and one for the nanostructured materials with lower wear. The sliding wear of WC-Co composites occurs on a very small scale: The worn surfaces show no evidence of fracture of plastic deformation. This wear behavior is explained by the hexagonal structure and the anisotropic mechanical behavior of the WC grains that are capable of shear in a limited number of planes but are not capable of triaxial deformation. The higher wear resistance of the nanostructured composites is related to their hardness which decreases the real area of contact. (orig.)

  17. Microstructural evaluation of the NbC-20Ni cemented carbides during sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, D. [BRATS Sintered Filters and Metallic Powders, Cajamar, SP (Brazil); Cannizza, E. [EHT Cannizza Consultoria Em Engenharia Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: Fine carbides in a metallic matrix (binder) form the microstructure of the cemented carbides. Grain size and binder content are the main variables to adjust hardness and toughness. These products are produced by Powder Metallurgy, and traditional route involves mixing carbides with binder by high energy milling, pressing and sintering. During sintering, a liquid phase promotes densification, and a final relative density higher than 99% is expected. Sintering is carried out at high temperatures, and dissolution of the carbides changes the chemical composition of the binder. To control grain growth of the main carbide, which reduces hardness, small quantities of secondary carbides are used. These additives limit dissolution and precipitation of the main carbides reducing the final grain size. This paper focused the structural and chemical evolution during sintering using NbC-20Ni cermets. Mixtures of very fine NbC carbides and carbonyl Ni powders were produce by intense milling. These mixtures were pressed using uniaxial pressures from 50 to 200MPa. Shrinkage was evaluated using dilatometric measurements under an atmosphere of dynamic argon. Samples were also sintered under vacuum in high temperature industrial furnace. The sintered samples were characterized in terms of density hardness, toughness and microstructure. DRX was the main tool used to evaluate the structural evolution of the binder. In situ chemical analysis helped to understand the dissolution mechanisms. (author)

  18. A threshold stress for high-temperature plastic flow in WC-CO cemented carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Chul

    1995-04-01

    The logarithmic relationship between flow stress and strain rate in WC-Co cemented carbides is represented by a signoidal curve at a constant temperature and is divided into three regions, as in superplastic metals. The flow stress in region I has no dependence on both carbide grain size and binder content, indicative of the presence of a threshold stress for high-temperature plastic flow in cemented carbides. The threshold stress estimated by extrapolating the plot of ɛm against σ to zero strain rate has a strong dependence on temperature. The logarithmic plot of the effective stress compensated by the threshold stress against strain rate shows a single straight line for region I and region II at a constant temperature, which suggests that the regions I and II are controlled by the same deformation process i.e. the grain boundary sliding in WC/WC boundaries. A small addition of Cr3C2 and VC gives rise to the outstanding increase in flow stress in region I and subsequently results in the marked increase in the threshold stress. The origin of the threshold stress in WC-Co cemented carbides is closely related to the impurity elements or the intensional additives such as Cr3C2 and VC.

  19. Comparison Between Cemented Carbide and PCD Tools on Machinability of a High Silicon Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, R. B.; de Jesus, A. M. P.; Neto, R. J. L.; Chirita, B.; Rosa, P. A. R.; Reis, A.

    2017-09-01

    The high content of silicon of aluminum casting alloys challenges the tool life of conventional cemented carbide inserts, and polycrystalline diamond (PCD) tools appear as an interesting material to machine these alloys because they improve substantially the durability of cutting tools and consequently the productivity of machining. However, the surface roughness, cutting forces and chip morphology are equally important factors in machining evaluation. Therefore, an experimental study is performed aiming at comparing the performance of cemented carbide and PCD tools taking into account cutting forces, surface roughness and chip morphology, under dry longitudinal turning, performed for the AlSi9Cu3 alloy produced by permanent mold casting process. Different chip breaker geometries were also considered, and their influence on the referred parameters was also investigated. Analysis of variance was employed to study the different contributions of inserts, cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and their interactions in machinability performance. The results show low cutting forces and better results for surface roughness for uncoated cemented carbide tools, with simpler chip breakers and flat rake face PCD tool, but an efficient chip control was obtained for inserts with small grooves with high cutting forces and power consumption. Nevertheless, the feed rate and depth of cut have the highest influence on the machinability performance of the alloy under investigation.

  20. Study on the relation between structural parameters and fracture strength of WC-Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, B. [East China Univ. of Sci. and Technol., Shanghai (China). Inst. of Tech. Chem. and Phys.; Zhang, Y. [Materials Physics Department of Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Ouyang, S. [State Key Laboratory For Synthesis and Processing of Advanced Materials of China, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2000-01-14

    In this article, a directly proportional relation between average free path (M) and ductile deformation energy ({gamma}) was proposed, and on the basis of it, a quantitative analysis was conducted for studying the effects of the structural parameters on fracture strength of WC-Co cemented carbides. The results show that, for different WC-Co cemented carbides with different cobalt contents, there exist different critical WC grain size R{sub c} and critical free path of binder M{sub c}. R{sub c} and M{sub c} act as the criteria that determine the growth behavior of crackles. When average free path of cobalt binder M < M{sub c}, or WC grain size R < R{sub c}, crackles will expand mainly across cobalt binder, which will result in intergranular fracture; when M M{sub c} or R R{sub c}, transgranular fracture will happen; when M = M{sub c} or R = R{sub c}, concurrence of intergranular fracture and transgranular fracture will take place. R{sub c} and M{sub c} will decrease with increasing of cobalt content, followed by increasing of fracture strength. The dimension of crackles in the circular fissure-breeding district is also a determinative factor to affect fracture strength of cemented carbides. (orig.)

  1. PIXE characterization of by-products resulting from the zinc recycling of industrial cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd), P.O. Box 27420, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical & Metallurgical Engineering and DST-NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health & Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    By-product materials of the widely used zinc recycling process of cemented carbides have been studied. Scanning electron microscopy and micro-PIXE techniques have identified elemental concentrations, distributions and purity of by-product materials from an industrial zinc recycling plant. Cobalt surface enrichment, lamellar microstructures of varying composition, including alternating tungsten carbide (WC) grains and globular cobalt, and regions of excess zinc contamination were found in materials with incomplete zinc penetration. Liquid Co–Zn formation occurred above 72 wt.% Zn at the furnace temperature of 930 °C, and was extracted towards the surface of poorly zinc infiltrated material, primarily by the vacuum used for zinc distillation. Surface enrichment was not observed in material that was zinc infiltrated to the sample center, which was more friable and exhibited more homogeneous porosity and elemental concentrations. The result of incomplete zinc infiltration was an enriched surface zone of up to 60 wt.% Co, compared to an original sample composition of ∼10–15 wt.% Co. The impact on resulting powders could be higher or inhomogeneous cobalt content, as well as unacceptably high zinc concentrations. PIXE has proven it can be a powerful technique for solving industrial problems in the cemented carbide cutting tool industry, by identifying trace elements and their locations (such as Zn to 0.1 wt.% accuracy), as well as the distribution of major elements within WC–Co materials.

  2. Tool life of diamond inserts after laser assisted turning of cemented carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieruj Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results and discussion on parameters influence on tool life when turning laser cladded cemented carbides under laser assisted machining (LAM conditions. The layers are known as Technolase 30S. This material is widely recognized as hard-to-cut. The experimental investigation was carried out with diamond inserts. The laser power density, feed rate and laser scanning speed were analysed. Flank wear (VBc indicator was measured and cutting tool life was calculated. It was proved that Technolase 30S can be machined with LAM technology. The laser enhanced turning is more efficient than conventional turning and grinding.

  3. Cementing Material From Rice Husk-Broken Bricks-Spent Bleaching Earth-Dried Calcium Carbide Residue

    OpenAIRE

    Muthengia Jackson Washira

    2012-01-01

    A cementious material, coded CSBR (Carbide residue Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husks), was made from dried calcium carbide residue (DCCR) and an incinerated mix of rice husks (RH), broken bricks (BB) and spent bleaching earth (SBE). Another material, coded SBR (Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husk ash), was made from mixing separately incinerated RH, SBE and ground BB in the same ash ratio as in CSBR. When CSBR was inter-ground with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)...

  4. Properties of Chemically Combusted Calcium Carbide Residue and Its Influence on Cement Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium carbide residue (CCR is a waste by-product from acetylene gas production. The main component of CCR is Ca(OH2, which can react with siliceous materials through pozzolanic reactions, resulting in a product similar to those obtained from the cement hydration process. Thus, it is possible to use CCR as a substitute for Portland cement in concrete. In this research, we synthesized CCR and silica fume through a chemical combustion technique to produce a new reactive cementitious powder (RCP. The properties of paste and mortar in fresh and hardened states (setting time, shrinkage, and compressive strength with 5% cement replacement by RCP were evaluated. The hydration of RCP and OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement pastes was also examined through SEM (scanning electron microscope. Test results showed that in comparison to control OPC mix, the hydration products for the RCP mix took longer to formulate. The initial and final setting times were prolonged, while the drying shrinkage was significantly reduced. The compressive strength at the age of 45 days for RCP mortar mix was found to be higher than that of OPC mortar and OPC mortar with silica fume mix by 10% and 8%, respectively. Therefore, the synthesized RCP was proved to be a sustainable active cementitious powder for the strength enhanced of building materials, which will result in the diversion of significant quantities of this by-product from landfills.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Process-Machine Interaction in Grinding of Cemented Carbide Indexable Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of process and machine in grinding of hard and brittle materials such as cemented carbide may cause dynamic instability of the machining process resulting in machining errors and a decrease in productivity. Commonly, the process and machine tools were dealt with separately, which does not take into consideration the mutual interaction between the two subsystems and thus cannot represent the real cutting operations. This paper proposes a method of modeling and simulation to understand well the process-machine interaction in grinding process of cemented carbide indexable inserts. First, a virtual grinding wheel model is built by considering the random nature of abrasive grains and a kinematic-geometrical simulation is adopted to describe the grinding process. Then, a wheel-spindle model is simulated by means of the finite element method to represent the machine structure. The characteristic equation of the closed-loop dynamic grinding system is derived to provide a mathematic description of the process-machine interaction. Furthermore, a coupling simulation of grinding wheel-spindle deformations and grinding process force by combining both the process and machine model is developed to investigate the interaction between process and machine. This paper provides an integrated grinding model combining the machine and process models, which can be used to predict process-machine interactions in grinding process.

  6. Recent Advances in the Deposition of Diamond Coatings on Co-Cemented Tungsten Carbides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Polini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Co-cemented tungsten carbides, namely, hard metals are largely used to manufacture high wear resistant components in several manufacturing segments. Coating hard metals with superhard materials like diamond is of utmost interest as it can further extend their useful lifespan. The deposition of diamond coatings onto WC-Co can be extremely complicated as a result of poor adhesion. This can be essentially ascribed to (i the mismatch in thermal expansion coefficients between diamond and WC-Co, at the typical high temperatures inside the chemical vapour deposition (CVD chamber, generates large residual stresses at the interface; (ii the role of surface Co inside the WC-Co matrix during diamond CVD, which promotes carbon dissolution and diffusion. The present investigation reviews the techniques by which Co-cemented tungsten carbides can be treated to make them prone to receive diamond coatings by CVD. Further, it proposes interesting ecofriendly and sustainable alternatives to further improve the diamond deposition process as well as the overall performance of the coated hard metals.

  7. A Review of Metal Injection Molding- Process, Optimization, Defects and Microwave Sintering on WC-Co Cemented Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbudin, S. N. A.; Othman, M. H.; Amin, Sri Yulis M.; Ibrahim, M. H. I.

    2017-08-01

    This article is about a review of optimization of metal injection molding and microwave sintering process on tungsten cemented carbide produce by metal injection molding process. In this study, the process parameters for the metal injection molding were optimized using Taguchi method. Taguchi methods have been used widely in engineering analysis to optimize the performance characteristics through the setting of design parameters. Microwave sintering is a process generally being used in powder metallurgy over the conventional method. It has typical characteristics such as accelerated heating rate, shortened processing cycle, high energy efficiency, fine and homogeneous microstructure, and enhanced mechanical performance, which is beneficial to prepare nanostructured cemented carbides in metal injection molding. Besides that, with an advanced and promising technology, metal injection molding has proven that can produce cemented carbides. Cemented tungsten carbide hard metal has been used widely in various applications due to its desirable combination of mechanical, physical, and chemical properties. Moreover, areas of study include common defects in metal injection molding and application of microwave sintering itself has been discussed in this paper.

  8. One step deposition of highly adhesive diamond films on cemented carbide substrates via diamond/β-SiC composite interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Hao; Jiang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    Deposition of adherent diamond films on cobalt-cemented tungsten carbide substrates has been realized by application of diamond/beta-silicon carbide composite interlayers. Diamond top layers and the interlayers were deposited in one single process by hot filament chemical vapor deposition technique. Two different kinds of interlayers have been employed, namely, gradient interlayer and interlayer with constant composition. The distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide phases was precisely controlled by manipulating the gas phase composition. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy were employed to determine the existence of diamond, beta-silicon carbide and cobalt silicides (Co2Si, CoSi) phases, as well as the quality of diamond crystal and the residual stress in the films. Rockwell-C indentation tests were carried out to evaluate the film adhesion. It is revealed that the adhesion of the diamond film is drastically improved by employing the interlayer. This is mainly influenced by the residual stress in the diamond top layer, which is induced by the different thermal expansion coefficient of the film and the substrate. It is even possible to further suppress the stress by manipulating the distribution of diamond and beta-silicon carbide in the interlayer. The most adhesive diamond film on cemented carbide is thus obtained by employing a gradient composite interlayer.

  9. Smooth polishing of femtosecond laser induced craters on cemented carbide by ultrasonic vibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zheng, H. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Rough surface features induced by laser irradiation have been a challenging for the fabrication of micro/nano scale features. In this work, we propose hybrid ultrasonic vibration polishing method to improve surface quality of microcraters produced by femtosecond laser irradiation on cemented carbide. The laser caused rough surfaces are significantly smoothened after ultrasonic vibration polishing due to the strong collision effect of diamond particles on the surfaces. 3D morphology, SEM and AFM analysis has been conducted to characterize surface morphology and topography. Results indicate that the minimal surface roughness of Ra 7.60 nm has been achieved on the polished surfaces. The fabrication of microcraters with smooth surfaces is applicable to molding process for mass production of micro-optical components.

  10. Enhancement in Tribological and Mechanical Properties of Cemented Tungsten Carbide Substrates using CVD-diamond Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Najar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental investigation has been carried out to study the influence on the performance characteristics of a cutting tool material notably known as cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co. A comparison has been documented between nanocrystalline diamond (NCD and microcrystalline diamond (MCD coatings deposited on two cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co substrates with the architectures of WC-Co/NCD and WC-Co/MCD, using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD technique. In the present work, the friction characteristics were studied using ball-on-disc type linear reciprocating micro-tribometer, under the application of 1–10 N normal loads, when sliding against smooth alumina (Al2O3 ceramic ball for the total duration of 20 min, under dry sliding condition. Nanoindentation tests were also conducted using Berkovich nanoindenter for the purpose of measurement of hardness and elastic modulus values. However, the average value of friction coefficient (COF corresponding to MCD and NCD coatings decrease from ~0.37–0.32 and ~0.30–0.27, respectively when the load is increased from 1–10 N. However, for conventional WC-Co substrate the average COF increases from ~0.60–0.75, under the same input operating conditions. The wear tracks formed on the surfaces of NCD, MCD and WC-Co, after sliding were characterised using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. Therefore, the results will serve breakthrough information for the designer to design the cutting tool or mechanical component using this novel coating procedure.

  11. Cementing Material From Rice Husk-Broken Bricks-Spent Bleaching Earth-Dried Calcium Carbide Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthengia Jackson Washira

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cementious material, coded CSBR (Carbide residue Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husks, was made from dried calcium carbide residue (DCCR and an incinerated mix of rice husks (RH, broken bricks (BB and spent bleaching earth (SBE. Another material, coded SBR (Spent bleaching earth Broken bricks and Rice husk ash, was made from mixing separately incinerated RH, SBE and ground BB in the same ash ratio as in CSBR. When CSBR was inter-ground with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC, it showed a continued decrease in Ca(OH2 in the hydrating cement as a function of curing time and replacement levels of the cement. Up to 45 % replacement of the OPC by CSBR produced a Portland pozzolana cement (PPC material that passed the relevant Kenyan Standard. Incorporation of the CSBR in OPC reduces the resultant calcium hydroxide from hydrating Portland cement. The use of the waste materials in production of cementitious material would rid the environment of wastes and lead to production of low cost cementitious material.

  12. Influence of substrate microstructure and surface finish on cracking and delamination response of TiN-coated cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jing; Odén, Magnus; Johansson-Joesaar, Mats P.; Llanes, L.

    2016-01-01

    The cracking and delamination of TiN-coated hardmetals (WC-Co cemented carbides) when subjected to Brale indentation were studied. Experimental variables were substrate microstructure related to low (6 wt% Co) and medium (13 wt% Co) binder content, and surface finishes associated with grinding and polishing stages before film deposition. Brale indentation tests were conducted on both coated and uncoated hardmetals. Emphasis has been placed on assessing substrate microstructure and subsurface ...

  13. Effect of CVD-diamond coatings on the tribological performance of cemented tungsten carbide substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaleem Ahmad Najar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A comparison has been documented between nanocrystalline diamond (NCD and microcrystalline diamond (MCD coatings deposited on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co substrates with architectures of WC-Co/NCD & WC-Co/MCD, using hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD technique. In the present work, the frictional characteristics were studied using ball-on-disc type linear reciprocating micro-tribometer, under the application of 1–10N normal loads, when sliding against smooth alumina (Al2O3 ceramic ball for the total duration of 15min, under dry sliding conditions. Nanoindentation tests were also conducted using Berkovich nanoindenter for the purpose of measurement of hardness and elastic modulus values. The average coefficients of friction of MCD and NCD coatings decrease from 0.37 – 0.32 and 0.3 – 0.27 respectively, when the load is increased from 1–10N. However, for conventional WC-Co substrate the average coefficient of friction increases from 0.60–0.75, under the same input operating conditions. The wear tracks formed on the surfaces of CVD-diamond coatings and WC-Co substrate, after friction measurement were characterised using Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. However, the compositional analysis for the formation of tribo-layer observed on the wear tracks of CVD-diamond coatings was confirmed using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS technique. Therefore, maintaining an appropriate level of normal load and using appropriate type of diamond coating, friction may be kept to some lower value to improve mechanical processes.

  14. Performance and wear characteristics of ceramic, cemented carbide, and metal nozzles used in coal-water-slurry boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, J.X.; Ding, Z.L.; Zhou, H.M.; Tan, Y.Q. [Xiangtan University, Xiangtan (China). School of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-09-15

    Ceramics, cemented carbides, and metals were prepared to be used as nozzles in CWS boilers. CWS burning tests in a boiler with these nozzles were carried out. The erosion wear resistance of these nozzles was compared by determining their erosion rates and hole diameter variation. Results showed that the life of the ceramic nozzles is about 30 times high than that of the metal nozzles. The wear types at the nozzle wall surface differed in various positions. The nozzle center wall section suffers form abrasive impact under low impact angles, and the damage at the center wall mainly occurs by plowing and plastic deformation for metals, and by polishing action for carbides and ceramics. The primary wear mechanisms at the exit of ceramic nozzle exhibited thermal shock damage with chipping owing to the greater thermal stresses.

  15. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of PVD-Coated Cemented Carbide as Evaluated by a New Multipass Scratch-Testing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fallqvist

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new test method based on multipass scratch testing has been developed for evaluating the mechanical and tribological properties of thin, hard coatings. The proposed test method uses a pin-on-disc tribometer and during testing a Rockwell C diamond stylus is used as the “pin” and loaded against the rotating coated sample. The influence of normal load on the number of cycles to coating damage is investigated and the resulting coating damage mechanisms are evaluated by posttest scanning electron microscopy. The present study presents the test method by evaluating the performance of Ti0.86Si0.14N, Ti0.34Al0.66N, and (Al0.7Cr0.32O3 coatings deposited by cathodic arc evaporation on cemented carbide inserts. The results show that the test method is quick, simple, and reproducible and can preferably be used to obtain relevant data concerning the fatigue, wear, chipping, and spalling characteristics of different coating-substrate composites. The test method can be used as a virtually nondestructive test and, for example, be used to evaluate the fatigue and wear resistance as well as the cohesive and adhesive interfacial strength of coated cemented carbide inserts prior to cutting tests.

  16. FIB/FESEM experimental and analytical assessment of R-curve behavior of WC–Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarragó, J.M., E-mail: jose.maria.tarrago@upc.edu [CIEFMA, Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Centre de Recerca en Nanoenginyeria, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jiménez-Piqué, E. [CIEFMA, Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Centre de Recerca en Nanoenginyeria, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Schneider, L. [Sandvik Hyperion, Coventry CV4 0XG (United Kingdom); Casellas, D. [Fundació CTM Centre Tecnològic, 08243 Manresa (Spain); Torres, Y. [Departamento de Ingeniería y Ciencia de los Materiales y del Transporte, ETSI, Universidad de Sevilla, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Llanes, L. [CIEFMA, Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, ETSEIB, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Centre de Recerca en Nanoenginyeria, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-10-01

    Exceptional fracture toughness levels exhibited by WC–Co cemented carbides (hardmetals) are due mainly to toughening derived from plastic stretching of crack-bridging ductile enclaves. This takes place due to the development of a multiligament zone at the wake of cracks growing in a stable manner. As a result, hardmetals exhibit crack growth resistance (R-curve) behavior. In this work, the toughening mechanics and mechanisms of these materials are investigated by combining experimental and analytical approaches. Focused Ion Beam technique (FIB) and Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) are implemented to obtain serial sectioning and imaging of crack–microstructure interaction in cracks arrested after stable extension under monotonic loading. The micrographs obtained provide experimental proof of the developing multiligament zone, including failure micromechanisms within individual bridging ligaments. Analytical assessment of the multiligament zone is then conducted on the basis of experimental information attained from FIB/FESEM images, and a model for the description of R-curve behavior of hardmetals is proposed. It was found that, due to the large stresses supported by the highly constrained and strongly bonded bridging ligaments, WC–Co cemented carbides exhibit quite steep but short R-curve behavior. Relevant strength and reliability attributes exhibited by hardmetals may then be rationalized on the basis of such toughening scenario.

  17. Effect of SiC Nanowhisker on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of WC-Ni Cemented Carbide Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyong Ren

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine tungsten carbide-nickel (WC-Ni cemented carbides with varied fractions of silicon carbide (SiC nanowhisker (0–3.75 wt.% were fabricated by spark plasma sintering at 1350°C under a uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa with the assistance of vanadium carbide (VC and tantalum carbide (TaC as WC grain growth inhibitors. The effects of SiC nanowhisker on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the as-prepared WC-Ni cemented carbides were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that during spark plasma sintering (SPS Ni may react with the applied SiC nanowhisker, forming Ni2Si and graphite. Scanning electron microscopy examination indicated that, with the addition of SiC nanowhisker, the average WC grain size decreased from 400 to 350 nm. However, with the additional fractions of SiC nanowhisker, more and more Si-rich aggregates appeared. With the increase in the added fraction of SiC nanowhisker, the Vickers hardness of the samples initially increased and then decreased, reaching its maximum of about 24.9 GPa when 0.75 wt.% SiC nanowhisker was added. However, the flexural strength of the sample gradually decreased with increasing addition fraction of SiC nanowhisker.

  18. Robot based deposition of WC-Co HVOF coatings on HSS cutting tools as a substitution for solid cemented carbide cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, W.; Schaak, C.; Biermann, D.; Aßmuth, R.; Goeke, S.

    2017-03-01

    Cemented carbide (hard metal) cutting tools are the first choice to machine hard materials or to conduct high performance cutting processes. Main advantages of cemented carbide cutting tools are their high wear resistance (hardness) and good high temperature strength. In contrast, cemented carbide cutting tools are characterized by a low toughness and generate higher production costs, especially due to limited resources. Usually, cemented carbide cutting tools are produced by means of powder metallurgical processes. Compared to conventional manufacturing routes, these processes are more expensive and only a limited number of geometries can be realized. Furthermore, post-processing and preparing the cutting edges in order to achieve high performance tools is often required. In the present paper, an alternative method to substitute solid cemented carbide cutting tools is presented. Cutting tools made of conventional high speed steels (HSS) were coated with thick WC-Co (88/12) layers by means of thermal spraying (HVOF). The challenge is to obtain a dense, homogenous, and near-net-shape coating on the flanks and the cutting edge. For this purpose, different coating strategies were realized using an industrial robot. The coating properties were subsequently investigated. After this initial step, the surfaces of the cutting tools were ground and selected cutting edges were prepared by means of wet abrasive jet machining to achieve a smooth and round micro shape. Machining tests were conducted with these coated, ground and prepared cutting tools. The occurring wear phenomena were analyzed and compared to conventional HSS cutting tools. Overall, the results of the experiments proved that the coating withstands mechanical stresses during machining. In the conducted experiments, the coated cutting tools showed less wear than conventional HSS cutting tools. With respect to the initial wear resistance, additional benefits can be obtained by preparing the cutting edge by means

  19. Design and simulation of thermal residual stresses of coatings on WC-Co cemented carbide cutting tool substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Anhai; Zhao, Jun; Zang, Jian; Zheng, Wei [Key Laboratory of High Efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture of MOE, School of Mechanical EngineeringShandong University, Jinan (China)

    2016-08-15

    Large thermal residual stresses in coatings during the coating deposition process may easily lead to coating delamination of coated carbide tools in machining. In order to reduce the possibility of coating delamination during the tool failure process, a theoretical method was proposed and a numerical method was constructed for the coating design of WC-Co cemented carbide cutting tools. The thermal residual stresses of multi-layered coatings were analytically modeled based on equivalent parameters of coating properties, and the stress distribution of coatings are simulated by Finite element method (FEM). The theoretically calculated results and the FEM simulated results were verified and in good agreement with the experimental test results. The effects of coating thickness, tool substrate, coating type and interlayer were investigated by the proposed geometric and FEM model. Based on the evaluations of matchability of tool substrate and tool coatings, the basic principles of tool coating design were proposed. This provides theoretical basis for the selection and design of coatings of cutting tools in high-speed machining.

  20. Fatigue crack propagation resistance of cemented carbides; Resistencia a la propagacion de fisuras por fatiga en carburos cementados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Y.; Rodriguez, S.; Llanes, L.; Anglada, M.

    2001-07-01

    It is studied the fatigue crack growth behavior of two grades of WC-Co cemented carbides, both with a 10%{sub w}t of Co but with different carbide grain size, 0,8 and 2,5 {mu}m. Crack growth kinetics, measured under different load ratios, is described using an alternative form to the Paris equation. hence, it is used a model that takes into account both maximum and range of the applied stress intensity factor, k{sub m}ax and {delta}K respectively, within an equation of the form da/dN=f(K{sub m}ax, {delta}K). It is observed a significant dependence with respect to K{sub m}ax, yielding evidence of the prominence of static modes of rupture. Under these considerations, the fatigue crack growth sensitivity of the materials studied is evaluated. Finally, the damage mechanisms associated with stable and unstable fatigue crack propagation are analyzed. (Author) 11 refs.

  1. Dissolution of cemented carbide powders in artificial sweat: implications for cobalt sensitization and contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniak, Aleksandr B; Harvey, Christopher J; Virji, M Abbas; Day, Gregory A

    2010-10-06

    Skin exposure to cobalt-containing materials can cause systemic immune sensitization and upon repeat contact, elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). Data on cobalt dissolution rates are needed to calculate uptake through skin and for development of models to understand risk of sensitization or dermatitis. The purpose of this research was to measure the dissolution kinetics of feedstock and process-sampled powders encountered in the production of hard metal alloys using artificial sweat. The physicochemical properties of each material were characterized prior to evaluation of dissolution behavior. Variations in artificial sweat solvent pH and chemistry were used to understand critical factors in dissolution. Dissolution of cobalt, tungsten, and tungsten carbide was often biphasic with the initial rapid phase being up to three orders of magnitude faster than the latter long-term phase. Artificial sweat pH did not influence dissolution of cobalt or tungsten carbide. Solvent composition had little influence on observed dissolution rates; however, vitamin E suppressed the dissolution of cobalt and tungsten carbide from sintered particles obtained from a chamfer grinder. There was no effect of particle size on dissolution of feedstock cobalt, tungsten, tungsten carbide, and admixture powders. Particle physicochemical properties influenced observed dissolution rates with more cobalt and tungsten carbide dissolving from chamfer grinder particles compared to the feedstock powders or admixture powder. Calculations using the observed dissolution rates revealed that skin exposure concentrations were similar to concentrations known to induce cobalt sensitization and elicit ACD. Observed dissolution rates for cobalt in artificial sweat indicate that dermal uptake may be sufficient to induce cobalt sensitization and allergic dermatitis.

  2. Determination of emissivity coefficient of heat-resistant super alloys and cemented carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kieruj Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the analysis of emissivity engineering materials according to temperature. Experiment is concerned on difficult to machine materials, which may be turned with laser assisting. Cylindrical samples made of nickel-based alloys Inconel 625, Inconel 718, Waspaloy and tungsten-carbides based on cobalt matrix were analyzed. The samples’ temperature in contact method was compared to the temperature measured by non-contact pyrometers. Based on this relative, the value of the emissivity coefficient was adjusted to the right indication of pyrometers.

  3. Surface Layer States of Worn Uncoated and TiN-Coated WC/Co-Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools after Dry Plain Turning of Carbon Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kümmel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing wear mechanisms and developments of surface layers in WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts is of great importance for metal-cutting manufacturing. By knowing relevant processes within the surface layers of cutting tools during machining the choice of machining parameters can be influenced to get less wear and high tool life of the cutting tool. Tool wear obviously influences tool life and surface integrity of the workpiece (residual stresses, surface quality, work hardening, etc., so the choice of optimised process parameters is of great relevance. Vapour-deposited coatings on WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts are known to improve machining performance and tool life, but the mechanisms behind these improvements are not fully understood. The interaction between commercial TiN-coated and uncoated WC/Co-cemented carbide cutting inserts and a normalised SAE 1045 steel workpiece was investigated during a dry plain turning operation with constant material removal under varied machining parameters. Tool wear was assessed by light-optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and EDX analysis. The state of surface layer was investigated by metallographic sectioning. Microstructural changes and material transfer due to tribological processes in the cutting zone were examined by SEM and EDX analyses.

  4. Vacuum Brazing of WC-8Co Cemented Carbides to Carbon Steel Using Pure Cu and Ag-28Cu as Filler Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Z.; Liu, G. W.; Tao, J. N.; Shao, H. C.; Fu, H.; Pan, T. Z.; Qiao, G. J.

    2017-02-01

    The wetting and spreading behavior of commercial pure Cu and Ag-28Cu alloy on WC-8Co cemented carbide were investigated by the sessile drop technique. The contact angle of both systems obviously decreases with moderately increasing the wetting temperature. Vacuum brazing of the WC-8Co cemented carbide to SAE1045 steel using the pure Cu or Ag-28Cu as filler metal was further carried out based on the wetting results. The interfacial interactions and joint mechanical behavior involving microhardness, shear strength and fracture were analyzed and discussed. An obvious Fe-Cu-Co transition layer is detected at the WC-8Co/Cu interface, while no obvious reaction layer is observed at the whole WC-8Co/Ag-28Cu/SAE1045 brazing seam. The microhardness values of the two interlayers and the steel substrate near the two interlayers increase more or less, while those of WC-8Co cemented carbide substrates adjacent to the two interlayers decrease. The WC-8Co/SAE1045 joints using pure Cu and Ag-28Cu alloy as filler metals obtain average shear strength values of about 172 and 136 MPa, and both of the joint fractures occur in the interlayers.

  5. High-temperature tensile ductility in WC-Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, I.C. [Kyungpook National Univ., Taegusi (Korea, Republic of); Sakuma, T. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science

    1997-09-01

    High-temperature tensile deformation in WC-Co was investigated at temperatures between 1,150 C and 1,250 C. The flow stress is sensitive to temperature, strain rate, volume fraction of binder, and the addition of other carbides. The stress-strain rate relationship is divided into three regions at each temperature as in superplastic metals. A large tensile elongation over 100 pct was first obtained in WC-6Co and WC-13Co (wt pct) at temperatures of 1,200 C. Contrary to superplastic metals, the largest tensile elongation is not obtained in region II but on the border of regions I and II. The failure mode changes from necking in region I to sharp cracking in region II.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of (Ti,Al,Zr)N/(Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N films on cemented carbide substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-lu; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Shuang-hong; Zhang, Zheng-gui

    2014-01-01

    (Ti,Al,Zr)N/(Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N bilayer films were deposited on cemented carbide (WC-8%Co) substrates by multi-arc ion plating (MAIP) using two Ti-Al-Zr alloy targets and one pure Cr target. To investigate the composition, morphology, and crystalline structure of the bilayer films, a number of complementary methods of elemental and structural analysis were used, namely, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Adhesive strength and mechanical properties of the films were evaluated by scratch testing and Vickers microindentation, respectively. It is shown that the resulting films have a TiN-type face-centered cubic (FCC) structure. The films exhibit fully dense, uniform, and columnar morphology. Furthermore, as the bias voltages vary from -50 to -200 V, the microhardness (max. Hv0.01 4100) and adhesive strength (max. > 200 N) of the bilayer films are superior to those of the (Ti,Al,Zr)N and (Ti,Al,Zr,Cr)N monolayer films.

  7. Nanostructured TaxC interlayer synthesized via double glow plasma surface alloying process for diamond deposition on cemented carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Wolong; Hei, Hongjun; Zhong, Qiang; Shen, Yanyan; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Bing; He, Zhiyong; Yu, Shengwang

    2015-12-01

    The aim in this work was to improve the adhesion of diamond coating with pre-deposition of a TaxC interlayer on cemented carbide (WC-Co) substrate by double glow plasma surface alloying technique. The following deposition of diamond coating on the interlayer was performed in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor. TaxC interlayer with an inner diffusion layer and an outer deposition layer was composed of Ta2C and TaC nanocrystalline, and it exhibited a special compact surface morphology formed of flower-shaped pits. As the gradual element distributions existed in the diffusion layer, the interlayer displayed a superior adherence to the substrate with significantly enhanced surface microhardness to the original substrate. After CVD process, the preferred orientation of TaC changed from (2 2 2) to (2 0 0) plane, and a uniform and tense diamond coating with adhesion referred to class HF 2 at least (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure 3198 norm) was obtained on the interlayered substrate. It indicated that the diffusion of Co was effectively inhibited by the formation of TaxC diffusion-deposition interlayer. The TaxC interlayer is most likely to improve the performance of diamond coatings used in cutting tools.

  8. Hard coating of ultrananocrystalline diamond/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon composite films on cemented tungsten carbide by coaxial arc plasma deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naragino, Hiroshi; Egiza, Mohamed; Tominaga, Aki; Murasawa, Koki; Gonda, Hidenobu; Sakurai, Masatoshi; Yoshitake, Tsuyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)/nonhydrogenated amorphous carbon (a-C) composite (UNCD/a-C) films were deposited on cemented carbide containing Co by coaxial arc plasma deposition. With decreasing substrate temperature, the hardness was enhanced accompanied by an enhancement in the sp3/(sp2 + sp3). Energy-dispersive X-ray and secondary ion mass spectrometry spectroscopic measurements exhibited that the diffusion of Co atoms from the substrates into the films hardly occurs. The film deposited at room temperature exhibited the maximum hardness of 51.3 GPa and Young's modulus of 520.2 GPa, which evidently indicates that graphitization induced by Co in the WC substrates, and thermal deformation from sp3 to sp2 bonding are suppressed. The hard UNCD/a-C films can be deposited at a thickness of approximately 3 μm, which is an order larger than that of comparably hard a-C films. The internal compressive stress of the 51.3-GPa film is 4.5 GPa, which is evidently smaller than that of comparably hard a-C films. This is a reason for the thick deposition. The presence of a large number of grain boundaries in the film, which is a structural specific to UNCD/a-C films, might play a role in releasing the internal stress of the films.

  9. Evaluation of fatigue crack growth characteristics of WC-Co cemented carbides; WC-Co choko gokin no hiro kiretsu shinten tokusei no hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Y.; Boo, M. [Kanazawa University, Ishikawa (Japan). Faculty of Science; Kishi, Y. [Nippon Institute of Technology, Saitama (Japan); Park, Y. [Dong-A University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-15

    The fatigue crack growth tests of WC-Co Cemented Carbides were carried out in a wide range of fatigue crack growth rate covering the threshold stress intensity factor range {Delta} Kth. The effects of the stress ratio, Co volume fraction and the phase transformation of Co on the fatigue crack growth characteristics were investigated on the basis of fracture mechanics and fractography. The crack growth rate was measured using 3-point bending specimens. Crack growth tests were carried out at 10 HZ and the stress ratio R=0.1 and 0.5. The main results obtained are as follows; (1) The Paris rule can be applied between da/dN and{Delta}K and it is shown to be da/dN=C({Delta}K){sup m}. (2) The fractography of the fracture surface, shows that brittle fracture occurs in the Co binder phase at the stress rate R = 0.1 but ductile fracture occurs in the Co binder phase at R= 0.5. (3) The relation of da/dn-{Delta}Keff / E of WC-Co cemented carbides shows the characteristic in the middle of the other metals and the alumina ceramics. (4) The Co binder phase undergoes phase transformation by repeated deformation and so it affects the characteristics delicately. 22 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds from a cement plant using carbide slag from chlor-alkali industry as the major raw material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuyang; Zhan, Jiayu; Liu, Guorui; Zheng, Minghui; Jin, Rong; Yang, Lili; Hao, Liwei; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Xian; Wang, Pu

    2017-05-15

    Carbide slag produced from chlor-alkali industry contains high amounts of calcium compounds and can potentially be used as raw material for cement production; however, it contains large amounts of chlorine so it is essential to evaluate the emissions of chlorinated organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). A field study of the emission profiles of these pollutants in a cement plant using such slag was performed. The average concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PCNs in stack gases collected at the kiln back end were 6.31, 1.07, and 31.89pg TEQ m-3, respectively. PCDFs dominated over PCDDs in particulate samples. Di- to pentachlorinated biphenyls were dominant homologs in the particulate samples. MonoCBs were the dominant homolog in stack gases from the kiln back end, and homolog concentrations decreased with increasing chlorine numbers. Mono- and diCNs accounted for 48-98% of PCNs. The estimated toxic equivalents of stack gas emissions of PCNs, classified as new persistent organic pollutants under Stockholm Convention, were unexpectedly higher than those of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. A mass balance indicated that all of the toxic equivalents were reduced by this cement kiln system. The highest 2,3,7,8-PCDD/F output is with clinker. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Increasing Feed Rate on Tool Deterioration and Cutting Force during End Milling of 718Plus Superalloy Using Cemented Tungsten Carbide Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul H. Razak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how feed rate (ft affects tool deterioration during milling of Ni-based superalloys is practically important, but this understanding is currently insufficient. In the present study using a 718Plus Ni-based alloy and cemented tungsten carbide tool inserts, milling experiments were conducted with ft = 0.10 mm/tooth under either dry or wet (with coolant conditions. The results are compared to those based on using ft = 0.05 mm/tooth from previous studies. The milling force (F was monitored, the cutting tool edge was examined and the flank wear (VBmax was measured. As would be expected, an increase in ft increased F. It was found that F correlated well with VBmax for the high ft (0.1 mm/tooth experiments, as opposed to the previously observed poor F-VBmax relationship for the lower ft (0.05 mm/tooth value. This is explained, supported by detailed failure analysis of the cutting tool edges, by the deterioration mode to be dominantly edge chipping with a low occurrence of fracturing along the flank face when the high ft was used. This dominancy of the deterioration mode means that the tool edge and workpiece contact was consistent and thus resulted in a clear F-VBmax relationship. A clear F-VBmax relationship should then mean monitoring VBmax through monitoring F is possible.

  12. Nanostructured Ta{sub x}C interlayer synthesized via double glow plasma surface alloying process for diamond deposition on cemented carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rong, Wolong; Hei, Hongjun; Zhong, Qiang; Shen, Yanyan; Liu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Bing; He, Zhiyong, E-mail: hezhiyong@tyut.edu.cn; Yu, Shengwang, E-mail: yushengwang@tyut.edu.cn

    2015-12-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Ta{sub x}C interlayer was creatively obtained on WC–Co by DG-PSA for diamond deposition. • The interlayer with a flower-shaped surface consisted of Ta{sub 2}C and TaC nanocrystal. • Ta{sub x}C interlayer had a superior adherence because of gradual element distributions. • The samples’ surface microhardness is increased caused by nanostructured interlayer. • Ta{sub x}C interlayer improved diamond adhesion on WC–Co by suppressing Co diffusion. - Abstract: The aim in this work was to improve the adhesion of diamond coating with pre-deposition of a Ta{sub x}C interlayer on cemented carbide (WC–Co) substrate by double glow plasma surface alloying technique. The following deposition of diamond coating on the interlayer was performed in a microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor. Ta{sub x}C interlayer with an inner diffusion layer and an outer deposition layer was composed of Ta{sub 2}C and TaC nanocrystalline, and it exhibited a special compact surface morphology formed of flower-shaped pits. As the gradual element distributions existed in the diffusion layer, the interlayer displayed a superior adherence to the substrate with significantly enhanced surface microhardness to the original substrate. After CVD process, the preferred orientation of TaC changed from (2 2 2) to (2 0 0) plane, and a uniform and tense diamond coating with adhesion referred to class HF 2 at least (Verein Deutscher Ingenieure 3198 norm) was obtained on the interlayered substrate. It indicated that the diffusion of Co was effectively inhibited by the formation of Ta{sub x}C diffusion–deposition interlayer. The Ta{sub x}C interlayer is most likely to improve the performance of diamond coatings used in cutting tools.

  13. Graphene Nanoplatelet Reinforced Tantalum Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-27

    et. al. Ultrahigh-pressure consolidation and deformation of tantalum carbide at ambient and high temperatures. Acta Materialia 61-11 (2013) 4001-4009...matrix to reinfor- cement . Al–5BNNT exhibits high deformability as it undergoes 75% thickness reduction in a single pass of cold rolling without...4009Ultrahigh-pressure consolidation and deformation of tantalum carbide at ambient and high temperatures Debrupa Lahiri a, Virendra Singh b, Giovani

  14. HIP Joining of Cemented Carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derby, B.; Miodownik, M.

    1999-04-01

    Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is investigated as a technique for joining the cermet WC-15% Co to itself. Encapsulation of the specimens prior to HIPing was carried out using steel encapsulation, glass encapsulation and self encapsulation. The bonds were evaluated using a four point bend method. It is shown that the glass and steel encapsulation methods have a number of inherent problems which make them inappropriate for near net shape processing. In contrast the novel self encapsulation method, described for the first time in this communication, is both simple and effective, producing joined material with bulk strength. The concept of self encapsulation is potentially widely applicable for joining composite materials.

  15. Mechanical characterization of cemented carbide WC-6Co (%wt) manufactured by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering; Caracterizacao mecanica de metal duro WC-6Co (%massa) sinterizado via SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boidi, G.; Tertuliano, A.J.; Machado, I.F., E-mail: guido.boidi@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Mecatronica e Sistemas Mecanicos; Rodrigues, D. [BRATS- Filtros Sinterizados e Pos Metalicos, Cajamar, SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    This work aimed to manufacture cemented carbide (WC-6%wtCo) obtained by SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering) process and to carry out the mechanical characterization by hardness and fracture toughness. The material was consolidated at 1100 deg C for different holding times (1 min, 5 min, 10 min), in order to evaluate the densification. A reference sample was also used to be compared to SPS. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were carried out to characterize the microstructural features of the samples and mechanical properties were obtained by hardness measurements (micro and macro) and instrumented indentation. The fracture toughness was calculated with the method of Palmqvist. Best results were found in the material sintered by SPS for 10 minutes of holding time, in which 97% of relative density and about 1600 HV{sub 10} was reached. (author)

  16. Shock propagation in a cemented tungsten carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appleby-Thomas, G.J.; Hazell, P.J.; Stennett, C.; Cooper, G.; Herlaar, K.; Diederen, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    WC-based ceramic metal composites (cermets) are of great importance in both armor and munition design due to the combination of properties imparted by the presence of two different phases. WC-Co cermets are of interest in this area due to the hardness and strength imparted by the WC phase while the

  17. PROPERTIES OF CEMENT PASTE AND CONCRETE CONTAINING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper assessed the effect of calcium carbide waste (CCW) as additive on the properties of cement paste and concrete. The CCW used was sourced from a local panel beating workshop. It was sundried and sieved through a 75 µm sieve and characterized by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analytical method.

  18. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid...

  19. Development of tungsten carbide-cobalt coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Mark

    1999-09-01

    The discovery of WC, and the development of cemented carbides (WC-Co and WC-TiC-Co) have spawned advancements in higher speed machining of steel. The development of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) coatings has allowed even greater speeds to be realized. The production of titanium components, well known for their high specific strength, low density, corrosion resistance, and elevated temperature properties, would greatly benefit from a similar development allowing high speed machining processes. Currently, no known tool material exists that can effectively machine titanium at high speeds due to insufficient high temperature strength and/or chemical resistance. To address this problem an investigation into the development of a composite tool material combining toughness, high temperature strength and chemical resistance was pursued. Cemented carbide (WC-Co) is currently the most chemically resistant and commercially used tool material for machining Ti. The concept of applying a WC-Co coating on a high temperature deformation resistant substrate material was investigated. Two approaches, namely (i) laminated and (ii) co-deposited coatings, were chosen to chemically vapor deposit WC-Co. Thermodynamic and kinetic calculations were performed to aid in the development of CVD processes for deposition of WC and Co. The systems investigated were WF6-CH4-H2 and WCl6-CH4-H 2 for WC deposition and CoCl2-H2 for Co deposition. In the case of laminated structures the goal was to deposit nanometer scale alternating layers of WC and Co. However, development of a laminated structure led to the discovery that porosity always occurred in the Co layers at the WC/Co interface. Mass balance calculations, SEM, EDS, XRD, and metallographic analyses aided in determining that the porosity was due to the Kirkendall effect. It was observed that the diffusion of Co was enhanced by higher concentrations of soluble C in the Co layers. Effective diffusion barriers, such as TiC, were found to help

  20. Low heat cement; Teihatsunetsu cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Igarashi, H. [Ube Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-09-01

    This paper summarizes the result of studies on low heat (low hydration heat) cement intended to prevent cracking. Good compositional proportions of alite and belite as components of Portland cement are belite at 63% and alite at 37% when hydration heat, strength, and concrete durability are taken into account. Mixing the blast furnace slag into cement fills the voids at low hydration heat, and raises the strength without increasing the hydration heat. However, the voids remain in a long-term material age. The strength of the belite-based cement is improved when the higher the temperature within a range from 20 to 60{degree}C. In the case of a mixed cement of belite-based cement and blast furnace slag, using the blast furnace slag at 60% maintains the strength and reduces the hydration heat. The strength decreases at a curing temperature of 60{degree}C or higher. Hardened mortar with a material age of three days has its voids disappear at 40{degree}C. More void disappearance cannot be recognized even if the material age gets older. Hydration heat decreases largely in the belite-based cement and flyash mixed cement. The strength also decreases, but it increases conversely when the material age gets as old as one year. Flyash causes the temperature to rise more moderately than blast furnace slag. 21 refs., 16 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Adhesion of CVD coatings on new cemeted carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Bojestig, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Steel turning inserts cemented carbides have a binder phase consisting of cobalt (Co). However, in recent years a study from the United States National Toxicity Program (NTP) found that cobalt powder is carcinogenic upon inhalation. The European Union's REACH have therefore also classified cobalt powder as carcinogenic upon inhalation. The worldwide search to find a replacement has therefore lately intensified. It is important that the alternative binder phase has no negative effects on the p...

  2. Steel-bonded carbides for high reliability wear parts in aerospace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandalis, P.; Tarkan, S.E.; Kumar Mal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Properties and uses of Ferro-Tic cemented carbides are discussed. It is noted that owing to the unique combination of desirable mechanical properties, high strength, ability to resist corrosion by some of the most aggressive chemical environments, good oxidation resistance, wear resistance, and favorable strength-to-weight ratio, the steel-bonded carbides are increasingly being used for many severe-environment applications in the aerospace industries, but there is still a great untapped potential. Material engineers and designers are urged to consider steel/alloy bonded machinable and hardenable carbides for their more difficult wear applications. (JRD)

  3. Effect of carbide waste on the properties of rice husk ash concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The impact of carbide waste,CW on the strength of concrete made with cement partially replaced with Rice Husk Ash,RHA for use in rigid pavement was investigated. Oxide composition analysis of CW and RHA confirm their status as non pozzolanic material rich in CaO component and pozzolanic materials, respectively.

  4. GRANULATION TRIALS OF WASTE THE DUST SILICON CARBIDE FOR UTILIZATION IN METALLURGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Borowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of laboratory granulation tests of dust silicon carbide and the results of research on the selection of the binder and the properties of the granules obtained. The research material was a waste of the silicon carbide powder with a high fragmentation, mixed with a cement or an organic modified starch specimen. Six tests were performed in a disc granulator with 100 cm in diameter. In each series of trial specified: the type and share of the binder, the diameter of the granules, tenderness, type of structure and mechanical properties. Good granules of silicon carbide obtained with the addition of cement binder with 4% of the mass fraction and at least 24 hours of seasoning. The binder should be added twice by powdering, first in a stirred granulator, and again after manufacture. It was found that the resulting granules may be used as a replacement of ferrosilicon in the process of steelmaking.

  5. CEMENT SLURRIES FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available During a well cementing special place belongs to the cement slurry design. To ensure the best quality of cementing, a thorough understanding of well parameters is essential, as well as behaviour of cement slurry (especially at high temperatures and application of proven cementing techniques. Many cement jobs fail because of bad job planning. Well cementing without regarding what should be accomplished, can lead to well problems (channels in the cement, unwanted water, gas or fluid production, pipe corrosion and expensive well repairs. Cementing temperature conditions are important because bot-tomhole circulating temperatures affect slurry thickening time, arheology, set time and compressive strength development. Knowing the actual temperature which cement encounters during placement allows the selection of proper cementing materials for a specific application. Slurry design is affected by well depth, bottom hole circulating temperature and static temperature, type or drilling fluid, slurry density, pumping time, quality of mix water, fluid loss control, flow regime, settling and free water, quality of cement, dry or liquid additives, strength development, and quality of the lab cement testing and equipment. Most Portland cements and Class J cement have shown suitable performances in geot-hermal wells. Cement system designs for geothermal wells differ from those for conventional high temperature oil and gas wells in the exclusive use of silica flour instead of silica sand, and the avoidance of fly ash as an extender. In this paper, Portland cement behaviour at high temperatures is described. Cement slurry and set cement properties are also described. Published in literature, the composition of cement slurries which were tested in geothermal conditions and which obtained required compressive strength and water permeability are listed. As a case of our practice geothermal wells Velika Ciglena-1 and Velika Ciglena-la are described.

  6. Tribological performance of laser patterned cemented tungsten carbide parts

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Shiqi; Herrmann, T; Rosenkranz, A; Gachot, C; García Marro, Fernando; Mücklich, Frank; Llanes Pitarch, Luis Miguel; Bähre, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Some tools for machining processes used to be guided by supporting parts while using them for cutting or abrasive machining. For instance, the guide stone is used as supporting part in the honing process, which maintains the concentricity of the rotating axis. The contact surfaces of the supporting parts should exhibit the following properties: adequate combination of hardness, toughness and wear resistance. The damage of contact surfaces can be caused by a combination of friction and adhesio...

  7. High temperature deformation mechanisms of cemented carbides and cermets

    OpenAIRE

    Buss, Katharina

    2004-01-01

    The motivation of this work derives from the need of the cutting tool industry to improve its products in order to support harder and harder working conditions, namely increasing cutting speeds and working on stronger modern materials. The lifetime of the tools is limited by plastic deformation that occurs at the cutting edge under working conditions, which involve high temperatures and stresses. The high temperature deformation of the materials that are used for the production of cutting too...

  8. Binder deformation in WC-(Co, Ni) cemented carbide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasel, C. H.; Krawitz, A. D.; Drake, E. F.; Kenik, E. A.

    1985-12-01

    The microstructural responses to monotonic and cyclic compressive loading of three WC-(Co,Ni) alloys have been characterized and measured by high voltage transmission electron microscopy and neutron diffraction. A base alloy comprising WC-17 wt pct Co was prepared and evaluated, along with two alloys in which the binder composition was altered by replacing 15 pct and 30 pct of the total cobalt by nickel. Results are presented for strains of 0, 0.75, and 5.0 pct, and for two fatigue stress levels, both at 0.5 million cycles. Predominant binder-deformation mechanisms were observed to shift with increasing Ni content from the fcc-hcp martensitic transformation to slip plus twinning over the composition range studied. In the base alloy, 44.5 vol pct of the binder had transformed at the highest strain level, while only 11.4 pct transformation occurred at the same strain in the 30 pct Ni-binder alloy. The shift in binder plasticity mechanisms and the corresponding changes in composite stressstrain behavior have been discussed with respect to several theories on the role of binder deformation in cermet mechanical response.

  9. Damage tolerance of cemented carbides under service-like conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tarragó Cifre, Jose María

    2016-01-01

    Hardmetal industry is continuously seeking for high-performance products at reduced costs. In addition, it is strongly struggled by the high and volatile prices of raw materials. At this juncture, producers and end-users are deeply concerned in increasing the performance and enhancing service-life and reliability of engineering products, and replacing current constituents by alternative and less critical materials. Premature and unexpected fracture, together with wear, is the main damage phen...

  10. properties of cement paste and concrete containing calcium carbide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... 1 DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, BAYERO UNIVERSITY, PMB 3011 KANO, KANO STATE, NIGERIA. 2 NIGERIAN ... The results of the investigations showed that CCW was predominantly of calcium oxide (95.69 %) and a combined SiO2, ..... concrete”, International Journal of Innovative Science,.

  11. ENTIRELY AQUEOUS SOLUTION-GEL ROUTE FOR THE PREPARATION OF ZIRCONIUM CARBIDE, HAFNIUM CARBIDE AND THEIR TERNARY CARBIDE POWDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Changrui

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available An entirely aqueous solution-gel route has been developed for the synthesis of zirconium carbide, hafnium carbide and their ternary carbide powders. Zirconium oxychloride (ZrOCl₂.8H₂O, malic acid (MA and ethylene glycol (EG were dissolved in water to form the aqueous zirconium carbide precursor. Afterwards, this aqueous precursor was gelled and transformed into zirconium carbide at a relatively low temperature (1200 °C for achieving an intimate mixing of the intermediate products. Hafnium and the ternary carbide powders were also synthesized via the same aqueous route. All the zirconium, hafnium and ternary carbide powders exhibited a particle size of ∼100 nm.

  12. Silicon Carbide Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudeck, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    The status of emerging silicon carbide (SiC) widebandgap semiconductor electronics technology is briefly surveyed. SiC-based electronic devices and circuits are being developed for use in high-temperature, high-power, and/or high-radiation conditions under which conventional semiconductors cannot function. Projected performance benefits of SiC electronics are briefly illustrated for several applications. However, most of these operational benefits of SiC have yet to be realized in actual systems, primarily owing to the fact that the growth techniques of SiC crystals are relatively immature and device fabrication technologies are not yet sufficiently developed to the degree required for widespread, reliable commercial use. Key crystal growth and device fabrication issues that limit the performance and capability of high-temperature and/or high-power SiC electronics are identified. The electrical and material quality differences between emerging SiC and mature silicon electronics technology are highlighted.

  13. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-07-30

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems, including foamed and sodium silicate slurries. During this project quarter, a comparison study of the three cement systems examined the effect that cement drillout has on the three cement systems. Testing to determine the effect of pressure cycling on the shear bond properties of the cement systems was also conducted. This report discusses testing that was performed to analyze the alkali-silica reactivity of ULHS in cement slurries.

  14. Characterization of Transition Metal Carbide Layers Synthesized by Thermo-reactive Diffusion Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Mads Brink; Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    2015-01-01

    be transformed into a layer much richer in Cr7C3 and poorer in Cr23C6 by a subsequent heat treatment. The produced chromium-, vanadium- and titanium carbide layers have hardness values of 2116±37HV, 3022±119HV and 3951±66HV respectively, and subsequent hardening and tempering of treated materials can be done......Hard wear resistant surface layers of transition metal carbides can be produced by thermo-reactive diffusion processes where interstitial elements from a steel substrate together with external sources of transition metals (Ti, V, Cr etc.) form hard carbide and/or nitride layers at the steel surface....... In this study halide-activated pack cementation techniques were used on tool steel Vanadis 6 and martensitic stainless steel AISI 420 in order to produce hard layers of titanium carbide (TiC), vanadium carbide (V8C7) and chromium carbides (Cr23C6 and Cr7C3). Surface layers were characterized by scanning...

  15. Reactive sintering and microstructure development of tungsten carbide-AISI 304 stainless steel cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, C.M. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); CEMUC-Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Coimbra, Rua Luís Reis Santos, Pinhal de Marrocos, 3030-788 Coimbra (Portugal); Oliveira, F.J. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Senos, A.M.R., E-mail: anamor@ua.pt [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2017-06-01

    Sintering of WC-stainless steel (SS) composites within a typical binder range from 6 up to 15 wt% SS was investigated through constant heating rate dilatometry, in vacuum conditions, complemented by differential thermal analysis and by the study of the high temperature wetting behavior of SS on WC. The densification starts ∼900 °C with a typical densification curve for all compositions, where three distinct regions are discernible: the first one with a slow densification rate, followed by a second region where a sharp increase in the densification rate up to a maximum value dependent on the binder amount is observed and, finally, a third one with a slowdown of the densification rate until the end of the thermal cycle. The attained final density at 1450 °C is dependent on the binder amount, increasing proportionally to its initial content. The final microstructure presents a normal grain size distribution and appreciable amounts of eta-phase, besides the major WC phase and residual iron rich phase. The reactive densification behavior and the role of the liquid phase are interpreted accordingly with structural and kinetic data. - Highlights: • Sintering of WC-AISI304 composites starts ∼900 °C and involves three stages. • Densification is largely dominated by a reactive liquid phase sintering process. • Eta-phase constitutes a transient liquid phase during sintering. • Sintering cycles are dependent on the initial binder content.

  16. Intrinsic hardness of the individual constitutive phases (carbides and binder) of cemented carbides

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval Ravotti, Daniela Andreina

    2015-01-01

    Hardmetals are heterogeneous materials at microstructural scale, i.e. they are conformed by different phases defined by their chemical nature or their crystallographic orientation. In the present Master thesis, a WC-(Ta-Ti)C-Co hardmetal grade with five phases (WC basal, WC prismatic, (010) plane oriented (Ti-Ta)C, (111) plane oriented (Ti-Ta)C and metallic Co binder) has been investigated in order to determine the intrinsic hardness of the constitutive phases, by means of statistical analysi...

  17. Evaluation of adhesive and compressive strength of glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramashanker; Singh, Raghuwar D; Chand, Pooran; Jurel, Sunit Km; Tripathi, Shuchi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess, compare and evaluate the adhesive strength and compressive strength of different brands of glass ionomer cements to a ceramometal alloy. (A) Glass ionomer cements: GC Fuji II (GC Corporation, Tokyo), Chem Flex (Dentsply DeTrey, Germany), Glass ionomer FX (Shofu-11, Japan), MR dental (MR dental suppliers Pvt Ltd, England). (B) Ceramometal alloy (Ni-Cr: Wiron 99; Bego, Bremen, Germany). (C) Cold cure acrylic resin. (E) Temperature cum humidity control chamber. (F) Instron Universal Testing Machine. Four different types of Glass ionomer cements were used in the study. From each type of the Glass ionomer cements, 15 specimens for each were made to evaluate the compressive strength and adhesive strength, respectively. The 15 specimens were further divided into three subgroups of five specimens. For compressive strength, specimens were tested at 2, 4 and 12 h by using Instron Universal Testing Machine. To evaluate the adhesive strength, specimens were surface treated with diamond bur, silicone carbide bur and sandblasting and tested under Instron Universal Testing Machine. It was concluded from the study that the compressive strength as well as the adhesive bond strength of MR dental glass ionomer cement with a ceramometal alloy was found to be maximum compare to other glass ionomer cements. Sandblasting surface treatment of ceramometal alloy was found to be comparatively more effective for adhesive bond strength between alloy and glass ionomer cement.

  18. Silicon Carbide Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Andrew Trunek has focused on supporting the Sic team through the growth of Sic crystals, making observations and conducting research that meets the collective needs and requirements of the team while fulfilling program commitments. Cancellation of the Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) program has had a significant negative impact on resources and research goals. This report highlights advancements and achievements made with this cooperative agreement over the past year. NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) continues to make advances in silicon carbide (SiC) research during the past year. Step free surfaces were used as substrates for the deposition of GaN epilayers that yielded very low dislocation densities. Defect free 3C- SiC was successfully nucleated on step free mesas and test diodes were fabricated. Web growth techniques were used to increase the usable surface area of dislocation free SiC by approximately equal to 40%. The greatest advancement has been attained on stepped surfaces of SiC. A metrology standard was developed using high temperature etching techniques titled "Nanometer Step Height Standard". This development culminated in being recognized for a 2004 R&D100 award and the process to produce the steps received a NASA Space Act award.

  19. Asphalt cement poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... petroleum material that hardens when it cools. Asphalt cement poisoning occurs when someone swallows asphalt. If hot ... found in: Road paving materials Roofing materials Tile cements Asphalt may also be used for other purposes.

  20. Silicon carbide as platform for energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syväjärvi, Mikael; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Sun, Jianwu

    Silicon carbide is emerging as a novel material for a range of energy and environmental technologies. Previously, silicon carbide was considered as a material mainly for transistor applications. We have initiated the use of silicon carbide material towards optoelectronics in general lighting and ...

  1. CHH Cement Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwirzen, A.; Habermehl-Cwirzen, K.; Nasibulina, L. I.; Shandakov, S. D.; Nasibulin, A. G.; Kauppinen, E. I.; Mudimela, P. R.; Penttala, V.

    The compressive strength and electrical resistivity for hardened pastes produced from nanomodified Portland SR cement (CHH- Carbon Hedge Hog cement) were studied. The nanomodification included growing of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on the cement particles. Pastes having water to binder ratio of 0.5 were produced. The obtained hardened material was characterized by increased compressive strength in comparison with the reference specimens made from pristine SR cement, which was attributed to reinforcing action of the CNTs and CNFs. The electrical resistivity of CHH composite was lower by one order of magnitude in comparison with reference Portland cement paste.

  2. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-04-15

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary of Halliburton Energy Services (HES) and BJ Services historical performance data for lightweight cement applications. These data are analyzed and compared to ULHS cement and foamed cement performances. Similar data is expected from Schlumberger, and an analysis of this data will be completed in the following phases of the project. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was completed to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS and foamed cement. This protocol is presented and discussed. Results of further testing of ULHS cements are presented along with an analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project. Finally, a list of relevant literature on lightweight cement performance is compiled for review during the next quarter.

  3. Cement for Oil Well Cementing Operations in Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael

    with Imported Class 'G' Cement for Oil Well Cementing Operations in Ghana”, Ghana Mining Journal, Vol. ... to compare the physical properties of locally manufactured cement in Ghana with the class G cement. 2 Materials and Methods. 2.1 Materials. Three brands of .... Rheology of cement slurries is of great importance.

  4. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-01-15

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweigh cement using ultralight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses Task 1: Assess Ultra-Lightweight Cementing Problems, Task 2: Review Russian Ultra-Lightweight Cement Literature, and Task 3: Test Ultra-Lightweight Cements. Results reported this quarter include a review and summary surface pipe and intermediate casing cementing conditions historically encountered in the US and establishment of average design conditions for ULHS cements. Russian literature concerning development and use of ultra-lightweight cements employing either nitrogen or ULHS was reviewed, and a summary is presented. Quality control testing of materials used to formulate ULHS cements in the laboratory was conducted to establish baseline material performance standards. A testing protocol was developed employing standard procedures as well as procedures tailored to evaluate ULHS. This protocol is presented and discussed. finally, results of initial testing of ULHS cements is presented along with analysis to establish cement performance design criteria to be used during the remainder of the project.

  5. Experimental Study of Stabilized Soil Utilizing Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Desulfurization Ash with Carbide Slag and Desulfurization Gypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dezhi Shao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the feasibility of preparing soil stabilizer which is circulating fluidized bed combustion ash-based, supplemented with carbide slag and desulfurization gypsum, composed entirely of complete industrial wastes. The results show that CFBC ash has better pozzolanic activity than fly ash. When stabilizer total content is 10% and the ratio of CFBC ash : carbide slag : desulfurization gypsum is 7.2 : 1.8 : 1, compressive strength of stabilized soil can reach the maximum of 2.12 MPa at the age of 28 d of curing. Stabilizer can meet the strength requirements of cement-soil mixing pile composite foundation and cement-soil mixing pile waterproof curtain.

  6. As-cast microstructures and behavior at high temperature of chromium-rich cobalt-based alloys containing hafnium carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthod, Patrice, E-mail: Patrice.Berthod@univ-lorraine.fr; Conrath, Elodie

    2014-02-14

    Hafnium is often used to improve the high temperature oxidation resistance of superalloys but not to form carbides for strengthen them against creep. In this work hafnium was added in cobalt-based alloys for verifying that HfC can be obtained in cobalt-based alloys and for characterizing their behavior at a very temperature. Three Co–25Cr–0.25 and 0.50C alloys containing 3.7 and 7.4 Hf to promote HfC carbides, and four Co–25Cr– 0 to 1C alloys for comparison (all contents in wt.%), were cast and exposed at 1200 °C for 50 h in synthetic air. The HfC carbides formed instead chromium carbides during solidification, in eutectic with matrix and as dispersed compact particles. During the stage at 1200 °C the HfC carbides did not significantly evolve, even near the oxidation front despite oxidation early become very fast and generalized. At the same time the chromium carbides present in the Co–Cr–C alloys totally disappeared in the same conditions. Such HfC-alloys potentially bring efficient and sustainable mechanical strengthening at high temperature, but their hot oxidation resistance must be significantly improved. - Highlights: • Co-based alloys containing HfC carbides were successfully obtained by foundry. • HfC are pro-eutectic or form an interdendritic eutectic compound with matrix. • The HfC carbides appear very stable on long time at 1200 °C. • The hot oxidation of the alloys is fast and they require higher Cr contents. • The high stability of HfC may allow Cr-enrichment by pack-cementation.

  7. Pathology of silicon carbide pneumoconiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, S; Bégin, R; Cantin, A

    1988-03-01

    Silicon carbide is a widely used synthetic abrasive manufactured by heating silica and coke in electric furnaces at 2400 degrees C. Until recently it had been considered a relatively inert dust in humans and animals. However, several roentgenologic surveys had revealed lesions similar to low-grade silicosis. A recent epidemiological study has revealed a 35% incidence of pulmonary problems. Tissues from three such workers were available for light microscopy. A mixed pneumoconiosis was found, and lesions can be summarized as follows: (a) abundance of intraalveolar macrophages associated with a mixture of inhaled particles including carbon, silicon, pleomorphic crystals, silicon carbide, and ferruginous bodies showing a thin black central core; (b) nodular fibrosis, generally profuse, containing silica and ferruginous bodies and associated with large amount of carbon pigment; (c) interstitial fibrosis, less prominent than the nodular form; (d) carcinoma in two cases. We believe this pneumoconiosis is sufficiently characteristic to be recognized as a distinct entity. The Stanton hypothesis on fiber properties and carcinogenesis could be applied to silicon carbide dust. At present, it appears that the occupational hazard is limited to the manufacturing process and powdered product used in some industries.

  8. Silicon carbide fibers and articles including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E; Griffith, George W

    2015-01-27

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  9. Methods for producing silicon carbide fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, John E.; Griffith, George W.

    2016-03-01

    Methods of producing silicon carbide fibers. The method comprises reacting a continuous carbon fiber material and a silicon-containing gas in a reaction chamber at a temperature ranging from approximately 1500.degree. C. to approximately 2000.degree. C. A partial pressure of oxygen in the reaction chamber is maintained at less than approximately 1.01.times.10.sup.2 Pascal to produce continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers. Continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers and articles formed from the continuous alpha silicon carbide fibers are also disclosed.

  10. Carbon nanotubes cement composites

    OpenAIRE

    Simone Musso; Jean-Marc Tulliani; Giuseppe Ferro

    2011-01-01

    The present paper reviews the current state of the art of carbon nanotubes cement-based composites and the possible applications. The influence of carbon nanotubes additions onto cement paste mechanical and electrical properties are discussed in detail. Though promising, several challenges have still to be solved before the introduction of these new materials into the public sphere through civil infrastructures.

  11. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2002-01-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). This report includes results from laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems: foamed and sodium silicate slurries. Comparison studies of the three cement systems examined several properties: tensile strength, Young's modulus, water permeability, and shear bond. Testing was also done to determine the effect that temperature cycling has on the shear bond properties of the cement systems. In addition, analysis was carried out to examine alkali silica reactivity of slurries containing ULHS. Data is also presented from a study investigating the effects of mixing and pump circulation on breakage of ULHS. Information is also presented about the field application of ULHS in cementing a 7-in. intermediate casing in south Texas.

  12. Dynamic SEM wear studies of tungsten carbide cermets. [friction and wear experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, W. A.; Buckley, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Dynamic friction and wear experiments were conducted in a scanning electron microscope. The wear behavior of pure tungsten carbide and composite with 6 and 15 weight percent cobalt binder was examined, and etching of the binder was done to selectively determine the role of the binder in the wear process. Dynamic experiments were conducted as the tungsten carbide (WC) and bonded WC cermet surfaces were transversed by a 50 micron radiused diamond stylus. These studies show that the predominant wear process in WC is fracture initiated by plastic deformation, and the wear of the etched cermets is similar to pure WC. The presence of the cobalt binder reduces both friction and wear. The cementing action of the cobalt reduces granular separation, and promotes a dense polished layer because of its low shear strength film-forming properties. The wear debris generated from unetched surface is approximately the same composition as the bulk.

  13. Standard Test Method for Abrasive Wear Resistance of Cemented

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2005-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of abrasive wear resistance of cemented carbides. 1.2 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI equivalents of inch-pound units are in parentheses and may be approximate. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Hydroxide catalysis bonding of silicon carbide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veggel, A.A. van; Ende, D.A. van den; Bogenstahl, J.; Rowan, S.; Cunningham, W.; Gubbels, G.H.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2008-01-01

    For bonding silicon carbide optics, which require extreme stability, hydroxide catalysis bonding is considered [Rowan, S., Hough, J. and Elliffe, E., Silicon carbide bonding. UK Patent 040 7953.9, 2004. Please contact Mr. D. Whiteford for further information: D.Whiteford@admin.gla.ac.uk]. This

  15. Tympanoplasty with ionomeric cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Grøntved, A M

    2000-01-01

    with isolated erosion of the long incus process have been treated with a new surgical technique in which the ossicular chain was rebuilt with ionomeric cement. The results in hearing performance (mean pure-tone average (PTA) 0.5, 1 and 2 kHz) were evaluated pre- and post-surgery, and compared to those...... of > 10 dB, in 4 there was a slight improvement and in 2 a decline. The difference was not statistically significant. Hearing improvement using ionomeric cement in type II tympanoplasty was satisfactory. Reconstruction of the ossicular chain with ionomeric cement is recommended, as the procedure is easy...

  16. [Allergy towards bone cement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, P; Schuh, A; Summer, B; Mazoochian, F; Thomsen, M

    2006-09-01

    Bone cements based on polymethylmethacrylate are typically used for fixation of artificial joints. Intolerance reactions to endoprostheses not explained by infection or mechanical failure may lead to allergological diagnostics, which mostly focuses on metal allergy. However, also bone cement components may provoke hypersensitivity reactions leading to eczema, implant loosening, or fistula formation. Elicitors of such reactions encompass acrylates and additives such as benzoyl peroxide, N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, hydroquinone, or antibiotics (particularly gentamicin). Upon repeated contact with bone cement components, e.g., acrylate monomers, also in medical personnel occasionally hand eczema or even asthma may develop. Therefore, in the case of suspected hypersensitivity reactions to arthroplasty, the allergological diagnostics should include bone cement components.

  17. Uranium Carbide Powder Ignition Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berthinier, C.; Coullomb, S.; Rado, C.; Le Guyadec, F. [CEA, DEN, DTEC, SDTC, LEME, F-30207 Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France); Chatillon, C.; Blanquet, E.; Boichot, R. [SIMAP, Sciences et Ingenierie des Materiaux et Procedes, INPG-CNRS-UJF ENSEEG, BP 75, 38402 St Martin-d' Heres (France)

    2009-06-15

    Mixed (U, Pu) carbide, constituted by means of 80% of uranium monocarbide (UC), is considered as a possible fuel material for future gas fast reactors or sodium fast reactor. However, UC undergoes a strong exothermic reaction with air and fine powders of UC are pyrophoric. Thus, it is necessary to understand this high reactivity in order to determine safe handling conditions for the production and reprocessing of carbide fuels. UC powder was obtained by arc melting and milling. The reactivity of uranium carbide was studied in oxidizing atmosphere and different experimental devices were used to determine ignition temperatures. The phases formed at the various observed stages of the oxidation process were determined by post-mortem X ray diffraction analysis. Studies were first performed using small quantities of UC powder (around 50 mg) in Differential Thermal Analysis / Thermogravimetric Analysis (DTA/TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Experiments were realized using different parameters, such as heating rate and gas flow rate and composition, to determine their influence on pyro-phoricity. Results obtained with small quantities (tens of milligrams) revealed that UC powder is highly reactive in air in the range 200- 250 deg. C. Studies were also performed in the 'Pyro' test facility multi-function furnace allowing CCD camera recording, during heating and ignition, through view-ports. Lower ignition temperatures, around 100 deg. C, were obtained using around 1 g UC powder samples. Results are discussed and analysed with theory of burning curve ignition and numerical simulations. Simulations aim to understand the influence of the different parameters on pyro-phoricity. Small scale simulations (on a spherical grain) confirm the influence of UC grains size, heat rate and gas composition on powder ignition temperature with small quantities. The issue is now to understand the influence of grain pile form factor and volume on the pyro-phoricity of

  18. Metal-boride phase formation on tungsten carbide (WC-Co) during microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Catledge, Shane A., E-mail: catledge@uab.edu

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A detailed phase analysis after PECVD boriding shows WCoB, CoB and/or W{sub 2}CoB{sub 2}. • EDS of PECVD borides shows boron diffusion into the carbide grain structure. • Nanoindentation hardness and modulus of borides is 23–27 GPa and 600–780 GPa. • Scratch testing shows hard coating with cracking at 40N and spallation at 70N. - Abstract: Strengthening of cemented tungsten carbide by boriding is used to improve the wear resistance and lifetime of carbide tools; however, many conventional boriding techniques render the bulk carbide too brittle for extreme conditions, such as hard rock drilling. This research explored the variation in metal-boride phase formation during the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at surface temperatures from 700 to 1100 °C. We showed several well-adhered metal-boride surface layers consisting of WCoB, CoB and/or W{sub 2}CoB{sub 2} with average hardness from 23 to 27 GPa and average elastic modulus of 600–730 GPa. The metal-boride interlayer was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt; migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer was significantly reduced. A combination of glancing angle X-ray diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, nanoindentation and scratch testing was used to evaluate the surface composition and material properties. An evaluation of the material properties shows that plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited borides formed at substrate temperatures of 800 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C strengthen the material by increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of cemented tungsten carbide. Additionally, these boride surface layers may offer potential for adhesion of ultra-hard carbon coatings.

  19. Simulated Wear of Self-Adhesive Resin Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamizawa, T; Barkmeier, W W; Latta, M A; Berry, T P; Tsujimoto, A; Miyazaki, M

    2016-01-01

    One of the primary areas of concern with luting agents is marginal gap erosion and attrition. The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate bulk and marginal slit (gap) generalized wear of self-adhesive resin cements. Three self-adhesive resin cements were used in this study: G-CEM LinkAce (LA), Maxcem Elite (ME), and RelyX Unicem2 Automix (RU). A custom stainless-steel fixture with a cavity 4.5 mm in diameter and 4 mm deep was used for simulated generalized (bulk) wear. For simulated marginal gap wear, a two-piece stainless-steel custom fixture was designed with a slit (gap) 300 μm wide and 3 mm in length. For both wear models, 20 specimens each for each of the three adhesive cements were made for both light-cure and chemical-cure techniques. The cured cements were polished with a series of carbide papers to a 4000-grit surface and subjected to 100,000 cycles using the slit (gap) wear model and 400,000 cycles for generalized (bulk) wear in a Leinfelder-Suzuki (Alabama machine) wear simulator (maximum load of 78.5 N). Flat-ended stainless-steel antagonists were used in a water slurry of poly(methylmethacrylate) beads for simulation of generalized contact-free area wear with both wear models. Before and after the wear challenges, the specimens were profiled with a Proscan 2100 noncontact profilometer, and wear (volume loss [VL] and mean facet depth [FD]) was determined using AnSur 3D software. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc tests were used for data analysis for the two wear models. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine polished surfaces of the resin cements and the worn surfaces after the wear challenges. The two-way ANOVA of VL using the generalized (bulk) wear model showed a significant effect among the three resin cement materials for the factor of resin cement (pcement and cure method (pcement (pcement and cure method (pcements and the resultant effect of the wear challenges. The worn surfaces of each cement were

  20. Thermal Expansion of Hafnium Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.

    1960-01-01

    Since hafnium carbide (HfC) has a melting point of 7029 deg. F, it may have many high-temperature applications. A literature search uncovered very little information about the properties of HfC, and so a program was initiated at the Lewis Research Center to determine some of the physical properties of this material. This note presents the results of the thermal expansion investigation. The thermal-expansion measurements were made with a Gaertner dilatation interferometer calibrated to an accuracy of +/- 1 deg. F. This device indicates expansion by the movement of fringes produced by the cancellation and reinforcement of fixed wave-length light rays which are reflected from the surfaces of two parallel quartz glass disks. The test specimens which separate these disks are three small cones, each approximately 0.20 in. high.

  1. Cemented NbC-Co for geothermal drilling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowcliffe, D.J. (SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (USA). Materials Research Lab.)

    1989-06-01

    Sintering and hot isostatic pressing were explored to produce a range of NbC-Co materials. Stoichiometric NbC-10Co and NbC-20Co were sintered close to the theoretical density relatively easily. Cemented NbC{sub 0.83}-10Co and NbC{sub 0.83}-20Co were more difficult to process. Some dense materials were prepared by a combination of sintering and hot isostatic pressing at 1420{degrees} to 1450{degrees}C. The carbide in these samples appeared to have the composition NbC{sub 0.9}. Hardness, toughness,and wear tests showed that the properties of these NbC{sub 0.9}-10Co samples were inferior to those of NbC{sub 0.83}-10Co materials produced previously by hot pressing. We concluded that contamination from WC milling balls and excessive processing times were the main causes of the difficulty in controlling the composition and properties of substoichiometric cemented niobium carbide. 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. ULTRA-LIGHTWEIGHT CEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fred Sabins

    2001-10-23

    The objective of this project is to develop an improved ultra-lightweight cement using ultra-lightweight hollow glass spheres (ULHS). Work reported herein addresses tasks performed in the fourth quarter as well as the other three quarters of the past year. The subjects that were covered in previous reports and that are also discussed in this report include: Analysis of field laboratory data of active cement applications from three oil-well service companies; Preliminary findings from a literature review focusing on problems associated with ultra-lightweight cements; Summary of pertinent information from Russian ultra-lightweight cement literature review; and Comparison of compressive strengths of ULHS systems using ultrasonic and crush methods Results reported from the fourth quarter include laboratory testing of ULHS systems along with other lightweight cement systems--foamed and sodium silicate slurries. These comparison studies were completed for two different densities (10.0 and 11.5 lb/gal) and three different field application scenarios. Additional testing included the mechanical properties of ULHS systems and other lightweight systems. Studies were also performed to examine the effect that circulation by centrifugal pump during mixing has on breakage of ULHS.

  3. Optical cements for interferometric applications

    OpenAIRE

    Wimperis, J.R.; Johnston, Sean F.

    1984-01-01

    The wave front distortion introduced by optical cements\\ud is important in interferometric applications. We describe\\ud here tests performed to characterize two common cements,\\ud Epo-Tek 301 and Norland Optical Adhesive 61.

  4. PART II. HYDRATED CEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Drabik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Essential focus of the study has been to acquire thermoanalytical events, incl. enthalpies of decompositions - ΔH, of technological materials based on two types of Portland cements. The values of thermoanalytical events and also ΔH of probes of technological compositions, if related with the data of a choice of minerals of calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates, served as a valued input for the assessment of phases present and phase changes due to the topical hydraulic processes. The results indicate mainly the effects of "standard humidity" or "wet storage" of the entire hydration/hydraulic treatment, but also the presence of cement residues alongside calcium-silicate-sulfate-aluminate hydrates (during the tested period of treatment. "A diluting" effect of unhydrated cement residues upon the values of decomposition enthalpies in the studied multiphase system is postulated and discussed

  5. Cement og politik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    as well as in the public sphere. Most of the extensive job creating measures he carried out as a minister for public works necessarily involved the use of great amounts of cement – the primary produce of F.L. Smidth & Co. Gunnar Larsen thus became an easy target for Communist propaganda, picturing him...... of the Soviet Union (including an F.L. Smidth & Co. cement plant in former Estonia). He spent the last 15 months of the occupation in Sweden and was arrested after having returned to Copenhagen in May, 1945. Although a Copenhagen city court prison sentence for economic collaboration was reversed, he had...

  6. Technology Roadmaps: Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    To support its roadmap work focusing on key technologies for emissions reductions, the International Energy Agency (IEA) also investigated one particular industry: cement. Cement production includes technologies that are both specific to this industry and those that are shared with other industries (e.g., grinding, fuel preparation, combustion, crushing, transport). An industry specific roadmap provides an effective mechanism to bring together several technology options. It outlines the potential for technological advancement for emissions reductions in one industry, as well as potential cross-industry collaboration.

  7. Cement Mason's Curriculum. Instructional Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendirx, Laborn J.; Patton, Bob

    To assist cement mason instructors in providing comprehensive instruction to their students, this curriculum guide treats both the skills and information necessary for cement masons in commercial and industrial construction. Ten sections are included, as follow: related information, covering orientation, safety, the history of cement, and applying…

  8. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  9. Cementing a wellbore using cementing material encapsulated in a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Duoss, Eric B.; Floyd, III, William C.; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Vericella, John J.; Cowan, Kenneth Michael

    2017-03-14

    A system for cementing a wellbore penetrating an earth formation into which a pipe extends. A cement material is positioned in the space between the wellbore and the pipe by circulated capsules containing the cement material through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The capsules contain the cementing material encapsulated in a shell. The capsules are added to a fluid and the fluid with capsules is circulated through the pipe into the space between the wellbore and the pipe. The shell is breached once the capsules contain the cementing material are in position in the space between the wellbore and the pipe.

  10. The mechanical effect of the existing cement mantle on the in-cement femoral revision.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Parnell

    2012-08-01

    Cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty is an increasingly popular technique to replace a loose femoral stem which retains much of the original cement mantle. However, some concern exists regarding the retention of the existing fatigued and aged cement in such cement-in-cement revisions. This study investigates whether leaving an existing fatigued and aged cement mantle degrades the mechanical performance of a cement-in-cement revision construct.

  11. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    ting. It is used in industrial floorings, ship decks, railway passenger coach floorings, hospital floors, ammunition factory floors, missile silos and underground armament factories and bunkers. Recently, concrete of high compres- sive and tensile strength prepared with magnesium oxy- chloride cement and recycled rubber ...

  12. Is your cement sheath stressed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeBruijn, G. [Schlumberger Well Cementing Services Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Wells are cemented for several reasons, most notably to provide zonal isolation; support the casing's axial load; maintain wellbore integrity; protect groundwater; and protect the casing from corrosion. This presentation addressed some of the concerns regarding the development of tensile cracks when drilling in high temperature high pressure wells during steam stimulation. Flexible cement solutions were also provided along with their key technical specifications. Simulations of cement sheath stress have shown that a cement system can operate in a dynamic stress environment if an optimized blend is used. Cement stress simulation enables the evaluation of zonal isolation risks. The paper indicated that of the 6 steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells in Canada that have used a flexible and expandable cement solution system developed by Schlumberger Well Cementing Services, none have shown signs of casing gas vent flow at surface. figs.

  13. Microleakage of orthodontic band cement at the cement-enamel and cement-band interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Tancan; Ramoglu, Sabri Ilhan; Ertas, Huseyin; Ulker, Mustafa

    2010-04-01

    Our objective was to determine and compare microleakage patterns of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), resin modified GIC (RMGIC), and polyacid-modified composite for band cementation. Sixty freshly extracted third molars were randomly divided into 3 groups of 20 teeth each. Microetched molar bands in the 3 groups were cemented to enamel with one of three orthodontic cements: Ketac-Cem (3M ESPE, Gmbh, Seefeld, Germany), Multi-Cure (3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif), and Transbond Plus (3M Unitek). A dye penetration method was used for microleakage evaluation. Microleakage was determined by a stereomicroscope for the cement-band and cement-enamel interfaces from both the buccal and lingual margins. Statistical analysis was performed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The buccal sides had similar microleakage values compared with the lingual sides for the cement-enamel and cement-band interfaces with all cements. Statistical comparisons showed statistically significant differences among the band cements between both interfaces (P <0.001). When the cement systems were compared, conventional GIC showed the highest leakage scores between cement-band (median, 3.50 mm) and cement-enamel (median, 2.88 mm) interfaces. Teeth banded with RMGIC and modified composite showed similar microleakage scores, and both had less leakage (<1 mm) than conventional GIC. Conventional GIC is associated with more microleakage than RMGIC and modified composite at both the cement-band and cement-enamel interfaces. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, D.; Janssen, D.; Mann, K.A.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage or microcracks and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect

  15. Carbides composite surface layers produced by (PTA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajoure, Meloud, E-mail: Tajoore2000@yahoo.com [MechanicalEng.,HIHM,Gharian (Libya); Tajouri, Ali, E-mail: Tajouri-am@yahoo.com, E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com; Abuzriba, Mokhtar, E-mail: Tajouri-am@yahoo.com, E-mail: dr.mokhtarphd@yahoo.com [Materials and Metallurgical Eng., UOT, Tripoli (Libya); Akreem, Mosbah, E-mail: makreem@yahoo.com [Industrial Research Centre,Tripoli (Libya)

    2013-12-16

    The plasma transferred arc technique was applied to deposit a composite layer of nickel base with tungsten carbide in powder form on to surface of low alloy steel 18G2A type according to polish standard. Results showed that, plasma transferred arc hard facing process was successfully conducted by using Deloro alloy 22 plus tungsten carbide powders. Maximum hardness of 1489 HV and minimum dilution of 8.4 % were achieved by using an arc current of 60 A. However, when the current was further increased to 120 A and the dilution increases with current increase while the hardness decreases. Microstructure of the nickel base deposit with tungsten carbide features uniform distribution of reinforcement particles with regular grain shape half - dissolved in the matrix.

  16. Silicon Carbide Etching Using Chlorine Trifluoride Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habuka, Hitoshi; Oda, Satoko; Fukai, Yasushi; Fukae, Katsuya; Takeuchi, Takashi; Aihara, Masahiko

    2005-03-01

    The etch rate, chemical reactions and etched surface of β-silicon carbide are studied in detail using chlorine trifluoride gas. The etch rate is greater than 10 μm min-1 at 723 K with a flow rate of 0.1 \\ell min-1 at atmospheric pressure in a horizontal reactor. The maximum etch rate at a substrate temperature of 773 K is 40 μm min-1 with a flow rate of 0.25 \\ell min-1. The step-like pattern that initially exists on the β-silicon carbide surface tends to be smoothed; the root-mean-square surface roughness decreases from its initial value of 5 μm to 1 μm within 15 min; this minimum value is maintained for more than 15 min. Therefore, chlorine trifluoride gas is considered to have a large etch rate for β-silicon carbide associated with making a rough surface smooth.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: hydraulic cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2012-01-01

    Hydraulic cements are the binders in concrete and most mortars and stuccos. Concrete, particularly the reinforced variety, is the most versatile of all construction materials, and most of the hydraulic cement produced worldwide is portland cement or similar cements that have portland cement as a basis, such as blended cements and masonry cements. Cement typically makes up less than 15 percent of the concrete mix; most of the rest is aggregates. Not counting the weight of reinforcing media, 1 ton of cement will typically yield about 8 tons of concrete.

  18. Silicon carbide microsystems for harsh environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wijesundara, Muthu B J

    2011-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Microsystems for Harsh Environments reviews state-of-the-art Silicon Carbide (SiC) technologies that, when combined, create microsystems capable of surviving in harsh environments, technological readiness of the system components, key issues when integrating these components into systems, and other hurdles in harsh environment operation. The authors use the SiC technology platform suite the model platform for developing harsh environment microsystems and then detail the current status of the specific individual technologies (electronics, MEMS, packaging). Additionally, methods

  19. INORGANIC CEMENT CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Clay Rios Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Geopolymeric Cement Concrete (GCC was developed through adequate portions of geopolymer components. Its characteristics were compared with Portland Cement Concrete (PCC, through of the establishment of some parameters of design, as consumption of binders, water/aggregates ratio and mortar content. The concrete mechanical performance was evaluated with emphasis to the fatigue behavior. Were tested the effects of different tensile strength maximum (increasing and decreasing. The results of fatigue tests had shown that GCC presents a better performance when compared to PCC. Its fatigue strength was 15% higher than that of PCC, when 70% of rupture tension of the concrete in static bending (SR, was applied. Tensions of about 80% SR resulted in 96% of increase, when compared to GCC. The SEM microstructural analysis showed that the GCC has a matrix/aggregate bonding very strong, when compared to PCC, probably due to the massive nature of the geopolymeric matrix.

  20. US cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nisbet, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the cement and concrete industry, and provides data on energy use and carbon dioxide emissions. The potential impact of an energy tax on the industry is briefly assessed. Opportunities identified for reducing carbon dioxide emissions include improved energy efficiency, alternative fuels, and alternative materials. The key factor in determining CO{sub 2} emissions is the level of domestic production. The projected improvement in energy efficiency and the relatively slow growth in domestic shipments indicate that CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 should be about 5% above the 1990 target. However, due to the cyclical nature of cement demand, emissions will probably be above target levels during peak demand and below target levels during demand troughs. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Performance of Cement Containing Laterite as Supplementary Cementing Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Bukhari, Z. S.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of different industrial waste, by-products or other materials such as ground granulated blast furnace slag, silica fume, fly ash, limestone, and kiln dust, etc. as supplemen- tary cementing materials has received considerable attention in recent years. A study has been conducted to look into the performance of laterite as Supplementary Cementing Materials (SCM. The study focuses on compressive strength performance of blended cement containing different percentage of laterite. The cement is replaced accordingly with percentage of 2 %, 5 %, 7 % and 10 % by weight. In addition, the effect of use of three chemically different laterites have been studied on physical performance of cement as in setting time, Le-Chatlier expansion, loss on ignition, insoluble residue, free lime and specifically compressive strength of cement cubes tested at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days. The results show that the strength of cement blended with laterite as SCM is enhanced. Key words: Portland cement, supplementary cementing materials (SCM, laterite, compressive strength KUI – 6/2013 Received January 4, 2012 Accepted February 11, 2013

  2. [Haemotoxicity of dental luting cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, A; Welker, D

    1989-06-01

    A glass ionomer luting cement (AquaCem) shows a relatively low haemolytic activity in comparison with two zinc phosphate cements. Especially the initial irritation by this cement is smaller. Although it is possible that AquaCem particularly, in unfavourable cases, may damage the pulpa dentin system; this is due to the slowly decrease of the haemolytic activity with increasing of the probes. We found that Adhesor showed in dependence of the batches a varying quality.

  3. Sol–gel processing of carbidic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Carbon incorporation into the silicate network results in the formation of rigid carbidic glasses with improved physical, mechanical and thermal properties. This generated great interest in the development of these heteroatom structured materials through different processing routes. In the present studies, sol–gel.

  4. Sol–gel processing of carbidic glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon incorporation into the silicate network results in the formation of rigid carbidic glasses with improved physical, mechanical and thermal properties. This generated great interest in the development of these heteroatom structured materials through different processing routes. In the present studies, sol–gel processing ...

  5. Producing Silicon Carbide/Silicon Nitride Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Manufacturing process makes CxSiyNz fibers. Precursor fibers spun from extruding machine charged with polycarbosilazane resin. When pyrolyzed, resin converted to cross-linked mixture of silicon carbide and silicon nitride, still in fiber form. CxSiyNz fibers promising substitutes for carbon fibers in high-strength, low-weight composites where high electrical conductivity unwanted.

  6. Casimir forces from conductive silicon carbide surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sedighi Ghozotkhar, Mehdi; Svetovoy, V. B.; Broer, W. H.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-01-01

    Samples of conductive silicon carbide (SiC), which is a promising material due to its excellent properties for devices operating in severe environments, were characterized with the atomic force microscope for roughness, and the optical properties were measured with ellipsometry in a wide range of

  7. Silicon Carbide Power Devices and Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Samsel, Isaak; LaBel, Ken; Chen, Yuan; Ikpe, Stanley; Wilcox, Ted; Phan, Anthony; Kim, Hak; Topper, Alyson

    2017-01-01

    An overview of the NASA NEPP Program Silicon Carbide Power Device subtask is given, including the current task roadmap, partnerships, and future plans. Included are the Agency-wide efforts to promote development of single-event effect hardened SiC power devices for space applications.

  8. Visible light emission from porous silicon carbide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan; Lu, Weifang

    2017-01-01

    Light-emitting silicon carbide is emerging as an environment-friendly wavelength converter in the application of light-emitting diode based white light source for two main reasons. Firstly, SiC has very good thermal conductivity and therefore a good substrate for GaN growth in addition to the small...

  9. Mechanical characteristics of microwave sintered silicon carbide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In firing of products by conventionally sintered process, SiC grain gets oxidized producing SiO2 (∼ 32 wt%) and deteriorates the quality of the product substantially. Partially sintered silicon carbide by such a method is a useful material for a varieties of applications ranging from kiln furniture to membrane material.

  10. Ligand sphere conversions in terminal carbide complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morsing, Thorbjørn Juul; Reinholdt, Anders; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Metathesis is introduced as a preparative route to terminal carbide complexes. The chloride ligands of the terminal carbide complex [RuC(Cl)2(PCy3)2] (RuC) can be exchanged, paving the way for a systematic variation of the ligand sphere. A series of substituted complexes, including the first...... demonstrates that details of the coordination geometry affect the carbide chemical shift equally as much as variations in the nature of the auxiliary ligands. Furthermore, the kinetics of formation of the sqaure pyramidal dicyano complex, trans-[RuC(CN)2(PCy3)2], from RuC has been examined and the reaction...... found to be quite sluggish and of first order in both RuC and cyanide with a rate constant of k = 0.0104(6) M–1 s–1. Further reaction with cyanide leads to loss of the carbide ligand and formation of trans-[Ru(CN)4(PCy3)2]2–, which was isolated and structurally characterized as its PPh4+ salt....

  11. Pyrotechnic Smoke Compositions Containing Boron Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-10

    approach the performance of the AN-M8 HC composition (Al/ZnO/C2Cl6). 15. SUBJECT TERMS smoke, pyrotechnic, boron carbide 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION ...reduction of phosphate. This hypothesis was confirmed in an unexpected and alarming way, when the strong fishy- garlic odor of phosphorus and phosphines

  12. Thermal Shock-resistant Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama T.; Pyatina, T.; Gill, S.

    2012-02-01

    We studied the effectiveness of sodium silicate-activated Class F fly ash in improving the thermal shock resistance and in extending the onset of hydration of Secar #80 refractory cement. When the dry mix cement, consisting of Secar #80, Class F fly ash, and sodium silicate, came in contact with water, NaOH derived from the dissolution of sodium silicate preferentially reacted with Class F fly ash, rather than the #80, to dissociate silicate anions from Class F fly ash. Then, these dissociated silicate ions delayed significantly the hydration of #80 possessing a rapid setting behavior. We undertook a multiple heating -water cooling quenching-cycle test to evaluate the cement’s resistance to thermal shock. In one cycle, we heated the 200 and #61616;C-autoclaved cement at 500 and #61616;C for 24 hours, and then the heated cement was rapidly immersed in water at 25 and #61616;C. This cycle was repeated five times. The phase composition of the autoclaved #80/Class F fly ash blend cements comprised four crystalline hydration products, boehmite, katoite, hydrogrossular, and hydroxysodalite, responsible for strengthening cement. After a test of 5-cycle heat-water quenching, we observed three crystalline phase-transformations in this autoclaved cement: boehmite and #61614; and #61543;-Al2O3, katoite and #61614; calcite, and hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite. Among those, the hydroxysodalite and #61614; carbonated sodalite transformation not only played a pivotal role in densifying the cementitious structure and in sustaining the original compressive strength developed after autoclaving, but also offered an improved resistance of the #80 cement to thermal shock. In contrast, autoclaved Class G well cement with and without Class F fly ash and quartz flour failed this cycle test, generating multiple cracks in the cement. The major reason for such impairment was the hydration of lime derived from the dehydroxylation of portlandite formed in the autoclaved

  13. [Thermal diffusivity of dental cements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroussis, D; Kakaboura, A; Chrysafidis, C; Mauroyiannakis, E

    1990-08-01

    Thermal insulative efficiency, is one of the desirable properties of the dental cements. In this study, the thermal diffusivity of three types of dental cements, were measured. Thermal diffusivity was determined by the following method. Two thermo-couples were used and connected to a chart record, the first was embedded in the cylindrical block of the cement specimen and the other in a mixing of ice and water (reference thermocouple). All them were set in a apparatus consisting of a double cooling bath. Calculation of thermal diffusivity were based on the curve provided of the record during cooling of the cement and a theoretical mathematic model. Values were ranged from 2,985 to 3,934 cm2.sec-1. ZOE cement exhibited the highest value, the glass-ionomers the lowest and the poly-carboxylates were average. The results showed that the thermal diffusivity of the cements is dependent from the type of the cement but the differences between them were not statistically significant. Additionally, the values obtained were about the same as the dentin, so the dental cements may consider as good thermal insulators.

  14. Joining of silicon carbide using interlayer with matching coefficient of thermal expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perham, T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop a technique for joining a commercially available Silicon Carbide that gives good room temperature strength and the potential for good high temperature strength. One secondary objective is that the joining technique be adaptable to SiC{sub f}/SiC composites and/or Nickel based superalloys, and another secondary objective is that the materials provide good neutron irradiation resistance and low activation for potential application inside nuclear fusion reactors. The joining techniques studied here are: (1) reaction bonding with Al-Si/Si/SiC/C; (2) reaction/infiltration with calcium aluminum silicate; (3) ion exchange mechanism to form calcium hexaluminate (a refractory cement); and (4) oxide frit brazing with cordierite.

  15. Processing development of 4 tantalum carbide-hafnium carbide and related carbides and borides for extreme environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaballa, Osama Gaballa Bahig

    Carbides, nitrides, and borides ceramics are of interest for many applications because of their high melting temperatures and good mechanical properties. Wear-resistant coatings are among the most important applications for these materials. Materials with high wear resistance and high melting temperatures have the potential to produce coatings that resist degradation when subjected to high temperatures and high contact stresses. Among the carbides, Al4SiC4 is a low density (3.03 g/cm3), high melting temperature (>2000°C) compound, characterized by superior oxidation resistance, and high compressive strength. These desirable properties motivated this investigation to (1) obtain high-density Al4SiC4 at lower sintering temperatures by hot pressing, and (2) to enhance its mechanical properties by adding WC and TiC to the Al4SiC4. Also among the carbides, tantalum carbide and hafnium carbide have outstanding hardness; high melting points (3880°C and 3890°C respectively); good resistance to chemical attack, thermal shock, and oxidation; and excellent electronic conductivity. Tantalum hafnium carbide (Ta4HfC 5) is a 4-to-1 ratio of TaC to HfC with an extremely high melting point of 4215 K (3942°C), which is the highest melting point of all currently known compounds. Due to the properties of these carbides, they are considered candidates for extremely high-temperature applications such as rocket nozzles and scramjet components, where the operating temperatures can exceed 3000°C. Sintering bulk components comprised of these carbides is difficult, since sintering typically occurs above 50% of the melting point. Thus, Ta4 HfC5 is difficult to sinter in conventional furnaces or hot presses; furnaces designed for very high temperatures are expensive to purchase and operate. Our research attempted to sinter Ta4HfC5 in a hot press at relatively low temperature by reducing powder particle size and optimizing the powder-handling atmosphere, milling conditions, sintering

  16. Development of high toughness, high strength aluminide-bonded carbide ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, P.F.; Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Cemented carbides are widely used in applications where resistance to abrasion and wear are important, particularly in combination with high strength and stiffness. In the present case, ductile aluminides have been used as a binder phase to fabricate dense carbide cermets by either sintering of mixed powders or a melt-infiltration sintering process. The choice of an aluminide binder was based on the exceptional high temperature strength and chemical stability exhibited by these alloys. For example, TiC-based composites with a Ni{sub 3}Al binder phase exhibit improved oxidation resistance, Young`s moduli > 375 GPa, high fracture strengths (> 1 GPa) that are retained to {ge} 900{degrees}C, and fracture toughness values of 10 to 15 MPa{radical}m, identical to that measured in commercial cobalt-bonded WC with the same test method. The thermal diffusivity values at 200{degrees}C for these composites are {approximately} 0.070 to 0.075 cm{sup 2}/s while the thermal expansion coefficients rise with Ni3Al content from {approximately} 8 to {approximately}11 x 10{sup {minus}6}/{degrees}C over the range of 8 to 40 vol. % Ni{sub 3}Al. The oxidation and acidic corrosion resistances are quite promising as well. Finally, these materials also exhibit good electrical conductivity allowing them to be sectioned and shaped by electrical discharge machining (EDM) processes.

  17. Tribological Characteristics of Tungsten Carbide Reinforced Arc Sprayed Coatings using Different Carbide Grain Size Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Tillmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten carbide reinforced coatings play an important role in the field of surface engineering to protect stressed surfaces against wear. For thermally sprayed coatings, it is already shown that the tribological properties get mainly determined by the carbide grain size fraction. Within the scope of this study, the tribological characteristics of iron based WC-W2C reinforced arc sprayed coatings deposited using cored wires consisting of different carbide grain size fractions were examined. Microstructural characteristics of the produced coatings were scrutinized using electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction analyses. Ball-on-disk test as well as Taber Abraser and dry sand rubber wheel test were employed to analyze both the dry sliding and the abrasive wear behavior. It was shown that a reduced carbide grain size fraction as filling leads to an enhanced wear resistance against sliding. In terms of the Taber Abraser test, it is also demonstrated that a fine carbide grain size fraction results in an improved wear resistant against abrasion. As opposed to that, a poorer wear resistance was found within the dry sand rubber wheel tests. The findings show that the operating mechanisms for both abrasion tests affect the stressed surface in a different way, leading either to microcutting or microploughing.

  18. 76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... antidumping duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to... the Commission are contained in USITC Publication 4281 (December 2011), entitled Gray Portland Cement...

  19. Carbide and boride laser modification of steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Boguslaw; Ebner, Reinhold

    1997-10-01

    Microstructure modification by laser remelting or laser alloying was studied on carbon Ck45 and high speed steels. Laser remelting of Ck45 by overlapping laser tracks led to a great refinement of martensitic structure, especially in the heat affected zone of subsequent laser track. High speed steel (HSS) M2 after laser remelting showed, beside the tetragonal martensite, the diffraction lines of cubic carbides of the M6C and M12C types. Laser alloying of M2 HSS using vanadium carbide (VC) additions caused increasing of eutectic in the interdendritic space, which was accompanied with reduction of the M6C and rising of the MC. M2 HSS laser alloyed with molybdenum carbide (Mo2C) showed formation of the M6C for the hipereutectic compositions while at the highest concentrations of molybdenum, primary dendrites of the M2C and stabilized ferrite were stated. High additions of borides: CrB or VB2; developed formation of the primary borides of blocky type containing a high amount of W, Cr or W, V, respectively. Laser alloying of Ck45 by means of: CrB, VB2 and B4C showed: in the case of CrB an eutectic (alpha) '/M3(C,B)/M2B as well as primary precipitates of the M2B phase for hipereutectic compositions; by adding VB2, the M3B2 and M2B phases were identified experimentally for hipereutectic concentrations; for alloying using B4C, the cellular dendritic structure together with primary borides of the (tau) -M23(C,B)6 phase were stated for hipereutectic compositions. The phase diagrams of M2 HSS + (VC or Mo2C) as well as Ck45 + B4C systems were calculated to predict changes of the constitutions due to laser alloying. Comparison of the solidification structures established experimentally with the calculated phase diagrams revealed a good correlation for the carbides, especially.

  20. Manufacturing technology for contacts to silicon carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryk Ya.Ya.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors classified the results of investigations of resistivity of ohmic contacts to silicon carbide made without any semiconductor surface modification. A set of contacts with better parameters were analysed. From the results of this analysis, some recommendations were made concerning optimal contact-forming layers for p- and n-SiC types of 4H, 6H, 3C, 15R, 21R polytypes.

  1. Low blow Charpy impact of silicon carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, H.; Chandan, H. C.; Bradt, R. C.

    1978-01-01

    The room-temperature impact resistance of several commercial silicon carbides was examined using an instrumented pendulum-type machine and Charpy-type specimens. Energy balance compliance methods and fracture toughness approaches, both applicable to other ceramics, were used for analysis. The results illustrate the importance of separating the machine and the specimen energy contributions and confirm the equivalence of KIc and KId. The material's impact energy was simply the specimen's stored elastic strain energy at fracture.

  2. 21 CFR 888.4200 - Cement dispenser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement dispenser. 888.4200 Section 888.4200 Food... DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4200 Cement dispenser. (a) Identification. A cement dispenser is a nonpowered syringe-like device intended for use in placing bone cement (§ 888.3027) into...

  3. Stereology of carbide phase in modified hypereutectic chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Suchoń

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In paper are presented results of studies of carbide phase stereology modified hypereutectic wear resistance chromium cast iron which contains carbon about 3,5% and chromium about 25%. Three substances were applied to the modification: boron carbide (B4C, ferroniobium (FeNb and mixture of ferroniobium and rare-earth (RE. The measurements of geometrical features of carbides were conducted on microsection taken from castings wich were cooled with various velocities.

  4. Comparative fatigue behavior of different bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, E I; Carter, D R; Harris, W H

    1984-10-01

    Tensile and fatigue studies were performed on four different preparations of acrylic bone cement: (1) surgical Simplex-P inserted into molds in the dough stage, (2) Zimmer Low Viscosity Cement (LVC) inserted in the liquid phase, (3) an experimental cement inserted in the dough phase, and (4) the same experimental cement inserted in the liquid phase. The void characteristics of the cements appeared to dictate their mechanical performance. While tests revealed no difference in the tensile strengths of the four cement preparations, small but statistically significant differences in mean fatigue life were observed. The experimental cement used in the dough stage exhibited superior fatigue characteristics when compared with Simplex and LVC. LVC had the poorest mechanical properties of the four cement groups. Since the specimen preparation procedures can markedly influence the cement void characteristics and, consequently, the mechanical properties, general statements about different cement types are offered with considerable reservations.

  5. Comparison of alternative adhesive cementation concepts for zirconia ceramic: glaze layer vs zirconia primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cura, Cenk; Özcan, Mutlu; Isik, Gül; Saracoglu, Ahmet

    2012-02-01

    Zirconia-based ceramics offer strong restorations in dentistry, but the adhesive bond strength of resin cements to such ceramics is not optimal. This study evaluated the bond strength of silane/adhesive/resin cement and zirconia primer/resin cement combinations on non-glazed and glazed zirconia surfaces before and after aging. Disk-shaped zirconia ceramic specimens (diameter: 8 mm; thickness: 2 mm) (N = 80, n = 10 per group) were randomly divided into 2 groups. While half of the specimens received one coat of glaze and were later finished by grinding, the other half was only ground using 1200-grit silicone carbide abrasives under water. The glazed specimens were then conditioned with 9.5% HF acid gel for 60 s, rinsed with water for 90 s, and neutralized. The glazed and non-glazed specimens were further divided into two groups. Two resin cements, namely, Variolink II and Multilink Automix were adhered onto the zirconia surfaces with their corresponding adhesive systems. In the Variolink II group, zirconia surfaces were silanized (Monobond-S), and adhesive resin (Heliobond) was applied and photopolymerized. In the Multilink Automix group, one coat of Metal/Zirconia Primer was applied with a microbrush, left to react for 180 s, and dried using oil-free air. Half of the specimens in each cement group were subjected to 5000 thermocycles (5°C to 55°C) and the other half was kept in the dark for 24 h at 37°C prior to testing. Specimens were mounted in the jig of the universal testing machine, and force was applied to the ceramic/cement interface until failure occurred (1 mm/min). After evaluating all debonded specimens under SEM, the failure types were defined as either "adhesive" with no cement left on the zirconia (score 0) or "mixed" with less than half of the cement left on the surface with no cohesive failure of the substrate (score 1). Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Dunnett-T3 post-hoc tests. Application of a glaze layer significantly improved the

  6. Silicon Carbide Corrugated Mirrors for Space Telescopes Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Trex Enterprises Corporation (Trex) proposes technology development to manufacture monolithic, lightweight silicon carbide corrugated mirrors (SCCM) suitable for...

  7. Carbides in Nodular Cast Iron with Cr and Mo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In these paper results of elements microsegregation in carbidic nodular cast iron have been presented. A cooling rate in the centre of the cross-section and on the surface of casting and change of moulding sand temperature during casting crystallization and its self-cooling have been investigated. TDA curves have been registered. The linear distribution of elements concentration in an eutectic grain, primary and secondary carbides have been made. It was found, that there are two kinds of carbides: Cr and Mo enriched. A probable composition of primary and secondary carbides have been presented.

  8. Characterization of silicon-silicon carbide ceramic derived from carbon-carbon silicon carbide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, Vijay K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Varanasi (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Krenkel, Walter [Univ. of Bayreuth (Germany). Dept. of Ceramic Materials Engineering

    2013-04-15

    The main objective of the present work is to process porous silicon - silicon carbide (Si - SiC) ceramic by the oxidation of carboncarbon silicon carbide (C/C - SiC) composites. Phase studies are performed on the oxidized porous composite to examine the changes due to the high temperature oxidation. Further, various characterization techniques are performed on Si- SiC ceramics in order to study the material's microstructure. The effects of various parameters such as fiber alignment (twill weave and short/chopped fiber) and phenolic resin type (resol and novolak) are characterized.

  9. Effect of -bar 2 grain boundaries on plastic deformation of WC-Co cemented carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostberg, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)]. E-mail: gusto@fy.chalmers.se; Farooq, M.U. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Christensen, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Andren, H.-O. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Klement, U. [Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Wahnstroem, G. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-01-25

    Cutting inserts of WC-6wt.% Co were investigated before and after plastic deformation. The deformation tests were performed with a turning operation under realistic, yet controlled, conditions. SEM studies showed that after deformation the WC skeleton structure had broken up and thin lamellae of binder phase had formed in less than 10% of the grain boundaries. Ab initio calculations showed that -bar 2 twist WC/WC boundaries have a high work of separation and the interface energy is not lowered by forming two Co/WC boundaries. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) measurements showed an apparent increase in the relative occurrence of -bar 2 boundaries due to poor indexing of the deformed material. The accumulation of dislocations in general boundaries is held responsible for the difficulty in identifying them compared with -bar 2 boundaries. At the -bar 2 tilt boundary the grains have the glide planes {l_brace}101-bar 0{r_brace} in common and at the -bar 2 twist boundary there are three glide planes intersecting, which facilitate dislocation movements across the -bar 2 boundaries.

  10. Microstructural changes during wear by plastic deformation of cemented carbide and cermet cutting inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östberg, Gustaf; Andrén, Hans-Olof

    2006-05-01

    The microstructure of one WC-Co and two Ti(C,N)-WC-Co cutting inserts has been studied before and after plastic deformation, caused by high-speed turning. It was found that after deformation, the binder phase had infiltrated some of the grain boundaries and formed lamellae between the hard phase grains. The infiltration of grain boundaries was assumed to occur by a stress-induced dissolution along the grain boundaries of the hard phase grains as a wide front of binder phase, rather than gradually by Co grain boundary diffusion. Some localized dissolution of the hard phase could also be seen as faceting of grains in WC-Co and at triple points in cermets. It was concluded that the plastic deformation occurs by grain boundary infiltration with simultaneous grain boundary sliding. The rate of deformation is controlled by grain boundary infiltration through dissolution of the hard phase grains.

  11. Deposition of multicomponent chromium carbide coatings using a non-conventional source of chromium and silicon with micro-additions of boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Ruiz, Jesus Eduardo, E-mail: jesus.gonzalez@biomat.uh.cu [Biomaterials Center, University of Havana (Cuba); Rodriguez Cristo, Alejandro [Mechanical Plants Company, Road of the Sub-Plan, Farm La Cana, Santa Clara, Villa Clara (Cuba); Ramos, Adrian Paz [Department of Chemistry, Universite de Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Quintana Puchol, Rafael [Welding Research Center, Central University Marta Abreu of Las Villas, Villa Clara (Cuba)

    2017-01-15

    The chromium carbide coatings are widely used in the mechanical industry due to its corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. In this work, we evaluated a new source of chromium and silicon with micro-additions of boron on the deposition of multi-component coatings of chromium carbides in W108 steel. The coatings were obtained by the pack cementation method, using a simultaneous deposition at 1000 deg for 4 hours. The coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, optical microscopy, microhardness test method and pin-on-disc wear test. It was found that the coatings formed on W108 steel were mainly constituted by (Cr,Fe){sub 23}C{sub 6} , (Cr,Fe){sub 7} C{sub 3} , Cr{sub 5-x}Si{sub 3-x} C{sub x+z}, Cr{sub 3} B{sub 0,44}C{sub 1,4} and (or) Cr{sub 7} BC{sub 4} . The carbide layers showed thicknesses between 14 and 15 μm and maximum values of microhardness between 15.8 and 18.8 GPa. Also, the micro-additions of boron to the mixtures showed statistically significant influence on the thickness, microhardness and abrasive wear resistance of the carbide coatings. (author)

  12. Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Ramanathan; Kosmac, Tomaz; Della Bona, Alvaro; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yu

    2015-04-01

    To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia. Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending. Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength. While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of cementation surface modifications on fracture resistance of zirconia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srikanth, Ramanathan; Kosmac, Tomaz; Bona, Alvaro Della; Yin, Ling; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the effects of glass infiltration (GI) and alumina coating (AC) on the indentation flexural load and four-point bending strength of monolithic zirconia. Methods Plate-shaped (12 mm × 12 mm × 1.0 mm or 1.5 mm or 2.0 mm) and bar-shaped (4 mm × 3 mm × 25 mm) monolithic zirconia specimens were fabricated. In addition to monolithic zirconia (group Z), zirconia monoliths were glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their tensile surfaces to form groups ZGI and ZAC, respectively. They were also glass-infiltrated on their upper surfaces, and glass-infiltrated or alumina-coated on their lower (tensile) surfaces to make groups ZGI2 and ZAC2, respectively. For comparison, porcelain-veneered zirconia (group PVZ) and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (group LiDi) specimens were also fabricated. The plate-shaped specimens were cemented onto a restorative composite base for Hertzian indentation using a tungsten carbide spherical indenter with a radius of 3.2 mm. Critical loads for indentation flexural fracture at the zirconia cementation surface were measured. Strengths of bar-shaped specimens were evaluated in four-point bending. Results Glass infiltration on zirconia tensile surfaces increased indentation flexural loads by 32% in Hertzian contact and flexural strength by 24% in four-point bending. Alumina coating showed no significant effect on resistance to flexural damage of zirconia. Monolithic zirconia outperformed porcelain-veneered zirconia and monolithic lithium disilicate glass-ceramics in terms of both indentation flexural load and flexural strength. Significance While both alumina coating and glass infiltration can be used to effectively modify the cementation surface of zirconia, glass infiltration can further increase the flexural fracture resistance of zirconia. PMID:25687628

  14. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  15. Calcium Aluminate Cement Hydration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matusinović, T.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium aluminate cement (AC is a very versatile special cement used for specific applications. As the hydration of AC is highly temperature dependent, yielding structurally different hydration products that continuously alter material properties, a good knowledge of thermal properties at early stages of hydration is essential. The kinetics of AC hydration is a complex process and the use of single mechanisms models cannot describe the rate of hydration during the whole stage.This paper examines the influence of temperature (ϑ=5–20 °C and water-to-cement mass ratio (mH /mAC = 0.4; 0.5 and 1.0 on hydration of commercial iron-rich AC ISTRA 40 (producer: Istra Cement, Pula, Croatia, which is a part of CALUCEM group, Figs 1–3. The flow rate of heat generation of cement pastes as a result of the hydration reactions was measured with differential microcalorimeter. Chemically bonded water in the hydrated cement samples was determined by thermo-gravimetry.Far less heat is liberated when cement and water come in contact for the first time, Fig. 1, than in the case for portland cement (PC. Higher water-to-cement ratio increases the heat evolved at later ages (Fig. 3 due to higher quantity of water available for hydration. A significant effect of the water-to-cement ratio on the hydration rate and hydration degree showed the importance of water as being the limiting reactant that slows down the reaction early. A simplified stoichiometric model of early age AC hydration (eq. (8 based on reaction schemes of principal minerals, nominally CA, C12A7 and C4AF (Table 1, was employed. Hydration kinetics after the induction period (ϑ < 20 °C had been successfully described (Fig. 4 and Table 2 by a proposed model (eq. (23 which simultaneously comprised three main mechanisms: nucleation and growth, interaction at phase boundary, and mass transfer. In the proposed kinetic model the nucleation and growth is proportional to the amount of reacted minerals (eq

  16. Effect of alloying elements on the composition of carbide phases and mechanical properties of the matrix of high-carbon chromium-vanadium steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V. I.; Tarasenko, L. V.; Utkina, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the results of phase physicochemical analysis of high-carbon chromium-vanadium steel, the predominant type of carbide that provides high wear resistance has been established, and its amount and amount of carbon in martensite have been determined. Data on the composition and the amount of carbide phase and on the chemical composition of the martensite of high-carbon steel have been obtained, which allows determination of the alloying-element concentration limits. The mechanical testing of heats of a chosen chemical composition has been carried out after quenching and low-temperature tempering. The tests have demonstrated benefits of new steel in wear resistance and bending strength with the fatigue strength being retained, compared to steels subjected to cementation. The mechanism of secondary strengthening of the steel upon high-temperature tempering has been revealed. High-temperature tempering can be applied to articles that are required to possess both high wear resistance and heat resistance.

  17. Cement pulmonary embolism after vertebroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Lamúa Riazuelo, José Ramón; Gallego Rivera, José Ignacio; Vázquez Díaz, Mónica

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, the use of vertebral cementing techniques for vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty has spread for the treatment of pain associated with osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. This is also associated with the increased incidence of complications related with these procedures, the most frequent being originated by leakage of cementation material. Cement can escape into the vertebral venous system and reach the pulmonary circulation through the azygous system and cava vein, producing a cement embolism. This is a frequent complication, occurring in up to 26% of patients undergoing vertebroplasty but, since most patients have no clinical or hemodynamical repercussion, this event usually goes unnoticed. However, some serious, and even fatal cases, have been reported. We report the case of a 74-year-old male patient who underwent vertebroplasty for persistent pain associated with osteoporotic L3 vertebral fracture and who developed a cement leak into the cava vein and right pulmonary artery during the procedure. Although he developed a pulmonary cement embolism, the patient remained asymptomatic and did not present complications during follow-up. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of plasma pretreatment on shear bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements to polyetheretherketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawarczyk, B; Bähr, N; Beuer, F; Wimmer, T; Eichberger, M; Gernet, W; Jahn, D; Schmidlin, P R

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the adhesion between PEEK and two self-adhesive resin cements after plasma treatment. Eight hundred sixty-four polyetheretherketone (PEEK) disks were cut and polished to silicon carbide (SIC) P4000. One half of the specimens were randomly selected and pretreated with plasma, whereas the remaining 432 specimens remained untreated. Subsequently, specimens were randomly allocated to four groups (n = 108/group): Visio.link (Bredent), Signum PEEK Bond (Heraeus Kulzer), Ambarino P60 (Creamed), and a control group without additional treatment. Half of the specimens of each group (n = 54) were then cemented with either RelyX Unicem Automix 2 (3 M ESPE) or with Clearfil SA (Kuraray). All specimens were stored in water for 24 h (37 °C). Afterwards, specimens were divided into three groups (n = 18) for different aging levels: (1) no aging (baseline measurement), (2) thermal aging for 5,000 cycles (5/55 °C), and (3) thermal aging for 10,000 cycles (5/55 °C). Thereafter, shear bond strengths (SBS) were measured, and failure types (adhesive, mixed, and cohesive) were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, four- and one-way ANOVA followed by a post hoc Scheffé test (p Visio.link or Signum PEEK Bond showed predominantly mixed failure types. Control groups, plasma treated, or treated using Ambarino P60 groups fractured predominantly adhesively. The use of methyl methacrylate (MMA)-based adhesives allows bonding between PEEK and self-adhesive resin cements. Plasma treatment has no impact on bond to resin cements. PEEK reconstructions can be cemented using self-adhesive resin cements combined with pretreatment with MMA-based adhesives.

  19. Characterization of Nanometric-Sized Carbides Formed During Tempering of Carbide-Steel Cermets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matus K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article of this paper is to present issues related to characterization of nanometric-sized carbides, nitrides and/or carbonitrides formed during tempering of carbide-steel cermets. Closer examination of those materials is important because of hardness growth of carbide-steel cermet after tempering. The results obtained during research show that the upswing of hardness is significantly higher than for high-speed steels. Another interesting fact is the displacement of secondary hardness effect observed for this material to a higher tempering temperature range. Determined influence of the atmosphere in the sintering process on precipitations formed during tempering of carbide-steel cermets. So far examination of carbidesteel cermet produced by powder injection moulding was carried out mainly in the scanning electron microscope. A proper description of nanosized particles is both important and difficult as achievements of nanoscience and nanotechnology confirm the significant influence of nanocrystalline particles on material properties even if its mass fraction is undetectable by standard methods. The following research studies have been carried out using transmission electron microscopy, mainly selected area electron diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The obtained results and computer simulations comparison were made.

  20. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit {<=} 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio {<=} 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  1. Stress in tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon multilayer coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujada, B.R.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tungsten carbide-diamond like carbon (WC-DLC) multilayer coatings have been prepared by sputter deposition from a tungsten-carbide target and periodic switching on and off of the reactive acetylene gas flow. The stress in the resulting WC-DLC multilayers has been studied by substrate curvature.

  2. Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    structure with 12-atom icosahedral clusters which are linked by direct covalent bonds and through three-atom interico- sahedral chains. Boron carbide has single phase ... in nuclear industry due to its high neutron absorption co- efficient (Sinha et al 2002). Boron carbide can be prepared by reaction of elemental boron and ...

  3. Production of nano structured silicon carbide by high energy ball ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The size, shape and texture of the fresh as well as nano structured Silicon carbide powder were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The fresh Silicon carbide powder particles were mostly angular in shape. The shape of the 50h milled particles is irregular and the surface morphology is rough.

  4. SEM investigation of minor constituents of carbide materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shungite is a black, precambrian poorly crystalline minera- loid composed mainly of a natural mixture of amorphous carbon and silicate minerals, mainly quartz, .... Microchemical analysis of carbide composite material prepared from a mixture of carbidized shungite and alumina. Pointa. Elemental composition (EDS data)b ...

  5. Stochastic Distribution of Wear of Carbide Tools during Machining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing awareness of wear of carbide tools during machining operation has created doubts about the ability of this tool material to withstand stress and strain induced by the machining process. Manufacturers are beginning to question their dependence on carbide tools, seeing that they no longer meet their expected ...

  6. Size dependence of nanoscale wear of silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyapat Tangpatjaroen; David Grierson; Steve Shannon; Joseph E. Jakes; Izabela Szlufarska

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale, single-asperity wear of single-crystal silicon carbide (sc- SiC) and nanocrystalline silicon carbide (nc-SiC) is investigated using single-crystal diamond nanoindenter tips and nanocrystalline diamond atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips under dry conditions, and the wear behavior is compared to that of single-crystal silicon with both thin and thick native...

  7. White light emission from engineered silicon carbide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Haiyan

    Silicon carbide (SiC) is a wide indirect bandgap semiconductor. The light emission efficiency is low in nature. But this material has very unique physical properties like good thermal conductivity, high break down field etc in addition to its abundance. Therefore it is interesting to engineer its...... is demonstrated. After optimizing the passivation conditions, strong blue-green emission from porous SiC is demonstrated as well. When combining the yellow emission from co-doped SiC and blue-green from porous SiC, a high color rendering index white light source is achieved....

  8. Silicon carbide nanowires: synthesis and cathodoluminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huczko, Andrzej; Dabrowska, Agnieszka [Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University (Poland); Savchyn, Volodymyr; Karbovnyk, Ivan [Department of Electronics, Ivan Franko National University of Lviv (Ukraine); Popov, Anatoli I. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Latvia, Riga (Latvia)

    2009-12-15

    Silicon carbide nanowires have been synthesized via a combustion synthesis route. Structural studies showed that obtained SiC nanowires belong dominantly to 3C polytype with zincblend structure. Cathodoluminescence spectra from these nanostructures within the temperature range of 77..300 K, show obvious differences with respect to the bulk materials. The exciton band of the bulk 3C-SiC is significantly damped and the prevailing line is found to be at 1.99 eV (77 K), proving the key role of defect centers in optical properties of the investigated nanomaterial. Purified SiC nanowires. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Supported molybdenum carbide for higher alcohol synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Chiarello, Gian Luca

    2013-01-01

    carbide, while the selectivity to methanol follows the opposite trend. The effect of Mo2C loading on the alcohol selectivity at a fixed K/Mo molar ratio of 0.14 could be related to the amount of K2CO3 actually on the active Mo2C phase and the size, structure and composition of the supported carbide......Molybdenum carbide supported on active carbon, carbon nanotubes, and titanium dioxide, and promoted by K2CO3, has been prepared and tested for methanol and higher alcohol synthesis from syngas. At optimal conditions, the activity and selectivity to alcohols (methanol and higher alcohols) over...... supported molybdenum carbide are significantly higher compared to the bulk carbide. The CO conversion reaches a maximum, when about 20wt% Mo2C is loaded on active carbon. The selectivity to higher alcohols increases with increasing Mo2C loading on active carbon and reaches a maximum over bulk molybdenum...

  10. Improved silicon carbide for advanced heat engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, Thomas J.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second annual technical report entitled, Improved Silicon Carbide for Advanced Heat Engines, and includes work performed during the period February 16, 1986 to February 15, 1987. The program is conducted for NASA under contract NAS3-24384. The objective is the development of high strength, high reliability silicon carbide parts with complex shapes suitable for use in advanced heat engines. The fabrication methods used are to be adaptable for mass production of such parts on an economically sound basis. Injection molding is the forming method selected. This objective is to be accomplished in a two-phase program: (1) to achieve a 20 percent improvement in strength and a 100 percent increase in Weibull modulus of the baseline material; and (2) to produce a complex shaped part, a gas turbine rotor, for example, with the improved mechanical properties attained in the first phase. Eight tasks are included in the first phase covering the characterization of the properties of a baseline material, the improvement of those properties and the fabrication of complex shaped parts. Activities during the first contract year concentrated on two of these areas: fabrication and characterization of the baseline material (Task 1) and improvement of material and processes (Task 7). Activities during the second contract year included an MOR bar matrix study to improve mechanical properties (Task 2), materials and process improvements (Task 7), and a Ford-funded task to mold a turbocharger rotor with an improved material (Task 8).

  11. Ultrasmall Carbide Nanospheres - Formation and Electronic Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, Petra; Monazami, Ehsan; McClimon, John

    2015-03-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are highly coveted but are subject to rapid Ostwald ripening even at moderate temperatures limiting study of their properties. Ultrasmall transition metal carbide ``nanospheres'' are synthesized by a solid-state reaction between fullerene as carbon scaffold, and a W surface. This produces nanospheres with a narrow size distribution below 2.5 nm diameter. The nanosphere shape is defined by the scaffold and densely packed arrays can be achieved. The metal-fullerene reaction is temperature driven and progresses through an intermediate semiconducting phase until the fully metallic nanospheres are created at about 350 C. The reaction sequence is observed with STM, and STS maps yield the local density of states. The reaction presumably progresses by stepwise introduction of W-atoms in the carbon scaffold. The results of high resolution STM/STS in combination with DFT calculations are used to unravel the reaction mechanism. We will discuss the transfer of this specific reaction mechanism to other transition metal carbides. The nanospheres are an excellent testbed for the physics and chemistry of highly curved surfaces.

  12. Degradable borate glass polyalkenoate cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, L; Coughlan, A; Towler, M; Hall, M

    2014-04-01

    Glass polyalkenoate cements (GPCs) containing aluminum-free borate glasses having the general composition Ag2O-Na2O-CaO-SrO-ZnO-TiO2-B2O3 were evaluated in this work. An initial screening study of sixteen compositions was used to identify regions of glass formation and cement compositions with promising rheological properties. The results of the screening study were used to develop four model borate glass compositions for further study. A second round of rheological experiments was used to identify a preferred GPC formulation for each model glass composition. The model borate glasses containing higher levels of TiO2 (7.5 mol %) tended to have longer working times and shorter setting times. Dissolution behavior of the four model GPC formulations was evaluated by measuring ion release profiles as a function of time. All four GPC formulations showed evidence of incongruent dissolution behavior when considering the relative release profiles of sodium and boron, although the exact dissolution profile of the glass was presumably obscured by the polymeric cement matrix. Compression testing was undertaken to evaluate cement strength over time during immersion in water. The cements containing the borate glass with 7.5 mol % TiO2 had the highest initial compressive strength, ranging between 20 and 30 MPa. No beneficial aging effect was observed-instead, the strength of all four model GPC formulations was found to degrade with time.

  13. Heterogeneous Glasses and Sustainable Cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Gado, Emanuela

    2015-03-01

    Calcium-silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is the main binding agent in cement and concrete. It forms at the beginning of cement hydration, it progressively densifies as cement hardens and is ultimately responsible for the performances of concrete. This hydration product is a cohesive nano-scale heterogeneous glass, whose structure and mechanics are still poorly understood, in spite of its practical importance. I will review some of the open questions for this fascinating material and discuss a statistical physics approach recently developed, which allows us to investigate the structural arrest and solidification under the out-of-equilibrium conditions typical of cement hydration and the role of the nano-scale structure in C-S-H mechanics upon hardening. Our approach unveils how some distinctive features of the kinetics of cement hydration can be related to changes in the morphology of this glassy material and elucidates the role of nano-scale mechanical heterogeneities in the hardened C-S-H.

  14. Seating load parameters impact on dental ceramic reinforcement conferred by cementation with resin-cements.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Addison, Owen

    2010-09-01

    Cementation of all-ceramic restorations with resin-cements has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of fracture in service. The aim was to investigate the influence of loading force and loading duration applied during cementation on the reinforcement conferred by a resin-cement on a leucite reinforced glass-ceramic.

  15. Bioactive and Hemocompatible Calcium Sulphoaluminate Cement

    OpenAIRE

    Acuña-Gutiérrez, Iván Omar; Escobedo-Bocardo, José Concepción; Almanza-Robles, José Manuel; Cortés-Hernández, Dora Alicia; Saldívar-Ramírez, Mirna María Guadalupe; Reséndiz-Hernández, Perla Janet; Zugasti-Cruz, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Calcium sulphoaluminate cement (CSAC) is an attractive candidate for biomedical applications due to its appropriate mechanical properties and high calcium content. In vitro bioactivity and hemocompatibility of calcium sulphoaluminate cement were assessed. The cement was prepared from a mixture of calcium sulphoaluminate (CSA) clinker, gypsum and water. Cement samples were immersed in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C for different periods of time (7, 14 and 21 days). The analyses of these...

  16. 76 FR 24519 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United States... determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and cement clinker from...

  17. 76 FR 50252 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United... cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  18. Computational Studies of Physical Properties of Boron Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizhi Ouyang

    2011-09-30

    The overall goal is to provide valuable insight in to the mechanisms and processes that could lead to better engineering the widely used boron carbide which could play an important role in current plight towards greener energy. Carbon distribution in boron carbide, which has been difficult to retrieve from experimental methods, is critical to our understanding of its structure-properties relation. For modeling disorders in boron carbide, we implemented a first principles method based on supercell approach within our G(P,T) package. The supercell approach was applied to boron carbide to determine its carbon distribution. Our results reveal that carbon prefers to occupy the end sites of the 3-atom chain in boron carbide and further carbon atoms will distribute mainly on the equatorial sites with a small percentage on the 3-atom chains and the apex sites. Supercell approach was also applied to study mechanical properties of boron carbide under uniaxial load. We found that uniaxial load can lead to amorphization. Other physical properties of boron carbide were calculated using the G(P,T) package.

  19. Precipitation behavior of carbides in high-carbon martensitic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Qin-tian; Li, Jing; Shi, Cheng-bin; Yu, Wen-tao; Shi, Chang-min [University of Science and Technology, Beijing (China). State Key Laboratory of Advanced Metallurgy; Li, Ji-hui [Yang Jiang Shi Ba Zi Group Co., Ltd, Guangdong (China)

    2017-01-15

    A fundamental study on the precipitation behavior of carbides was carried out. Thermo-calc software, scanning electron microscopy, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to study the precipitation and transformation behaviors of carbides. Carbide precipitation was of a specific order. Primary carbides (M7C3) tended to be generated from liquid steel when the solid fraction reached 84 mol.%. Secondary carbides (M7C3) precipitated from austenite and can hardly transformed into M23C6 carbides with decreasing temperature in air. Primary carbides hardly changed once they were generated, whereas secondary carbides were sensitive to heat treatment and thermal deformation. Carbide precipitation had a certain effect on steel-matrix phase transitions. The segregation ability of carbon in liquid steel was 4.6 times greater that of chromium. A new method for controlling primary carbides is proposed.

  20. ADVANCED CEMENTS FOR GEOTHERMAL WELLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUGAMA,T.

    2007-01-01

    Using the conventional well cements consisting of the calcium silicate hydrates (CaO-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) and calcium aluminum silicate hydrates (CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O system) for the integrity of geothermal wells, the serious concern confronting the cementing industries was their poor performance in mechanically supporting the metallic well casing pipes and in mitigating the pipe's corrosion in very harsh geothermal reservoirs. These difficulties are particularly acute in two geological regions: One is the deep hot downhole area ({approx} 1700 m depth at temperatures of {approx} 320 C) that contains hyper saline water with high concentrations of CO{sub 2} (> 40,000 ppm) in conjunction with {approx} 100 ppm H{sub 2}S at a mild acid of pH {approx} 5.0; the other is the upper well region between the well's surface and {approx} 1000 m depth at temperatures up to 200 C. The specific environment of the latter region is characterized by highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (pH < 1.5) brine containing at least 5000 ppm CO{sub 2}. When these conventional cements are emplaced in these harsh environments, their major shortcoming is their susceptibility to reactions with hot CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}SO4, thereby causing their deterioration brought about by CO{sub 2}-catalyzed carbonation and acid-initiated erosion. Such degradation not only reduced rapidly the strength of cements, lowering the mechanical support of casing pipes, but also increased the extent of permeability of the brine through the cement layer, promoting the rate of the pipe's corrosion. Severely carbonated and acid eroded cements often impaired the integrity of a well in less than one year; in the worst cases, casings have collapsed within three months, leading to the need for costly and time-consuming repairs or redrilling operations. These were the reasons why the geothermal well drilling and cementing industries were concerned about using conventional well

  1. Shear bond strength of cement to zirconia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosentritt, M.; Behr, M.; van der Zel, J.M.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the shear bond strength (SBS) of various cements to zirconia ceramic. CoCr-cylinders were bonded to zirconia plates (20 mm × 10 mm × 2 mm; n = 8 per group) using four self-adhesive resin cements (one capsule, three hand-mixed) and four resin cements, partly in combination

  2. 21 CFR 872.3275 - Dental cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dental cement. 872.3275 Section 872.3275 Food and... DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3275 Dental cement. (a) Zinc oxide-eugenol—(1) Identification... filling or as a base cement to affix a temporary tooth filling, to affix dental devices such as crowns or...

  3. Multicomponent modelling of Portland cement hydration reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ukrainczyk, N.; Koenders, E.A.B.; Van Breugel, K.

    2012-01-01

    The prospect of cement and concrete technologies depends on more in depth understanding of cement hydration reactions. Hydration reaction models simulate the development of the microstructures that can finally be used to estimate the cement based material properties that influence performance and

  4. Burning sewage sludge in cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrist, A.

    1987-03-01

    Full-scale industrial trial burning of sewage sludge in cement kilns in Switzerland is reported. Tests with dried sludge, kiln operation, chimney emissions, clinker and cement are discussed, and possibilities open to Swiss cement industry, and significance within the overall scope of waste disposal are outlined.

  5. A silicon carbide array for electrocorticography and peripheral nerve recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Botia, C. A.; Luna, L. E.; Neely, R. M.; Chamanzar, M.; Carraro, C.; Carmena, J. M.; Sabes, P. N.; Maboudian, R.; Maharbiz, M. M.

    2017-10-01

    Objective. Current neural probes have a limited device lifetime of a few years. Their common failure mode is the degradation of insulating films and/or the delamination of the conductor-insulator interfaces. We sought to develop a technology that does not suffer from such limitations and would be suitable for chronic applications with very long device lifetimes. Approach. We developed a fabrication method that integrates polycrystalline conductive silicon carbide with insulating silicon carbide. The technology employs amorphous silicon carbide as the insulator and conductive silicon carbide at the recording sites, resulting in a seamless transition between doped and amorphous regions of the same material, eliminating heterogeneous interfaces prone to delamination. Silicon carbide has outstanding chemical stability, is biocompatible, is an excellent molecular barrier and is compatible with standard microfabrication processes. Main results. We have fabricated silicon carbide electrode arrays using our novel fabrication method. We conducted in vivo experiments in which electrocorticography recordings from the primary visual cortex of a rat were obtained and were of similar quality to those of polymer based electrocorticography arrays. The silicon carbide electrode arrays were also used as a cuff electrode wrapped around the sciatic nerve of a rat to record the nerve response to electrical stimulation. Finally, we demonstrated the outstanding long term stability of our insulating silicon carbide films through accelerated aging tests. Significance. Clinical translation in neural engineering has been slowed in part due to the poor long term performance of current probes. Silicon carbide devices are a promising technology that may accelerate this transition by enabling truly chronic applications.

  6. Carbide inclusions in delta-phase plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baros, T. (Thomas); Davis, C. C. (Charles C.); Hawkins, H. T. (Heather T.); Ruggiero, M. J. (Matthew J.); Valentine, S. J. (Scott J.); Storey, B. G. (Bradford G.); Roybal, L. (Lawrence)

    2004-01-01

    Inclusions in plutonium alloys are common and depend on the processing parameters and age of the material. Plutonium-bearing compounds frequently observed as inclusions include: hydrides, nitrides, oxides, and carbides. Optical metallography and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were used to characterize plutonium carbide (PuC) inclusions in delta-phase plutonium. The structural complexities of plutonium combined with its radioactivity, pyrophoric nature, and toxicity create a unique challenge to revealing and interpreting its microstructures. Samples of delta-phase Pu-239 were used in this study. Note that the delta phase is stabilized to room temperature by the addition of {approx}1 wt% gallium. After samples are cut, mounted in epoxy, ground, and polished, they are then electropolished at 40 V in an etchant of 10 vol.% nitric acid and 90 vol.% dimethylformamide and electroetched at 6 V in the same etchant. Optical micrographs were collected using an inverted metallograph equipped with a digital camera. Back-scattered electron images and elemental maps of the plutonium, carbon, and gallium content were collected using an EPMA equipped with wavelength dispersive spectrometers. After reviewing our data and consulting work done by Cramer and Bergin it was determined that the inclusions were acicular plutonium carbides and were formed during the casting process at the time the material was manufactured. It is believed that these inclusions would affect the high strain-rate properties. The response of plutonium alloys during implosion is critical to the performance and reliability of a nuclear weapon. We plan to further investigate these inclusions to gather information about orientation, composition, structure, and concentration. An x-ray diffractometer with a 10 {micro}m beam diameter will be used to gather information on the orientation and structure of individual inclusions. A field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) with a WDS will be used at low

  7. Rice Husk Ash Cement – An alternative pozzolana cement for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The engineering properties of the cement resulting from a mixture of OPC plus RHA and lime plus RHA were satisfactory with addition of up to 50% RHA. The RHA improved greatly the compressive strength of lime. The cost of producing RHA was considered in pricing the resulting binder and it showed that the use of RHA ...

  8. Development of novel dental cements. II. Cement properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neve, A D; Piddock, V; Combe, E C

    1992-01-01

    Following earlier work, three novel aluminoborate glasses have been studied as potential cement components. Factors studied include the effect of batch size on composition and manipulative characteristics, and the effect of tartaric acid and conditions of storage on mechanical properties. It was concluded that two materials have potential for application as dental luting agents.

  9. Hugoniot equation of state and dynamic strength of boron carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grady, Dennis E. [Applied Research Associates, Southwest Division, 4300 San Mateo Blvd NE, A-220, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87110-129 (United States)

    2015-04-28

    Boron carbide ceramics have been particularly problematic in attempts to develop adequate constitutive model descriptions for purposes of analysis of dynamic response in the shock and impact environment. Dynamic strength properties of boron carbide ceramic differ uniquely from comparable ceramics. Furthermore, boron carbide is suspected, but not definitely shown, to undergoing polymorphic phase transformation under shock compression. In the present paper, shock-wave compression measurements conducted over the past 40 years are assessed for the purpose of achieving improved understanding of the dynamic equation of state and strength of boron carbide. In particular, attention is focused on the often ignored Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hugoniot measurements performed on porous sintered boron carbide ceramic. The LANL data are shown to exhibit two compression anomalies on the shock Hugoniot within the range of 20–60 GPa that may relate to crystallographic structure transitions. More recent molecular dynamics simulations on the compressibility of the boron carbide crystal lattice reveal compression transitions that bear similarities to the LANL Hugoniot results. The same Hugoniot data are complemented with dynamic isentropic compression data for boron carbide extracted from Hugoniot measurements on boron carbide and copper granular mixtures. Other Hugoniot measurements, however, performed on near-full-density boron carbide ceramic differ markedly from the LANL Hugoniot data. These later data exhibit markedly less compressibility and tend not to show comparable anomalies in compressibility. Alternative Hugoniot anomalies, however, are exhibited by the near-full-density data. Experimental uncertainty, Hugoniot strength, and phase transformation physics are all possible explanations for the observed discrepancies. It is reasoned that experimental uncertainty and Hugoniot strength are not likely explanations for the observed differences. The notable

  10. The all boron carbide diode neutron detector: Comparison with theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A.N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); College of Engineering, N245 Walter Scott Engineering Center, 17th Vine Street, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Science and Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58102 (United States); Dowben, P.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Behlen Laboratory of Physics, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States) and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States)]. E-mail: pdowben@unl.edu; Balkir, S. [Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, 237N Walter Scott Engineering Center, 17th Vine Street, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States); Schemm, Nathan [Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, 116 Brace Laboratory, University of Nebraska, P.O. Box 880111, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, 237N Walter Scott Engineering Center, 17th Vine Street, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0511 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-11-25

    A boron carbide diode detector, fabricated from two different polytypes of semiconducting boron carbide, will detect neutrons in reasonable agreement with theory. Small deviations from the model calculations occur due to the detection efficiencies of the {sup 10}B capture products Li plus {alpha} sum signal differing somewhat from expectation in the thin diodes. The performance of the all boron carbide neutron detector does depart from the behavior of devices where a boron rich neutron capture layer is distinct from the diode charge collection region (i.e. a conversion layer solid state detector), as is expected.

  11. Separation of Nuclear Fuel Surrogates from Silicon Carbide Inert Matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Ronald Baney

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this project has been to identify a process for separating transuranic species from silicon carbide (SiC). Silicon carbide has become one of the prime candidates for the matrix in inert matrix fuels, (IMF) being designed to reduce plutonium inventories and the long half-lives actinides through transmutation since complete reaction is not practical it become necessary to separate the non-transmuted materials from the silicon carbide matrix for ultimate reprocessing. This work reports a method for that required process.l

  12. Stable field emission from nanoporous silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Myung-Gyu; Lezec, Henri J.; Sharifi, Fred

    2013-02-01

    We report on a new type of stable field emitter capable of electron emission at levels comparable to thermal sources. Such an emitter potentially enables significant advances in several important technologies which currently use thermal electron sources. These include communications through microwave electronics, and more notably imaging for medicine and security where new modalities of detection may arise due to variable-geometry x-ray sources. Stable emission of 6 A cm-2 is demonstrated in a macroscopic array, and lifetime measurements indicate these new emitters are sufficiently robust to be considered for realistic implementation. The emitter is a monolithic structure, and is made in a room-temperature process. It is fabricated from a silicon carbide wafer, which is formed into a highly porous structure resembling an aerogel, and further patterned into an array. The emission properties may be tuned both through control of the nanoscale morphology and the macroscopic shape of the emitter array.

  13. Silicon carbide devices for radiation hard applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMullin, P.G.; Barrett, D.L.; Hopkins, R.H.; Spitznagel, J.A. (Westinghouse Sciences and Technology Center, 1310 Beulah Road, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15235 (United States)); Powell, J.A. (NASA Lewis Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road, Cleveland Ohio 44135 (United States)); Thome, F.V. (Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States))

    1993-01-15

    Silicon carbide has long been recognized as a favorable material for applications at high temperatures and in radiation environments, but device development has been hindered by lack of adequate substrates. This paper reviews the current Westinghouse material development effort aimed at the growth of high quality 6H boules and describes 6H SiC devices fabricated on Westinghouse substrates. MESFET and MOSFET transistors were made in a microwave power design layout. The MESFET and MOSFET transistors were subjected to a total gamma irradiation of 1 megaGray (100 megarad) and exhibited threshold voltage shifts of about 0.4 and 1.2 Volts respectively with little change in bulk material parameters.

  14. Silicon carbide devices for radiation hard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Paul G.; Barrett, Donovan L.; Hopkins, Richard H.; Spitznagel, John A.; Powell, J. Anthony; Thome, Frank V.

    1993-01-01

    Silicon carbide has long been recognized as a favorable material for applications at high temperatures and in radiation environments, but device development has been hindered by lack of adequate substrates. This paper reviews the current Westinghouse material development effort aimed at the growth of high quality 6H boules and describes 6H SiC devices fabricated on Westinghouse substrates. MESFET and MOSFET transistors were made in a microwave power design layout. The MESFET and MOSFET transistors were subjected to a total gamma irradiation of 1 megaGray (100 megarad) and exhibited threshold voltage shifts of about 0.4 and 1.2 Volts respectively with little change in bulk material parameters.

  15. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L.; Hay, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper provides the first known observation of silicon carbide fully amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60 C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 {times} 10{sup 25} n/m{sup 2}. Amorphization was seen in both materials, as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction, and x-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density ({minus}10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique ({minus}45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation ({minus}45%), and standard Vickers hardness ({minus}24%). Similar property changes are observed for the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than 130 C.

  16. Arsenic carbide monolayer: First principles prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mosayeb

    2017-11-01

    Using the first principles calculation, a new pentagonal indirect band gap semiconductor namely arsenic carbide monolayer (As2C) is predicted. The calculated cohesive energy of -5.69 eV/atom the thermodynamic stability of the predicted monolayer. Furthermore, the kinetic stability of the monolayer is examined by phonon dispersion calculation, where the absence of imaginary modes and high value of maximum phonon frequency confirms the high dynamic stability of the proposed monolayer. Investigating in the electronic properties of the As2C monolayer indicates that it is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap of 1.62 eV. Analyzing the optical properties of the As2C monolayer imply that the monolayer has high UV light absorption, however, it has an almost zero absorption in visible region of electromagnetic spectra. The specific electronic and optical properties imply that As2C monolayer may be used in new generation of nano-optoelectronic technology design.

  17. Silicon Carbide Nanotube Oxidation at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlborg, Nadia; Zhu, Dongming

    2012-01-01

    Silicon Carbide Nanotubes (SiCNTs) have high mechanical strength and also have many potential functional applications. In this study, SiCNTs were investigated for use in strengthening high temperature silicate and oxide materials for high performance ceramic nanocomposites and environmental barrier coating bond coats. The high · temperature oxidation behavior of the nanotubes was of particular interest. The SiCNTs were synthesized by a direct reactive conversion process of multiwall carbon nanotubes and silicon at high temperature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to study the oxidation kinetics of SiCNTs at temperatures ranging from 800degC to1300degC. The specific oxidation mechanisms were also investigated.

  18. Helium behaviour in implanted boron carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motte Vianney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When boron carbide is used as a neutron absorber in nuclear power plants, large quantities of helium are produced. To simulate the gas behaviour, helium implantations were carried out in boron carbide. The samples were then annealed up to 1500 °C in order to observe the influence of temperature and duration of annealing. The determination of the helium diffusion coefficient was carried out using the 3He(d,p4He nuclear reaction (NRA method. From the evolution of the width of implanted 3He helium profiles (fluence 1 × 1015/cm2, 3 MeV corresponding to a maximum helium concentration of about 1020/cm3 as a function of annealing temperatures, an Arrhenius diagram was plotted and an apparent diffusion coefficient was deduced (Ea = 0.52 ± 0.11 eV/atom. The dynamic of helium clusters was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM of samples implanted with 1.5 × 1016/cm2, 2.8 to 3 MeV 4He ions, leading to an implanted slab about 1 μm wide with a maximum helium concentration of about 1021/cm3. After annealing at 900 °C and 1100 °C, small (5–20 nm flat oriented bubbles appeared in the grain, then at the grain boundaries. At 1500 °C, due to long-range diffusion, intra-granular bubbles were no longer observed; helium segregates at the grain boundaries, either as bubbles or inducing grain boundaries opening.

  19. Oxidation behaviour of boron carbide powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y.Q. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, New Model Road 5, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China)]. E-mail: Li.Yuanqiang@nims.go.jp; Qiu, T. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, New Model Road 5, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210009 (China)

    2007-01-25

    Isothermal oxidation behaviour of powdered boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) with the fine (1.52 {mu}m), medium (22.5 {mu}m) and coarse (59.6 {mu}m) particle size has been studied in air ranging from 500 to 800 deg. C. The oxidation rate strongly depends on the particle size of boron carbide and temperature. The smaller particle size the higher oxidation rate of B{sub 4}C powder due to its larger surface area. When B{sub 4}C powder is oxidized in air, a B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass film is formed on the surface of B{sub 4}C grain which retards the further oxidation reaction. The oxidation kinetics is approximately fitted to the diffusion-controlled rate law which can be described by the Jander's equation. The apparent activation energy for the fine-, medium- and coarse-B{sub 4}C powders is 209.4 {+-} 11.4, 212.7 {+-} 35.8 and 219.2 {+-} 45.3 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively, slightly varying with the impurity content of B{sub 4}C powders. The type of rate law suggests that the diffusion of oxygen through the oxide layer is the rate-limiting step in the oxidation reactions. In addition, the change in the oxidation process at higher oxidation fraction might associate with the B{sub 2}O{sub 3} volatilization at higher temperatures.

  20. Fast Setting Cement - Literature Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    viscosity, and adaptability to fillers . This formula- tion provides a 30-mmn compressive strength of 3500 psi and flexural strength of 600 psi. Among other... limestone sand, water, and plastiment showed a compressive strength of approximately 6700 psi at 1 day. 5. Annex C - Very fine cements. a. The

  1. False set in aireated cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vázquez, T.

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of aireation on the appearance or elimination of the false setting in industrial portland cements is studied by means of infrared spectroscopy.

    Se estudia por medio de la espectroscopia infrarroja la influencia de la aireación sobre la aparición o eliminación del fraguado, en cemento portland industriales.

  2. A Hard Sell: Factors Influencing the Interwar Adoption of Tungsten Carbide Cutting Tools in Germany, Britain, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, Hermione

    2015-10-01

    Cemented tungsten carbide cutting tools-virtually unknown to historians-came on the market in the late 1920s. Although existing literature alleges that their adoption was rapid and universal, contemporary data indicate that the rate of adoption in fact took many decades and varied greatly between the world's three leading industrialized economies of the time: Germany, England, and the United States. This article suggests that the explanation lies in differing national environments for innovation in the interwar period. It looks at many features that influence adoption by users and argues that the feature emphasized in the literature, increased cutting speed, was not the primary consideration behind adoption, but rather metal shortages. It thereby casts doubt on what measures of national productivity show. The case raises important questions about the use of production efficiency to make international comparisons and about the role of patent monopolies in introducing production innovations.

  3. Understanding cement mechanical behavior in SAGD wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, J.; Zahacy, T. A. [C-FER Technologies (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, the steam assisted gravity drainage process is often used to enhance oil recovery but it can cause cracks in the cement sheath. These cracks are the result of high steam temperatures and thermal expansion. In order to mitigate this risk, improved well designs are required. The aim of this paper is to present the mechanical behavior of the cement sheath during the heating phase. An analysis of the impact of design and operating parameters was conducted through thermal hydraulic and thermal mechanical analyses to assess cement integrity. These analyses were then performed on an example of an SAGD project in the southern part of the Athabasca oilsands region to assess the performance of the cement sheath. Results showed that potential damage to the cement can be reduced by slow heating and a lower Young's modulus cement blend. This paper makes recommendations for optimizing cement design in thermal recovery wells.

  4. Nano-granular texture of cement hydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannidou Katerina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical behavior of concrete crucially depends on cement hydrates, the “glue” of cement. The design of high performance and more environmentally friendly cements demands a deeper understanding of the formation of the multiscale structure of cement hydrates, when they precipitate and densify. We investigate the precipitation and setting of nano-grains of cement hydrates using a combination of Monte Carlo and Molecular Dynamics numerical simulations and study their texture from nano up to the micron scale. We characterize the texture of cement hydrates using the local volume fraction distribution, the pore size distribution, the scattering intensity and the chord length distribution and we compare them with experiments. Our nano-granular model provides cement structure with realistic texture and mechanics and can be further used to investigate degradation mechanisms.

  5. Novel Manufacturing Process for Unique Mixed Carbide Refractory Composites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR Phase I project will establish the feasibility of an innovative manufacturing process to fabricate a range of unique hafnium/silicon based carbide...

  6. Stereological Analysis of Carbides in Hypoeutectic Chromium Cast Iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gromczyk M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on stereological parameters of carbides in modified hypoeutectic chromium cast iron were shown in the paper. The effect of distance the casting heat centre of casting to the carbide phase morphology was examined. The samples for metallographic examination were taken from various locations of the model casting prepared in a special tester. This model casting was designed to simulate the solidification of heavy castings. Using the proposed methodology the relation of the distance from the model mould and the size, perimeter, length, width and the shape factor of carbides was examined. During the analysis, the values of stereological parameters of carbides changed on various sections of the model casting.

  7. Exploring a novel approach to fabricate vanadium carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -shell structure; composite materials; mesoporous material; solid-state reaction. ... A novel approach to the fabrication of vanadium carbide encapsulated into carbon nanotube (VC@C) core-shell structured composite by thermal treatment with ...

  8. Process for preparing fine-grain metal carbide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, C.R.; Jeffers, F.P.

    Fine-grain metal carbide powder suitable for use in the fabrication of heat resistant products is prepared by coating bituminous pitch on SiO/sub 2/ or Ta/sub 2/O/sub 5/ particles, heating the coated particles to convert the bituminous pitch to coke, and then heating the particles to a higher temperature to convert the particles to a carbide by reaction of said coke therewith.

  9. Stability of MC Carbide Particles Size in Creep Resisting Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodopivec, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical analysis of the dependence microstructure creep rate. Discussion on the effects of carbide particles size and their distribution on the base of accelerated creep tests on a steel X20CrMoV121 tempered at 800 °C. Analysis of the stability of carbide particles size in terms of free energy of formation of the compound. Explanation of the different effect of VC and NbC particles on accelerated creep rate.

  10. Bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pietrowski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In these paper the possibility of upper and lower bainite obtaining in cast iron with carbides castings are presented. Conditions, when in cast iron with carbides castings during continuous free air cooling austenite transformation to upper bainite or its mixture with lower bainte proceeds, have been given. A mechanism of this transformation has been given, Si, Ni, Mn and Mo distribution in the eutectic cell has been tested and hardness of tested castings has been determined.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF ADVANCED DRILL COMPONENTS FOR BHA USING MICROWAVE TECHNOLOGY INCORPORATING CARBIDE, DIAMOND COMPOSITES AND FUNCTIONALLY GRADED MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinesh Agrawal; Rustum Roy

    2000-11-01

    The main objective of this program was to develop an efficient and economically viable microwave processing technique to process cobalt cemented tungsten carbide with improved properties for drill-bits for advanced drilling operations for oil, gas, geothermal and excavation industries. The program was completed in three years and successfully accomplished all the states goals in the original proposal. In three years of the program, we designed and built several laboratory scale microwave sintering systems for conducting experiments on Tungsten carbide (WC) based composites in controlled atmosphere. The processing conditions were optimized and various properties were measured. The design of the system was then modified to enable it to process large commercial parts of WC/Co and in large quantities. Two high power (3-6 kW) microwave systems of 2.45 GHz were built for multi samples runs in a batch process. Once the process was optimized for best results, the technology was successfully transferred to our industrial partner, Dennis Tool Co. We helped them to built couple of prototype microwave sintering systems for carbide tool manufacturing. It was found that the microwave processed WC/Co tools are not only cost effective but also exhibited much better overall performance than the standard tools. The results of the field tests performed by Dennis Tool Co. showed remarkable advantage and improvement in their overall performance. For example: wear test shows an increase of 20-30%, corrosion test showed much higher resistance to the acid attack, erosion test exhibited about 15% better resistance than standard sinter-HIP parts. This proves the success of microwave technology for WC/Co based drilling tools. While we have successfully transferred the technology to our industrial partner Dennis Tool Co., they have signed an agreement with Valenite, a world leading WC producer of cutting and drilling tools and wear parts, to push aggressively the new microwave technology in

  12. The effect of cement creep and cement fatigue damage on the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico

    2010-01-01

    The cement-bone interface provides fixation for the cement mantle within the bone. The cement-bone interface is affected by fatigue loading in terms of fatigue damage, or micro cracks, and creep, both mostly in the cement. This study investigates how fatigue damage and cement creep separately affect the mechanical response of the cement-bone interface at various load levels in terms of plastic displacement and crack formation. Two FEA models were created, which were based on micro-computed tomography data of two physical cement-bone interface specimens. These models were subjected to tensile fatigue loads with four different magnitudes. Three deformation modes of the cement were considered; ‘only creep’, ‘only damage’ or ‘creep and damage’. The interfacial plastic deformation, the crack reduction as a result of creep and the interfacial stresses in the bone were monitored. The results demonstrate that, although some models failed early, the majority of plastic displacement was caused by fatigue damage, rather than cement creep. However, cement creep does decrease the crack formation in the cement up to 20%. Finally, while cement creep hardly influences the stress levels in the bone, fatigue damage of the cement considerably increases the stress levels in the bone. We conclude that at low load levels the plastic displacement is mainly caused by creep. At moderate to high load levels, however, the plastic displacement is dominated by fatigue damage and is hardly affected by creep, although creep reduced the number of cracks in moderate to high load region. PMID:20692663

  13. Development and Evaluation of Mixed Uranium-Refractory Carbide/Refractory Carbide Cer-Cer Fuels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this proposal a new carbide-based fuel is introduced with outstanding potential to eliminate the loss of uranium, minimizes the loss of uranium, and retains...

  14. Carbides and possible hydrogen irreversible trapping sites in ultrahigh strength round steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X Y; Li, H; Cheng, X B

    2017-12-01

    The carbides in ultrahigh strength round steel have been investigated by using laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) in this paper. Two kinds of carbides are found and one is iron carbide M6C, where carbide formation elements Cr, Mn and Mo replace partial Fe, while the other is niobium carbide MC, where M includes V and Mo besides Nb. These two carbides, due to their different evaporation field, have various densities in reconstructed image of APT. After correction, the hydrogen content within these two carbides illustrates that M6C cannot trap hydrogen, while MC can. The different behaviors in trapping hydrogen between these two carbides may result from elements Fe or Cr in M6C carbide having weaker affinity for hydrogen than Nb and V have in MC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis of Portland cement and calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement for sustainable development and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Irvin Allen

    Portland cement concrete, the most widely used manufactured material in the world, is made primarily from water, mineral aggregates, and portland cement. The production of portland cement is energy intensive, accounting for 2% of primary energy consumption and 5% of industrial energy consumption globally. Moreover, portland cement manufacturing contributes significantly to greenhouse gases and accounts for 5% of the global CO2 emissions resulting from human activity. The primary objective of this research was to explore methods of reducing the environmental impact of cement production while maintaining or improving current performance standards. Two approaches were taken, (1) incorporation of waste materials in portland cement synthesis, and (2) optimization of an alternative environmental friendly binder, calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement. These approaches can lead to less energy consumption, less emission of CO2, and more reuse of industrial waste materials for cement manufacturing. In the portland cement part of the research, portland cement clinkers conforming to the compositional specifications in ASTM C 150 for Type I cement were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals with 0% to 40% fly ash and 0% to 60% slag incorporation (with 10% intervals), 72.5% limestone with 27.5% fly ash, and 65% limestone with 35% slag. The synthesized portland cements had similar early-age hydration behavior to commercial portland cement. However, waste materials significantly affected cement phase formation. The C3S--C2S ratio decreased with increasing amounts of waste materials incorporated. These differences could have implications on proportioning of raw materials for cement production when using waste materials. In the calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement part of the research, three calcium sulfoaluminate-belite cement clinkers with a range of phase compositions were successfully synthesized from reagent-grade chemicals. The synthesized calcium sulfoaluminate

  16. Understanding the Irradiation Behavior of Zirconium Carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motta, Arthur [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Szlufarska, Izabela [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2013-10-11

    Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is being considered for utilization in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor fuels in deep-burn TRISO fuel. Zirconium carbide possesses a cubic B1-type crystal structure with a high melting point, exceptional hardness, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. The use of ZrC as part of the TRISO fuel requires a thorough understanding of its irradiation response. However, the radiation effects on ZrC are still poorly understood. The majority of the existing research is focused on the radiation damage phenomena at higher temperatures (>450{degree}C) where many fundamental aspects of defect production and kinetics cannot be easily distinguished. Little is known about basic defect formation, clustering, and evolution of ZrC under irradiation, although some atomistic simulation and phenomenological studies have been performed. Such detailed information is needed to construct a model describing the microstructural evolution in fast-neutron irradiated materials that will be of great technological importance for the development of ZrC-based fuel. The goal of the proposed project is to gain fundamental understanding of the radiation-induced defect formation in zirconium carbide and irradiation response by using a combination of state-of-the-art experimental methods and atomistic modeling. This project will combine (1) in situ ion irradiation at a specialized facility at a national laboratory, (2) controlled temperature proton irradiation on bulk samples, and (3) atomistic modeling to gain a fundamental understanding of defect formation in ZrC. The proposed project will cover the irradiation temperatures from cryogenic temperature to as high as 800{degree}C, and dose ranges from 0.1 to 100 dpa. The examination of this wide range of temperatures and doses allows us to obtain an experimental data set that can be effectively used to exercise and benchmark the computer calculations of defect properties. Combining the examination of radiation

  17. Retention of gold alloy crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzón, Lilliam M; Frey, Gary N; Winkler, Mark M; Tate, William H; Burgess, John O; Powers, John M

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure in vitro retention of cast gold crowns cemented with traditional and resin cements. Forty-eight human molars were prepared on a lathe to produce complete crown preparations with a consistent taper and split into six groups, eight crowns in each group. Crowns were cast in a high-gold alloy and then cemented. After 24 hours, the retention force (N) was recorded and mean values were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and the Fisher post-hoc least significant difference (PLSD) multiple comparisons test (a = .05). Failure sites were examined under 3100 magnification and recorded. Mean values (SD) for each group in increasing order of retention force were: Harvard Cement: 43 N (27), TempoCem: 59 N (16), PermaCem Dual: 130 N (42), RelyX Luting Cement: 279 N (26), Contax and PermaCem Dual: 286 N (38), and TempoCem with Contax and PermaCem Dual: 340 N (14). The Fisher PLSD interval (P = .05) for comparing cements was 29 N. Zinc-phosphate cement and provisional resin cements had the lowest retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent and the hybrid-ionomer cement had similar retention forces. Resin cement with a bonding agent applied after use of a provisional resin cement had a significantly higher retention force than the other cements tested.

  18. Evaluation of the Performance of Local Cements with Imported Class

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Portland cement is the most commonly used cement in the oil and gas industry and it accounts for about 99% of all primary cementing operations throughout the world. For Portland cement to qualify as oil well cement, the chemical and physical properties must meet the required standards of the American Petroleum Institute ...

  19. A Twofold Comparison between Dual Cure Resin Modified Cement and Glass Ionomer Cement for Orthodontic Band Cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attar, Hanaa El; Elhiny, Omnia; Salem, Ghada; Abdelrahman, Ahmed; Attia, Mazen

    2016-12-15

    To test the solubility of dual cure resin modified resin cement in a food simulating solution and the shear bond strength compared to conventional Glass ionomer cement. The materials tested were self-adhesive dual cure resin modified cement and Glass Ionomer (GIC). Twenty Teflon moulds were divided into two groups of tens. The first group was injected and packed with the modified resin cement, the second group was packed with GIC. To test the solubility, each mould was weighed before and after being placed in an analytical reagent for 30 days. The solubility was measured as the difference between the initial and final drying mass. To measure the Shear bond strength, 20 freshly extracted wisdom teeth were equally divided into two groups and embedded in self-cure acrylic resin. Four mm sections of stainless steel bands were cemented to the exposed buccal surfaces of teeth under a constant load of 500 g. Shear bond strength was measured using a computer controlled materials testing machine and the load required to deband the samples was recorded in Newtons. GIC showed significantly higher mean weight loss and an insignificant lower Shear bond strength, compared to dual cure resin Cement. It was found that dual cure resin modified cement was less soluble than glass ionomer cement and of comparable bond strength rendering it more useful clinically for orthodontic band cementation.

  20. Influence of the temperature on the cement disintegration in cement-retained implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkevicius, Tomas; Vindasiute, Egle; Puisys, Algirdas; Linkeviciene, Laura; Svediene, Olga

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the average disintegration temperature of three dental cements used for the cementation of the implant-supported prostheses. One hundred and twenty metal frameworks were fabricated and cemented on the prosthetic abutments with different dental cements. After heat treatment in the dental furnace, the samples were set for the separation to test the integration of the cement. Results have shown that resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RGIC) exhibited the lowest disintegration temperature (pcement (ZPC) and dual cure resin cement (RC) (p>0.05). Average separation temperatures: RGIC - 306 ± 23 °C, RC - 363 ± 71 °C, it could not be calculated for the ZPC due to the eight unseparated specimens. Within the limitations of the study, it could be concluded that RGIC cement disintegrates at the lowest temperature and ZPC is not prone to break down after exposure to temperature.

  1. Catastrophic cement reaction following cementation for megaprosthesis for proximal femoral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Muhammad Nouman; Curtin, William; Callaghan, Michael Andrew; Murphy, Colin G

    2017-09-23

    Bone cement implantation syndrome (BCIS) is a well-described and potentially fatal complication of orthopaedic surgery involving pressurised bone cement. Although also described for certain spinal procedures, it is most commonly associated with cemented hip and knee arthroplasty and with cemented hemiarthroplasty following neck of femur fracture in particular.Donaldson et alproposed the definition of BCIS as a syndrome "characterized by hypoxia, hypotension or both and/or unexpected loss of consciousness occurring around the time of cementation, prosthesis insertion, reduction of the joint or, occasionally, limb tourniquet deflation in a patient undergoing cemented bone surgery". Other features include increased vascular resistance, cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac arrest post cement use.We describe a case of a patient who suffered a catastrophic reaction to cement during surgery for a comminuted proximal femoral fracture. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Neutron irradiation induced amorphization of silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snead, L. L.; Hay, J. C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper provides the properties of bulk stoichiometric silicon carbide which has been amorphized under neutron irradiation. Both high purity single crystal hcp and high purity, highly faulted (cubic) chemically vapor deposited (CVD) SiC were irradiated at approximately 60°C to a total fast neutron fluence of 2.6 × 10 25 n/m 2. Amorphization was seen in both materials as evidenced by TEM, electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction techniques. Physical properties for the amorphized single crystal material are reported including large changes in density (-10.8%), elastic modulus as measured using a nanoindentation technique (-45%), hardness as measured by nanoindentation (-45%), and standard Vickers hardness (-24%). Similar property changes are observed for the amorphized CVD SiC. Using measured thermal conductivity data for the CVD SiC sample, the critical temperature for amorphization at this neutron dose and flux, above which amorphization is not possible, is estimated to be greater than ˜125°C.

  3. Surface pretreatment for prolonged survival of cemented tibial prosthesis components: full- vs. surface-cementation technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niethard Fritz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of few persisting problems of cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA is aseptic loosening of tibial component due to degradation of the interface between bone cement and metallic tibial shaft component, particularly for surface cemented tibial components. Surface cementation technique has important clinical meaning in case of revision and for avoidance of stress shielding. Degradation of the interface between bone cement and bone may be a secondary effect due to excessive crack formation in bone cement starting at the opposite metallic surface. Methods This study was done to prove crack formation in the bone cement near the metallic surface when this is not coated. We propose a newly developed coating process by PVD layering with SiOx to avoid that crack formation in the bone cement. A biomechanical model for vibration fatigue test was done to simulate the physiological and biomechanical conditions of the human knee joint and to prove excessive crack formation. Results It was found that coated tibial components showed a highly significant reduction of cement cracking near the interface metal/bone cement (p Conclusion Coating dramatically reduces hydrolytic- and stress-related crack formation at the prosthesis interface metal/bone cement. This leads to a more homogenous load transfer into the cement mantle which should reduce the frequency of loosening in the interfaces metal/bone cement/bone. With surface coating of the tibial component it should become possible that surface cemented TKAs reveal similar loosening rates as TKAs both surface and stem cemented. This would be an important clinical advantage since it is believed that surface cementing reduces metaphyseal bone loss in case of revision and stress shielding for better bone health.

  4. Pulmonary Cement Embolism following Percutaneous Vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümran Toru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous vertebroplasty is a minimal invasive procedure that is applied for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures. During vertebroplasty, the leakage of bone cement outside the vertebral body leads to pulmonary cement embolism, which is a serious complication of this procedure. Here we report a 48-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with dyspnea after percutaneous vertebroplasty and diagnosed as pulmonary cement embolism.

  5. Water dynamics in glass ionomer cements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, M. C.; Jacobsen, J.; Momsen, N. C. R.; Benetti, A. R.; Telling, M. T. F.; Seydel, T.; Bordallo, H. N.

    2016-07-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GIC) are an alternative for preventive dentistry. However, these dental cements are complex systems where important motions related to the different states of the hydrogen atoms evolve in a confined porous structure. In this paper, we studied the water dynamics of two different liquids used to prepare either conventional or resin-modified glass ionomer cement. By combining thermal analysis with neutron scattering data we were able to relate the water structure in the liquids to the materials properties.

  6. Chemical vapour deposition diamond coating on tungsten carbide dental cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sein, H.; Ahmed, W.; Rego, C. A.; Jones, A. N.; Amar, M.; Jackson, M.; Polini, R.

    2003-10-01

    Diamond coatings on Co cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) hard metal tools are widely used for cutting non-ferrous metals. It is difficult to deposit diamond onto cutting tools, which generally have a complex geometry, using a single step growth process. This paper focuses on the deposition of polycrystalline diamond films onto dental tools, which possess 3D complex or cylindrical shape, employing a novel single step chemical vapour deposition (CVD) growth process. The diamond deposition is carried out in a hot filament chemical vapour deposition (HFCVD) reactor with a modified filament arrangement. The filament is mounted vertically with the drill held concentrically in between the filament coils, as opposed to the commonly used horizontal arrangement. This is a simple and inexpensive filament arrangement. In addition, the problems associated with adhesion of diamond films on WC-Co substrates are amplified in dental tools due to the very sharp edges and unpredictable cutting forces. The presence of Co, used as a binder in hard metals, generally causes poor adhesion. The amount of metallic Co on the surface can be reduced using a two step pre-treatment employing Murakami etching followed by an acid treatment. Diamond films are examined in terms of their growth rate, morphology, adhesion and cutting efficiency. We found that in the diamond coated dental tool the wear rate was reduced by a factor of three as compared to the uncoated tool.

  7. Reactions of water and C1 molecules on carbide and metal-modified carbide surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weiming; Tackett, Brian M; Chen, Jingguang G

    2017-04-03

    The formation of carbides can significantly modify the physical and chemical properties of the parent metals. In the current review, we summarize the general trends in the reactions of water and C1 molecules over transition metal carbide (TMC) and metal-modified TMC surfaces and thin films. Although the primary focus of the current review is on the theoretical and experimental studies of reactions of C1 molecules (CO, CO2, CH3OH, etc.), the reactions of water will also be reviewed because water plays an important role in many of the C1 transformation reactions. This review is organized by discussing separately thermal reactions and electrochemical reactions, which provides insights into the application of TMCs in heterogeneous catalysis and electrocatalysis, respectively. In thermal reactions, we discuss the thermal decomposition of water and methanol, as well as the reactions of CO and CO2 over TMC surfaces. In electrochemical reactions, we summarize recent studies in the hydrogen evolution reaction, electrooxidation of methanol and CO, and electroreduction of CO2. Finally, future research opportunities and challenges associated with using TMCs as catalysts and electrocatalysts are also discussed.

  8. Nanofunctionalized zirconia and barium sulfate particles as bone cement additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillani, Riaz; Ercan, Batur; Qiao, Alex; Webster, Thomas J

    2010-02-02

    Zirconia (ZrO(2)) and barium sulfate (BaSO(4)) particles were introduced into a methyl methacrylate monomer (MMA) solution with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) beads during polymerization to develop the following novel bone cements: bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO(2) micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized ZrO(2) nanoparticles, bone cements with ZrO(2) nanoparticles functionalized with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (TMS), bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO(4) micron particles, bone cements with unfunctionalized BaSO(4) nanoparticles, and bone cements with BaSO(4) nanoparticles functionalized with TMS. Results demonstrated that in vitro osteoblast (bone-forming cell) densities were greater on bone cements containing BaSO(4) ceramic particles after four hours compared to control unmodified bone cements. Osteoblast densities were also greater on bone cements containing all of the ceramic particles after 24 hours compared to unmodified bone cements, particularly those bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles. Bone cements containing ceramic particles demonstrated significantly altered mechanical properties; specifically, under tensile loading, plain bone cements and bone cements containing unfunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited brittle failure modes whereas bone cements containing nanofunctionalized ceramic particles exhibited plastic failure modes. Finally, all bone cements containing ceramic particles possessed greater radio-opacity than unmodified bone cements. In summary, the results of this study demonstrated a positive impact on the properties of traditional bone cements for orthopedic applications with the addition of unfunctionalized and TMS functionalized ceramic nanoparticles.

  9. The influence of ultrasound on removal of prefabricated metal post cemented with different resin cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atiyeh Feiz

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Ultrasonic energy did not decrease the retention of posts cemented with Panavia or Maxcem Elite cements. Furthermore, it seems that there is no significant difference between removal force of self-etch (Panavia and the self-etch self-adhesive (Maxcem Elite resin cements.

  10. Prediction of hydroxyl concentrations in cement pore water using a numerical cement hydration model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, R.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a 3D numerical cement hydration model is used for predicting alkali and hydroxyl concentrations in cement pore water. First, this numerical model is calibrated for Dutch cement employing both chemical shrinkage and calorimetric experiments. Secondly, the strength development of some

  11. Evaluation of cement thixotropy for the cement of oil wells in areas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... economical for cementing job operations in wells with loss zones. The results also show that the effect of LHF is positive, since in addition to his contribution to long term performances, especially the durability of hardened concrete, it improves the thixotropy of cement made of plaster. Keywords: cementing; lost circulation; ...

  12. Early cement damage around a femoral stem is concentrated at the cement/bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Amos; Miller, Mark A; Ayers, David C; Mann, Kenneth A

    2003-04-01

    This study aimed to improve understanding of the mechanical aspects of cemented implant loosening. After aggressive fatigue loading of stem/cement/femur constructs, micro-cracks and stem/bone micro-motions were quantified to answer three research questions: Are cracks preferentially associated with the stem/cement interface, the cement/bone interface or voids? Is cement damage dependent on axial position? Does cement damage correlate with micro-motion between the stem and the bone? Eight Charnley Cobra stems were implanted in cadaveric femora. Six stem/cement/femur constructs were subjected to "stair-climbing" loads for 300 kcycles at 2Hz. Loads were normalized by construct stiffness to avoid fracture. Two additional constructs were not loaded. Transverse sections were cut at 10mm intervals, stained with a fluorescent dye penetrant and examined using epi-fluorescence stereomicroscopy. Crack lengths and cement areas were recorded for 9 sections per specimen. Crack length-density was calculated by dividing summed crack length by cement mantle area. To isolate the effect of loading, length-density data were offset by the baseline length-density measured in the non-loaded specimens. Significantly more cracks were associated with the interdigitated area (35.1%+/-11.6%) and the cement/bone interface (31.0%+/-6.2%) than with the stem/cement interface (11.0%+/-5.2%) or voids (6.1%+/-4.8%) (psmall, all stems rotated internally. Cement damage did not correlate with micro-motion.

  13. The effect of low dose teicoplanin-loaded acrylic bone cement on biocompatibility of bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztemür, Zekeriya; Sümer, Zeynep; Tunç, Tutku; Pazarcé, Özhan; Bulut, Okay

    2013-06-01

    Antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cement (polymethylmethacrylate, PMMA) is used to prevent or treat infection in total joint replacement surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate biocompatibility and cytotoxicity of the teicoplanin-loaded acrylic bone cement. Cytotoxicity examination of acrylic bone cement balls and 400 mg teicoplanin added acrylic bone cement balls conducted by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. SEM (Scanning electron microscopy) was used to observe adhesion and spreading of cells on surface of the balls. Cytotoxicity examination conducted by MTT assay on acrylic bone cement balls and teicoplanin-added acrylic bone cement balls revealed no cytotoxicity. SEM analysis put forward that cells started to proliferate and adhere on surface of the samples in both groups as a result of 48-hour incubation and that the cell proliferation over acrylic bone cement and teicoplanin-added acrylic bone cement was similar. As a consequence, there was no cytotoxicity in acrylic bone cement and teicoplanin-added acrylic bone cement groups according to results of MTT assay. On the other hand, results of SEM showed that biocompatibility of both groups was similar. In conclusion, teicoplanin-loaded bone cement did not change biocompatibility of bone cement in studied dose.

  14. Substantial global carbon uptake by cement carbonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Fengming; Davis, Steven J.; Ciais, Philippe; Crawford-Brown, Douglas; Guan, Dabo; Pade, Claus; Shi, Tiemao; Syddall, Mark; Lv, Jie; Ji, Lanzhu; Bing, Longfei; Wang, Jiaoyue; Wei, Wei; Yang, Keun-Hyeok; Lagerblad, Björn; Galan, Isabel; Andrade, Carmen; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Zhu

    2016-12-01

    Calcination of carbonate rocks during the manufacture of cement produced 5% of global CO2 emissions from all industrial process and fossil-fuel combustion in 2013. Considerable attention has been paid to quantifying these industrial process emissions from cement production, but the natural reversal of the process--carbonation--has received little attention in carbon cycle studies. Here, we use new and existing data on cement materials during cement service life, demolition, and secondary use of concrete waste to estimate regional and global CO2 uptake between 1930 and 2013 using an analytical model describing carbonation chemistry. We find that carbonation of cement materials over their life cycle represents a large and growing net sink of CO2, increasing from 0.10 GtC yr-1 in 1998 to 0.25 GtC yr-1 in 2013. In total, we estimate that a cumulative amount of 4.5 GtC has been sequestered in carbonating cement materials from 1930 to 2013, offsetting 43% of the CO2 emissions from production of cement over the same period, not including emissions associated with fossil use during cement production. We conclude that carbonation of cement products represents a substantial carbon sink that is not currently considered in emissions inventories.

  15. Energy use trends in the cement industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, L. [Cemex Corporation (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The overheads/viewgraphs give statistics and trace trends on the use of coal in the cement industry in the different regions of the world. Coal is still the dominant fuel in the cement industry in North America, Asia and Europe but in Latin America the choice depends on each country's domestic energy structure. Petcoke is becoming an important fuel in Europe and the US and also Brazil. The differences in the coal and petcoke markets that influence the cement consumer are discussed. Although Cemex has in the last decade favored petcoke, the market for petcoke in the cement industry is expected to remain small.

  16. Use of microhardness as a simple means of estimating relative wear resistance of carbide thermal spray coatings: Part 2. wear resistance of cemented carbide coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Factor, Michael; Roman, Itzhak

    2002-12-01

    A selection of WC-Co and Cr3C2-25%NiCr coatings produced by plasma spray and high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) deposition techniques were subjected to various wear tests designed to simulate abrasion, cavitation, sliding, and particle erosion type wear mechanisms. All of the coatings were at least 200 µm thick and were deposited onto stainless steel substrates. In Part 1 of this contribution, the microstructures of the coatings were characterized and their mechanical properties were assessed using microindentation procedures. In this second part of the article, the behavior of the coatings when subjected to the various wear tests is reported and the utility of microhardness testing as an indication of relative wear resistance is discussed. It is shown that correctly performed, appropriate microhardness measurements are a good indication of abrasion resistance and sliding wear resistance, and also correlate well with cavitation resistance in Cr3C2-NiCr. The measurements were less useful for predicting erosion resistance for both Cr3C2-NiCr and WC-Co, however, and for abrasion resistance when WC-Co was ground against SiC. Here the contribution of micromechanisms involving fracturing and brittle failure is greater than that indicated by the coating microhardness, which is essentially a measurement of resistance to plastic deformation under equilibrium conditions.

  17. A study on provisional cements, cementation techniques, and their effects on bonding of porcelain laminate veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod Kumar, G; Soorya Poduval, T; Bipin Reddy; Shesha Reddy, P

    2014-03-01

    Minimal tooth preparation is required for porcelain laminate veneers, but interim restorations are a must to protect their teeth against thermal insult, chemical irritation, and to provide aesthetics. Cement remaining after the removal of the provisional restoration can impair the etching quality of the tooth surface and fit and final bonding of the porcelain laminate veneer. This in vitro study examined the tooth surface for remaining debris of cement after removal of a provisional restoration. Determine the presence of cement debris on prepared tooth surface subsequent to the removal of provisional restoration. Determine the cement with the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Determine the effect of smear layer on the amount of residual luting cement. Eighty-four extracted natural anterior teeth were prepared for porcelain laminate veneers. For half of the teeth, the smear layer was removed before luting provisional restorations. Veneer provisional restorations were fabricated and luted to teeth with six bonding methods: varnish combined with glass ionomer cement (GIC), varnish combined with resin modified GIC, varnish, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement, adhesive combined with GIC, adhesive combined with resin modified GIC, and adhesive, spot etching combined with dual-cure luting cement. After removal of provisional restorations 1 week later, the tooth surface was examined for residual luting material with SEM. Traces of cement debris were found on all the prepared teeth surfaces for all six groups which were cemented with different methods. Cement debris was seen on teeth subsequent to the removal of provisional's. Dual-cure cement had the least residue following the cleansing procedures. Presence of smear layer had no statistical significance in comparison with cement residue. With the use of adhesive the cement debris was always found to be more than with the use of varnish. GIC showed maximum residual cement followed by dual-cure.

  18. Antibacterial activity of selected glass ionomer cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczaj-Cepowicz, Elżbieta; Marczuk-Kolada, Grażyna; Zalewska, Anna; Pawińska, Małgorzata; Leszczyńska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-22

    The aim of the paper was to determine the antibacterial activity of four glass ionomer cements against bacteria of the genera Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. Four capsulated glass ionomer cements were applied in the study: Fuji Triage (GC), Fuji IX (GC), Ketac Molar (3M Espe) and Ketac Silver (3M Espe). Four standard bacterial strains were used to assess the antibacterial activity of the studied cements: Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarius and Lactobacillus casei. The antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. The bacterial suspension was spread with a cotton swab on TSA plates. For each material six wells (7 mm diameter, 5 mm deep) were made with a cork borer. Each well was then filled with freshly prepared cements. The results were obtained by measuring the bacterial growth inhibition zone after 1, 2, 3 and 7 days. Fuji Triage cement inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains. Fuji IX cement demonstrated the most potent antibacterial activity against S. sanguis. Ketac Molar showed antibacterial activity against S. sanguis and S. salivarius, whereas Ketac Silver was efficient against S. mutans as well. Neither of the Ketac cements inhibited growth of the standard L. casei strain. Antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements has attracted the interest of scientists in recent years. Most authors, including us, carried out experiments using the agar diffusion method and demonstrated antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements. Different antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements, observed in our study and studies of other authors, depended on the evaluated cement, bacterial strain and period of evaluation.

  19. Antibacterial activity of selected glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Łuczaj-Cepowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the paper was to determine the antibacterial activity of four glass ionomer cements against bacteria of the genera Streptococcus and Lactobacillus. Material and methods: Four capsulated glass ionomer cements were applied in the study: Fuji Triage (GC, Fuji IX (GC, Ketac Molar (3M Espe and Ketac Silver (3M Espe. Four standard bacterial strains were used to assess the antibacterial activity of the studied cements: Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarius and Lactobacillus casei. The antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. The bacterial suspension was spread with a cotton swab on TSA plates. For each material six wells (7 mm diameter, 5 mm deep were made with a cork borer. Each well was then filled with freshly prepared cements. The results were obtained by measuring the bacterial growth inhibition zone after 1, 2, 3 and 7 days. Results: Fuji Triage cement inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains. Fuji IX cement demonstrated the most potent antibacterial activity against S. sanguis. Ketac Molar showed antibacterial activity against S. sanguis and S. salivarius, whereas Ketac Silver was efficient against S. mutans as well. Neither of the Ketac cements inhibited growth of the standard L. casei strain. Discussion: Antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements has attracted the interest of scientists in recent years. Most authors, including us, carried out experiments using the agar diffusion method and demonstrated antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements. Different antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements, observed in our study and studies of other authors, depended on the evaluated cement, bacterial strain and period of evaluation.

  20. Antibacterial activity of selected glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Łuczaj-Cepowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the paper was to determine the antibacterial activity of four glass ionomer cements against bacteria of the genera Streptococcus and Lactobacillus.Material and methods: Four capsulated glass ionomer cements were applied in the study: Fuji Triage (GC, Fuji IX (GC, Ketac Molar (3M Espe and Ketac Silver (3M Espe. Four standard bacterial strains were used to assess the antibacterial activity of the studied cements: Streptococcus mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarius and Lactobacillus casei. The antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. The bacterial suspension was spread with a cotton swab on TSA plates. For each material six wells (7 mm diameter, 5 mm deep were made with a cork borer. Each well was then filled with freshly prepared cements. The results were obtained by measuring the bacterial growth inhibition zone after 1, 2, 3 and 7 days. Results: Fuji Triage cement inhibited the growth of all bacterial strains. Fuji IX cement demonstrated the most potent antibacterial activity against S. sanguis. Ketac Molar showed antibacterial activity against S. sanguis and S. salivarius, whereas Ketac Silver was efficient against S. mutans as well. Neither of the Ketac cements inhibited growth of the standard L. casei strain. Discussion: Antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements has attracted the interest of scientists in recent years. Most authors, including us, carried out experiments using the agar diffusion method and demonstrated antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements. Different antibacterial activity of glass ionomer cements, observed in our study and studies of other authors, depended on the evaluated cement, bacterial strain and period of evaluation.

  1. Heat-Resistance of the Powder Cobalt Alloys Reinforced by Niobium or Titanium Carbide

    OpenAIRE

    Cherepova, T.S.; Dmitrieva, G.P.; V.K. Nosenko

    2016-01-01

    The characteristics of heat-resistance of powder cobalt alloys at 1100 °C were investigated. These alloys were developed for the protection of workers banding shelves GTE blades from wear. The alloys were prepared by hot pressing powders of cobalt, chromium, aluminum, iron and niobium or titanium carbides. The values of heat resistance alloys containing carbides between 30 and 70% (vol.) depend on the type made of carbide alloys: alloys with titanium carbide superior in heat-resistant alloy o...

  2. Dilatometry Analysis of Dissolution of Cr-Rich Carbides in Martensitic Stainless Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiuliang; Volkova, Olena; Biermann, Horst; Mola, Javad

    2017-12-01

    The dissolution of Cr-rich carbides formed in the martensitic constituent of a 13 pct Cr stainless steel was studied by dilatometry and correlative electron channeling contrast examinations. The dissolution of carbides subsequent to the martensite reversion to austenite was associated with a net volume expansion which in turn increased the dilatometry-based apparent coefficient of thermal expansion (CTEa) during continuous heating. The effects of carbides fraction and size on the CTEa variations during carbides dissolution are discussed.

  3. Microscopic evaluation regarding time behavior of orthodontic cements used for disjunctor cementing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Bartok

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill their function, orthodontic devices must be cemented on teeth using orthodontic rings. The retention of the orthodontic ring is influenced mainly by the type of dental-ring adhesion. This study was initiated to determine possible microleakage events while using zinc phosphate cement Adhesor (Spofa Dental, conventional glass ionomer Ketac Cem (3M ESPE and Fuji Ortho (GC and a compomer Transbond Plus (3M Unitek. The results of the study are consistent with those reported in the literature reference, the compomer is the preferred adhesive material for cementing the orthodontic rings, compared to conventional glass ionomer cements and zinc-phosphate cement.

  4. The effects of complex glyoxal based modifiers on properties of cement paste and hardened cement paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakova, A.; Kudyakov, A.; Efremova, V.; Latypov, A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the results of research on the effect of organic and glyoxal containing additives on the properties of cement paste and hardened cement paste. Complex modifying additives based on liquid glyoxal increasing the strength of the cement paste by 35-63% were developed. Physico-chemical investigations showed that hardened cement paste modified by polylactic acid with glyoxal has a homogeneous and fine-grained structure. Developed complex modifying additives containing glyoxal are approved for use in production technology of heavy cement concretes with advanced properties.

  5. Elastic and piezoresistive properties of nickel carbides from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelling, Jeffrey; Zahn, Peter; Schuster, Jörg; Gemming, Sibylle

    2017-01-01

    The nickel-carbon system has received increased attention over the past years due to the relevance of nickel as a catalyst for carbon nanotube and graphene growth, where nickel carbide intermediates may be involved or carbide interface layers form in the end. Nickel-carbon composite thin films comprising Ni3C are especially interesting in mechanical sensing applications. Due to the metastability of nickel carbides, formation conditions and the coupling between mechanical and electrical properties are not yet well understood. Using first-principles electronic structure methods, we calculated the elastic properties of Ni3C ,Ni2C , and NiC , as well as changes in electronic properties under mechanical strain. We observe that the electronic density of states around the Fermi level does not change under the considered strains of up to 1%, which correspond to stresses up to 3 GPa . Relative changes in conductivity of Ni3C range up to maximum values of about 10%.

  6. Structure-Property Relationship in Metal Carbides and Bimetallic Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jingguan [University of Delaware

    2014-03-04

    The primary objective of our DOE/BES sponsored research is to use carbide and bimetallic catalysts as model systems to demonstrate the feasibility of tuning the catalytic activity, selectivity and stability. Our efforts involve three parallel approaches, with the aim at studying single crystal model surfaces and bridging the “materials gap” and “pressure gap” between fundamental surface science studies and real world catalysis. The utilization of the three parallel approaches has led to the discovery of many intriguing catalytic properties of carbide and bimetallic surfaces and catalysts. During the past funding period we have utilized these combined research approaches to explore the possibility of predicting and verifying bimetallic and carbide combinations with enhanced catalytic activity, selectivity and stability.

  7. Analysis of carbides and inclusions in high speed tool steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, K.T.; Dahl, K.V.

    2002-01-01

    The fracture surfaces of fatigued specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The aim was to quantify the distribution of cracked carbides and non-metallic inclusions on the fracturesurfaces as well as on polished cross...... sections. The specimens were made of Böhler P/M steel grade 390s and 690s in both micro-clean and conventional grades. The results show that the content of non-metallic inclusions are higher in the conventionalgrades than in the microclean grades, but there were found to be no link between non-metallic...... inclusions and the crack initiation. Surprisingly, no differences were found between the carbide size distributions of the micro-clean and conventional grades.Also, the distribution of the fractured carbides was found to be the same regardless of steel type, manufacturing method or location on the specimen....

  8. Ordering of carbon atoms in boron carbide structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, V. I., E-mail: i2212@yandex.ru; Kovalev, I. D.; Konovalikhin, S. V.; Vershinnikov, V. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Structural Macrokinetics and Materials Science (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    Boron carbide crystals have been obtained in the entire compositional range according to the phase diagram by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Based on the results of X-ray diffraction investigations, the samples were characterized by the unit-cell metric and reflection half-width in the entire range of carbon concentrations. A significant spread in the boron carbide unit-cell parameters for the same carbon content is found in the data in the literature; this spread contradicts the structural concepts for covalent compounds. The SHS samples have not revealed any significant spread in the unit-cell parameters. Structural analysis suggests that the spread of parameters in the literary data is related to the unique process of ordering of carbon atoms in the boron carbide structure.

  9. Sintering of nano crystalline α silicon carbide by doping with boron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Sinterable nano silicon carbide powders of mean particle size (37 nm) were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type alpha silicon carbide having mean particle size of 0⋅39 µm. (390 nm). Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of boron carbide of 0⋅5 wt ...

  10. Sintering of nano crystalline α silicon carbide by doping with boron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sinterable nano silicon carbide powders of mean particle size (37 nm) were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type alpha silicon carbide having mean particle size of 0.39 m (390 nm). Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of boron carbide of 0.5 wt% together ...

  11. Influence of technique and manipulation on self-adhesive resin cements used to cement intraradicular posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratori, Fábio Kenji; Valle, Accácio Lins do; Pegoraro, Thiago Amadei; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo

    2013-07-01

    Resin cements are widely used to cement intraradicular posts, but bond strength is significantly influenced by the technique and material used for cementation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of 3 self-adhesive cements used to cement intraradicular glass fiber posts. The cements all required different application and handling techniques. Forty-five human maxillary canines were selected and randomly divided into 3 groups n= 15 by drawing lots: Group BIS - Biscem, Group BRE - Breeze, and Group MAX - Maxcem. Each group was divided into 3 subgroups according to application and handling techniques: Sub-group A - Automix/Point tip applicator, Sub-group L - Handmix/Lentulo, and Sub-group C - Handmix/Centrix. Cementation of the posts was performed according to the manufacturers' instructions. The push-out test was performed with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, and bond strength was expressed in megapascals. The results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and the all pairwise multiple comparison procedures (Tukey test) (α=.05). Breeze cement showed the highest average for the subgroups A, L, and C when compared to the Biscem cement and Maxcem Elite (Pinfluence the bond strength of different self-adhesive cements when used for intraradicular post cementation. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The influence of cement type and temperature on chloride binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Korzen, Migge Sofie Hoffmann; Skibsted, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes effects of cement type and temperature on chloride binding in cement paste, which is an important subject in relation to life-time modelling of reinforced concrete structures. The influence of cement type on chloride binding is investigated by substituting cement with pure...... cement clinker. Both theoretical considerations and experimental data for chloride binding in cement pastes are presented. A physico-chemically based model to describe the influence of temperature on physical binding of chloride is presented. Solid-state 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear...... magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used for quantification of the anhydrous and hydrated aluminate and silicate phases in the chloride exposed cement pastes. The 27Al isotropic chemical shift and nuclear quadrupole coupling is reported for a synthetic sample of Friedel's salt, Ca2Al(OH)6Cl×2H2O....

  13. Feasibility of producing nano cement in a traditional cement factory in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sada Abdalkhaliq Hasan Alyasri

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the economic feasibility of producing nano cement through the establishment of a production line within an existing cement factory. Creating a nano cement production line within the Alkufa Cement factory in Iraq is selected as a case study. Evaluation measures including internal rate of return (IRR, net present value (NPV and breakeven point (BEP are used to evaluate the possible gain that can be achieved from this option. The results demonstrated a positive NPV. The IRR is found to be 26.8% and BEP is reached within 3 years after the establishment of the line. This indicates that producing nano cement in the existing cement factory is economically feasible and can be more advantageous than the ordinary cement.

  14. Basic Chemistry for the Cement Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Mason

    This combined student workbook and instructor's guide contains nine units for inplant classes on basic chemistry for employees in the cement industry. The nine units cover the following topics: chemical basics; measurement; history of cement; atoms; bonding and chemical formulas; solids, liquids, and gases; chemistry of Portland cement…

  15. Investigation of a Hardened Cement Paste Grout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esteves, Luis Pedro; Sørensen, Eigil Verner

    This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S.......This report documents a series of tests performed on a hardened cement paste grout delivered by the client, Det Norske Veritas A/S....

  16. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  17. Controls on Cementation in a Chalk Reservoir

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meireles, Leonardo Teixeira Pinto; Hussein, A.; Welch, M.J.

    In this study, we identify different controls on cementation in a chalk reservoir. Biot’s coefficient, a measure of cementation, stiffness and strength in porous rocks, is calculated from logging data (bulk density and sonic Pwave velocity). We show that Biot’s coefficient is correlated to the wa...

  18. TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES IN THE CEMENT MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WESSON, CARL E.

    THE PURPOSE OF THIS STUDY IS TO PRESENT A PRELIMINARY PICTURE OF OCCUPATIONAL CHANGES BROUGHT ABOUT IN THE MANUFACTURE OF CEMENT AS A RESULT OF INTRODUCING AUTOMATED EQUIPMENT. ONE AUTOMATED AND SEVERAL CONVENTIONAL TYPE CEMENT PLANTS WERE STUDIED. ANALYSIS OF DATA OBTAINED THROUGH RESEARCH AND DATA COLLECTED DURING THE STUDY REVEALED THAT…

  19. Dangote cement : an African success story?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinyoade, A.; Uche, C.U.

    2016-01-01

    This paper critiques the rise of Dangote Cement plc to become the dominant player in the Nigerian cement industry. Although the close relationship between the company's founder, Aliko Dangote, and subsequent Nigerian governments has been an important factor in this success story, we argue that it is

  20. Formation of Silicon Carbide in the Silicomanganese Process

    OpenAIRE

    Davidsen, Jens Erik

    2011-01-01

    As the silicon content in a silicomanganese alloy increase, silicon carbide becomes the stable carbon phase. Little work is published on the formation of silicon carbide in the SiMn process. This thesis examines the formation of SiC through the reaction between slag, metal and coke. The goal of the thesis has been to determine where and how SiC is formed in the silicomanganese process. Focus has been given to formation through liquid-solid reactions.The investigation was carried out by heatin...

  1. Fluorescent silicon carbide materials for white LEDs and photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syväjärvi, Mikael; Ou, Haiyan; Wellmann, Peter

    the luminescence appears in the visible region which is used to produce a white LED with pure white light without need of phosphors [2]. The cubic silicon carbide polytype is challenging to master, and we have explored the growth of this crystal structure. It has a lower bandgap, and by a similar doping concept...... in cubic silicon carbide. The impurity photovoltaic effect could lead to devices with efficiencies comparable to those of tandem systems, and could open a new road for very-high-efficiency solar cells. Such high performance can be reached only if the host material has a large energy gap, like cubic silicon...

  2. Nanofibre growth from cobalt carbide produced by mechanosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barriga-Arceo, L [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Colonia San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico DF, 07730 (Mexico); Orozco, E [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364 CP 01000, DF (Mexico); Garibay-Febles, V [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Colonia San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico DF, 07730 (Mexico); Bucio-Galindo, L [Instituto de Fisica UNAM, Apartado Postal 20-364 CP 01000, DF (Mexico); Mendoza Leon, H [FM-UPALM, IPN, Apartado Postal 75-395 CP 07300, DF (Mexico); Castillo-Ocampo, P [UAM-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-334 CP 09340, DF (Mexico); Montoya, A [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Programa de Ingenieria Molecular, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, Colonia San Bartolo Atepehuacan, Mexico DF, 07730 (Mexico)

    2004-06-09

    Mechanical alloying was used to prepare cobalt carbide. Microstructural characterization of samples was performed by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electron microscopy methods. In order to produce carbon nanotubes, the cobalt carbide was precipitated after heating at 800 and 1000 deg. C for 10 min. Nanofibres of about 10-50 nm in diameter, 0.04-0.1 {mu}m in length and 20-200 nm in diameter and 0.6-1.2 {mu}m in length were obtained after heating at 800 and 1000 deg. C, respectively, by means of this process.

  3. Ultrathin fiber poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, modified by silicon carbide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkhov, A. A.; Krutikova, A. A.; Goldshtrakh, M. A.; Staroverova, O. V.; Iordanskii, A. L.; Ischenko, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The article presents the results of studies the composite fibrous material based on poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and nano-size silicon carbide obtained by the electrospinning method. Size distribution of the silicon carbide nanoparticles in the fiber was estimated by X-ray diffraction technique. It is shown that immobilization of the SiC nanoparticles to the PHB fibers contributes to obtaining essentially smaller diameter of fibers, high physical-mechanical characteristics and increasing resistance to degradation in comparison with the fibers of PHB.

  4. Cementing liners through deep high pressure ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, B.J.; Barrios, J.R.

    1974-03-01

    Entry of gas into the liner-hole annulus during and after cementing liners though deep high pressure zones, generally results in a gas cut cement column from depth of gas entry to top of liner. Prior to undertaking design of liner cementation, it is necessary to know fracture pressure limits of the formations. It is also necessary to know the formation pore pressure or the pressure required to hold gas in the formation and precisely the depth of formation from which gas emerges. This knowledge may be gained from a study of formation pressure gradients of nearby wells or from sonic log analysis of the interval being readied for cementation. Both single-stage and 2-stage techniques are used to solve liner cementing problems in these high pressure zones. An example sets out conditions which are more or less typical and demonstrates how the problem may be considered and solved.

  5. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone....... The CO2 capture capacity of limestone in the raw meal is lower than for pure limestone. The difference in the CO2 capture capacity decreases with an increase in cycle number. The calcination conditions and composition are major factors that influence the CO2 capture capacity of limestone. At 850 °C in N2...

  6. Shrinkage Properties of Cement Stabilized Gravel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Cement stabilized gravel is an attractive material in road construction because its strength prop-erties are accommodating the increasingly higher requirements to the bearing capacity of a base course. However, reflection cracking of cement stabilized gravel is a major concern. In this pa......-per the shrinkage properties of cement stabilized gravel have been documented under various temperature and relative humidity conditions. Two cement contents corresponding to a 28-days compressive strength of 6.2 MPa and 12.3 MPa have been tested and compared. It is found that the coefficient of linear expansion...... for the two cement contents is 9.9 × 10-6 ⁰C-1 and 11.3 × 10-6 ⁰C-1, respectively. Furthermore, it is found that reflecting cracking can mainly be explained by temperature dependent shrinkage rather than moisture dependent shrinkage....

  7. THE GLASS IONOMER CEMENT IN DENTISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Matos Vieira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The glass ionomer cement was developed in the past century 70s, after continuous researches about silicate cement. Over the years, glass ionomers have been playing an important role on restorative dentistry. Initially, the material was used for restoration of small cavities, however, its usage has been increased. The main indications at present are: as core buildup restorative, luting cement, liner and base and as a sealant. Recently, glass ionomer cement has been used for ART restorations and in some medicine fields because of the positive biointeraction with bone cells. Although glass ionomer cements exhibit an initial critical solubility and poor aesthetics, great biological properties like fluoride release to oral environment, chemical bonding to tooth tissues and biocompatibility leads this material elective for many purposes. Finally, their inherent antimicrobial properties contributes to the treatment of many situations in dentistry.

  8. Tungsten carbide encapsulated in nitrogen-doped carbon with iron/cobalt carbides electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jinwei, E-mail: jwchen@scu.edu.cn; Jiang, Yiwu; Zhou, Feilong; Wang, Gang; Wang, Ruilin, E-mail: rl.wang@scu.edu.cn

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A hybrid catalyst was prepared via a quite green and simple method to achieve an one-pot synthesis of the N-doping carbon, tungsten carbides, and iron/cobalt carbides. It exhibited comparable electrocatalytic activity, higher durability and ability to methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C to ORR. - Highlights: • A novel type of hybrid Fe/Co/WC@NC catalysts have been successfully synthesized. • The hybrid catalyst also exhibited better durability and methanol tolerance. • Multiple effective active sites of Fe{sub 3}C, Co{sub 3}C, WC, and NC help to improve catalytic performance. - Abstract: This work presents a type of hybrid catalyst prepared through an environmental and simple method, combining a pyrolysis of transition metal precursors, a nitrogen-containing material, and a tungsten source to achieve a one-pot synthesis of N-doping carbon, tungsten carbides, and iron/cobalt carbides (Fe/Co/WC@NC). The obtained Fe/Co/WC@NC consists of uniform Fe{sub 3}C and Co{sub 3}C nanoparticles encapsulated in graphitized carbon with surface nitrogen doping, closely wrapped around a plate-like tungsten carbide (WC) that functions as an efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The introduction of WC is found to promote the ORR activity of Fe/Co-based carbide electrocatalysts, which is attributed to the synergistic catalysts of WC, Fe{sub 3}C, and Co{sub 3}C. Results suggest that the composite exhibits comparable electrocatalytic activity, higher durability, and ability for methanol tolerance compared with commercial Pt/C for ORR in alkaline electrolyte. These advantages make Fe/Co/WC@NC a promising ORR electrocatalyst and a cost-effective alternative to Pt/C for practical application as fuel cell.

  9. CONCRETE BASED ON MODIFIED DISPERSE CEMENT SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rudenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article considers definition of the bond types occurring in a modified cement concrete matrix, and the evaluation of the quality of these links in a non-uniform material to determine the geometrical and physical relationships between the structure and the cement matrix modifiers. Methodology. To achieve this purpose the studies covered the microstructure of dispersed modified concrete cement matrix, the structure formation mechanism of the modified cement concrete system of natural hardening; as well as identification of the methods of sound concrete strength assessment. Findings. The author proposed a model of the spatial structure of the concrete cement matrix, modified by particulate reinforcement crystal hydrates. The initial object of study is a set of volume elements (cells of the cement matrix and the system of the spatial distribution of reinforcing crystallohydrates in these volume elements. It is found that the most dangerous defects such as cracks in the concrete volume during hardening are formed as a result of internal stresses, mainly in the zone of cement matrix-filler contact or in the area bordering with the largest pores of the concrete. Originality. The result of the study is the defined mechanism of the process of formation of the initial strength and stiffness of the modified cement matrix due to the rapid growth of crystallohydrates in the space among the dispersed reinforcing modifier particles. Since the lack of space prevents from the free growth of crystals, the latter cross-penetrate, forming a dense structure, which contributes to the growth of strength. Practical value. Dispersed modifying cement matrix provides a durable concrete for special purposes with the design performance characteristics. The developed technology of dispersed cement system modification, the defined features of its structure formation mechanism and the use of congruence principle for the complex of technological impacts of physical

  10. Dentin-cement Interfacial Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmeh, A.R.; Chong, E.Z.; Richard, G.; Festy, F.; Watson, T.F.

    2012-01-01

    The interfacial properties of a new calcium-silicate-based coronal restorative material (Biodentine™) and a glass-ionomer cement (GIC) with dentin have been studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-Raman spectroscopy, and two-photon auto-fluorescence and second-harmonic-generation (SHG) imaging. Results indicate the formation of tag-like structures alongside an interfacial layer called the “mineral infiltration zone”, where the alkaline caustic effect of the calcium silicate cement’s hydration products degrades the collagenous component of the interfacial dentin. This degradation leads to the formation of a porous structure which facilitates the permeation of high concentrations of Ca2+, OH-, and CO32- ions, leading to increased mineralization in this region. Comparison of the dentin-restorative interfaces shows that there is a dentin-mineral infiltration with the Biodentine, whereas polyacrylic and tartaric acids and their salts characterize the penetration of the GIC. A new type of interfacial interaction, “the mineral infiltration zone”, is suggested for these calcium-silicate-based cements. PMID:22436906

  11. Pack cementation coatings for alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yi-Rong; Zheng, Minhui; Rapp, R.A. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The halide-activated pack cementation process was modified to produce a Ge-doped silicide diffusion coating on a Cr-Cr{sub 2}Nb alloy in a single processing step. The morphology and composition of the coating depended both on the composition of the pack and on the composition and microstructure of the substrate. Higher Ge content in the pack suppressed the formation of CrSi{sub 2} and reduced the growth kinetics of the coating. Ge was not homogeneously distributed in the coatings. In cyclic and isothermal oxidation in air at 700 and 1050{degrees}C, the Ge-doped silicide coating protected the Cr-Nb alloys from significant oxidation by the formation of a Ge-doped silica film. The codeposition and diffusion of aluminum and chromium into low alloy steel have been achieved using elemental Al and Cr powders and a two-step pack cementation process. Sequential process treatments at 925{degrees}C and 1150{degrees}C yield dense and uniform ferrite coatings, whose compositions are close to either Fe{sub 3}Al or else FeAl plus a lower Cr content, when processed under different conditions. The higher content of Al in the coatings was predicted by thermodynamic calculations of equilibrium in the gas phase. The effect of the particle size of the metal powders on the surface composition of the coating has been studied for various combinations of Al and Cr powders.

  12. Hydrogen evolution activity and electrochemical stability of selected transition metal carbides in concentrated phosphoric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomás García, Antonio Luis; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    Alternative catalysts based on carbides of Group 5 (niobium and tantalum) and 6 (chromium, molybdenum and tungsten) metals were prepared as films on the metallic substrates. The electrochemical activities of these carbide electrodes towards the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) in concentrated...... phosphoric acid were investigated in a temperature range from 80 to 170°C. A significant dependence of the activities on temperature was observed for all five carbide samples. Through the entire temperature range Group 6 metal carbides showed higher activity than that of the Group 5 metal carbides...

  13. Bond strength and cement-tooth interfacial characterization of self-adhesive composite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, U Burak; Van Ende, Annelies; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Ermis, R Banu

    2017-08-01

    (1) To determine the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of self-adhesive (SA) composite cements to unetched/etched enamel and dentin, and (2) to characterize the cements' interaction with tooth tissue. 51 composite blocks were bonded to smear layer-covered enamel and dentin (three teeth per group). Four SA composite cements (Clearfil SA, G-CEM, RelyX Unicem, SmartCem2), and three multi-step composite cements, two used following an etch-and-rinse (E&R) approach (RelyX ARC, Variolink II 'E&R') and one used following a self-etch (SE) approach (Variolink II ' SE') were investigated. The cement-tooth specimens were perpendicularly sectioned into micro-specimens (1.0 × 1.0 mm) in order to measure the µTBS. The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD (Pcomposite cements were applied to dentin free of a smear layer, regular and long resin tags were formed. No significant differences in bonding effectiveness were recorded for the self-adhesive composite cements when bonded to unetched/etched enamel and to dentin. Multi-step etch-and-rinse composite cements showed a better bonding effectiveness to enamel, although this could be approximated by the self-adhesive composite cements when enamel was acid-etched beforehand. On dentin, however, the bond strength of the etch-and-rinse composite cement RelyX ARC was superior.

  14. Microscale Investigation of Arsenic Distribution and Species in Cement Product from Cement Kiln Coprocessing Wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yufei Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the understanding of the immobilization mechanism and the leaching risk of Arsenic (As in the cement product from coprocessing wastes using cement kiln, distribution and species of As in cement product were determined by microscale investigation methods, including electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this study, sodium arsenate crystals (Na3AsO412H2O were mixed with cement production raw materials and calcined to produce cement clinker. Then, clinker was mixed water to prepare cement paste. EPMA results showed that As was generally distributed throughout the cement paste. As content in calcium silicate hydrates gel (C-S-H was in low level, but higher than that in other cement mineral phases. This means that most of As is expected to form some compounds that disperse on the surfaces of cement mineral phases. Linear combination fitting (LCF of the X-ray absorption near edge structure spectra revealed that As in the cement paste was predominantly As(V and mainly existed as Mg3(AsO42, Ca3(AsO42, and Na2HAsO4.

  15. Detecting Poor Cement Bonding and Zonal Isolation Problems Using Magnetic Cement Slurries

    KAUST Repository

    Nair, Sriramya D.

    2017-10-02

    There has been growing interest in the use of magnetorheological fluids to improve displacement efficiency of fluids (drilling fluids, spacer fluids, cement slurries) in the eccentric casing annuli. When magnetic particles are mixed with the cement slurry for improved displacement, they provide an excellent opportunity for sensing the presence and quality of cement in the annulus. This work focuses on using sophisticated 3D computational electromagnetics to simulate the use of a magnetic cement slurry for well cement monitoring. The main goal is to develop a new tool, which is capable of locating magnetic cement slurry that is placed behind a stainless steel casing. An electromagnetic coil was used to generate a magnetic field inside the borehole. It was found that when a current was passed through the electric coils, magnetic field lines passed through the stainless steel casing, the cement annulus and the rock formation. Three sensors were placed inside the cased borehole and the magnetic field strength variations were observed at these locations. Various factors that have a significant influence on zonal isolation were considered. These include, effect of debonding between casing and cement annulus, effect of changing annuli thickness, influence of a fracture in the rock formation, effect of changing magnetic permeability of cement and finally influence of annuli eccentricity. Based on the results shown in the paper along with the next generation of supersensitive magnetic sensors that are being developed, the magnetic approach appears to be a viable alternative for evaluating the quality of the cement annulus to ensure good zonal isolation.

  16. Parameters of Alumina Cement and Portland Cement with Addition of Chalcedonite Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwa, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Aluminous cement is a quick binder with special properties. It is used primarily to make non-standard monolithic components exposed to high temperatures, + 1300°C. It is also a component of adhesives and mortars. It has a very short setting time. It is characterized by rapid increase in mechanical strength and resistance to aggressive sulphates. It can be used in reinforced concrete structures. Laying of concrete, construction mortar made of alumina cement can be carried out even at temperatures of -10°C. This article discusses a comparison of the parameters of hardened mortar made of alumina cement GÓRKAL 40 and Portland cement CEM I 42.5R. The mortars contain an addition of chalcedonite meal with pozzolanic properties, with particle size of less than 0.063μm. The meal was added in amounts of 5% and 20% of cement weight. Chalcedonite meal used in the laboratory research is waste material, resulting from chalcedonite aggregate mining. It has the same properties as the rock from which it originates. We have compared the parameters of hardened mortar i.e. compressive strength, water absorption and capillarity. The addition of 20% chalcedonite meal to mortars made from aluminous cement will decrease durability by 6.1% relative to aluminous cement mortar without addition of meal. Considering the results obtained during the absorbency tests, it can be stated that the addition of chalcedonite meal reduces weight gains in mortars made with cement CEM I 42.5 R and alumina cement. Use of alumina cement without addition of meal in mortars causes an increase of mass by 248% compared to Portland cement mortars without additions, in the absorption tests. The addition of chalcedonite meal did not cause increased weight gain in the capillary action tests. For the alumina cement mortars, a lesser weight gains of 24.7% was reported, compared to the Portland cement mortar after 28 days of maturing.

  17. Growth stress in tungsten carbide-diamond-like carbon coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pujada, B.R.; Tichelaar, F.D.; Arnoldbik, W.M.; Sloof, W.G.; Janssen, G.C.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Growth stress in tungsten carbide-diamond-like carbon coatings, sputter deposited in a reactive argon/acetylene plasma, has been studied as a function of the acetylene partial pressure. Stress and microstructure have been investigated by wafer curvature and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)

  18. Highly permeable and mechanically robust silicon carbide hollow fiber membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, Patrick; Kappert, Emiel; Lohaus, T.; Wessling, Matthias; Nijmeijer, Arian; Benes, Nieck Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) membranes have shown large potential for applications in water treatment. Being able to make these membranes in a hollow fiber geometry allows for higher surface-to-volume ratios. In this study, we present a thermal treatment procedure that is tuned to produce porous silicon

  19. Erratum to: Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 39, No. 4, August 2016, p. 961. c Indian Academy of Sciences. DOI 10.1007/s12034-016-1267-y. Erratum to: Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires by. HFCVD method. S H MORTAZAVI. ∗. , M GHORANNEVISS, M DADASHBABA and R ALIPOUR. Plasma Physics Research Center, ...

  20. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Polymer Science & Rubber Technology,. Cochin University of Science and Technology. [32] Perez J M, Echeverria J M, Oliet M, Alonso M V and. Rodriguez F 2007 BioResources 2 270. [33] Janz S 2006 Amorphous silicon carbide for photovoltaic applications (Masters Thesis). Fakultät für Physik Universität.

  1. Effect of tempering after cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    #Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar 144 001, India. MS received 10 ... Tungsten carbide is the most commonly used cutting tool material in the industry and the tech- nique can also be ..... in the WC-Co inserts and was present in the form of clusters of particles ...

  2. Erratum to: Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 4. Erratum to: Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires by HFCVD method. S H MORTAZAVI M GHORANNEVISS M DADASHBABA R ALIPOUR. Volume 39 Issue 4 August 2016 pp 961-961 ...

  3. On Measurement and Interpretation of Toughness Behaviour of Carbide Tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kals, H.J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The actual significance of any definition of toughness behaviour of carbide tools depends on the existence of an interrelation between the quality as defined and the occurrence of chipping and premature failure in cutting. While at present there is no adequate analysis available and the existing

  4. Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires by HFCVD ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 39; Issue 4. Synthesis and investigation of silicon carbide nanowires by HFCVD ... Also Mountains Map Premium (64-bit version)software is used to investigate morphological features of samples. In this context, the analysis of the motifs, depth histograms, statistical ...

  5. Indentation fatigue in silicon nitride, alumina and silicon carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Repeated indentation fatigue (RIF) experiments conducted on the same spot of different structural ceramics viz. a hot pressed silicon nitride (HPSN), sintered alumina of two different grain sizes viz. 1 m and 25 m, and a sintered silicon carbide (SSiC) are reported. The RIF experiments were conducted using a Vicker's ...

  6. RICE-HUSK ASH-CARBIDE-WASTE STABILIZATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper present results of the laboratory evaluation of the characteristics of carbide waste and rice husk ash stabilized reclaimed asphalt pavement waste with a view to determine its suitability for use as flexible pavement material. The mixtures were subjected to British Standard heavy compactive effort to determine the ...

  7. Carbide-fluoride-silver self-lubricating composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material is described for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900 C in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  8. Carbide/fluoride/silver self-lubricating composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A self-lubricating, friction and wear reducing composite material for use over a wide temperature spectrum from cryogenic temperature to about 900.degree. C. in a chemically reactive environment comprising silver, barium fluoride/calcium fluoride eutectic, and metal bonded chromium carbide.

  9. SEM investigation of minor constituents of carbide materials ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is revealed that the noble metals phases occur as separate microsized grains, most of which have been indicated as Au–Ag–Hg amalgam and rarely as Pt-rich compounds. The obtained data can be mainly used to advance technologies for manufacturing carbide-based composite materials from natural carbonaceous ...

  10. Sintering of nano crystalline o silicon carbide doping with

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sinterable silicon carbide powders were prepared by attrition milling and chemical processing of an acheson type -SiC. Pressureless sintering of these powders was achieved by addition of aluminium nitride together with carbon. Nearly 99% sintered density was obtained. The mechanism of sintering was studied by ...

  11. Protective infrared antireflection coating based on sputtered germanium carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Des; Waddell, Ewan; Placido, Frank

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes optical, durablility and environmental performance of a germanium carbide based durable antireflection coating. The coating has been demonstrated on germanium and zinc selenide infra-red material however is applicable to other materials such as zinc sulphide. The material is deposited using a novel reactive closed field magnetron sputtering technique, offering significant advantages over conventional evaporation processes for germanium carbide such as plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition. The sputtering process is "cold", making it suitable for use on a wide range of substrates. Moreover, the drum format provide more efficient loading for high throughput production. The use of the closed field and unbalanced magnetrons creates a magnetic confinement that extends the electron mean free path leading to high ion current densities. The combination of high current densities with ion energies in the range ~30eV creates optimum thin film growth conditions. As a result the films are dense, spectrally stable, supersmooth and low stress. Films incorporate low hydrogen content resulting in minimal C-H absorption bands within critical infra-red passbands such as 3 to 5um and 8 to 12um. Tuning of germanium carbide (Ge(1-x)Cx) film refractive index from pure germanium (refractive index 4) to pure germanium carbide (refractive index 1.8) will be demonstrated. Use of film grading to achieve single and dual band anti-reflection performance will be shown. Environmental and durability levels are shown to be suitable for use in harsh external environments.

  12. Silicon Carbide and Magnetorresistive Technologies for Solid State Power Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrigós A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to make an introduction, review and preliminary investigation tasks of the application of Silicon Carbide (SiC power semiconductors and magnetoresistive (MR current sensors for Solid State Power Controllers (SSPCs and controlled switches, especially for high temperature environment and/or high voltage applications.

  13. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... tribological performance, improving their strength, stiffness and abrasive properties. The best results were obtained for 1 wt% nSiC, proving that this value is the optimum nanometric silicon carbide content. The results indicate that these materials could be effectively used to obtain ablative or carbon–carbon composites in ...

  14. Effect of tempering after cryogenic treatment of tungsten carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cryogenic treatment is a recent advancement in the field of machining to improve the properties of cutting tool materials. Tungsten carbide is the most commonly used cutting tool material in the industry and the technique can also be extended to it. Although the importance of tempering after cryogenic treatment has been ...

  15. PECVD silicon carbide surface micromachining technology and selected MEMS applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Pakula, L.S.; Yang, H.; French, P.J.; Sarro, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Attractive material properties of plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD) silicon carbide (SiC) when combined with CMOS-compatible low thermal budget processing provides an ideal technology platform for developing various microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices and merging them with

  16. Synthesis of carbon fibre-reinforced, silicon carbide composites by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    pyrolysis (PIP), liquid silicon infiltration (LSI), sol–gel, reaction hot-pressing, have been used for ... resin matrix and is then infiltrated with molten silicon (Krenkel 2001); but the presence of free silicon may act as a ... and (iv) finally carbothermal reduction of oxides to carbides/borides at 1873 and 1973 K for 3 h as shown by ...

  17. Heat-Resistance of the Powder Cobalt Alloys Reinforced by Niobium or Titanium Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherepova, T.S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of heat-resistance of powder cobalt alloys at 1100 °C were investigated. These alloys were developed for the protection of workers banding shelves GTE blades from wear. The alloys were prepared by hot pressing powders of cobalt, chromium, aluminum, iron and niobium or titanium carbides. The values of heat resistance alloys containing carbides between 30 and 70% (vol. depend on the type made of carbide alloys: alloys with titanium carbide superior in heat-resistant alloy of niobium carbide. The most significant factor affecting on the heat-resistant alloys, is porosity: with its increase the parameters decline regardless of the type and content of carbide. The optimum composition of powder heat resisting alloys of titanium carbide with a melting point above 1300 °C were determined for use in the aircraft engine.

  18. Formation mechanism of spheroidal carbide in ultra-low carbon ductile cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-guo Fu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The formation mechanism of the spheroidal carbide in the ultra-low carbon ductile cast iron fabricated by the metal mold casting technique was systematically investigated. The results demonstrated that the spheroidal carbide belonged to eutectic carbide and crystallized in the isolated eutectic liquid phase area. The formation process of the spheroidal carbide was related to the contact and the intersection between the primary dendrite and the secondary dendrite of austenite. The oxides of magnesium, rare earths and other elements can act as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the spheroidal carbide. It was also found that the amount of the spheroidal carbide would increase with an increase in carbon content. The cooling rate has an important influence on the spheroidal carbide under the same chemical composition condition.

  19. 21 CFR 888.3027 - Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. 888... Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement. (a) Identification. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement is a device...: Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) Bone Cement.” [67 FR 46855, July 17, 2002] ...

  20. Effect of Cement Grades on some properties of Sandcrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of cement grade on some properties of sandcrete. The cement used for this work was Ordinary Portland cement (Dangote brand) of grade 42.5 and 32.5 meeting the requirement of ASTM C150 type 1 cement. Three types of fine aggregate was also used to produce ...

  1. Application of TEM to characterize fly ash- and slag cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pietersen, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    A Portland fly ash cement containing 20% of a fine fly ash and a blast furnace slag cement of approximately 290 days old were examined with analytical transmission electron microscopy, in order to examine the (local) microstructure in these cements in detail. In the Portland fly ash cement the fly

  2. Dehydration kinetics of Portland cement paste at high temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Q.; Ye, G.

    2012-01-01

    Portland cement paste is a multiphase compound mainly consisting of calcium-silicate-hydrate (CSH) gel, calcium hydroxide (CH) crystal, and unhydrated cement core. When cement paste is exposed to high temperature, the dehydration of cement paste leads to not only the decline in strength, but also

  3. The use of Limestone Powder as an Alternative Cement Replacement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    hardened mortar. ii) Produce Portland limestone cement as an alternative cement type having comparable characteristics to that of OPC and PPC. The study ...... [3] Mc Grath, R. J., The Canadian Cement. Industry and. Innovation. Towards. Sustainable. Development,. Cement. Association of Canada, June 10-13, 2008.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, and Enhanced Magnetic Properties of Iron Carbide Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brent M.

    Permanent magnets are classified as hard magnetic materials with the main purpose of generating flux for applications such as electric motors, turbines, and hard drives. High coercivity, magnetic remanence, and saturation values with high stability are some of the requirements for permanent magnets. Rare-earth magnets including neodymium and samarium based magnets are known to have superior magnetic properties due to their high magnetocrystalline anisotropy. However, due to the price of rare-earth materials development of alternate permanent magnets composed of inexpensive materials is an ongoing process. Previously cobalt carbide (CoxC) have shown promise as a potential rare-earth free magnet alternative with magnetic properties comparable to that of hexaferrite materials. Unfortunately, CoxC magnets have a low magnetic saturation (50 emu g-1) which drastically lowers its energy product. Alternatively, iron carbide has a rather high bulk magnetization value of 140 emu g-1 and is composed of naturally abundant materials. The sole issue of iron carbide is that it is considered an intermediate magnet with properties between those of a hard and a soft magnetic material. The main focus of this work is the enhancement of the hard magnetic properties of iron carbide through size effect, shape anisotropy, magnetocrystalline anisotropy and exchange anisotropy. First a wet synthesis method was developed which utilized hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride to control particle size, shape, and crystal structure to manipulate the magnetic properties of iron carbide. With this method a semi-hard 50 nm orthorhombic Fe3C phase and a magnetically soft single crystal hexagonal Fe7C3 structure with texture-induced magnetic properties were developed. The properties for both materials were further enhanced through formation of exchange bias Fe3C/CoO nanoaggregates and spring exchange coupling of the ferromagnetically hard and soft phases of Fe7C3/SrFe 12O19. A 33% increase in coercivity

  5. Coarsening of carbides during different heat treatment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miao, Kai, E-mail: miaok21@126.com; He, Yanlin, E-mail: ylhe@staff.shu.edu.cn; Zhu, Naqiong; Wang, Jingjing; Lu, Xiaogang; Li, Lin

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Coarsening of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} carbides was quantitatively described in detail. • Cooling mode is a key factor to the simulation for the coarsening of carbides. • Coarsening of above spherical carbides can be calculated by Ostwald ripening model. • The interfacial energy between the γ matrix with M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} carbides are 0.7 J/m{sup 2}. - Abstract: Coarsening of carbides in 1# Fe-5.96Cr-0.35C (wt.%) alloy and 2# Fe-0.5V-0.53C (wt.%) alloy during different heat treatment conditions was investigated by carbon replica, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) , X-ray diffraction (XRD) and SEM techniques. The equilibrium phases at 850 °C constitute of austenitic matrix (γ) + M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and austenite matrix (γ) + V{sub 4}C{sub 3} for 1# and 2# alloy respectively. Morphology of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} carbides was mainly determined by cooling mode due to the different nucleation sites and growth mechanisms. Under directly aging condition, most carbides nucleate in the grain boundaries and grow into rod-shaped or flake-shaped particles by discontinuous growth mechanism. These particles turn out to be excluded during coarsening simulation using Oswald ripening model to give a more reasonable result. In addition, interfacial energy between M{sub 7}C{sub 3}/γ and V{sub 4}C{sub 3}/γ for the coarsening of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} during aging at 850 °C is evaluated by fitting experimental data using thermodynamic and kinetic calculations. The interfacial energy is determined to be 0.7 J/m{sup 2} for the coarsening of M{sub 7}C{sub 3} and V{sub 4}C{sub 3} in austenitic matrix.

  6. Environmental Assessment of Different Cement Manufacturing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to its high environmental impact and energy intensive production, the cement industry needs to adopt more energy efficient technologies to reduce its demand for fossil fuels and impact on the environment. Bearing in mind that cement is the most widely used material for housing and modern infrastructure, the aim of this paper is to analyse the Emergy and Ecological Footprint of different cement manufacturing processes for a particular cement plant. There are several mitigation measures that can be incorporated in the cement manufacturing process to reduce the demand for fossil fuels and consequently reduce the CO2 emissions. The mitigation measures considered in this paper were the use of alternative fuels and a more energy efficient kiln process. In order to estimate the sustainability effect of the aforementioned measures, Emergy and Ecological Footprint were calculated for four different scenarios. The results show that Emergy, due to the high input mass of raw material needed for clinker production, stays at about the same level. However, for the Ecological Footprint, the results show that by combining the use of alternative fuels together with a more energy efficient kiln process, the environmental impact of the cement manufacturing process can be lowered. The research paper presents an analysis of the sustainability of cement production , a major contributor to carbon emissions, with respect to using alternative fuels and a more efficient kiln. It show

  7. Tooth surface treatment strategies for adhesive cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Nadja; Fischer, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth surface pre-treatment steps on shear bond strength, which is essential for understanding the adhesive cementation process. Shear bond strengths of different cements with various tooth surface treatments (none, etching, priming, or etching and priming) on enamel and dentin of human teeth were measured using the Swiss shear test design. Three adhesives (Permaflo DC, Panavia F 2.0, and Panavia V5) and one self-adhesive cement (Panavia SA plus) were included in this study. The interface of the cement and the tooth surface with the different pre-treatments was analyzed using SEM. pH values of the cements and primers were measured. The highest bond strength values for all cements were achieved with etching and primer on enamel (25.6 ± 5.3 - 32.3 ± 10.4 MPa). On dentin, etching and priming produced the highest bond strength values for all cements (8.6 ± 2.9 - 11.7 ± 3.5 MPa) except for Panavia V5, which achieved significantly higher bond strengths when pre-treated with primer only (15.3 ± 4.1 MPa). Shear bond strength values were correlated with the micro-retentive surface topography of enamel and the tag length on dentin except for Panavia V5, which revealed the highest bond strength with primer application only without etching, resulting in short but sturdy tags. The highest bond strength can be achieved for Panavia F 2.0, Permaflo DC, and Panavia SA plus when the tooth substrate is previously etched and the respective primer is applied. The new cement Panavia V5 displayed low technique-sensitivity and attained significantly higher adhesion of all tested cements to dentin when only primer was applied.

  8. Synthesis of pure Portland cement phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselsky, Andreas; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2009-01-01

    Pure phases commonly found in Portland cement clinkers are often used to test cement hydration behaviour in simplified experimental conditions. The synthesis of these phases is covered in this paper, starting with a description of phase relations and possible polymorphs of the four main phases...... in Portland cement, i.e. tricalcium silicate, dicalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate and tetracalcium alumino ferrite. Details of the The process of solid state synthesis are is described in general including practical advice on equipment and techniques. Finally In addition, some exemplary mix compositions...

  9. Effect of cementing technique and cement type on thermal necrosis in hip resurfacing arthroplasty - a numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, D.; Srinivasan, P.; Scheerlinck, T.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Femoral fractures within resurfacing implants have been associated with bone necrosis, possibly resulting from heat generated by cement polymerization. The amount of heat generated depends on cement mantle volume and type of cement. Using finite element analysis, the effect of cement type and volume

  10. Effect of cementing technique and cement type on thermal necrosis in hip resurfacing arthroplasty--a numerical study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, D.W.; Srinivasan, P.; Scheerlinck, T.; Verdonschot, N.J.

    2012-01-01

    Femoral fractures within resurfacing implants have been associated with bone necrosis, possibly resulting from heat generated by cement polymerization. The amount of heat generated depends on cement mantle volume and type of cement. Using finite element analysis, the effect of cement type and volume

  11. Selective-area laser deposition (SALD) Joining of silicon carbide with silicon carbide filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Shay Llewellyn

    Selective Area Laser Deposition (SALD) is a gas-phase, solid freeform fabrication (SFF) process that utilizes a laser-driven, pyrolytic gas reaction to form a desired solid product. This solid product only forms in the heated zone of the laser beam and thus can be selectively deposited by control of the laser position. SALD Joining employs the SALD method to accomplish 'welding' of ceramic structures together. The solid reaction product serves as a filler material to bond the two parts. The challenges involved with ceramic joining center around the lack of a liquid phase, little plastic deformation and diffusivity and poor surface wetting for many ceramic materials. Due to these properties, traditional metal welding procedures cannot be applied to ceramics. Most alternative ceramic welding techniques use some form of a metal addition to overcome these material limitations. However, the metal possesses a lower ultimate use temperature than the ceramic substrate and therefore it decreases the temperature range over which the joined part can be safely used. SALD Joining enjoys several advantages over these ceramic welding procedures. The solid filler material chemistry can be tailored to match the type of ceramic substrate and therefore fabricate monolithic joints. The SALD filler material bonds directly to the substrate and the joined structure is made in a one step process, without any post-processing. The research documented in this dissertation focused on SALD Joining of silicon carbide structures with silicon carbide filler material. A historical progression of gas-phase SFF research and a literature review of the most prominent ceramic joining techniques are provided. A variety of SiC substrates were examined, as were various conditions of gas precursor pressures and mixtures, laser beam scan speed and joint configuration. The SALD material was characterized for composition and structure by x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nuclear magnetic

  12. High-Strain-Rate behavior of Hydrated Cement Paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-29

    failure of cement mortars and concrete under dynamic loading conditions. The present research program, a collaborative effort of Martin Marietta...cement mortars and concrete. %0 -1- • ° ° . • .%° S, During the first part of 1986, work at Martin Marietta Laboratories was focused on establishing the...totally replaced by the more economical blended cements ( flyash and slag- cements). However, we obtained a limited quantity of Type IV cement (LTS series

  13. INFLUENCE OF WINE ACID ON RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF WELL BORE CEMENT SLURRIES AND HARDENED CEMENT PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nediljka Gaurina-Međimurec

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of commercial types of domestic cements for use in cementing the deep wells is a process by which Yugoslav oil industry tends to solve problems of completion of those wells independently. In order to design a domestic, cheep and effective retarder, tests of applicability of wine acid on cement slurries have been carried out. Besides examining the necessary wine acid content to achieve desirable Theological properties, the influence of this additive on properties of hardened cement samples has been tested too (the paper is published in Croatian.

  14. STATUS OF HIGH FLUX ISOTOPE REACTOR IRRADIATION OF SILICON CARBIDE/SILICON CARBIDE JOINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katoh, Yutai [ORNL; Koyanagi, Takaaki [ORNL; Kiggans, Jim [ORNL; Cetiner, Nesrin [ORNL; McDuffee, Joel [ORNL

    2014-09-01

    Development of silicon carbide (SiC) joints that retain adequate structural and functional properties in the anticipated service conditions is a critical milestone toward establishment of advanced SiC composite technology for the accident-tolerant light water reactor (LWR) fuels and core structures. Neutron irradiation is among the most critical factors that define the harsh service condition of LWR fuel during the normal operation. The overarching goal of the present joining and irradiation studies is to establish technologies for joining SiC-based materials for use as the LWR fuel cladding. The purpose of this work is to fabricate SiC joint specimens, characterize those joints in an unirradiated condition, and prepare rabbit capsules for neutron irradiation study on the fabricated specimens in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Torsional shear test specimens of chemically vapor-deposited SiC were prepared by seven different joining methods either at Oak Ridge National Laboratory or by industrial partners. The joint test specimens were characterized for shear strength and microstructures in an unirradiated condition. Rabbit irradiation capsules were designed and fabricated for neutron irradiation of these joint specimens at an LWR-relevant temperature. These rabbit capsules, already started irradiation in HFIR, are scheduled to complete irradiation to an LWR-relevant dose level in early 2015.

  15. Basalt waste added to Portland cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Melanda Mendes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement is widely used as a building material and more than 4.3 billion tons were produced in 2014, with increasing environmental impacts by this industry, mainly through CO2 emissions and consumption of non-removable raw materials. Several by-products have been used as raw materials or fuels to reduce environmental impacts. Basaltic waste collected by filters was employed as a mineral mixture to Portland cement and two fractions were tested. The compression strength of mortars was measured after 7 days and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Electron Diffraction Scattering (EDS were carried out on Portland cement paste with the basaltic residue. Gains in compression strength were observed for mixtures containing 2.5 wt.% of basaltic residue. Hydration products observed on surface of basaltic particles show the nucleation effect of mineral mixtures. Clinker substitution by mineral mixtures reduces CO2 emission per ton of Portland cement.

  16. Subgrade stabilization alternatives to lime and cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This project involved four distinct research activities, (1) the influence of temperature on lime-stabilized soils, (2) the influence of temperature on cement-stabilized soils (3) temperature modeling of stabilized subgrade and (4) use of calcium chl...

  17. New polymer additives for mortar cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, S.G.; Podlas, T.J.; Young, T.S.

    1999-07-01

    Mortar cement is a hydraulic cement similar to masonry cement in use and function, introduced to enhance one or more of the latter's properties, such as workability, durability, and water retention. In addition, mortar cement must have lower air content and it has minimum flexural bond strength requirements. In response to fulfilling these needs, a new family of water soluble polymers has been developed. The new polymer additives are designed to optimize air void distribution and rheology of wet mortar, allowing improved workability with low air content. Furthermore, these polymers impart high water retention to the mortar, and allow the production of mortar with enhanced board life and flexural bond strength.

  18. Microbiological Study of Cast Posts before Cementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vallejo-Labrada, Maricela; Ojeda-Garces, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

      This study identifies the most common microorganisms present in type III gold cast posts related to pulpal disease and evaluates the sterilization/disinfection method before cementation in the root canal...

  19. Recycled materials in Portland cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-06-01

    This report pertains to a comprehensive study involving the use of recycled materials in Portland cement concrete. Three different materials were studied including crushed glass (CG), street sweepings (SS), and recycled concrete (RC). Blast furnace s...

  20. Recycled concrete aggregate in portland cement concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Aggregates can be produced by crushing hydraulic cement concrete and are known as recycled concrete : aggregates (RCA). This report provides results from a New Jersey Department of Transportation study to identify : barriers to the use of RCA in new ...

  1. Precipitation and Evolution Behavior of Carbide During Heat Treatments of GCr15 Bearing Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Chao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The evolution behavior of carbides in GCr15 bearing steels after spheroidization annealing, austenitization quenching and low temperature tempering was investigated by the method of quantitative metallography. Numerical simulations on the dissolution kinetics of carbide size and composition during austenitization were performed by ThermoCalc software. The results indicate that the carbide particles formed after spheroidization annealing have a multimodal distribution whilst their size distribution changes to have a single peak after austenitization and tempering, and Cr content increases slightly after austenitization; the carbide particles appear to have larger size with higher Cr content; C rich austenite is formed during austenitization through solid solution by carbides after spheroidization annealing, and then high carbon martensite is formed after quenching and results in the high hardness; Cr atoms can partition from austenite to carbide during the dissolution of carbide, lead to the increasing Cr content of rest carbide particles; the numerical simulations indicate that the carbide particles with the diameter of 200nm cannot completely be dissolved during austenitization even if its Cr content is close to the nominal Cr content of steel, and the undissolved ones may affect the precipitation of carbides during the subsequent tempering.

  2. Topics in cement and concrete research

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwers, Jos; Russel, M.I.; Basheer, P.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarised. Then the major constituent, from an environmental point of view, cement is discussed in detail, particularly the hydration and application of slag cement. The intelligent combining of mineral oxides, which are found in clinker, slag, fly ashes etc., is designated as mineral oxide engineering. It re...

  3. Cytotoxicity of four categories of dental cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid-Schwap, Martina; Franz, Alexander; König, Franz; Bristela, Margit; Lucas, Trevor; Piehslinger, Eva; Watts, David C; Schedle, Andreas

    2009-03-01

    Assessment of dental material biocompatibility is gaining increasing importance for both patients and dentists. Dental cements may be in contact with oral soft tissues for prolonged periods of time and play an important role in prosthetic rehabilitation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate eight dental cements using a standardized L929-fibroblast cell culture test. For each material, fresh specimens (added to the cultures immediately after preparation) and specimens preincubated for 7 days in cell culture medium were prepared according to the manufacturers' recommendations. After exposure to test specimens, cell numbers were compared to glass controls. The main outcome was a two-sided 95% confidence interval for the mean value of the standardized cell number for each substance investigated. Fresh specimens of all tested cements showed significant cytotoxicity, which diminished after 7 days preincubation. Cytotoxicity of fresh adhesive and self-adhesive resin cements was lower when specimens were dual-cured compared to self-cured. A rank order of cytotoxicity was established based on mean values: Nexus 2 (dual-cured) showed least cytotoxicity, followed by Variolink II (dual-cured), Nexus 2 (self-cured), Harvard, RelyxUnicem (dual-cured), Panavia 21, Fujicem, Durelon, Variolink II (self-cured), RelyxUnicem (self-cured), Maxcem (dual-cured) and Maxcem (self-cured). When bondings were added to Nexus 2 or Variolink II specimens, a slight increase in cytotoxicity was observed. Adhesive resin cements showed less cytotoxicity than self-adhesive and chemically setting cements. Bonding only slightly influenced cytotoxicity of the adhesive resin cements. Dual-cured specimens of adhesive and self-adhesive resin cements showed significantly less toxicity than self-cured specimens.

  4. Tooth surface treatment strategies for adhesive cementation

    OpenAIRE

    Rohr, Nadja; Fischer, Jens

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth surface pre-treatment steps on shear bond strength, which is essential for understanding the adhesive cementation process. MATERIALS AND METHODS Shear bond strengths of different cements with various tooth surface treatments (none, etching, priming, or etching and priming) on enamel and dentin of human teeth were measured using the Swiss shear test design. Three adhesives (Permaflo DC, Panavia F 2.0, and Panavia V5) and one sel...

  5. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  6. Development and Processing of Nickel Aluminide-Carbide Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newport, Timothy Scott

    1996-01-01

    With the upper temperature limit of the Ni-based superalloys attained, a new class of materials is required. Intermetallics appear as likely candidates because of their attractive physical properties. With a relatively low density, high thermal conductivity, excellent oxidation resistance, high melting point, and simple crystal structure, nickel aluminide (NiAl) appears to be a potential candidate. However, NiAl is limited in structural applications due to its low room temperature fracture toughness and poor elevated temperature strength. One approach to improving these properties has been through the application of eutectic composites. Researchers have shown that containerless directional solidification of NiAl-based eutectic alloys can provide improvement in both the creep strength and fracture toughness. Although these systems have shown improvements in the mechanical properties, the presence of refractory metals increases the density significantly in some alloys. Lower density systems, such as the carbides, nitrides, and borides, may provide NiAl-based eutectic structure. With little or no information available on these systems, experimental investigation is required. The objective of this research was to locate and develop NiAl-carbide eutectic alloys. Exploratory arc-melts were performed in NiAl-refractory metal-C systems. Refractory metal systems investigated included Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, Mo, Nb, Ta, Ti, W, and Zr. Systems containing carbides with excellent stability (i.e.,HfC, NbC, TaC, TiC, and ZrC) produced large blocky cubic carbides in an NiAl matrix. The carbides appeared to have formed in the liquid state and were randomly distributed throughout the polycrystalline NiAl. The Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and W systems contained NiAl dendrites with a two-phase interdendritic microconstituent present. Of these systems, the NiAl-Mo-C system had the most promising microstructure for in-situ composites. Three processing techniques were used to evaluate the NiAl-Mo-C system

  7. Novel fabrication of silicon carbide based ceramics for nuclear applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek Kumar

    Advances in nuclear reactor technology and the use of gas-cooled fast reactors require the development of new materials that can operate at the higher temperatures expected in these systems. These materials include refractory alloys based on Nb, Zr, Ta, Mo, W, and Re; ceramics and composites such as SiC--SiCf; carbon--carbon composites; and advanced coatings. Besides the ability to handle higher expected temperatures, effective heat transfer between reactor components is necessary for improved efficiency. Improving thermal conductivity of the fuel can lower the center-line temperature and, thereby, enhance power production capabilities and reduce the risk of premature fuel pellet failure. Crystalline silicon carbide has superior characteristics as a structural material from the viewpoint of its thermal and mechanical properties, thermal shock resistance, chemical stability, and low radioactivation. Therefore, there have been many efforts to develop SiC based composites in various forms for use in advanced energy systems. In recent years, with the development of high yield preceramic precursors, the polymer infiltration and pyrolysis (PIP) method has aroused interest for the fabrication of ceramic based materials, for various applications ranging from disc brakes to nuclear reactor fuels. The pyrolysis of preceramic polymers allow new types of ceramic materials to be processed at relatively low temperatures. The raw materials are element-organic polymers whose composition and architecture can be tailored and varied. The primary focus of this study is to use a pyrolysis based process to fabricate a host of novel silicon carbide-metal carbide or oxide composites, and to synthesize new materials based on mixed-metal silicocarbides that cannot be processed using conventional techniques. Allylhydridopolycarbosilane (AHPCS), which is an organometal polymer, was used as the precursor for silicon carbide. Inert gas pyrolysis of AHPCS produces near-stoichiometric amorphous

  8. Study on properties and testing methods of thermo-responsive cementing system for well cementing in heavy oil thermal recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lianjiang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, thermo-responsive cement slurry system were being developed, the properties of conventional cement slurry, compressive strength high temperature of cement sheath, mechanical properties of cement sheath and thermal properties of cement sheath were being tested. Results were being used and simulated by Well-Life Software, Thermo-responsive cement slurry system can meet the requirements of heavy oil thermal recovery production. Mechanical and thermal properties of thermo-responsive cement sheath were being tested. Tensile fracture energy of the thermo-responsive cement sheath is larger than conventional cement. The heat absorption capacity of conventional cement sheath is larger than that of thermo-responsive cement sheath, this means more heat is needed for the unit mass once increasing 1.0 °C, which also indicates that thermo-responsive cement own good heat insulating and preservation effects. The heat conductivity coefficient and thermal expansion coefficient of thermo-responsive cement is less than and conventional cement, this means that thermo-responsive cement have good heat preservation and insulation effects with good thermal expansion stabilities.

  9. Evaluation of the amount of excess cement around the margins of cement-retained dental implant restorations: the effect of the cement application method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Winston W L; Duncan, Jesse; Afshar, Manijeh; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2013-04-01

    Complete removal of excess cement from subgingival margins after cementation of implant-supported restorations has been shown to be unpredictable. Remaining cement has been shown to be associated with periimplant inflammation and bleeding. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the amount of excess cement after cementation with 4 different methods of cement application for cement-retained implant-supported restorations. Ten implant replicas/abutments (3i) were embedded in acrylic resin blocks. Forty complete veneer crowns (CVCs) were fabricated by waxing onto the corresponding plastic waxing sleeves. The wax patterns were cast and the crowns were cemented to the implant replicas with either an interim (Temp Bond) or a definitive luting agent (FujiCEM). Four methods of cement application were used for cementation: Group IM-Cement applied on the internal marginal area of the crown only; Group AH-Cement applied on the apical half of the axial walls of the crown; Group AA-Cement applied to all axial walls of the interior surface of the crown, excluding the occlusal surface; and Group PI-Crown filled with cement then seated on a putty index formed to the internal configuration of the restoration (cementation device) (n=10). Cement on the external surfaces was removed before seating the restoration. Cement layers were applied on each crown, after which the crown was seated under constant load (80 N) for 10 minutes. The excess cement from each specimen was collected and measured. One operator performed all the procedures. Results for the groups were compared, with 1 and 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey multiple range test (α=.05). No significant difference in the amount of excess/used cement was observed between the 2 different types of cements (P=.1). Group PI showed the least amount of excess cement in comparison to other test groups (P=.031). No significant difference was found in the amount of excess cement among groups MI, AH, and AA. Group AA showed the

  10. Analysis of rheological properties of bone cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, M K D; Waters, M G J; Holford, K M; Adusei, G

    2007-07-01

    The rheological properties of three commercially available bone cements, CMW 1, Palacos R and Cemex ISOPLASTIC, were investigated. Testing was undertaken at both 25 and 37 degrees C using an oscillating parallel plate rheometer. Results showed that the three high viscosity cements exhibited distinct differences in curing rate, with CMW 1 curing in 8.7 min, Palacos R and Cemex ISOPLASTIC in 13 min at 25 degrees C. Furthermore it was found that these curing rates were strongly temperature dependent, with curing rates being halved at 37 degrees C. By monitoring the change of viscosity with time over the entire curing process, the results showed that these cements had differing viscosity profiles and hence exhibit very different handling characteristics. However, all the cements reached the same maximum viscosity of 75 x 10(3) Pa s. Also, the change in elastic/viscous moduli and tan delta with time, show the cements changing from a viscous material to an elastic solid with a clear peak in the viscous modulus during the latter stages of curing. These results give valuable information about the changes in rheological properties for each commercial bone cement, especially during the final curing process.

  11. Case Study of the California Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coito, Fred; Powell, Frank; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Friedmann, Rafael

    2005-05-01

    California is the largest cement producing state in theU.S., accounting for between 10 percent and 15 percent of U.S. cementproduction and cement industry employment. The cement industry inCalifornia consists of 31 sites that consume large amounts of energy,annually: 1,600 GWh of electricity, 22 million therms of natural gas, 2.3million tons of coal, 0.25 tons of coke, and smaller amounts of wastematerials, including tires. The case study summarized in this paperfocused on providing background information, an assessment ofenergy-efficiency opportunities and barriers, and program recommendationsthat can be used by program planners to better target products to thecement industry. The primary approach to this case study involvedwalk-through surveys of customer facilities and in depth interviews withcustomer decision makers and subsequent analysis of collected data. Inaddition, a basic review of the cement production process was developed,and summary cement industry energy and economic data were collected, andanalyzed. The analysis of secondary data provides background informationon the cement industry and identification of potential energy-efficiencyopportunities. The interviews provide some understanding of the customerperspective about implementation of energy-efficiencyprojects.

  12. SILICON CARBIDE CERAMICS FOR COMPACT HEAT EXCHANGERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DR. DENNIS NAGLE; DR. DAJIE ZHANG

    2009-03-26

    Silicon carbide (SiC) materials are prime candidates for high temperature heat exchangers for next generation nuclear reactors due to their refractory nature and high thermal conductivity at elevated temperatures. This research has focused on demonstrating the potential of liquid silicon infiltration (LSI) for making SiC to achieve this goal. The major advantage of this method over other ceramic processing techniques is the enhanced capability of making high dense, high purity SiC materials in complex net shapes. For successful formation of net shape SiC using LSI techniques, the carbon preform reactivity and pore structure must be controlled to allow the complete infiltration of the porous carbon structure which allows complete conversion of the carbon to SiC. We have established a procedure for achieving desirable carbon properties by using carbon precursors consisting of two readily available high purity organic materials, crystalline cellulose and phenolic resin. Phenolic resin yields a glassy carbon with low chemical reactivity and porosity while the cellulose carbon is highly reactive and porous. By adjusting the ratio of these two materials in the precursor mixtures, the properties of the carbons produced can be controlled. We have identified the most favorable carbon precursor composition to be a cellulose resin mass ratio of 6:4 for LSI formation of SiC. The optimum reaction conditions are a temperature of 1800 C, a pressure of 0.5 Torr of argon, and a time of 120 minutes. The fully dense net shape SiC material produced has a density of 2.96 g cm{sup -3} (about 92% of pure SiC) and a SiC volume fraction of over 0.82. Kinetics of the LSI SiC formation process was studied by optical microscopy and quantitative digital image analysis. This study identified six reaction stages and provided important understanding of the process. Although the thermal conductivity of pure SiC at elevated temperatures is very high, thermal conductivities of most commercial Si

  13. The influence of cement thickness on stem subsidence and cement creep in a collarless polished tapered stem: When are thick cement mantles detrimental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, E; Kaneuji, A; Tsuda, R; Numata, Y; Ichiseki, T; Fukui, K; Kawahara, N

    2017-05-01

    Favourable results for collarless polished tapered stems have been reported, and cement creep due to taper slip may be a contributing factor. However, the ideal cement thickness around polished stems remains unknown. We investigated the influence of cement thickness on stem subsidence and cement creep. We cemented six collarless polished tapered (CPT) stems (two stems each of small, medium and large sizes) into composite femurs that had been reamed with a large CPT rasp to achieve various thicknesses of the cement mantle. Two or three tantalum balls were implanted in the proximal cement in each femur. A cyclic loading test was then performed for each stem. The migration of the balls was measured three-dimensionally, using a micro-computed tomography (CT) scanner, before and after loading. A digital displacement gauge was positioned at the stem shoulder, and stem subsidence was measured continuously by the gauge. Final stem subsidence was measured at the balls at the end of each stem. A strong positive correlation was observed between mean cement thickness and stem subsidence in the CT slices on the balls. In the small stems, the balls moved downward to almost the same extent as the stem. There was a significant negative correlation between cement thickness and the horizontal:downward ratio of ball movement. Collarless polished tapered stems with thicker cement mantles resulted in greater subsidence of both stem and cement. This suggests that excessive thickness of the cement mantle may interfere with effective radial cement creep. Cite this article: E. Takahashi, A. Kaneuji, R. Tsuda, Y. Numata, T. Ichiseki, K. Fukui, N. Kawahara. The influence of cement thickness on stem subsidence and cement creep in a collarless polished tapered stem: When are thick cement mantles detrimental? Bone Joint Res 2017;6:-357. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.65.BJR-2017-0028.R1. © 2017 Kaneuji et al.

  14. Investigation of Possible Wellbore Cement Failures During Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George

    2014-11-01

    We model and assess the possibility of shear failure, using the Mohr-Coulomb model ? along the vertical well by employing a rigorous coupled flow-geomechanic analysis. To this end, we vary the values of cohesion between the well casing and the surrounding cement to representing different quality levels of the cementing operation (low cohesion corresponds to low-quality cement and/or incomplete cementing). The simulation results show that there is very little fracturing when the cement is of high quality.. Conversely, incomplete cementing and/or weak cement can causes significant shear failure and the evolution of long fractures/cracks along the vertical well. Specifically, low cohesion between the well and cemented areas can cause significant shear failure along the well, but the same cohesion as the cemented zone does not cause shear failure. When the hydraulic fracturing pressure is high, low cohesion of the cement can causes fast propagation of shear failure and of the resulting fracture/crack, but a high-quality cement with no weak zones exhibits limited shear failure that is concentrated near the bottom of the vertical part of the well. Thus, high-quality cement and complete cementing along the vertical well appears to be the strongest protection against shear failure of the wellbore cement and, consequently, against contamination hazards to drinking water aquifers during hydraulic fracturing operations.

  15. Determination of thorium in plutonium-thorium oxides and carbides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.

    1979-10-01

    Thorium is determined in (PuTh)C and (PuTh)O/sub 2/ by complexometric titration with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) following separation on anion-exchange resin. Carbides are first oxidized by ignition in air at about 800/sup 0/C. Oxide or oxidized carbide samples are dissolved in acids by the sealed-reflux technique or by heating in beakers. The plutonium is selectively sorbed from the 12M hydrochloric acid solution of the fuel on a Bio-Rad AG1-X2 anion-exchange resin column, and the eluted thorium is titrated with EDTA using xylenol orange as the indicator. The average recovery of thorium in 20 samples is 99.98% with a relative standard deviation of 0.07%.

  16. PREPARATION OF TANTALUM CARBIDE FROM AN ORGANOMETALLIC PRECURSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOUZA C. P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we have synthesized an organometallic oxalic precursor from tantalum oxide. This oxide was solubilized by heating with potassium hydrogen sulfate. In order to precipitate Ta2O5.nH2O, the fused mass obtained was dissolved in a sulfuric acid solution and neutralized with ammonia. The hydrated tantalum oxide precipitated was dissolved in an equimolar solution of oxalic acid/ammonium oxalate. The synthesis and the characterization of the tantalum oxalic precursor are described. Pyrolysis of the complex in a mixture of hydrogen and methane at atmospheric pressure was studied. The gas-solid reaction made it possible to obtain tantalum carbide, TaC, in the powder form at 1000oC. The natural sintering of TaC powder in an inert atmosphere at 1400°C during 10 hours, under inert atmosphere made it possible to densify the carbide to 96% of the theoretical value.

  17. Linear electro-optic effect in cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao; Irvine, Kenneth G.; Zhang, Dongping; Spencer, Michael G.

    1991-01-01

    The first observation is reported of the electrooptic effect of cubic silicon carbide (beta-SiC) grown by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor using the hydrogen, silane, and propane gas system. At a wavelength of 633 nm, the value of the electrooptic coefficient r41 in beta-SiC is determined to be 2.7 +/- 0.5 x 10 (exp-12) m/V, which is 1.7 times larger than that in gallium arsenide measured at 10.6 microns. Also, a half-wave voltage of 6.4 kV for beta-SiC is obtained. Because of this favorable value of electrooptic coefficient, it is believed that silicon carbide may be a promising candidate in electrooptic applications for high optical intensity in the visible region.

  18. Scalable Quantum Photonics with Single Color Centers in Silicon Carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulaski, Marina; Widmann, Matthias; Niethammer, Matthias; Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Lee, Sang-Yun; Rendler, Torsten; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G; Son, Nguyen Tien; Janzén, Erik; Ohshima, Takeshi; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Vučković, Jelena

    2017-03-08

    Silicon carbide is a promising platform for single photon sources, quantum bits (qubits), and nanoscale sensors based on individual color centers. Toward this goal, we develop a scalable array of nanopillars incorporating single silicon vacancy centers in 4H-SiC, readily available for efficient interfacing with free-space objective and lensed-fibers. A commercially obtained substrate is irradiated with 2 MeV electron beams to create vacancies. Subsequent lithographic process forms 800 nm tall nanopillars with 400-1400 nm diameters. We obtain high collection efficiency of up to 22 kcounts/s optical saturation rates from a single silicon vacancy center while preserving the single photon emission and the optically induced electron-spin polarization properties. Our study demonstrates silicon carbide as a readily available platform for scalable quantum photonics architecture relying on single photon sources and qubits.

  19. Functionalization and cellular uptake of boron carbide nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, M. W.; Björkdahl, O.; Sørensen, P. G.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present surface modification strategies of boron carbide nanoparticles, which allow for bioconjugation of the transacting transcriptional activator (TAT) peptide and fluorescent dyes. Coated nanoparticles can be translocated into murine EL4 thymoma cells and B16 F10 malignant...... melanoma cells in amounts as high as 0.3 wt. % and 1 wt. %, respectively. Neutron irradiation of a test system consisting of untreated B16 cells mixed with B16 cells loaded with boron carbide nanoparticles were found to inhibit the proliferative capacity of untreated cells, showing that cells loaded...... with boron-containing nanoparticles can hinder the growth of neighboring cells upon neutron irradiation. This could provide the first step toward a T cell-guided boron neutron capture therapy....

  20. Scalable Quantum Photonics with Single Color Centers in Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulaski, Marina; Widmann, Matthias; Niethammer, Matthias; Zhang, Jingyuan Linda; Lee, Sang-Yun; Rendler, Torsten; Lagoudakis, Konstantinos G.; Son, Nguyen Tien; Janzén, Erik; Ohshima, Takeshi; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Vučković, Jelena

    2017-03-01

    Silicon carbide is a promising platform for single photon sources, quantum bits (qubits) and nanoscale sensors based on individual color centers. Towards this goal, we develop a scalable array of nanopillars incorporating single silicon vacancy centers in 4H-SiC, readily available for efficient interfacing with free-space objective and lensed-fibers. A commercially obtained substrate is irradiated with 2 MeV electron beams to create vacancies. Subsequent lithographic process forms 800 nm tall nanopillars with 400-1,400 nm diameters. We obtain high collection efficiency, up to 22 kcounts/s optical saturation rates from a single silicon vacancy center, while preserving the single photon emission and the optically induced electron-spin polarization properties. Our study demonstrates silicon carbide as a readily available platform for scalable quantum photonics architecture relying on single photon sources and qubits.

  1. Alternative catalytic materials: carbides, nitrides, phosphides and amorphous boron alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Anne-Marie; Hargreaves, Justin S J

    2010-11-01

    Catalysts generated by the addition of carbon, nitrogen or phosphorus to transition metals have interesting properties and potential applications. The addition of carbon, nitrogen or phosphorus can lead to substantial modification of the catalytic efficacy of the parent metal and some carbides and nitrides are claimed to be comparable to noble metals in their behaviour. Amorphous boron transition metal alloys are also a class of interesting catalyst, although their structures and phase composition are more difficult to define. In this critical review, the preparation of these catalysts is described and brief details of their application given. To date, attention has largely centred upon the application of these materials as alternatives for existing catalysts. However, novel approaches towards their utilisation can be envisaged. For example, the extent to which it is possible to utilise the "activated" carbon and nitrogen species within the host lattices of carbides and nitrides, respectively, as a reactant remains largely unexplored (195 references).

  2. Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, although X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopies are discussed briefly...

  3. Biomineralization in metakaolin modified cement mortar to improve its strength with lowered cement content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengmeng; Zhu, Xuejiao; Mukherjee, Abhijit; Huang, Minsheng; Achal, Varenyam

    2017-05-05

    The role of industrial byproduct as supplementary cementitious material to partially replace cement has greatly contributed to sustainable environment. Metakaolin (MK), one of such byproduct, is widely used to partial replacement of cement; however, during cement replacement at high percentage, it may not be a good choice to improve the strength of concrete. Thus, in the present study, biocement, a product of microbially induced carbonate precipitation is utilized in MK-modified cement mortars to improve its compressive strength. Despite of cement replacement with MK as high as 50%, the presented technology improved compressive strength of mortars by 27%, which was still comparable to those mortars with 100% cement. The results proved that biomineralization could be effectively used in reducing cement content without compromising compressive strength of mortars. Biocementation also reduced the porosity of mortars at all ages. The process was characterized by SEM-EDS to observe bacterially-induced carbonate crystals and FTIR spectroscopy to predict responsible bonding in the formation of calcium carbonate. Further, XRD analysis identified bio/minerals formed in the MK-modified mortars. The study also encourages combining biological role in construction engineering to solve hazardous nature of cement and at same time solve the disposal problem of industrial waste for sustainable environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Cement Type and Water-to-Cement Ratio on the Formation of Thaumasite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailian Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement mortar prisms were prepared with three different cement types and different water-to-cement ratios plus 30% mass of limestone filler. After 28 days of curing in water at room temperature, these samples were submerged in 2% magnesium sulfate solution at 5°C and the visual appearance and strength development for every mortar were measured at intervals up to 1 year. Samples selected from the surface of prisms after 1-year immersion were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The results show that mortars with sulfate resisting Portland cement (SRC or sulphoaluminate cement (SAC underwent weaker degradation due to the thaumasite form of sulfate attack than mortars with ordinary Portland cement (OPC. A lower water-to-cement ratio leads to better resistance to the thaumasite form of sulfate attack of the cement mortar. A great deal of thaumasite or thaumasite-containing materials formed in the OPC mortar, and a trace of thaumasite can also be detected in SRC and SAC mortars. Therefore, the thaumasite form of sulfate attack can be alleviated but cannot be avoided by the use of SAC or SRC.

  5. Anodic etching of p-type cubic silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G. L.; Fekade, K.; Wongchotigul, K.

    1992-01-01

    p-Type cubic silicon carbide was anodically etched using an electrolyte of HF:HCl:H2O. The etching depth was determined versus time with a fixed current density of 96.4 mA/sq cm. It was found that the etching was very smooth and very uniform. An etch rate of 22.7 nm/s was obtained in a 1:1:50 HF:HCl:H2O electrolyte.

  6. Silicon Carbide as a Material for Biomedical Microsystems

    OpenAIRE

    Zorman, Ch.,

    2009-01-01

    ISBN: 978-2-35500-009-6; Silicon Carbide (SiC) is emerging as an enabling material for biomedical microsystems due to its uniquecombination of electrical, mechanical and chemical properties combined with its compatibility with Simicromachining techniques. This paper presents an overview of the latest advancements in this areaincluding on-going research to develop SiC for biosensing, bio-microdevice packaging, bio-filtering,biomedical imaging and other related biomedical applications.

  7. Method of making carbide/fluoride/silver composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliney, Harold E. (Inventor); Dellacorte, Christopher (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A composition containing 30 to 70 percent chromium carbide, 5 to 20 percent soft noble metal, 5 to 20 percent metal fluorides, and 20 to 60 percent metal binder is used in a powdered metallurgy process for the production of self-lubricating components, such as bearings. The use of the material allows the self-lubricating bearing to maintain its low friction properties over an extended range of operating temperatures.

  8. Progress in Studies on Carbon and Silicon Carbide Nanocomposite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon carbide nanofiber and carbon nanotubes are introduced. The structure and application of nanotubers (nanofibers in carbon/carbon composites are emphatically presented. Due to the unique structure of nanotubers (nanofibers, they can modify the microstructure of pyrocarbon and induce the deposition of pyrocarbon with high text in carbon/carbon composites. So the carbon/carbon composites modified by CNT/CNF have more excellent properties.

  9. Catalytic Conversion of Syngas into Higher Alcohols over Carbide Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Duchstein, Linus Daniel Leonhard; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    This work investigates the use of the bulk carbides Mo2C, WC, and NbC as catalysts for the conversion of syngas into higher alcohols. K2CO3/WC produces mainly CH3OH and CH4 with a low activity. NbC has a very low activity in CO hydrogenation. K2CO3/Mo2C produces mixed alcohols with a reasonable...

  10. Epitaxial Growth of Silicon Carbide by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Ishwara B.

    The properties of silicon carbide materials are first reviewed, with special emphasis on properties related to power device applications. Epitaxial growth methods for SiC are then discussed with emphasis on recent results for epitaxial growth by the hot-wall chemical vapor deposition method. The growth mechanism for maintaining the polytype, namely step-controlled epitaxy, is discussed. Also described is the selective epitaxial growth carried out on SiC at the author's laboratory, including some unpublished work.

  11. Production of boron carbide powder by carbothermal synthesis of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boron carbide (B4C) powder has been produced by carbothermal reduction of boric acid–citric acid gel. Initially a gel of boric acid–citric acid is prepared in an oven at 100°C. This gel is pyrolyzed in a high temperature furnace over a temperature range of 1000–1800°C. The reaction initiation temperature range for B4C ...

  12. Phonon spectrum, mechanical and thermophysical properties of thorium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez Daroca, D., E-mail: pdaroca@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientı´ficas y Técnicas (Argentina); Jaroszewicz, S. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA (Argentina); Llois, A.M. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientı´ficas y Técnicas (Argentina); Mosca, H.O. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Instituto de Tecnología Jorge A. Sabato, UNSAM-CNEA (Argentina)

    2013-06-15

    In this work, we study, by means of density functional perturbation theory and the pseudopotential method, mechanical and thermophysical properties of thorium carbide. These properties are derived from the lattice dynamics in the quasi-harmonic approximation. The phonon spectrum of ThC presented in this article, to the best authors’ knowledge, have not been studied, neither experimentally, nor theoretically. We compare mechanical properties, volume thermal expansion and molar specific capacities with previous results and find a very good agreement.

  13. Microstructural studies of carbides in MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczotok, A.; Rodak, K.

    2012-05-01

    Carbides play an important role in the strengthening of microstructures of nickel-based superalloys. Grain boundary carbides prevent or retard grain-boundary sliding and make the grain boundary stronger. Carbides can also tie up certain elements that would otherwise promote phase instability during service. Various types of carbides are possible in the microstructure of nickel-based superalloys, depending on the superalloy composition and processing. In this paper, scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopy studies of carbides occurring in the microstructure of polycrystalline MAR-M247 nickel-based superalloy were carried out. In the present work, MC and M23C6 carbides in the MAR-M247 microstructure were examined.

  14. Chromium content in human skin after in vitro application of ordinary cement and ferrous-sulphate-reduced cement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullerton, A; Gammelgaard, Bente; Avnstorp, C

    1993-01-01

    The amount of chromium found in human skin after in vitro application of cement suspensions on full-thickness human skin in diffusion cells was investigated. Cement suspensions made from ordinary Portland cement or Portland cement with the chromate reduced with added ferrous sulphate were used....... The cement suspensions were either applied on the skin surface under occlusion for 48 h or applied repeatedly every 24 h for 96 h. No statistically significant difference in chromium content of skin layers between skin exposed to ordinary Portland cement, skin exposed to cement with added ferrous sulphate...... and unexposed skin was observed, despite a more permeable skin barrier at the alkaline pH of the cement suspensions, i.e., pH 12.5. Increased chromium levels in epidermis and dermis were seen when ordinary Portland cement was applied as a suspension with added sodium sulphate (20%) on the skin surface for 96 h...

  15. Alternative Fuel for Portland Cement Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Anton K; Duke, Steve R; Burch, Thomas E; Davis, Edward W; Zee, Ralph H; Bransby, David I; Hopkins, Carla; Thompson, Rutherford L; Duan, Jingran; ; Venkatasubramanian, Vignesh; Stephen, Giles

    2012-06-30

    The production of cement involves a combination of numerous raw materials, strictly monitored system processes, and temperatures on the order of 1500 °C. Immense quantities of fuel are required for the production of cement. Traditionally, energy from fossil fuels was solely relied upon for the production of cement. The overarching project objective is to evaluate the use of alternative fuels to lessen the dependence on non-renewable resources to produce portland cement. The key objective of using alternative fuels is to continue to produce high-quality cement while decreasing the use of non-renewable fuels and minimizing the impact on the environment. Burn characteristics and thermodynamic parameters were evaluated with a laboratory burn simulator under conditions that mimic those in the preheater where the fuels are brought into a cement plant. A drop-tube furnace and visualization method were developed that show potential for evaluating time- and space-resolved temperature distributions for fuel solid particles and liquid droplets undergoing combustion in various combustion atmospheres. Downdraft gasification has been explored as a means to extract chemical energy from poultry litter while limiting the throughput of potentially deleterious components with regards to use in firing a cement kiln. Results have shown that the clinkering is temperature independent, at least within the controllable temperature range. Limestone also had only a slight effect on the fusion when used to coat the pellets. However, limestone addition did display some promise in regards to chlorine capture, as ash analyses showed chlorine concentrations of more than four times greater in the limestone infused ash as compared to raw poultry litter. A reliable and convenient sampling procedure was developed to estimate the combustion quality of broiler litter that is the best compromise between convenience and reliability by means of statistical analysis. Multi-day trial burns were conducted

  16. Nanoscale fullerene compression of an yttrium carbide cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianyuan; Fuhrer, Tim; Fu, Wujun; Ge, Jiechao; Bearden, Daniel W; Dallas, Jerry; Duchamp, James; Walker, Kenneth; Champion, Hunter; Azurmendi, Hugo; Harich, Kim; Dorn, Harry C

    2012-05-23

    The nanoscale parameters of metal clusters and lattices have a crucial influence on the macroscopic properties of materials. Herein, we provide a detailed study on the size and shape of isolated yttrium carbide clusters in different fullerene cages. A family of diyttrium endohedral metallofullerenes with the general formula of Y(2)C(2n) (n = 40-59) are reported. The high field (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and density functional theory (DFT) methods are employed to examine this yttrium carbide cluster in certain family members, Y(2)C(2)@D(5)(450)-C(100), Y(2)C(2)@D(3)(85)-C(92), Y(2)C(2)@C(84), Y(2)C(2)@C(3v)(8)-C(82), and Y(2)C(2)@C(s)(6)-C(82). The results of this study suggest that decreasing the size of a fullerene cage with the same (Y(2)C(2))(4+) cluster results in nanoscale fullerene compression (NFC) from a nearly linear stretched geometry to a constrained "butterfly" structure. The (13)C NMR chemical shift and scalar (1)J(YC) coupling parameters provide a very sensitive measure of this NFC effect for the (Y(2)C(2))(4+) cluster. The crystal structural parameters of a previously reported metal carbide, Y(2)C(3) are directly compared to the (Y(2)C(2))(4+) cluster in the current metallofullerene study.

  17. Carbide-Derived Carbon Films for Integrated Electrochemical Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heon, Min

    Active RFID tags, which can communicate over tens or even hundreds of meters, MEMS devices of several microns in size, which are designed for the medical and pharmaceutical purposes, and sensors working in wireless monitoring systems, require microscale power sources that are able to provide enough energy and to satisfy the peak power demands in those applications. Supercapacitors have not been an attractive candidate for micro-scale energy storage, since most nanoporous carbon electrode materials are not compatible with micro-fabrication techniques and have failed to meet the requirements of high volumetric energy density and small form factor for power supplies for integrated circuits or microelectronic devices or sensors. However, supercapacitors can provide high power density, because of fast charging/discharging, which can enable self-sustaining micro-modules when combined with energy-harvesting devices, such as solar cell, piezoelectric or thermoelectric micro-generators. In this study, carbide-derived carbon (CDC) films were synthesized via vacuum decomposition of carbide substrates and gas etching of sputtered carbide thin films. This approach allowed manufacturing of porous carbon films on SiC and silicon substrates. CDC films were studied for micro-supercapacitor electrodes, and showed good double layer capacitance. Since the gas etching technique is compatible with conventional micro-device fabrication processes, it can be implemented to manufacture integrated on-chip supercapacitors on silicon wafers.

  18. Palladium-defect complexes in diamond and silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abiona, A. A., E-mail: adurafimihan.abiona@gmail.com; Kemp, W.; Timmers, H. [University of New South Wales, Canberra, School of Physical, Environmental and Mathematical Sciences (Australia); Bharuth-Ram, K. [Durban University of Technology, Physics Department (South Africa)

    2015-04-15

    Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlations (TDPAC) studies, supported by Density Functional Theory (DFT) modelling, have shown that palladium atoms in silicon and germanium pair with vacancies. Building on these results, here we present DFT predictions and some tentative TDPAC results on palladium-defect complexes and site locations of palladium impurities in diamond and silicon carbide. For both diamond and silicon carbide, the DFT calculations predict that a split-vacancy V-PdBI-V complex is favoured, with the palladium atom on a bond-centred interstitial site having a nearest-neighbour semi-vacancy on either side. Consistent with experimental results, this configuration is also assigned to palladium complexes in silicon and germanium. For silicon carbide, the DFT modelling predicts furthermore that a palladium atom in replacing a carbon atom moves to a bond-centred interstitial site and pairs with a silicon vacancy to form a complex that is more stable than that of a palladium atom which replaces a silicon atom and then moves to a bond-centred interstitial site pairings with a carbon vacancy. These two competing alternatives differ by 8.94 eV. The favourable pairing with a silicon vacancy is also supported independently by TRIM Monte Carlo calculations, which predict that more silicon vacancies than carbon vacancies are created during heavy ion. implantation.

  19. Synthesis of a Mo/Nb mixed carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira da Silva, V.L. [NUCAT/PEQ/COPPE/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68502, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-21945-970 (Brazil)]|[Environmental Catalysis and Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Schmal, M. [NUCAT/PEQ/COPPE/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68502, Rio de Janeiro, RJ-21945-970 (Brazil); Schwartz, V.; Oyama, S.T. [Environmental Catalysis and Materials Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Molybdenum and niobium carbides ({beta}{endash}Mo{sub 2}C, NbC), as well as mixed carbides of molybdenum and niobium, were synthesized by the temperature-programmed carburization method (TPC) using a 20 vol.thinsp{percent} CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} gas mixture. The starting materials were MoO{sub 3}, B-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and physical mixtures of B-Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/MoO{sub 3} with Nb/(Nb+Mo) atomic ratios varying from 0.2 to 0.8, respectively. Results from catalytic and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) measurements indicate that during the carburization of the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}/MoO{sub 3} physical mixture with Nb/(Nb+Mo)=0.8 there is, besides {beta}{endash}Mo{sub 2}C and NbC formation, the appearance of a carbidic phase not detectable by x-ray diffraction (XRD). This phase appears to be highly active and selective for the dibenzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction. {copyright} {ital 1998 Materials Research Society.}

  20. Petroleum Sludge as gypsum replacement in cement plants: Its Impact on Cement Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlamoudi, Ali; Kadir, Aeslina Abdul; Khodja, Mohamed

    2017-08-01

    Due to high cost of cement manufacturing and the huge amount of resources exhaustion, companies are trying to incorporate alternative raw materials or by-products into cement production so as to produce alternative sustainable cement. Petroleum sludge is a dangerous waste that poses serious imparts on soil and groundwater. Given that this sludge contains a high percentage of anhydrite (CaSO4), which is the main component of gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O), it may play the same gypsum role in strength development. In this research, a total replacement of gypsum (100%) has been substituted by petroleum sludge in cement production and has led to an increase of 28.8% in UCS values after 28 curing days. Nevertheless, the burning of this waste has emitted a considerable amount of carbon monoxide (CO) gas that needs to be carefully considered prior to use petroleum sludge within cement plants.

  1. Effect of Cement Type on Autogenous Deformation of Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietro, Lura; Ye, Guang; van Breugel, Klaas

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, measurements of non-evaporable water content, chemical shrinkage, autogenous deformation, internal relative humidity (RH), pore solution composition, and early-age elastic modulus are presented and discussed. All experiments were performed on Portland cement and blast-furnace slag ......, taking into account the influence of the dissolved salts in the pore solution, 2) the BFS cement paste studied shows pronounced self-desiccation and self-desiccation shrinkage, mainly caused by its very fine pore structure....... (BFS) cement pastes. Self-desiccation shrinkage of the BFS cement paste was modeled based on the RH measurements, following the capillary-tension approach. The main findings of this study are: 1) self-desiccation shrinkage can be related to self-desiccation both for Portland and for BFS cement pastes...

  2. Quality control of cemented waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slate, L.J.

    1994-12-31

    To insure that cemented radwaste remains immobilized after disposal, certain standards have been set in Europe by the Commission of the European Communities. One such standard is compressive strength. If the compressive strength can be predicted during the early curing stages, time and money can be saved and the quality of the final waste form guaranteed. It was determined that the 7- and 28-day compressive strength from radwaste cementation can be predicted during the mixing and early curing stages by at least three methods. The three that were studied were maturity, rheology, and impedance. Maturity is a temperature-to-time measurement, rheology is a shear stress-to-shear rate measurement, and impedance is the opposition offered to the flow of alternating current. These three methods were employed on five different cemented radwaste concentrations with three different water-to-cement ratios; thus, a total of 15 different mix designs were considered. The results showed that the impedance was the easiest to employ for an on-line process. The results of the impedance method showed a very good relationship between impedance and water-to-cement ratio; therefore, an accurate prediction of compressive strength of cemented radwaste can be drawn from this method. The results of the theology method were very good. The method showed that concrete conforms to the Bingham plastic rheologic model, and the theology method can be used to predict the compressive strength of cemented radwaste, but may be too cumbersome. The results of the maturity method were shown to be limited in accuracy for determining compressive strength.

  3. The differences between soil grouting with cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingting; Sui, Haitong; Yang, Honglu

    2018-01-01

    Cement slurry and cement-water glass slurry are the most widely applied for soil grouting reinforcement project. The viscosity change of cement slurry is negligible during grouting period and presumed to be time-independent while the viscosity of cement-water glass slurry increases with time quickly and is presumed to be time-dependent. Due to the significantly rheology differences between them, the grouting quality and the increasing characteristics of grouting parameters may be different, such as grouting pressure, grouting surrounding rock pressure, i.e., the change of surrounding rock pressure deduced by grouting pressure. Those are main factors for grouting design. In this paper, a large-scale 3D grouting simulation device was developed to simulate the surrounding curtain grouting for a tunnel. Two series of surrounding curtain grouting experiments under different geo-stress of 100 kPa, 150 kPa and 200 kPa were performed. The overload test on tunnel was performed to evaluate grouting effect of all surrounding curtain grouting experiments. In the present results, before 240 seconds, the grouting pressure increases slowly for both slurries; after 240 seconds the increase rate of grouting pressure for cement-water glass slurry increases quickly while that for cement slurry remains roughly constant. The increasing trend of grouting pressure for cement-water glass is similar to its viscosity. The setting time of cement-water glass slurry obtained from laboratory test is less than that in practical grouting where grout slurry solidifies in soil. The grouting effect of cement-water glass slurry is better than that of cement slurry and the grouting quality decreases with initial pressure.

  4. Push-out bond strengths of different dental cements used to cement glass fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Lins do Valle, Accácio; Ghizoni, Janaina Salomon; Lorenzoni, Fábio César; Ramos, Marcelo Barbosa; Barbosa, Marcelo Ramos; Dos Reis Só, Marcus Vinícius

    2013-08-01

    Since the introduction of glass fiber posts, irreversible vertical root fractures have become a rare occurrence; however, adhesive failure has become the primary failure mode. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts cemented with different luting agents on 3 segments of the root. Eighty human maxillary canines with similar root lengths were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10) according to the cement assessed (Rely X luting, Luting and Lining, Ketac Cem, Rely X ARC, Biscem, Duo-link, Rely X U100, and Variolink II). After standardized post space preparation, the root dentin was pretreated for dual-polymerizing resin cements and untreated for the other cements. The mixed luting cement paste was inserted into post spaces with a spiral file and applied to the post surface that was seated into the canal. After 7 days, the teeth were sectioned perpendicular to their long axis into 1-mm-thick sections. The push-out test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until extrusion of the post occurred. The results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and the all pairwise multiple comparison procedures (Tukey test) (α=.05). ANOVA showed that the type of interaction between cement and root location significantly influenced the push-out strength (Pglass ionomer cements showed significantly higher values compared to dual-polymerizing resin cements. In all root segments, dual-polymerizing resin cements provided significantly lower bond strength. Significant differences among root segments were found only for Duo-link cement. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of Natural Radioactivity Levels of Cements and Cement Composites in the Slovak Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Eštoková

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The radionuclide activities of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K and radiological parameters (radium equivalent activity, gamma and alpha indices, the absorbed gamma dose rate and external and internal hazard indices of cements and cement composites commonly used in the Slovak Republic have been studied in this paper. The cement samples of 8 types of cements from Slovak cement plants and five types of composites made from cement type CEM I were analyzed in the experiment. The radionuclide activities in the cements ranged from 8.58–19.1 Bq·kg−1, 9.78–26.3 Bq·kg−1 and 156.5–489.4 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K, respectively. The radiological parameters in cement samples were calculated as follows: mean radium equivalent activity Raeq = 67.87 Bq·kg−1, gamma index Iγ = 0.256, alpha index Iα = 0.067, the absorbed gamma dose rate D = 60.76 nGy·h−1, external hazard index Hex = 0.182 and internal hazard index Hin was 0.218. The radionuclide activity in composites ranged from 6.84–10.8 Bq·kg−1 for 226Ra, 13.1–20.5 Bq·kg−1 for 232Th and 250.4–494.4 Bq·kg−1 for 40K. The calculated radiological parameters of cements were lower than calculated radiological parameters of cement composites.

  6. Influence of temporary cement contamination on the surface free energy and dentine bond strength of self-adhesive cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Masayuki; Ishii, Ryo; Iino, Masayoshi; Shimizu, Yusuke; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Ando, Susumu; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2012-02-01

    The surface free energy and dentine bond strength of self-adhesive cements were examined after the removal of temporary cements. The labial dentine surfaces of bovine mandibular incisors were wet ground with #600-grit SiC paper. Acrylic resin blocks were luted to the prepared dentine surfaces using HY Bond Temporary Cement Hard (HY), IP Temp Cement (IP), Fuji TEMP (FT) or Freegenol Temporary Cement (TC), and stored for 1 week. After removal of the temporary cements with an ultrasonic tip, the contact angle values of five specimens per test group were determined for the three test liquids, and the surface-energy parameters of the dentine surfaces were calculated. The dentine bond strengths of the self-adhesive cements were measured after removal of the temporary cements in a shear mode at a crosshead speed of 1.0mm/min. The data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's HSD test. For all surfaces, the value of the estimated surface tension component γ(S)(d) (dispersion) was relatively constant at 41.7-43.3 mJm(-2). After removal of the temporary cements, the value of the γ(S)(h) (hydrogen-bonding) component decreased, particularly with FT and TC. The dentine bond strength of the self-adhesive cements was significantly higher for those without temporary cement contamination (8.2-10.6 MPa) than for those with temporary cement contamination (4.3-7.1 MPa). The γ(S) values decreased due to the decrease of γ(S)(h) values for the temporary cement-contaminated dentine. Contamination with temporary cements led to lower dentine bond strength. The presence of temporary cement interferes with the bonding performance of self-adhesive cements to dentine. Care should be taken in the methods of removal of temporary cement when using self-adhesive cements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of binders on infrared laser ablation of powdered tungsten carbide pressed pellets in comparison with sintered tungsten carbide hardmetals studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Otruba, Vitezslav [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: viktork@chemi.muni.cz

    2006-05-15

    Laser ablation (LA) was studied as a sample introduction technique for the analysis of powdered and sintered tungsten carbides (WC/Co) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The possibility to work with powdered and compact materials with close chemical composition provided the opportunity to compare LA sampling of similar substances in different forms that require different preparation procedures. Powdered WC/Co precursors of sintered hardmetals were prepared for the ablation as pressed pellets with and without powdered silver as a binder, while sintered hardmetal blocks were embedded into a resin to obtain discs, which were then smoothed and polished. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz and maximum pulse energy of 220 mJ was used. A single lens was used for the laser beam focusing. An ablation cell (14 cm{sup 3}) mounted on a PC-controlled XY-translator was connected to an ICP spectrometer Jobin Yvon 170 Ultrace (laterally viewed ICP, mono- and polychromator) using a 1.5-m tubing (4 mm i.d.). Ablation was performed in a circular motion (2 mm diameter). Close attention was paid to the study of the crater parametres depending on hardness, cohesion and Ag binder presence in WC/Co samples. The influence of the Co content on the depth and structure of the ablation craters of the binderless pellets was also studied. Linear calibration plots of Nb, Ta and Ti were obtained for cemented WC/Co samples, binderless and binder-containing pellets. Relative widths of uncertainty intervals about the centroids vary between {+-} 3% and {+-} 7%, and exceptionally reach a value above 10%. The lowest determinable quantities (LDQ) of Nb, Ta and Ti calculated from the calibration lines were less than 0.5% (m/m). To evaluate the possibility of quantitative elemental analysis by LA-ICP-OES, two real sintered WC/Co samples and two real samples of powdered WC/Co materials were analysed

  8. Chitosan: a green carbon source for the synthesis of graphitic nanocarbon, tungsten carbide and graphitic nanocarbon/tungsten carbide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Baoli; Tian Chuigui; Wang Lei; Wang Ruihong; Fu Honggang, E-mail: fuhg@vip.sina.com [Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080 (China)

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, a simple approach was proposed to fabricate graphitic carbon nanocapsules, tungsten carbide and tungsten carbides/graphitic carbon composites by using chitosan, a green and renewable biopolymer, as a carbon source. The route includes, first, fabrication of the precursors that consist of chitosan coordinated with a certain metal ion (or metal complex anion) followed by carbonizing the precursors under N{sub 2} atmosphere. The composition of the final products could be regulated by changing the type and ratio of the metal source (cations or complex anions) combined with the chitosan in the precursors. The experimental results showed that uniform carbon nanocapsules could be obtained when Ni{sup 2+} was introducing in the precursors, while incorporating [PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}]{sup 3-} (PW{sub 12}) with chitosan led to the formation of WC nanoparticles. As the Ni{sup 2+} and PW{sub 12} are simultaneously coordinated with chitosan, the composites of tungsten carbide/graphitic carbon were successfully produced. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the graphitic carbon nanocapsules are about 45 nm in diameter; uniform WC nanoparticles with a average size of 40 nm are observed. Moreover, the particle size of WC in the tungsten carbide/graphitic carbon composite is about 10 nm, which is smaller than that of the pure WC particles. Furthermore, the performance of the sample-loaded Pt nanoparticles for methanol electro-oxidation was studied in detail. The results indicated that the samples could act as good carriers for Pt in the methanol electro-oxidation reaction with high effectivity and improved stability.

  9. Active carbon supported molybdenum carbides for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiongxiao; Chiarello, Gian Luca; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt

    This work provides an investigation of the high pressure CO hydrogenation to higher alcohols on K2CO3 promoted active carbon supported molybdenum carbide. Both activity and selectivity to alcohols over supported molybdenum carbides increased significantly compared to bulk carbides in literatures....... The optimal loadings of both molybdenum carbide and the K2CO3 promoter on active carbon have been investigated. The catalysts were characterized using BET surface area measurements, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Additionally, in-situ X-ray diffraction and in-situ X-ray absorption...

  10. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy characterization of boron- and nitrogen-doped 6H silicon carbide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ou, Yiyu; Jokubavicius, Valdas; Liu, Chuan

    2011-01-01

    Boron - and nitrogen-doped 6H silicon carbide epilayers grown on low off-axis 6H silicon carbide substrates have been characterized by photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Combined with secondary ion mass spectrometry results, preferable doping type and optimized concentration could be propo......Boron - and nitrogen-doped 6H silicon carbide epilayers grown on low off-axis 6H silicon carbide substrates have been characterized by photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy. Combined with secondary ion mass spectrometry results, preferable doping type and optimized concentration could...

  11. Use of cement as lost-circulation material : best practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidan, E. [Halliburton, Calgary, AB (Canada); Babadagli, T.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    One of the challenges facing oil well drilling operations is lost circulation, which refers to the partial or complete loss of drilling fluid or cement during drilling, circulation, running casing, or cementing operations. This problem can result in increased cost, loss of time, plugging of productive zones, blowouts, excessive water influx, and excessive formation caving. Lost circulation occurs in high-permeability zones such as highly fractured, vuggy or cavernous reservoirs when the hydrostatic pressure of drilling fluids is greater than the breaking strength of the formation. Cement is one of the common lost-circulation materials (LCMs). The use of proper cement composition and cementing techniques is important for successful cementing jobs. This paper presents solutions for 3 field cases from the Canada Western Sedimentary Basin where cement or drilling fluid loss has been a problem. Cement loss was minimized in two cases by using proper cement type and using optimum design during casing cementing. In another case, cement was used to cure drilling fluid loss. The various LCM applications described in this paper were: thixotropic and ultrathixotropic cement slurries; slurries containing cello flakes, mica and calcium carbonate for mechanical bridging; unique spacers and surfactant packages; and, foamed cement for controlling loss. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. Thermal Analysis of Tantalum Carbide-Hafnium Carbide Solid Solutions from Room Temperature to 1400 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The thermogravimetric analysis on TaC, HfC, and their solid solutions has been carried out in air up to 1400 °C. Three solid solution compositions have been chosen: 80TaC-20 vol % HfC (T80H20, 50TaC-50 vol % HfC (T50H50, and 20TaC-80 vol % HfC (T20H80, in addition to pure TaC and HfC. Solid solutions exhibit better oxidation resistance than the pure carbides. The onset of oxidation is delayed in solid solutions from 750 °C for pure TaC, to 940 °C for the T50H50 sample. Moreover, T50H50 samples display the highest resistance to oxidation with the retention of the initial carbides. The oxide scale formed on the T50H50 sample displays mechanical integrity to prevent the oxidation of the underlying carbide solid solution. The improved oxidation resistance of the solid solution is attributed to the reaction between Ta2O5 and HfC, which stabilizes the volume changes induced by the formation of Ta2O5 and diminishes the generation of gaseous products. Also, the formation of solid solutions disturbs the atomic arrangement inside the lattice, which delays the reaction between Ta and O. Both of these mechanisms lead to the improved oxidation resistances of TaC-HfC solid solutions.

  13. The influence of temporary cements on dental adhesive systems for luting cementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José C V; Coelho, Paulo G; Janal, Malvin N; Silva, Nelson R F A; Monteiro, André J; Fernandes, Carlos A O

    2011-03-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that bond strength of total- and self-etching adhesive systems to dentine is not affected by the presence of remnants from either eugenol-containing (EC) or eugenol-free (EF) temporary cements after standardized cleaning procedures. Thirty non-carious human third molars were polished flat to expose dentine surfaces. Provisional acrylic plates were fabricated and cemented either with EC, EF or no temporary cements. All specimens were incubated for 7 days in water at 37°C. The restorations were then taken out and the remnants of temporary cements were mechanically removed with a dental instrument. The dentine surfaces were cleaned with pumice and treated with either total-etching (TE) or self-etching (SE) dental adhesive systems. Atomic force microscopy was used to examine the presence of remnants of temporary cements before and after dentine cleaning procedures. Composite resin build-ups were fabricated and cemented to the bonded dentine surfaces with a resin luting cement. The specimens were then sectioned to obtain 0.9mm(2) beams for microtensile bond strength testing. Fractographic analysis was performed by optical and scanning electron microscopy. ANOVA showed lower mean microtensile bond strength in groups of specimens treated with EC temporary cement than in groups treated with either no cement or an EF cement (p<0.05). Mean microtensile bond strength was lower in groups employing the SE rather than the TE adhesive system (p<0.001). SE samples were also more likely to fail during initial processing of the samples. There was no evidence of interaction between cement and adhesive system effects on tensile strength. Fractographic analysis indicated different primary failure modes for SE and TE bonding systems, at the dentine-adhesive interface and at the resin cement-resin composite interface, respectively. The use of eugenol-containing temporary cements prior to indirect bonding restorations reduce, to a statistically similar

  14. EFFECT OF NANOMATERIALS IN CEMENT MORTAR CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAIL N. AL-RIFAIE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is considered as brittle materials and widely used due to high compressive strength but unfortunately having and has low tensile strength that has a numerous negative impacts on the lifespan of concrete made structures. Therefore, mechanical properties of cement mortar have been investigated experimentally using different types and ratios of nano material to improve the properties. Since the strength of the concrete is of high importance, different materials have been used to enhance the compressive and the tensile characteristics of the cement mortar compressive and tensile strength. Mainly, this objective has been implemented through using micro cement, micro sand, nano silica, and nano clay in developing a nano-cement mortar which can to improve the concrete for the constructional applications. The samples were prepared and tested under tensile and compressive mode according to ASTM-2011 regulations for concrete. The parameters that are taken consideration during the investigation were micro sand, micro cement, nano silica, developed nano clay, and naphthalene sulphonate as super- plasticizers. In general, it has been observed that the results showed a significant increase in both compressive and tensile strength of the mortar at early stages of hardening, where a maximum increase of 22% in the compressive strength was achieved , whereas 3.7 time increase in the compressive strength was recorded over the tradition levels of the concrete strength.

  15. Antibacterial effects of conventional glass ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkov, A; Gjorgievska, E; Nicholson, J W; Kaftandzieva, A

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of conventional glass ionomer cement against three different microorganism strains alone and following incorporation of 1, 2 and 3% Benzalkonium Chloride and Cetylpyridinium Chloride was evaluated. Agar diffusion method was used to determine the inhibitory effect of the conventional glass ionomer cement ChemFlex on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei and Actinomyces viscosus. Bacterial strains were inoculated into BHIB, and incubated in an anaerobic atmosphere (37 °C). From the bacteria grown in the liquid medium, the density of the inoculum was set to be equivalent to McFarland 2 standard. In Shaedler agar, 350 μL of the bacterial suspension were equally spread. Specimens (4 mm × 6 mm) were prepared from the cement without and with addition of 1, 2 and 3% Benzalkonium Chloride and Cetylpyridinium Chloride. The inhibition zones were determined after 48 hours, after 2, 7 and 21 days of incubation. The combination ChemFlex + Benzalkonium Chloride has the best effect on the three analysed bacteria. The Benzalkonium Chloride antibacterial compound has a stronger antibacterial effect than Cetylpyridinium Chloride. Glass ionomer cements can potentially be used as a medium for slow release of active antimicrobial components, and they have the potential to improve clinical outcomes of the cements (Tab. 3, Fig. 3, Ref. 31).

  16. Stimuli-responsive cement-reinforced rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, Simone; Robisson, Agathe; Maheshwar, Sudeep; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2014-05-14

    In this work, we report the successful development of a cement-rubber reactive composite with reversible mechanical properties. Initially, the composite behaves like rubber containing inert filler, but when exposed to water, it increases in volume and reaches a stiffness that is intermediate between that of hydrogenated nitrile butadiene rubber (HNBR) and hydrated cement, while maintaining a relatively large ductility characteristic of rubber. After drying, the modulus increases even further up to 400 MPa. Wet/drying cycles prove that the elastic modulus can reversibly change between 150 and 400 MPa. Utilizing attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy), we demonstrate that the high pH produced by the hydration of cement triggers the hydrolysis of the rubber nitrile groups into carboxylate anions. Thus, the salt bridges, generated between the carboxylate anions of the elastomer and the cations of the filler, are responsible for the reversible variations in volume and elastic modulus of the composite as a consequence of environmental moisture exposure. These results reveal that cement nanoparticles can successfully be used to accomplish a twofold task: (a) achieve an original postpolymerization modification that allows one to work with carboxylate HNBR (HXNBR) not obtained by direct copolymerization of carboxylate monomers with butadiene, and (b) synthesize a stimuli-responsive polymeric composite. This new type of material, having an ideal behavior for sealing application, could be used as an alternative to cement for oil field zonal isolation applications.

  17. Pulmonary Artery Cement Embolism after a Vertebroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anas Nooh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Context. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure most commonly used for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures. Although it is relatively safe, complications have been reported over time. Among those complications, massive cement pulmonary embolism is considered a rare complication. Here we report a case of massive diffuse cement pulmonary embolism following percutaneous vertebroplasty for a vertebral compression fracture. Study Design. Case report. Methods. This is a 70-year-old female who underwent vertebroplasty for T11 and T12 vertebral compression fracture. Results. CT-scan revealed an incidental finding of cement embolism in the pulmonary trunk and both pulmonary arteries. Since the patient was asymptomatic, she was monitored closely and she did not need any intervention. Conclusion. Vertebroplasty is a minimally invasive procedure used for treatment of vertebral compression fracture. Despite the low rate of complications, a pulmonary cement embolism can occur. The consequences of cement embolism range widely from being asymptomatic to embolism that can cause paralysis, radiculopathy, or a fatal pulmonary embolism.

  18. Release of antibiotics from polymethylmethacrylate cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertazzoni Minelli, E; Caveiari, C; Benini, A

    2002-10-01

    The increase in resistance rates to antibiotics of bacteria isolated from infected hip joints, particularly staphylococci, prompted us to investigate the usefulness of antibiotic combinations such as gentamicin plus vancomycin. Cylinder test specimens of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement (Cemex, Tecres) containing gentamicin alone, vancomycin alone and both drugs in combination, were studied. The antibiotic concentrations were determined using a microbiological method and fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The release of gentamicin alone, vancomycin alone and in combination from PMMA cement was prompt. The combination revealed synergistic antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. FPIA showed that gentamicin and vancomycin delivery rates from PMMA cement were different. Gentamicin alone and in combination with vancomycin presented similar release rates from PMMA cement (1.50%). Vancomycin release from PMMA cylinders impregnated with the combination was lower (0.51%) than that from cylinders with vancomycin alone (1.16%). Vancomycin showed a 34.1% loss of microbiological activity at 37 degrees C after 10 days of incubation; the reduction corresponded to 15.0% when measured by FPIA. Results obtained with test specimens are indicative for the preparation of antibiotic-impregnated cements for different human prostheses.

  19. Study on fragmentation and dissolution behavior of carbide in a hot-rolled hypereutectic high chromium cast iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fei; Jiang, Yehua, E-mail: jiangyehua@kmust.edu.cn; Xiao, Han; Tan, Jun

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • The method to prepare Carbon steel/High chromium iron is totally new. • High chromium iron can achieve small plastic deformation during hot rolling process. • Carbides in high chromium irons are crushed, refined obviously and becoming isolated, which is benefit to improve the impact toughness. • The carbide fragmentation and dissolution behavior of the hot-rolled HCCI were analyzed. - Abstract: A sandwich-structured composite containing a hypereutectic high chromium cast iron (HCCI) and low carbon steel (LCS) claddings was newly fabricated by centrifugal casting, then the blank was hot-rolled into composite plate. The carbide fragmentation and dissolution behavior of the hot-rolled HCCI were analyzed. During hot rolling, significant refinement of carbides was discovered in hot-rolled HCCI specimens. The carbides were broken and partly dissolved into the austenite matrix. The results show that carbides are firstly dissolved under the action of stress. There are grooves appeared at the boundaries of the carbides. The grooves reduce the cross section of the carbide. When the cross section of the carbide reaches to the required minimum critical cross section, the carbide breaks through the tensile force. After break, carbides continue to dissolve since more interfaces between the matrix and carbides are generated. The secondary carbides precipitated due to the dissolution are index as fcc and stacking faults parallel to the {1 1 1} are observed.

  20. Effect of temporary cements on the microtensile bond strength of self-etching and self-adhesive resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Edilausson Moreno; Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Lima, Darlon Martins; Bauer, José

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of self-etching and self-adhesive resin cement systems to dentin affected by the presence of remnants of either eugenol-containing or eugenol-free temporary cements. Thirty extracted teeth were obtained and a flat dentin surface was exposed on each tooth. Acrylic blocks were fabricated and cemented either with one of two temporary cements, one zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) and one eugenol free (ZOE-free), or without cement (control). After cementation, specimens were stored in water at 37°C for 1 week. The restorations and remnants of temporary cements were removed and dentin surfaces were cleaned with pumice. Resin composite blocks were cemented to the bonded dentin surfaces with one of two resin cements, either self-etching (Panavia F 2.0) or self-adhesive (RelyX U-100). After 24 h, the specimens were sectioned to obtain beams for submission to µTBS. The fracture mode was evaluated under a stereoscopic loupe and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data from µTBS were submitted to two-way repeated-measure ANOVA and the Tukey test (alpha = 0.05). The cross-product interaction was statistically significant (p cements reduced the bond strength to Panavia self-etching resin cements only (p cements did not interfere in the bond strength to dentin of self-adhesive resin cements.

  1. geometric models for lateritic soil stabilized with cement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    stabilized soil. Constant cement contents ... Keywords: Bagasse-Ash, Cement, Lateritic Soil, Compaction and Strength Characteristics, Geometric Models. 1. INTRODUCTION ..... [1] Arora, K. R. “Soil Mechanics and Foundation. Engineering” Seventh ...

  2. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effect of admixing of aluminium phosphate on oxychloride cement in the matrix has been investigated. It is shown that aluminium phosphate retards the setting process of the cement and improves water-tightness.

  3. Reducing cement content in concrete mixtures : [research brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Concrete mixtures contain crushed rock or gravel, and sand, bound together by Portland cement in combination with supplemental cementitious materials (SCMs), which harden through a chemical reaction with water. Portland cement is the most costly comp...

  4. Strength and sorption properties of cement-bonded composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strength and sorption properties of cement-bonded composites produced from eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus tereticornis SM.) veneer waste. ... applications where sound absorption is important. Keywords: Eucalyptus, Veneer waste, Cement composite, Strength, dimensional stability. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and ...

  5. Thermal manifestations and nanoindentation of bone cements for orthopaedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hloch Sergej

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving of bone cements properties is possible by research of variables influencing exothermal behaviour and mechanical properties. Paper deals with exothermal behaviour experimental evaluation of bone cements used for medical purposes. Specimens were prepared by a conventional manual mixing technique. The work addresses primary risk factor associated with application of bone cement to femoral canal. Different size samples of bone cement has been created with diameter d = 2; 5;12,5 mm fixed in dentacryl. As an experimental material, Palacos R+G high viscosity, radiopaque bone cement containing Gentamicin and Radiopaque bone cement Antibiotic Simplex with Tobramycin, was used. Thermal effect during exothermic polymerisation was measured with period 1 minute. Evaluated factors were mass and thickness of bone cement. Significant influence of bone cement mass on temperature has been found.

  6. NATURAL DURABILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF HORNBEAM CEMENT BONDED PARTICLEBOARD

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papadopoulos, Antonios N

    2008-01-01

    Cement bonded particleboards were manufactured from hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) wood particles. Hydration tests were carried out to determine the inhibitory index in order to characterise wood-cement compatibility...

  7. Mechanical Properties and Decay Resistance of Hornbeam Cement Bonded Particleboards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonios N. Papadopoulos

    2008-01-01

    Cement bonded particleboards were manufactured from hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L.) wood particles. Hydration tests were carried out to determine the inhibitory index in order to characterise wood-cement compatibility...

  8. Assessment of limestone blended cements for transportation applications : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    This research assessed the applicability of Type IL cements satisfying AASHTO M 240 specifications for use in transportation applications in place of Type I/II cements which satisfy AASHTO M 85 specifications for construction of transportation struct...

  9. Exposure to fibres, crystalline silica, silicon carbide and sulphur dioxide in the norwegian silicon carbide industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Føreland, S; Bye, E; Bakke, B; Eduard, W

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess personal exposure to fibres, crystalline silica, silicon carbide (SiC) and sulphur dioxide in the Norwegian SiC industry. Approximately 720 fibre samples, 720 respirable dust samples and 1400 total dust samples were collected from randomly chosen workers from the furnace, processing and maintenance departments in all three Norwegian SiC plants. The respirable dust samples were analysed for quartz, cristobalite and non-fibrous SiC content. Approximately 240 sulphur dioxide samples were collected from workers in the furnace department. The sorting operators from all plants, control room and cleaning operators in Plant A and charger, charger/mix and payloader operators in Plant C had a geometric mean (GM) of fibre exposure above the Norwegian occupational exposure limit (OEL) (0.1 fibre cm(-3)). The cleaner operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to respirable quartz (20 mug m(-3)). The charger/mix operators in Plant C had the highest GM exposure to respirable cristobalite (38 mug m(-3)) and the refinery crusher operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to non-fibrous SiC (0.65 mg m(-3)). Exposure to the crystalline silica and non-fibrous SiC was generally low and between 0.4 and 2.1% of the measurements exceeded the OELs. The cleaner operators in Plant A had the highest GM exposure to respirable dust (1.3 mg m(-3)) and total dust (21 mg m(-3)). GM exposures for respirable dust above the Norwegian SiC industry-specific OEL of 0.5 mg m(-3) were also found for refinery crusher operators in all plants and mix, charger, charger/mix and sorting operators in Plant C. Only 4% of the total dust measurements exceeded the OEL for nuisance dust of (10 mg m(-3)). Exposure to sulphur dioxide was generally low. However, peaks in the range of 10-100 p.p.m. were observed for control room and crane operators in Plants A and B and for charger and charger/mix operators in Plant C. Workers in the SiC industry are exposed to a mixture of

  10. Characteristics of Portland blast-furnace slag cement containing cement kiln dust and active silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Abdel Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This investigation dealt with the effect of active silica, silica fume (SF or rice husk ash (RHA, on the mechanical and physico-chemical characteristics of the hardened blended cement pastes made of Portland blast-furnace slag cement (PSC containing cement kiln dust (CKD cured under normal conditions. Two blends made of PSC and CKD, improved by SF and two blends made of PSC and CKD improved by RHA were investigated. Hardened blended cement pastes were prepared from each cement blend by using water/cement ratio (W/C of 0.30 by weight and hydrated for various curing ages of 1, 3, 7, 28 and 90 days at the normal curing conditions under tap water at room temperature. Each cement paste was tested for its physico-chemical and mechanical characteristics; these characteristics include: compressive strength and kinetics of hydration. The phase composition of the formed hydration products was identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential thermal analysis (DTA. It was found that the partial substitution of PSC by 10% and 15% of CKD is associated with an increase in the rate of hydration and a subsequent improvement of compressive strength of hardened PSC–CKD pastes. In addition, the replacement of PSC, in PSC–CKD blends, by 5% active silica was accompanied by further improvement of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the hardened PSC–CKD pastes.

  11. Alkaline activation of different aluminosilicates as an alternative to Portland cement: alkali activated cements or geopolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Torres-Carrasco

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Portland cement is considered an excellence building material. This is due mainly to its high performance, its good quality/price ratio and the raw materials from which it is made can be found almost everywhere in the world. However, the development of alternative Portland cements obtained through processes involves lower emission of CO2 into the atmosphere is a priority research and great interest worldwide. Alkaline activation constitutes an alternative to Portland cement, preferably amorphous or vitreous aluminosilicates and alkaline activator (such as NaOH, Na2CO3 or sodium silicates hydrates. The aluminosilicates may be natural products such as metakaolin or industrial by-products such as blast furnace slag or aluminosiliceous fly ash. These cements and concretes obtained by alkali activating aluminosilicates are characterised by high mechanical strength, low heat of hydration and high impermeability, as well as resistance to high and low temperatures and sulphate, seawater and acid attacks. Moreover, the preparation of these alkaline cements requires lower energy than in the manufacturing process of Portland cement. However, we still cannot say or establish that alkaline cements (alkali activated materials or geopolymers are based on a clean chemical to the environment, due to production processes of alkaline solutions such as sodium silicates emit large amounts of CO2 into the atmosphere. This article aims to make a trip back in time to the origins of the alkali activation to explain the most characteristic and important chemical concepts.

  12. CO2 Capture for Cement Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar

    Production of cement is an energy intensive process and is the source of considerable CO2emissions. Itis estimated that the cement industry contributes around 8% of total global CO2emissions. CO2is oneof the major greenhouse gases. In the atmosphere, the CO2concentration has increased from 310...... ppmvin 1960 to 390 ppmv in 2012, probably due to human activity. A lot of research is being carried out forreducing CO2emissions from large stationary sources. Ofwhich, the carbonate looping process is anew process and has the potential to reduce CO2emissions with lower energy penalties. Most of thework...... performed recently has focused on CO2capture from fossil fuel-based power plants. Inherently,this process is especially suitablefor cement plants, as CaO used for CO2capture is also a majoringredient for clinker production. Thus, a detailed investigation was carried outto study the applicationof...

  13. Pore structure in blended cement pastes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canut, Mariana Moreira Cavalcanti

    Supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), such as slag and fly ash, are increasingly used as a substitute for Portland cement in the interests of improvement of engineering properties and sustainability of concrete. According to studies improvement of engineering properties can be explained...... supplement each other. Cement pastes (w/b=0.4) with and without slag and fly ash cured at two moisture (sealed and saturated) and temperature (20 and 55ºC) conditions were used to investigate the combined impact of SCMs addition and curing on the pore structure of pastes cured up to two years. Also...... volume and threshold pore size were found when comparing with plain cement paste at the same curing conditions. The porosity methods MIP, LTC and SEM have been shown to be suitable to characterise pore parameters of the pastes. MIP is a simple and fast method which covers a large range of pore sizes...

  14. Experimental techniques for cement hydration studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Luttge

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Cement hydration kinetics is a complex problem of dissolution, nucleation and growth that is still not well understood, particularly in a quantitative way. While cement systems are unique in certain aspects they are also comparable to natural mineral systems. Therefore, geochemistry and particularly the study of mineral dissolution and growth may be able to provide insight and methods that can be utilized in cement hydration research. Here, we review mainly what is not known or what is currently used and applied in a problematic way. Examples are the typical Avrami approach, the application of Transition State Theory (TST to overall reaction kinetics and the problem of reactive surface area. Finally, we suggest an integrated approach that combines vertical scanning interferometry (VSI with other sophisticated analytical techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM and theoretical model calculations based on a stochastic treatment.

  15. Effect of Cement on Emulsified Asphalt Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oruc, Seref; Celik, Fazil; Akpinar, M. Vefa

    2007-10-01

    Emulsified asphalt mixtures have environmental, economical, and logistical advantages over hot mixtures. However, they have attracted little attention as structural layers due to their inadequate performance and susceptibility to early life damage by rainfall. The objective of this article is to provide an improved insight into how the mechanical properties of emulsion mixtures may be improved and to determine the influence of cement on emulsified asphalt mixtures. Laboratory tests on strength, temperature susceptibility, water damage, creep and permanent deformation were implemented to evaluate the mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures. The test results showed that mechanical properties of emulsified asphalt mixtures have significantly improved with Portland cement addition. This experimental study suggested that cement modified asphalt emulsion mixtures might be an alternate way of a structural layer material in pavement.

  16. Mechanical characterization of sisal reinforced cement mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fujiyama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at evaluating the mechanical behavior of sisal fiber reinforced cement mortar. The composite material was produced from a mixture of sand, cement, and water. Sisal fibers were added to the mixture in different lengths. Mechanical characterization of both the composite and the plain mortar was carried out using three point bend, compression, and impact tests. Specimens containing notches of different root radii were loaded in three point bending in an effort to determine the effect of the fibers on the fracture toughness of the material. The results obtained indicate that, while fiber reinforcement leads to a decrease in compressive strength, J-integral calculations at maximum load for the different notch root radii have indicated, particularly for the case of long fibers, a significant superiority of the reinforced material in comparison with the plain cement mortar, in consistence with the impact test data.

  17. An improved cement slurry formulation for oil and geothermal wells

    OpenAIRE

    Fridriksson, Fridrik Hilmar Zimsen

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Petroleum engineering Properly designed cement slurry and good cement job are crucial factors for integrity during a well‘s life cycle. For this, cement must be able to prevent migration of formation fluids, support the well construction and withstand high pressure and temperature. A survey on the Norwegian continental shelf showed that 11% of well integrity issues were due to cement related problems [1]. Another integrity survey in Pennsylvania showed that 2.41% of over...

  18. Comparison of creep of the cement pastes included fly ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padevět Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to comparison of creep of cement pastes containing fly ash admixture. The size of creep in time depends on the amount of components of the cement paste. Attention is paid to the content of classical fly ash in cement paste and its impact on the size of creep. The moisture of cement pastes is distinguished because it significantly affects the rheological properties of the material.

  19. Laboratory Electrical Resistivity Studies on Cement Stabilized Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Nimi Ann Vincent; Shivashankar, R.; K N Lokesh; Jinu Mary Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Electrical resistivity measurement of freshly prepared uncured and cured soil-cement materials is done and the correlations between the factors controlling the performance of soil-cement and electrical resistivity are discussed in this paper. Conventional quality control of soil-cement quite often involves wastage of a lot of material, if it does not meet the strength criteria. In this study, it is observed that, in soil-cement, resistivity follows a similar trend as unconfined compressive st...

  20. Effects of Nanosilica on Early Age Stages of Cement Hydration

    OpenAIRE

    Forood Torabian Isfahani; Elena Redaelli; Weiwen Li; Yaru Sun

    2017-01-01

    Effects of nanosilica on cement hydration have been broadly investigated in the literature and early age cement hydration, as a whole, has been mainly considered, disregarding the substages of the hydration. The hydration of cement is characterized by different substages and nanosilica effect on the hydration could be a result of diverse, even contradictory, behavior of nanosilica in individual stages of the hydration. In this study, effects of nanosilica on different substages of cement hydr...

  1. Porosity and liquid absorption of cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krus, M.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Kunzel, H. M.

    1997-01-01

    be a slowing-down effect which is related to water because the absorption of organic liquids, such as hexane, is quite normal. Measurements of the porosity of hardened cement paste determined by helium pycnometry and water saturation show that water molecules can enter spaces in the microstructure which...... are not accessible to the smaller helium atoms. Considering the results of dilatation tests both before and after water and hexane saturation, it seems possible that a contraction of capillary pores due to moisture-related swelling of the cement gel leads to the non-linear water absorption over the square root...

  2. Bamboo Fibre Reinforced Cement Used as a Roofing Sheet | Alade ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the use of bamboo fibre as reinforcement in cement mortar roofing sheets. The bamboo was beaten into meshes of needle like shape and used in varying proportions in the production of cement roofing sheets. A constant cement, sand ratio of 1:3 was used. Batching, Moulding, demoulding and curing of ...

  3. Effect of aluminium phosphate as admixture on oxychloride cement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxychloride cement (magnesia cement) has many superior properties to that of portland cement (Sorel 1867; Beau- din and Ramachandra 1975; Beaudin et al 1977). The chemical composition of the additive or admixture availa- ble in commercial grade is AlPO4. Little scientific data are available about its effect on ...

  4. 21 CFR 888.4210 - Cement mixer for clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement mixer for clinical use. 888.4210 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4210 Cement mixer for clinical use. (a) Identification. A cement mixer for clinical use is a device consisting of a container intended for use in mixing...

  5. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or remove...

  6. 21 CFR 888.4230 - Cement ventilation tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement ventilation tube. 888.4230 Section 888.4230...) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4230 Cement ventilation tube. (a) Identification. A cement ventilation tube is a tube-like device usually made of plastic intended to be inserted into...

  7. Studies on potential of Portland cement mortar for binding of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paramalinggam Thanalechumi

    cement mortar (CM) to produce a cement mortar-water- works composite referred to as cement-solidified water- works sludge (CMWWS) for use as a construction material has not been studied. The S/S often immobilizes contami- nants (such as heavy metals) within a waste material (such as sludge) to form a solid.

  8. Drug Releasing Dental Cements: An In Vitro Study.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reported that the strongest antibacterial activity was observed with a zinc oxide eugenol cement when compared to commercially available restorative dental biomaterials such as a fine-hybrid resin composite, an ion- releasing resin composite, a self-curing glass ionomer cement and a resin-modified glass ionomer cement.

  9. Influence of surface pretreatment of fiber posts on cement delamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, L.A.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the influence of post surface pretreatment on the delamination strength of different cements from a prefabricated FRC post tested in a three-point bending test. Methods Three cements were tested; RelyX Unicem, DC Core Automix, and Panavia F2.0. Per cement, 40 posts (D.T. Light

  10. compaction delay versus properties of cement-bound lateritic soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    ABSTRACT. This study is an investigation into the effect of 0 to 3 hours compaction delay with half an hour intervals on soil-cement mixes 3,5,8; and 1, 3, 5 percent cement contents by weight of dry soils, for yellow and red lateritic soils respectively. The tests carried out on the cement stabilized soils were the Compaction test ...

  11. ASSESSMENT OF DEFORMATION AND STRENGTH OF SOILS STRENGTHENED BY CEMENTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainov Mihail Petrovich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently there are few studies of deformation and strength properties of loose soils strengthened by cementing. Based on the data of already arranged grout curtains it was determined that in cemented gravel-pebble soil there are 7...9 % of cement, which is less than in concrete. To assess deformation and strength of such soils it is possible to use the data of tests conducted by other authors, where the effect of cement contents on sand-cement mix properties was studied. Analysis of experimental data showed that cemented soil may be identified with concrete only with high content of cement (more than 10 %. At cement content 7...9 % in soil the strength deformation of cemented soil varies to a small extent. Its deformation becomes 2-3 times less. It greatly depends on compression stresses. The formulae are proposed which permit assessing the effect of compression and cement content on deformation of cemented soil. It is shown that strength of cemented soil is less than that even of the weakest concrete. It has a sufficiently high cohesion, but the friction angle is approximately the same as that of the initial soil.

  12. Monolayer Iron Carbide Films on Au(111) as a Fischer–Tropsch Model Catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannie, Gilbère; Lammich, Lutz; Li, Yong-Wang

    2014-01-01

    Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we characterize the atomic-scale details of ultrathin films of iron carbide (FexCy) on Au(111) synthesized as a potential model system for the active iron carbide phase in iron Fischer–Tropsch synthesis (FTS) catalysts. The experiments show that room...

  13. Plasma-Chemical Synthesis of Nanosized Powders-Nitrides, Carbides, Oxides, Carbon Nanotubes and Fullerenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katerina, Zaharieva; Gheorghi, Vissokov; Janis, Grabis; Slavcho, Rakovsky

    2012-11-01

    In this article the plasma-chemical synthesis of nanosized powders (nitrides, carbides, oxides, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes) is reviewed. Nanosized powders - nitrides, carbides, oxides, carbon nanotubes and fullerenes have been successfully produced using different techniques, technological apparatuses and conditions for their plasma-chemical synthesis.

  14. Natural precursor based hydrothermal synthesis of sodium carbide for reactor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swapna, M. S.; Saritha Devi, H. V.; Sebastian, Riya; Ambadas, G.; Sankararaman, S.

    2017-12-01

    Carbides are a class of materials with high mechanical strength and refractory nature which finds a wide range of applications in industries and nuclear reactors. The existing synthesis methods of all types of carbides have problems in terms of use of toxic chemical precursors, high-cost, etc. Sodium carbide (Na2C2) which is an alkali metal carbide is the least explored one and also that there is no report of low-cost and low-temperature synthesis of sodium carbide using the eco-friendly, easily available natural precursors. In the present work, we report a simple low-cost, non-toxic hydrothermal synthesis of refractory sodium carbide using the natural precursor—Pandanus. The formation of sodium carbide along with boron carbide is evidenced by the structural and morphological characterizations. The sample thus synthesized is subjected to field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet (UV)—visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman, and photoluminescent (PL) spectroscopic techniques.

  15. Properties and characterization of multilayers of carbides and diamond-like carbon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strondl, C.; Kolk, G.J. van der; Hurkmans, T.; Fleischer, W.; Trinh, T.; Marcolino Carvalho, Nuno; Hosson, J.Th.M. de

    Metal containing diamond-like carbon (Me-DLC) coatings are widely applied in industrial applications. Normally, the coatings are produced with small inclusions of carbide forming elements like the 3d, 4d or 5d metals, or Si or B. The small carbide islands have sizes of approximately 2-20 nm. The

  16. Microstructures and Wear Performance of PTAW Deposited Ni-Based Coatings with Spherical Tungsten Carbide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewei Deng

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ni-based coatings with different content of spherical tungsten carbide were deposited by plasma transfer arc welding (PTAW method on 304 austenitic stainless steel sheets in this study. The microstructure and wear property of spherical tungsten carbide particle reinforced composite coatings were investigated by means of optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA and sliding wear test. It is shown that the fraction of spherical tungsten carbides has an important influence on microstructure of Ni-based overlay. The Ni40 overlay consists of γ-Ni dendrites with interdendritic Ni-based eutectics, borides and carbides improving the wear resistance. In the case of composite coatings with different content of tungsten carbide, many new phases are observed, such as Ni2W4C and NiW. In addition, there are a large number of irregular structures in composite coatings, such as acicular structure and irregular stripe organization. The results of sliding wear test indicate that the mass loss of coatings is influenced by the content of tungsten carbide. The mass loss decreases with the increase of tungsten carbide fraction. At high load, the abrasive resistance of composite coating with 60 wt. % tungsten carbide is improved about 50-fold compared to that of Ni40 overlay.

  17. Stereological parameters of carbides on section of casting made from modified chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of stereological parameters of carbides on the section of the model castingmade from modified (the mixture FeNb+FeV+RE wear resistance chromium cast iron was introduced in the article. The jump change of some stereological parameters of carbides in certain distance from the surface of the casting was observed.

  18. Development of a Robust Tri-Carbide Fueled Reactor for Multimegawatt Space Power and Propulsion Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samim Anghaie; Travis W. Knight; Johann Plancher; Reza Gouw

    2004-08-11

    An innovative reactor core design based on advanced, mixed carbide fuels was analyzed for nuclear space power applications. Solid solution, mixed carbide fuels such as (U,Zr,Nb)c and (U,Zr, Ta)C offer great promise as an advanced high temperature fuel for space power reactors.

  19. Synthesis of nanoparticles of vanadium carbide in the ferrite of nodular cast iron

    CERN Document Server

    Fras, E; Guzik, E; Lopez, H

    2005-01-01

    The synthesis method of nanoparticles of vanadium carbide in nodular cast iron is presented. After introduction of this method, the nanoparticles with 10-70 nm of diameter was obtained in the ferrite. The diffraction investigations confirmed that these particles are vanadium carbides of type V/sub 3/C/sub 4/.

  20. Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Calcium carbide (CaC2): Effect on fruit set and yield of mango ( Mangifera indica L.) cv. ... photosynthetic rate, final fruit drop, yield per plant, fruit weight, fruit volume, pulp weight, peel weight, juice weight and fruit skin color were significantly affected by the calcium carbide treatment while number of new flushes per branch, ...

  1. Comparative evaluation of marginal leakage of provisional crowns cemented with different temporary luting cements: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheen Juneja Arora

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The temporary cements with eugenol showed more microleakage than those without eugenol. SC-10 crowns showed more microleakage compared to Protemp 4 crowns. SC-10 crowns cemented with Kalzinol showed maximum microleakage and Protemp 4 crowns cemented with HY bond showed least microleakage.

  2. Synthesis of functional acetylene derivatives from calcium carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhewang; Yu, Dingyi; Sum, Yin Ngai; Zhang, Yugen

    2012-04-01

    AHA Erlebnis: CaC(2), used to produce acetylene until several decades ago, is re-emerging as a cheap, sustainable resource synthesized from coal and lignocellulosic biomass. We report efficient catalytic protocols for the synthesis of functional acetylene derivatives from CaC(2) through aldehyde, alkyne, and amine (AAA) as well as alkyne, haloalkane, and amine (AHA) couplings, and in addition demonstrate its use in click and Sonogashira chemistry, showing that calcium carbide is a sustainable and cost-efficient carbon source. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Method of fabricating silicon carbide coatings on graphite surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Herman, H.; Burchell, T.D.

    1994-07-26

    The vacuum plasma spray process produces well-bonded, dense, stress-free coatings for a variety of materials on a wide range of substrates. The process is used in many industries to provide for the excellent wear, corrosion resistance, and high temperature behavior of the fabricated coatings. In this application, silicon metal is deposited on graphite. This invention discloses the optimum processing parameters for as-sprayed coating qualities. The method also discloses the effect of thermal cycling on silicon samples in an inert helium atmosphere at about 1,600 C which transforms the coating to silicon carbide. 3 figs.

  4. Temperature Induced Voltage Offset Drifts in Silicon Carbide Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okojie, Robert S.; Lukco, Dorothy; Nguyen, Vu; Savrun, Ender

    2012-01-01

    We report the reduction of transient drifts in the zero pressure offset voltage in silicon carbide (SiC) pressure sensors when operating at 600 C. The previously observed maximum drift of +/- 10 mV of the reference offset voltage at 600 C was reduced to within +/- 5 mV. The offset voltage drifts and bridge resistance changes over time at test temperature are explained in terms of the microstructure and phase changes occurring within the contact metallization, as analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The results have helped to identify the upper temperature reliable operational limit of this particular metallization scheme to be 605 C.

  5. Surface coating metrology of carbides of cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfenov, V. D.; Basova, G. D.

    2017-10-01

    The coatings were studied by their main sign of the micrometric thickness by means of coating destruction and electron microscopical study of cleavage surfaces. Shock stress ruptures of heated carbides of cutting tools were performed. The discovery of the coating technology and creation of the coating structure for nonuniform and nonequilibrium conditions of the cutting process were dealt with. Multifracture microdestruction of nitride coatings, caused by complex external influences, was analysed to reveal the mechanism of interaction of elementary failures. Positive results were obtained in the form of improving the strength and wear resistance of the product, crack resistance increasing.

  6. Improvement of contact resistances on plasma-exposed silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, R.; Hay, J.; van der Drift, E.; Gao, W.

    2000-11-01

    We demonstrate improvements in the specific contact resistance of unannealed ohmic contacts by at least one order of magnitude on undoped 6H-SiC (silicon carbide, SiC). The improved contacts with a specific resistance of 0.3 Ω cm 2 have been fabricated on SiC surfaces exposed to an argon plasma at -80 V for 2.5 min. Under these plasma conditions, the top monolayers of the plasma-exposed SiC surface is silicon rich as revealed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and the surface roughness is decreased by a factor of 2 from atomic force microscopy analysis.

  7. Growth of Vanadium Carbide by Halide-Activated Pack Diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Dahl, Kristian Vinter

    The present work investigates growth of vanadium carbide (VC) layers by the pack diffusion method on a Vanadis 6 tool steel. The VC layers were produced by pack diffusion at 1000°C for 1, 4 and 16 hours. The VC layers were characterized with optical and electron microscopy, Vickers hardness tests...... and X-ray diffraction. Homogeneous VC mono-phase layers with Vickers hardness of more than 2400 HV were obtained. Hardening and tempering of the vanadized Vanadis 6 steel did not affect the VC layers....

  8. High-Temperature Electronic Materials: Silicon Carbide and Diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willander, Magnus; Friesel, Milan; Wahab, Qamar-Ul; Straumal, Boris

    The physical and chemical properties of wide-band-gap semiconductors make these materials an ideal choice for device fabrication for applications in many different areas, e.g. light emitters, high-temperature and high-power electronics, high-power microwave devices, micro-electromechanical system (MEM) technology, and substrates for semiconductor preparation. These semiconductors have been recognized for several decades as being suitable for these applications, but until recently the low material quality has not allowed the fabrication of high-quality devices. In this chapter, we review the wide-band-gap semiconductors, silicon carbide and diamond.

  9. Characterization of plastic and boron carbide additive manufactured neutron collimators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M. B.; Siddel, D. H.; Elliott, A. M.; Anderson, D.; Abernathy, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques allow for the production of materials with complicated geometries with reduced costs and production time over traditional methods. We have applied this technique to the production of neutron collimators for use in thermal and cold neutron scattering instrumentation directly out of boron carbide. We discuss the design and generation of these collimators. We also provide measurements at neutron scattering beamlines which serve to characterize the performance of these collimators. Additive manufacturing of parts using neutron absorbing material may also find applications in radiography and neutron moderation.

  10. Development of an Improved Cement for Geothermal Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trabits, George [Trabits Group, LLC, Wasilla, AK (United States)

    2015-04-20

    After an oil, gas, or geothermal production well has been drilled, the well must be stabilized with a casing (sections of steel pipe that are joined together) in order to prevent the walls of the well from collapsing. The gap between the casing and the walls of the well is filled with cement, which locks the casing into place. The casing and cementing of geothermal wells is complicated by the harsh conditions of high temperature, high pressure, and a chemical environment (brines with high concentrations of carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid) that degrades conventional Portland cement. During the 1990s and early 2000s, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Geothermal Technologies Office (GTO) provided support for the development of fly-ash-modified calcium aluminate phosphate (CaP) cement, which offers improved resistance to degradation compared with conventional cement. However, the use of CaP cements involves some operational constraints that can increase the cost and complexity of well cementing. In some cases, CaP cements are incompatible with chemical additives that are commonly used to adjust cement setting time. Care must also be taken to ensure that CaP cements do not become contaminated with leftover conventional cement in pumping equipment used in conventional well cementing. With assistance from GTO, Trabits Group, LLC has developed a zeolite-containing cement that performs well in harsh geothermal conditions (thermal stability at temperatures of up to 300°C and resistance to carbonation) and is easy to use (can be easily adjusted with additives and eliminates the need to “sterilize” pumping equipment as with CaP cements). This combination of properties reduces the complexity/cost of well cementing, which will help enable the widespread development of geothermal energy in the United States.

  11. The suitability of a supersulfated cement for nuclear waste immobilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collier, N.C., E-mail: nick.collier@sheffield.ac.uk [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Milestone, N.B. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Callaghan Innovation, 69 Gracefield Road, PO Box 31310, Lower Hutt 5040 (New Zealand); Gordon, L.E. [Immobilisation Science Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Geopolymer and Minerals Processing Group, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Ko, S.-C. [Holcim Technology Ltd, Hagenholzstrasse 85, CH-8050 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We investigate a supersulfated cement for use as a nuclear waste encapsulant. • High powder fineness requires a high water content to satisfy flow requirements. • Heat generation during hydration is similar to a control cement paste. • Typical hydration products are formed resulting in a high potential for waste ion immobilisation. • Paste pH and aluminium corrosion is less than in a control cement paste. - Abstract: Composite cements based on ordinary Portland cement are used in the UK as immobilisation matrices for low and intermediate level nuclear wastes. However, the high pore solution pH causes corrosion of some metallic wastes and undesirable expansive reactions, which has led to alternative cementing systems being examined. We have investigated the physical, chemical and microstructural properties of a supersulfated cement in order to determine its applicability for use in nuclear waste encapsulation. The hardened supersulfated cement paste appeared to have properties desirable for use in producing encapsulation matrices, but the high powder specific surface resulted in a matrix with high porosity. Ettringite and calcium silicate hydrate were the main phases formed in the hardened cement paste and anhydrite was present in excess. The maximum rate of heat output during hydration of the supersulfated cement paste was slightly higher than that of a 9:1 blastfurnace slag:ordinary Portland cement paste commonly used by the UK nuclear waste processing industry, although the total heat output of the supersulfated cement paste was lower. The pH was also significantly lower in the supersulfated cement paste. Aluminium hydroxide was formed on the surface of aluminium metal encapsulated in the cement paste and ettringite was detected between the aluminium hydroxide and the hardened cement paste.

  12. Dental Cements for Luting and Bonding Restorations: Self-Adhesive Resin Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Adriana P; Carvalho, Ricardo M

    2017-10-01

    Self-adhesive resin cements combine easy application of conventional luting materials with improved mechanical properties and bonding capability of resin cements. The presence of functional acidic monomers, dual cure setting mechanism, and fillers capable of neutralizing the initial low pH of the cement are essential elements of the material and should be understood when selecting the ideal luting material for each clinical situation. This article addresses the most relevant aspects of self-adhesive resin cements and their potential impact on clinical performance. Although few clinical studies are available to establish solid clinical evidence, the information presented provides clinical guidance in the dynamic environment of material development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Design of Fit-for-Purpose Cement to Restore Cement-Caprock Seal Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, R.

    2015-12-01

    This project aims to study critical research needs in the area of rock-cement interfaces, with a special focus on crosscutting applications in the Wellbore Integrity Pillar of the SubTER initiative. This study will focus on design and test fit-for-purpose cement formulations. The goals of this project are as follows: 1) perform preliminary study of dispersing nanomaterial admixtures in Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) mixes, 2) characterize the cement-rock interface, and 3) identify potential high-performance cement additives that can improve sorption behavior, chemical durability, bond strength, and interfacial fracture toughness, as appropriate to specific subsurface operational needs. The work presented here focuses on a study of cement-shale interfaces to better understand failure mechanisms, with particular attention to measuring bond strength at the cement-shale interface. Both experimental testing and computational modeling were conducted to determine the mechanical behavior at the interface representing the interaction of cement and shale of a typical wellbore environment. Cohesive zone elements are used in the finite element method to computationally simulate the interface of the cement and rock materials with varying properties. Understanding the bond strength and mechanical performance of the cement-formation interface is critical to wellbore applications such as sequestration, oil and gas production and exploration and nuclear waste disposal. Improved shear bond strength is an indication of the capability of the interface to ensure zonal isolation and prevent zonal communication, two crucial goals in preserving wellbore integrity. Understanding shear bond strength development and interface mechanics will provide an idea as to how the cement-formation interface can be altered under environmental changes (temperature, pressure, chemical degradation, etc.) so that the previously described objectives can be achieved. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi

  14. ɛ-Iron carbide as a low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Sun, Bo; Lin, Jun; Wen, Wen; Pei, Yan; Yan, Shirun; Qiao, Minghua; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zong, Baoning

    2014-12-01

    ɛ-Iron carbide has been predicted to be promising for low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (LTFTS) targeting liquid fuel production. However, directional carbidation of metallic iron to ɛ-iron carbide is challenging due to kinetic hindrance. Here we show how rapidly quenched skeletal iron featuring nanocrystalline dimensions, low coordination number and an expanded lattice may solve this problem. We find that the carbidation of rapidly quenched skeletal iron occurs readily in situ during LTFTS at 423-473 K, giving an ɛ-iron carbide-dominant catalyst that exhibits superior activity to literature iron and cobalt catalysts, and comparable to more expensive noble ruthenium catalyst, coupled with high selectivity to liquid fuels and robustness without the aid of electronic or structural promoters. This finding may permit the development of an advanced energy-efficient and clean fuel-oriented FTS process on the basis of a cost-effective iron catalyst.

  15. ε-Iron carbide as a low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Sun, Bo; Lin, Jun; Wen, Wen; Pei, Yan; Yan, Shirun; Qiao, Minghua; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zong, Baoning

    2014-12-12

    ε-Iron carbide has been predicted to be promising for low-temperature Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (LTFTS) targeting liquid fuel production. However, directional carbidation of metallic iron to ε-iron carbide is challenging due to kinetic hindrance. Here we show how rapidly quenched skeletal iron featuring nanocrystalline dimensions, low coordination number and an expanded lattice may solve this problem. We find that the carbidation of rapidly quenched skeletal iron occurs readily in situ during LTFTS at 423-473 K, giving an ε-iron carbide-dominant catalyst that exhibits superior activity to literature iron and cobalt catalysts, and comparable to more expensive noble ruthenium catalyst, coupled with high selectivity to liquid fuels and robustness without the aid of electronic or structural promoters. This finding may permit the development of an advanced energy-efficient and clean fuel-oriented FTS process on the basis of a cost-effective iron catalyst.

  16. ROLE OF GRAIN BOUNDARY CARBIDES IN CRACKING BEHAVIOR OF Ni BASE ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEONG SIK HWANG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC of Alloy 600 in a PWR has been reported in the control rod drive mechanism (CRDM, pressurizer instrumentation, and the pressurizer heater sleeves. Recently, two cases of boric acid precipitation that indicated leaking of the primary cooling water were reported on the bottom head surface of steam generators (SG in Korea. The PWSCC resistance of Ni base alloys which have intergranular carbides is higher than those which have intragranular carbides. Conversely, in oxidized acidic solutions like sodium sulfate or sodium tetrathionate solutions, the Ni base alloys with a lot of carbides at the grain boundaries and shows less stress corrosion cracking (SCC resistance. The role of grain boundary carbides in SCC behavior of Ni base alloys was evaluated and effect of intergranular carbides on the SCC susceptibility were reviewed from the literature.

  17. Method of testing carbide inserts for premature fracture by face milling of cylindrical workpieces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, R.; Akasawa, T.; Okusa, K.

    1984-12-01

    Methods are proposed for face milling solid cylindrical workpieces or half-cut and hollow cylindrical workpieces prepared from rectangular blocks by continuously changing both or either of the angles of engagement and disengagement. Carbide inserts are tested for premature fracture before the onset of steady wear using these face-milling methods. The premature fracture indicates the insufficient toughness of carbides to perform a given machining job. As carbides of higher wear resistance have lower shock resistance in general, they must be tested for premature fracture due to the lack of toughness to select suitable carbides for specific cutting applications. The test results obtained under the present study show that the premature fracture of carbides, whose toughness was classified by static toughness tests, can be evaluated dynamically and easily by the proposed face-milling methods.

  18. Microleakage of porcelain and composite machined crowns cemented with self-adhesive or conventional resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Mohamed; El-Mowafy, Omar; Roperto, Renato

    2010-10-01

    Resistance of machined crowns to microleakage when cemented with new self-adhesive cements has not been fully investigated. This study evaluated microleakage of machined crowns milled from porcelain and composite blocks and bonded to teeth with self-adhesive and conventional resin cement. Thirty-two freshly extracted premolars of similar shape and size were sterilized and mounted in resin blocks. Teeth received standard crown preparations with 1-mm circumferential shoulder finish line, flat occlusal surface reduced by 2 mm, and ideal angle of convergence. Prepared teeth were divided into two equal groups and assigned to either porcelain (Vita Mark II, Vident) or composite (Paradigm MZ100, 3M ESPE) blocks for crown fabrication. Optical impressions were captured for each tooth with the intraoral camera of a CEREC 3D machine. Crowns were designed and milled from both materials. Each group was then subdivided into two subgroups (n = 8) according to cement used (self-adhesive resin cement, RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE or resin cement with self-etching adhesive, Panavia F 2.0, Kuraray). Following seating, a 5-kg weight was applied on the occlusal surface of the crown for 5 minutes. Specimens were then stored in water at 37°C for 24 hours. Specimens were thermocycled for 3000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C, then coated with nail varnish and immersed in a 2.0% basic red fuchsine dye solution for 24 hours. Teeth were then rinsed and sectioned mesiodistally and assessed under magnification for microleakage. A five-point scale was used to score degree of microleakage. Data were statistically analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. Crown material had no significant effect on microleakage (p= 0.67); however, cement type had a significant effect (p resin cement with separate primer/bonding agent resulted in significantly lower microleakage scores, irrespective of crown material. © 2010 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Influence of microwave irradiation of cement mixtures on the strength of cement stone and concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, M. S.; Dyakonov, M. V.; Krasnokutskiy, R. A.; Kolyaskin, A. D.; Dmitriev, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of microwave irradiation of mixtures on the strength of cement stone and concrete was studied. Created at NRNU MEPHI experimental installation for the investigation of microwave effects on imperfect dielectrics and semiconductor materials was the source of radiation. It is shown that on the twenty-eighth day after mixing, the strength of the cement stone increases by 1.2 times, and that of concrete by 2.2 times.

  20. Ion release and pH of a new endodontic cement, MTA and Portland cement

    OpenAIRE

    Amini Ghazvini, Sara; Abdo Tabrizi, Maryam; Kobarfard, Farzad; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Asgary, Saeed

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This in vitro study measured and compared pH and phosphate and calcium ions release of a new endodontic material (CEM cement), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and Portland cement (PC) using UV-visible technique, atomic absorption spectrophotometry methods, and pH meter, respectively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Each material was placed in a plastic tube (n=10) and immersed in a glass flask containing deionized water. Half of the samples were tested for determining pH and released i...

  1. Dimensional changes occurring in a glass-ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A D; Paddon, J M

    1993-12-01

    The dimensional changes occurring when glass ionomer cements are exposed both to desiccating and moist conditions were investigated. All work was done at 23 degrees C. The effect of time allowed for cements to mature before exposure to the test conditions was studied as was the effect of adding cellulose ethers. The contraction of glass ionomer cements under desiccating conditions was far greater than the expansion by water absorption. Increase of the time allowed for the cements to mature reduced the extent of this effect markedly. The addition of cellulose ethers to cement mixes was only moderately effective in reducing dimensional change.

  2. Natural Cellulose Nanofibers As Sustainable Enhancers in Construction Cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Su, Ming; Chen, Liao; Wang, Yuangang; Zhu, Hongli; Dai, Hongqi

    2016-01-01

    Cement is one of the mostly used construction materials due to its high durability and low cost, but it suffers from brittle fracture and facile crack initiation. This article describes the use of naturally-derived renewable cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) to reinforce cement. The effects of CNFs on the mechanical properties, degree of hydration (DOH), and microstructure of cement pastes have been studied. It is found that an addition of 0.15% by weight of CNFs leads to a 15% and 20% increase in the flexural and compressive strengths of cement paste. The enhancement in mechanical strength is attributed to high DOH and dense microstructure of cement pastes after adding CNFs.

  3. Transport Properties of Carbon-Nanotube/Cement Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Baoguo; Yang, Zhengxian; Shi, Xianming; Yu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    This paper preliminarily investigates the general transport properties (i.e., water sorptivity, water permeability, and gas permeability) of carbon-nanotube/cement composites. Carboxyl multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are dispersed into cement mortar to fabricate the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) reinforced cement-based composites by applying ultrasonic energy in combination with the use of surfactants (sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate and sodium dodecyl sulfate). Experimental results indicate that even at a very small dosage the addition of MWNTs can help decrease water sorptivity coefficient, water permeability coefficient, and gas permeability coefficient of cement mortar, which suggests that CNTs can effectively improve the durability properties of cement-based composites.

  4. Kinetics of strength gain of biocidal cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodin Aleksandr Ivanovich

    Full Text Available Biocorrosion becomes the determinative durability factor of buildings and constructions. Damages of construction materials caused by bacteria, filamentous fungi, actinomycetes constitute a serious danger to the constructions of a building or a structure and to the health of people. Biodeteriorations are typical both in old and new constructions. A great quantity of destruction factors of industrial and residential buildings under the influence of microorganisms was established in practice. Providing products and constructions based on concretes fungicidal and bactericidal properties is an important direction of modern construction material science. The most efficient way to solve this task is creation of biocidal cements. The article presents the results of experimental studies of kinetic dependences of strength gain by biocidal cements by physico-mechanical and physico-chemical analysis methods. The identical velocity character of initial hydration of the developed compositions of biocidal cements is set, as well as a more calm behavior of hardening processes at later terms. It has been established that the compositions of biocidal cements modified by sodium sulfate and sodium fluoride possess the greatest strength.

  5. Cement-based materials with graphene nanophase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla, P. T.; Tragazikis, I. K.; Exarchos, D. A.; Dassios, K.; Matikas, T. E.

    2017-04-01

    Cement matrix composites with a conductive nano-reinforcement phase, lead to the development of innovative products. A matrix with carbon based nano-inclusions (graphene, carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, carbon black) obtains multi-functional properties like enhanced mechanical, electrical, elastic and thermal properties and, therefore, the advantage of self-sensing in case of an inner defect. This research aims to characterize the nano-modified cement mortars with different concentrations of graphene nanophase. The results will be compared with data obtained from nanomaterials containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Comprehensive characteristics of these cement-based nanocomposites have been determined using destructive and nondestructive laboratory techniques. Flexural and compressive strength were measured. During four point bending tests, acoustic emission monitoring allowed for realtime identification of the damage process in the material. The electrical surface resistivity of graphene-reinforced cement mortars was measured by applying a known DC voltage, and compared to the electrical resistivity of nano-modified mortars with carbon nanotubes.

  6. Autogenous Phenomena in Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    This thesis has been written to obtain the Danish doctoral degree in technology, Dr.Techn. It addresses autogenous phenomena in cement-based materials - primarily deformation and change of the relative humidity (RH). In the thesis it is explained how the importance of these phenomena was identified...

  7. Topics in cement and concrete research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwers, Jos; Russel, M.I.; Basheer, P.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper addresses several topics in regard to the sustainable design and use of concrete. First, major features concerning the sustainable aspects of the material concrete are summarised. Then the major constituent, from an environmental point of view, cement is discussed in detail,

  8. The case of Mugher cement facto

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thomas

    through co-generation of carbonate/bicarbonate: The case of Mugher cement factory. Getachew Dagnew Gebreeyessus1*, Tassisa Kaba2 and Bhagwan Singh Chandravanshi3. 1Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Haramaya University, P.O. Box 235, Harar, Ethiopia. 2School of Chemical and Bio-Engineering, ...

  9. Fracture properties of an acrylic bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialoblocka-Juszczyk, E; Baleani, M; Cristofolini, L; Viceconti, M

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated experimentally the fracture properties, i.e., the fatigue strength, the resistance to crack propagation and the fracture toughness, of an acrylic bone cement (Cemex RX). The mean endurance limit was determined following the staircase method. The endurance limit was estimated at 9.2 MPa. The fatigue crack propagation rate was measured according to the ASTM E647 standard. The equation of the line fitting the crack growth per cycle (da/dN) versus the stress-intensity factor range (delta K), in a log-log graph, was used to calculate the empirical constants of Paris' law for the selected bone cement: da/dN (m/cycle) = 3.56 x 10(-7) x delta K (MPa x m1/2)5.79. This power-law relationship described well (R2 = 0.96) the growth rate in the stable crack growth region, i.e., in the mid delta K range. The fracture toughness K(IC) of the bone cement was determined according to the ASTM E399 standard. The K(IC) mean value was 1.38 MPa x m1/2. These experimental results provide the set of necessary inputs for numerical studies aimed to investigate the damage accumulation process in the mantle fixing cemented prostheses.

  10. Application of Carbonate Looping to Cement Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    with an increase in the CO2 partial pressure during calcination, indicating enhancement of sintering by the presence of CO2. As sorbents, cement raw meal and the mixture of limestone and clay show a similar trend as limestone with respect to the decay of the CO2 carrying capacity and this capacity is lower than...

  11. Formulation of an injectable phosphocalcium cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, S. [CIRIMAT Equipe de Physico-Chimie des Phosphates ENSCT INP, Toulouse (France); TEKNIMED, Vic en Bigorre (France); Brouchet, A.; Delisle, B. [CHU Rangueil, Toulouse (France). Service d' Anatomie Pathologie; Freche, M.; Lacout, J.L. [CIRIMAT Equipe de Physico-Chimie des Phosphates ENSCT INP, Toulouse (France); Rodriguez, F. [Lab. de Galenique, Chmin des Maraichers, Toulouse (France)

    2001-07-01

    In orthopedic surgery, the loss or the reinforcement of osseous substance often requires filling of the defective part. In order to make the surgical operations easier we sought to make an injectable form. This study examined the effect of silicone and polyglycol on the injectability, setting time and mechanical properties of the cement. The basic solid phase was composed of a mixture of tetracalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 4}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}O), {alpha}-tricalcium phosphate (Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}) and sodium glycerophosphate. The basic liquid phase was made up of lime, orthophosphoric acid and water. Silicone was previously dissolved in cyclohexane and introduced in the solid phase. Polyglycol is a water-soluble compound so it is introduced in the liquid phase. For the mechanical properties, the strong increase in the percentage of additives decreased the compressive strength. Silicone and polyglycol made it possible to improve viscosity without modifying the basic setting time. The rate of evolution was different with the two different additives. From the data it was possible to optimize the formulation of cements to give predicted properties. Testing the in vivo implantation of the cement has already started. Preliminary results show the perfect osteointegration of the new cements without reactions to the foreign body in spite of the presence of silicone. (orig.)

  12. Consolidation behavior of cement-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Ane Mette

    2007-01-01

    overfladekræfter påvirker partiklernes indbyrdes afstand. Det udførte ph.d.-projekt ”Consolidation behaviour of cement-based systems. Influence of inter-particle forces” har bidraget med en konceptuel model for den kombinerede indflydelse af ydre kræftpåvirkning (konsolidering) og overfladekræfter mellem fine...

  13. Effect of dentin sealers on postoperative sensitivity of complete cast crowns cemented with glass ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghrabi, Abdulhamaid A

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to clinically evaluate the effects of pretreatments with copal/ether varnish and dentin bonding system on postoperative sensitivity of complete cast crowns cemented with glass ionomer cement. Three posterior teeth with no pain symptoms were selected from each of 17 patients, totaling 51 teeth, for which a crown was indicated. Rexillium III complete cast crowns were prepared using conventional laboratory techniques. For each patient, the first tooth, which served as the control, received only glass ionomer cement (Ketac-Cem). Copal/ether varnish (Bosworth Copaliner) was applied to the second tooth preparation prior to cementation. Dentin bonding agent (OptiBond Solo Plus) was used on the third tooth before cementation. Sensitivity to different stimuli (cold, heat) was assessed at 7 days, 1 month, and 6 months following restorative procedures by questionnaire. There were no statistically significant differences between the three groups regarding applied stimulus and day of the study (p > 0.05). No statistically significant differences were found between the postoperative sensitivity responses from 7 days to 1 month, and from 1 month to 6 months (p > 0.05). Postoperative sensitivity resulting from glass ionomer cement with complete cast crowns cannot be completely eliminated with the prior use of a cavity varnish or bonding agent. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. Portland cement hydration and early setting of cement stone intended for efficient paving materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishina, A.

    2017-10-01

    Due to the growth of load on automotive roads, modern transportation engineering is in need of efficient paving materials. Runways and most advanced highways require Portland cement concretes. This makes important the studies directed to improvement of binders for such concretes. In the present work some peculiarities of the process of Portland cement hydration and early setting of cement stone with barium hydrosilicate sol were examined. It was found that the admixture of said sol leads to a shift in the induction period to later times without significant change in its duration. The admixture of a modifier with nanoscale barium hydrosilicates increases the degree of hydration of the cement clinker minerals and changes the phase composition of the hydration products; in particular, the content of portlandite and tricalcium silicate decreases, while the amount of ettringite increases. Changes in the hydration processes of Portland cement and early setting of cement stone that are caused by the nanoscale barium hydrosilicates, allow to forecast positive technological effects both at the stage of manufacturing and at the stage of operation. In particular, the formwork age can be reduced, turnover of molds can be increased, formation of secondary ettringite and corrosion of the first type can be eliminated.

  15. Post-cementation colorimetric evaluation of the interaction between the thickness of ceramic veneers and the shade of resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calgaro, Patricia Angélica Milani; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Correr, Gisele Maria; Ornaghi, Bárbara Pick; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the color parameters (CIELab*) after the cementation of ceramic disks of different thicknesses onto a resin substrate using four different shades of resin cements, and determine the color difference (ΔE) between the adhesively cemented disks and a 10 mm-thick A1 shade ceramic control (target color). Ceramic disks, simulating laminate veneers, with thicknesses of 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mm (shade A1, IPS Classic) were fabricated (n = 40) and cemented with a dual-cured resin cement (Variolink II, shades A1, bleach, opaque and transparent) onto 120 2 mm-thick resin composite substrates (shade A3.5, Adoro). Each ceramic disk was photocured for 80 seconds. The determination of the CIELab* parameters of each ceramic-cement-substrate set was performed with a spectrophotometer. A 10 mm-thick A1 ceramic disk was used as a control. The results for the color difference (ΔE) obtained from L*, a* and b* parameters were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The ΔE values ranged from 2.46 (1.0 mm, opaque cement) to 12.11 (0.5 mm, A1 cement). The opaque cement showed the lower ΔE values, followed by the bleach, transparent and A1 cements. With respect to the thickness of the ceramic, color differences between the target color and the group with 1.0 mm ceramic disks were smaller for all cement shades tested. Only the combination of 1.0 mm ceramic disks cemented with the opaque cement was able to mask the background color (ΔE resin cement were smaller in comparison with the bleach, transparent and A1 cements.

  16. Evaluation of the interfacial work of fracture of glass-ionomer cements bonded to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheetham, Joshua J; Palamara, Joseph E A; Tyas, Martin J; Burrow, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interfacial work of fracture of conventional (C-) and resin-modified (RM-) glass-ionomer cements (GICs) bonded to dentin. One hundred and sixty five aries-free human molars were embedded in epoxy resin, sectioned and polished with 300- and 600- grit silicon carbide paper to remove enamel on the occlusal surface. Equilateral triangular-shaped plastic molds (4×4×4×5mm(4)) were clamped to the prepared dentin surfaces by a stainless steel test apparatus. Teflon tape was placed under one internal vertex of the mold to create a 0.1-mm notch at the material-dentin interface. Interfacial work of fracture (γwofint) in tensile fracture mode-I (opening) was determined for six C-GIC, three RM-GIC, and two GIC luting cements at a cross-head speed of 0.1mm/min and a crosshead distance (L) from the interface of 4.3mm. The debonded surfaces were evaluated for the predominant failure mode. SEM analysis of examples showing interfacial and notch areas was performed. ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test demonstrated the highest mean γwofint value (90.16±16.6J/m(2)) of one RM-GIC was significantly different (pglass-ionomer materials. The null hypothesis that there is no difference in the γwofint among different glass-ionomer materials bonded to human dentin was rejected. In the current study, the interfacial work of fracture (γwofint) of glass-ionomer adhesive interfaces has been reported using a simple method that can be used to study the fracture mechanics of an adhesive interface without the need for complicated specimen preparation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Shear bond strength of glass-ionomer cements to air-abraded dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine; Nhani, Vanessa Tessari; Ciccone-Nogueira, Juliane Cristina; Chinelatti, Michelle Alexandra; Palma-Dibb, Regina Guenka; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of two conventional glass-ionomer cements to bovine dentin when using the air-abrasion technique for cavity preparation. Forty bovine central incisors were selected, embedded in polyester resin, and ground until the dentin surface was exposed. The teeth were randomly assigned to four groups: I and II--rotating instrument with a carbide bur; III and IV--an air-abrasion system. Groups I and III were restored with Fuji IX and groups II and IV with Ketac Molar. A 3-mm-diameter bonding site was delimited and treated with 10% polyacrylic acid for 10 s in the Fuji IX subgroups and with 25% polyacrylic acid for 10 s in the Ketac Molar subgroups. After surface treatment, a glassionomer cylinder was prepared for each specimen, using a split bisected Teflon matrix. The finished specimens were submitted to the shear bond strength test in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and Scheffé statistical tests. The dentin bonding areas were analyzed under a stereoscopic optical magnifier (40X) to assess the type of failure. The mean (SD) shear bond strengths in MPa were: group I--3.49 (+/- 3.77), group II--7.17 (+/- 2.93), group III--7.55 (+/- 2.99), group IV--5.67 (+/- 3.90). Ketac Molar showed higher bond strength values in bur-prepared cavities, while on the air-abraded preparations, Fuji IX showed superior results. It can be concluded that the air-abrasion system used for cavity preparations may influence the bonding performance of conventional glass-ionomer cements to dentin.

  18. Mechanical Properties and Decay Resistance of Hornbeam Cement Bonded Particleboards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios N. Papadopoulos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement bonded particleboards were manufactured from hornbeam (Carpinus betulus L. wood particles. Hydration tests were carried out to determine the inhibitory index in order to characterise wood-cement compatibility. The results revealed that the mixture of hornbeam-cement can be classified as moderate inhibition. Two wood: cement ratios were applied in this study, namely, 1 : 3 and 1 : 4, for the board manufacture. It was found that an increase of cement-wood ratio resulted in an improvement in all properties examined, except MOR. All properties of the boards made from 1 : 4 wood: cement ratio surpassed the minimum requirements set forth by the building type HZ code. Boards were exposed to brown and white rot fungi, Coniophora puteana, and Trametes versicolor, respectively. Overall, both fungi failed to attack the cement-bonded boards.

  19. Retardation effect of different alcohols on the cement coagulation in polycarboxylate- and naphthalene-based cement admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S. M.; Zhou, F. L.

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol has great potential to delay the coagulation of cement. The effects of alcohol on paste fluidity and normal consistency coagulation time have been studied for polycarboxylate superplasticizer and naphthene cement admixture. Seven alcohols were combined with polycarboxylate superplasticizer and naphthene at a concentration of 0.01-0.09%, respectively, including n-propanol, methanol, sorbitol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, ethanol, and mannitol. The fluidity and normal consistency coagulation time of each cement admixture were measured. The performance of both polycarboxylate superplasticizer and naphthene cement admixtures were compared to develop cement admixture with delayed coagulation.

  20. Influence of Cement Particle-Size Distribution on Early Age Autogenous Strains and Stresses in Cement-Based Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentz, Dale P.; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    2001-01-01

    The influence of cement particle-size distribution on autogenous strains and stresses in cement pastes of identical water-to-cement ratios is examined for cement powders of four different finenesses. Experimental measurements include chemical shrinkage, to quantify degree of hydration; internal...... controls the initial pore-size distribution of the cement paste, which, in turn, regulates the magnitude of the induced autogenous shrinkage stresses produced by the water/air menisci in the air-filled pores formed throughout the hydration process. The experimental results indicate that a small autogenous...

  1. Low-temperature synthesis of silicon carbide powder using shungite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubernat, A.; Pichor, W.; Lach, R.; Zientara, D.; Sitarz, M.; Springwald, M.

    2017-07-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation the novel and simple method of synthesis of silicon carbide. As raw material for synthesis was used shungite, natural mineral rich in carbon and silica. The synthesis of SiC is possible in relatively low temperature in range 1500–1600°C. It is worth emphasising that compared to the most popular method of SiC synthesis (Acheson method where the temperature of synthesis is about 2500°C) the proposed method is much more effective. The basic properties of products obtained from different form of shungite and in wide range of synthesis temperature were investigated. The process of silicon carbide formation was proposed and discussed. In the case of synthesis SiC from powder of raw materials the product is also in powder form and not requires any additional process (crushing, milling, etc.). Obtained products are pure and after grain classification may be used as abrasive and polishing powders. (Author)

  2. Low-temperature synthesis of silicon carbide powder using shungite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gubernat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigation the novel and simple method of synthesis of silicon carbide. As raw material for synthesis was used shungite, natural mineral rich in carbon and silica. The synthesis of SiC is possible in relatively low temperature in range 1500–1600 °C. It is worth emphasising that compared to the most popular method of SiC synthesis (Acheson method where the temperature of synthesis is about 2500 °C the proposed method is much more effective. The basic properties of products obtained from different form of shungite and in wide range of synthesis temperature were investigated. The process of silicon carbide formation was proposed and discussed. In the case of synthesis SiC from powder of raw materials the product is also in powder form and not requires any additional process (crushing, milling, etc.. Obtained products are pure and after grain classification may be used as abrasive and polishing powders.

  3. A highly luminescent octanuclear gold(i) carbide cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Thomas J; Poß, Marieke; Seifert, Tim P; Bestgen, Sebastian; Feldmann, Claus; Roesky, Peter W

    2017-08-08

    The ligand [{Me3SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(NDipp)2}Li(thf)3] (Dipp = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl) was used for salt metathesis reactions with [AuCl(tht)] (tht = tetrahydrothiophene) to obtain the dinuclear alkyne functionalized bisamidinate [{Me3SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(NDipp)2}2Au2]. This compound serves as a building block for the polynuclear carbide bridged gold(i) amidinate complex [Au8{μ3-(η1:η2-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]C)}2(Me3SiC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CC(NDipp)2)4(tht)2], which is the first gold(i) complex with a μ3-η1:η2 carbide coordination. Both gold(i) compounds show distinct aurophilic interactions and are remarkably stable at ambient conditions. Photophysical investigations revealed intense luminescence with notable high quantum yields both in the solid state and in solution.

  4. The Local Physical Structure of Amorphous Boron Carbide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, M. M.; Li, Wenjing; Driver, M. S.; Oyler, N. A.; Caruso, A. N.

    2011-03-01

    Thin-film amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide (a-B5 C:Hx) and technical boron carbide (B4 C:Cy) are important materials in next-generation solid-state neutron detectors and refractory electronics. Optimizing the electrical carrier transport and electronic structure of these films for the stated applications has been severely hindered by: (1) their lack of long-range periodicity; (2) the ability of boron-rich solids to form complex polyhedra; and, (3) the possibility that carbon atoms incorporate into the polyhedral structures in an intraicosahedral fashion or that they bridge polyhedral structures in an intericosahedral fashion. The use of traditional spectroscopies that are sensitive to local coordination environment have been inadequate in the determination of the local physical structure because of either poor resolution or very low interaction cross sections. However, magic spinning angle (MAS) solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR), does have the signal-to-noise and rigor to extract the local physical coordination structure of these materials, despite the challenges associated with deltahedra-based structures. This poster will describe the progress and challenges in structure determination through a comparison of unknown samples to known calibration standards using MAS techniques, in the context of furthering the general understanding of the electronic structure of a-B5 C:Hx and B4 C:Cy thin films.

  5. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  6. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources - a nominal 300-Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28-Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power supplies that provide power to the thruster auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300-Volts to 500-Volts to the thruster discharge supply. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall Effect Thruster. The performance of unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate the exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97. With a space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power device, this design could evolve into a flight design for future missions that require high power electric propulsion systems.

  7. Microstructure and mechanical properties of proton irradiated zirconium carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yong [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)], E-mail: yyang@cae.wisc.edu; Dickerson, Clayton A.; Swoboda, Hannah [Material Science Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Miller, Brandon; Allen, Todd R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Zirconium carbide is a candidate ceramic being considered for metal-carbide-base composite-type fuels, as well as for an alternative coating material for TRISO particle fuels. Ensuring adequate mechanical properties and dimensional stability in response to radiation is a key part in developing a practical ZrC-base fuel. The existing available radiation response data for ZrC is limited and insufficient. In the present study, ZrC was irradiated with a 2.6 MeV proton beam at 800 deg. C to doses of 0.7 and 1.5 dpa. Following radiation, the radiation induced damage microstructure is comprised of a high density of nanometer-sized Frank loops, but no irradiation induced amorphization, voids, or precipitates were observed. A slight lattice expansion was found in the irradiated ZrC, in good agreement with the reported results from neutron irradiation. The changes in microhardness and fracture toughness properties induced in the irradiated samples were measured using indentation techniques. The hardness and the fracture toughness both increase with increasing radiation dose.

  8. High capacitance of coarse-grained carbide derived carbon electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyatkin, Boris; Gogotsi, Oleksiy; Malinovskiy, Bohdan; Zozulya, Yuliya; Simon, Patrice; Gogotsi, Yury

    2016-02-01

    We report exceptional electrochemical properties of supercapacitor electrodes composed of large, granular carbide-derived carbon (CDC) particles. Using a titanium carbide (TiC) precursor, we synthesized 70-250 μm sized particles with high surface area and a narrow pore size distribution. Electrochemical cycling of these coarse-grained powders defied conventional wisdom that a small particle size is strictly required for supercapacitor electrodes and allowed high charge storage densities, rapid transport, and good rate handling ability. The material showcased capacitance above 100 F g-1 at sweep rates as high as 250 mV s-1 in organic electrolyte. 250-1000 micron thick dense CDC films with up to 80 mg cm-2 loading showed superior areal capacitances. The material significantly outperformed its activated carbon counterpart in organic electrolytes and ionic liquids. Furthermore, large internal/external surface ratio of coarse-grained carbons allowed the resulting electrodes to maintain high electrochemical stability up to 3.1 V in ionic liquid electrolyte. In addition to presenting novel insights into the electrosorption process, these coarse-grained carbons offer a pathway to low-cost, high-performance implementation of supercapacitors in automotive and grid-storage applications.

  9. Carbide-based fuel system for undersea vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, A. Alan; Carreiro, Louis G.; Greene, Eric S. [Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Newport (NUWCDIVNPT), 1176 Howell Street, Building 1302/2, Newport, RI 02841 (United States)

    2008-01-21

    In underwater applications such as unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV) propulsion, mass and volume constraints often dictate system energy density and specific energy, which are targeted to exceed 300 Wh L{sup -1} and 300 Wh kg{sup -1}, respectively, in order to compete with state-of-the-art battery technologies. To address this need, a novel carbide-based fuel system (CFS) intended for use with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is under development that is capable of achieving these energy metrics as well as sequestering carbon dioxide. The proposed CFS uses calcium carbide and calcium hydride that react with water to generate acetylene and hydrogen as the fuel and calcium hydroxide as a carbon dioxide scrubber. The acetylene is hydrogenated to ethane and then reformed to syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen) before being utilized by the SOFC. Carbon dioxide effluent from the SOFC is reacted with the calcium hydroxide to produce a storable solid, calcium carbonate, thus eliminating gas evolution from the UUV. A system configuration is proposed and discussion follows concerning energy storage metrics, operational parameters and preliminary safety analysis. (author)

  10. Detonation Synthesis of Alpha-Variant Silicon Carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenderfer, Martin; Johnson, Catherine; Fahrenholtz, William; Mochalin, Vadym

    2017-06-01

    A recent research study has been undertaken to develop facilities for conducting detonation synthesis of nanomaterials. This process involves a familiar technique that has been utilized for the industrial synthesis of nanodiamonds. Developments through this study have allowed for experimentation with the concept of modifying explosive compositions to induce synthesis of new nanomaterials. Initial experimentation has been conducted with the end goal being synthesis of alpha variant silicon carbide (α-SiC) in the nano-scale. The α-SiC that can be produced through detonation synthesis methods is critical to the ceramics industry because of a number of unique properties of the material. Conventional synthesis of α-SiC results in formation of crystals greater than 100 nm in diameter, outside nano-scale. It has been theorized that the high temperature and pressure of an explosive detonation can be used for the formation of α-SiC in the sub 100 nm range. This paper will discuss in detail the process development for detonation nanomaterial synthesis facilities, optimization of explosive charge parameters to maximize nanomaterial yield, and introduction of silicon to the detonation reaction environment to achieve first synthesis of nano-sized alpha variant silicon carbide.

  11. Boron doping of silicon rich carbides: Electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summonte, C., E-mail: caterina.summonte@cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, Bologna (Italy); Canino, M.; Allegrezza, M.; Bellettato, M.; Desalvo, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, Bologna (Italy); Shukla, R. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, Bologna (Italy); Centre of Non-Conventional Energy Resources, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India); Jain, I.P. [Centre of Non-Conventional Energy Resources, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur (India); Crupi, I. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, Catania (Italy); Milita, S.; Ortolani, L. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche – Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi, Bologna (Italy); López-Conesa, L.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Garrido, B. [MIND – UB, Electronics Department, University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    2013-05-15

    Boron doped multilayers based on silicon carbide/silicon rich carbide, aimed at the formation of silicon nanodots for photovoltaic applications, are studied. X-ray diffraction confirms the formation of crystallized Si and 3C-SiC nanodomains. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy indicates the occurrence of remarkable interdiffusion between adjacent layers. However, the investigated material retains memory of the initial dopant distribution. Electrical measurements suggest the presence of an unintentional dopant impurity in the intrinsic SiC matrix. The overall volume concentration of nanodots is determined by optical simulation and is shown not to contribute to lateral conduction. Remarkable higher room temperature dark conductivity is obtained in the multilayer that includes a boron doped well, rather than boron doped barrier, indicating efficient doping in the former case. Room temperature lateral dark conductivity up to 10{sup −3} S/cm is measured on the multilayer with boron doped barrier and well. The result compares favorably with silicon dioxide and makes SiC encouraging for application in photovoltaic devices.

  12. Ion beam figuring of CVD silicon carbide mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailly, P.; Collette, J.-P.; Fleury Frenette, K.; Jamar, C.

    2017-11-01

    Optical and structural elements made of silicon carbide are increasingly found in space instruments. Chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD-SiC) is used as a reflective coating on SiC optics in reason of its good behavior under polishing. The advantage of applying ion beam figuring (IBF) to CVD-SiC over other surface figure-improving techniques is discussed herein. The results of an IBF sequence performed at the Centre Spatial de Liège on a 100 mm CVD-SiC mirror are reported. The process allowed to reduce the mirror surface errors from 243 nm to 13 nm rms . Beside the surface figure, roughness is another critical feature to consider in order to preserve the optical quality of CVD-SiC . Thus, experiments focusing on the evolution of roughness were performed in various ion beam etching conditions. The roughness of samples etched at different depths down to 3 ≠m was determined with an optical profilometer. These measurements emphasize the importance of selecting the right combination of gas and beam energy to keep roughness at a low level. Kaufman-type ion sources are generally used to perform IBF but the performance of an end-Hall ion source in figuring CVD-SiC mirrors was also evaluated in this study. In order to do so, ion beam etching profiles obtained with the end-Hall source on CVD-SiC were measured and used as a basis for IBF simulations.

  13. Vacuum-mixing cement does not decrease overall porosity in cemented femoral stems: AN IN VITRO LABORATORY INVESTIGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messick, K. J.; Miller, M. A.; Damron, L. A.; Race, A.; Clarke, M. T.; Mann, K. A.

    2008-01-01

    The role of vacuum mixing on the reduction of porosity and on the clinical performance of cemented total hip replacements remains uncertain. We have used paired femoral constructs prepared with either hand-mixed or vacuum-mixed cement in a cadaver model which simulated intra-operative conditions during cementing of the femoral component. After the cement had cured, the distribution of its porosity was determined, as was the strength of the cement-stem and cement-bone interfaces. The overall fraction of the pore area was similar for both hand-mixed and vacuum-mixed cement (hand 6%; vacuum 5.7%; paired t-test, p = 0.187). The linear pore fractions at the interfaces were also similar for the two techniques. The pore number-density was much higher for the hand-mixed cement (paired t-test, p = 0.0013). The strength of the cement-stem interface was greater with the hand-mixed cement (paired t-test, p = 0.0005), while the strength of the cement-bone interface was not affected by the conditions of mixing (paired t-test, p = 0.275). The reduction in porosity with vacuum mixing did not affect the porosity of the mantle, but the distribution of the porosity can be affected by the technique of mixing used. PMID:17785755

  14. Evaluation of stainless steel crowns cemented with glass-ionomer and resin-modified glass-ionomer luting cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Yucel; Simsek, Sera; Dalmis, Anya; Gurbuz, Taskin; Kocogullari, M Elcin

    2006-04-01

    To evaluate in vitro and in vivo conditions of stainless steel crowns (SSC) cemented using one luting glass-ionomer cement (Aqua Meron) and one luting resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (Vitremer). In the in vitro part of this study, retentive properties of SSCs cemented using Aqua Meron and Vitremer on extracted primary first molars were tested. In addition, two specimens of each group were used to evaluate the tooth hard tissue-cement, within the cement itself, cement-SSC, and tooth hard tissue-cement-SSC under scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the in vivo part of this study, 152 SSCs were placed on the first or second primary molars of 86 children, and cemented using either Aqua Meron or Vitremer. The crowns were examined for retention. In addition, the clinical views of the crowns were recorded with an intraoral camera. No significant difference was found between the mean retentive forces of Aqua Meron and Vitremer (P> 0.05). SSCs cemented with Aqua Meron and Vitremer had an average lifespan of 26.44 and 24.07 months respectively. Only one (0.66%) of 152 SSCs was lost from the Aqua Meron group during post-cementation periods. Nineteen of the 152 SSCs (12.5%) had dents or perforations.

  15. Simplified cementation of lithium disilicate crowns: Retention with various adhesive resin cement combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glen H; Lepe, Xavier; Patterson, Amanda; Schäfer, Oliver

    2017-09-27

    A composite resin cement and matching self-etch adhesive was developed to simplify the dependable retention of lithium disilicate crowns. The efficacy of this new system is unknown. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether lithium disilicate crowns cemented with a new composite resin and adhesive system and 2 other popular systems provide clinically acceptable crown retention after long-term aging with monthly thermocycling. Extracted human molars were prepared with a flat occlusal surface, 20-degree convergence, and 4 mm axial length. The axio-occlusal line angle was slightly rounded. The preparation surface area was determined by optical scanning and the analysis of the standard tessellation language (STL) files. The specimens were distributed into 3 cement groups (n=12) to obtain equal mean surface areas. Lithium disilicate crowns (IPS e.max Press) were fabricated for each preparation, etched with 9.5% hydrofluoric acid for 15 seconds, and cleaned. Cement systems were RelyX Ultimate with Scotch Bond Universal (3M Dental Products); Monobond S, Multilink Automix with Multilink Primer A and B (Ivoclar Vivadent AG); and NX3 Nexus with OptiBond XTR (Kerr Corp). Each adhesive provided self-etching of the dentin. Before cementation, the prepared specimens were stored in 35°C water. A force of 196 N was used to cement the crowns, and the specimens were polymerized in a 35°C oven at 100% humidity. After 24 hours of storage at 100% humidity, the cemented crowns were thermocycled (5°C to 55°C) for 5000 cycles each month for 6 months. The crowns were removed axially at 0.5 mm/min. The removal force was recorded and the dislodgement stress calculated using the preparation surface area. The type of cement failure was recorded, and the data were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and the chi-square test (α=.05) after the equality of variances had been assessed with the Levene test. The Levene test was nonsignificant (P=.936). The ANOVA revealed the mean removal

  16. Environmental CRIteria for CEMent based products, ECRICEM. Phase I. Ordinary Portland Cements. Phase II. Blended Cements. Executive Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Sloot, H.A.; Van Zomeren, A. [ECN Biomass, Coal and Environmetal Research, Petten (Netherlands); Stenger, R. [Holcim Group Support Ltd, Holderbank (Switzerland); Schneider, M.; Spanka, G. [VDZ, Duesseldorf (Germany); Stoltenberg-Hansson, A. [NORCEM, HeidelbergCement Group, Brevik (Norway); Dath, P. [Holcim Belgium, Obourg (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    The protection of the immediate environment of structural works is one of the essential requirements of the European Construction Products Directive (CPD). According to the CPD, construction products can only be put on the market, if the structural works built with them fulfil the relevant requirements for hygiene, and the protection of health and the environment. These essential requirements in the respective standards are specified at the national level by the individual member states. Cement and cementitious materials are considered to fulfil the fundamental requirements of the European Construction Products Directive and the corresponding national regulations. Therefore a technical regulation like the cement standard EN 197 in general does not cover separate requirements for determining compliance of cementitious materials with criteria on hygiene, health and environmental protection. Further regulations are laid down in cases where it appears necessary for constructive applications requiring a particular protection of water, soil and air.

  17. Composite cements benefit from light-curing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lührs, Anne-Katrin; De Munck, Jan; Geurtsen, Werner; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of curing of composite cements and a new ceramic silanization pre-treatment on the micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS). Feldspathic ceramic blocks were luted onto dentin using either Optibond XTR/Nexus 3 (XTR/NX3; Kerr), the silane-incorporated 'universal' adhesive Scotchbond Universal/RelyX Ultimate (SBU/RXU; 3M ESPE), or ED Primer II/Panavia F2.0 (ED/PAF; Kuraray Noritake). Besides 'composite cement', experimental variables were 'curing mode' ('AA': complete auto-cure at 21°C; 'AA*': complete auto-cure at 37°C; 'LA': light-curing of adhesive and auto-cure of cement; 'LL': complete light-curing) and 'ceramic surface pre-treatment' ('HF/S/HB': hydrofluoric acid ('HF': IPS Ceramic Etching Gel, Ivoclar-Vivadent), silanization ('S': Monobond Plus, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and application of an adhesive resin ('HB': Heliobond, Ivoclar-Vivadent); 'HF/SBU': 'HF' and application of the 'universal' adhesive Scotchbond Universal ('SBU'; 3M ESPE, only for SBU/RXU)). After water storage (7 days at 37°C), ceramic-dentin sticks were subjected to μTBS testing. Regarding the 'composite cement', the significantly lowest μTBSs were measured for ED/PAF. Regarding 'curing mode', the significantly highest μTBS was recorded when at least the adhesive was light-cured ('LA' and 'LL'). Complete auto-cure ('AA') revealed the significantly lowest μTBS. The higher auto-curing temperature ('AA*') increased the μTBS only for ED/PAF. Regarding 'ceramic surface pre-treatment', only for 'LA' the μTBS was significantly higher for 'HF/S/HB' than for 'HF/SBU'. Complete auto-cure led to inferior μTBS than when either the adhesive (on dentin) or both adhesive and composite cement were light-cured. The use of a silane-incorporated adhesive did not decrease luting effectiveness when also the composite cement was light-cured. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Magnetic composites based on metallic nickel and molybdenum carbide: A potential material for pollutants removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mambrini, Raquel V.; Fonseca, Thales L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Dias, Anderson [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG 35400-000 (Brazil); Oliveira, Luiz C.A.; Araujo, Maria Helena [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 (Brazil); Moura, Flavia C.C., E-mail: flaviamoura@ufmg.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901 (Brazil)

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New magnetic molybdenum carbide composites can be prepared by CVD from ethanol. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic molybdenum carbide shows promising results for pollutants removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The carbide composites can be easily recovered magnetically and reused. - Abstract: New magnetic composites based on metallic nickel and molybdenum carbide, Ni/Mo{sub 2}C, have been produced via catalytic chemical vapor deposition from ethanol. Scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies suggest that the CVD process occurs in a single step. This process involves the reduction of NiMo oxides at different temperatures (700, 800 and 900 Degree-Sign C) with catalytic deposition of carbon from ethanol producing molybdenum carbide on Ni surface. In the absence of molybdenum the formation of Ni/C was observed. The magnetic molybdenum carbide was successfully used as pollutants removal by adsorption of sulfur and nitrogen compounds from liquid fuels and model dyes such as methylene blue and indigo carmine. The dibenzothiofene adsorption process over Ni/Mo{sub 2}C reached approximately 20 mg g{sup -1}, notably higher than other materials described in the literature and also removed almost all methylene blue dye. The great advantage of these carbide composites is that they may be easily recovered magnetically and reused.

  19. XPS, AES and friction studies of single-crystal silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    The surface chemistry and friction behavior of a single crystal silicon carbide surface parallel to the 0001 plane in sliding contact with iron at various temperatures to 1500 C in a vacuum of 3 x 10 nPa are investigated using X-ray photoelectron and Auger electron spectroscopy. Results show that graphite and carbide-type carbon are seen primarily on the silicon carbide surface in addition to silicon at temperatures to 800 C by both types of spectroscopy. The coefficients of friction for iron sliding against a silicon carbide surface parallel to the 0001 plane surface are found to be high at temperatures up to 800 C, with the silicon and carbide-type carbon at maximum intensity in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at 800 C. The concentration of the graphite increases rapidly on the surface as the temperature is increased above 800 C, while the concentrations of the carbide-type carbon and silicon decrease rapidly and this presence of graphite is accompanied by a significant decrease in friction. Preheating the surfaces to 1500 C also gives dramatically lower coefficients of friction when reheating in the sliding temperature range of from room temperature to 1200 C, with this reduction in friction due to the graphite layer on the silicon carbide surface.

  20. Laboratory Electrical Resistivity Studies on Cement Stabilized Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimi Ann Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical resistivity measurement of freshly prepared uncured and cured soil-cement materials is done and the correlations between the factors controlling the performance of soil-cement and electrical resistivity are discussed in this paper. Conventional quality control of soil-cement quite often involves wastage of a lot of material, if it does not meet the strength criteria. In this study, it is observed that, in soil-cement, resistivity follows a similar trend as unconfined compressive strength, with increase in cement content and time of curing. Quantitative relations developed for predicting 7-day strength of soil-cement mix, using resistivity of the soil-cement samples at freshly prepared state, after 1-hour curing help to decide whether the soil-cement mix meets the desired strength and performance criteria. This offers the option of the soil-cement mix to be upgraded (possibly with additional cement in its fresh state itself, if it does not fulfil the performance criteria, rather than wasting the material after hardening.

  1. Laboratory Electrical Resistivity Studies on Cement Stabilized Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Nimi Ann; Shivashankar, R; Lokesh, K N; Jacob, Jinu Mary

    2017-01-01

    Electrical resistivity measurement of freshly prepared uncured and cured soil-cement materials is done and the correlations between the factors controlling the performance of soil-cement and electrical resistivity are discussed in this paper. Conventional quality control of soil-cement quite often involves wastage of a lot of material, if it does not meet the strength criteria. In this study, it is observed that, in soil-cement, resistivity follows a similar trend as unconfined compressive strength, with increase in cement content and time of curing. Quantitative relations developed for predicting 7-day strength of soil-cement mix, using resistivity of the soil-cement samples at freshly prepared state, after 1-hour curing help to decide whether the soil-cement mix meets the desired strength and performance criteria. This offers the option of the soil-cement mix to be upgraded (possibly with additional cement) in its fresh state itself, if it does not fulfil the performance criteria, rather than wasting the material after hardening.

  2. Critical design parameters to prevent gas invasion during cementing operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannister, C.E.; Birch, G.; Jones, M.J.; Shuster, G.; Wooldridge, L.

    1983-10-01

    The invasion of gas into cement slurries has been studied using a simulated wellbore model. Results indicate that a cement slurry loses its ability to transmit pressure with time. This loss is caused by gel structure development due, in part, to cement hydration and fluid loss. Gas flow can be initiated when the pressure transmitted by the fluid column becomes less than the gas pressure. The relationship between gas flow and this pressure differential has been determined for several cement systems. This relationship has been termed ''gas conductivity'' and is a measure of gas permeability of cement slurries prior to the development of compressive strength. Two different design approaches were investigated in order to reduce gas conductivities in cement slurries. One involves inhibition of gas flow by the deposition of an impermeable cement filter cake against the formation. The second design incorporates a modified cement slurry which interacts with incoming gas to form an impermeable barrier in the cement pore spaces, thereby inhibiting further gas flow. The use of this ''gas-induced'' cement barrier to prevent gas flow has been successfully applied in Canada, Europe and the United States. Several case histories are discussed.

  3. Effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Keisuke; Mouhat, Mathieu; Nergård, John Magnus; Lægreid, Solveig Jenssen; Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Örtengren, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The present study investigated the effect of cements on fracture resistance of monolithic zirconia crowns in relation to their compressive strength. Materials and methods Four different cements were tested: zinc phosphate cement (ZPC), glass-ionomer cement (GIC), self-adhesive resin-based cement (SRC) and resin-based cement (RC). RC was used in both dual cure mode (RC-D) and chemical cure mode (RC-C). First, the compressive strength of each cement was tested according to a standard (ISO 9917-1:2004). Second, load-to-failure test was performed to analyze the crown fracture resistance. CAD/CAM-produced monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm were prepared and cemented to dies with each cement. The crown–die samples were loaded until fracture. Results The compressive strength of SRC, RC-D and RC-C was significantly higher than those of ZPC and GIC (p crown between the groups. Conclusion The values achieved in the load-to-failure test suggest that monolithic zirconia crowns with a minimal thickness of 0.5 mm may have good resistance against fracture regardless of types of cements. PMID:27335900

  4. The contemporary cement cycle of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, A.; Van Oss, H. G.; Keoleian, G.; Kesler, S.E.; Kendall, A.

    2009-01-01

    A country-level stock and flow model for cement, an important construction material, was developed based on a material flow analysis framework. Using this model, the contemporary cement cycle of the United States was constructed by analyzing production, import, and export data for different stages of the cement cycle. The United States currently supplies approximately 80% of its cement consumption through domestic production and the rest is imported. The average annual net addition of in-use new cement stock over the period 2000-2004 was approximately 83 million metric tons and amounts to 2.3 tons per capita of concrete. Nonfuel carbon dioxide emissions (42 million metric tons per year) from the calcination phase of cement manufacture account for 62% of the total 68 million tons per year of cement production residues. The end-of-life cement discards are estimated to be 33 million metric tons per year, of which between 30% and 80% is recycled. A significant portion of the infrastructure in the United States is reaching the end of its useful life and will need to be replaced or rehabilitated; this could require far more cement than might be expected from economic forecasts of demand for cement. ?? 2009 Springer Japan.

  5. Microstructure characteristics of cement-stabilized sandy soil using nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asskar Janalizadeh Choobbasti

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was conducted to explore the impact of nanosilica on the microstructure and mechanical characteristics of cemented sandy soil. Cement agent included Portland cement type II. Cement content was 6% by weight of the sandy soil. Nanosilica was added in percentages of 0%, 4%, 8% and 12% by weight of cement. Cylindrical samples were prepared with relative density of 80% and optimum water content and cured for 7 d, 28 d and 90 d. Microstructure characteristics of cement-nanosilica-sand mixtures after 90 d of curing have been explored using atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD tests. Effects of curing time on microstructure properties of cemented sandy soil samples with 0% and 8% nanosilica have been investigated using SEM test. Unconfined compression test (for all curing times and compaction test were also performed. The SEM and AFM tests results showed that nanosilica contributes to enhancement of cemented sandy soil through yielding denser, more uniform structure. The XRD test demonstrated that the inclusion of nanosilica in the cemented soil increases the intensity of the calcium silicate hydrate (CSH peak and decreases the intensity of the calcium hydroxide (CH peak. The results showed that adding optimum percentages of nanosilica to cement-stabilized sandy soil enhances its mechanical and microstructure properties.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of carbon and boron carbide nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Sara

    Carbon is present in nature in a variety of allotropes and chemical compounds. Due to reduced dimensionality, nanostructured carbon materials, i.e. single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), are characterized by unique physical and chemical properties. There is a potential for SWNTs use as biological probes and assists for tunable tissue growth in biomedical applications. However, the presumed cytotoxicity of SWNTs requires investigation of the risks of their incorporation into living systems. Boron is not found in nature in elementary form. Boron based materials are chemically complex and exist in various polymorphic forms, i.e. boron carbide (BC). Because BC is a lightweight material with exceptional mechanical and elastic properties, it is the ideal candidate for armor and ballistic applications. However, practical use of BC as armor material is limited because of its anomalous glass-like behaviour at high velocity impacts, which has been linked to stress-induced structural instability in one of BC polymorphs, B12(CCC). Theoretical calculations suggest that formation of B12(CCC) in BC could be suppressed by silicon doping. In the first part of this thesis, biocompatibility of SWNTs is investigated. It is shown that under normal cell implantation conditions, the electrical conductivity of the SWNTs decreases due to an increase in structural disorder. This research suggests that SWNTs can be functionalized by protein and biological cells reducing the risk of cytotoxicity. In the second part of this thesis, boron carbide nanostructured materials are synthesized and investigated. Radio frequency sputtering deposition technique is employed for fabrication of BC (Si free) and BC:Si thin films. Variation of plasma conditions and temperature are found to affect chemical composition, adhesion to the substrate and morphology of the films. It is shown that BC films are predominantly amorphous and a small addition of Si largely improves their mechanical properties. In addition

  7. Rapid Fabrication of Carbide Matrix/Carbon Fiber Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brian E.; Bernander, Robert E.

    2007-01-01

    Composites of zirconium carbide matrix material reinforced with carbon fibers can be fabricated relatively rapidly in a process that includes a melt infiltration step. Heretofore, these and other ceramic matrix composites have been made in a chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process that takes months. The finished products of the CVI process are highly porous and cannot withstand temperatures above 3,000 F (approx.1,600 C). In contrast, the melt-infiltration-based process takes only a few days, and the composite products are more nearly fully dense and have withstood temperatures as high as 4,350 F (approx.2,400 C) in a highly oxidizing thrust chamber environment. Moreover, because the melt- infiltration-based process takes much less time, the finished products are expected to cost much less. Fabrication begins with the preparation of a carbon fiber preform that, typically, is of the size and shape of a part to be fabricated. By use of low-temperature ultraviolet-enhanced chemical vapor deposition, the carbon fibers in the preform are coated with one or more interfacial material(s), which could include oxides. The interfacial material helps to protect the fibers against chemical attack during the remainder of the fabrication process and against oxidation during subsequent use; it also enables slippage between the fibers and the matrix material, thereby helping to deflect cracks and distribute loads. Once the fibers have been coated with the interfacial material, the fiber preform is further infiltrated with a controlled amount of additional carbon, which serves as a reactant for the formation of the carbide matrix material. The next step is melt infiltration. The preform is exposed to molten zirconium, which wicks into the preform, drawn by capillary action. The molten metal fills most of the interstices of the preform and reacts with the added carbon to form the zirconium carbide matrix material. The zirconium does not react with the underlying fibers because they

  8. Characterization of silicon carbide and diamond detectors for neutron applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, M.; Lohstroh, A.; Sellin, P.; Thomas, D.

    2017-10-01

    The presence of carbon atoms in silicon carbide and diamond makes these materials ideal candidates for direct fast neutron detectors. Furthermore the low atomic number, strong covalent bonds, high displacement energies, wide bandgap and low intrinsic carrier concentrations make these semiconductor detectors potentially suitable for applications where rugged, high-temperature, low-gamma-sensitivity detectors are required, such as active interrogation, electronic personal neutron dosimetry and harsh environment detectors. A thorough direct performance comparison of the detection capabilities of semi-insulating silicon carbide (SiC-SI), single crystal diamond (D-SC), polycrystalline diamond (D-PC) and a self-biased epitaxial silicon carbide (SiC-EP) detector has been conducted and benchmarked against a commercial silicon PIN (Si-PIN) diode, in a wide range of alpha (Am-241), beta (Sr/Y-90), ionizing photon (65 keV to 1332 keV) and neutron radiation fields (including 1.2 MeV to 16.5 MeV mono-energetic neutrons, as well as neutrons from AmBe and Cf-252 sources). All detectors were shown to be able to directly detect and distinguish both the different radiation types and energies by using a simple energy threshold discrimination method. The SiC devices demonstrated the best neutron energy discrimination ratio (E\\max (n=5 MeV)/E\\max (n=1 MeV)  ≈5), whereas a superior neutron/photon cross-sensitivity ratio was observed in the D-PC detector (E\\max (AmBe)/E\\max (Co-60)  ≈16). Further work also demonstrated that the cross-sensitivity ratios can be improved through use of a simple proton-recoil conversion layer. Stability issues were also observed in the D-SC, D-PC and SiC-SI detectors while under irradiation, namely a change of energy peak position and/or count rate with time (often referred to as the polarization effect). This phenomenon within the detectors was non-debilitating over the time period tested (> 5 h) and, as such, stable operation was

  9. 40 CFR 427.10 - Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos-cement pipe subcategory. 427.10 Section 427.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Asbestos-Cement Pipe Subcategory § 427.10 Applicability; description of the asbestos-cement pipe... asbestos. Portland cement, silica and other ingredients are used in the manufacturing of asbestos-cement...

  10. A practical method for estimating maximum shear modulus of cemented sands using unconfined compressive strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hyunwook; Nam, Hongyeop; Lee, Woojin

    2017-12-01

    The composition of naturally cemented deposits is very complicated; thus, estimating the maximum shear modulus (Gmax, or shear modulus at very small strains) of cemented sands using the previous empirical formulas is very difficult. The purpose of this experimental investigation is to evaluate the effects of particle size and cement type on the Gmax and unconfined compressive strength (qucs) of cemented sands, with the ultimate goal of estimating Gmax of cemented sands using qucs. Two sands were artificially cemented using Portland cement or gypsum under varying cement contents (2%-9%) and relative densities (30%-80%). Unconfined compression tests and bender element tests were performed, and the results from previous studies of two cemented sands were incorporated in this study. The results of this study demonstrate that the effect of particle size on the qucs and Gmax of four cemented sands is insignificant, and the variation of qucs and Gmax can be captured by the ratio between volume of void and volume of cement. qucs and Gmax of sand cemented with Portland cement are greater than those of sand cemented with gypsum. However, the relationship between qucs and Gmax of the cemented sand is not affected by the void ratio, cement type and cement content, revealing that Gmax of the complex naturally cemented soils with unknown in-situ void ratio, cement type and cement content can be estimated using qucs.

  11. Long-term outcomes of cement in cement technique for revision endoprosthesis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernthal, Nicholas M; Hegde, Vishal; Zoller, Stephen D; Park, Howard Y; Ghodasra, Jason H; Johansen, Daniel; Eilber, Frederick; Eilber, Fritz C; Chandhanayingyong, Chandhanarat; Eckardt, Jeffrey J

    2017-10-29

    Cemented endoprosthetic reconstruction after resection of primary bone sarcomas has been a standard-of-care option for decades. With increased patient survival, the incidence of failed endoprostheses requiring revision surgery has increased. Revision of cemented endoprotheses by cementing into the existing cement mantle (CiC) is technically demanding. This is a retrospective review of our endoprosthesis database of 512 consecutive cemented endoprosthetic reconstructions performed for oncologic diagnoses between 1980 and 2014. A total of 54 implants (mean patient age 32 years, range 13-81) were revised with a CiC technique. Outcomes evaluated were prosthesis survival, revision surgery categorized according to the Henderson Failure Mode Classification, complications, and functional scores. Fifteen-year Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 34% for initial revision and 39% for subsequent revision implants. Mean revised Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) Score was 27 at latest follow-up. Infection rate was 2%, 9%, and 13% for primary endoprostheses, initial revisions, and subsequent revisions, respectively. Limb salvage rate was 87%. At long-term follow up, endoprostheses revised with the CiC technique showed consistent 15-year survival from initial (34%) to subsequent (39%) revision. Despite a relatively high failure rate, these results are encouraging and demonstrate that this is a conservative, repeatable technique. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Handbook of refractory carbides and nitrides properties, characteristics, processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pierson, Hugh O

    1996-01-01

    Refractory carbides and nitrides are useful materials with numerous industrial applications and a promising future, in addition to being materials of great interest to the scientific community. Although most of their applications are recent, the refractory carbides and nitrides have been known for over one hundred years. The industrial importance of the refractory carbides and nitrides is growing rapidly, not only in the traditional and well-established applications based on the strength and refractory nature of these materials such as cutting tools and abrasives, but also in new and promising fields such as electronics and optoelectronics.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of transition metal carbides and their catalytic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Cheng

    Transition metal (both monometallic and bimetallic) carbides have been synthesized by an amine-metal oxide composite (AMOC) method. The composite reduces the diffusion distances among each element and allows the formation of carbides to take place as low as 610°C, which is significantly lower than traditional carbide synthesis methods (above 1500°C). Additionally, amines act not only as carbon sources and reducing agents, but also morphological templates which helps to make uniform transition metal carbide (TMC) nanocrystals with various shapes. Beyond morphology control, AMOC method can also help to synthesize multiple phases of monometallic carbides, which includes four phases of molybdenum carbides (alpha-MoC1-x, beta-Mo2C, eta-MoC, and gamma-MoC), two phases of tungsten carbides (W2C and WC), and three phases of chromium carbides (Cr3C2-x, Cr7C3, and Cr3C2). Molybdenum carbide has been proposed as a possible alternative to platinum for catalyzing the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Previous studies were limited to only one phase, which is beta-Mo2C with an Fe 2N structure. Here, four molybdenum carbide materials including gamma-MoC with a WC type structure which was stabilized for the first time as a phase pure nanomaterial. Moreover, a wide range of magnetic iron-doped molybdenum carbide (Mo2-xFexC) nanomaterials were also synthesized, which exhibits a better HER activity to non-doped beta-Mo2C. A group of (CrxFe1-x)7C3 (0.2nanomaterials via AMOC method, which demonstrate excellent catalytic activities for both oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Other carbides/nitrides made from AMOCs include WN1-x, Fe3C, Fe3-xN, Fe3Mo3C, N 2Mo3C, Ni3Mo3C, Ni6Mo 6C, and Mo0.5W0.5C.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of metal carbides nanoparticles produced by electrical explosion of wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, Alexander P; Nazarenko, Olga B; Tikhonov, Dmitriy V

    2012-10-01

    Tungsten, titanium, tantalum, aluminum carbides nanoparticles were produced by electrical explosion of wires. The explosions were carried out in gaseous mixtures of argon and acetylene at different ratios, argon and propane, and in liquids such as benzene, toluene, decane. The effects of the synthesis conditions on the size and phase composition of metal carbide nanoparticles were investigated. The thermal activity of the prepared powders was studied by the method of differential thermal analysis at the heating in air. Thermodynamic analysis of carbides formation during the process of electrical explosion has been made. The output of the chemical compounds depends on their thermal stability: the more thermally stable they are, the higher their output.

  15. Effect of boron carbide on primary crystallization of chromium cast iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Studnicki

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper results of the influence of boron carbide (B4C as inoculant of abrasion-resisting chromium cast iron (about 2,8% carbon and 18% chromium on primary crystallization researches are presented. Boron carbide dispersion was introduced at the bottom of pouring ladle before tap of liquid cast iron. In this investigations were used three different quantities of inoculant in amounts 0,1%; 0,2% and 0,3% with relation to bath weight. It has been demonstrated that such small additions of boron carbide change primary crystallization parameters, particularly temperature characteristic of process, their time and kinetics.

  16. DESIGN OF CEMENT COMPOSITES WITH INCREASED IMPERMEABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedyuk Roman Sergeevich

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the development of composite binders for producing concrete with improved characteristics of gas, water and vapor permeability. The authors investigate the processes of composite materials formation in order of decreasing scale levels from macro to nanostructures. The criteria for optimization of the volume of dispersed additives in concrete are offered. The authors theoretically studied the technological features of the formation of hydrated cement stone structure. A positive effect of nanodispersed additives on the structure and physico-mechanical properties of cement composite materials are predicted. Thanks to its improved features, such as good ratio of strength and body density, high density and lifetime, the modified concrete may be used when solving various practical tasks of the construction branch.

  17. Glass ionomer restorative cement systems: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Joel H; Croll, Theodore P

    2015-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements have been used in pediatric restorative dentistry for more than two decades. Their usefulness in clinical dentistry is preferential to other materials because of fluoride release from the glass component, biocompatibility, chemical adhesion to dentin and enamel, coefficient of thermal expansion similar to that of tooth structure, and versatility. The purpose of this paper was to review the uses of glass ionomer materials in pediatric dentistry, specifically as pit and fissure sealants, dentin and enamel replacement repair materials, and luting cements, and for use in glass ionomer/resin-based composite stratification tooth restoration (the sandwich technique). This article can also be used as a guide to research and clinical references regarding specific aspects of the glass ionomer systems and how they are used for young patients.

  18. High temperature cement raw meal flowability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maarup, Claus; Hjuler, Klaus; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated by incre......The flowability of cement raw meal is investigated at temperatures up to 850°C in a specially designed monoaxial shear tester. Consolidation stresses of 0.94, 1.87 and 2.79kPa are applied. The results show that the flowability is reduced as temperature is increased above 550°C, indicated...

  19. Stabilization of marly soils with portland cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskunov, Maksim; Karzin, Evgeny; Lukina, Valentina; Lukinov, Vitaly; Kholkin, Anatolii

    2017-10-01

    Stabilization of marlous soils with Portland cement will increase the service life of motor roads in areas where marl is used as a local road construction material. The result of the conducted research is the conclusion about the principal possibility of stabilization of marlous soils with Portland cement, and about the optimal percentage of the mineral part and the binding agent. When planning the experiment, a simplex-lattice plan was implemented, which makes it possible to obtain a mathematical model for changing the properties of a material in the form of polynomials of incomplete third order. Brands were determined for compressive strength according to GOST 23558-94 and variants of stabilized soils were proposed for road construction.

  20. Cement and Concrete Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Taijiro Sato; Jon Makar; Rouhollah Alizadeh; James Beaudoin; Laila Raki

    2010-01-01

    Concrete science is a multidisciplinary area of research where nanotechnology potentially offers the opportunity to enhance the understanding of concrete behavior, to engineer its properties and to lower production and ecological cost of construction materials. Recent work at the National Research Council Canada in the area of concrete materials research has shown the potential of improving concrete properties by modifying the structure of cement hydrates, addition of nanoparticles and nanotu...