WorldWideScience

Sample records for wax production role

  1. Wax Ester Fermentation and Its Application for Biofuel Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Tamoi, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    In Euglena cells under anaerobic conditions, paramylon, the storage polysaccharide, is promptly degraded and converted to wax esters. The wax esters synthesized are composed of saturated fatty acids and alcohols with chain lengths of 10-18, and the major constituents are myristic acid and myristyl alcohol. Since the anaerobic cells gain ATP through the conversion of paramylon to wax esters, the phenomenon is named "wax ester fermentation". The wax ester fermentation is quite unique in that the end products, i.e. wax esters, have relatively high molecular weights, are insoluble in water, and accumulate in the cells, in contrast to the common fermentation end products such as lactic acid and ethanol.A unique metabolic pathway involved in the wax ester fermentation is the mitochondrial fatty acid synthetic system. In this system, fatty acid are synthesized by the reversal of β-oxidation with an exception that trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase functions instead of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase. Therefore, acetyl-CoA is directly used as a C2 donor in this fatty acid synthesis, and the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, which requires ATP, is not necessary. Consequently, the mitochondrial fatty acid synthetic system makes possible the net gain of ATP through the synthesis of wax esters from paramylon. In addition, acetyl-CoA is provided in the anaerobic cells from pyruvate by the action of a unique enzyme, oxygen sensitive pyruvate:NADP(+) oxidoreductase, instead of the common pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex.Wax esters produced by anaerobic Euglena are promising biofuels because myristic acid (C14:0) in contrast to other algal produced fatty acids, such as palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0), has a low freezing point making it suitable as a drop-in jet fuel. To improve wax ester production, the molecular mechanisms by which wax ester fermentation is regulated in response to aerobic and anaerobic conditions have been gradually elucidated by identifying

  2. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF

  3. WAX ESTERS PRODUCTION BY ALCOHOLYSIS OF PALM OIL FRACTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Erin Ryantin Gunawan; Dedy Suhendra

    2010-01-01

    The lipase synthesis of wax esters using palm oil fractions (palm oil and palm kernel oil) and long chain alcohol as substrates was carried out. The present work focuses on the synthesis of wax esters using Lipozyme. Five parameters such as reaction time, temperature, amount of enzyme, molar ratio of substrates and various organic solvents of the reaction system were investigated. The optimum yields were achieved at the reaction temperature of 40 - 50 °C for palm oil (PO) and 40 °C for palm k...

  4. Oleogels of virgin olive oil with carnauba wax and monoglyceride as spreadable products

    OpenAIRE

    Öǧütcü, M.; Yılmaz, E

    2014-01-01

    The oleogels of virgin olive oil with carnauba wax and monoglyceride were prepared to determine the most suitable spreadable product. The oil binding capacities of monoglyceride oleogels were higher than those of the carnauba wax oleogels. There was no true crystalline structure with carnauba wax at 3%. Although the highest solid fat content was in the 10% monoglyceride oleogel (9.38%), it was 12.15% in the commercial breakfast margarine at 20 °C. The peak melting temperature of the margarine...

  5. Role of needle surface waxes in dynamic exchange of mono- and sesquiterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joensuu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs produced by plants have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. The different physicochemical properties of BVOCs affect their transport within and out of the plant as well as their reactions along the way. Some of these compounds may accumulate in or on the waxy surface layer of conifer needles and participate in chemical reactions on or near the foliage surface. The aim of this work was to determine whether terpenes, a key category of BVOCs produced by trees, can be found on the epicuticles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and, if so, how they compare with the terpenes found in shoot emissions of the same tree. We measured shoot-level emissions of pine seedlings at a remote outdoor location in central Finland and subsequently analysed the needle surface waxes for the same compounds. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but the proportion of sesquiterpenes was higher in the wax extracts. There were also differences in the terpene spectra of the emissions and the wax extracts. The results, therefore, support the existence of BVOC associated to the epicuticular waxes. We briefly discuss the different pathways for terpenes to reach the needle surfaces and the implications for air chemistry.

  6. Purification of a jojoba embryo wax synthase, cloning of its cDNA, and production of high levels of wax in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardizabal, K D; Metz, J G; Sakamoto, T; Hutton, W C; Pollard, M R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). We have characterized and partially purified this enzyme from developing jojoba embryos. A protein whose presence correlated with WS activity during chromatographic fractionation was identified and a cDNA encoding that protein was cloned. Seed-specific expression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred high levels of WS activity on developing embryos from those plants. The WS sequence has significant homology with several Arabidopsis open reading frames of unknown function. Wax production in jojoba requires, in addition to WS, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and an efficient fatty acid elongase system that forms the substrates preferred by the FAR. We have expressed the jojoba WS cDNA in Arabidopsis in combination with cDNAs encoding the jojoba FAR and a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (a component of fatty acid elongase) from Lunaria annua. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of pooled whole seeds from transgenic plants indicated that as many as 49% of the oil molecules in the seeds were waxes. Gas chromatography analysis of transmethylated oil from individual seeds suggested that wax levels may represent up to 70% (by weight) of the oil present in those seeds.

  7. Production of wax esters via microbial oil synthesis from food industry waste and by-product streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Aguieiras, Erika C G; Freire, Denise M G; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-12-01

    The production of wax esters using microbial oils was demonstrated in this study. Microbial oils produced from food waste and by-product streams by three oleaginous yeasts were converted into wax esters via enzymatic catalysis. Palm oil was initially used to evaluate the influence of temperature and enzyme activity on wax ester synthesis catalysed by Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme lipases using cetyl, oleyl and behenyl alcohols. The highest conversion yields (up to 79.6%) were achieved using 4U/g of Novozyme 435 at 70°C. Transesterification of microbial oils to behenyl and cetyl esters was achieved at conversion yields up to 87.3% and 69.1%, respectively. Novozyme 435 was efficiently reused for six and three cycles during palm esters and microbial esters synthesis, respectively. The physicochemical properties of microbial oil derived behenyl esters were comparable to natural waxes. Wax esters from microbial oils have potential applications in cosmetics, chemical and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amitava Sarkar; James K. Neathery; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-12-31

    A fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of operation since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products in one approach may be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase iron-based FTS and is a key factor for optimizing operating costs. The separation problem is further compounded by attrition of iron catalyst particles and the formation of ultra-fine particles.

  9. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  10. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Adam Crawford; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-09-30

    In the previous reporting period, modifications were completed for integrating a continuous wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor. During the current reporting period, a shakedown of the system was completed. Several problems were encountered with the progressive cavity pump used to circulate the wax/catalyst slurry though the cross-flow filter element and reactor. During the activation of the catalyst with elevated temperature (> 270 C) the elastomer pump stator released sulfur thereby totally deactivating the iron-based catalyst. Difficulties in maintaining an acceptable leak rate from the pump seal and stator housing were also encountered. Consequently, the system leak rate exceeded the expected production rate of wax; therefore, no online filtration could be accomplished. Work continued regarding the characterization of ultra-fine catalyst structures. The effect of carbidation on the morphology of iron hydroxide oxide particles was the focus of the study during this reporting period. Oxidation of Fe (II) sulfate results in predominantly {gamma}-FeOOH particles which have a rod-shaped (nano-needles) crystalline structure. Carbidation of the prepared {gamma}-FeOOH with CO at atmospheric pressure produced iron carbides with spherical layered structure. HRTEM and EDS analysis revealed that carbidation of {gamma}-FeOOH particles changes the initial nano-needles morphology and generates ultrafine carbide particles with irregular spherical shape.

  11. Real-Time monitoring of intracellular wax ester metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karp Matti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wax esters are industrially relevant molecules exploited in several applications of oleochemistry and food industry. At the moment, the production processes mostly rely on chemical synthesis from rather expensive starting materials, and therefore solutions are sought from biotechnology. Bacterial wax esters are attractive alternatives, and especially the wax ester metabolism of Acinetobacter sp. has been extensively studied. However, the lack of suitable tools for rapid and simple monitoring of wax ester metabolism in vivo has partly restricted the screening and analyses of potential hosts and optimal conditions. Results Based on sensitive and specific detection of intracellular long-chain aldehydes, specific intermediates of wax ester synthesis, bacterial luciferase (LuxAB was exploited in studying the wax ester metabolism in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Luminescence was detected in the cultivation of the strain producing wax esters, and the changes in signal levels could be linked to corresponding cell growth and wax ester synthesis phases. Conclusions The monitoring system showed correlation between wax ester synthesis pattern and luminescent signal. The system shows potential for real-time screening purposes and studies on bacterial wax esters, revealing new aspects to dynamics and role of wax ester metabolism in bacteria.

  12. Oleogels of virgin olive oil with carnauba wax and monoglyceride as spreadable products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öǧütcü, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The oleogels of virgin olive oil with carnauba wax and monoglyceride were prepared to determine the most suitable spreadable product. The oil binding capacities of monoglyceride oleogels were higher than those of the carnauba wax oleogels. There was no true crystalline structure with carnauba wax at 3%. Although the highest solid fat content was in the 10% monoglyceride oleogel (9.38%, it was 12.15% in the commercial breakfast margarine at 20 °C. The peak melting temperature of the margarine was 47.11 °C, and among all oleogels, monoglyceride oleogel at 7% addition had the closest value (48.70 °C. The melting enthalpies of the oleogels ranged from 1.25 to 103.97 J·g−1, while it was 94.19 J·g−1 for the margarine sample. The firmness and stickiness values were usually lower in the oleogel samples than those of the margarine sample. There was no significant change in the texture parameters during storage, indicating good structural stability. The polarized light microscopy pictures revealed rod-like crystals for carnauba wax and rosette-like aggregates for monoglyceride oleogels. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples have revealed a β´-type polymorphic structure for the oleogels. These oleogels can be used in a spreadable, breakfast margarin-like product to promote new consumption habits for this healthy oil.Se prepararon oleogeles de aceites de oliva virgen con cera de carnaúba y monoglicéridos para encontrar el producto más adecuado para untar. La capacidad de unión de aceites de oleogeles de monoglicéridos fue más alto que el de los oleogeles de cera de carnaúba. No hubo ninguna estructura cristalina verdadera con cera de carnaúba al 3%. Aunque el mayor contenido de grasa sólida fue con el 10 % de oleogeles de monoglicérido (9,38 %, fue del 12.15 % en el de margarina comercial a 20 °C. La temperatura pico de fusión de la margarina fue 47,11 ºC, y entre todos los oleogeles, los de monoglicérido al 7 % tuvo el valor m

  13. The Unique Role of the ECERIFERUM2-LIKE Clade of the BAHD Acyltransferase Superfamily in Cuticular Wax Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Tegan M.; Gerelle, Wesley K.; Graham, Sean W.; Kunst, Ljerka

    2017-01-01

    The elongation of very-long-chain fatty acids is a conserved process used for the production of many metabolites, including plant cuticular waxes. The elongation of precursors of the most abundant cuticular wax components of some plants, however, is unique in requiring ECERIFERUM2-LIKE (CER2-LIKE) proteins. CER2-LIKEs are a clade within the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases. They are known to be required for cuticular wax production in both Arabidopsis and maize based on mutant studies. Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis and rice CER2-LIKEs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has demonstrated that they modify the chain-length specificity of elongation when paired with particular condensing enzymes. Despite sequence homology, CER2-LIKEs are distinct from the BAHD superfamily in that they do not appear to use acyl transfer activity to fulfill their biological function. Here, we review the discovery and characterization of CER2-LIKEs, propose several models to explain their function, and explore the importance of CER2-LIKE proteins for the evolution of plant cuticles. PMID:28608803

  14. Role of epicuticular waxes in the susceptibility of cotton leaf curl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuV) is the causal agent of the damaging disease of cotton that is caused by number of begomaviruses and vectored by silver leaf whitefly. In the present study, an attempt was made by infecting Gossypium arboreum variety 786, its wax mutant GaWM3 along with Gossypium hirsutum MNH-93 with ...

  15. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Amitava Sarkar; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-03-31

    The morphological and chemical nature of ultrafine iron catalyst particles (3-5 nm diameters) during activation/FTS was studied by HRTEM, EELS, and Moessbauer spectroscopy. With the progress of FTS, the carbide re-oxidized to magnetite and catalyst activity gradually decreased. The growth of oxide phase continued and average particle size also increased simultaneously. The phase transformation occurred in a ''growing oxide core'' manner with different nano-zones. The nano-range carbide particles did not show fragmentation or attrition as generally observed in micrometer range particles. Nevertheless, when the dimension of particles reached the micrometer range, the crystalline carbide phase appeared to be sprouted on the surface of magnetite single crystal. In the previous reporting period, a design and operating philosophy was developed for an integrated wax filtration system for a 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor to be used in Phase II of this research program. During the current reporting period, we have started construction of the new filtration system and began modifications to the 4 liter slurry bubble column reactor (SBCR) reactor. The system will utilize a primary wax separation device followed by a Pall Accusep or Membralox ceramic cross-flow membrane. As of this writing, the unit is nearly complete except for the modification of a moyno-type pump; the pump was shipped to the manufacturer to install a special leak-free, high pressure seal.

  16. Production of Oleic Acid Based Wax Ester Using Acidic Homogeneous Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naowara Al-Arafi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Four homogeneous acidic catalysts were tested for their ability to catalyze the esterification reaction of oleic acid and oleyl alcohol to produce oleyl oleate, a wax ester. Sulfuric acid showed relatively higher specific activity. Various reaction parameters were optimised to obtain high percentage yield of oleyl oleate. The optimum condition to produce oeyl oleate was reaction time; 5 h, temperture; 90°C, amount of sulforic acid 0.15 g and molar ratio of oleyl alcohol to oleic acid; 1:1. Percentage yield of wax ester obtained at these optimum reaction conditions was 93.88. Disappearance of carboxylic acid (C=O peak has confirmed by FTIR with appearance of ester (C=O peak at 1739 cm−1. 1H NMR spectra analyses confirmed the result of oleyl oleate with appearance of ester (-CH2OCOR at 4.02 ppm and also the 13C-NMR confirmed the result with appearance of ester (C=O peak at 173.2 ppm. The low-temperture behavior of compound synthesized was determined through its pour point (PP, viscosity index (VI and flash point (FP values. The results showed that oleyl oleate exhibited the most favorable low-temperture performance of PP, VI and FP with −31°C, 197.5 and 320°C respectively. This is due to increase of the molacular weight thus improve the low temperture property significantly.

  17. Examining of slurries and production of moulds by spraying method in lost wax technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nadolski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigation centred around the selection of a ceramic slurry composition if ceramic fibre is applied as a component of moulding material used for the lost wax technology. Producing a ceramic material of assumed parameters demands for changing the surface properties of the mineral grains. The critical concentration of solid particles or the gel point depends on the size of mineral particles, their shape and ability to aggregate. This ability has been achieved by modifying their surface properties by adding some polymer and the wetting agent (surfactant, which are adsorbed. Using the fibre material has required developing a method of its applying to the pattern set. The technology of multi-layer spraying has been recognised as the most advantageous one. The performed laboratory experiments have allowed for determining both the material composition and the parameters of its applying, such as air pressure, nozzle diameter, and the spraying distance for gravity pneumatic spraying gun.

  18. Production and characterization of vaginal suppositories with propolis wax as active agent to prevent and treat Fluor albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, Siti; Azizah, Nurul; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Based on the content contained in propolis wax especially antimicrobial function, it can be analyzed that propolis wax had superiority for Fluor albus. This research was conducted on two formulation of vaginal suppositories with base, supplementary and active agent as a fixed variable: 2% propolis wax (% w/w). Evaluation of this research were weight variation, melting time, consistency, irritation effect test and physical and chemical stability test (organoleptic, pH and polyphenol content).

  19. WAXS studies of heat - mechanically modified amorphous PET fibers. Role of the tensile stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V.; Popov, A.; Kyurkchiev, P.; Veleva, L.; Pencheva, M.

    2014-12-01

    The present work is devoted to the investigation of the structure developments in as- spun amorphous poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) filaments occurred as a result of heat mechanically modification. The degree of crystallinity of the untreated samples was 1,7 %. The thermal deformation experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions. PET yarn was annealed during 10 min at constant temperature of 80°C after which the sample is subjected to a well-defined constant tensile stress for 120 s at the same temperature. The mechanical load is gravitationally in the range from 0 MPa to 30 MPa and with increment step of 3 MPa. Using of wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) were investigated the structural rearrangements in the studied samples caused by the fibers treatments. Dependences between the strain force values and the running in the specimen's structure development are established. And in particular, it was found that a small increase of the tensile stress from 3 MPa to 6 MPa leads to a massive increase in the fibers degree of crystallinity with more than 33%.

  20. Enhanced ethanol production by removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by plasma assisted pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    as with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging. Compounds resulting from wax degradation were analyzed in the washing water of PAP wheat straw. The wax removal enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis yield and, consequently, the efficiency of wheat straw conversion into ethanol. In total, PAP increased the conversion...

  1. HOT WAX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneberk, Todd; Valenzuela, Rolando G; Sterling, Garrett; Mallon, William K

    2015-09-01

    High-potency marijuana wax smoked via dabbing is a newly encountered phenomenon with relevance to prehospital care providers and emergency physicians.The extract is only recently described in current peer-reviewed literature. The drug may produce paranoia and psychosis and mimic psychiatric problems. The synthetic process for this drug poses a risk for both fire and explosions creating burns and blast injuries. These four cases were encountered in a single ED in Los Angeles in a three-week period, suggesting this could be the tip of an emerging public health problem. All four of these patients were complex cases requiring advanced imaging and ICU care. Emergency personnel need to appreciate this new trend and the implications for pre-hospital care, disposition and ED treatment of these patients.

  2. Identification of the Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl-Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase WSD1 Required for Stem Wax Ester Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis12[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengling; Wu, Xuemin; Lam, Patricia; Bird, David; Zheng, Huanquan; Samuels, Lacey; Jetter, Reinhard; Kunst, Ljerka

    2008-01-01

    Wax esters are neutral lipids composed of aliphatic alcohols and acids, with both moieties usually long-chain (C16 and C18) or very-long-chain (C20 and longer) carbon structures. They have diverse biological functions in bacteria, insects, mammals, and terrestrial plants and are also important substrates for a variety of industrial applications. In plants, wax esters are mostly found in the cuticles coating the primary shoot surfaces, but they also accumulate to high concentrations in the seed oils of a few plant species, including jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis), a desert shrub that is the major commercial source of these compounds. Here, we report the identification and characterization of WSD1, a member of the bifunctional wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase gene family, which plays a key role in wax ester synthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) stems, as first evidenced by severely reduced wax ester levels of in the stem wax of wsd1 mutants. In vitro assays using protein extracts from Escherichia coli expressing WSD1 showed that this enzyme has a high level of wax synthase activity and approximately 10-fold lower level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. Expression of the WSD1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the accumulation of wax esters, but not triacylglycerol, indicating that WSD1 predominantly functions as a wax synthase. Analyses of WSD1 expression revealed that this gene is transcribed in flowers, top parts of stems, and leaves. Fully functional yellow fluorescent protein-tagged WSD1 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, demonstrating that biosynthesis of wax esters, the final products of the alcohol-forming pathway, occurs in this subcellular compartment. PMID:18621978

  3. Molecular and Evolutionary Mechanisms of Cuticular Wax for Plant Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Xue

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature. Drought, a major type of abiotic stress, poses huge threats to global food security and health of terrestrial ecosystem by limiting plant growth and crop productivity. The composition, biochemistry, structure, biosynthesis, and transport of plant cuticular wax have been reviewed extensively. However, the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms of cuticular wax in plants in response to drought stress are still lacking. In this review, we focus on potential mechanisms, from evolutionary, molecular, and physiological aspects, that control cuticular wax and its roles in plant drought tolerance. We also raise key research questions and propose important directions to be resolved in the future, leading to potential applications of cuticular wax for water use efficiency in agricultural and environmental sustainability.

  4. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  5. Modification of Wax Crystallization in Petroleum Products Modification de la cristallisation des paraffines dans les produits pétroliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The low temperature properties of petroleum products are improved either by refinery processing or by adding wax crystallization modifiers. The crystallization of paraffins in waxy crudes and petroleum products is governed by three phenomena : nucleation, growth and agglomeration or gelling. Different wax crystal modifiers can have a specific effect on these various steps of crystallization. Research in this field discussed in this article has the dual aim first to describe these specific actions and then, to define more and more efficient structures of additives in applications having to do with wax crystallization :(a Production, transportation and storage of waxy crudes (b Diesel fuel behavior at low temperatures(c Base stock dewaxing process(d Low temperature operability of lubricating oils. Les paraffines lourdes présentes dans les produits pétroliers sont la cause de nombreuses difficultés, notamment dans la production, le transport, le stockage des bruts paraffiniques, ainsi que dans le stockage et l'opérabilité de produits tels que gazoles, fuels lourds et huiles. Pour remédier à ces inconvénients des additifs susceptibles de modifer la cristallisation des paraffines sont fréquemment utilisés. La cristallisation des paraffines est gouvernée par trois phénomènes successifs : nucléation, croissance et agglomération. La nucléation est due à l'accroissement à basse température des forces d'attraction entre les molécules de paraffines. La croissance a tendance à se faire surtout sous forme de plaquettes de l'épaisseur d'une molécule de paraffine; la croissance en épaisseur beaucoup plus lente se fait sous forme de pyramides très fines, soit par nucléation au-dessus des premières couches (fig. 1 soit par développement de spirales autour des imperfections qui prennent naissance au cours de l'alignement des molécules (fig. 2. L'agglomération des cristaux conduit soit à des dépôts, soit à la formation de r

  6. A closed-tube detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) products using a wax-sealed fluorescent intercalator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chao; Cheng, Sijia; Chu, Yanan; Wu, Haiping; Zou, Binjie; Huang, Huan; Xi, Tao; Zhou, Guohua

    2013-06-01

    LAMP is an isothermal amplification method that can achieve ultra-high sensitivity and specificity. However, the conventional detection of LAMP amplicons can lead to cross-contamination due to the need to open the reaction tube which contains a large number of amplicons. To achieve closed-tube LAMP detection, we have developed a method that separates a solution of SYBR Green I (SGI) from the LAMP reagents using temperature-sensitive wax. The SGI is sealed in the bottom of the tube so not to interfere with the LAMP reaction, but is released into the mixture after the completion of the reaction by melting the wax. To enable the analysis of the closed-tube LAMP samples automatically, an instrument based on this new method was constructed. The background measurement of the LAMP due to primer dimers was significantly reduced by detecting the amplicons at 75 degrees C. HBV and 2009 H1N1 virus were successfully analyzed by the LAMP assay using tubes containing wax-sealed SGI and the prototype instrument, indicating that the method has the advantage of easy set-up (no extra components need to be added into the LAMP mixture for detection), high sensitivity (fluorescent intercalator), low background (detected at 75 degrees C) and no cross-contamination (closed-tube). Therefore, the novel LAMP detection, coupled with the instrument has the potential to be a diagnostic tool for a number of clinical applications in hospitals as well as on-site screening of pathogenic agents.

  7. THE PRODUCTION OF COMPLEX PROFILE DETAILS BY COMBINED METHOD OF LOST-WAX CASTING AND OF CONSUMABLE PATTERN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Shinsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological process of receiving figurine castings of a heat resisting alloy HN57KTVYuMBL brand developed and tested by authors a combined method of oflost-wax casting (pouring gate system and of consumable expanded polystyrene pattern in shell forms kompleks modify ceramics promotes decrease in crack formation of forms at the expense of correctly picked up temperature and time mode of annealing of a form with model. Besides this method allows to receive figurine castings with minimization of an allowance for machining of details, to increase their geometrical accuracy and to lower a roughness.

  8. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at aroun...

  9. The Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Maize GL8 Protein Is a Component of the Acyl-Coenzyme A Elongase Involved in the Production of Cuticular Waxes1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaojie; Dietrich, Charles R.; Lessire, Rene; Nikolau, Basil J.; Schnable, Patrick S.

    2002-01-01

    The gl8 gene is required for the normal accumulation of cuticular waxes on maize (Zea mays) seedling leaves. The predicted GL8 protein exhibits significant sequence similarity to a class of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of a ketone group to a hydroxyl group. Polyclonal antibodies raised against the recombinant Escherichia coli-expressed GL8 protein were used to investigate the function of this protein in planta. Subcellular fractionation experiments indicate that the GL8 protein is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Furthermore, polyclonal antibodies raised against the partially purified leek (Allium porrum) microsomal acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) elongase can react with the E. coli-expressed GL8 protein. In addition, anti-GL8 immunoglobulin G inhibited the in vitro elongation of stearoyl-CoA by leek and maize microsomal acyl-CoA elongase. In combination, these findings indicate that the GL8 protein is a component of the acyl-CoA elongase. In addition, the finding that anti-GL8 immunoglobulin G did not significantly inhibit the 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthase, 3-ketoacyl-CoA dehydrase, and (E) 2,3-enoyl-CoA reductase partial reactions of leek or maize acyl-CoA elongase lends further support to our previous hypothesis that the GL8 protein functions as a β-ketoacyl reductase during the elongation of very long-chain fatty acids required for the production of cuticular waxes. PMID:11891248

  10. Enhancement of photosynthetic capacity in Euglena gracilis by expression of cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase leads to increases in biomass and wax ester production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Takahisa; Tamoi, Masahiro; Kimura, Ayako; Mine, Ayaka; Sakuyama, Harumi; Yoshida, Eriko; Maruta, Takanori; Suzuki, Kengo; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Shigeoka, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Microalgae have recently been attracting attention as a potential platform for the production of biofuels. Euglena gracilis, a unicellular phytoflagellate, has been proposed as an attractive feedstock to produce biodiesel because it can produce large amounts of wax esters, consisting of medium-chain fatty acids and alcohols with 14:0 carbon chains. E. gracilis cells highly accumulate a storage polysaccharide, a β-1,3-glucan known as paramylon, under aerobic conditions. When grown aerobically and then transferred into anaerobic conditions, E. gracilis cells degrade paramylon to actively synthesize and accumulate wax esters. Thus, the enhanced accumulation of paramylon through the genetic engineering of photosynthesis should increase the capacity for wax ester production. We herein generated transgenic Euglena (EpFS) cells expressing the cyanobacterial fructose-1,6-/sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase (FBP/SBPase), which is involved in the Calvin cycle, to enhance its photosynthetic activity. FBP/SBPase was successfully expressed within Euglena chloroplasts. The cell volume of the EpFS4 cell line was significantly larger than that of wild-type cells under normal growth conditions. The photosynthetic activity of EpFS4 cells was significantly higher than that of wild type under high light and high CO2, resulting in enhanced biomass production, and the accumulation of paramylon was increased in transgenic cell lines than in wild-type cells. Furthermore, when EpFS cell lines grown under high light and high CO2 were placed on anaerobiosis, the productivity of wax esters was approximately 13- to 100-fold higher in EpFS cell lines than in wild-type cells. Our results obtained here indicate that the efficiency of biomass production in E. gracilis can be improved by genetically modulating photosynthetic capacity, resulting in the enhanced production of wax esters. This is the first step toward the utilization of E. gracilis as a sustainable source for biofuel production under

  11. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  12. The glossyhead1 allele of acc1 reveals a principal role for multidomain acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes by Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Shiyou

    2011-09-23

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C 20:0 or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wenseleers, Tom; Dawson, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that the wax combs are important in the acquisition of colony odour in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, many of these studies were conducted in the laboratory or under artificial conditions. We investigated the role of the wax combs in nestmate recognition in the natural...

  14. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bugarski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  15. Microencapsulation of flavors in carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  16. [Sorption of 1-naphthol to plant cuticular waxes with different states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-liang; Zhou, Dan-dan; Li, Yun-gui; Zhu, Li-zhong

    2008-06-01

    Wax components are ubiquitous in natural environments (such as plant and soil) and play a significant role in sorption of organic contaminants. To elucidate their sorption characteristics, cuticular waxes were isolated from the fruits of apple by organic solvent extraction method, and then the isolated-wax was reconstructed on montmorillonite with different loadings. Sorption behaviors of one polar organic pollutant, 1-naphthol, to isolated-wax, reconstructed-wax, and cuticle-associated-wax samples were compared by batch sorption method. Sorption properties of wax-montmorillonite complexes dependent on different wax-loadings were also investigated. Isotherms of 1-naphthol to wax samples were nonlinear, and fitted well with Freundlich equation. Although sorption of wax in the plant cuticle was weakened by other components of cuticle, its contribution to whole sorption of the cuticle increased with solute aqueous equilibrium concentration. Sorption coefficients at three equilibrium concentrations (1, 10, 100 microg/mL) were calculated, depending on solute concentrations and wax-loadings. Sorption coefficients normalized organic carbon contents (Koc) decreased with the increase of solute aqueous concentration. At low solute aqueous concentration, Koc values increased with the wax-loading increasing, reached maximum, and then decreased. At high solute aqueous concentration, Koc values were almost independent on wax-loadings. These observations indicated that partition was the dominant mechanism at high solute concentration, while specific interactions were involved as additional mechanisms at low solute concentration. Koc values of wax components in different states were in the order of reconstructed-wax (321.2) > isolated-wax (190.4) > cuticular-attached-wax (128.4), suggested that the sorption capability of wax was promoted once they were input into soil environment and then coated on mineral surface.

  17. Extraction and Characterization of Sugarcane Peel Wax

    OpenAIRE

    Inarkar, Mangesh B.; Lele, S. S.

    2012-01-01

    Sugarcane peel is an agrowaste product and contains considerable amount of wax. This has a good technoeconomic potential. In view of this, the present study aims at extraction and characterization of wax from sugarcane peel. The yield of crude wax was 0.95% on dry weight basis. During Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) prominent peaks obtained at 2921.73 and 2851.64 (–CH), 1463.44 (–CH2), 1376.96 (–CH3), 1108.4 and 1170.16 (–C–O) 3395.60 (–OH), 1710.25 (–CHO), and 1736.63 (–COOH)...

  18. Influence of the Wax Lake Delta sediment diversion on aboveground plant productivity and carbon storage in deltaic island and mainland coastal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaune, R. D.; Sasser, C. E.; Evers-Hebert, E.; White, J. R.; Roberts, H. H.

    2016-08-01

    Coastal Louisiana is experiencing a significant loss of coastal wetland area due to increasing sea level rise, subsidence, sediment starvation and marsh collapse. The construction of large scale Mississippi River sediment diversions is currently being planned in an effort to help combat coastal wetlands losses at a rate of >50 km-2 y-1. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) is currently being used as a model for evaluating potential land gain from large scale diversions of Mississippi River water and sediment. In this study, we determine the impact of the WLD diversion on plant production at newly formed islands within the delta and adjacent, mainland freshwater marshes. Plant aboveground productivity, sediment nutrient status and short term accretion were measured at three locations on a transect at each of three fresh water marsh sites along Hog Bayou and at six newly formed emerging island sites in the delta. Spring flooding has resulted in a greater increase in plant production and consequently, greater carbon sequestration potential in adjacent mainland marshes compared to the newly formed island sites, which contain less total carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) in the sediment. While sediment diversions are predicted to create land, as seen in island formation in the WLD, the greatest benefit of river sediment diversions from a carbon credit perspective might be to the adjacent freshwater mainland marshes for several reasons. Both greater plant production and sediment C accumulation are two important factors for marsh stability, while perhaps even more critical, is the prevention of the loss of stored sediment C in the marsh profile. This stored C would be lost without the introduction of freshwater, nutrients and sediment through river sediment diversion efforts.

  19. Wax, sex and the origin of species: Dual roles of insect cuticular hydrocarbons in adaptation and mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Henry; Carroll, Sean B

    2015-07-01

    Evolutionary changes in traits that affect both ecological divergence and mating signals could lead to reproductive isolation and the formation of new species. Insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are potential examples of such dual traits. They form a waxy layer on the cuticle of the insect to maintain water balance and prevent desiccation, while also acting as signaling molecules in mate recognition and chemical communication. Because the synthesis of these hydrocarbons in insect oenocytes occurs through a common biochemical pathway, natural or sexual selection on one role may affect the other. In this review, we explore how ecological divergence in insect CHCs can lead to divergence in mating signals and reproductive isolation. We suggest that the evolution of insect CHCs may be ripe models for understanding ecological speciation. © 2015 The Authors. Bioessays published by WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Detailed characterization of the substrate specificity of mouse wax synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Kawiński, Adam; Banaś, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Wax synthases are membrane-associated enzymes catalysing the esterification reaction between fatty acyl-CoA and a long chain fatty alcohol. In living organisms, wax esters function as storage materials or provide protection against harmful environmental influences. In industry, they are used as ingredients for the production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. Currently the biological sources of wax esters are limited to jojoba oil. In order to establish a large-scale production of desired wax esters in transgenic high-yielding oilseed plants, enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis from different biological resources should be characterized in detail taking into consideration their substrate specificity. Therefore, this study aims at determining the substrate specificity of one of such enzymes -- the mouse wax synthase. The gene encoding this enzyme was expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In the in vitro assays (using microsomal fraction from transgenic yeast), we evaluated the preferences of mouse wax synthase towards a set of combinations of 11 acyl-CoAs with 17 fatty alcohols. The highest activity was observed for 14:0-CoA, 12:0-CoA, and 16:0-CoA in combination with medium chain alcohols (up to 5.2, 3.4, and 3.3 nmol wax esters/min/mg microsomal protein, respectively). Unsaturated alcohols longer than 18°C were better utilized by the enzyme in comparison to the saturated ones. Combinations of all tested alcohols with 20:0-CoA, 22:1-CoA, or Ric-CoA were poorly utilized by the enzyme, and conjugated acyl-CoAs were not utilized at all. Apart from the wax synthase activity, mouse wax synthase also exhibited a very low acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity. However, it displayed neither acyl-CoA:monoacylglycerol acyltransferase, nor acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferase activity.

  1. Organogel formation of soybean oil with waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated vegetable oils, petroleum waxes and commercial non-edible gelling agents to understand factors affecting the gelation ability of a gelator. Sunflower wax...

  2. Rapid atmospheric transport and large-scale deposition of recently synthesized plant waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Ladd, S. Nemiah; Schubert, Carsten J.; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2018-02-01

    Sedimentary plant wax 2H/1H ratios are important tools for understanding hydroclimate and environmental changes, but large spatial and temporal uncertainties exist about transport mechanisms from ecosystem to sediments. To assess atmospheric pathways, we collected aerosol samples for two years at four locations within a ∼60 km radius in northern Switzerland. We measured n-alkane distributions and 2H/1H ratios in these samples, and from local plants, leaf litter, and soil, as well as surface sediment from six nearby lakes. Increased concentrations and 2H depletion of long odd chain n-alkanes in early summer aerosols indicate that most wax aerosol production occurred shortly after leaf unfolding, when plants synthesize waxes in large quantities. During autumn and winter, aerosols were characterized by degraded n-alkanes lacking chain length preferences diagnostic of recent biosynthesis, and 2H/1H values that were in some cases more than 100‰ higher than growing season values. Despite these seasonal shifts, modeled deposition-weighted average 2H/1H values of long odd chain n-alkanes primarily reflected summer values. This was corroborated by n-alkane 2H/1H values in lake sediments, which were similar to deposition-weighted aerosol values at five of six sites. Atmospheric deposition rates for plant n-alkanes on land were ∼20% of accumulation rates in lakes, suggesting a role for direct deposition to lakes or coastal oceans near similar production sources, and likely a larger role for deposition on land and transport in river systems. This mechanism allows mobilization and transport of large quantities of recently produced waxes as fine-grained material to low energy sedimentation sites over short timescales, even in areas with limited topography. Widespread atmospheric transfer well before leaf senescence also highlights the importance of the isotopic composition of early season source water used to synthesize waxes for the geologic record.

  3. Waxed windshields are hazardous in the rain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M J; Bennett, D W

    1975-08-01

    Seven automobiles were washed and waxed at four car washes. Photographic determinations were made of the glare produced by the wet or dry waxed windshield in a headlight beam. When wet, the waxed windshields scattered three times more light than in the normal human eye. The wet wax scattering was 24.8 times higher than when dry. No wax residues should be permitted on windshields and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration should issue a mandatory windshield cleaning requirement after waxing.

  4. Structure and Biosynthesis of Branched Wax Compounds on Wild Type and Wax Biosynthesis Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busta, Lucas; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    The cuticle is a waxy composite that protects the aerial organs of land plans from non-stomatal water loss. The chemical make-up of the cuticular wax mixture plays a central role in defining the water barrier, but structure-function relationships have not been established so far, in part due to gaps in our understanding of wax structures and biosynthesis. While wax compounds with saturated, linear hydrocarbon tails have been investigated in detail, very little is known about compounds with modified aliphatic tails, which comprise substantial portions of some plant wax mixtures. This study aimed to investigate the structures, abundances and biosynthesis of branched compounds on the species for which wax biosynthesis is best understood: Arabidopsis thaliana. Microscale derivatization, mass spectral interpretation and organic synthesis identified homologous series of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on flowers and leaves, respectively. These comprised approximately 10-15% of wild type wax mixtures. The abundances of both branched wax constituents and accompanying unbranched compounds were reduced on the cer6, cer3 and cer1 mutants but not cer4, indicating that branched compounds are in part synthesized by the same machinery as unbranched compounds. In contrast, the abundances of unbranched, but not branched, wax constituents were reduced on the cer2 and cer26 mutants, suggesting that the pathways to both types of compounds deviate in later steps of chain elongation. Finally, the abundances of branched, but not unbranched, wax compounds were reduced on the cer16 mutant, and the (uncharacterized) CER16 protein may therefore be controlling the relative abundances of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on Arabidopsis surfaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. The effect of non-glaucousness, as conferred by Inhibitor of Wax 1, on physiology and yield of UK Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Frizell-Armitage, Amelia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As the first barrier to the external environment, the epicuticular waxes have a number of key roles in plant physiology. Although the wheat wild progenitors display a diversity of epicuticular wax phenotypes, the glaucous (visible wax) phenotype dominates cultivated varieties. However, the UK winter wheat variety Shamrock is unusual in that it exhibits a non-glaucous phenotype, conferred by the wild emmer gene Inhibitor of Wax 1 (Iw1). UK field trials with Shamrock associated a yi...

  6. Epicuticular Wax Accumulation and Fatty Acid Elongation Activities Are Induced during Leaf Development of Leeks1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Yoon; Hlousek-Radojcic, Alenka; Ponsamuel, Jayakumar; Liu, Dehua; Post-Beittenmiller, Dusty

    1998-01-01

    Epicuticular wax production was evaluated along the length of expanding leek (Allium porrum L.) leaves to gain insight into the regulation of wax production. Leaf segments from the bottom to the top were analyzed for (a) wax composition and load; (b) microsomal fatty acid elongase, plastidial fatty acid synthase, and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase activities; and (c) tissue and cellular morphological changes. The level of total wax, which was low at the bottom, increased 23-fold along the length of the leaf, whereas accumulation of the hentriacontan-16-one increased more than 1000-fold. The onset of wax accumulation was not linked to cell elongation but, rather, occurred several centimeters above the leaf base. Peak microsomal fatty acid elongation activity preceded the onset of wax accumulation, and the maximum fatty acid synthase activity was coincident with the onset. The C16:0- and C18:0-ACP-hydrolyzing activities changed relatively little along the leaf, whereas C18:1-ACP-hydrolyzing activity increased slightly prior to the peak elongase activity. Electron micrographic analyses revealed that wax crystal formation was asynchronous among cells in the initial stages of wax deposition, and morphological changes in the cuticle and cell wall preceded the appearance of wax crystals. These studies demonstrated that wax production and microsomal fatty acid elongation activities were induced within a defined and identifiable region of the expanding leek leaf and provide the foundation for future molecular studies. PMID:9501123

  7. Waxes as organogelator for soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research reveals that a small amount of a food grade plant wax may replace a large amount of the hardstock containing trans-fat or saturated fat. Natural waxes including plant waxes and animal waxes were evaluated for the gelation ability toward soybean oil (SBO) and compared with hydrogenated ...

  8. Multiphase flow wax deposition modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzain, A. [Petronas Research and Scientific Services, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zhang, H.-Q.; Volk, M.; Redus, C.L.; Brill, J.P. [University of Tulsa (United States); Apte, M.S. [Shell Technology EP (United States); Creek, J.L. [Chevron Petroleum Technology (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Results are presented from two-phase flow wax deposition tests using a state-of-the-art, high pressure, multiphase flow test facility. Wax deposition was found to be flow pattern dependent and occurs only along the pipe wall in contact with the waxy crude oil. The deposition buildup trend at low mixture velocities is similar to that observed in laminar single-phase flow tests. The buildup trend at high mixture velocities is similar to that observed in turbulent single-phase flow tests. Thinner and harder deposits at the bottom than at the top of the pipe were observed in horizontal intermittent flow tests. Thicker and harder deposits were observed at low liquid superficial velocity than at high liquid superficial velocity annular flow tests. No wax deposition was observed along the upper portion of the pipe in stratified flow tests. A semi-empirical kinetic model tailored for the wax deposition tests predicted wax thickness with an acceptable accuracy, especially at high oil superficial velocity. Deposition rate reduction due to shear stripping and rate enhancement due to entrapment of oil and other mechanisms not accounted for by the classical Fick's mass diffusion theory were incorporated through the use of dimensionless variables and empirical constants derived from the wax deposition data. The kinetic model, although semi-empirical, provides an insight for future model development. (author)

  9. Oil adsorption ability of three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverages in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, Elena V.; Hofmann, Philipp; Filippov, Alexander E.; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2017-04-01

    Primary aerial surfaces of terrestrial plants are very often covered with three-dimensional epicuticular waxes. Such wax coverages play an important role in insect-plant interactions. Wax blooms have been experimentally shown in numerous previous studies to be impeding locomotion and reducing attachment of insects. Among the mechanisms responsible for these effects, a possible adsorption of insect adhesive fluid by highly porous wax coverage has been proposed (adsorption hypothesis). Recently, a great decrease in insect attachment force on artificial adsorbing materials was revealed in a few studies. However, adsorption ability of plant wax blooms was still not tested. Using a cryo scanning electron microscopy approach and high-speed video recordings of fluid drops behavior, followed by numerical analysis of experimental data, we show here that the three-dimensional epicuticular wax coverage in the waxy zone of Nepenthes alata pitcher adsorbs oil: we detected changes in the base, height, and volume of the oil drops. The wax layer thickness, differing in samples with untreated two-layered wax coverage and treated one-layered wax, did not significantly affect the drop behavior. These results provide strong evidence that three-dimensional plant wax coverages due to their adsorption capability are in general anti-adhesive for insects, which rely on wet adhesion.

  10. Organogels of vegetable oil with plant wax – trans/saturated fat replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    This featured article reviews recent advances on the development of trans fat-free, low saturated fat food products from organogels formed by a plant wax in a vegetable oil. Plant waxes are of great interest in this research area because they are obtained as by-products during the oil refining proce...

  11. Waxes in asphaltenes of crude oils and wax deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia M. Ganeeva

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Composition and molecular mass distribution of n-alkanes in asphaltenes of crude oils of different ages and in wax deposits formed in the borehole equipment were studied. In asphaltenes, n-alkanes from C12 to C60 were detected. The high molecular weight paraffins in asphaltenes would form a crystalline phase with a melting point of 80–90 °C. The peculiarities of the redistribution of high molecular paraffin hydrocarbons between oil and the corresponding wax deposit were detected. In the oils, the high molecular weight paraffinic hydrocarbons C50–C60 were found, which were not practically detected in the corresponding wax deposits.

  12. [For an interdisciplinary museology. The particular case of anatomical waxes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirson, Chloé

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, the anatomical models in three dimensions are often showed in Museums devoted to the History of Medicine. Due to their historical importance and the major role they played as scientific education tool, they are essentials to understand the heritage of the anatomical knowledge. Historically, within all materials used to cast the body, wax has been the most frequently used, so that the ceroplastical collection has become a part of the medical education before leading to a general public pedagogy. This paper has a double purpose. In one hand, it aims to survey the formal evolution and the uses of this production, from his creation on, in the other, to study this cultural heritage within the museology issue.

  13. Identification of avian wax synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biester, Eva-Maria; Hellenbrand, Janine; Gruber, Jens; Hamberg, Mats; Frentzen, Margrit

    2012-02-04

    Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS) which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities.

  14. Identification of avian wax synthases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biester Eva-Maria

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bird species show a high degree of variation in the composition of their preen gland waxes. For instance, galliform birds like chicken contain fatty acid esters of 2,3-alkanediols, while Anseriformes like goose or Strigiformes like barn owl contain wax monoesters in their preen gland secretions. The final biosynthetic step is catalyzed by wax synthases (WS which have been identified in pro- and eukaryotic organisms. Results Sequence similarities enabled us to identify six cDNAs encoding putative wax synthesizing proteins in chicken and two from barn owl and goose. Expression studies in yeast under in vivo and in vitro conditions showed that three proteins from chicken performed WS activity while a sequence from chicken, goose and barn owl encoded a bifunctional enzyme catalyzing both wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis. Mono- and bifunctional WS were found to differ in their substrate specificities especially with regard to branched-chain alcohols and acyl-CoA thioesters. According to the expression patterns of their transcripts and the properties of the enzymes, avian WS proteins might not be confined to preen glands. Conclusions We provide direct evidence that avian preen glands possess both monofunctional and bifunctional WS proteins which have different expression patterns and WS activities with different substrate specificities.

  15. Wax esters of different compositions produced via engineering of leaf chloroplast metabolism in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Sun, Chuanxin; Leonova, Svetlana; Dutta, Paresh; Dörmann, Peter; Domergue, Frédéric; Stymne, Sten; Hofvander, Per

    2014-09-01

    In a future bio-based economy, renewable sources for lipid compounds at attractive cost are needed for applications where today petrochemical derivatives are dominating. Wax esters and fatty alcohols provide diverse industrial uses, such as in lubricant and surfactant production. In this study, chloroplast metabolism was engineered to divert intermediates from de novo fatty acid biosynthesis to wax ester synthesis. To accomplish this, chloroplast targeted fatty acyl reductases (FAR) and wax ester synthases (WS) were transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Wax esters of different qualities and quantities were produced providing insights to the properties and interaction of the individual enzymes used. In particular, a phytyl ester synthase was found to be a premium candidate for medium chain wax ester synthesis. Catalytic activities of FAR and WS were also expressed as a fusion protein and determined functionally equivalent to the expression of individual enzymes for wax ester synthesis in chloroplasts. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Establishing very long-chain fatty alcohol and wax ester biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian

    2017-01-01

    Wax esters (WEs) are neutral lipids and can be used for a broad range of commercial applications, including personal care products, lubricants, or coatings. They are synthesized by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS). At present, commercially...

  17. Lost-Wax Casting in Ancient China: New Discussion on Old Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weirong; Huang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    The possible use of lost-wax casting in China has long been a matter of controversy. Based on the study of pertinent ancient texts concerning the technical origins of lost-wax casting in China, direct examination of questioned ancient Chinese bronzes as well as definite lost-wax castings from both overseas and China, and modern production of objects using piece-mold casting, the authors point out their own conceptual ideas about ancient lost-wax casting as follows. First, the lost-wax casting technique does not have its earliest origins in ancient China but rather from the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, where it was predominantly used to cast small human and animal figures (statuettes). Next, some essential characteristics of the lost-wax casting technique can be identified from the point of view of a distortable soft starting model. The locally deformed shape of lost-wax castings is found to be variable. Finally, it is improper to consider the ease of extraction from the mold as the criterion for distinguishing lost-wax casting from piece-mold casting. It is therefore incorrect to conclude that the three-dimensional openwork decorations present on Chinese bronzes from the Spring and Autumn Period, and the Warring States Period, are fabricated using lost-wax castings.

  18. Critical Involvement of Environmental Carbon Dioxide Fixation to Drive Wax Ester Fermentation in Euglena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kazuki; Nakazawa, Masami; Nakamoto, Masatoshi; Okazawa, Atsushi; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Arita, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Accumulation profiles of wax esters in Euglena gracilis Z were studied under several environmental conditions. The highest amount of total wax esters accumulated under hypoxia in the dark, and C28 (myristyl-myristate, C14:0-C14:0) was prevalent among all conditions investigated. The wax ester production was almost completely suppressed under anoxia in the light, and supplying exogenous inorganic carbon sources restored wax ester fermentation, indicating the need for external carbon sources for the wax ester fermentation. 13C-labeling experiments revealed specific isotopic enrichment in the odd-numbered fatty acids derived from wax esters, indicating that the exogenously-supplied CO2 was incorporated into wax esters via the propionyl-CoA pathway through the reverse tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The addition of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid, a phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) inhibitor, significantly affected the incorporation of 13C into citrate and malate as the biosynthetic intermediates of the odd-numbered fatty acids, suggesting the involvement of PEPCK reaction to drive wax ester fermentation. Additionally, the 13C-enrichment pattern of succinate suggested that the CO2 assimilation might proceed through alternative pathways in addition to the PEPCK reaction. The current results indicate that the mechanisms of anoxic CO2 assimilation are an important target to reinforce wax ester fermentation in Euglena. PMID:27669566

  19. The benefits of Fischer-Tropsch waxes in synthetic petroleum jelly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, M; Louw, N R; Jansen Van Rensburg, V J; Potgieter, J

    2013-02-01

    This article is an introduction and general discussion regarding the use of Fisher-Tropsch wax in petroleum jelly applications. Traditionally, petroleum jelly is prepared from a blend of microwax, paraffin wax and mineral oil that are all derived from crude oil. Sasol Wax has successfully prepared a petroleum jelly based on predominantly to fully synthetic Fisher-Tropsch wax. Sasol Wax was awarded a patent P53898ZP00-29 November 11 for a predominantly to fully synthetic petroleum jelly based on Fisher-Tropsch wax blends. The benefits of Fisher-Tropsch wax discussed in this article include the absence of aromatic compounds and polycyclic aromatic compounds in Fisher-Tropsch wax as well as the sustainable production that is possible with Fisher-Tropsch wax, as opposed to paraffin wax that may be affected by the closure of group I Base Oil plants. This article will be the first in a series of articles from the same authors, and follow-up articles will include solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance and crystallization studies to determine the influence of predominantly synthetic waxes on petroleum jelly network structures compared with more traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies, final product performance and stability of synthetic petroleum jelly used in, for example, personal care lotions or creams. The influence of oxygenated compounds and product safety and rheological properties (including primary skin feel upon application and secondary skin feel after application) of synthetic petroleum jellies compared with traditional mineral oil-derived petroleum jellies are discussed. © 2012 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Bioinspired Composite Coating with Extreme Underwater Superoleophobicity and Good Stability for Wax Prevention in the Petroleum Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weitao; Zhu, Liqun; Li, Weiping; Yang, Xin; Xu, Chang; Liu, Huicong

    2015-10-13

    Wax deposition is a detrimental problem that happens during crude oil production and transportation, which greatly reduces transport efficiency and causes huge economic losses. To avoid wax deposition, a bioinspired composite coating with excellent wax prevention and anticorrosion properties is developed in this study. The prepared coating is composed of three films, including an electrodeposited Zn film for improving corrosion resistance, a phosphating film for constructing fish-scale morphology, and a silicon dioxide film modified by a simple spin-coating method for endowing the surface with superhydrophilicity. Good wax prevention performance has been investigated in a wax deposition test. The surface morphology, composition, wetting behaviors, and stability are systematically studied, and a wax prevention mechanism is proposed, which can be calculated from water film theory. This composite coating strategy which shows excellent properties in both wax prevention and stability is expected to be widely applied in the petroleum industry.

  1. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Effects of cuticular wax on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Zheng, Yonghua

    2018-01-15

    The blueberry fruit has a light-blue appearance because its blue-black skin is covered with a waxy bloom. This layer is easily damaged or removed during fruit harvesting and postharvest handling. We investigated the effects of wax removal on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit and their possible mechanisms. The removal of natural wax on the fruit was found to accelerate the postharvest water loss and decay, reduce the sensory and nutritional qualities, and shorten the shelf-life. Wax removal decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants, and accelerated accumulation of ROS and lipid peroxidation, especially at the later period of storage. Moreover, the organellar membrane structure was disrupted in fruit with wax removed. These results indicate that cuticular wax plays an important role in maintaining the postharvest quality and delaying fruit senescence. The results should improve our understanding for better preservation of postharvest quality of blueberry fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in glaucous and non-glaucous varieties of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, Nikolai; Eley, Yvette; Frizell-Armitage, Amelia; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-04-01

    The use of the 2H/1H composition of terrestrial plants in climate and ecology studies depends on fundamental understanding of the processes within the plant that control fractionation of these two isotopes. Little is currently known about the extent of 2H/1H fractionation at different steps of biosynthesis, after the initial H uptake following leaf water photolysis. Knowing this effect is particularly important when seeking to interpret the 2H/1H composition of leaf wax biomarkers from plants that differ in the amount and type of individual compound classes in their leaf waxes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the link between the quantity and distribution of n-alkyl lipids in leaf waxes and their isotopic composition. We used a genetic approach to suppress glaucousness in 2 varieties of wheat (Alchemy and Malacca), which resulted in glaucous and non-glaucous phenotypes of both varieties. Both phenotypes were then grown outdoors under identical environmental conditions in central Norfolk, UK. At the end of the growing season, the plants were sampled for soil water, leaf water, and leaf wax isotopic measurements. Comparison of the leaf wax composition of the non-glaucous and glaucous phenotypes revealed that the non-glaucous varieties were characterised by the absence of diketones and a greater concentration of n-alkanes and primary alcohols.. Our results showed very small differences between glaucous and non-glaucous varieties with regard to soil (mean values, <2 per mil) and leaf (<1 per mil) water 2H/1H. Conversely, there was 15-20 and 10-15 per mil 2H-depletion in the C29 and C31 n-alkanes, respectively, from the non-glaucous phenotype. This 2H-depletion in the non-glaucous phenotype demonstrated that the suppression of diketone production and the increase in n-alkane and primary alcohol concentrations are linked with a shift in the 2H/1H composition of n-alkanes. The initial results of this work suggest that plants using the same environmental water

  4. pH-sensitive wax emulsion copolymerization with acrylamide hydrogel using gamma irradiation for dye removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghobashy, Mohamed Mohamady; Elhady, Mohamed., A.

    2017-05-01

    Emulsion polymerization is an efficient method for the production of new wax-hydrogel matrices of cetyl alcohol: stearic acid wax and acrylamide hydrogel using triethylamine (TEA) as an emulsifier. A cross-linking reaction occurred when a mixture of wax-hydrogel solution was irradiated with gamma rays at a dose of 20 kGy. The gelation percentage of the matrices (CtOH-StA/PAAm) was 86%, which indicates that a sufficiently high conversion occurred in these new wax-hydrogel matrices. The ability of PAAm and CtOH-StA/PAAm as an adsorbent for dye removal was investigated. The removal of three reactive dyes, namely Remazol Red (RR), Amido Black (AB), and Toluidine Blue (TB), from aqueous solutions depends on the pH of the dye solution. Removal efficiency was investigated by UV spectrophotometry, and the results showed the affinity of the wax hydrogel to adsorb TB was 98% after 320 min. Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectra confirmed the cross-linking process involved between the chains of wax and hydrogel; furthermore, scanning electron microscopy images showed that the wax and hydrogel were completely miscible to form a single matrix. Swelling measurements showed the high affinity of adsorbed dyes from aqueous solutions at different pH values to the wax-hydrogel network; the highest swelling values of 13.05 and 8.24 (g/g) were observed at pH 10 and 6, respectively

  5. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Bačić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill., both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fused and agglomerated rapidly to various extents of morphologically different types of amorphous wax crusts, primarily compact and particulate ones. This process begins very early, especially in polluted Risnjak site, and may be interpreted as a possible result of air pollution. However, the recrystalization, or production of new tubules, also appears relatively quickly in mostly cases. Quantitative estimations indicate a very large total amount of amorphous wax crusts in the current-year needles, and a very high percentage of the same wax in previous-year needles. Amorphous wax crusts cover stomatal pores, as well as the rims, disturbing the normal gas exchange. Statistically there is a signicant tendency of increase in wax degradation in the needles of the polluted site in comparison with those of the unpolluted one, but there is an insignificant wax degradation among the needles of damaged trees within each site. These results confirmed most of the research done in our preliminary report.

  6. McWRI1, a transcription factor of the AP2/SHEN family, regulates the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the apple fruit surface under low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Suxiao; Ma, Yiyi; Zhao, Shuang; Ji, Qianlong; Zhang, Kezhong; Yang, Mingfeng; Yao, Yuncong

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes of plant and organ surfaces play an important role in protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stress and extending the freshness, storage time and shelf life in the post-harvest agricultural products. WRI1, a transcription factor of AP2/SHEN families, had been found to trigger the related genes taking part in the biosynthesis of seed oil in many plants. But whether WRI1 is involved in the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the Malus fruits surface has been unclear. We investigated the changes of wax composition and structure, the related genes and WRI1 expression on Malus asiatica Nakai and sieversii fruits with the low temperature treatments, found that low temperature induced the up-regulated expression of McWRI1, which promoted gene expression of McKCS, McLACs and McWAX in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, resulting in the accumulation of alkanes component and alteration of wax structure on the fruit surface. Corresponding results were verified in McWRI1 silenced by VIGS, and WRI1 silenced down-regulated the related genes on two kinds of fruits, it caused the diversity alteration in content of some alkanes, fatty acid and ester component in two kinds of fruits. We further conducted Y1H assay to find that McWRI1 transcription factor activated the promoter of McKCS, McLAC and McWAX to regulate their expression. These results demonstrated that McWRI1 is involved in regulating the genes related synthesis of very long chain fatty acid on surface of apple fruits in storage process, providing a highlight for improvement of the modified atmosphere storage of apple fruits.

  7. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  8. Wax Spreading in Paper under Controlled Pressure and Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Zhou, Jing; Kanungo, Mandakini; Jia, Nancy; Dinsmore, Anthony D

    2018-01-09

    This work describes a novel rapid method to fabricate high-resolution paper-based microfluidic devices using wax-ink-based printing. This study demonstrates that both temperature and pressure are important knobs in controlling the device resolution. High-resolution lines and patterns were obtained by heating the paper asymmetrically from one side up to 110 °C while applying pressure up to 49 kPa. Starting with wax lines with an initial width of 130 μm, we achieve a thorough penetration through a 190 μm-thick paper with lateral spreading on the front as narrow as 90 μm. The role of temperature and pressure are systematically studied and compared with the prediction of the Lucas-Washburn equation. We found that the temperature dependence of spreading can be explained by the viscosity change of the wax, according to the Lucas-Washburn equation. The pressure dependence deviates from Lucas-Washburn behavior because of compression of the paper. An optimal condition for achieving full depth penetration of the wax yet minimizing lateral spreading is suggested after exploring various parameters including temperature, pressure, and paper type. These findings could lead to a rapid roll-to-roll fabrication of high-resolution paper-based diagnostic devices.

  9. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil plays an important role in providing the energy supply of the world, and pipelines have long been recognized as the safest and most efficient means of transporting oil and its products. However, the transportation process also faces the challenges of asphaltene-paraffin structural interactions, pipeline pressure losses and energy consumption. In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines with a biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses were carried out. The results indicated that heavy oil transportation in the pipeline is remarkably enhanced by creating stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsion with the surfactant additive. The wax appearance temperature (WAT and pour point were modified, and the formation of a space-filling network of interlocking wax crystals was prevented at low temperature by adding a small concentration of the surfactant additive. A maximum viscosity reduction of 70% and a drag reduction of 40% for light crude oil flows in pipelines were obtained with the surfactant additive at a concentration of 100 mg/L. Furthermore, a successful field application of the drag-reducing surfactant in a light crude oil pipeline in Daqing Oilfield was demonstrated. Hence, the use of biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses in oil transportation is a potential method to address the current challenges, which could result in a significant energy savings and a considerable reduction of the operating cost.

  10. Long-chain wax esterns and diphenylamine in fire coral Millepora dichotoma and Millepora platyphylla from Saudi Red Sea Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan S. Al-Lihaibi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of the non-protein constituents of two species of fire corals Millepora dichotoma and Millepora platyphylla, exhibits very interesting results. The compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. The solvent extracts of the two species revealed four wax esters. The compounds were identified as C30H60O2, C32H64O2, C34H68O2 and C36H72O2 respectively. The presence of these compounds has been reported previously in different marine organisms as well as in marine samples. It is interesting that there were some variations in the number and nature of isomers of similar wax esters reported earlier. Long-chain wax esters are normally waxy in nature and their presence in fire coral plays a vital role in the nutrient transfer to the coral mass. They may also act as a protective coating of the nematocyst of dactylozooid. The coral species were also subjected to mild acidic hydrolysis, followed by neutralization and partitioning between water and ether. The organic phase was dried and purified by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography (TLC. Diphenylamine was revealed as the main product in one of the fractions. It is worth noting that diphenylamine is reported for the first time as a marine natural product. Diphenylamine is known to be toxic and causes allergic reactions to the skin, so it can be considered as responsible for the stinging property of fire coral.

  11. Wax inhibitor based on ethylene vinyl acetate with methyl methacrylate and diethanolamine for crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Abang, S.; Bono, A.; Krishnaiah, D.; Karali, R.; Safuan, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    Wax precipitation and deposition is one of the most significant flow assurance challenges in the production system of the crude oil. Wax inhibitors are developed as a preventive strategy to avoid an absolute wax deposition. Wax inhibitors are polymers which can be known as pour point depressants as they impede the wax crystals formation, growth, and deposition. In this study three formulations of wax inhibitors were prepared, ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl acetate co-methyl methacrylate (EVA co-MMA) and ethylene vinyl acetate co-diethanolamine (EVA co-DEA) and the comparison of their efficiencies in terms of cloud point¸ pour point, performance inhibition efficiency (%PIE) and viscosity were evaluated. The cloud point and pour point for both EVA and EVA co-MMA were similar, 15°C and 10-5°C, respectively. Whereas, the cloud point and pour point for EVA co-DEA were better, 10°C and 10-5°C respectively. In conclusion, EVA co-DEA had shown the best % PIE (28.42%) which indicates highest percentage reduction of wax deposit as compared to the other two inhibitors.

  12. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system.

  13. Filter Cake Oil-Wax as Raw Material for the Production of Biodiesel: Analysis of the Extraction Process and the Transesterification Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Casas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The viability of using the waste obtained in the manufacture of sugar from sugarcane for the production of biodiesel has been analyzed. Two fundamental stages are necessary to obtain biodiesel; the first stage is the extraction process from the waste oil materials and the second is the transesterification reaction. Four techniques, Soxhlet, orbital shaker extraction, ultrasonic-assisted extraction, and supercritical fluid extraction, have been analyzed. For Soxhlet, orbital shaker extraction, and ultrasonic-assisted extraction, the organic solvent (hexane was maintained for all experiment. In supercritical fluid extraction two solvents were evaluated: pure CO2 and mixtures of CO2 and 5% (v : v methanol. The reaction kinetics of the transesterification reaction with an acidic catalyst and a basic catalyst were analysed. The results show that the supercritical extraction process produces a better product for the subsequent transesterification reaction. This finding is attributed to the high selectivity of carbon dioxide in the recovery of fatty acids and triglycerides in comparison with other solvents.

  14. Wax deposition measurement under turbulent flow conditions for a live waxy crude from Turkmenistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbarzadeh, K.; Ratulowski, J.; Davies, T. [Schlumberger, Edmonton, AB (Canada). DBR Technology Center; Norpiah, R.M. [Petronas (Malaysia)

    2008-07-01

    The challenges facing deepwater oil production were discussed, with particular reference to flow assurance problems caused by cold temperatures and long offsets that impact the flow of fluids from the wellbore to the export line. The precipitation and deposition of waxy material is one of the most pervasive flow assurance issues. In order to develop operating strategies that address flow assurance risks while minimizing capital and operating costs, it is important to obtain fluid property data and phase behaviour data. Conventional deposition testing for wax is typically run on dead oil in a low shear environment. However, the flow regime in a production system is turbulent with high wall shears because the oil, gas and water are at elevated pressures. As such, wax deposition data for dead oil taken under laminar flow conditions overpredicts the actual wax deposition rates observed at field conditions. Therefore, a high-pressure deposition cell was used in this study to investigate the deposition tendency of a waxy crude oil from Turkmenistan at field conditions. The study also examined the influence of flow rate, temperature and wax inhibitors on wax deposition. The effect of solution gas was also determined. A method for scaling the deposition cell data to pipe flow was also presented and used in a multiphase flow simulator to predict the wax deposition profile in the field.

  15. Improve Toolmarks' Impressions in Soft Wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Nir; Volkov, Nikolai; Tsach, Tsadok

    2017-05-01

    When the forensic toolmarks laboratory receives for examination and comparison a tool that is suspected of having been involved in a crime, the expert performs tests designed to determine whether or not the specific tool generates the same toolmarks as those found at the crime scene. This is performed by testing tool striation on a piece of soft metal, such as lead, and examining the marks left by the tool. Studies have shown that wax may be an optimal material for this purpose. This study examines the use of wax at different temperatures and shows that quality of results is better when the wax is cooled (recommended temperature is -18°C). At this temperature, the wax is flexible enough but does not smear and is not sticky. This makes the obtained marks clearer and of better quality. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. THE ROLE OF PROSTAGLANDINS IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-05

    May 5, 2015 ... important regulators of female productive functions (ovulation, uterine receptivity, Implantation and parturition) and associated with ... reproductive processes, hence, this paper seeks to review the role of Prostaglandins which is exploited in livestock .... ovarian oxytocin form part of the physiological stimulus.

  18. Nano ski wax, effects and benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Haaland, Nora Holst

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the gliding properties of ski waxes are often discussed and many speculations and assumptions are made. However there are not many studies and documented results in this field. This project is carried out in cooperation with Olympiatoppen and the Norwegian ski team to research and document the effects and benefits of gliding waxes. Ski base material consists of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) in semicrystalline state. The focus will be on the material changes ...

  19. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing

    2013-10-10

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  20. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhihua Wang; Xueying Yu; Jiaxu Li; Jigang Wang; Lei Zhang

    2016-01-01

    .... In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines...

  1. STRENGTH OF A WAX COATED SILK YARN UNDER PERSPIRATION SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BONET Maria Angeles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical products play an important role in our society. Textile structures offer a wide variety of products which can be used in a wide variety of medical applications. When treating a deep wound, it needs to be sewed with some yarns in order to stick both sides in the wound. It requires the yarn to be in contact with the skin and depending on the place the wound is located, it is soaked on corporal fluids such as perspiration, saliva, blood, etc. The aim of this work is to determine if silk threads can be damaged by perspiration and lose some properties. Yarns with different conditions have been treated for 10 days with perspiration solutions and results showed that traction resistance decreases for some of the studied yarns and that microorganism s grow on the yarn surface. Despite the fact that some yarns show antimicrobial treatments, this test showed that wax coated is not enough to prevent the presence of microorganisms on the yarn. This is an important fact as the yarn is in directly in contact with the wounded are a and it can implies infections for the patiente. Results evidence that perspiration solutions can reduce the yarn ́s resistance and it can be a problem if the yarn lasts longer than 10 days. Obviously, the test was conducted at room temperature, about 22º C, and patiente's body is at higher levels 36.5-37º C. Thus, further studies should be conducted in order to test temperature or even though fineness influence.

  2. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Desouky Ammar

    Full Text Available The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of 'naturally waxed' and 'dewaxed' nymphs (cleaned from wax revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

  3. Review of data on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, T; Bury, D; Fautz, R; Hauser, M; Huber, B; Markowetz, A; Mishra, S; Rettinger, K; Schuh, W; Teichert, T

    2017-10-05

    Mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic products, also referred to as "personal care products" outside the European Union, are mixtures of predominantly saturated hydrocarbons consisting of straight-chain, branched and ring structures with carbon chain lengths greater than C16. They are used in skin and lip care cosmetic products due to their excellent skin tolerance as well as their high protecting and cleansing performance and broad viscosity options. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects of mineral oils and waxes from dermal application of cosmetics. In order to be able to assess the risk for the consumer the dermal penetration potential of these ingredients has to be evaluated. The scope and objective of this review are to identify and summarize publicly available literature on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature search was conducted. A total of 13 in vivo (human, animal) and in vitro studies investigating the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes has been identified and analysed. The majority of the substances were dermally adsorbed to the stratum corneum and only a minor fraction reached deeper skin layers. Overall, there is no evidence from the various studies that mineral oils and waxes are percutaneously absorbed and become systemically available. Thus, given the absence of dermal uptake, mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products do not present a risk to the health of the consumer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dental students' preferences and performance in crown design: conventional wax-added versus CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R Duane; Hopp, Christa D; Augustin, Marcus A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental students' perceptions of traditional waxing vs. computer-aided crown design and to determine the effectiveness of either technique through comparative grading of the final products. On one of twoidentical tooth preparations, second-year students at one dental school fabricated a wax pattern for a full contour crown; on the second tooth preparation, the same students designed and fabricated an all-ceramic crown using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Projects were graded for occlusion and anatomic form by three faculty members. On completion of the projects, 100 percent of the students (n=50) completed an eight-question, five-point Likert scalesurvey, designed to assess their perceptions of and learning associated with the two design techniques. The average grades for the crown design projects were 78.3 (CAD) and 79.1 (wax design). The mean numbers of occlusal contacts were 3.8 (CAD) and 2.9(wax design), which was significantly higher for CAD (p=0.02). The survey results indicated that students enjoyed designing afull contour crown using CAD as compared to using conventional wax techniques and spent less time designing the crown using CAD. From a learning perspective, students felt that they learned more about position and the size/strength of occlusal contacts using CAD. However, students recognized that CAD technology has limits in terms of representing anatomic contours and excursive occlusion compared to conventional wax techniques. The results suggest that crown design using CAD could be considered as an adjunct to conventional wax-added techniques in preclinical fixed prosthodontic curricula.

  5. Overexpression of Arabidopsis MYB96 confers drought resistance in Camelina sativa via cuticular wax accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Saet Buyl; Kim, Hyojin; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung

    2014-09-01

    Camelina has been highlighted as an emerging oilseed crop. Transgenic Camelina plants overexpressing Arabidopsis MYB96 exhibited drought resistance by activating expression of Camelina wax biosynthetic genes and accumulating wax load. Camelina (Camelina sativa L.) is an oilseed crop in the Brassicaeae family with potential to expand biofuel production to marginal land. The aerial portion of all land plants is covered with cuticular wax to protect them from desiccation. In this study, the Arabidopsis MYB96 gene was overexpressed in Camelina under the control of the CaMV35S promoter. Transgenic Camelina plants overexpressing Arabidopsis MYB96 exhibited normal growth and development and enhanced tolerance to drought. Deposition of epicuticular wax crystals and total wax loads increased significantly on the surfaces of transgenic leaves compared with that of non-transgenic plants. The levels of alkanes and primary alcohols prominently increased in transgenic Camelina plants relative to non-transgenic plants. Cuticular transpiration occurred more slowly in transgenic leaves than that in non-transgenic plants. Genome-wide identification of Camelina wax biosynthetic genes enabled us to determine that the expression levels of CsKCS2, CsKCS6, CsKCR1-1, CsKCR1-2, CsECR, and CsMAH1 were approximately two to sevenfold higher in transgenic Camelina leaves than those in non-transgenic leaves. These results indicate that MYB96-mediated transcriptional regulation of wax biosynthetic genes is an approach applicable to generating drought-resistant transgenic crops. Transgenic Camelina plants with enhanced drought tolerance could be cultivated on marginal land to produce renewable biofuels and biomaterials.

  6. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  7. Investigation of drug release from carnauba wax matrices: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to assess the effect of carnauba wax particle size on sustained release characteristics, the effect of drug loading on release and the kinetics of propranolol hydrochloride release from carnauba wax matrices. The results obtained showed that small particles (180 250 µ m) of carnauba wax had superior ...

  8. The composition of wax and oil in green coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Folstar, P.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for the isolation of wax and oil from green coffee beans were studied and a method for the quantitative extraction of coffee oil from the beans was introduced. Coffee wax, coffee oil and wax-free coffee oil as well as the unsaponifiable matter prepared from each were fractionated by column

  9. Influence of Different Waxes on the Physical Properties of Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-12-22

    Dec 22, 2005 ... Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Private Bag X13, Phuthaditjhaba, 9866 South Africa. Received 22 ... The polymer-wax miscibilities differed with the type of wax used, and with the ... blends,8–13 but in all cases high (up to 50%) wax contents were mixed into the ...

  10. Wax Impaction in Nigerian School Children. | Eziyi | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax Impaction in Nigerian School Children. ... East and Central African Journal of Surgery ... The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of impacted ear wax in primary school children and to determine, if there is any association between socioeconomic status and the occurrence of wax impaction among these ...

  11. CUT1, an Arabidopsis gene required for cuticular wax biosynthesis and pollen fertility, encodes a very-long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, A A; Clemens, S; Zachgo, S; Giblin, E M; Taylor, D C; Kunst, L

    1999-05-01

    Land plants secrete a layer of wax onto their aerial surfaces that is essential for survival in a terrestrial environment. This wax is composed of long-chain, aliphatic hydrocarbons derived from very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Using the Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag database, we have identified a gene, designated CUT1, that encodes a VLCFA condensing enzyme required for cuticular wax production. Sense suppression of CUT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants results in waxless (eceriferum) stems and siliques as well as conditional male sterility. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that this was a severe waxless phenotype, because stems of CUT1-suppressed plants were completely devoid of wax crystals. Furthermore, chemical analyses of waxless plants demonstrated that the stem wax load was reduced to 6 to 7% of wild-type levels. This value is lower than that reported for any of the known eceriferum mutants. The severe waxless phenotype resulted from the downregulation of both the decarbonylation and acyl reduction wax biosynthetic pathways. This result indicates that CUT1 is involved in the production of VLCFA precursors used for the synthesis of all stem wax components in Arabidopsis. In CUT1-suppressed plants, the C24 chain-length wax components predominate, suggesting that CUT1 is required for elongation of C24 VLCFAs. The unique wax composition of CUT1-suppressed plants together with the fact that the location of CUT1 on the genetic map did not coincide with any of the known ECERIFERUM loci suggest that we have identified a novel gene involved in wax biosynthesis. CUT1 is currently the only known gene with a clearly established function in wax production.

  12. Wax Impaction in Nigerian School Children.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DELL

    the middle social class and 164 (26.0%) from the upper class. A very large .... Health education to improve the low level of awareness among parents and ... Brand-Auraban A, Kopito L, Shwachman H. Chemical analysis of some inorganic elements in ... Fairey A, Freer CB, Machin D. Ear wax and otitis media in children.

  13. Identification of genes coding for putative wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes in terrestrial and marine environments

    OpenAIRE

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P.; Alvarez, Adri?n F; Alvarez, H?ctor M.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of neutral lipids such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and wax esters (WE) is catalyzed in bacteria by wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes (WS/DGAT). We investigated the diversity of genes encoding this enzyme in contrasting natural environments from Patagonia (Argentina). The content of petroleum hydrocarbons in samples collected from oil-producing areas was measured. PCR-based analysis covered WS/DGAT occurrence in marine sediments and soil. No product was obtained...

  14. ETHNOECOLOGY AND ETHNOBOTANY OF THE PALM CARNAUBA WAX IN BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira de Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of ethnoecological and ethnobotanical of carnauba wax (Copernicia prunifera (Miller H. E. Moore, Arecaceae in an extractive community of municipality of Ipanguaçu, Rio Grande do Norte state. We interviewed key informants, using the technique of inducing nonspecific, guided tour and direct observation to confirm the data. According to most residents of Pedro Ezequiel Araújo community, the area of carnauba wax in the region is natural. In the research ethnoecological, 73% of informants reported the occurrence of “a different kind of carnauba”, known as “white carnauba” phenotypically distinct from the “common carnauba wax” by presenting clear stipe, smaller fruits and absence of spines on the petiole, and is rare at the study site. Much of the informants observed phenological phases of carnauba wax, being consistent in stating that the species has fruits dispersed by bats. In ethnobotany, powder wax was cited by all as the most important product extracted from leaves of carnauba and the most used, followed by fruit, stem and root. Were still reported the division of work in the extraction of powder wax from the carnauba. The results of this research will contribute to knowledge of ethnobotanical and ethnoecological carnauba, supporting strategies for management and conservation of natural populations.

  15. Biodegradation of paraffin wax by crude Aspergillus enzyme preparations for potential use in removing paraffin deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhui; Xue, Quanhong; Gao, Hui; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    Paraffin deposition problems have plagued the oil industry. Whist mechanical and chemical methods are problematic, microbiological method of paraffin removal is considered an alternative. However, studies have mainly investigated the use of bacteria, with little attention to the potential of fungi. The performance of six Aspergillus isolates to degrade paraffin wax was evaluated under laboratory conditions using solid enzyme preparations. The results showed that all the six enzyme preparations efficiently improved the solubility of paraffin wax in n-hexane and degraded n-alkanes in paraffin wax. The degradation process was accompanied by dynamic production of gases (CO2 and H2 ) and organic acids (oxalate and propionate). The shape of wax crystals markedly changed after enzymatic degradation, with a rough surface and a loose structure. This study indicates that extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus spp. can efficiently degrade paraffin wax. These enzyme preparations have the potential for use in oil wells with paraffin deposition problems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Development of a Parafin Wax deposition Unit for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Greta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Pedersen, David Bue

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade Additive Manufacturing (AM) witnessed a big development in terms of technologies, processes and possibilities. However of materials and their use still represents a big challenge. In fact availability of materials is rather limited if compared to conventional manufacturing...... parts to subsequently use in a Lost Wax Casting process, multi-material Additive Manufacturing and the use of wax as support material during the production of complicated parts. Moreover it is believed that including waxes among the materials usable in FDM would promote new ways of using and exploring...... are tested iteratively by alternating different methods in order to find the best configuration. The use of an open source platform, namely a Reprap Prusa Mendel allows to perform quick changes to the system without significant modifications to the major frame of the machine. During the design of the new...

  17. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hentz, Matthew; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of ‘naturally waxed’ and ‘dewaxed’ nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed. PMID:25793934

  18. Wax co-cracking synergism of high density polyethylene to alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Motawie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attempts have been made to understand the thermal degradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE and their combined co-cracking using different ratios of HDPE and petroleum wax under nitrogen atmosphere. We have conducted the experiments using HDPE as the raw material and petroleum wax as co-feed by at 400 and 450 °C reaction temperatures. The product distribution was noted along with reaction time of 0.5–3 h for the degradation. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA technique was used to measure the weight change of the feedstock as a function of temperature and time. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to determine the degradation temperature. Products were characterized using gas chromatography (GC and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, some other standard physical methods were used to determine the main properties of the liquid products. Results show that the mixed plastic-wax samples could be converted into gases, gasoline, and middle distillate depending upon the composition of feed polymer/wax ratio. It was found that the products mostly consisted of paraffin and olefin compounds, with carbon numbers of C1–C4, C5–C9 and C10–C19 in the case of gases, gasoline and middle distillate respectively.

  19. Dimensional Precision Research of Wax Molding Rapid Prototyping based on Droplet Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingji, Huang; Geng, Wu; yan, Shan

    2017-11-01

    The traditional casting process is complex, the mold is essential products, mold quality directly affect the quality of the product. With the method of rapid prototyping 3D printing to produce mold prototype. The utility wax model has the advantages of high speed, low cost and complex structure. Using the orthogonal experiment as the main method, analysis each factors of size precision. The purpose is to obtain the optimal process parameters, to improve the dimensional accuracy of production based on droplet injection molding.

  20. Evolutionary Conserved Function of Barley and Arabidopsis 3-KETOACYL-CoA SYNTHASES in Providing Wax Signals for Germination of Powdery Mildew Fungi1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbach, Denise; Jansen, Marcus; Franke, Rochus B.; Hensel, Goetz; Weissgerber, Wiebke; Ulferts, Sylvia; Jansen, Irina; Schreiber, Lukas; Korzun, Viktor; Pontzen, Rolf; Kumlehn, Jochen; Pillen, Klaus; Schaffrath, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    For plant pathogenic fungi, such as powdery mildews, that survive only on a limited number of host plant species, it is a matter of vital importance that their spores sense that they landed on the right spot to initiate germination as quickly as possible. We investigated a barley (Hordeum vulgare) mutant with reduced epicuticular leaf waxes on which spores of adapted and nonadapted powdery mildew fungi showed reduced germination. The barley gene responsible for the mutant wax phenotype was cloned in a forward genetic screen and identified to encode a 3-KETOACYL-CoA SYNTHASE (HvKCS6), a protein participating in fatty acid elongation and required for synthesis of epicuticular waxes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the mutant has significantly fewer aliphatic wax constituents with a chain length above C-24. Complementation of the mutant restored wild-type wax and overcame germination penalty, indicating that wax constituents less present on the mutant are a crucial clue for spore germination. Investigation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transgenic plants with sense silencing of Arabidopsis REQUIRED FOR CUTICULAR WAX PRODUCTION1, the HvKCS6 ortholog, revealed the same germination phenotype against adapted and nonadapted powdery mildew fungi. Our findings hint to an evolutionary conserved mechanism for sensing of plant surfaces among distantly related powdery mildews that is based on KCS6-derived wax components. Perception of such a signal must have been evolved before the monocot-dicot split took place approximately 150 million years ago. PMID:25201879

  1. Evaluation of methods for wax determination in crude oil; Avaliacao de metodos de determinacao de parafinas em petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Julio Cesar M.; Silva, Maria do Socorro A.J. da; Vasconcellos, Rosa C.U. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Tamanqueira, Juliana B. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Determining the wax content of crude oil is of great importance for petroleum industry, especially for production, storage and transportation of crude oils. Many different methodologies of wax determining are available in the technical literature. However, the selection of the most suitable method must be in accordance with the aim of the analysis and observing the specificities of each technique. The purpose of this work was to determine the performance of different techniques of wax determining applied to characterization of precipitation properties of waxy compounds in crude oils. Twelve samples of crude oils proceeding from the main Brazilian oil producing sedimentary basins were selected for this study. These samples were analyzed by three important analytical techniques of wax determining: precipitation by cooled solvent; liquid chromatography with precipitation by cooled solvent; and liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetry data related to the wax crystallization in these oils were used as parameters of validation. The results obtained in this study indicate that the liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography method has the best performance for wax determining in crude oils. (author)

  2. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  3. Role of Households in Rabbit Production in Enugu-North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North Agricultural Zone of Enugu State. It determined rabbit management and breeding practices of respondents, roles of households in rabbit production and constraints associated with rabbit production in the area. Multistage sampling technique ...

  4. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield...... stress measurement and compared with the original crude oil. A complex asphaltene−wax interaction as a function of asphaltene concentration and degree of asphaltene dispersion under dynamic and static condition was observed. The crystallization and the wax network strength was strongly dependent...... influence the wax crystallization at static condition more significantly than the more flocculated....

  5. Effect of solvent extraction on Tunisian esparto wax composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saâd Inès

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of needs for renewable and vegetable based materials will help to drive the market growth of vegetable waxes. Because of their highly variable composition and physicochemical properties, plant waxes have found numerous applications in the: food, cosmetic, candle, coating, polish etc... The aim of this project is to determine the effect of solvent extraction (petroleum ether and ethanol on Tunisian esparto wax composition. The GC-MS was applied in order to determine the waxes compositions. Then, physicochemical parameters of these two samples of waxes: acid value, saponification value, iodine value and melting point were measured in order to deduct their properties and possible fields of uses. Results showed that esparto wax composition depended on the solvent extraction and that major components of the two samples of waxes were: alkanes, esters of fatty acids and phenols. Furthermore, esparto waxes were characterized by an antioxidant and antibacterial activities but the potential of these activities depended on the solvent of wax extraction.

  6. Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

    1991-01-01

    This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Presence of carotinoids in peat wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurkevich, E.A.; Dolidovich, E.F.; Bel' kevich, P.I.; Sheremet, L.S.; Drozdovskaya, S.V.

    1986-05-01

    Discusses biologically active substances present in peat which have various pharmacological properties. Describes separation of fractions rich in carotinoids from extracts of wax tar obtained by benzine treatment of highly decomposed pine-cotton grass peat. Extraction was carried out using hot ethanol. States that although identification of individual carotinoid in the fractions separated is very difficult due to complicity of composition, the tests carried out made it possible to infer that fractions studied contain not only xanthophylls but also fucoxanthains (formed in small amounts in nature) with fairly stable structure. Ultraviolet and infrared spectra of the carotinoid containing fraction in ethanol extracts are given. 6 refs.

  8. Wax ester composition influences the diapause patterns in the copepod Calanoides acutus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, David W.; Tarling, Geraint A.; Ward, Peter; Mayor, Daniel J.

    2012-01-01

    Many calanoid copepods inhabiting high latitude environments overwinter at depth in the water column in a state of diapause and the large wax ester reserves that they contain are central to this process. Here we compare the abundance, depth distribution, lipid content and wax ester composition of individual CV Calanoides acutus collected from the Southern Ocean at depth horizons ranging from the surface to 1000 m. Abundances of CV C. acutus varied considerably between locations, ranging from 44 to 1256 m -2. Levels of total lipid in the copepods increased with depth at a rate of around 100 μg per 100 m depth between 200 and 1000 m. Fatty acid composition of the wax esters reflected that of the local prey community, with a spectrum of diatom to flagellate dominated profiles corresponding to different microplankton environments. Copepods with highest levels of total lipid also contained highest levels of the highly unsaturated diatom fatty acid biomarker 20:5(n-3), and occupied the deepest depths during diapause. In addition, unsaturation levels of both the fatty acid and fatty alcohol moieties of the wax esters in the copepods increased with depth. This has implications for the buoyancy of these organisms: higher unsaturation makes the lipid likely to change from liquid to solid state at overwintering depths, increasing their specific gravity. These findings emphasise functional role of n-3 fatty acids in the diapause life-phase of calanoid copepods and in particular the importance of fatty acids from diatoms for overwintering.

  9. GROWTH, YIELD AND POSTHARVEST QUALITY OF WAX APPLE AS AFFECTED BY NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOHAMMAD MONERUZZAMAN KHANDAKER

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of this study represent the first report of the effect of Naphthalene Acetic Acid (NAA on the pre and post harvest quality of wax apple fruit. The wax apple trees were spray treated with 0, 5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 NAA under field conditions during 2008 to 2011. The experiments were carried out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications. Leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic yield, net photosynthetic rate, drymatter content of leaves and total soluble solids and K+content of wax apple fruits were significantly increased after treatments with 10 mg L-1. Polygalacturonase activity significantly decreased with NAA treatments. The application of 5 mg L-1 NAA increased 27% more bud and reduced 42% less fruit drop compared to the control. In addition, higher protein and phosphate synthase activity of leaves, fruit set, fruit growth, larger fruit size and yield were recorded in NAA treated plants. In storage, treated fruits exhibited higher TSS and firmness and less weight loss, browning, titratable acidity, respiration and ethylene production than the control. It is concluded that spraying with 5 and 10 mg L-1 NAA once a week under field conditions produced better fruit growth and yield of the wax apple and maintained better fruit quality in postharvest storage.

  10. Synthesis and Properties of a Lacquer Wax-Based Quarternary Ammonium Gemini Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Chen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lacquer wax is an important fatty resource obtained from the mesocarp of the berries of Toxicodendron vernicifluum. In order to expand the applications of lacquer wax, we hydrolyzed it after establishing the best conditions for the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis using a Box-Behnken design. Then we synthesized a quarternary ammonium gemini surfactant by a three-step reaction. The surface properties of an aqueous solution of the final product were investigated. The optimum conditions were 9% catalyst, 100 °C of reaction temperature and 14 h of reaction time, while the maximum free fatty acids (FFA% was 99.67%. From the gas chromatography, the main fatty acids of the lacquer wax were palmitic, oleic and octadecanoic acid. The lacquer wax gemini surfactant was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed by IR and NMR. The experiments showed that the critical micelle concentration (CMC is 5 × 10−4 mol·L−1, the surface tension is 33.6 mN·m−1. When the content of surfactant was 0.1%, the separation time of 5 mL water was 10 min.

  11. A prediction method for the wax deposition rate based on a radial basis function neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The radial basis function neural network is a popular supervised learning tool based on machinery learning technology. Its high precision having been proven, the radial basis function neural network has been applied in many areas. The accumulation of deposited materials in the pipeline may lead to the need for increased pumping power, a decreased flow rate or even to the total blockage of the line, with losses of production and capital investment, so research on predicting the wax deposition rate is significant for the safe and economical operation of an oil pipeline. This paper adopts the radial basis function neural network to predict the wax deposition rate by considering four main influencing factors, the pipe wall temperature gradient, pipe wall wax crystal solubility coefficient, pipe wall shear stress and crude oil viscosity, by the gray correlational analysis method. MATLAB software is employed to establish the RBF neural network. Compared with the previous literature, favorable consistency exists between the predicted outcomes and the experimental results, with a relative error of 1.5%. It can be concluded that the prediction method of wax deposition rate based on the RBF neural network is feasible.

  12. Thermodynamics Prediction of Wax Precipitation in Black Oil Using Regular Solution Model and Plus Fraction Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation of wax/solid paraffin during production, transportation, and processing of crude oil is a serious problem. It is essential to have a reliable model to predict the wax appearance temperature and the amount of solid precipitated at different conditions. This paper presents a work to predict the solid precipitation based on solid-liquid equilibrium with regular solution-molecular thermodynamic theory and characterization of the crude oil plus fraction. Due to the differences of solubility characteristics between solid and liquid phase, the solubility parameters of liquid and solid phase are calculated by a modified model. The heat capacity change between solid and liquid phase is considered and estimated in the thermodynamic model. An activity coefficient based thermodynamic method combined with two characteristic methods to calculate wax precipitation in crude oil, especially heavy oil, has been tested with experimental data. The results show that the wax appearance temperature and the amount of weight precipitated can be predicted well with the experimental data.

  13. Characterization of wax deposition by different experimental techniques - a comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeman, Olga; Allenson, Steve

    2006-03-15

    Crude oils consist of various fractions of hydrocarbons, including n-paraffins. The paraffins precipitate out of oil below the temperature called WAT (wax appearance temperature) and accumulate in flow lines causing major transport problems. Prediction of paraffin deposition is, therefore, a key element of flow assurance programs. The purpose of this study was to develop a general and reliable approach to prediction of wax deposition based on a critical comparison of several practical lab techniques. Wax deposition study was conducted on multiple crude oils using various testing protocols and equipment. One experimental technique was a cold stress test of wax deposition combined with ketone precipitation of waxy paraffin crystals. Another set of experiments was carried out for wax deposits formed on the surface of U-tubes and cold fingers of different designs. A comparison of the effectiveness of several wax inhibitors was conducted for these crude oils by using the selected deposition techniques. In each test method the amount of precipitated wax was recorded and compared. The deposits were characterized by melting point, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the wax components using DSC, SARA and HTGC analyses. Efficiency of paraffin inhibitors was correlated with a profile of n-paraffins distribution in the deposits. The limitations and advantages of different deposition techniques were analyzed and discussed. A new test design designated ''cold tube'' is proposed. (Author) (tk)

  14. Comparison of different experimental techniques used for wax deposition testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allenson, Stephen; Johnston, Angela [Nalco Energy Services, Sugar Land, TX (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Crude oils consist of various fractions of hydrocarbons, including n-paraffins. The paraffins precipitate out of oil below the temperature called WAT (wax appearance temperature) and accumulate in flow lines and pipelines causing major transport problems. Prediction of paraffin deposition is, therefore, a key element of flow assurance programs. The purpose of this study was to develop a general and reliable approach to prediction of wax deposition based on a critical comparison of several practical lab techniques. Wax deposition study was conducted on five separate crude oils by using a varying protocols and equipment. One experimental technique was a cold stress test of wax deposition combined with ketone precipitation of waxy paraffin crystals. Another set of experiments were carried out for wax deposits formed on the surface of U-tubes and cold fingers of different designs. A comparison of the effectiveness of several wax inhibitors was conducted for these crude oils by using the selected deposition techniques. In each test method the amount of precipitated wax was recorded and compared. The deposits were characterized by melting point, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the wax components using DSC, SARA and HTGC analyses. Efficiency of paraffin inhibitors was correlated with a profile of n-paraffins distribution in the deposits. The limitations and advantages of different deposition techniques were analyzed and discussed. (author)

  15. Biochemical response of sweet potato to bemul-wax coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn) tuber is a very nutritious but highly perishable crop that is subject to high wastages due to non-availability of appropriate storage techniques. This work assessed the effectiveness of treating the tubers with calcium chloride dip (CCD), bemul-wax (B-wax) and their combinations ...

  16. Crystal morphology of sunflower wax in soybean oil organogel

    Science.gov (United States)

    While sunflower wax has been recognized as an excellent organogelator for edible oil, the detailed morphology of sunflower wax crystals formed in an edible oil organogel has not been fully understood. In this study, polarized light microscopy, phase contrast microscopy, scanning electron microscopy ...

  17. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... for the test formulation. Conclusion: Based on this study, it can be concluded that the developed indomethacin-loaded wax microsheres and Microcid® SR capsule are bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of absorption. Keywords: Indomethacin, Bioavailability, Controlled release Sugarcane wax, Release kinetics.

  18. Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalekar, M R; Madgulkar, A R; Sheladiya, D D; Kshirsagar, S J; Wable, N D; Desale, S S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X(1)) and bees wax (X(2)) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t(50)) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t(50) but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings.

  19. Epicuticular wax crystals of Wollemia nobilis: morphology and chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragota, Simona; Riederer, Markus

    2007-08-01

    The morphology of the epicuticular leaf waxes of Wollemia nobilis (Araucariaceae) was studied with special emphasis on the relationship between the microstructure of epicuticular wax crystals and their chemical composition. Wollemia nobilis is a unique coniferous tree of the family Araucariaceae and is of very high scientific value as it is the sole living representative of an ancient genus, which until 1994 was known only from fossils. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) were used for characterizing the morphology and the chemical structure of the epicuticular wax layer of W. nobilis needles. The main component of the leaf epicuticular wax of W. nobilis is nonacosan-10-ol. This secondary alcohol together with nonacosane diols is responsible for the tubular habit of the epicuticular wax crystals. Scanning electron micrographs revealed differences in the fine structure of adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces that could be explained by gas chromatographic studies after selective mechanical removal of the waxes. SEM investigations established the tubular crystalline microstructure of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves. GC-MS and NMR experiments showed that nonacosan-10-ol is the major constituent of the epicuticular wax of W. nobilis leaves.

  20. Role of Household Members in Kolanut Production and Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Constraints to kolanut production and marketing were group into .... To ascertain household roles in kola nut production and marketing, activities on kola ..... and in the right place. 0.279 0.247 0.672. Inadequate information on kola production in the study area. 0.282 0.218 0.726. Unavailability of labour to carry out essential ...

  1. GENDER ROLES m SUBSISTENCE CROP PRODUCTION m ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the emphasis on market economy that features very prominently in Nationallncome accounting, the erroneous belief that most rural women do not make an appreciable centribution to crop production is over-turned in this study. Most women take part in' plantingijweeding, harvesting and post-harvest activities of ...

  2. Managing Product Returns: The Role of Forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Toktay; E.A. van der Laan (Erwin); M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we discuss ways of actively influencing product returns and we review data-driven methods for forecasting return flows that exploit the fact that future returns are a function of past sales. In particular we assess the value of return forecasting at an operational level,

  3. Self‐Replenishable Anti‐Waxing Organogel Materials†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xi; Wu, Shuwang; Chen, Lie; Ju, Jie; Gu, Zhandong; Liu, Mingjie; Jiang, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Solid deposition, such as the formation of ice on outdoor facilities, the deposition of scale in water reservoirs, the sedimentation of fat, oil, and grease (FOG) in sewer systems, and the precipitation of wax in petroleum pipelines, cause a serious waste of resources and irreversible environmental pollution. Inspired by fish and pitcher plants, we present a self‐replenishable organogel material which shows ultra‐low adhesion to solidified paraffin wax and crude oil by absorption of low‐molar‐mass oil from its crude‐oil environment. Adhesion of wax on the organogel surface was over 500 times lower than adhesion to conventional material surfaces and the wax was found to slide off under the force of gravity. This design concept of a gel with decreased adhesion to wax and oil can be extended to deal with other solid deposition problems. PMID:26083324

  4. Sources and abundances of leaf waxes in aerosols in central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Knohl, Alexander; Sachse, Dirk; Schefuß, Enno; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2017-02-01

    Atmospheric transport is an understudied mechanism for leaf wax hydrogen isotope applications that contributes to mobilizing and depositing these compounds on the surface of the Earth. While previous efforts have identified the importance of atmospheric leaf wax deposition in remote marine locations, the processes are not well constrained on land in temperate latitudes where lakes are common and sedimentary leaf wax hydrogen isotope values are an attractive tool for understanding past precipitation changes. This work presents results from a field study that was conducted in 2010 and 2011 at Hainich National Park, Germany in order to evaluate the quantity and sources of leaf waxes in the atmosphere. Aerosols were sampled at approximately weekly intervals inside the forest canopy, and n-alkane distributions and hydrogen isotope values were compared with those from major tree species surrounding the sampling site. Despite sampling in what was expected to be a major production center, the distribution and hydrogen isotope values of atmospheric n-alkanes bore little resemblance to those of the local vegetation. Comparison with local meteorological data and to 10-day and 36-h back air mass trajectories indicated shifting effects of winds and temperature, and that mesoscale transport processes were more important than long-range mechanisms. Back trajectories also highlighted source effects, with easterly winds coinciding with relatively lower leaf wax hydrogen isotope values from more continental regions. These results suggest that leaf wax aerosols average over spatial scales that exceed typical surface catchment areas for small lake systems, even in forested areas, yet that the area over which these compounds are derived is still relatively regional. Depositional fluxes were also estimated in order to assess the potential importance of atmospheric transport to sedimentary archives. Although difficult to constrain, these estimates suggest that atmospheric deposition may

  5. RDR1 and SGS3, Components of RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing, Are Required for the Regulation of Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis in Developing Inflorescence Stems of Arabidopsis1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Patricia; Zhao, Lifang; McFarlane, Heather E.; Aiga, Mytyl; Lam, Vivian; Hooker, Tanya S.; Kunst, Ljerka

    2012-01-01

    The cuticle is a protective layer that coats the primary aerial surfaces of land plants and mediates plant interactions with the environment. It is synthesized by epidermal cells and is composed of a cutin polyester matrix that is embedded and covered with cuticular waxes. Recently, we have discovered a novel regulatory mechanism of cuticular wax biosynthesis that involves the ECERIFERUM7 (CER7) ribonuclease, a core subunit of the exosome. We hypothesized that at the onset of wax production, the CER7 ribonuclease degrades an mRNA specifying a repressor of CER3, a wax biosynthetic gene whose protein product is required for wax formation via the decarbonylation pathway. In the absence of this repressor, CER3 is expressed, leading to wax production. To identify the putative repressor of CER3 and to unravel the mechanism of CER7-mediated regulation of wax production, we performed a screen for suppressors of the cer7 mutant. Our screen resulted in the isolation of components of the RNA-silencing machinery, RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE1 and SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING3, implicating RNA silencing in the control of cuticular wax deposition during inflorescence stem development in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). PMID:22689894

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to policosanols from sugar cane wax and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1747, 1748, 1864, 1951, 1954, 4693) and maintenance of normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to policosanols from sugar cane wax and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article...... 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claims is policosanols from sugar cane wax. The Panel considers that policosanols from sugar cane wax are sufficiently characterised....

  7. A spin cartridge system for DNA extraction from paraffin wax embedded tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, A P; Villa, L L

    1998-02-01

    A simple and efficient method of DNA extraction from paraffin wax embedded tissues using a spin cartridge system is described. Such DNAs were shown to be suitable for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction, which targeted two human papillomavirus genes and one globin fragment giving rise to products of 450, 150, and 110 base pairs, respectively. Different human tissues, stored for up to 20 years, were successfully amplified, demonstrating the usefulness of this very simple procedure for retrospective studies.

  8. A spin cartridge system for DNA extraction from paraffin wax embedded tissues.

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto,A.P.; L.L. Villa

    1998-01-01

    A simple and efficient method of DNA extraction from paraffin wax embedded tissues using a spin cartridge system is described. Such DNAs were shown to be suitable for amplification by the polymerase chain reaction, which targeted two human papillomavirus genes and one globin fragment giving rise to products of 450, 150, and 110 base pairs, respectively. Different human tissues, stored for up to 20 years, were successfully amplified, demonstrating the usefulness of this very simple procedure f...

  9. The Preparation and Performances of Self-Dispersed Nanomicron Emulsified Wax Solid Lubricant Ewax for Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An oil-in-water nanomicron wax emulsion with oil phase content 45 wt% was prepared by using the emulsifying method of surfactant-in-oil. The optimum prepared condition is 85°C, 20 min, and 5 wt% complex emulsifiers. Then the abovementioned nanomicron emulsifying wax was immersed into a special water-soluble polymer in a certain percentage by the semidry technology. At last, a solidified self-dispersed nanomicron emulsified wax named as Ewax, a kind of solid lubricant for water based drilling fluid, was obtained after dried in the special soluble polymer containing emulsifying wax in low temperature. It is shown that the adhesion coefficient reduced rate (ΔKf is 73.5% and the extreme pressure (E-P friction coefficient reduced rate (Δf is 77.6% when the produced Ewax sample was added to fresh water based drilling fluid at dosage 1.0 wt%. In comparison with other normal similar liquid products, Ewax not only has better performances of lubrication, filtration loss control property, heat resistance, and tolerance to salt and is environmentally friendly, but also can solve the problems of freezing in the winter and poor storage stability of liquid wax emulsion in oilfield applications.

  10. Wax: A benign hydrogen-storage material that rapidly releases H2-rich gases through microwave-assisted catalytic decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Cortes, S; Slocombe, D R; Xiao, T; Aldawsari, A; Yao, B; Kuznetsov, V L; Liberti, E; Kirkland, A I; Alkinani, M S; Al-Megren, H A; Thomas, J M; Edwards, P P

    2016-10-19

    Hydrogen is often described as the fuel of the future, especially for application in hydrogen powered fuel-cell vehicles (HFCV's). However, its widespread implementation in this role has been thwarted by the lack of a lightweight, safe, on-board hydrogen storage material. Here we show that benign, readily-available hydrocarbon wax is capable of rapidly releasing large amounts of hydrogen through microwave-assisted catalytic decomposition. This discovery offers a new material and system for safe and efficient hydrogen storage and could facilitate its application in a HFCV. Importantly, hydrogen storage materials made of wax can be manufactured through completely sustainable processes utilizing biomass or other renewable feedstocks.

  11. Chemical and physical analyses of wax ester properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sejal Patel

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Wax esters are major constituents of the surface lipids in many terrestrial arthropods, but their study is complicated by their diversity. We developed a procedure for quantifying isomers in mixtures of straight-chain saturated and unsaturated wax esters having the same molecular weights, using single-ion monitoring of the total ion current data from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We examined the biological consequences of structural differences by measuring the melting temperatures, Tm, of >60 synthetic wax esters, containing 26-48 carbon atoms. Compounds containing saturated alcohol and acid moieties melted at 38-73°C. The main factor affecting Tm was the total chain length of the wax ester, but the placement of the ester bond also affected Tm. Insertion of a double bond into either the alcohol or acid moiety decreased Tm by ~30°C. Simple mixtures of wax esters with n-alkanes melted several °C lower than predicted from the melting points of the component lipids. Our results indicate that the wax esters of primary alcohols that are most typically found on the cuticle of terrestrial arthropods occur in a solid state under physiological conditions, thereby conferring greater waterproofing. Wax esters of secondary alcohols, which occur on melanopline grasshoppers, melted >60°C below primary esters of the same molecular weight and reduced Tm of the total surface lipids to environmental values.

  12. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks. © 2012 CSIRO Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Changing roles of women: reproduction to production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachapaetayakom, J

    1988-12-01

    The status of women in the countries included in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) varies widely from home labor and childbearing to social and political participation. In countries where the total fertility rate is high (over 6), such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal, the status of women is low. Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal, along with India, Sri Lanka, and China, also have the lowest levels of per capita income. The education of women is one of the earmarks of social development. Education enables women to delay marriage, reduce fertility, and participate in the economy. Between 1970 and 1980, the female literacy rate increased 10% in Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines; and 5% in Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Nepal. Women's participation in the labor force is determined both by the stage of development of the country and by cultural factors. In Muslim countries the level of women's participation in the labor force is low. In Thailand and China it is very high. Women with the most education are likeliest to work in professional and administrative jobs. Self-employed women tend to have as little status and as many children as unpaid family workers, and women working in agriculture are almost as badly off. In Asia and the Pacific, except for Muslim countries, women have participated actively in family planning programs. In several countries in the region, women have been active in politics, but mostly at the local level. If women are to be integrated into the development process in the countries of Asia and the Pacific, attention must be given to their education and employment, to increasing the role of men in household and child rearing duties, and to research in the interrelations of population processes, women's status, and socioeconomic development.

  14. The role of marketing and production in overcoming crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a strategic roles of marketing and production have been stressed as an important elements for achieving business success' on a domestic and an international market. The suppositions for a functioning of a national economy and companies is their broader and complex including in the international business flow, or an acceptance a process internationalization, but it is very important on the certain way. It means the bigger and suitable implementation marketing approach in a business. The books on corporate strategy tend to ignore the strategic importance and contribution of production in corporate decisions. On the other side, books written on production, with rare exceptions, also ignore the strategic importance of production in corporate decisions. The core of competitive advantage, which is the circumstances for achieving business success on a market, is to construct especially, distinguish ability or unique competencies. For the construction that ability the production has the strategic role. There is no area in a company which can contribute some weaknesses of production. Those abilities can contribute faster the new products development, a low costs production, assuring reliability and better quality of delivery. Those are equally the key elements of competitive advantage. In the contemporary business environment it has been understood that a company success depend on the production abilities and competences, or the production are getting the strategic role.

  15. Experimental Study on Shear Fatigue Behavior and Stiffness Performance of Warm Mix Asphalt by adding Synthetic Wax

    CERN Document Server

    Petit, Christophe; Canestrari, Francesco; Pannunzio, Valter; Virgili, Amadeo

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic waxes produced by standard and registered processes may be used to manufacture Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA), which is a modified asphalt concrete produced, applied and compacted at temperatures below those typically required. This feature leads to environmental benefits, such as reduced energy consumption, gas and fume emissions, as well as to economic/operational advantages, such as lower production costs and greater hauling distances for extended construction seasons with tighter schedules. The present article serves to compare the mechanical performance of a WMA produced by adding synthetic wax with a traditional Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimen, in terms of shear fatigue response and both complex and stiffness moduli. The experimental results and related modeling work demonstrate that adding synthetic wax into the WMA composition does not hinder either the destructive or non-destructive performance of an HMA, and this finding is corroborated by respectively measuring fatigue life and stiffness.

  16. 75 FR 56528 - EPA's Role in Advancing Sustainable Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... 31-33). Construction (NAICS code 23). Wholesale trade (NAICS code 42). Retail trade (NAICS codes 44... particular, how do you see EPA's role in: Assembling information and databases. Identifying sustainability ``hotspots'' and setting product sustainability priorities. Evaluating the multiple impacts of products...

  17. WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

    1999-11-01

    WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes.

  18. Wax deposit accumulation in a ``cylindrical Couette'' geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benallal, Amine; Maurel, Philippe; Agassant, Jean François

    2008-11-01

    Models used to predict wax deposits overestimate the deposit thickness, and they require fitting parameters to match computational results to experimental data. A new approach is proposed. Waxy crude oil is considered as a viscoplastic Bingham fluid in which both viscosity and yield stress depend on temperature and quantity of wax crystals. Numerical simulations of the flow in a "cylindrical Couette" geometry were carried out. The numerical results highlight the influence of wax crystal content on the flow pattern, especially when comparing yielded and unyielded regions. A static layer region appears near the colder wall, representing the deposit. To cite this article: A. Benallal et al., C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  19. Rapid Prototyping of wax foundry models in an incremental process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kozik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis incremental methods of creating wax founding models. There are two methods of Rapid Prototypingof wax models in an incremental process which are more and more often used in industrial practice and in scientific research.Applying Rapid Prototyping methods in the process of making casts allows for acceleration of work on preparing prototypes. It isespecially important in case of element having complicated shapes. The time of making a wax model depending on the size and the appliedRP method may vary from several to a few dozen hours.

  20. MEDITERRANEAN FOREST TREE DECLINE IN ITALY: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DROUGHT, POLLUTANTS AND THE WAX STRUCTURE OF LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PAOLETTI

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available After presenting the situation of forest decline in Italy and analyzing the factors that play a contributing role, tbis paper studies the response of the epicuticular wax structures and the stomata in ten broadleaf species and one conifer to fog-like treatments with acids andlor surfactants and to severe water stress. The main results are that wax structure alterations vary in intensity in the different species studied and that the microstructural alterations observed in field conditions cannot be attributed only to severe drought. since sample trccs put through water stress simulations do nol differ significantly from controls. In the artificial surfactant treatment, a positive relationship between structural damage to tbe stomata and transpiration suggests possible synergies between the effects of drought and those of pollutants in inducing stress conditions in Mediterranean vegetation.

  1. Tailoring the composition of novel wax esters in the seeds of transgenic Camelina sativa through systematic metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Broughton, Richard; Usher, Sarah; Salas, Joaquin J; Haslam, Richard P; Napier, Johnathan A; Beaudoin, Frédéric

    2017-07-01

    The functional characterization of wax biosynthetic enzymes in transgenic plants has opened the possibility of producing tailored wax esters (WEs) in the seeds of a suitable host crop. In this study, in addition to systematically evaluating a panel of WE biosynthetic activities, we have also modulated the acyl-CoA substrate pool, through the co-expression of acyl-ACP thioesterases, to direct the accumulation of medium-chain fatty acids. Using this combinatorial approach, we determined the additive contribution of both the varied acyl-CoA pool and biosynthetic enzyme substrate specificity to the accumulation of non-native WEs in the seeds of transgenic Camelina plants. A total of fourteen constructs were prepared containing selected FAR and WS genes in combination with an acyl-ACP thioesterase. All enzyme combinations led to the successful production of wax esters, of differing compositions. The impact of acyl-CoA thioesterase expression on wax ester accumulation varied depending on the substrate specificity of the WS. Hence, co-expression of acyl-ACP thioesterases with Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus WS and Marinobacter aquaeolei FAR resulted in the production of WEs with reduced chain lengths, whereas the co-expression of the same acyl-ACP thioesterases in combination with Mus musculus WS and M. aquaeolei FAR had little impact on the overall final wax composition. This was despite substantial remodelling of the acyl-CoA pool, suggesting that these substrates were not efficiently incorporated into WEs. These results indicate that modification of the substrate pool requires careful selection of the WS and FAR activities for the successful high accumulation of these novel wax ester species in Camelina seeds. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Biochemical characterization and substrate specificity of jojoba fatty acyl-CoA reductase and jojoba wax synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Banaś, Antoni

    2016-08-01

    Wax esters are used in industry for production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The only natural source of wax esters is jojoba oil. A much wider variety of industrial wax esters-containing oils can be generated through genetic engineering. Biotechnological production of tailor-made wax esters requires, however, a detailed substrate specificity of fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) and wax synthases (WS), the two enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis. In this study we have successfully characterized the substrate specificity of jojoba FAR and jojoba WS. The genes encoding both enzymes were expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the activity of tested enzymes was confirmed by in vivo studies and in vitro assays using microsomal preparations from transgenic yeast. Jojoba FAR exhibited the highest in vitro activity toward 18:0-CoA followed by 20:1-CoA and 22:1-CoA. The activity toward other 11 tested acyl-CoAs was low or undetectable as with 18:2-CoA and 18:3-CoA. In assays characterizing jojoba WS combinations of 17 fatty alcohols with 14 acyl-CoAs were tested. The enzyme displayed the highest activity toward 14:0-CoA and 16:0-CoA in combination with C16-C20 alcohols as well as toward C18 acyl-CoAs in combination with C12-C16 alcohols. 20:1-CoA was efficiently utilized in combination with most of the tested alcohols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative trait loci controlling amounts and types of epicuticular waxes in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists in onion (Allium cepa L.) for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on leaves. Wild-type waxy onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes, while the foliage of semi-glossy and glossy phenotypes accumulate significantly less wax. Reduced amounts of epicuticular waxes hav...

  4. Properties of cookies made with natural wax-vegetable oil organogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogels prepared with a natural wax and a vegetable oil were examined as alternatives to a commercial margarine in cookie. To investigate effects of wax and vegetable oil on properties of cookie dough and cookies, organogels prepared from four different waxes including sunflower wax, rice bran wa...

  5. Oil-structuring characterization of natural waxes in canola oil oleogels: Rheological, thermal, and oxidative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural waxes (candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax) were utilized as canola oil structurants to produce oleogels and their physicochemical properties were evaluated from rheological, thermal, and oxidative points of view. The oleogels with candelilla wax exhibited the highest hardness, followe...

  6. The Effect of Prebiotic and Probiotic Feed Supplementation on the Wax Glands of Worker Bees (Apis Mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pătruică

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effects of acidifying substances (lactic acid or acetic acid, Enterobiotics products(Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-14 and Bifidobacterium lactis BI-04 and Enterolactis Plus (Lactobacillus casei onthe wax glands of worker bees. The research was conducted in Timis County, Romania, between March 25 and April20, 2011, on 110 colonies of bees (Apis mellifera carpatica, allocated to 11 experimental treatment groups. Coloniesin the experimental groups were given three weekly feeds of sugar syrup supplemented with acidifying substances(lactic acid or cider vinegar and/or probiotic products (Enterobiotics or Enterolactis Plus. Three weeks after theadministration of the experimental diets, 10 worker bees from each treatment group were sampled for histologicalexamination of their wax glands. Gland development was shown to be influenced by administration of prebioticand/or probiotic supplements. Wax gland cell sizes ranged from 25.1 microns for the control group to between 27.8and 31.8 microns in the group fed with acidifying substances and between 26.9 and 29.2 microns in bees fed withprobiotic products. Bees supplemented with both lactic acid and probiotic product (group LE9 and LE10 showedmean wax cell sizes of 31.8 microns.

  7. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Wax Mixtures Obtained From Recycling of Patterns Used in Precision Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the properties of selected certified mixtures used to make wax patterns for the production of precision castings for the aerospace industry. In addition, an assessment of the recycled mixtures consisting of certified wax materials recovered during autoclaving was carried out. Hardness was tested via a proposed method based on penetration, creep related deformation, bending strength and linear contraction. The hardness was studied on laboratory specimens and patterns made with the use of injection molding equipment. For these patterns, linear contraction was estimated at variable pressure and for different temperature injection parameters. Deformations connected with creep and resistance were evaluated on cylindrical specimens. Differences in creep resistance in relation to the hardness were observed depending on the type of pattern mixtures. Recycled mixture has a greater resistance and smaller linear contraction than certified mixtures used for making sprue, raisers and other parts of filler system.

  8. The role of IT for extended products' evolution into product service ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, Johan; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Emmanouilidis, Christos; Taisch, Marco; Kiritsis, Dimitris

    2013-01-01

    This paper elaborates on the notions of extended products and product service systems. It argues that product service systems evolve rapidly into offerings which cross traditional domains of competition, and move into service ecosystems. The paper investigates the role of ICT in the development of

  9. Characterization and chemical composition of epicuticular wax from banana leaves grown in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suporn Charumanee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of epicuticular wax extracted from leaves of Kluai Namwa, a banana cultivar which is widely grown in Northern Thailand. Its genotype was identified by a botanist. The wax was extracted using solvent extraction. The fatty acid profiles and physicochemical properties of the wax namely melting point, congealing point, crystal structures and polymorphism, hardness, color, and solubility were examined and compared to those of beeswax, carnauba wax and paraffin wax. The results showed that the genotype of Kluai Namwa was Musa acuminata X M. balbisiana (ABB group cv. Pisang Awak. The highest amount of wax extracted was 274 μg/cm2 surface area. The fatty acid composition and the physicochemical properties of the wax were similar to those of carnauba wax. It could be suggested that the banana wax could be used as a replacement for carnauba wax in various utilizing areas.

  10. CARNAUBA WAX USED AS AN HYDROPHOBIC AGENT FOR EXPANDED VERMICULITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.F. Melo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the use of carnauba wax as an expansion and hydrophobicity agent for vermiculite, to be utilized in the sorption process of oil in water. Evaluation of the system (oil-water-hydrophobic vermiculite submersion percentage was considered in assessing the performance of vermiculite in comparison to a Mexican turf. Carnauba wax seems to be more efficient in both fresh and salt waters.

  11. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  12. Services trade restrictiveness and manufacturing productivity : the role of institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Beverelli, Cosimo; Fiorini, Matteo; HOEKMAN, BERNARD M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of services trade restrictiveness on manufacturing productivity for a broad cross-section of countries at different stages of economic development. Decreasing services trade restrictiveness has a positive indirect impact on the manufacturing sectors that use services as intermediate inputs in production. We identify a critical role of local institutions in shaping this effect: countries with high institutional capacity benefit the most from services trade policy reforms in...

  13. Extraction and characterization of wax from sugarcane bagasse and the enzymatic hydrolysis of dewaxed sugarcane bagasse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Gaoxiang; Peng, Fen; Xiong, Lian; Lin, Xiaoqing; Huang, Chao; Li, Hailong; Chen, Xuefang; Chen, Xinde

    2017-03-16

    Extraction of high-value products from agricultural wastes is an important component for sustainable bioeconomy development. In this study, wax extraction from sugarcane bagasse was performed and the beneficial effect of dewaxing pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis was investigated. About 1.2% (w/w) of crude sugarcane wax was obtained from the sugarcane bagasse using the mixture of petroleum ether and ethanol (mass ratio of 1:1) as the extraction agent. Results of Fourier-transform infrared characterization and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry qualitative analysis showed that the crude sugarcane wax consisted of fatty fractions (fatty acids, fatty aldehydes, hydrocarbons, and esters) and small amount of lignin derivatives. In addition, the effect of dewaxing pretreatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse was also investigated. The digestibilities of cellulose and xylan in dewaxed sugarcane bagasse were 18.7 and 10.3%, respectively, compared with those of 13.1 and 8.9% obtained from native sugarcane bagasse. The dewaxed sugarcane bagasse became more accessible to enzyme due to the disruption of the outermost layer of the waxy materials.

  14. The resistance of surfaces treated with oils and waxes to the action of dry heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaić Milan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface treatment of wood can be done with different coatings, and the choice of the appropriate system of processing depends on several factors, such as technological, aesthetic, economic and ecological. Raising awareness of the need to preserve the living and working environment has had a crucial impact on the increase in the use of natural materials for surface treatment of wood - oil and wax. The application of oils and waxes allows surface treated wood to keep the natural look, while protecting it from different influences, which can cause degradation and deterioration of the final product. The paper presents the results of testing the resistance of beech surface (Fagus silvatica L. processed with linseed oil and beeswax to the action of dry heat. In order to compare the quality of surface treated with oil and/or wax, beech wood treated with 2K-polyurethane coating is taken as a reference of surface treatment of wood. Surfaces treated with beeswax are less resistant to dry heat than those treated with linseed oil, and both showed significantly less resistance than surface treated with 2K-polyurethane coating.

  15. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthiphong Soradech

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L. seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range < 5–11 µg/mL and had no toxic effects on normal cells, however, the water extract (TSCH was the most effective due to its free radical scavenging activity and toxicity in mitochondrial membranes of cancer cells. Next a study was designed to develop a new formulation for encapsulation and intragastric floating delivery of tamarind seed extract (TSCH using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (% and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity.

  16. Microbial biosynthesis of wax esters during desiccation: an adaptation for colonization of the earliest terrestrial environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, D. B.; Brassell, S. C.; Pratt, L. M.

    2008-12-01

    Biosynthesis of wax esters (WE) by prokaryotes in natural systems, notably bacteria from hot springs and marine phytoplankton, is poorly documented, primarily because saponification is a routine step in the analysis of microbial mat lipids. Use of this preparative procedure, critical for characterization of the diagnostic distributions of carboxylic acids in phospholipids, precludes recovery of intact WE. Examination of non-saponified lipids in emergent and desiccated mats with comparable microbial communities from the Warner Lake region, Oregon, reveals increases in the relative abundance (18.6 to 59.9μg/g Corg) and average chain length (C38 to C46) of WE in the latter, combined with assimilation of phytol and tocopherol moieties. Prokaryotes can accumulate WE as storage lipids in vitro, notably at elevated temperature or under nitrogen limiting conditions, but we propose that biosynthesis of long-chain WE that have a low solubility and are resistant to degradation/oxidation may represent an evolutionary strategy to survive desiccation in evaporative environments. Moreover, aeolian transport of desiccated mat-rip-ups between lake flats allows for migration of microbial communities within and between lake flats and basins during arid conditions. Subsequent rehydration within an alkaline environment would naturally saponify WE, and thereby regenerate alcohol and acid moieties that could serve as membrane lipids for the next viable microbial generation. The evolutionary cradle of WE was likely abiotic generation under hydrothermal conditions, which is consistent with the antiquity of the ester linkage necessitated by its integral role in the membranes of Eubacteria (though not Archaea) and in bacteriochlorophyll. The subsequent capability of microbes to biosynthesize WE may have facilitated their survival when nutrients were limiting, and production of long-chain WE (>C40) may represent a further critical evolutionary threshold that enabled their persistence through

  17. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  18. Role of Household Members in Kolanut Production and Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed roles of household members in kolanut production and marketing in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 80 kolanut farmers. Data were collected from the respondents using structured interview schedule. Data were presented and analyzed using frequency counts, ...

  19. The Role of Ideology and "Habitus" in Educational Media Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The notion that embedded meanings exist within media, and are informed by particular ideologies, is far from new. Analyses of curriculum, however, rarely examine empirically the role of these ideologies or the context of production. Instead, the ideologies are attributed to a "producer" representing particular power relationships or…

  20. Strategic Climate and Organizational Productivity: The Role of Work Satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorde, F.C. van de; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Paauwe, J.; Solomon, G.T.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter is designed to test which of the competing perspectives, ‘work satisfaction as intermediary’ or ‘work satisfaction as outcome’, is more appropriate to describe the role of work satisfaction in the relationship between climate for efficiency, climate for service and productivity in

  1. Assessment of labour roles by gender in cassava production in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the labour roles played by different gender in cassava production in Ikpoba-Okha Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 cassava farmers purposively selected from three (3) communities with the aid of questionnaire validated by expert judgment. Data collected were ...

  2. Role of catalysis in sustainable production of synthetic elastomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elastomer business plays a significant role in the transportation industry. In fact, elastomers make the world move. ... productions, the impact of synthetic elastomer business cannot be overlooked. The need of synthetic elas- ...... Major global producers of 1,4-cis-polybutadiene rubber. Manufacturer. Country. JSR. Japan.

  3. Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study determined the consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production, processing and marketing of soyabeans in the Northern Agricultural Zone of Benue State, Nigeria. A structured interview schedule was used to collect data from a sample of 80 randomly selected respondents from ten extension ...

  4. The role of increased gastrointestinal alcohol production in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim. Explore the possibility that increased gastrointestinal alcohol production may play a role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with the metabolic syndrome. Methods. Blood, urine and breath levels of alcohol measured in 20 patients with the metabolic syndrome were compared with those of ...

  5. THE ROLE OF PRODUCT AUDIT POLICY IN INCREASING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA RĂDULESCU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In terms of markets more competitive, competitive advantage becomes a problem getting increasingly more difficult. Offer organization is the first element that can provide differentiation from competitors, the organization should regularly monitor the performance of their products in the market to achieve its objectives. Marketing decisions regarding product policy of the organization should be made after a comprehensive analysis within specific steps of strategic marketing planning. It is necessary, therefore a thorough analysis of the product portfolio of the organizations. In this regard an important role hold product audit policy and brand audit. This paper aims to present the steps and methods to be used for effective analysis of the product portfolio of the organization to effective competition on the relevant market.

  6. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to certain extent, all the components of the promotional mix. Product promotion is central both to sales growth, as well as to educating, advising and informing consumers as to how they can select quality milling and bakery products.

  7. Influence of waxing coupled to 1-methylcyclopropene on compositional changes in early harvested ‘gold’ pineapple for export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ligia de Castro Machado

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the changes in quality in early-harvested ‘Gold’ pineapple after coating with wax and exposure to 1-Methylcycloprepene before or after coating. The storage conditions and the experimental period simulated those of shipping and marketing, assuming that Ceará,Brazil, is the production site andEuropeis the marketplace. Evaluation was performed after harvest, upon removal of the fruit from cold storage, and every three days during room storage. Evaluations included visual quality of the fruit, shell yellowing, mass loss, flesh color, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, soluble solids to acid ratio, ascorbic acid, total soluble sugars, reducing sugar, phenolic content, and yellow flavonoids. Low temperature was the key variable for maintaining fruit quality during storage and simulated shipping. Waxing had a remarkable effect on visual quality, delaying yellowing and reducing shell dehydration. Those effects were not enhanced by the application of 1-MCP. 1-MCP treatment resulted in the maintenance of total phenolic content and retention of yellow flavonoids. Fruit flesh became lighter, while yellow color became more vivid during storage. Sugars and pH varied little during storage, while the decline in TA was more intense in waxed fruit. 1-MCP and waxing may be combined to preserve external and internal quality.

  8. Unheimlich. From Wax Figures to the Uncanny Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Conte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his pioneering History of Portraiture in Wax, Julius von Schlosser traced back the age-old history of a material which at that time seemed to be already antiquated, if not obsolete. Wax sculptures were rejected and ousted from art history because of their excessive similarity and adherence to models. One hundred years later, however, hyperrealism got its revenge with Maurizio Cattelan’s celebrated hanging children. Moving from that controversial artwork and focusing on the heated polemics over it, my paper will address the question of the well-known Unheimlichkeit of wax figures, investigated by Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud in the early Twentieth Century and nowadays becoming increasingly topical thanks to the recent debate about the existence and nature of the so called Uncanny Valley.

  9. Fungal contamination of paraffin wax blocks in a pathology archive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K; Ellenberger, C; Aupperle, H; Schmäschke, R; Scheller, R; Wittenbrink, M M; Schoon, H-A

    2011-01-01

    While searching for paraffin wax blocks for research purposes in our archive we detected numerous larval and some dead adult moths. Some wax blocks were riddled with a white-brown crumbling substance. The entire archive was checked and profoundly-infested blocks were separated from unaffected blocks. Mycological and parasitological investigations were performed. Fungi were identified by culture and polymerase chain reaction, which revealed high sequence homology to six different fungal species. The moths were determined to be Nemapogon personellus. A total of 8,484 wax blocks had to be removed from the archive and destroyed. Pathologists should be alerted to the importance of checking the humidity of the air where archival material is stored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP96A15 is the midchain alkane hydroxylase responsible for formation of secondary alcohols and ketones in stem cuticular wax of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Stephen; Wen, Miao; Bird, David; Wu, Xuemin; Samuels, Lacey; Kunst, Ljerka; Jetter, Reinhard

    2007-11-01

    Most aerial surfaces of plants are covered by cuticular wax that is synthesized in epidermal cells. The wax mixture on the inflorescence stems of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is dominated by alkanes, secondary alcohols, and ketones, all thought to be formed sequentially in the decarbonylation pathway of wax biosynthesis. Here, we used a reverse-genetic approach to identify a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP96A15) involved in wax biosynthesis and characterized it as a midchain alkane hydroxylase (MAH1). Stem wax of T-DNA insertional mutant alleles was found to be devoid of secondary alcohols and ketones (mah1-1) or to contain much lower levels of these components (mah1-2 and mah1-3) than wild type. All mutant lines also had increased alkane amounts, partially or fully compensating for the loss of other compound classes. In spite of the chemical variation between mutant and wild-type waxes, there were no discernible differences in the epicuticular wax crystals on the stem surfaces. Mutant stem wax phenotypes could be partially rescued by expression of wild-type MAH1 under the control of the native promoter as well as the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S-driven overexpression of MAH1 led to ectopic accumulation of secondary alcohols and ketones in Arabidopsis leaf wax, where only traces of these compounds are found in the wild type. The newly formed leaf alcohols and ketones had midchain functional groups on or next to the central carbon, thus matching those compounds in wild-type stem wax. Taken together, mutant analyses and ectopic expression of MAH1 in leaves suggest that this enzyme can catalyze the hydroxylation reaction leading from alkanes to secondary alcohols and possibly also a second hydroxylation leading to the corresponding ketones. MAH1 expression was largely restricted to the expanding regions of the inflorescence stems, specifically to the epidermal pavement cells, but not in trichomes and guard cells. MAH1-green

  11. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Influence of the wax application time on cassava conservation; Influencia del momento de aplicación de un recubrimiento en la conservación de yuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rendón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, product of a research project, shows the results of the evaluation of the influence of the time between harvest and the application of a natural wax in the deterioration of cassava roots; this time was called time of application. Tao chemistry Ltda. wax TAO FRESH ROOT was used in the development of this work. Three factors were considered for the evaluation:the quality of cassava roots, such as: physiological deterioration, loss of weight and dry matter content. They were evaluated in two varieties of cassava,five moments of application (1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h for a period of 21 days. The moment of application at 6 h presented the lowest averages of physiological deterioration and weight loss.This article is presented to establish the potential ofnatural waxes as a technique for the preservation of cassavaroots, highlighting the moment of application as an influential factor in the extension of the life of this product.

  13. RNA-Seq reveals leaf cuticular wax-related genes in Welsh onion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qianchun; Wen, Changlong; Zhao, Hong; Zhang, Liying; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yongqin

    2014-01-01

    The waxy cuticle plays a very important role in plant resistance to various biotic and abiotic stresses and is an important characteristic of Welsh onions. Two different types of biangan Welsh onions (BG) were selected for this study: BG, a wild-type covered by wax, which forms a continuous lipid membrane on its epidermal cells, and GLBG, a glossy mutant of BG whose epidermal cells are not covered by wax. To elucidate the waxy cuticle-related gene expression changes, we used RNA-Seq to compare these two Welsh onion varieties with distinct differences in cuticular wax. The de novo assembly yielded 42,881 putative unigenes, 25.41% of which are longer than 1,000 bp. Among the high-quality unique sequences, 22,289 (52.0%) had at least one significant match to an existing gene model. A total of 798 genes, representing 1.86% of the total putative unigenes, were differentially expressed between these two Welsh onion varieties. The expression patterns of four important unigenes that are related to waxy cuticle biosynthesis were confirmed by RT-qPCR and COG class annotation, which demonstrated that these genes play an important role in defense mechanisms and lipid transport and metabolism. To our knowledge, this study is the first exploration of the Welsh onion waxy cuticle. These results may help to reveal the molecular mechanisms underlying the waxy cuticle and will be useful for waxy gene cloning, genetics and breeding as well as phylogenetic and evolutionary studies of the Welsh onion.

  14. Epicuticular waxes on onion leaves and associated resistance to onion thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on onion foliage. Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of these waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessively inherited “glossy” phenotype has significantly less wax relative to waxy types and shows resistance to o...

  15. Variation for epicuticular waxes on onion foliage and impacts on numbers of onion thrips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural variation exists in onion for amounts of epicuticular waxes on foliage, and plants with lower amounts of these waxes suffer less damage from the insect pest Thrips tabaci (thrips). Wild-type onion possesses copious amounts of epicuticular waxes and is often referred to as “waxy”. The recessi...

  16. ASPHALT-RESIN-WAX DEPOSITS ANALYSIS WITH PETROLEUM REFINERY EQUIPMENT USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Bondar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The methodology and analysis of wax deposits formed in-water-cooling tower, cistern and tank from wax petroleum were developed. It was shown, that deposits consist of organic (>90% and inorganic components – the first one was enriched by high molecular wax hydrocarbons, the second one – by mechanical impurities. The methods of deposits utilization were proposed

  17. Hyperspectral visible-near infrared imaging for the detection of waxed rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mantong

    2014-11-01

    Presently, unscrupulous traders in the market use the industrial wax to wax the rice. The industrial wax is a particularly hazardous substance. Visible-near infrared hyperspectral images (400-1,000 nm) can be used for the detection of the waxed rice and the non-waxed rice. This study was carried out to find effective testing methods based on the visible-near infrared imaging spectrometry to detect whether the rice was waxed or not. An imaging spectroscopy system was assembled to acquire hyperspectral images from 80 grains of waxed rice and 80 grains of non-waxed rice over visible and near infrared spectral region. Spectra of 100 grains of rice were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) to extract the information of hyperspectral images. PCA provides an effective compressed representation of the spectral signal of each pixel in the spectral domain. We used PCA to acquire the effective wavelengths from the spectra. Based on the effective wavelengths, the predict models were set up by using partial least squares (PLS) analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Also, compared with the PLS of 80% for the waxed rice and 86.7% for the non-waxed rice detection rate, LDA gives 93.3% and 96.7% detection rate. The results demonstrated that the LDA could detect the waxed rice better, while illustrating the hyperspectral imaging technique with the visible-near infrared region could be a reliable method for the waxed rice detection.

  18. Water vapor barrier and sorption properties of edible films from pullulan and rice wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edible films were prepared by using various ratios of pullulan and rice wax. Freestanding composite films were obtained with up to 46.4% rice wax. Water vapor barrier properties of the film were improved with increased addition of rice wax. Moisture sorption isotherms were also studied to examine...

  19. Hearing loss due to Wax Impaction. | Adobamen | Nigerian Quarterly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Patients who met the inclusion criteria for the study were enrolled and Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA) threshold for each ear with wax impaction was determined at 250Hz, 500Hz, 1KHz, 2KHz, 4KHz and 8KHz by air conduction, Also bone conduction measurements were obtained at 500Hz, 1KHz, 2KHz and 4KHz.

  20. Influence of Different Waxes on the Physical Properties of Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of three different waxes on the thermal and mechanical properties of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) was investigated. The samples were prepared through melt blending in a Brabender mixer. The thermal properties of the samples were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and ...

  1. Variation for epicuticular waxes and thrips resistance in onion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion thrips (Thrips tabaci) and thrips-vectored Iris Yellow Spot Virus (IYSV) routinely cause significant losses to the bulb and seed crops of onion. Both pests have become more problematic as global temperatures rise. Natural variation exists in onion for amounts and types of epicuticular waxes on...

  2. wax matrix tablets and its implication on dissolution prof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The matrix tablets were formed by compressing the wax matrix granules at a constant load (30 arbitrary units on the load scale). The tablets were evaluated for tablet tensile strength, packing fraction, friability and in vitro dissolution profile. The dissolution data were analysed with different mathematical models namely zero.

  3. Leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schäfer, I. K.; Lanny, V.; Franke, J.; Eglinton, T. I.; Zech, M.; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Zech, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2016), s. 551-564 ISSN 2199-3971 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : leaf waxes * soils Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.soil-journal.net/2/551/2016/soil-2-551-2016.pdf

  4. Release Characteristics of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Wax-Matrix ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    osmotically “controlled” devices (Zentner et al.,. 1985; Muhammad et al., 1991). These methods are however very complicated and expensive since it requires the use of organic solvents as coating fluid. Moreover, these organic solvents are hazardous to the environment. Waxes have been used either as matrix former or as ...

  5. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    associated with indomethacin adverse effects due to drug accumulation [8]. CONCLUSION. The test and reference formulations were bioequivalent based on both the in vitro and in vivo data obtained, Thus, indomethacin microspheres encapsulated in sugar wax microspheres by melt method showed good potential for ...

  7. The preservative efficacies of bemul-wax coatings in combination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The capacity of developing countries for citrus fruits exportation is limited by the lack of adequate storage techniques. In studying this problem citrus sinensis Osbeck was treated with, a locally developed bemul-wax, calcium chloride dip, and a combination of the two. The treated fruits were assessed during four month low ...

  8. EPICUTICULAR WAX COMPOSITION OF SOME EUROPEAN SEDUM SPECIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; BOLCK, A; ZWAVING, JH; MALINGRE, TM

    Epicuticular waxes from 30 species of Sedum and 2 species of Sempervivoideae, i.e. Aeonium spathulatum and Sempervivum nevadense, have been analysed by GC and GC-MS. The Sedum taxa examined were S. acre, S. album, S. series Alpestria (13 species), S. anglicum, S. brevifolium, S. litoreum, S. lydium,

  9. Characterization of Epoxy Composites Reinforced with Wax Encapsulated Microcrystalline Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanfeng Pan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of paraffin wax encapsulated microcrystalline cellulose (EMC particles on the mechanical and physical properties of EMC/epoxy composites were investigated. It was demonstrated that the compatibility between cellulose and epoxy resin could be maintained due to partial encapsulation resulting in an improvement in epoxy composite mechanical properties. This work was unique because it was possible to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the EMC/epoxy composites while encapsulating the microcrystalline cellulose (MCC for a more homogeneous dispersion. The addition of EMC could increase the stiffness of epoxy composites, especially when the composites were wet. The 1% EMC loading with a 1:2 ratio of wax:MCC demonstrated the best reinforcement for both dry and wet properties. The decomposition temperature of epoxy was preserved up to a 5% EMC loading and for different wax:MCC ratios. An increase in wax encapsulated cellulose loading did increase water absorption but overall this absorption was still low (<1% for all composites.

  10. Hydrogen isotope composition of leaf wax n-alkanes in Arabidopsis lines with different transpiration rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedentchouk, N.; Lawson, T.; Eley, Y.; McAusland, L.

    2012-04-01

    Stable isotopic compositions of oxygen and hydrogen are used widely to investigate modern and ancient water cycles. The D/H composition of organic compounds derived from terrestrial plants has recently attracted significant attention as a proxy for palaeohydrology. However, the role of various plant physiological and biochemical factors in controlling the D/H signature of leaf wax lipids in extant plants remains unclear. The focus of this study is to investigate the effect of plant transpiration on the D/H composition of n-alkanes in terrestrial plants. This experiment includes 4 varieties of Arabidopsis thaliana that differ with respect to stomatal density and stomatal geometry. All 4 varieties were grown indoors under identical temperature, relative humidity, light and watering regimes and then sampled for leaf wax and leaf water stable isotopic measurements. During growth, stomatal conductance to carbon dioxide and water vapour were also determined. We found that the plants varied significantly in terms of their transpiration rates. Transpiration rates were significantly higher in Arabidopsis ost1 and ost1-1 varieties (2.4 and 3.2 mmol m-2 s-1, respectively) than in Arabidopsis RbohD and Col-0 (1.5 and 1.4). However, hydrogen isotope measurements of n-alkanes extracted from leaf waxes revealed a very different pattern. Varieties ost1, ost1-1, and RbohD have very similar deltaD values of n-C29 alkane (-125, -128, and -127 per mil), whereas the deltaD value of Col-0 is more negative (-137 per mil). The initial results of this work suggest that plant transpiration is decoupled from the D/H composition of n-alkanes. In other words, physical processes that affect water vapour movement between the plant and its environment apparently cannot account for the stable hydrogen isotope composition of organic compounds that comprise leaf waxes. Additional, perhaps biochemical, processes that affect hydrogen isotope fractionation during photosynthesis might need to be invoked

  11. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  12. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples

  13. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery

    OpenAIRE

    Attard, Thomas M.; Con Robert McElroy; Hunt, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be €88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take int...

  14. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, Tim; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Hofvander, Per; Stymne, Sten; Zhu, Li-Hua; Feussner, Ivo

    2013-07-06

    Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples like cuticular lipid extracts to

  15. The role of syllables in sign language production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eBaus

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional role of syllables in sign language and how the different phonological combinations influence sign production. Moreover, the influence of age of acquisition was evaluated. Deaf signers (native and non-native of Catalan Signed Language (LSC were asked in a picture-sign interference task to sign picture names while ignoring distractor-signs with which they shared two phonological parameters (out of three of the main sign parameters: Location, Movement and Handshape. The results revealed a different impact of the three phonological combinations. While no effect was observed for the phonological combination Handshape-Location, the combination Handshape-Movement slowed down signing latencies, but only in the non-native group. A facilitatory effect was observed for both groups when pictures and distractors shared Location-Movement. Importantly, linguistic models have considered this phonological combination to be a privileged unit in the composition of signs, as syllables are in spoken languages. Thus, our results support the functional role of syllable units during phonological articulation in sign language production.

  16. The role of syllables in sign language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, Cristina; Gutiérrez, Eva; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional role of syllables in sign language and how the different phonological combinations influence sign production. Moreover, the influence of age of acquisition was evaluated. Deaf signers (native and non-native) of Catalan Signed Language (LSC) were asked in a picture-sign interference task to sign picture names while ignoring distractor-signs with which they shared two phonological parameters (out of three of the main sign parameters: Location, Movement, and Handshape). The results revealed a different impact of the three phonological combinations. While no effect was observed for the phonological combination Handshape-Location, the combination Handshape-Movement slowed down signing latencies, but only in the non-native group. A facilitatory effect was observed for both groups when pictures and distractors shared Location-Movement. Importantly, linguistic models have considered this phonological combination to be a privileged unit in the composition of signs, as syllables are in spoken languages. Thus, our results support the functional role of syllable units during phonological articulation in sign language production.

  17. Role of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the swine production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ercoli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC can cause severe clinical diseases in humans, such as haemorrhagic colitis (HC and haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS. Although ruminants, primarily cattle, have been suggested as typical reservoirs of STEC, many food products of other origins, including pork products, have been confirmed as vehicles for STEC transmission. Only in rare cases, pork consumption is associated with severe clinical symptoms caused by high pathogenic STEC strains. However, in these outbreaks, it is unknown whether the contamination of food products occurs during swine processing or via cross-contamination from foodstuffs of different sources. In swine, STEC plays an important role in the pathogenesis of oedema disease. In particular a Shiga toxin subtype, named stx2e, it is considered as a key factor involved in the damage of swine endothelial cells. On the contrary, stx2e-producing Escherichia coli has rarely been isolated in humans, and usually only from asymptomatic carriers or from patients with mild symptoms, such as uncomplicated diarrhoea. In fact, the presence of gene stx2e, encoding for stx2e, has rarely been reported in STEC strains that cause HUS. Moreover, stx2e-producing STEC isolated from humans and pigs were found to differ in serogroup, their virulence profile and interaction with intestinal epithelial cells. Because of the limited epidemiologic data of STEC in swine and the increasing role of non-O157 STEC in human illnesses, the relationship between swine STEC and human disease needs to be further investigated.

  18. Hydrogen isotope fractionation in leaf waxes in the Alaskan Arctic tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, William C.; Russell, James M.; Giblin, Anne E.; Welker, Jeffrey M.; Klein, Eric S.; Huang, Yongsong

    2017-09-01

    Leaf wax hydrogen isotopes (δDwax) are increasingly utilized in terrestrial paleoclimate research. Applications of this proxy must be grounded by studies of the modern controls on δDwax, including the ecophysiological controls on isotope fractionation at both the plant and landscape scales. Several calibration studies suggest a considerably smaller apparent fractionation between source water and waxes (εapp) at high latitudes relative to temperate or tropical locations, with major implications for paleoclimatic interpretations of sedimentary δDwax. Here we investigate apparent fractionation in the Arctic by tracing the isotopic composition of leaf waxes from production in modern plants to deposition in lake sediments using isotopic observations of precipitation, soil and plant waters, living leaf waxes, and waxes in sediment traps in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska. We also analyze a lake surface sediment transect to compare present-day vegetation assemblages to εapp at the watershed scale. Source water and εapp were determined for live specimens of Eriophorum vaginatum (cottongrass) and Betula nana (dwarf birch), two dominant tundra plants in the Brooks Range foothills. The δD of these plants' xylem water closely tracks that of surface soil water, and reflects a summer-biased precipitation source. Leaf water is enriched by 23 ± 15‰ relative to xylem water for E. vaginatum and by 41 ± 19‰ for B. nana. Evapotranspiration modeling indicates that this leaf water enrichment is consistent with the evaporative enrichment expected under the climate conditions of northern Alaska, and that 24-h photosynthesis does not cause excessive leaf water isotope enrichment. The εapp determined for our study species average -89 ± 14‰ and -106 ± 16‰ for B. nana n-alkanes and n-acids, respectively, and -182 ± 10‰ and -154 ± 26‰ for E. vaginatum n-alkanes and n-acids, which are similar to the εapp of related species in temperate and tropical

  19. Radiotherapic Valuation of Paraffin Wax for Patients with Oral Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Kyung Su; Seo, Seuk Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Yoo, Sook Heun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hosdital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    This study is designed to investigate radiotherapic valuation of Paraffin Wax, which is newly formed for this study and generally utilized in dentistry, and Mouth Piece and Putty impression, which are commonly used in radiotherapy, for oral cavity as a compensator. Each compensator was formed by 10 x 10 x 1 cm and measured radiation dose attenuation ratio with reference of water phantom which is made of tissue-equivalent materials. Two patients with oral cancer underwent DRR (Digitally Reconstructed Radiogrph) of Offline Review Program of Aria System and Portal vision for 5 times for each material to evaluate reproducibility by each filling materials. Moreover, MU (monitor unit) changes by dose absorption were considered in the case of inevitable implication of an filling materials in the range for radiotherapy. Radiation dose attenuation ratios were shown -0.7{approx}+3.7% for Mouth Piece, +0.21{approx}+0.39% for Paraffin Wax and -2.71{approx}-1.76% for Putty impression. Error ranges of reproducibility of positions were measured {+-}3 mm for Mouth Piece, {+-}2 mm for Paraffin Wax and {+-}2 mm for Putty impression. Difference of prescription MU from dose absorption with an filling material increased +7.8% (250 MU) in Putty impression and -0.9% (230 MU) in Paraffin Wax as converted into a percentage from the standard phantom, Water 232 MU. Dose reduction of boundary between cavity and tissue was observed for Mouth Piece. Mouth Piece also had low reproducibility of positions as it had no reflection of anatomy of oral cavity even though it was a proper material to separate Maxilla and Mandible during therapy. On the other hand, Putty impression was a suitable material to correctly re-position oral cavity as before. However, it risked normal tissues getting unnecessary over irradiation and it caused radiation dose decrease by -2.5% for 1cm volume in comparison of it of water phantom. Dose reduction in Paraffin Wax, Fat Tissue-Equivalent Material, was smaller than other

  20. Chemical composition of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers on adaxial sides of Rosa canina leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschhaus, Christopher; Herz, Hubert; Jetter, Reinhard

    2007-12-01

    The waxy cuticle is the first point of contact for many herbivorous and pathogenic organisms on rose plants. Previous studies have reported the average composition of the combined wax extract from both sides of rose leaves. Recently, the compositions of the waxes on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of Rosa canina leaves were determined separately. In this paper, a first report is made on the compositions of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. The methods described enable the determination of which compounds are truly available at the surface for plant-organism interactions. An adhesive was used to mechanically strip the epicuticular wax from the adaxial leaf surface and the removal was visually confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. After the epicuticular wax had been removed, the intracuticular wax was then isolated using standard chemical extraction. Gas chromatography, flame ionization detection and mass spectrometry were used to identify and quantify compounds in the separated wax mixtures. The epicuticular wax contained higher concentrations of alkanes and alkyl esters but lower concentrations of primary alcohols and alkenols when compared to the intracuticular wax. In addition, the average chain lengths of these compound classes were higher in the epicuticular wax. Secondary alcohols were found only in the epicuticular layer while triterpenoids were restricted mainly to the intracuticular wax. A gradient exists between the composition of the epi- and intracuticular wax layers of Rosa canina leaves. This gradient may result from polarity differences, in part caused by differences in chain lengths. The outer wax layer accessible to the phyllosphere showed a unique composition of wax compounds. The ecological consequences from such a gradient may now be probed.

  1. Mechanical properties of carving wax with various Ca-bentolite filter composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjijono Widjijono

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The carving wax is used as a medium in dental anatomy study. This wax composes of many waxes and sometimes a filler is added. Carving wax is not sold in Indonesian market. Whereas the gradients of carving wax such as beeswax, paraffin and bentonite are abundant in Indonesia. Based on that fact, to make high quality and standard,the exact composition if this carving wax should be known. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carving wax composition with Ca-bentonite filler on the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion. Methods: Five carving wax compositions were made with paraffin, Ca-bentonite, carnauba wax, and beeswax in ratio (% weight: 50:20:25:5 (KI, 55:15:25:5 (KII, 60:10:25:5 (KIII, 65:5:25:5 (KIV, 70:0:25:5(KV. All components were melted, then poured into the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion moulds (n = 5. Three carving wax properties were tested: melting point by melting point apparatus; hardness by penetrometer; thermal expansion by digital sliding caliper. The data were analyzed statistically using One-Way ANOVA and LSD0.05. Result: The Ca-bentonite addition influenced the melting point and thermal expansion of carving wax with significant differences between KI and other groups (p < 0.05. Ca-bentonite addition influenced the carving wax hardness and the mean differences among the groups were significant (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Ca-bentonite filler addition on the composition of carving wax influenced the physical and mechanical properties. The carving wax with high Ca-bentonite concentration had high melting point and hardness, but low thermal expansion.

  2. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.

  3. Skin-effect down hole electric heater for heavy oil and high wax content oil applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Chenglin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yanhua [Liaoning Huafu Petroleum High-Tech Co., Ltd. (China); Xiao, Jon H; Klotz, Eric [ANDMIR Environmental Group Canada Inc. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    With the increased production of oil and the depletion of conventional reserves, operators have started to exploit heavy oil and high wax content oil. Adequate production of such oils is difficult to achieve due to viscosity increase and mobility decrease during lifting as a result of heat loss. The down-hole electric heater has been developed to resolve these issues with the application of skin-effect electric heating technology. The aim of this paper is to present how this technology improves the production of heavy oil and waxy oil. Applications of the technology to wells in Chinese oilfields are studied. Results proved the technology to be efficient while being based on a simple process and operating in an easy and safe manner. This paper showed that the down-hole electric heater is a breakthrough technology, resolving the issues encountered in the heavy oil and waxy oil exploitation field, with broad application prospects.

  4. Animal and Vegetable Fats, Oils, and Waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusas, Edmund W.

    Biotechnology has been defined by various groups and broadly includes technologies that utilize living organisms or parts of biological systems. The nurture of man and animals, and provision of replenishable industrial materials, typically includes: (1) growing selected species or their genetic modifications; (2) harvest, preprocess storage, conversion into useful products, and protection until use; and (3) utilization or disposal of byproducts and wastes in the most beneficial or least-cost manner. Specific actions may be taken to suppress residual enzymes and contaminating microorganisms that could degrade product value. Also, remediation (restoration) of air and water used in processing to near-pristine condition often is mandated today.

  5. Investigating the role of technical institute and consultancy in increasing wheat production productivity in Maragheh area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jalalia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is the most important crop in the world that plays an important role in rural people's income of Iran. With increasing world population and limitation in arable lands, increase in productivity is main programs to researchers. Therefore modern science and modified technology are the best approach to cover that issue. Active graduates in consulting institutes could be important for enhancing the productivity. For these reasons, 115 farmers and 30 consulting members were randomly selected in order to investigate the effectiveness of the cooperation. The findings indicated that the most important concerns to cooperation were insurance and clear contracts. Also from farmers viewpoints, respect to farmer’s experiences; equipment and updated softwares were effective in accepting new graduates cooperation. In conclusion, the cooperation increased wheat productivity in the survey compared to conventional systems.

  6. Wax microfluidics light-addressable valve with multiple actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-González, M.; Boix, G.; Fernández-Sánchez, C.; Baldi, A.

    2017-05-01

    This work reports on the design, fabrication and performance of a novel light-actuated wax microvalve. This valve is capable of multiple-actuation (30 and 15 open-close cycles in air and water, correspondingly), shows a fast response (<=500 ms) and has a low energy-consumption per actuation (<=1 J). The valve is inherently latched in both open and close states and is leak-proof to at least 80 kPa. It is actuated (both open and close) by light pulses from an external LED. Many valves (< 100 cm2) can be easily integrated in a single chip with a wax microfluidics technology. Fabrication is based on a low-cost and fast prototyping process compatible with the presence of temperature sensitive biocomponents.

  7. Tidal modulated flow and sediment flux through Wax Lake Delta distributary channels: Implications for delta development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanegan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Delft3D model of the Wax Lake Delta was developed to simulate flow and sediment flux through delta distributary channels. The model was calibrated for tidal constituents as well as velocity and sediment concentration across channel transects. The calibrated model was then used to simulate full spring–neap tidal cycles under constant low flow upstream boundary conditions, with grain size variation in suspended load represented using two sediment fractions. Flow and sediment flux results through distributary channel cross-sections were examined for spatial and temporal variability with the goal of characterizing the role of tides in sediment reworking and delta development. The Wax Lake Delta has prograded through channel extension, river mouth bar deposition, and channel bifurcation. Here we show that tidal modulation of currents influences suspended sand transport, and spatial acceleration through distributary channels at low tides is sufficient to suspend sand in distal reaches during lower flows. The basinward-increasing transport capacity in distributary channels indicates that erosive channel extension could be an important process, even during non-flood events.

  8. Physical Characteristics of Tetrahydroxy and Acylated Derivatives of Jojoba Liquid Wax in Lubricant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biresaw, Girma; Gordon, Sherald

    2018-01-01

    Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long-chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols mainly C38:2–C46:2. The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and, therefore, is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) plant which occurs naturally in the Sonora Desert in the United States and northwestern Mexico as well as in the northeastern Sahara desert. The seed contains 50–60% oil by dry weight. The plant has been introduced into Australia, Argentina, and Israel for commercial production of the jojoba oil. As a natural lubricant, we are seeking to explore its potential as a renewable industrial lubricant additive. Thus, we have chemically modified the carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil structure in order to improve its already good resistance to air oxidation so as to enhance its utility as well as its shelf life in nonpersonal care applications. To achieve this goal, we have hydroxylated its –C=C– bonds. Acylation of the resulting hydroxyl moieties has generated short-chain vicinal acyl substituents on the oil which keep the wax liquid, improving its cold flow properties and also protecting it from auto-oxidation and rancidity. PMID:29484216

  9. Physical Characteristics of Tetrahydroxy and Acylated Derivatives of Jojoba Liquid Wax in Lubricant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers E. Harry-O’kuru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long-chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols mainly C38:2–C46:2. The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and, therefore, is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis plant which occurs naturally in the Sonora Desert in the United States and northwestern Mexico as well as in the northeastern Sahara desert. The seed contains 50–60% oil by dry weight. The plant has been introduced into Australia, Argentina, and Israel for commercial production of the jojoba oil. As a natural lubricant, we are seeking to explore its potential as a renewable industrial lubricant additive. Thus, we have chemically modified the carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil structure in order to improve its already good resistance to air oxidation so as to enhance its utility as well as its shelf life in nonpersonal care applications. To achieve this goal, we have hydroxylated its –C=C– bonds. Acylation of the resulting hydroxyl moieties has generated short-chain vicinal acyl substituents on the oil which keep the wax liquid, improving its cold flow properties and also protecting it from auto-oxidation and rancidity.

  10. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick C. Joyce; Mark C. Thies

    1999-03-31

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, is to be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Aspen Plus{trademark} was used to perform process simulation studies on the proposed extraction process, with Redlich-Kwong-Soave (RKS) being used for the thermodynamic property model. In summary, we have made comprehensive VLE measurements for short alkane + long alkane systems over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, dramatically increasing the amount of high-quality data available for these simple, yet highly relevant systems. In addition, our work has demonstrated that, surprisingly, no current thermodynamic model can adequately predict VLE behavior for these systems. Thus, process simulations (such as those for our proposed SCF extraction process) that incorporate these systems can currently only give results that are qualitative at best. Although significant progress has been made in the past decade, more experimental and theoretical work remain to be done before the phase equilibria of asymmetric alkane mixtures can be predicted with confidence.

  11. Role of Antioxidants and Natural Products in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Arulselvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a comprehensive array of physiological response to a foreign organism, including human pathogens, dust particles, and viruses. Inflammations are mainly divided into acute and chronic inflammation depending on various inflammatory processes and cellular mechanisms. Recent investigations have clarified that inflammation is a major factor for the progression of various chronic diseases/disorders, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, arthritis, obesity, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. Free radical productions from different biological and environmental sources are due to an imbalance of natural antioxidants which further leads to various inflammatory associated diseases. In this review article, we have outlined the inflammatory process and its cellular mechanisms involved in the progression of various chronic modern human diseases. In addition, we have discussed the role of free radicals-induced tissue damage, antioxidant defence, and molecular mechanisms in chronic inflammatory diseases/disorders. The systematic knowledge regarding the role of inflammation and its associated adverse effects can provide a clear understanding in the development of innovative therapeutic targets from natural sources that are intended for suppression of various chronic inflammations associated diseases.

  12. Role of Antioxidants and Natural Products in Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Fard, Masoumeh Tangestani; Tan, Woan Sean; Gothai, Sivapragasam; Fakurazi, Sharida; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Kumar, S Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is a comprehensive array of physiological response to a foreign organism, including human pathogens, dust particles, and viruses. Inflammations are mainly divided into acute and chronic inflammation depending on various inflammatory processes and cellular mechanisms. Recent investigations have clarified that inflammation is a major factor for the progression of various chronic diseases/disorders, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, arthritis, obesity, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. Free radical productions from different biological and environmental sources are due to an imbalance of natural antioxidants which further leads to various inflammatory associated diseases. In this review article, we have outlined the inflammatory process and its cellular mechanisms involved in the progression of various chronic modern human diseases. In addition, we have discussed the role of free radicals-induced tissue damage, antioxidant defence, and molecular mechanisms in chronic inflammatory diseases/disorders. The systematic knowledge regarding the role of inflammation and its associated adverse effects can provide a clear understanding in the development of innovative therapeutic targets from natural sources that are intended for suppression of various chronic inflammations associated diseases.

  13. The proteomics of formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincenti, David Cilia; Murray, Graeme I

    2013-04-01

    Proteomics, which is the global analysis of protein expression in cells and tissues, has emerged over the last ten to fifteen years as a key set of technologies to improve our understanding of disease processes and to identify new diagnostic, prognostic and predictive disease biomarkers. Whilst most proteomic studies have been conducted on fresh frozen tissue, the continuous improvements in technical procedures for protein extraction and separation, coupled with increasingly powerful bioinformatics, have provided the opportunity for proteomic analysis to be conducted on formalin-fixed wax-embedded tissue. This potential advance should allow proteomic analysis to be performed on the extensive archives of clinically annotated formalin fixed wax embedded tissue blocks stored in pathology departments worldwide. In this review the main techniques and their limitations involved in proteomic analysis of formalin fixed wax embedded tissue will be outlined and examples of their successful application will be indicated. Copyright © 2012 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrasound assisted manufacturing of paraffin wax nanoemulsions: process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, A J; Holkar, C R; Karekar, S E; Pinjari, D V; Pandit, A B

    2015-03-01

    This work reports on the process optimization of ultrasound-assisted, paraffin wax in water nanoemulsions, stabilized by modified sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). This work focuses on the optimization of major emulsification process variables including sonication time, applied power and surfactant concentration. The effects of these variables were investigated on the basis of mean droplet diameter and stability of the prepared emulsion. It was found that the stable emulsion with droplet diameters about 160.9 nm could be formed with the surfactant concentration of 10 mg/ml and treated at 40% of applied power (power density: 0.61 W/ml) for 15 min. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to study the morphology of the emulsion droplets. The droplets were solid at room temperature, showing bright spots under polarized light and a spherical shape under SEM. The electrophoretic properties of emulsion droplets showed a negative zeta potential due to the adsorption of head sulfate groups of the SDS surfactant. For the sake of comparison, paraffin wax emulsion was prepared via emulsion inversion point method and was checked its intrinsic stability. Visually, it was found that the emulsion get separated/creamed within 30 min. while the emulsion prepared via ultrasonically is stable for more than 3 months. From this study, it was found that the ultrasound-assisted emulsification process could be successfully used for the preparation of stable paraffin wax nanoemulsions.

  15. Role of C5 Activation Products in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Ward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complement activation products are known to be generated in the setting of both experimental and human sepsis. C5 activation products (C5a anaphylatoxin and the membrane attack complex [MAC] C5b-9 are generated during sepsis following infusion of endotoxin, or after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, which produces polymicrobial sepsis. C5a reacts with its receptors C5aR and C5L2 in a manner that creates the “cytokine storm”, and is associated with development of multiorgan failure (MOF. A number of other complications arising from the interaction of C5a with its receptors include apoptosis of lymphoid cells, loss of innate immune functions of neutrophils (PMNs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, cardiomyopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and complications associated with MOF. Neutralization of C5a in vivo or absence/blockade of C5a receptors greatly reduces the adverse events in the setting of sepsis, markedly attenuates MOF, and greatly improves survival. Regarding the possible role of C5b-9 in sepsis, the literature is conflicting. Some studies suggest that C5b-9 is protective, while other studies suggest the contrary. Clearly, in human sepsis, C5a and its receptors may be logical targets for interception.

  16. Preparation of margarines from organogels of sunflower wax and vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Winkler-Moser, Jill K; Bakota, Erica L; Liu, Sean X

    2014-10-01

    It was previously reported that sunflower wax (SW) had high potential as an organogelator for soybean oil-based margarine and spread products. In this study, 12 other vegetable oils were evaluated in a margarine formulation to test feasibility of utilization of SW as an alternative to solid fats in margarine and spread products containing these oils. The minimum quantity of SW required to form a gel with these oils ranged from 0.3% to 1.0% (wt.). Organogels were prepared from the vegetable oils with 3%, 5% and 7% SW and were tested for firmness as well as melting behaviors using differential scanning calorimetry. These organogels were also incorporated into a margarine formulation. All of the vegetable oil organogels produced relatively firm margarines. The margarines prepared from organogels containing 3% (wt.) SW had greater firmness than commercial spreads, whereas margarines made from 7% SW were softer than commercial stick margarines. However, dropping points of the margarine samples were higher than those of commercial spread and margarine products. Margarine firmness was modestly inversely correlated with the amount of polar compounds in the oils and did not correlate with fatty acid compositions. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using a number of healthy vegetable oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids to make healthy margarine and spread products by utilizing SW as an organogelator. This study showed that sunflower wax could be used as an alternative to traditional solid fats for the development of new margarine and spread products from a variety of healthy vegetable oils. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Visualization of micromorphology of leaf epicuticular waxes of the rubber tree Ficus elastica by electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woo

    2008-10-01

    Ultrastructural aspects of leaf epicuticular waxes were investigated in Ficus elastica by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Glossy leaves of the rubber tree were collected and subjected to different regimes of specimen preparation for surface observations. F. elastica leaves were hypostomatic and stomata were surrounded with a cuticular thickening that formed a rim. The most prominent epicuticular wax structures of F. elastica leaves included granules and platelets. Without fixation and metal coating, epicuticular wax structures could be discerned on the leaf surface by low-vacuum (ca. 7 Pa) scanning electron microscopy. In terms of delineation and retention of the structures, the combination of vapor fixation by glutaraldehyde and osmium tetroxide with subsequent gold coating provided the most satisfactory results, as evidenced by high resolution and sharp protrusions of epicuticular waxes. However, erosion of epicuticular wax edges was noted in the immersion fixed leaves, showing less elongated platelets, less distinct wax edges, and granule cracking. These results suggest that the vapor fixation procedure for demonstrating three-dimensional epicuticular wax structures would facilitate characterization of diverse types of waxes. Instances were noted where epicuticular waxes grew over neighboring epidermal ridges and occluded stomata. In cross sections, epicuticular waxes were observed above the cuticle proper and ranged approximately from 100 nm to 500 nm in thickness. The native leaf epicuticular waxes had many layers of different electron density that were oriented parallel to each other and parallel or perpendicular to the cuticle surface, implying strata of crystal growth. Such retention of native epicuticular wax structures could be achieved through the use of acrylic resin treated with less harsh dehydrants and mild heat polymerization, alleviating wax extraction during specimen preparations.

  18. Effect of waste wax and chain structure on the mechanical and physical properties of polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. AlMaadeed

    2015-05-01

    The wax dispersion in the matrix strongly depends on the percentage of wax added to the polymer and the molecular structure of the polymer. It was found that increasing the wax content enhances the phase separation. LDPE undergoes less phase separation due to its highly branched structure composed of a network of short and long chain branches. The wax has no pronounced plasticising effect on the polymer. This is clearly manifested in LDPE as no change in the melting temperature occurred. LLDPE and HDPE were slightly affected by a high concentration of wax (30% and 40%. This is due to the non-uniform distribution of short chain branching along the LLDPE and HDPE main chains, which can interact with the wax structure.

  19. Characterization and chemical composition of epicuticular wax from banana leaves grown in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suporn Charumanee; Songwut Yotsawimonwat; Panee Sirisa-ard; Kiatisak Pholsongkram

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of epicuticular wax extracted from leaves of Kluai Namwa, a banana cultivar which is widely grown in Northern Thailand. Its genotype was identified by a botanist. The wax was extracted using solvent extraction. The fatty acid profiles and physicochemical properties of the wax namely melting point, congealing point, crystal structures and polymorphism, hardness, color, and solubility were examin...

  20. The evolution of anatomical illustration and wax modelling in Italy from the 16th to early 19th centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Alessandro; Conti, Gabriele; Solinas, Paola; Loy, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Although the contribution to anatomical illustration by Vesalius and his followers has received much attention, less credit has been given to Veslingius and particularly Fabricius. By 1600, Fabricius had amassed more than 300 paintings that together made the Tabulae Pictae, a great atlas of anatomy that was highly admired by his contemporaries. Many of his new observations were incorporated into subsequent books, including those by Casserius, Spighelius, Harvey and Veslingius. Also of importance were the Tabulae by Eustachius (1552), which, although only published in 1714, greatly influenced anatomical wax modelling. In 1742, Pope Benedict XIV established a Museum of Anatomy in Bologna, entrusting to Ercole Lelli the creation of several anatomical preparations in wax. Felice Fontana realised that the production of a large number of models by the casting method would make cadaveric specimens superfluous for anatomical teaching and in 1771 he asked the Grand Duke to fund a wax-modelling workshop in Florence as part of the Natural History Museum, later known as La Specola. Fontana engaged Giuseppe Ferrini as his first modeller and then the 19-year-old Clemente Susini who, by his death in 1814, had superintended the production of, or personally made, more than 2000 models. In 1780, the Austrian Emperor Joseph II visited La Specola and ordered a great number of models for his Josephinum museum; these were made by Fontana with the help of Clemente Susini and supervised by the anatomist Paolo Mascagni. It is, however, in Cagliari that some of Susini’s greatest waxes are to be found. These were made when he was free of Fontana’s influence and were based on dissections made by Francesco Antonio Boi (University of Cagliari). Their distinctive anatomical features include the emphasis given to nerves and the absence of lymphatics in the brain, a mistake made on earlier waxes. The refined technical perfection of the anatomical details demonstrates the closeness of the

  1. THE RÔLE OF THE "WAX" OF THE TUBERCLE BACILLUS IN ESTABLISHING DELAYED HYPERSENSITIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, Sidney; Arnaud, Louis E.; Dukes, C. Dean; Huang, Jwo S.

    1949-01-01

    Guinea pigs sensitized with egg albumin along with the purified wax fraction of the human tubercle bacillus respond with delayed hypersensitive reactivity to the protein antigen. Previous publications have reported a similar activity of the wax with respect to tuberculoprotein and picryl chloride. The effect is not referable to an ordinary adjuvant activity of the bacillary wax, since antibody titers are not increased in animals which receive it, and since a known adjuvant, water-in-oil emulsion, has no effect with respect to the induction of delayed hypersensitivity. This report further extends the rôle of the tubercle bacillary wax in the induction of delayed hypersensitive states. PMID:18152339

  2. Intracuticular wax fixes and restricts strain in leaf and fruit cuticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Bishnu Prasad; Grimm, Eckhard; Finger, Sebastian; Blume, Alfred; Knoche, Moritz

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the effects of cuticular wax on the release of strain and on the tensile properties of enzymatically isolated cuticular membranes (CMs) taken from leaves of agave (Agave americana), bush lily (Clivia miniata), holly (Ilex aquifolium), and ivy (Hedera helix) and from fruit of apple (Malus × domestica), pear (Pyrus communis), and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Biaxial strain release was quantified as the decrease in CM disc area following wax extraction. Stiffness, maximum strain and maximum force were determined in uniaxial tensile tests using strips of CM and dewaxed CMs (DCMs). Biaxial strain release, stiffness, and maximum strain, but not maximum force, were linearly related to the amount of wax extracted. Apple CM has the most wax and here the effect of wax extraction was substantially accounted for by the embedded cuticular wax. Heating apple CM to 80°C melted some wax constituents and produced an effect similar to, but smaller than, that resulting from wax extraction. Our results indicate that wax 'fixes' strain, effectively converting reversible elastic into irreversible plastic strain. A consequence of 'fixation' is increased cuticular stiffness. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  3. Industrial solvents analyzed on SolGel-WAX(TM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Angus Hibberd; Gerard Sharp; Dan DiFeo

    2002-01-01

    ... phase-bonding process in which the polyethylene glycol phase is encapsulated into a sol-gel matrix. The SolGel-WAX column, by the nature of the sol-gel bonding, is an extremely inert, low-bleed, high-temperature column. This inertness gives excellent peak shape of difficult-to-- analyze polar solvents. The high thermal stability gives a low-bleed column and therefore higher signal-to-noise ratio allowing lower detection limits, which is essential in many industrial processes. Also note the excellent separa...

  4. Company competencies as a network: The role of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bove, Karsten

    2000-01-01

    investigate these matters in a survey with top managers in 513 Danish production companies. Ten areas important for achieving company objectives are identified. These are product development, market intelligence, production management, strategy and vision, sales, market responsiveness, promotion, internal co......-operation, image, and finally supply management. Product development is rated a fairly important competence as it ranks four with sales, market responsiveness, and production management as numbers one to three. Yet a distressing negative impact on overall company success is found for product development...

  5. Propolis and vegetable wax in the conservation of Hass avocadoPrópolis e cera vegetal na conservação de abacate Hass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of Hass avocado submitted to application of propolis and vegetable wax. The selected fruits were submitted to the treatments (1 without wax and without propolis, (2 with vegetable wax, (3 propolis alcoholic extract 100%, (4 wax and etanol 70%, (5 propolis alcoholic extract 2% and wax, (6 propolis alcoholic extract 4% and wax, (7 propolis alcoholic extract 6% and wax, (8 propolis alcoholic extract 8% and wax, and (9 propolis alcoholic extract 10% and wax. The fruits were maintained under refrigeration (10 ± 1 ºC and 90 ± 5% relative humidity, being appraised every three days for 15 days and more 3 days of commercialization simulation at room temperature (23± 1 ºC and 18% relative humidity.The evaluation parameters were the weight loss, respiratory activity, pH, firmness, tritable acidity (AT, soluble solids (SS, and ratio. The results of weigth loss, respiratory activity and firmness were the most significant to show the difference among the treatments. ‘Hass’ avocado fruits submitted the application of propolis associated the vegetable wax present smaller weight loss, CO2 production and firmness in relation to the control fruits. The fruits of the treatment with propolis alcoholic extract 2% and wax presented the most promising results. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a aplicação de própolis e cera vegetal na qualidade pós-colheita do abacate ‘Hass’. Os frutos selecionados foram submetidos aos tratamentos (1 sem cera e sem própolis, (2 com cera vegetal, (3 extrato alcoólico de própolis 100%, (4 cera e etanol 70%, (5 extrato alcoólico de própolis 2% e cera, (6 extrato alcoólico de própolis 4% e cera, (7 extrato alcoólico de própolis 6% e cera, (8 extrato alcoólico de própolis 8% e cera e (9 extrato alcoólico de própolis 10% e cera. Os frutos foram mantidos sob refrigeração (10 ± 1 ºC e 90 ± 5% umidade relativa, sendo avaliados a cada três dias durante 15 dias

  6. Establishing very long-chain fatty alcohol and wax ester biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian; Nielsen, Jens; Siewers, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Wax esters (WEs) are neutral lipids and can be used for a broad range of commercial applications, including personal care products, lubricants, or coatings. They are synthesized by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS). At present, commercially used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products were restricted to C28-C36 WEs. These rather short WEs make up only a very small percentage of the total WEs in natural jojoba oil. The synthesis of longer chain WEs (up to C44) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has so far only been achieved after substrate feeding. Here we identified new routes for producing very long-chain fatty alcohols (VLCFOHs) up to a chain length of C22 by heterologous expression of a FAR derived from Apis mellifera (AmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (Maqu_2220) in S. cerevisiae and achieved maximum yields of 3.22 ± 0.36 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW) and 7.84 ± 3.09 mg/g CDW, respectively, after 48 h. Moreover, we enabled the synthesis of jojoba-like WEs up to a chain length of C42, catalyzed by a combination of Maqu_2220 together with the WS from S. chinensis (SciWS) and the S. cerevisiae elongase Elo2p, with a maximum yield of 12.24 ± 3.35 mg/g CDW after 48 h. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1025-1035. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. BraLTP1, a lipid transfer protein gene involved in epicuticular wax deposition, cell proliferation and flower development in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs constitute large multigene families that possess complex physiological functions, many of which remain unclear. This study isolated and characterized the function of a lipid transfer protein gene, BraLTP1 from Brassica rapa, in the important oilseed crops Brassica napus. BraLTP1 encodes a predicted secretory protein, in the little known VI Class of nsLTP families. Overexpression of BnaLTP1 in B. napus caused abnormal green coloration and reduced wax deposition on leaves and detailed wax analysis revealed 17-80% reduction in various major wax components, which resulted in significant water-loss relative to wild type. BnaLTP1 overexpressing leaves exhibited morphological disfiguration and abaxially curled leaf edges, and leaf cross-sections revealed cell overproliferation that was correlated to increased cytokinin levels (tZ, tZR, iP, and iPR in leaves and high expression of the cytokinin biosynthsis gene IPT3. BnaLTP1-overexpressing plants also displayed morphological disfiguration of flowers, with early-onset and elongated carpel development and outwardly curled stamen. This was consistent with altered expression of a a number of ABC model genes related to flower development. Together, these results suggest that BraLTP1 is a new nsLTP gene involved in wax production or deposition, with additional direct or indirect effects on cell division and flower development.

  8. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with both Cell Biology (tissue culture and Molecular Biology (genetic engineering.

  9. Properties of Cookies Made with Natural Wax-Vegetable Oil Organogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hong-Sik; Singh, Mukti; Lee, Suyong

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of cookies in which the conventional margarine is replaced with an organogel of vegetable oil (VO) and natural wax. New cookies from VO organogels contain no trans fats and much less saturated fats than cookies made with a conventional margarine. To understand the effects of different kinds of waxes, organogels were prepared from 4 different waxes including sunflower wax (SW), rice bran wax (RBW), beeswax, and candelilla wax and properties of cookie dough and cookie were evaluated. To investigate the effects of different VOs on the properties of cookies, 3 VOs including olive oil, soybean oil and flaxseed oil representing oils rich in oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2), and linolenic acid (18:3), respectively, were used. Both the wax and VO significantly affected properties of organogel such as firmness and melting behavior shown in differential scanning calorimetry. The highest firmness of organogel was observed with SW and flaxseed oil. Properties of dough such as hardness and melting behavior were also significantly affected by wax and VO while trends were somewhat different from those for organogels. SW and RBW provided greatest hardnesses to cookie dough. However, hardness, spread factor, and fracturability of cookie containing the wax-VO organogel were not significantly affected by different waxes and VOs. Several cookies made with wax-VO organogels showed similar properties to cookies made with a commercial margarine. Therefore, this study shows the high feasibility of utilization of the organogel technology in real foods such as cookies rich in unsaturated fats. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  10. The Role of Orthography in Speech Production Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F.-X.; Perre, Laetitia; Castel, Caroline; Ziegler, Johannes C.

    2007-01-01

    The language production system of literate adults comprises an orthographic system (used during written language production) and a phonological system (used during spoken language production). Recent psycholinguistic research has investigated possible influences of the orthographic system on the phonological system. This research has produced…

  11. Analysis of sorghum wax and carnauba wax by reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a genus in the grass family, which is used for both grain and forage production throughout the world. In the United States, sorghum grain is predominantly used as livestock feed, and in ethanol production. In recent years however, sorghum grain has been investigated for other industrial a...

  12. Phase behavior, structure and rheology of candelilla wax/fully hydrogenated soybean oil mixtures with and without vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Gómez, N O; Acevedo, N C; Toro-Vázquez, J F; Ornelas-Paz, J J; Dibildox-Alvarado, E; Pérez-Martínez, J D

    2016-11-01

    Vegetable oil organogelation is one of the most promising strategies to eliminate trans fatty acids in plastic fats. Organogels prepared with edible wax are stable at refrigerator and room temperature. Some functional properties (i.e., texture) of wax organogels can be improved by adding saturated triacylglycerols. Mixtures of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FH) and candelilla wax (CW) were studied with and without the addition of high oleic safflower oil (HOSFO). Crystallization and melting behavior, X-ray diffraction, and crystalline microstructure of the mixtures were analyzed. The elastic modulus (G'), and the structural recovery after shear of the organogels were also assessed. Mixtures without HOSFO formed solid dispersions of CW and FH crystals, where up to ~10% CW crystals were incorporated into the FH crystal lattice. The vegetable oil solutions of FH/CW mixtures crystallized from the melt, developed mixed crystal networks composed of FH crystals in the β polymorph and CW in an orthorhombic subcell packing. As the systems crystallized in the most stable polymorph, only minor microstructural changes were shown along 28days of storage at 25°C. CW and FH crystals showed a synergistic effect on the elasticity of organogels. This was attributed to the large number FH crystals nucleated on the surface of CW crystals. The structural recovery after shear was superior for mixed organogels composed of CW platelets and grainy FH crystals compared to that of CW organogels. A recovery of up to 65.7% the G' of gels formed under static conditions was observed upon shearing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Roles of Hydroxynitrile Glucosides in Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Pernille Sølvhøj

    indicate that the hydroxynitrile glucosides are taken up by the fungus. Interestingly, it is also shown that barley deposits hydroxynitrile glucosides in the epicuticular wax layer. The reason for this is deposition is not known, but apoplastic deposition of defense compounds is in the literature reported...... the hydroxynitrile glucosides as recognition factors and nutrition compounds. Above this threshold hydroxynitrile glucosides or their breakdown or turn-over products reach toxic levels which lead to a stunted Bgh phenotype and abortion of colonies. A putative ROS quenching role of hydroxynitrile glucosides...

  14. Bio-paraffins: alternative products to petroleum paraffins; Bioparafinas: produtos alternativos as parafinas de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Anie Daniela Medeiros [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Hidrorrefino e Processos Especiais; Oliveira, Claudia Cristina Cardoso Calvano de; Carvalho, Ivone de Freitas; Silva, Danilo do Carmo Santos; Cruz, Valeria Senra da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Lubrificantes e Produtos Especiais]. E-mails: anie.lima, claudiacristina, ivone, danilosilva, vsenra@petrobras.com.br

    2007-04-15

    Market trends and social and environmental issues encouraged the vegetal wax presence in the world-wide paraffin market. This work presents the most commercialized vegetal waxes, soy and pal, comparing their physicochemical characteristics and their applicability with the paraffins obtained from petroleum. It also presents a characterization of the carnauba wax, produced exclusively in Brazil and a comparison with paraffins from petroleum. The carnauba wax is an alternative product, with good applicability as a substitute for waxes from petroleum or a petroleum/vegetal mixture. The characteristics of palm and soy waxes show the possible application in candles, cosmetics, foods and others industries. Brazil, having a great agricultural potential, represents a source of vegetal wax that could be use to meet the market demands. (author)

  15. The spider-web of company competencies: The role of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Bove, Karsten; Grunert, Klaus G.

    This paper examines the role of product development in relation to other key competencies like, eg, production management, sale scompetencies and company image. Based on a representative study of Danish production companies we examine how product development influences overall company success, an...

  16. The effect of varieties on cotton wax as it relates to cotton quality parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton wax is one of the non-cellulosic components found on the surfaces of cotton. It is important in dyeing and processing quality. This investigation was carried out to study the yield of wax on the surface of cottons by performing two methods: Soxhlet extractions and accelerated solvent extracti...

  17. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Attard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM for maize stover wax extraction was found to be €88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI and utility costs (CUT contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of €10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation. A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity had the greatest effect on the COM.

  18. Economic Assessment of Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Waxes as Part of a Maize Stover Biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attard, Thomas M; McElroy, Con Robert; Hunt, Andrew J

    2015-07-31

    To date limited work has focused on assessing the economic viability of scCO2 extraction to obtain waxes as part of a biorefinery. This work estimates the economic costs for wax extraction from maize stover. The cost of manufacture (COM) for maize stover wax extraction was found to be € 88.89 per kg of wax, with the fixed capital investment (FCI) and utility costs (CUT) contributing significantly to the COM. However, this value is based solely on scCO2 extraction of waxes and does not take into account the downstream processing of the biomass following extraction. The cost of extracting wax from maize stover can be reduced by utilizing pelletized leaves and combusting the residual biomass to generate electricity. This would lead to an overall cost of € 10.87 per kg of wax (based on 27% combustion efficiency for electricity generation) and €4.56 per kg of wax (based on 43% combustion efficiency for electricity generation). A sensitivity analysis study showed that utility costs (cost of electricity) had the greatest effect on the COM.

  19. Equisetum species show uniform epicuticular wax structures but diverse composition patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Thomas; Haas, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Only few data on the epicuticular waxes (EWs) of horsetails are available. This contribution therefore focuses on the wax micromorphology and chemical composition of Equisetum species of the subgenera Equisetum and Hippochaete. Distribution patterns and structural details of EW on the shoots were studied by scanning electron microscopy. After extraction with chloroform, the chemical composition of wax isolates was analysed by gas chromatography. Epicuticular wax crystals were non-oriented platelets or membraneous platelets. They were usually located on subsidiary cells of stomata and adjacent cells. Other parts of the shoots were covered mainly with a smooth wax film or small granules only. The chemical constituents found were alkanes, esters, aldehydes, primary alcohols and free fatty acids in a range of C(20)-C(36) (in esters C(36)-C(56)). All species of the subgenus Hippochaete showed a similar pattern of fractions with high percentages of alkanes and aldehydes, whereas the subgenus Equisetum species had distinctly different wax compositions. Extracts from the internodes-surfaces without well-developed EW crystals and only few stomata-showed the lowest contents of aldehydes. The covering with EW crystals will provide unhindered gas exchange and, combined with intracuticular wax, may prevent excess water loss during winter in the evergreen shoots of the subgenus Hippochaete. The results indicate that the Equisetum wax micromorphology and biosynthesis are comparable to EW of other pteridophyte classes and mosses.

  20. Cross-linking of LDPE/wax Blends in the Presence of Dicumyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analyses of cross-link density of the samples indicated that increased amounts of peroxide gives rise to more efficient cross-linking, but only the PE phase in the blends is cross-linked. The DSC results indicated that LDPE and wax are probably miscible in the crystalline phase at low wax concentrations, but at higher ...

  1. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3 and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of...

  2. Wax on, wax off, or whatever works for you : on the role of pre-competition emotions in elite karateka

    OpenAIRE

    Amsbury, Kyler

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study aimed to examine the performance related experiences of elite karate athletes prior to a major international competition. The secondary aim was to explore the relationship between athlete and coach performance ratings. Athletes selected emotional and non-emotional words to describe their experiences related to performance. Results indicated that best performance was characterized by high intensities of helpful emotion and non-emotion descriptors, while wor...

  3. Correlations between vegetation and island geomorphology in the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. C.; Moffett, K. B.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding how deltas build and maintain themselves is critical to predicting how they will respond to perturbations such as sea level rise. This is especially an issue of interest in coastal Louisiana, where land loss is prevalent due to subsidence and decreased sediment supply. Feedbacks between ecology and geomorphology have been well documented in many different environments, but the role of vegetation in delta morphodynamics is not well understood. This study investigates spatial and temporal correlations between vegetation succession and sediment accumulation at the Wax Lake Delta in Louisiana. This low gradient, rapidly prograding, tidally influenced delta has been forming since 1973 at the mouth of the man-made Wax Lake Outlet discharging into Atchafalaya Bay. We established a 2500 m long transect along the western levee of Pintail Island, capturing the full range of island elevations and the transition from bare sediment to herbaceous plants and trees. Shallow (50-150 cm deep) sediment cores from this transect were analyzed for particle size, organic matter content, and bulk density, and dated using Pb-210. The resulting sedimentation rates and composition trends over time were compared to remote sensing-based analyses of temporal changes in vegetation extent, island shape, and flooding frequency derived from historical aerial photos and Landsat images. We find that significantly more silty and organic sediments overly fine sandy deposits, with a greater depth to sand at higher elevations. Although the depth of the textural transition might logically be related to the local mean water level along the island elevation transect, trends in flooding frequency extracted from the historical series of Landsat images show that island elevations relative to mean water level have changed over time. These results provide an empirical foundation for future mechanistic models linking mineral sedimentation, organic sedimentation, vegetation succession, elevation

  4. The Acyl Desaturase CER17 Is Involved in Producing Wax Unsaturated Primary Alcohols and Cutin Monomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianpeng; Zhao, Huayan; Kosma, Dylan K; Tomasi, Pernell; Dyer, John M; Li, Rongjun; Liu, Xiulin; Wang, Zhouya; Parsons, Eugene P; Jenks, Matthew A; Lü, Shiyou

    2017-02-01

    We report n-6 monounsaturated primary alcohols (C26:1, C28:1, and C30:1 homologs) in the cuticular waxes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence stem, a class of wax not previously reported in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis cer17 mutant was completely deficient in these monounsaturated alcohols, and CER17 was found to encode a predicted ACYL-COENZYME A DESATURASE LIKE4 (ADS4). Studies of the Arabidopsis cer4 mutant and yeast variously expressing CER4 (a predicted fatty acyl-CoA reductase) with CER17/ADS4, demonstrated CER4's principal role in synthesis of these monounsaturated alcohols. Besides unsaturated alcohol deficiency, cer17 mutants exhibited a thickened and irregular cuticle ultrastructure and increased amounts of cutin monomers. Although unsaturated alcohols were absent throughout the cer17 stem, the mutation's effects on cutin monomers and cuticle ultrastructure were much more severe in distal than basal stems, consistent with observations that the CER17/ADS4 transcript was much more abundant in distal than basal stems. Furthermore, distal but not basal stems of a double mutant deficient for both CER17/ADS4 and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE1 produced even more cutin monomers and a thicker and more disorganized cuticle ultrastructure and higher cuticle permeability than observed for wild type or either mutant parent, indicating a dramatic genetic interaction on conversion of very long chain acyl-CoA precursors. These results provide evidence that CER17/ADS4 performs n-6 desaturation of very long chain acyl-CoAs in both distal and basal stems and has a major function associated with governing cutin monomer amounts primarily in the distal segments of the inflorescence stem. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. How polymer additives reduce the pour point of hydrocarbon solvents containing wax crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Fletcher, Paul D I; Roberts, Noel A; Dunkerley, John; Greenfield, Hannah; Mastrangelo, Antonio; Trickett, Kieran

    2015-02-14

    We have investigated how four different pour point depressant (PPD) polymers affect the pour point transition in mixtures of a single pure wax in a solvent. We used either n-eicosane (C20), CH3(CH2)18CH3, n-tetracosane (C24), CH3(CH2)22CH3 or n-hexatriacontane (C36), CH3(CH2)34CH3 as the wax component with either n-heptane or toluene as the solvent component. For all wax-solvent combinations, the measured variation of wax solubility with temperature is well predicted by ideal solution theory. The variation of pour point temperature as a function of the overall wax concentration is quantitatively modelled using the idea that, for each overall wax concentration, the pour point occurs at a temperature at which a critical volume fraction ϕ* of wax crystals has precipitated. Close to the pour point temperature, extraction and examination of the wax crystals show they consist of polydisperse, irregularly-shaped platelets with axial ratios (h/d, where h is the plate thickness and d is the plate long dimension) in the range 0.005-0.05. It is found that the measured ϕ* values corresponding to the pour point transitions are weakly correlated with the wax crystal axial ratios (h/d) for all wax-solvent-PPD polymer combinations. These results indicate that the pour point transition occurs at a volume fraction larger than the value at which the volumes of rotation of the platelet crystals overlap, i.e., 2.5(h/d) < ϕ* < 11(h/d). PPD polymers work, in part, by increasing the wax crystal axial ratio (h/d), thereby increasing ϕ* and reducing the pour point temperature. Since the PPD's ability to modify the wax crystal shape relies on its adsorption to the crystal-solution surface, it is anticipated and observed experimentally that optimum PPD efficacy is correlated with the difference between the wax and the polymer solubility boundary temperatures. This finding and the mechanistic insight gained here provide the basis for a simple and rapid screening test to identify candidate

  6. Composition and morphology of cuticular wax in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Cao, Shifeng; Fang, Xiangjun; Chen, Hangjun; Xiao, Shangyue

    2017-03-15

    The chemical composition and morphology of cuticular wax in mature fruit of nine blueberry cultivars were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Triterpenoids and β-diketones were the most prominent compounds, accounting for on average 64.2% and 16.4% of the total wax, respectively. Ursolic or oleanolic acid was identified as the most abundant triterpenoids differing in cultivars. Two β-diketones, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione, were detected in cuticular wax of blueberry fruits for the first time. Notably, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione were only detected in highbush (V. corymbosum) and rabbiteye (V. ashei) blueberries, respectively. The results of SEM showed that a large amount of tubular wax deposited on the surface of blueberry fruits. There was no apparent difference in wax morphology among the nine cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gender roles in subsistence crop production in Kwara State, Nigeira ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper describes the major sources of food production in Kwara State, Nigeria. The study strictly examines the participation of women in the production system which hitherto has been invisible. The primary data for this study were obtained as part of a larger survey of rural women in Kwara State between 1989 and 1990.

  8. Gender roles in agricultural production in the Seychelles | Uzokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To achieve sustainable food production in order to ensure food security, the extension services need a new orientation and better funding to enable it carry out its function. The government should make available cultivable lands for food production and encourage women to own their own farms by giving priority to them in ...

  9. Development and evaluation of an emulsified paraffin wax dispenser for season-long mating disruption of Grapholita molesta in commercial peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lame, Frédérique M; Miller, James R; Attrerholt, Cynthia A; Gut, Larry J

    2007-08-01

    The University of California at Davis patented the use of emulsified wax to release pheromones for mating disruption. Advantages of these dispensers include low cost, self-adhesion, and biodegradation. We compared the efficacy and practicality of Confuse-OFM, a commercial emulsified wax formulation of oriental fruit moth, Grapiholita molesta (Busck), pheromone with those of Check-Mate OFM-F sprayable pheromone and Isomate-M 100 polyethylene tube dispensers in commercial peach (Prunus spp.) orchards. Efficacy was measured with male captures in pheromone-, virgin female-, and liquid attractant-baited bucket traps as well as by noting injury to shoots and fruit. Two applications of Confuse-OFM were as effective as two applications of CheckMate OFM-F and one application of Isomate-M 100. However, Confuse-OFM was tedious to apply and wasted pheromone with an initially high release rate. We developed a new emulsified wax formulation (Wax Dollops) that maintained release rates above a 5 mg/ha/h threshold twice as long as Confuse-OFM in the laboratory. Field trials confirmed that one application of 3-ml dollops (590 dollops per ha) provided season-long (approximately 15 wk) control equivalent to that of Isomate-M 100 and Confuse-OFM applied as described above. Several applicators were developed for Wax Dollops, including a pneumatic gun that shot dollops >2 m. However, the most efficient method for application was wiping dollops onto tree branches by using a flat-bladed spatula. This research was the basis for a new line of commercial pheromone pest control products equally effective to current commercial formulations but with advantages in cost and flexibility.

  10. SUPERKILLER Complex Components Are Required for the RNA Exosome-Mediated Control of Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Inflorescence Stems1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lifang; Kunst, Ljerka

    2016-01-01

    ECERIFERUM7 (CER7)/AtRRP45B core subunit of the exosome, the main cellular 3′-to-5′ exoribonuclease, is a positive regulator of cuticular wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence stems. CER7-dependent exosome activity determines stem wax load by controlling transcript levels of the wax-related gene CER3. Characterization of the second-site suppressors of the cer7 mutant revealed that small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are direct effectors of CER3 expression. To explore the relationship between the exosome and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in regulating CER3 transcript levels, we investigated two additional suppressor mutants, wax restorer1 (war1) and war7. We show that WAR1 and WAR7 encode Arabidopsis SUPERKILLER3 (AtSKI3) and AtSKI2, respectively, components of the SKI complex that associates with the exosome during cytoplasmic 3′-to-5′ RNA degradation, and that CER7-dependent regulation of wax biosynthesis also requires participation of AtSKI8. Our study further reveals that it is the impairment of the exosome-mediated 3′-5′ decay of CER3 transcript in the cer7 mutant that triggers extensive production of siRNAs and efficient PTGS of CER3. This identifies PTGS as a general mechanism for eliminating highly abundant endogenous transcripts that is activated when 3′-to-5′ mRNA turnover by the exosome is disrupted. Diminished efficiency of PTGS in ski mutants compared with cer7, as evidenced by lower accumulation of CER3-related siRNAs, suggests that reduced amounts of CER3 transcript are available for siRNA synthesis, possibly because CER3 mRNA that does not interact with SKI is degraded by 5′-to-3′ XRN4 exoribonuclease. PMID:27208312

  11. Nanotubules on plant surfaces: chemical composition of epicuticular wax crystals on needles of Taxus baccata L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Miao; Buschhaus, Christopher; Jetter, Reinhard

    2006-08-01

    Needles of Taxus baccata L. were covered with tubular epicuticular wax crystals varying in diameters (100 and 250 nm) and lengths (300-500 and 500-1000 nm) on the abaxial and adaxial surfaces, respectively. Various sampling protocols were employed to study the chemical composition of the needle waxes on three different levels of spatial resolution. First, a dipping extraction of whole needles yielded the total cuticular wax mixture consisting of very long chain fatty acids (21%), alkanediols (19%), phenyl esters (15%), and secondary alcohols (9%) together with small amounts of aldehydes, primary alcohols, alkanes, alkyl esters, and tocopherols. Second, waxes from both sides of the needle were sampled separately by brushing with CHCl3-soaked fabric glass. Both sides showed very similar qualitative composition, but differed drastically in quantitative aspects, with nonacosan-10-ol (18%) and alkanediols (33%) dominating the abaxial and adaxial waxes, respectively. Third, the epi- and intracuticular wax layers were selectively sampled by a combination of mechanical wax removal and brushing extraction. This provided direct evidence that the tubular wax crystals contained high percentages of nonacosane-4,10-diol and nonacosane-5,10-diol on the abaxial surface, and nonacosan-10-ol on the adaxial surface of the needles. Together with these compounds, relatively large amounts of fatty acids and smaller percentages of aldehydes, primary alcohols, alkyl esters, and alkanes co-crystallized in the epicuticular layer. In comparison, the intracuticular wax consisted of higher portions of cyclic constituents and aliphatics with relatively high polarity. The formation of the tubular crystals is discussed as a spontaneous physico-chemical process, involving the establishment of gradients between the epi- and intracuticular wax layers and local phase separation.

  12. Understanding wax screen-printing: a novel patterning process for microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Zhang, Chunsun; Liu, Feifei

    2015-09-03

    In this work, we first introduce the fabrication of microfluidic cloth-based analytical devices (μCADs) using a wax screen-printing approach that is suitable for simple, inexpensive, rapid, low-energy-consumption and high-throughput preparation of cloth-based analytical devices. We have carried out a detailed study on the wax screen-printing of μCADs and have obtained some interesting results. Firstly, an analytical model is established for the spreading of molten wax in cloth. Secondly, a new wax screen-printing process has been proposed for fabricating μCADs, where the melting of wax into the cloth is much faster (∼5 s) and the heating temperature is much lower (75 °C). Thirdly, the experimental results show that the patterning effects of the proposed wax screen-printing method depend to a certain extent on types of screens, wax melting temperatures and melting time. Under optimized conditions, the minimum printing width of hydrophobic wax barrier and hydrophilic channel is 100 μm and 1.9 mm, respectively. Importantly, the developed analytical model is also well validated by these experiments. Fourthly, the μCADs fabricated by the presented wax screen-printing method are used to perform a proof-of-concept assay of glucose or protein in artificial urine with rapid high-throughput detection taking place on a 48-chamber cloth-based device and being performed by a visual readout. Overall, the developed cloth-based wax screen-printing and arrayed μCADs should provide a new research direction in the development of advanced sensor arrays for detection of a series of analytes relevant to many diverse applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Source Biases on Sedimentary Leaf Waxes and Their Stable Isotope Compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freimuth, E. J.; Lowell, T. V.; Wiles, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    Leaf waxes and their carbon (δ13C) and hydrogen (δD) isotopic compositions are an important tool to understand past changes in paleoclimate and paleovegetation. Important recent advances in our understanding about the isotopic signal preserved in sedimentary leaf waxes have been inferred from studies made on individual modern plants. However, paleoreconstructions are based on sedimentary leaf waxes, which reflect mixing between multiple sources, such as ablated leaf waxes from nearby or from afar, wind blown leaf litter, and riverine transported leaf waxes. Each of these sources integrates leaf waxes from different species and growth forms, likely resulting in source-specific taphonomic biases on sedimentary leaf wax isotopes. To better understand source biases in sedimentary leaf waxes, we investigated n-alkanes and n-alkanoic acids and their carbon and hydrogen isotopes in vegetation and lake sediments at Brown's Lake and Bog, a 'simple' forested closed-basin lake in northeastern Ohio. Interestingly, we found that tree n-alkane δD varied substantially during the growing season, broadly tracking changes in source water composition. However, δD values of n-alkanes in the tree leaf litter did not match that of the most recent sedimentary n-alkanes. Instead, surface sediment n-alkane δD more closely matched that of the woody shrubs and grasses growing right around the lake. n-Alkanoic acid data is forthcoming. We are currently exploring lake sediment n-alkane accumulation rates against midwestern flux rates of wind blown leaf waxes from afar. Our preliminary results suggest that although studies made on individual leaves are indeed important, we may need to consider additional leaf wax sources that potentially influence sedimentary archives.

  14. Recombinant antithrombin: production and role in cardiovascular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J H; Weisinger, A; Ziomek, C A; Echelard, Y

    2001-08-01

    Plasma-derived antithrombin (AT) concentrates have been used for the management of hereditary and acquired deficiencies since the early 1980s. Recombinant versions of other blood factors and their derivatives are increasingly becoming available, providing a safe and abundant supply of these important therapeutics. However, the complexity of the AT molecule and the large doses often required for supplementation treatments preclude the use of traditional cell culture bioreactors for recombinant production. The development of a very efficient expression system has been necessary for the cost-efficient recombinant production of AT. Transgenic production, with its ability to yield high levels of heterologous protein and its scale-up flexibility, is an attractive alternative to plasma fractionation. Purification of recombinant AT from the milk of transgenic dairy goats has been developed to provide a homogeneous, well-defined, and abundant supply of this factor. This article describes the production of recombinant AT and aspects of clinical applications of this molecule to cardiovascular disorders.

  15. CHARACTERIZING THE ROLE OF USER EXPERIENCE IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    RIYADI, Slamet; PASKEVICIUS, Algirdas; ONO, Kenta; WATANABE, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    .... user experience, a concept which places users as a central focus, has been used for creating products that are provide aesthetically pleasing and pleasurable to use as it focuses beyond usability...

  16. Porphyroblast crystallization kinetics: the role of the nutrient production rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Jens-Oliver; Engi, Martin; Berger, Alfons

    2011-01-01

    , such as grain size distributions. In turn, data on porphyroblast textures for natural samples are used to infer which mechanism dominated during their formation. Whereas previous models assume that the rate-limiting step for a porphyroblast producing reaction is either transport or growth, the model advanced...... in this study considers the production of nutrients for porphyroblasts as a potentially rate-limiting factor. This production reflects the breakdown of (metastable) reactants, which at a specific pressure (P) and temperature (T) depends on the bulk composition of the sample. The production of nutrients...... that potentially contribute to the formation of porphyroblasts is computed based on thermodynamic models. The conceptual model assumes that these nutrients feed into some intergranular medium, and products form by nutrient consumption from that medium, with rates depending on reaction affinity. For any sequence...

  17. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in t...

  18. Role of Biotechnology in Animal Production Systems in Hot Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Hansen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments in the biological sciences in the last three decades have revolutionized mankind's ability to manipulate the genetics, cell biology and physiology of biological organisms. These techniques, collectively termed biotechnology, create the opportunity for modifying domestic animals in ways that markedly increase the efficiency of production. Among the procedures being developed for animal production systems are marker-assisted selection of specific alleles of a gene that are associated with high production, production of transgenic animals , super ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo sexing and cloning, production of large amounts of previously-rare proteins through use of genetically -engineered bacteria or other cells, and identification of new biologically-active molecules as potential regulators of animal function. To date, most uses of biotechnology have concentrated on problems of general relevance to animal agriculture rather than specific problems related to livestock production in hot climates. However, it is likely that biotechnology will be used for this latter purpose also. Strategies to increase disease resistance using marker-assisted selection, production of transgenic animals expressing viral proteins, and recombinant cytokines to enhance immune function should prove useful to reducing the incidence and seventy of various tropical diseases. Additionally, there are methods to reduce effects of heat stress on oestrus detection and establishment of pregnancy. These include remote sensing of oestrus, ovulation synchronization systems and embryo transfer. More research regarding the physiological processes determining heat tolerance and of the pathways through which heat stress alters physiological function will be required before molecular biology techniques can be used to reduce the adverse effects of heat stress on animal production.

  19. Profit Sharing and Workplace Productivity: Does Teamwork Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Richard J.; Fang, Tony

    2013-01-01

    The conditions under which profit sharing affects workplace productivity have never been fully understood. Using panel data, this paper examines whether there is any link between adoption of an employee profit sharing plan and subsequent productivity growth in Canadian establishments, and whether this relationship is affected by various contextual factors, particularly use of work teams. In so doing, we use both three and five-year panels. Overall, we find a significant link between adoption ...

  20. ROLE OF DIGITAL PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES IN FURNITURE MANUFACTURING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Kılıç

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture emerged with the most primitive form of life, and it maintained its importance as a significant part of everyday life according to people's needs. In particular, there were developments in production techniques when societies became sedentary. As a result, furniture production and its use became widespread. Later on, in terms of quality more complicated and more developed furniture were produced than before thanks to the opportunities provided by the developments in production techniques. As to in our day, the widespread use of computer aided design and digital production concept has a serious effect on furniture production. Today these technological innovations enable furniture manufactured with quite different methods from half a century ago as can be manufactured more in quantity, more quickly and almost without any error probability. Digital production techniques, which provide this opportunity and still develop, enable more complicated designs to be manufactured by taking into consideration the requirements of the indoors. In this context, it is thought that computer aided design and digital manufacturing systems will develop and provide innovative opportunities in the future.

  1. Marginal adaptation of four inlay casting waxes on stone, titanium, and zirconia dies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Kapsampeli, Vassiliki; Kitsou, Aikaterini; Kirmanidou, Yvone; Fotiou, Anna; Pissiotis, Argirios L; Calvani, Pasquale Lino; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Kudara, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    Different inlay casting waxes do not produce copings with satisfactory marginal accuracy when used on different die materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal accuracy of 4 inlay casting waxes on stone dies and titanium and zirconia abutments and to correlate the findings with the degree of wetting between the die specimens and the inlay casting waxes. The inlay casting waxes tested were Starwax (Dentaurum), Unterziehwachs (Bredent), SU Esthetic wax (Schuler), and Sculpturing wax (Renfert). The marginal opening of the waxes was measured with a stereomicroscope on high-strength stone dies and on titanium and zirconia abutments. Photographic images were obtained, and the mean marginal opening for each specimen was calculated. A total of 1440 measurements were made. Wetting between die materials and waxes was determined after fabricating stone, titanium, and zirconia rectangular specimens. A calibrated pipette was used to place a drop of molten wax onto each specimen. The contact angle was calculated with software after an image of each specimen had been made with a digital camera. Collected data were subjected to a 2-way analysis of variance (α=.05). Any association between marginal accuracy and wetting of different materials was found by using the Pearson correlation. The wax factor had a statistically significant effect both on the marginal discrepancy (F=158.31, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=68.09, P<.001). A statistically significant effect of the die material factor both on the marginal adaptation (F=503.47, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=585.02, P<.001) was detected. A significant correlation between the marginal accuracy and the contact angle values (Pearson=0.881, P=.01) was also found. Stone dies provided wax copings with the best marginal integrity, followed by titanium and zirconia abutments. Unterziehwachs (Bredent), wax produced the best marginal adaptation on different die materials. A significant correlation was found

  2. The role of product designers in the transition towards the circular economy : A reality check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, D.X.; Bakker, C.A.; Balkenende, A.R.; Bakker, C.; Mugge, R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the role of product designers in the transition towards the circular economy. Both scientific and grey literature show remarkable optimism when it comes to role strategic and coordinating role designers could play in this transition process. However, there has been little

  3. Wax Precipitation Modeled with Many Mixed Solid Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Robert A.; Madsen, Jesper; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of the Coutinho UNIQUAC model for solid wax phases has been examined. The model can produce as many mixed solid phases as the number of waxy components. In binary mixtures, the solid rich in the lighter component contains little of the heavier component but the second phase shows...... substantial amounts of the lighter component dissolved in the heavier solid. Calculations have been performed taking into account the recrystallization of the solid alkanes into a second solid form. The Coutinho UNIQUAC model has been used to describe the lower-temperature solid phases. The higher......-temperature mixed solid phase has been assumed to be either an ideal solution or to be described by Coutinho's Wilson activity coefficient model. This procedure accounts for more of the known behavior of mixed n-alkane solids. Comparison is also made with results assuming that all of the solid phases, both high...

  4. Role of lipid reactions in quality of oat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. LEHTINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In traditional oat processing practice the control of lipid reactions relies largely on empirical experiences and dogmatic principles rather than on profound understanding of the underlying mechanisms. However, in today’s global food markets, the industry faces strict challenges in the development of new processes and applications where the prior experience is unsatisfactory or insufficient. The storage stability of novel oat products can be greatly enhanced by taking the mechanisms of lipid deterioration into account, and by adjusting the processing conditions accordingly so that these reactions can be minimized. The lipid reactions in oat products result in two different unwanted properties: bitter, astringent, taste or a rancid flavor. Chemically, these properties are associated to enzymatic hydrolysis of ester bonds and non-enzymatic oxidation of unsaturated fatty acyl chains respectively. The processing history oat product has a huge impact on which of these reactions predominates in oat products. The review focuses on the reactions of lipids in processed oat products, and identifies factors that are critical for enhanced shelf-life.;

  5. The polyketide components of waxes and the Cer-cqu gene cluster encoding a novel polyketide synthase, the β-diketone synthase, DKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wettstein, Penny

    2017-01-01

    Cer-cqu gene cluster encoding a novel polyketide synthase-the β-diketone synthase (DKS), a lipase/carboxyl transferase, and a P450 hydroxylase, respectively, establishes a new, major pathway for the synthesis of plant waxes. The major product is a β-diketone (14,16-hentriacontane) aliphatic that forms...... long, thin crystalline tubes. A pathway branch leads to the formation of esterified alkan-2-ols....

  6. Physico-chemical properties, wax composition, aroma profiles, and antioxidant activity of granulated non-centrifugal sugars from sugarcane cultivars of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Weerawatanakorn, Monthana; Asikin, Yonathan; Takahashi, Makoto; Tamaki, Hajime; Wada, Koji; Ho, Chi-Tang; Chuekittisak, Raweewan

    2016-01-01

    Non-centrifugal cane sugar (NCS) is globally consumed and has various health benefits. It is mostly produced in hardened block form, which is less convenient than in granulated form for food applications. In terms of the traditional processing of NCS, preparation of granulated products is difficult due to the impurities found in the cane juice extracted from the whole stalk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize and determine the physico-chemical properties, wax composition (po...

  7. Nested PCR-SSCP assay for the detection of p53 mutations in paraffin wax embedded bone tumours: improvement of sensitivity and fidelity

    OpenAIRE

    L. T. Wang; Smith, A; Iacopetta, B; Wood, D.J.; Papadimitriou, J. M.; Zheng, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    DNA extraction and PCR amplification from paraffin wax embedded bone tumour specimens present several difficulties, firstly, because of the abundant matrix they contain and, secondly, because decalcification often causes degradation of DNA. In this report, comparative studies were carried out to determine the most efficient method for DNA extraction and PCR amplification from such specimens. The results indicated that nested PCR produced appropriate strong reaction products with minimal backg...

  8. The role of whey in functional dairy food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Tratnik

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern life style also enhances a need for creation of better dairyproducts, in comparison with traditional ones, possessing functionalcharacteristics. Whey is consisted primarily of lactose, proteins of high nutritive value, important minerals and imunoactive compounds, as well as vitamins of B group. It can be used for fermented probiotic drinks and albumin cheese production. Using new methods of pressure membrane filtration and demineralisation the economic manufacture of whey, as a valuable source of nutrients, is enabled. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the possibilities of sweet whey, especially whey protein concentrates, use in functional dairy products manufacture from cow’s and goat’s milk. The paper is based on the published scientific research performed in the Laboratory for Technology of Milk and Dairy Products of the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology University of Zagreb.

  9. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in their mycelium (biosorption process) and cannot be consumed due to absorbed toxicants. This article reviews the achievement and current status of mycoremediation technology based on mushroom cultivation for the remediation of waste and also emphasizes on the importance of mushroom as product. This critical review is also focused on the safety aspects of mushroom cultivation on waste.

  10. The Role of e-Portfolios in Supporting Productive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Tai, Mui; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    e-Portfolios are a form of authentic assessment with formative functions that include showcasing and sharing learning artifacts, documenting reflective learning processes, connecting learning across various stages and enabling frequent feedback for improvements. This paper examines how e-portfolios take up these formative roles to support…

  11. Role of Mass Media in Agricultural Productivity in Adamawa State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the role of mass media in agriculture in Adamawa State. Specifically, it focused on the extent to which mass media have been used to communicate agricultural information dissemination, farmers' media preference, challenges experienced in accessing information through the media and the need to ...

  12. The role of safe practices in hospitals’ total factor productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Huerta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Timothy R Huerta1, Mark A Thompson2, Eric W Ford31Center for Health Innovation, Education, and Research, 2Rawls College of Business, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA; 3Forsyth Medical Center Distinguished Professor of Health Care, The University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USAAbstract: The dual aims of improving safety and productivity are a major part of the health care reform movement hospital leaders must manage. Studies exploring the two phenomena conjointly and over time are critical to understanding how change in one dimension influences the other over time. A Malmquist approach is used to assess hospitals’ relative productivity levels over time. Analysis of variance (ANOVA algorithms were executed to assess whether or not the Malmquist Indices (MIs correlate with the safe practices measure. The American Hospital Association’s annual survey and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Case Mix Index for fiscal years 2002–2006, along with Leapfrog Group’s annual survey for 2006 were used for this study. Leapfrog Group respondents have significantly higher technological change (TC and total factor productivity (TFP than nonrespondents without sacrificing technical efficiency changes. Of the three MIs, TC (P < 0.10 and TFP (P < 0.05 had significant relationships with the National Quality Forum’s Safe Practices score. The ANOVA also indicates that the mean differences of TFP measures progressed in a monotonic fashion up the Safe Practices scale. Adherence to the National Quality Forum’s Safe Practices recommendations had a major impact on hospitals’ operating processes and productivity. Specifically, there is evidence that hospitals reporting higher Safe Practices scores had above average levels of TC and TFP gains over the period assessed. Leaders should strive for increased transparency to promote both quality improvement and increased productivity.Keywords: safety, productivity, quality, safe

  13. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Comparative Analyses of Cuticular Waxes on Various Organs of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-05-17

    Complex mixtures of cuticular waxes coat plant surfaces to seal them against environmental stresses, with compositions greatly varying between species and possibly organs. This paper reports comprehensive analyses of the waxes on both above- and below-ground organs of potato, where total wax coverages varied between petals (2.6 μg/cm2), leaves, stems, and tubers (1.8-1.9 μg/cm2), and rhizomes (1.1 μg/cm2). The wax mixtures on above-ground organs were dominated by alkanes, occurring in homologous series of isomeric C25-C35 n-alkanes, C25-C35 2-methylalkanes, and C26-C34 3-methylalkanes. In contrast, below-ground organs had waxes rich in monoacylglycerols (C22-C28 acyls) and C18-C30 alkyl ferulates, together with fatty acids (rhizomes) or primary alcohols (tubers). The organ-specific wax coverages, compound class distribution, and chain length profiles suggest highly regulated activities of wax biosynthesis enzymes, likely related to organ-specific ecophysiological functions.

  15. Triterpenoid profile of fruit and leaf cuticular waxes of edible honeysuckle Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Becker

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Edible honeysuckle (honeyberry Lonicera caerulea is becoming popular as a novel berry crop with several useful features such as early fruit ripening and exceptional hardiness, particularly resistance to pests and diseases as well as severe frosts in winter and droughts in summer. The triterpenoid profile of fruit and leaf cuticular waxes of edible honeysuckle (a Russian cultivar Chernichka was analyzed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were the tetracyclic triterpenoids campesterol, cholesterol, cycloartanol, cycloart-23-ene-3,25-diol, 24-methylenecycloartanol (only in leaves, sitosterol, stigmasta-3,5-dien-7-one, and stigmasterol; and the pentacyclic triterpenes: α-amyrin, β-amyrin, hop-22(29-en-3-one, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid. Several remarkable features of the analyzed triterpenoid contents were revealed, including the relatively low abundance of triterpenoids in fruit waxes (6.5% of wax extract compared to leaf waxes (22%, and a particularly high proportion of tetracyclic triterpenoids (tetracyclic to pentacyclic compound ratios of 4:1 in fruits and almost 7:1 in leaves. These rare features distinguish the triterpenoid profile of the cuticular waxes of L. caerulea var. kamtschatica from the majority of triterpenoid profiles in plant cuticular waxes investigated to date. To our knowledge, this is the first quantitative compositional study on triterpenoid compounds in the cuticular waxes of edible honeysuckle, supplementing the knowledge of cuticular triterpenoid diversity and distribution.

  16. Micromorphology of epicuticular wax structures of the garden strawberry leaves by electron microscopy: syntopism and polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Woo; Ahn, Jeong Joon; Lee, Joon-Ho

    2009-04-01

    Ultrastructural aspects of leaf epicuticular wax structures were investigated in the garden strawberry Fragariaxananassa by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Both the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of two cultivars (Maehyang and Red Pearl) were collected and subjected to surface observations and ultrathin sections. The most prominent leaf epicuticular wax structures included membraneous platelets and angular rodlets. Most wax platelets were membraneous, and appeared to protrude from the surface at an acute angle. Angular rodlets were usually bent and had rather distinct facets in the abaxial surface of the two cultivars. Membraneous platelets were predominant on the adaxial surface of Maehyang, whereas the adaxial surface of Red Pearl was characterized by angular rodlets. However, both cultivars possessed angular rodlets on the abaxial surface, simultaneously. The combination of air-drying without vacuum and in-lens imaging of secondary electron signals with a field emission gun could impart the superb resolution at low electron dose with minimal specimen shrinkage. In vertical profiles of the leaf epidermis, epicuticular waxes were observed above the cuticle layer, and measured approximately as 50nm in thickness. The natural epicuticular waxes were seemingly mixtures of electron-dense microfibrils, and heterogeneous in shape on ultrathin sections. Distinct crystal-like strata could be hardly discernable in the wax structures. These results suggest that the garden strawberry has the nature of syntopism within one plant and polymorphism within the same species in the formation and occurrence of leaf epicuticular waxes.

  17. Food Production in Africa: The Ignored Role of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, Tabitha N.

    Whereas women carry the primary responsibility for food production in Africa, development agencies have devoted minimal resources to researching the impact of their policies and new techniques on the well-being of Africa's women farmers. C. K. Eicher (1995) and M. Smale (1995) call this the invisible factor because the gender-related constraints…

  18. The role of moral leadership for sustainable production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkhuyzen, O.M.; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    The principles, the actions and the vision that form the basis for sustainable production and consumption (SCP) are not unknown, but there is a considerable gap between knowledge and action, and behavioural incentives are not sufficient for system change. In this paper we explore a key missing

  19. Gender Role in Sustainable Palm Oil Production in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, Anambra State University, Igbariam. Campus. E-mail: nwalieji73@yahoo.com Phone: 07033994751 ..... Lack of finance and modern processing equipment are twin problems that militate against sustainable production of palm oil. In fact, these constraints operate like ...

  20. Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... processing and marketing of soyabeans in the Northern Agricultural Zone of Benue State, Nigeria. A structured interview ... constraints experienced by farmers in soyabeans production, processing and marketing include high cost of hiring tractors, ... has earned a special place in nutritional programmes.

  1. Role of cooperative companies in sustainable rice production and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-03-15

    Mar 15, 2010 ... reduction and sustainable food production, a comprehensive schedule was developed and field-tested before data collection. Personal interview, direct observation and group discussions were the methods used for data collection. The main tool for collection of data and information related to the variables ...

  2. Gender roles in livestock production : the case of Tchenzema Ward ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to determine livestock production relations by gender in a matrilineal society in Tchenzema Morogoro Tanzania. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from a randomly selected sample of 200 households with equal numbers of men and women. Secondary data was obtained from ...

  3. The role of moral leadership for sustainable consumption and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkhuyzen, O.M.; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we argue that an adequate understanding of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) involves a mature consciousness of the interdependence between ourselves and the rest of our human family and its habitat. The principles, the actions and the vision that form the basis for SCP are

  4. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two major functions of monocarboxylate transporter proteins, namely the facilitation of the absorption of SCFAs in the gastrointestinal tract and the regulation of cell pH in skeletal muscles, are clearly very important for physiological homeostasis, animal welfare and productivity. Key words: Ruminants, monocarboxylates, ...

  5. Accuracy of ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination technique: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rahul; Al-Keraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Kathuria, Nidhi; Gandhi, P V; Bhide, S V

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination techniques can be combined to offer a cost-effective, clinically acceptable, and time-saving alternative for fabricating single unit castings in fixed prosthodontics. Sixty standardized wax copings were fabricated on a type IV stone replica of a stainless steel die. The wax patterns were divided into four groups. The first group was cast using the ringless investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the second group was cast using the ringless investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method; the third group was cast using the conventional metal ring investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the fourth group was cast using the metal ring investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method. The vertical marginal gap was measured at four sites per specimen, using a digital optical microscope at 100× magnification. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA to determine statistical significance. The vertical marginal gaps of castings fabricated using the ringless technique (76.98 ± 7.59 μm) were significantly less (p castings fabricated using the conventional metal ring technique (138.44 ± 28.59 μm); however, the vertical marginal gaps of the conventional (102.63 ± 36.12 μm) and accelerated wax-elimination (112.79 ± 38.34 μm) castings were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The ringless investment technique can produce castings with higher accuracy and can be favorably combined with the accelerated wax-elimination method as a vital alternative to the time-consuming conventional technique of casting restorations in fixed prosthodontics. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Wax ester-like compounds as biosurfactants produced by Dietzia maris from n-alkane as a sole carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Miyo; Kihara, Masaki; Iehata, Shunpei; Tanaka, Reiji; Maeda, Hiroto; Yoshikawa, Takeshi

    2011-10-01

    The hydrocarbon-degrading bacterium Dietzia maris WR-3 was isolated from a consortium comprising ammonia-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria derived from marine sediments. Here, we examined biosurfactant production by strain WR-3 when cultured using several different carbon (D-glucose, n -decane, n -hexadecane, motor oil, olive oil, and rapeseed oil) and nitrogen (NH(4) )(2) SO(4) , NaNO(3) , yeast extract, and polypeptone) sources as growth substrates. Strain WR-3 was able to grow and reduce the surface tension of culture broth to 31±1.0 mN m(-1) when cultured using n -hexadecane and nitrate ions. The surface-active compounds produced by strain WR-3 were extracted and analyzed by thin layer chromatography. Moreover, the main components in the extract were further purified and subjected to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). From the analysis, the surface-active compounds were tentatively identified as wax ester-like compounds, which were synthesized from the degradation process of n -alkane. The production of surface-active compounds by strain WR-3 promoted attachment of cells to hydrocarbon droplets via increased cell hydrophobicity, thus allowing enhanced degradation of water immiscible substrates. As Dietzia spp. can grow and produce wax esters from the degradation process of hydrocarbons, these marine bacteria are potentially useful for the bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated environments. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...... and A2 have almost equal thresholds in contrast to noctuids and geometrids. A3 responds at + 12 to + 16 dB relative to the A1 threshold. The threshold data from the A-cells give no indication of frequency discrimination in greater wax moths. Tethered greater wax moths respond to ultrasound with short...

  8. [An unusual jugal abscess after third molar extraction: a complication of hemostatic wax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignol, L; Guyot, L; Richard, O; Chossegros, C

    2007-04-01

    Bleeding is a common complication after third molar extraction. Hemostatic agents can be helpful in controlling intraoperative bleeding. Infection is another common complication. Horseley's wax is frequently used for bone surgery and less often for dental surgery. We report an unusual case of abscess formation in the jaw after third molar extraction. Surgical exploration of the abscess disclosed the presence of surgical wax in the center of a foreign body granuloma. We discuss the use of surgical wax and other local hemostatic agents and the subsequent risk of complications.

  9. Caffeine and theobromine in epicuticular wax of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, M L; Coelho, G C; Schenkel, E P

    2000-12-01

    Caffeine and theobromine were identified and quantified in leaf epicuticular waxes of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. (Aquifoliaceae). The total epicuticular leaf wax content was ca. 0.5% on average of dry leaf weight. Epicuticular caffeine and theobromine contents varied from 0.16 to 127.6 microg/mg and from 0 to 9.5 microg/mg of wax, respectively. For some selected samples, the intracellular methylxanthine concentration was also determined. A positive correlation was found between inner and epicuticular caffeine contents.

  10. Role of lipid reactions in quality of oat products

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, P; Laakso, S

    2008-01-01

    In traditional oat processing practice the control of lipid reactions relies largely on empirical experiences and dogmatic principles rather than on profound understanding of the underlying mechanisms. However, in todays global food markets, the industry faces strict challenges in the development of new processes and applications where the prior experience is unsatisfactory or insufficient. The storage stability of novel oat products can be greatly enhanced by taking the mechanisms of lipid d...

  11. Health and productivity: a role for occupational health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunney, R J

    2001-01-01

    The impressive economic gains achieved by many nations within the past decade have been attributed primarily to improvements in productivity from technological changes. The resultant low unemployment levels, however, emphasize the importance of human capital in the success of any enterprise. Concurrently, some economists have proposed an alternative economic view regarding the relationship between health and income, postulating that improvements in the health of the nation's population have a substantial effect on its economic viability. Such a view directly pertains to occupational health professionals, who are often charged with promoting the health of the worker. Although studies relating the beneficial impact of occupational health on productivity and human performance are limited, some efforts have shown impressive effects, as measured primarily by reduced absenteeism. The prompt, assertive management of occupational injuries and illnesses and their treatment have been well documented. Illnesses not considered traditional occupational ailments, such as migraine headaches, allergic disorders, infectious diseases, and depression, offer opportunities for occupational health professionals to ensure an accurate diagnosis and proper treatment for minimizing the impact on work performance. Considerable opportunities exist for occupational health professionals to demonstrate the importance of certain services to productivity.

  12. Role of genetically engineered animals in future food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McColl, K A; Clarke, B; Doran, T J

    2013-03-01

    Genetically engineered (GE) animals are likely to have an important role in the future in meeting the food demand of a burgeoning global population. There have already been many notable achievements using this technology in livestock, poultry and aquatic species. In particular, the use of RNA interference (RNAi) to produce virus-resistant animals is a rapidly-developing area of research. However, despite the promise of this technology, very few GE animals have been commercialised. This review aims to provide information so that veterinarians and animal health scientists are better able to participate in the debate on GE animals. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  13. Estimating productivity with multi-product firms, pricing heterogeneity and the role of international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    and the destination of exports. We find that both imports from countries with abundant and cheap labor like China and from countries with similar level of development matter, although the mechanism through which productivity is affected is likely to be different. In addition, exporting to more distant OECD economies......In this paper, we analyze the relationship between exports, imports and firm productivity. We use a rich product-firm-level dataset providing both revenue and quantities of all products for a large panel of Danish manufacturing firms over the period 1998-2008 and link it to firms’ international...... trade transactions by product. We use our detailed product level information to compute a firm level deflator and avoid the criticism of biased estimates due to the use of industry level deflator. We find that both importing and exporting behaviours are strongly associated with productivity, but firms...

  14. International Production Networks: The Role of East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gamilovna Mazitova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a concept of international production integration which considers international production networks (IPNs as multi-dimensional structures with relational links and consisting of chains (goods, value creation, etc., characterized by linear connections. Formation and functioning of IPNs are subject to economies of scale and are well described by the theory of fragmentation. When analyzing the functioning of IPNs considerable attention needs to be devoted to the relative composition of trade flows they generate with respect to inter- and intra-industry trade. The authors classify production networks by their spatial scale into two types: regional and global. Then the researchers verify the hypothesis that the majority of East Asian IPNs are global. This hypothesis is confirmed using the analysis of foreign trade and investment flows. The analysis of foreign trade statistics of individual countries (China, Cambodia and Vietnam and certain industries (textiles, clothing and leather using the regional trade intensity index (RTII shows that the prevailing part of IPNs in mentioned countries as well as in selected sectors are global IPNs, that is, the hypothesis is fully confirmed. At the same time RTII dynamics demonstrates that a growing number of China's IPNs are turning towards the global type; on the contrary, a growing number of Cambodia's IPNs are transforming to the regional type; and there are two opposite trends in Vietnam: a growing number of IPNs in textiles, clothing and leather goods are tend towards the regional type but when considering the industry as a whole a growing number of IPNs are becoming global. The majority of East Asian IPNs in textiles, clothing and leather goods are global due to the fact that these networks are controlled by global brands (mainly of European and American origin

  15. Organogel as a replacement of saturated fat in food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogels of edible oil have drawn a great interest as promising alternatives to saturated fats and trans fats. Plant waxes are recognized as promising organogelators, which can provide organogels from healthful vegetable oils at low concentrations. Plant waxes are obtained as by-products during th...

  16. Evaluation of four apicultural products for hive colonization by honey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four apicultural products (honey, bee wax, slum gum and propolis) were evaluated for their potentials to attract the African honey bee (Apis mellifera adansonii) colony into artificial hives and their effect on infestation by apicultural insect pests. Ten grammes each of propolis, bee wax and slum gum and 10 ml of honey were ...

  17. Role of advanced glycation end products in cellular signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Ott

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in health care and lifestyle have led to an elevated lifespan and increased focus on age-associated diseases, such as neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease, frailty and arteriosclerosis. In all these chronic diseases protein, lipid or nucleic acid modifications are involved, including cross-linked and non-degradable aggregates, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs. Formation of endogenous or uptake of dietary AGEs can lead to further protein modifications and activation of several inflammatory signaling pathways. This review will give an overview of the most prominent AGE-mediated signaling cascades, AGE receptor interactions, prevention of AGE formation and the impact of AGEs during pathophysiological processes.

  18. Role of pencycuron in aflatoxin production and cotton seed protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, H A

    2001-05-01

    The research is conducted on the effect of pencycuron and pencycuron-c on cotton seed mycoflora, aflatoxin production and viability. At 8% seed moisture content (mc), pencycuron and pencycuron-c promoted Aspergillus niger, A. flavus, and Penicillium corylophilum growth count at 1 g/kg, but exerted inhibitory effect at 3 and 5 g/kg. At 15% mc, pencycuron enhanced seed-borne fungi at all three doses after most treatment periods (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 months), whereas pencycuron-c induced inhibition effect. The A. niger utilized pencycuron as nitrogen source more than pencycuron-c. Seeds with 15% mc lost their viability faster than that at 8%, and this was more evident as storage time increased. Such loss occurred faster when seed was treated with pencycuron, whereas pencycuron-c exerted significant activation in the viability compared to the control. The fungal species have high biodegradation activity and produce aflatoxin in different parts of cotton boll (fiber, valves, and seeds). Pencycuron and pencycuron-c inhibited aflatoxin B1 and B2 production in seeds, but did not affect aflatoxin G1 and G2.

  19. [Using ecology thinking reconstructing traditional agronomy: role of production ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song-Liang

    2012-08-01

    Traditional agronomy, as a discipline or specialty, is originated from the reductionism thinking of neoteric experimental sciences and motivated by the great success of industrialized revolution, but loses the ensemble grasp of the relationships between agricultural organisms and their resources and environment, i.e., agroecosystem mechanism. Moreover, due to the excessively relying on exogenous fossil energy input and the monoculture with a few highly productive crop cultivars, the agricultural interior sustainability has unceasingly lost, making our mankind facing the double crises of grain security and food safety. Therefore, it is imperative to reconstruct the traditional agronomy and its educational system. In this paper, the author proposed to link traditional agronomy with ecology, establishing agroecology as the core subject and agroecosystem management as the core applied system, and in particular, establishing 'production ecology' to fill up the wide gap between the crop cultivation and farming system and the crop genetics and breeding, the two second grade disciplines under agronomy. Ideologically and methodologically, this proposal could provide disciplinary, scientific, and educational bases to authentically implement the strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.

  20. The Polyketide Components of Waxes and the Cer-cqu Gene Cluster Encoding a Novel Polyketide Synthase, the β-Diketone Synthase, DKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny von Wettstein-Knowles

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The primary function of the outermost, lipophilic layer of plant aerial surfaces, called the cuticle, is preventing non-stomatal water loss. Its exterior surface is often decorated with wax crystals, imparting a blue–grey color. Identification of the barley Cer-c, -q and -u genes forming the 101 kb Cer-cqu gene cluster encoding a novel polyketide synthase—the β-diketone synthase (DKS, a lipase/carboxyl transferase, and a P450 hydroxylase, respectively, establishes a new, major pathway for the synthesis of plant waxes. The major product is a β-diketone (14,16-hentriacontane aliphatic that forms long, thin crystalline tubes. A pathway branch leads to the formation of esterified alkan-2-ols.

  1. MANAGING JOINT PRODUCTION MOTIVATION : THE ROLE OF GOAL FRAMING AND GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai J.

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared

  2. Presentation and production: the role of gesture in spatial communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Elizabeth E; Sweller, Naomi

    2014-06-01

    During social interaction, verbal language as well as nonverbal behavior is exchanged between speakers and listeners. One social task that often involves nonverbal behavior is the relaying of spatial direction information. The questions addressed in this study were whether presenting gesture during encoding (a) enhanced corresponding spatial task performance and (b) elicited gesture production at recall for adults and children. Children (3-4years) and adults were presented with verbal route directions through a small-scale spatial array and, depending on the assigned condition (i.e., no gestures, beat gestures, or representational gestures), the accompanying gestures. Children, but not adults, benefited from the presence of gesture during encoding of the spatial route direction task, as measured by recall at test. Results suggest that the presence of gesture during encoding plays an integral part of effectively communicating spatial route direction information, particularly for children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Morphological and thermal evaluation of blends of polyethylene wax and paraffin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akishino, J.K. [Graduate Program in Engineering and Materials Science, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Institute for the Development of Technology, LACTEC, PO Box 19067, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Cerqueira, D.P. [Companhia de Eletricidade do Estado da Bahia—COELBA, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Silva, G.C. [Institute for the Development of Technology, LACTEC, PO Box 19067, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Swinka-Filho, V. [Graduate Program in Engineering and Materials Science, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Institute for the Development of Technology, LACTEC, PO Box 19067, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Munaro, M., E-mail: marilda@lactec.org.br [Graduate Program in Engineering and Materials Science, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Institute for the Development of Technology, LACTEC, PO Box 19067, 81531-990 Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-02-20

    Highlights: • Thermal properties of polyethylene wax and paraffin were investigated. • The blends were characterized by DSC, XRD and DMTA. • The melting temperatures were between those of the pure constituents. • The crystallinity decreased with addition of polyethylene wax. • The softening temperatures did not vary linearly with the composition. - Abstract: The thermal behavior and the morphology of blends of polyethylene wax and paraffin were investigated to evaluate the feasibility of using these materials to obtain a new temperature-indicating device to use in order to indicate failures in electrical connections due to overheating. The samples were evaluated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The results showed that the crystallinity decreases as the concentration of polyethylene wax increases. In the compositions tested, the components were not miscible in the crystalline phase, and these compositions exhibited solid/liquid transitions at temperatures between those of the individual components.

  4. New Insights into the Composition of Wax-Like Materials in Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebsz, M.; Garenne, A.; Quirico, E.; Bonal, L.; Beck, P.; Vuitton, V.; Thissen, R.; Flandinet, L.; Schmitt, B.; Kereszturi, A.

    2013-09-01

    Our study aims to extract wax-like compounds from a series of carbonaceous chondrites in order to perform a combined characterization by IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopies, and secondary ion mass spectrometry.

  5. Effect of matrix granulation and wax coating on the dissolution rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disintegrating) granules consisting of paracetamol (drug) and acrylatemethacrylate copolymer, a matrix forming material. The effect of coating the matrix granules with wax on the drug release profiles was also investigated. The objective was to ...

  6. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-11-04

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  7. Phenolic compounds and the colour of oranges subjected to a combination treatment of waxing and irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C

    2000-03-01

    The effects of waxing, irradiation dose and storage on phenolics and colour of irradiated oranges were investigated. Mature oranges (Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0, 1 or 2 kGy radiation and stored up to 9 weeks at 20 deg. C and 40-50% r.h. Colour of the oranges, total phenols and flavones in the peel were measured. Phenolic compounds increased with irradiation dose and storage time. Hue angle, value and chroma of the orange colour were more affected by waxing and storage time than the irradiation treatment. Changes in the phenolic compounds were linked with changes in the redness and saturation of the orange colour. Irradiation stimulated synthesis of flavones; waxing controlled changes induced by irradiation. (author)

  8. A review of the performance and structural considerations of paraffin wax hybrid rocket fuels with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Kirsty; Adali, Sarp; Pitot, Jean; Brooks, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Paraffin wax as a hybrid rocket fuel has not been comprehensively characterised, especially regarding the structural feasibility of the material in launch applications. Preliminary structural testing has shown paraffin wax to be a brittle, low strength material, and at risk of failure under launch loading conditions. Structural enhancing additives have been identified, but their effect on motor performance has not always been considered, nor has any standard method of testing been identified between research institutes. A review of existing regression rate measurement techniques on paraffin wax based fuels and the results obtained with various additives are collated and discussed in this paper. The review includes 2D slab motors that enable visualisation of liquefying fuel droplet entrainment and the effect of an increased viscosity on the droplet entrainment mechanism, which can occur with the addition of structural enhancing polymers. An increased viscosity has been shown to reduce the regression rate of liquefying fuels. Viscosity increasing additives that have been tested include EVA and LDPE. Both these additives increase the structural properties of paraffin wax, where the elongation and UTS are improved. Other additives, such as metal hydrides, aluminium and boron generally offer improvements on the regression rate. However, very little consideration has been given to the structural effects these additives have on the wax grain. A 40% aluminised grain, for example, offers a slight increase in the UTS but reduces the elongation of paraffin wax. Geometrically accurate lab-scale motors have also been used to determine the regression rate properties of various additives in paraffin wax. A concise review of all available regression rate testing techniques and results on paraffin wax based hybrid propellants, as well as existing structural testing data, is presented in this paper.

  9. Isolation and recrystallization of epicuticular waxes from Sorbus and Cotoneaster leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Ganeva Tsveta; Stefanova Miroslava; Koleva Dimitrina; Ruiz Segundo Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Wax morphology and chemical composition are widely accepted to be important for the protective properties of the leaf’s surface and also valuable characteristics in plant systematics. The leaves of Sorbus domestica L. and Cotoneaster granatensis Boiss., species of two large genera with intricate taxonomy referred to subtribe Pyrinae, Rosaceae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and performing different methods of wax isola...

  10. The role of productivity in improving the environmental sustainability of ruminant production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capper, Judith L; Bauman, Dale E

    2013-01-01

    The global livestock industry is charged with providing sufficient animal source foods to supply the global population while improving the environmental sustainability of animal production. Improved productivity within dairy and beef systems has demonstrably reduced resource use and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of food over the past century through the dilution of maintenance effect. Further environmental mitigation effects have been gained through the current use of technologies and practices that enhance milk yield or growth in ruminants; however, the social acceptability of continued intensification and use of productivity-enhancing technologies is subject to debate. As the environmental impact of food production continues to be a significant issue for all stakeholders within the field, further research is needed to ensure that comparisons among foods are made based on both environmental impact and nutritive value to truly assess the sustainability of ruminant products.

  11. Identification of genes coding for putative wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes in terrestrial and marine environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Alvarez, Adrián F; Alvarez, Héctor M

    2015-12-01

    Synthesis of neutral lipids such as triacylglycerols (TAG) and wax esters (WE) is catalyzed in bacteria by wax ester synthase/diacylglycerol acyltransferase enzymes (WS/DGAT). We investigated the diversity of genes encoding this enzyme in contrasting natural environments from Patagonia (Argentina). The content of petroleum hydrocarbons in samples collected from oil-producing areas was measured. PCR-based analysis covered WS/DGAT occurrence in marine sediments and soil. No product was obtained in seawater samples. All clones retrieved from marine sediments affiliated with gammaproteobacterial sequences and within them, most phylotypes formed a unique cluster related to putative WS/DGAT belonging to marine OM60 clade. In contrast, soils samples contained phylotypes only related to actinomycetes. Among them, phylotypes affiliated with representatives largely or recently reported as oleaginous bacteria, as well as with others considered as possible lipid-accumulating bacteria based on the analysis of their annotated genomes. Our study shows for the first time that the environment could contain a higher variety of ws/dgat than that reported from bacterial isolates. The results of this study highlight the relevance of the environment in a natural process such as the synthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids. Particularly, both marine sediments and soil may serve as a useful source for novel WS/DGAT with biotechnological interest.

  12. Comparison of various extraction methods for policosanol from rice bran wax and establishment of chromatographic fingerprint of policosanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Fei; Lian, Hong-Zhen; Mao, Li; Zhou, Jing-Ping; Gong, Hui-Juan; Qian, Bao-Yong; Fang, Yan; Li, Jie

    2007-07-11

    A capillary gas chromatographic (GC) method has been developed for the separation and determination of policosanol components extracted from rice bran wax. A Varian CP-sil 8 CB column was employed, and an oven temperature was programmed. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to identify the composition of policosanol. Quantitative analysis was carried out by means of hydrogen flame ionization detector (FID) with dinonyl phthalate (DNP) as internal standard. The results indicated that the extract obtained by dry saponification has the highest contents of octacosanol and triacontanol among extracts by all used extraction methods including dry saponification, saponification in alcohol, saponification in water (neutralized and non-neutralized), and transesterification. Meanwhile, the GC-MS fingerprint of policosanol extracted by dry saponification has been established. Euclidean distance similarity calculation showed remarkable consistency of compositions and contents among 12 batches of policosanol from a rice bran wax variety. This protocol provided a rapid and feasible method for quality control of policosanol products.

  13. Role of fatty acids of milk and dairy products in cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There are increasing global concerns about the role of foods in health and chronic diseases. Milk and dairy products are important sources of dietary protein and fat in the diets of many cultures including African communities. However, questions are being raised concerning the role of milk-nutrients in chronic diseases ...

  14. The Role of L2 Learner Goal Differences in Task-Generated Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Maad, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    In light of the growing interest in the cognitive approach to task in second language (L2) research, comparatively little has been done to examine such effect over time and the role of individual differences (IDs). The present study was designed to verify some longitudinal evidence for the role of tasks in L2 production and whether IDs, in the…

  15. What determines customers' evaluation of online reviews? The role of review and product characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Quaschning, Simon; Pandelaere, Mario; Vermeir, Iris

    2010-01-01

    Online reviews play an important role in the uncertainty reduction efforts of customers. In this study we investigate which factors influence the customers’ evaluation of online reviews and prove that both product and review characteristics play a role in the perceived helpfulness.

  16. 1 ROLE OF FATTY ACIDS OF MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RopSvr

    There are increasing global concerns about the role of foods in health and chronic ... 3. French. LE ROLE D'ACIDES GRAS. Lokuruka, Ph.D. Les acides myristiques et lauriques sont athérogènes, et ils aggravent le risque de maladies ..... and oxidized fatty acid products between LDL and HDL, HDL particles enriched.

  17. Waxes and plastic film in relation to the shelf life of yellow passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Wagner Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa reduces its postharvest conservation and availability, mainly for in natura consumption. These losses of quality and commercial value occur due to the high respiration and loss of water. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of a modified atmosphere - wax emulsions and plastic film - on the shelf life of the yellow passion fruit. Plastic film (Cryovac D-955, 15 mum thickness reduced fresh weight loss and fruit wilting, kept higher fruit and rind weight and higher pulp osmotic potential over the storage period. However, it was not efficient in the control of rottenness. Sparcitrus wax (22-23% polyethylene/maleyc resin caused injury to the fruit, high fruit weight losses and wilting and resulted in lower pulp osmotic potential; this wax lead to a higher concentration of acid and a lower relation of soluble solids/acidity. Among the tested waxes, Fruit Wax (18-21% carnauba wax was the best, promoting reduced weight loss, wilting and rottenness.

  18. Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.; Pitchford, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100 F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.

  19. Bitumen Emulsion Destabilization Kinetics: Importance of the Crystallized Wax Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucard, Laure; Gaudefroy, Vincent; Chailleux, Emmanuel; Farcas, Fabienne; Schmitt, Véronique

    2017-09-26

    We study the kinetics of bitumen emulsion destabilization after the addition of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) using macroscopic observations and rheology. Destabilization occurs in a two-step process: first, emulsion flocculates, forming a percolated network of contacting drops, and then coalescence provokes the irreversible connection of bitumen drops, leading to a bitumen continuous network that further relaxes the shape. We show that the destabilization kinetics exhibits a rheological easily identifiable signature allowing reproducible and accurate measurement of the connection/coalescence time trc (which corresponds to the time, determined by rheology, required to form the network made of drops connected by nonrelaxed coalescence). Using this powerful tool, we show that, even if viscosity is thought to govern the shape relaxation of the connected network it does not determine the connection kinetics. Indeed, emulsions with similar rheological behaviors exhibit very different destabilization times. Instead, we evidence a good correlation between the bitumen crystallized wax content and trc. From these experimental results, we discuss the stabilizing effect against coalescence of crystals in bitumen emulsions.

  20. The Historical Role of the Production Function in Economics and Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David; Vaughan, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The production function explains a basic technological relationship between scarce resources, or inputs, and output. This paper offers a brief overview of the historical significance and operational role of the production function in business and economics. The origin and development of this function over time is initially explored. Several…

  1. Biodiversity: role of non-timber forest products in food security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPS) are biological materials from the ecosystem which range from plants, parts of plants, fungi, animals and animal products that are consumed either as food, condiments, spices or medicine. NTFPS have been identified to play an important role in providing primary health and nutritional ...

  2. Understanding the Role of Neuroscience in Brain Based Products: A Guide for Educators and Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Lesley J.; Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2010-01-01

    The term "brain" based is often used to describe learning theories, principles, and products. Although there have been calls urging educators to be cautious in interpreting and using such material, consumers may find it challenging to understand the role of the brain and to discriminate among brain based products to determine which would be…

  3. The Role of Derivative Suffix Productivity in the Visual Word Recognition of Complex Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Miguel; Sainz, Javier; Illera, Víctor

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present two lexical decision experiments that examine the role of base frequency and of derivative suffix productivity in visual recognition of Spanish words. In the first experiment we find that complex words with productive derivative suffixes result in lower response times than those with unproductive derivative suffixes.…

  4. The European role on traditional herbal medicinal products and traditional plant food supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc

    2012-10-01

    Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims.

  5. Innovation, R&D spillovers and productivity: the role of knowledge-intensive services

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the performance of companies' R&D and innovation and the effects of intra- and inter-industry R&D spillover on firms’ productivity in Catalonia. The paper deals simultaneously with the performance of manufacturing and service firms, with the aim of highlighting the growing role of knowledge-intensive services in promoting innovation and productivity gains. We find that intra-industry R&D spillovers have an important effect on the productivity level of manufacturing firms, ...

  6. Moderating Role of Product Involvement on the Relationship Between Brand Personality and Brand Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    SUDDIN LADA; SAMSINAR MD. SIDIN; KENNY TEOH GUAN CHENG

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from observations by consumer behavior theorists and product involvement studies, the present study seeks to investigate the moderating role of product involvement on the relationship between brand personality and brand loyalty. A total of 958 respondents participated in this study. They completed a 14-items questionnaire to measure product involvement, and a 32-items and 16-items questionnaire to measure brand personality and brand loyalty respectively. Results suggest that the effec...

  7. Regional scientific production and specialization in Europe. The role of HERD

    OpenAIRE

    Acosta, M.; Coronado, D.; Ferrándiz, E.; León, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the effects of R&D expenditure in the higher education sector (HERD) on the scientific production across regions in Europe 15. Our research questions relates to the regional production of science and the role of academic R&D expenditures on regional scientific output. The results show that money affects the production of scientific results in regions. On average, we found different impacts and lags of R&D expenditure according to the level of regional development. Our find...

  8. Dependence of Plant Uptake and Diffusion of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons on the Leaf Surface Morphology and Micro-structures of Cuticular Waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingqing; Li, Yungui; Zhu, Lizhong; Xing, Baoshan; Chen, Baoliang

    2017-04-01

    The uptake of organic chemicals by plants is considered of great significance as it impacts their environmental transport and fate and threatens crop growth and food safety. Herein, the dependence of the uptake, penetration, and distribution of sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the morphology and micro-structures of cuticular waxes on leaf surfaces was investigated. Plant surface morphologies and wax micro-structures were examined by scanning emission microscopy, and hydrophobicities of plant surfaces were monitored through contact angle measurements. PAHs in the cuticles and inner tissues were distinguished by sequential extraction, and the cuticle was verified to be the dominant reservoir for the accumulation of lipophilic pollutants. The interspecies differences in PAH concentrations cannot be explained by normalizing them to the plant lipid content. PAHs in the inner tissues became concentrated with the increase of tissue lipid content, while a generally negative correlation between the PAH concentration in cuticles and the epicuticular wax content was found. PAHs on the adaxial and abaxial sides of a leaf were differentiated for the first time, and the divergence between these two sides can be ascribed to the variations in surface morphologies. The role of leaf lipids was redefined and differentiated.

  9. Wax on, wax off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nicky Peter Maria; Grinsted, Lena; Holman, Luke

    2011-01-01

    of a waxy layer of colony-specific hydrocarbons on the body surface. Genetic and environmental differences between colony members may confound recognition and social cohesion, so many species perform behaviors that homogenize the odor label, such as mouth-to-mouth feeding and allogrooming. Here, we test......Social animals use recognition cues to discriminate between group members and non-members. These recognition cues may be conceptualized as a label, which is compared to a neural representation of acceptable cue combinations termed the template. In ants and other social insects, the label consists...... for another mechanism of cue exchange: indirect transfer of cuticular hydrocarbons via the nest material. Using a combination of chemical analysis and behavioral experiments with Camponotus aethiops ants, we show that nest soil indirectly transfers hydrocarbons between ants and affects recognition behavior...

  10. High-yield preparation of wax esters via lipase-catalyzed esterification using fatty acids and alcohols from crambe and camelina oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, G; Weitkamp, P; Klein, E; Mukherjee, K D

    2001-02-01

    Fatty acids obtained from seed oils of crambe (Crambe abyssinica) and camelina (Camelina sativa) via alkaline saponification or steam splitting were esterified using lipases as biocatalysts with oleyl alcohol and the alcohols derived from crambe and camelina oils via hydrogenolysis of their methyl esters. Long-chain wax esters were thus obtained in high yields when Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica) and papaya (Carica papaya) latex lipase were used as biocatalysts and vacuum was applied to remove the water formed. The highest conversions to wax esters were obtained with Novozym 435 (> or =95%) after 4-6 h of reaction, whereas with papaya latex lipase such a high degree of conversion was attained after 24 h. Products obtained from stoichiometric amounts of substrates were almost exclusively (>95%) composed of wax esters having compositions approaching that of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) oil, especially when crambe fatty acids in combination with camelina alcohols or camelina fatty acids in combination with crambe alcohols were used as substrates.

  11. Sodium bicarbonate induces crystalline wax generation, activates host-resistance, and increases imazalil level in rind wounds of oranges, improving the control of green mold during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dore, Antonio; Molinu, Maria Giovanna; Venditti, Tullio; D'Hallewin, Guy

    2010-06-23

    Imazalil (IMZ) was quantified in the flavedo and albedo (Citrus fruits outer and inner tissue of the exocarp) of wounded and unwounded Valencia L. Olinda oranges following a 2 min immersion at 25 degrees C in 50, 100, or 250 microg mL(-1) of the fungicide mixture with or without 3% sodium bicarbonate (SBC). The addition of SBC significantly reduced the decay incidence throughout 30 d of storage at 10 degrees C with 95% RH and 6 d of simulated marketing period at 25 degrees C and 75% RH. In unwounded oranges, IMZ uptake was not changed by the coapplication of SBC, and the fungicide was predominantly recovered in the flavedo. To the contrary, in the albedo of wounded fruit, the residue level increased by about 6-fold when the fungicide was applied with SBC. When SBC was coapplied to wounded fruit, the phytoalexin scoparone was induced in the albedo and the accumulation was not affected by IMZ. When fruit was treated with SBC, scanning electron microscopy observations evidenced a production of crystalline wax patches with branched stripes and the magnitude was positively correlated to the salt concentration in the mixture. The generation as fast as 24 h post-treatment, and the different morphology of the new wax suggests a displacement of intracuticular waxes which can affect the fungicide sorption and diffusion coefficient into the rind.

  12. Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Activation and Handling Through Wax Enclosure Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettlinger, Jennifer L. S.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which converts syn-gas, a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions. Cobalt based catalysts are used in F-T synthesis and are the focus of this paper. One key concern with handling cobalt based catalysts is that the active form of catalyst is in a reduced state, metallic cobalt, which oxidizes readily in air. In laboratory experiments, the precursor cobalt oxide catalyst is activated in a fixed bed at 350 ?C then transferred into a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with inert gas. NASA has developed a process which involves the enclosure of active cobalt catalyst in a wax mold to prevent oxidation during storage and handling. This improved method allows for precise catalyst loading and delivery into a CSTR. Preliminary results indicate similar activity levels in the F-T reaction in comparison to the direct injection method. The work in this paper was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  13. Numerical performance study of paraffin wax dispersed with alumina in a concentric pipe latent heat storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valan Arasu Amirtham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat energy storage systems using paraffin wax could have lower heat transfer rates during melting/freezing processes due to its inherent low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of paraffin wax can be enhanced by employing high conductivity materials such as alumina (Al2O3. A numerical analysis has been carried out to study the performance enhancement of paraffin wax with nanoalumina (Al2O3 particles in comparison with simple paraffin wax in a concentric double pipe heat exchanger. Numerical analysis indicates that the charge-discharge rates of thermal energy can be greatly enhanced using paraffin wax with alumina as compared with a simple paraffin wax as PCM.

  14. Phosphorus plays an important role in enhancing biodiesel productivity of Chlorella vulgaris under nitrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Fei-Fei; Chu, Pei-Na; Cai, Pei-Jie; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Zeng, Raymond J

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the role of phosphorus in lipid production under nitrogen starvation conditions, five types of media possessing different nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations or their combination were prepared to culture Chlorella vulgaris. It was found that biomass production under nitrogen deficient condition with sufficient phosphorus supply was similar to that of the control (with sufficient nutrition), resulting in a maximum lipid productivity of 58.39 mg/L/day. Meanwhile, 31P NMR showed that phosphorus in the medium was transformed and accumulated as polyphosphate in cells. The uptake rate of phosphorus in cells was 3.8 times higher than the uptake rate of the control. This study demonstrates that phosphorus plays an important role in lipid production of C. vulgaris under nitrogen deficient conditions and implies a potential to combine phosphorus removal from wastewater with biodiesel production via microalgae. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Importance And Role Of Competence In Professional Career Of Product Develop Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenović, Aleksandar; Banić, Milan; Miltenović, Vojislav

    2015-07-01

    Product development is a creative task where is systematically created a new product, which makes possible to firms to offer attractive, innovative and market oriented products. In conditions of fierce competition and saturated markets, companies that do not innovate are stagnating and disappear from the market. Innovation is therefore every intervention which can reduce production costs, enables optimum utilization of available human, energy and material resources, improve product quality, improve the placement, which leads to an increase in competitiveness. A prerequisite for fulfillment of the above-mentioned tasks is that the companies have engineers with the appropriate competencies, which are able to, through creativity, innovation and fascinating technique of creating new or improving existing products and lunch it on the market. The paper discusses the role and importance of the competences that are necessary for a successful professional career of product development engineers.

  16. Anatomically realistic ultrasound phantoms using gel wax with 3D printed moulds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneas, Efthymios; Xia, Wenfeng; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; Daher, Batol; Manimaran, Maniragav; Wong, Rui Yen J.; Chang, Chia-Wei; Rahmani, Benyamin; Capelli, Claudio; Schievano, Silvia; Burriesci, Gaetano; Ourselin, Sebastien; David, Anna L.; Finlay, Malcolm C.; West, Simeon J.; Vercauteren, Tom; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2018-01-01

    Here we describe methods for creating tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantoms based on patient anatomy using a soft material called gel wax. To recreate acoustically realistic tissue properties, two additives to gel wax were considered: paraffin wax to increase acoustic attenuation, and solid glass spheres to increase backscattering. The frequency dependence of ultrasound attenuation was well described with a power law over the measured range of 3–10 MHz. With the addition of paraffin wax in concentrations of 0 to 8 w/w%, attenuation varied from 0.72 to 2.91 dB cm‑1 at 3 MHz and from 6.84 to 26.63 dB cm‑1 at 10 MHz. With solid glass sphere concentrations in the range of 0.025–0.9 w/w%, acoustic backscattering consistent with a wide range of ultrasonic appearances was achieved. Native gel wax maintained its integrity during compressive deformations up to 60%; its Young’s modulus was 17.4  ±  1.4 kPa. The gel wax with additives was shaped by melting and pouring it into 3D printed moulds. Three different phantoms were constructed: a nerve and vessel phantom for peripheral nerve blocks, a heart atrium phantom, and a placental phantom for minimally-invasive fetal interventions. In the first, nerves and vessels were represented as hyperechoic and hypoechoic tubular structures, respectively, in a homogeneous background. The second phantom comprised atria derived from an MRI scan of a patient with an intervening septum and adjoining vena cavae. The third comprised the chorionic surface of a placenta with superficial fetal vessels derived from an image of a post-partum human placenta. Gel wax is a material with widely tuneable ultrasound properties and mechanical characteristics that are well suited for creating patient-specific ultrasound phantoms in several clinical disciplines.

  17. Cabbage waxes affect Trissolcus brochymenae response to short-range synomones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, Francesca; Salerno, Gianandrea; Conti, Eric

    2013-12-01

    We show that induced synomones, emitted as a consequence of Murgantia histrionica activity on Brassica oleracea, are adsorbed by the epicuticular waxes of leaves and perceived by the egg parasitoid Trissolcus brochymenae. Leaves were exposed to M. histrionica females placed on the abaxial leaf surface. After 24 h, the leaves were treated mechanically using gum arabic, or chemically using chloroform, on the adaxial surface, and finally the adaxial surface was assayed with T. brochymenae by two-choice tests in a closed arena. Wasp females responded to mechanically dewaxed cabbage leaf portions with feeding punctures and footprints (Ff) and with feeding punctures, oviposition and footprints (FOf), showing no effect of wax removal. In contrast, the removal of the epicuticular waxes from leaf portions close to FOf, and from leaves with oviposition and footprints (Of), determined the lack of responses by T. brochymenae. Solvent extracts of different treatments were bioassayed, but only FOf triggered parasitoid response. Thus the detection of oviposition-induced synomones by the parasitoid depends on their adsorption by the epicuticular waxes. Mechanical wax removal from leaf portions contaminated with host footprints (f) also determined a lack of wasp responses, suggesting that the footprints might trigger the induction of a "footprint-induced synomone" adsorbed onto the epicuticular waxes and exploited by the parasitoid. Leaf portions with the abaxial lamina previously dewaxed and then contaminated by footprints (D+f) of M. histrionica did not affect the parasitoid response, indicating that the abaxial epicuticular waxes are not directly involved in the chemicals induced by M. histrionica footprints. © 2012 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. The role of metabolic engineering in the production of secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    In the production of secondary metabolites yield and productivity are the most important design parameters. The focus is therefore to direct the carbon fluxes towards the product of interest, and this can be obtained through metabolic engineering whereby directed genetic changes are introduced...... into the production strain. In this process it is, however, important to analyze the metabolic network through measurement of the intracellular metabolites and the flux distributions. Besides playing an important role in the optimization of existing processes, metabolic engineering also offers the possibility...... to construct strains that produce novel metabolites, either through the recruitment of heterologous enzyme activities or through introduction of specific mutations in catalytic activities....

  19. Evaluation of various techniques for separation of non-polar modifier concentrates from petroleum waxy by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi S. Soliman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Two petroleum waxy by-products (light and middle slack wax crudes were evaluated for separation of non-polar modifiers by using different techniques. The results showed that, the light slack wax is selected as a suitable wax for separation of n-alkanes with even number of carbon atoms ranging from C20 to C26 for their high n-paraffin contents and can be used as non-polar structural modifiers. Different separation techniques; multistage fractional crystallization and liquid–solid chromatography; followed by the urea adduction technique have been used to separate non-polar modifier concentrates from the light slack wax crude. The light slack wax, its saturate components, the hard wax fractions isolated from light slack wax by the multistage fractional crystallization technique and their adducts were analyzed by GC to characterize and compare the produced components. The resulting data reveal that, the adducts of light slack wax and its saturate components; can be used as non-polar modifier concentrates of low carbon atoms (C20 + C22. From an economic point of view, the light slack wax adduct is selected as a non-polar modifier concentrate whereas, the separation step can be neglected to save energy. Meanwhile, the adduct of the hard wax isolated at 30 °C can be used as the preferable non-polar modifier concentrate of the high carbon number atoms (C24 + C26.

  20. The role of branch architecture in assimilate production and partitioning: the example of apple (Malus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanwoua, Julienne; Bairam, Emna; Delaire, Mickael; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the role of branch architecture in carbon production and allocation is essential to gain more insight into the complex process of assimilate partitioning in fruit trees. This mini review reports on the current knowledge of the role of branch architecture in carbohydrate production and partitioning in apple. The first-order carrier branch of apple illustrates the complexity of branch structure emerging from bud activity events and encountered in many fruit trees. Branch architecture influences carbon production by determining leaf exposure to light and by affecting leaf internal characteristics related to leaf photosynthetic capacity. The dynamics of assimilate partitioning between branch organs depends on the stage of development of sources and sinks. The sink strength of various branch organs and their relative positioning on the branch also affect partitioning. Vascular connections between branch organs determine major pathways for branch assimilate transport. We propose directions for employing a modeling approach to further elucidate the role of branch architecture on assimilate partitioning.

  1. EFFECT OF OIL TEMPERATURE ON THE WAX DEPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL WITH COMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Quan

    Full Text Available Abstract Wax deposition behavior was investigated in a set of one-inch experiment flow loops, using a local crude oil with high wax content. The temperature of the oil phase is chosen as a variable parameter while the temperature of the coolant media is maintained constant. Detailed composition of the deposit is characterized using High Temperature Gas Chromatography. It was found that the magnitude of the diffusion of the heavier waxy components (C35-C50 decreases when the oil temperature decreases, but the magnitude of the diffusion of the lighter waxy components increases. This result means that the diffusion of wax molecules shifts towards lower carbon number, which further proves the concept of molecular diffusion. Meanwhile, a meaningful phenomenon is that the mass of the deposit increases with the oil temperature decrease, which definitely proves the influence of wax solubility on deposition, while the formation of an incipient gel layer reflects the fact that an increase in the mass of the deposit does not mean a larger wax percentage fraction at lower oil temperature.

  2. [Comparative adaptation of crowns of selective laser melting and wax-lost-casting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-qiang; Shen, Qing-yi; Gao, Jian-hua; Wu, Xue-ying; Chen, Li; Dai, Wen-an

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and wax-lost-casting method, so as to provide an experimental basis for clinic. Co-Cr alloy full crown were fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting for 24 samples in each group. All crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement and cut along longitudinal axis by line cutting machine. The gap between crown tissue surface and die was measured by 6-point measuring method with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting were compared statistically. The gap between SLM crowns were (36.51 ± 2.94), (49.36 ± 3.31), (56.48 ± 3.35), (42.20 ± 3.60) µm, and wax-lost-casting crowns were (68.86 ± 5.41), (58.86 ± 6.10), (70.62 ± 5.79), (69.90 ± 6.00) µm. There were significant difference between two groups (P casting method and SLM method provide acceptable marginal adaptation in clinic, and the marginal adaptation of SLM is better than that of wax-lost-casting method.

  3. Interaction of organic solvents with the epicuticular wax layer of wheat leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Kyung; Parobek, Alexander P; Godbey, Jeffrie A; Bowling, Andrew J; Pence, Heather E

    2013-09-18

    After foliar application, compounds that are not absorbed into leaves can be removed from the leaf surface by dipping or rinsing in dilutions of organic solvents in water. However, interactions between solvent mixtures and the epicuticular wax layer have received little attention, and information on potential physical and chemical intactness of the plant surface following application of solvents is limited. In this study, wheat leaves were dipped in organic solvents at different dilutions with water, and the major component of the leaf epicuticular wax layer, 1-octacosanol, was analyzed to assess damage to the wax layer. Dipping leaves in dilutions of organic solvent higher than 60% by volume resulted in only negligible or low levels of 1-octacosanol extraction, while no 1-octacosanol was detected in any mixtures containing less than 40% organic solvent. Furthermore, analysis of leaf surfaces by scanning electron microscopy showed structural intactness of the epicuticular wax layer when organic solvent mixtures were used. Therefore, our results demonstrate that the epicuticular wax layer of wheat leaves is not altered physically or chemically by organic solvent solutions up to 40% by volume. These findings validate the use of solvent washing procedures to assess unabsorbed compounds on wheat leaf surfaces.

  4. Chemical composition of the wax secreted by a scale insect (Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus Green).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Y

    1966-09-01

    The wax material in the secretion of a scale insect,Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus Green was analyzed chemically with special interest to the composition of higher fatty acids and higher alcohols. The wax consists of 34.2% fatty acids, 27.1% unsaponifiable matter and 29.5% resin acids. The fatty acids were found to be a complex mixture of 15 normal acids ranging from C(8) to C(32). Of these, octacosanoic, triacontanoic and dotriacontanoic acids comprise over 30% of the wax. Presence of relatively large amount of unsaturated fatty acids of the C(18) series (2.8% of the wax) is of particular interest.From the unsaponifiable fraction, only one saturated straight chain aleohol, bexacosanol, was detected (2.7% of the original wax). The other unsaponifiable matter was considered to be cyclic or branched carbon chain, and consisted of at least 12 to 20 compounds. The resin acid fraction was also found to be a complex mixture of at least 13 to 14 components.

  5. Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Wax-coated Sands for Sport Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardet, J. P.; Benazza, C.; Bruchon, J. F.; Mishra, M.

    2009-06-01

    Natural soils such as sandy loams are being replaced by synthetic soils for various types of sport and recreational surfaces, including horseracing tracks. These synthetic soils are made of a mixture of sand, microcrystalline wax, synthetic fibers and rubber chips which optimize the mechanical and hydraulic properties of natural soils so that they drain faster after rainstorms and decrease risks of sport injuries while retaining appropriate sport performances. Silica sand, which makes up the largest fraction of synthetic soils, is hydrophyllic by nature, i.e., tends to retain water on sand grain surfaces. After rainstorms, hydrophilic surfaces retain a large amount of water, are difficult to compact, and yield uncontrollable mechanical and hydraulic properties when too moist. The addition of wax contributes to improving both mechanical and hydraulic properties of sands. Wax coats the sand grains with a thin layer, and enhances adherence between sand particles. It repels water from sand grains and influences both compaction and hydraulic properties. This study reports experimental results that help to understand the properties of wax-coated sands used in synthetic surfaces, especially the degradation of synthetic surfaces that have insufficient wax-coatings.

  6. Effects of brown coal treatment with hydrogen peroxide on brown coal wax yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazarova, O.V.; Shevchenko, A.G.; Ruban, I.V.; Ksenofontov, V.G.; Turovskii, N.A. (Institut Fiziko-Organicheskoi Khimii i Uglekhimii AN UkrSSR (USSR))

    1990-09-01

    Studies preliminary treatment of brown coal with 30% hydrogen peroxide. Experiments employed 0.1-0.2 mm fractions of brown coal and were carried out at ambient temperature for 30 min with a coal:oxidizer ratio of 1:6. Sample demineralization met the requirements of ISO 602. Spectral resonance methods were employed to find that the oxidation processes of brown coal and of anthracite are similar; two spectra are presented. Coal extraction employed petroleum ether. Pre-treatment increased the wax yield from 4.3% to 10.5% in terms of coal organic mass. Wax elemental compositions are presented. Six IR spectra are shown and discussed: of initial coal wax, of pre-treated coal wax, of initial coal, of pre-treated coal, of initial coal residue (after its extraction) and of pre-treated coal residue. The 1,020 cm{sup -1} band was observed to suggest the formation of phenol structures during oxidation. The 1,610 cm{sup -1} band of aromatic structures with carboxylic groups increased its intensity. The wax hydrogen content doubled and H/O increased by 1/3-1/4. 12 refs.

  7. [Use of entomopathogenic fungi to degrade wax secreted by Ceroplastes japonicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijuan; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Fan, Jinhua

    2013-05-04

    We used entomopathogenic fungi to degrade insect wax. We used four fungal strains, Lecanicilliurn lecanii V3. 4504, V3. 4505, Beauveria bassiana FDB01, and Metarhizium anisopliae TSL06. Wax coverings of female adults of Ceroplastes japonicus Green (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were used as the sole carbon source in the mineral medium. All of the 4 strains could grow, reproduce, produce enzymes, and degrade wax. During a 7-day culture, the highest lipase activities of the 4 strains, V3. 4504, V3. 4505, FDB01, and TSL06 were 0.128 +/- 0.017, 0.056 +/- 0.002, 0.124 +/- 0.011, and 0.149 +/- 0.005 U/mL, respectively. The dehydrogenases activities of the 4 strains were 0.075 +/- 0.003, 0.074 +/- 0.003, 0.061 +/- 0.04, and 0. 066 +/- 0. 002 U/mL respectively. The degradation rates of wax by the 4 strains were 18.20 +/- 0.019, 11.00 +/- 0.011, 15.4 +/- 0.017, and 23.10 +/- 0.031%, respectively. The 4 strains could depredate wax of C. japonicus.

  8. The Roles of Seaweed on Climate Change, Food Security and Natural Product

    OpenAIRE

    A. Niarthiningsih; Wahyudin, Elly

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the potential role of seaweed in reducing global warming and climate change, contributing to food security and producing natural products. The role of seaweed on controlling climate change is through reducing carbon dioxide and converting seaweed into the bio fuel. The use of bio-fuel could reduce the traditional hydrocarbon as energy that produces carbon emission. Fresh and processed seaweed are commonly used as a food. This may contribute significantly to ...

  9. Relating rheological measurements to primary and secondary skin feeling when mineral-based and Fischer-Tropsch wax-based cosmetic emulsions and jellies are applied to the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekker, M; Webber, G V; Louw, N R

    2013-08-01

    Rheology measurements were correlated to skin sensations occurring when cream and petroleum jelly cosmetic products containing different amounts of synthetic Fischer-Tropsch wax were applied to the skin. A panel of 15 people with a background in cosmetic product development were asked to rate skin feelings when a range of petroleum jelly and cream samples are applied to the skin. Primary skin feel, or the spreadability of a cosmetic product, was correlated to the product's flow onset and maximum viscosity as measured by a Anton Paar rheometer, whereas secondary skin feel or the sensation occurring at the end of application when the product was completely rubbed into the skin was correlated to the product's viscosity measured at high shear rates. The cream samples prepared with a petroleum jelly containing 10% and 20% Fischer-Tropsch wax fell within the boundary of good primary skin feeling of cream products. Predominantly, synthetic petroleum jellies were given the best assessments in terms of primary skin feeling and were used with mineral-based petroleum jellies to determine the boundary of good primary skin feeling for petroleum jelly products. The further away a product falls from this rheological boundary the poorer the skin feeling assessment appears to be by the panel. Products containing Fischer-Tropsch waxes were given the best assessment by the panel for secondary skin feeling. Comments from the panel include that these products feel silky and light on the skin. The higher the Fischer-Tropsch wax content, the lower viscosity was at high shear rate (ϒ = 500 s(-1) ) and the higher the assessment by the panel. Rheological measurements can be used to objectively determine skin sensation when products are applied to the skin; this may shorten research and development times. A rheology boundary of certain product viscosity and shear stress applied is associated with good primary skin feeling for lotions, creams and petroleum jellies. Lower product viscosity

  10. GC-MS Metabolomics to Evaluate the Composition of Plant Cuticular Waxes for Four Triticum aestivum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent D. Lavergne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important food crop, and biotic and abiotic stresses significantly impact grain yield. Wheat leaf and stem surface waxes are associated with traits of biological importance, including stress resistance. Past studies have characterized the composition of wheat cuticular waxes, however protocols can be relatively low-throughput and narrow in the range of metabolites detected. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolomics methods were utilized to provide a comprehensive characterization of the chemical composition of cuticular waxes in wheat leaves and stems. Further, waxes from four wheat cultivars were assayed to evaluate the potential for GC-MS metabolomics to describe wax composition attributed to differences in wheat genotype. A total of 263 putative compounds were detected and included 58 wax compounds that can be classified (e.g., alkanes and fatty acids. Many of the detected wax metabolites have known associations to important biological functions. Principal component analysis and ANOVA were used to evaluate metabolite distribution, which was attributed to both tissue type (leaf, stem and cultivar differences. Leaves contained more primary alcohols than stems such as 6-methylheptacosan-1-ol and octacosan-1-ol. The metabolite data were validated using scanning electron microscopy of epicuticular wax crystals which detected wax tubules and platelets. Conan was the only cultivar to display alcohol-associated platelet-shaped crystals on its abaxial leaf surface. Taken together, application of GC-MS metabolomics enabled the characterization of cuticular wax content in wheat tissues and provided relative quantitative comparisons among sample types, thus contributing to the understanding of wax composition associated with important phenotypic traits in a major crop.

  11. Preparation and properties of polystyrene encapsulated paraffin wax as possible phase change material in a polypropylene matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochane, M.J. [Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Phuthaditjhaba (South Africa); Luyt, A.S., E-mail: LuytAS@qwa.ufs.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, University of the Free State (Qwaqwa Campus), Phuthaditjhaba (South Africa)

    2012-09-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polystyrene microcapsules containing about 30 wt% soft paraffin wax were successfully prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The presence of microcapsules in polypropylene influenced the morphology and properties of the matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SEBS modifier had little influence on the interaction between polypropylene and microcapsules. - Abstract: The study deals with the preparation and characterization of polystyrene (PS) capsules containing Fischer-Tropsch paraffin wax (PS:wax) as phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage embedded in a polypropylene (PP) matrix. Blends of PP/PS:wax were prepared without and with polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SEBS) as a modifier. The influence of PS:wax microcapsules on the morphology, as well as thermal and mechanical properties of the PP was investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the microencapsulated PCM show that the capsules were grouped in irregular spherical agglomerates of size 16-24 {mu}m. However, after melt-blending with PP smaller, perfectly spherical microcapsules were well dispersed in the PP matrix. There was fairly good interaction between the microcapsules and the matrix, even in the absence of SEBS modification. The FTIR spectrum of the microcapsules is almost exactly the same as that of polystyrene, which indicates that the microcapsules were mostly intact and that the FTIR only detected the polystyrene shell. The amount of wax in the PS:wax microcapsules was determined as 20-30% by weight. An increase in PS:wax content resulted in a decrease in the melting peak temperatures of PP. The thermal stability of the blends decreased with an increase in PS:wax microcapsules content as a consequence of the lower thermal stability of both the wax and PS. There was a drop in storage modulus with increasing PS:wax microcapsules content.

  12. Utilization of agricultural by-products in healthful food products: Organogelators, antioxidants, and spreadable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    It was found that several agricultural by-products could be utilized for healthful food products. Three major applications that our research group has been focusing on will be discussed: 1) plant waxes for trans-fat free, low saturated fat-containing margarine and spread products, 2) extracts of cor...

  13. 'Wax bloom' on beeswax cultural heritage objects: Exploring the causes of the phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, B; Kobera, L; Drábková, K; Ďurovič, M; Brus, J

    2015-07-01

    The term 'wax bloom' is used to describe a thin whitish crystalline layer that develops on the surface of beeswax objects under specific conditions. This phenomenon is undesirable, especially in the cases of objects with aesthetic or informational value, such as wax sculptures or historical seals. A combination of solid-state NMR and FTIR measurements allowed to obtain fairly detailed insight into the problem and to suggest a probable mechanism of its development. Secondary crystallization of unsaturated hydrocarbons from beeswax was determined as a primary cause. After the macroscopic solidification of beeswax from the melt, these molecules remain for months in a highly mobile, liquid-like state. This facilitates their diffusion to the surface, where they eventually crystallize, forming the 'wax bloom' effect. Although these results are of particular interest with respect to the conservation of beeswax artifacts, they are relevant to this material in general and help with understanding its unique properties. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Leaf-surface wax extracted from different pines as green additives exhibiting excellent tribological properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Cao, Zhengfeng; Xia, Yanqiu

    2017-11-01

    Given the increasing attention on the topic of the ‘Green chemical’, it is imperative to explore new environmental friendly and biodegradable lubricants to meet the tribological performances and environmental needs. In this work, three types of leaf-surface wax were extracted from different pines as green lubricant additives and their chemical compositions, friction reduction and anti-wear abilities were investigated in detail. The results show that the leaf-surface wax extracted from different pines as additives in synthetic ester exhibit superior friction reduction and anti-wear abilities for steel/steel and steel/aluminum pairs. Based on the scanning electron microscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy analysis, the preferable tribological performances are ascribed to the physical adsorption film and tribo-chemical reaction film generated by the leaf-surface wax on the worn surfaces during the sliding process.

  15. Retained bone wax on CT at one year after dacryocystorhinostomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Dong Woo; Jeong, Jin Yeok [Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Ah; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A 71-year-old man with chronic rhinosinusitis presented with a purulent, foul-smelling nasal discharge and obstruction. One year earlier he had been treated with a dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. During the procedure, bone wax had been used to control bleeding in the anterior upper nasal cavity. On computed tomographic imaging, a fat-density lesion was seen in the anterior upper sinonasal cavity and was found to be hypointense or signal-void on all magnetic resonance imaging sequences. The lesion, which proved to consist of bone wax, was surgically removed. Here, we present the imaging features of retained bone wax in a patient with clinically diagnosed chronic rhinosinusitis after dacryocystorhinostomy.

  16. Procedures for extraction and purification of leaf wax biomarkers from peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Nichols

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecological and palaeoclimate reconstruction, using leaf wax biomarkers, is a relatively new sub-discipline of peatland science. The ability to process large numbers of samples rapidly for biomarkers makes this type of analysis particularly appealing. This review is a guide to the preparation of leaf waxes for analysis by gas chromatography. The main phases of preparation are extraction of soluble organic compounds from sediment, separation of the total extract into fractions of differing polarity, and the derivatisation of polar functional groups. The procedures described here are not meant be exhaustive of all organic geochemical possibilities in peatlands, but a distillation of methods for the preparation of leaf waxes that are commonly and increasingly being used in palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological studies.

  17. An alternative protocol for DNA extraction from formalin fixed and paraffin wax embedded tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coura, R; Prolla, J C; Meurer, L; Ashton-Prolla, P

    2005-08-01

    DNA extraction from paraffin wax embedded tissue requires special protocols, and most described methods report an amplification success rate of 60-80%. To propose a simple and inexpensive protocol consisting of xylene/ethanol dewaxing, followed by a kit based extraction. Xylene/ethanol dewaxing was followed by a long rehydration step and a kit based DNA extraction step. This method produced a 100% amplification success rate for fragments of 121 to 227 bp for tamponated formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue. This cost effective and non-laborious protocol can successfully extract DNA from tamponated formalin fixed paraffin wax embedded tissue and should facilitate the molecular analysis of a large number of archival specimens in retrospective studies.

  18. Isolation and antimicrobial evaluation of isomeric hydroxy ketones in leaf cuticular waxes of Annona squamosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, K Shiva; Kanjilal, S; Rao, B V S K; Kishore, K Hara; Misra, S; Prasad, R B N

    2007-01-01

    A novel natural compound, 11-hydroxy-16-hentriacontanone, has been isolated from the leaf cuticular wax of Annona squamosa along with its known isomer 10-hydroxy-16-hentriacontanone in a ratio of 67:33. This isomeric mixture of hydroxy ketones constituted together 16.5% of the total cuticular waxes. The new compound was characterised using spectral and chromatographic techniques. The major component was found to be 16-hentriacontanone (palmitone), which constituted up to 48% of the total cuticular wax, together with a homologous series of hydrocarbons, fatty aldehydes, fatty alcohols, fatty acids and sterols as minor components. The antimicrobial activity of the isomeric hydroxy ketones was tested against selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, and also some selected fungal strains, and compared with palmitone. The antibacterial activity of palmitone was significantly higher than that of the isomeric hydroxy ketones, but their antifungal activities were comparable.

  19. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

  20. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2012-01-13

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct printing of the mask onto a polymer sheet using a commercial wax printer. The wax layer was then transferred to a PMMA substrate using a thermal laminator, exposed using deep-UV (with a wavelength of 254 nm), developed in an IPA:water solution, and completed by bonding on a PMMA cap layer. A sample microfluidic device fabricated with this method is also presented, with the microchannel as narrow as 50 μm. The whole process is easy to perform without the requirement for any microfabrication facilities. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  1. Solution X-ray scattering (S/WAXS) and structure formation in protein dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Nasedkin, Alexandr; Niemi, Antti J; Peng, Xubiao

    2016-01-01

    We propose to develop mean field theory in combination with Glauber algorithm, to model and interpret protein dynamics and structure formation in small to wide angle x-ray scattering (S/WAXS) experiments. We develop the methodology by analysing the Engrailed homeodomain protein as an example. We demonstrate how to interpret S/WAXS data with a good precision and over an extended temperature range. We explain experimentally observed phenomena in terms of protein phase structure, and we make predictions for future experiments how the scattering data behaves at different ambient temperature values. We conclude that a combination of mean field theory with Glauber algorithm has the potential to develop into a highly accurate, computationally effective and predictive tool for analysing S/WAXS data. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained previously in an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation.

  2. Co-metabolism of DDT by the newly isolated bacterium, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial degradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (DDT is the most promising way to clean up DDT residues found in the environment. In this paper, a bacterium designated as wax, which was capable of co-metabolizing DDT with other carbon sources, was isolated from a long-term DDT-contaminated soil sample by an enrichment culture technique. The new isolate was identified as a member of the Pseudoxanthomonas sp., based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical properties, as well as by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In the presence of 100 mg l-1 glucose, the wax strain could degrade over 95% of the total DDT, at a concentration of 20 mg l-1, in 72 hours, and could degrade over 60% of the total DDT, at a concentration of 100 mg l-1, in 144 hours. The wax strain had the highest degradation efficiency among all of the documented DDT-degrading bacteria. The wax strain could efficiently degrade DDT at temperatures ranging from 20 to 37ºC, and with initial pH values ranging from 7 to 9. The bacterium could also simultaneously co-metabolize 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (DDD, 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl-1,1-dichlorethylene (DDE, and other organochlorine compounds. The wax strain could also completely remove 20 mg kg-1 of DDT from both sterile and non-sterile soils in 20 days. This study demonstrates the significant potential use of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. wax for the bioremediation of DDT in the environment.

  3. The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Nooh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel and bone wax on bone healing in goats′ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV and bone density (BD were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation.

  4. The role of leguminous cover crops in sustainable production of oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They also play an important role in soil erosion control and soil moisture conservation in plantations. The development of sound sustainable and productive cropping systems such as the incorporation of legumes in oil palm plantations is therefore of paramount importance. This paper reviews some research carried out on ...

  5. Effects of Task Roles on Participation and Productivity in the Intermediate Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Brad; Williams, Lisa; Reutzel, D. Ray

    1997-01-01

    Fourth and fifth graders participated in a study comparing the effects of traditional and modified collaboration models on participation and productivity outcomes. Students in traditional, modified, and control groups completed cooperative projects. Unlike the other groups, control group students had no assigned task roles. The modified and…

  6. The role of poultry in food production | Faber | South African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (1976) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. The role of poultry in food production. G.L. Faber ...

  7. Exploring Long-Term Productive Vocabulary Development in an EFL Context: The Role of Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongyan

    2012-01-01

    The paper reports on a longitudinal multiple-case study that probed into four advanced university-level Chinese EFL learners' situated vocabulary learning experiences and explored the role of L2 motivation in their productive vocabulary development. In the study, Lexical Frequency Profile analysis and semi-structured interviews were conducted with…

  8. Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products (RAGE) Serves a Protective Role during Klebsiella pneumoniae - Induced Pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achouiti, Ahmed; de Vos, Alex F.; van 't Veer, Cornelis; Florquin, Sandrine; Tanck, Michael W.; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; van der Poll, Tom; van Zoelen, Marieke A. D.

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella species is the second most commonly isolated gram-negative organism in sepsis and a frequent causative pathogen in pneumonia. The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is expressed on different cell types and plays a key role in diverse inflammatory responses. We here aimed

  9. The role of value-informed pricing in market-oriented product innovation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, T.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the positive effect of a market orientation on new product success is widely accepted and the market orientation literature has increased its understanding of how a market orientation leads to performance, the extant literature has overlooked the role of value-informed pricing in the

  10. The Role of Value-Informed Pricing in Market-Oriented Product Innovation Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, Th.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the positive effect of a market orientation on new product success is widely accepted and the market orientation literature has increased its understanding of how a market orientation leads to performance, the extant literature has overlooked the role of value-informed pricing in the

  11. Gender Role in Sustainable Palm Oil Production in Imo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explored gender role in sustainable palm oil production in selected communities of Imo State. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 60 respondents for the study. Data were collected using interview schedule and analyzed using mean score and percentage. The estimated average monthly income of ...

  12. The role of non-timber forest products for livelihood diversification in Southwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chilalo, M.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2011-01-01

    The use of Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) has received attention in light of their perceived potential to address both poverty reduction and tropical forest conservation. Based on a survey amongst 145 households, this paper describes the role and significance of NTFPs in the livelihoods of rural

  13. The Moderating Roles of Relationship Quality and Dependency in Retailers’ New Product Adoption Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. van Everdingen (Yvonne); L.M. Sloot (Laurens); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study contributes to the retail adoption literature by explicitly focusing on the role of both profit-related and relationship variables in explaining new product adoption decisions by retailers, instead of considering either one of these groups of variables in isolation as has been

  14. Complement plays a central role in Candida albicans-induced cytokine production by human PBMCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Sprong, Tom; Joosten, Leo A B

    2012-01-01

    In experimental studies, the role of complement in antifungal host defense has been attributed to its opsonizing capability. In this study, we report that in humans an activated complement system mainly augments Candida albicans-induced host proinflammatory cytokine production via C5a-C5aR signal...

  15. On the role of soil organic matter for crop production in European arable farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijbeek, Renske

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to improve understanding of the role of organic inputs and soil organic matter (SOM) for crop production in contemporary arable farming in Europe. For this purpose, long-term experiments were analysed on the additional yield effect of organic inputs and savings in mineral

  16. The role of social identity and attitudes toward sustainability brands in buying behavior for organic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Hoogendam, K.

    2011-01-01

    Green consumerism and the role of eco-marketing have become increasingly important for increasing the market share of sustainable (non-) food products. The current study examines the effect of social identification with certain green consumer groups on brand knowledge, brand attitude and buying

  17. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/306645955; Sikkema, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/110609913; Dornburg, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/189955007; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X

    2011-01-01

    This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and

  18. Role of women in livestock production: A socio-economic analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the role of women in livestock management with emphasis on milk production. Data for the study was collected via structured questionnaire from 120 women livestock farmers in five local governments of Sokoto state. The result of the analysis shows that majority of the women were in age range of ...

  19. Release kinetics of salbutamol sulphate from wax coated microcapsules and tableted microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, R S; Tripathi, K P; Jayaswal, S B; Singh, J

    1992-01-01

    Microcapsules of salbutamol sulphate were prepared using beeswax and carnauba wax as coating materials. In vitro release kinetics were studied following the zero order, first order and Higuchi equations. Beeswax alone was not effective but beeswax and carnauba wax combinations were suitable in controlling the in vitro release of the drug. Microcapsules were compressed into tablets to get a controlled release oral dosage form. Release from tableted microcapsules was significantly more prolonged than the respective batches of the microcapsules. Best data fit with the highest correlation coefficient for the tableted microcapsules was obtained for first order.

  20. Cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance in wheat near-isogenic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that wheat grain yield is seriously affected by drought stress, and leaf cuticular wax is reportedly associated with drought tolerance. However, most studies have focused on cuticular wax biosynthesis and model species. The effects of cuticular wax on wheat drought tolerance have rarely been studied. The aims of the current study were to study the effects of leaf cuticular wax on wheat grain yield under drought stress using the above-mentioned wheat NILs and to discuss the possible physiological mechanism of cuticular wax on high grain yield under drought stress. Compared to water-irrigated (WI conditions, the cuticular wax content (CWC in glaucous and non-glaucous NILs under drought-stress (DS conditions both increased; mean increase values were 151.1% and 114.4%, respectively, which was corroborated by scanning electronic microscopy images of large wax particles loaded on the surfaces of flag leaves. The average yield of glaucous NILs was higher than that of non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions in 2014 and 2015; mean values were 7368.37 kg·ha-1 and 7103.51 kg·ha-1. This suggested that glaucous NILs were more drought-tolerant than non-glaucous NILs (P = 0.05, which was supported by the findings of drought tolerance indices TOL and SSI in both years, the relatively high water potential and relative water content, and the low ELWL. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate (Pn of glaucous and non-glaucous wheat NILs under DS conditions decreased by 7.5% and 9.8%, respectively; however, glaucous NILs still had higher mean values of Pn than those of non-glaucous NILs, which perhaps resulted in the higher yield of glaucous NILs. This could be explained by the fact that glaucous NILs had a smaller Fv/Fm reduction, a smaller PI reduction and a greater ABS/RC increase than non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions. This is the first report to show that wheat cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance. Moreover

  1. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-22

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax or acrylic glue, and characterized the affect of these and other microfluidic materials on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax or cyanoacrylate-based resin as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax or simple cyanoacrylate-based resin can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The wax bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by evacuating the channels of adhesive material in a hot-water. We applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation. Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein recombinant E. coli bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. The chip bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin was tested by measuring protein concentration and carrying out DNA capillary electrophoresis. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of our microfluidic chip fabrication technology, we tested the PCR compatibility of our chip materials along with various other common materials

  2. Geometrical effects of conventional and digital prosthodontic planning wax-ups on lateral occlusal contact number, contact area, and steepness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared the effect of conventional and digital wax-ups on three lateral occlusion variables: contact number, contact area, and steepness. Dental casts of 10 patients with Angle Class I relationship were included in the study. All patients required fixed prosthodontic treatment that would affect lateral occlusion. The casts of all patients received conventional and digital wax-ups. For pretreatment, conventional wax-up, and digital wax-up casts, contact number, contact area, and occlusion steepness were measured at four lateral positions, that is, at excursions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm from maximal intercuspation. Lateral occlusion scheme variables were affected by use of diagnostic wax-ups. For all types of casts, contact number decreased as excursion increased. The two types of wax-ups had similar contact number patterns, and contact number was significantly greater for these casts than for pretreatment casts in the earlier stages of excursion. Similarly, contact area gradually decreased with increasing excursion in the pretreatment and conventional and digital wax-up casts. There was only a minimal decrease in occlusion steepness as excursion increased. However, lateral occlusion was generally steeper for digital wax-up casts.

  3. The underexposed role of food matrices in probiotic products: Reviewing the relationship between carrier matrices and product parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Joost; van der Waal, Mark B; van den Nieuwboer, Maurits; Claassen, Eric; Larsen, Olaf F A

    2017-06-13

    Probiotic microorganisms are increasingly incorporated into food matrices in order to confer proposed health benefits on the consumer. It is important that the health benefits, sensory properties, shelf-life and probiotic gastrointestinal tract (GIT) survival of these products are carefully balanced as they determine functionality and drive consumer acceptance. The strain-specific effects of probiotic species are imperative in this process but carrier matrices may play a pivotal role as well. This study therefore recapitulates the wealth of knowledge on carrier matrices and their interaction with probiotic strains. The most substantiated carrier matrices, factors that influence probiotic functionality and matrix effects on shelf-life, GIT survival and clinical efficacy are reviewed. Results indicate that carrier matrices have a significant impact on the quality of probiotic products. Matrix components, such as proteins, carbohydrates and flavoring agents are shown to alter probiotic efficacy and viability. In vivo studies furthermore revealed strain-dependent matrix effects on the GIT survival of probiotic bacteria. However, only a limited number of studies have specifically addressed the effects of carrier matrices on the aforementioned product-parameters; most studies seem to focus solely on the strain-specific effects of probiotic microorganisms. This hampers the innovation of probiotic products. More human studies, comparing not only different probiotic strains but different carrier matrices as well, are needed to drive the innovation cycle.

  4. Arsenite Regulates Prolongation of Glycan Residues of Membrane Glycoprotein: A Pivotal Study via Wax Physisorption Kinetics and FTIR Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic exposure results in several human cancers, including those of the skin, lung, and bladder. As skin cancers are the most common form, epidermal keratinocytes (KC are the main target of arsenic exposure. The mechanisms by which arsenic induces carcinogenesis remains unclear, but aberrant cell proliferation and dysregulated energy homeostasis play a significant role. Protein glycosylation is involved in many key physiological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. To evaluate whether arsenite exposure affected protein glycosylation, the alteration of chain length of glycan residues in arsenite treated skin cells was estimated. Herein we demonstrated that the protein glycosylation was adenosine triphosphate (ATP-dependent and regulated by arsenite exposure by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR reflectance spectroscopy, synchrotron-radiation-based FTIR (SR-FTIR microspectroscopy, and wax physisorption kinetics coupled with focal-plane-array-based FTIR (WPK-FPA-FTIR imaging. We were able to estimate the relative length of surface protein-linked glycan residues on arsenite-treated skin cells, including primary KC and two skin cancer cell lines, HSC-1 and HaCaT cells. Differential physisorption of wax adsorbents adhered to long-chain (elongated type and short-chain (regular type glycan residues of glycoprotein of skin cell samples treated with various concentration of arsenite was measured. The physisorption ratio of beeswax remain/n-pentacosane remain for KC cells was increased during arsenite exposure. Interestingly, this increase was reversed after oligomycin (an ATP synthase inhibitor pretreatment, suggesting the chain length of protein-linked glycan residues is likely ATP-dependent. This is the first study to demonstrate the elongation and termination of surface protein-linked glycan residues using WPK-FPA-FTIR imaging in eukaryotes. Herein the result may provide a scientific basis to target surface protein

  5. The Acyl Desaturase CER17 Is Involved in Producing Wax Unsaturated Primary Alcohols and Cutin Monomers1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xianpeng; Zhao, Huayan; Kosma, Dylan K.; Dyer, John M.; Li, Rongjun; Liu, Xiulin; Wang, Zhouya; Jenks, Matthew A.

    2017-01-01

    We report n-6 monounsaturated primary alcohols (C26:1, C28:1, and C30:1 homologs) in the cuticular waxes of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) inflorescence stem, a class of wax not previously reported in Arabidopsis. The Arabidopsis cer17 mutant was completely deficient in these monounsaturated alcohols, and CER17 was found to encode a predicted ACYL-COENZYME A DESATURASE LIKE4 (ADS4). Studies of the Arabidopsis cer4 mutant and yeast variously expressing CER4 (a predicted fatty acyl-CoA reductase) with CER17/ADS4, demonstrated CER4’s principal role in synthesis of these monounsaturated alcohols. Besides unsaturated alcohol deficiency, cer17 mutants exhibited a thickened and irregular cuticle ultrastructure and increased amounts of cutin monomers. Although unsaturated alcohols were absent throughout the cer17 stem, the mutation’s effects on cutin monomers and cuticle ultrastructure were much more severe in distal than basal stems, consistent with observations that the CER17/ADS4 transcript was much more abundant in distal than basal stems. Furthermore, distal but not basal stems of a double mutant deficient for both CER17/ADS4 and LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE1 produced even more cutin monomers and a thicker and more disorganized cuticle ultrastructure and higher cuticle permeability than observed for wild type or either mutant parent, indicating a dramatic genetic interaction on conversion of very long chain acyl-CoA precursors. These results provide evidence that CER17/ADS4 performs n-6 desaturation of very long chain acyl-CoAs in both distal and basal stems and has a major function associated with governing cutin monomer amounts primarily in the distal segments of the inflorescence stem. PMID:28069670

  6. Purification and characterization of β-glucosidase from greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Hatibe Ertürk; Turan, Yusuf; Er, Aylin; Acar, Mesut; Tümay, Sabiha; Sinan, Selma

    2014-08-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, is one of the most ruinous pests of honeycomb in the world. Beta-glucosidases are a type of digestive enzymes that hydrolytically catalyzes the beta-glycosidic linkage of glycosides. Characterization of the beta-glucosidase in G. mellonella could be a significant stage for a better comprehending of its role and establishing a safe and effective control procedure primarily against G. mellonella and also some other insect pests. Laboratory reared final instar stage larvae were randomly selected and homogenized for beta-glucosidase activity assay and subsequent analysis. The enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity by salting out with ammonium sulfate and using sepharose-4B-l-tyrosine-1-naphthylamine hydrophobic interaction chromatography. The purification was 58-fold with an overall enzyme yield of 29%. The molecular mass of the protein was estimated as ca. 42 kDa. The purified beta-glucosidase was effectively active on para/ortho-nitrophenyl-beta-d-glucopyranosides (p-/o-NPG) with Km values of 0.37 and 1.9 mM and Vmax values of 625 and 189 U/mg, respectively. It also exhibits different levels of activity against para-nitrophenyl-β-d-fucopyranoside (p-NPF), para/ortho-nitrophenyl β-d-galactopyranosides (p-/o-NPGal) and p-nitrophenyl 1-thio-β-d-glucopyranoside. The enzyme was competitively inhibited by beta-gluconolactone and also was very tolerant to glucose against p-NPG as substrate. The Ki and IC50 values of δ-gluconolactone were determined as 0.021 and 0.08 mM while the enzyme was more tolerant to glucose inhibition with IC50 value of 213.13 mM for p-NPG. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The role of product design in consumers' choices in the individual insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, M Susan; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Escarce, José J; Kapur, Kanika

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the role of health plan benefit design and price on consumers' decisions to purchase health insurance in the nongroup market and their choice of plan. Administrative data from the three largest nongroup insurers in California and survey data about those insured in the nongroup market and the uninsured in California. We fit a nested logit model to examine the effects of plan characteristics on consumer choice while accounting for substitutability among certain groups of products. Product choice is quite sensitive to price. A 10 percent decrease in the price of a product would increase its market share by about 20 percent. However, a 10 percent decrease in prices of all products would only increase overall market participation by about 4 percent. Changes in the generosity of coverage will also affect product choice, but have only small effects on overall participation. A 20 percent decrease in the deductible or maximum out-of-pocket payment of all plans would increase participation by about 0.3-0.5 percent. Perceived information search costs and other nonprice barriers have substantial effects on purchase of nongroup coverage. Modest subsidies will have small effects on purchase in the nongroup market. New product designs with higher deductibles are likely to be more attractive to healthy purchasers, but the new benefit designs are likely to have only small effects on market participation. In contrast, consumer education efforts have a role to play in helping to expand coverage.

  8. Involving consumers in product design through collaboration: the case of online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shu-Yu

    2010-12-01

    The release of software attributes to users by software designers for the creation of user-designed forms is regarded as a producer-consumer collaboration, leading consumers to expend significant effort on a specific product. This article identifies such software/product attributes within online role-playing games and then explores how consumers' prior experience affects the evaluation of such attributes. In this article, product attributes comprise customized, content, and interactive externality-sensitive and complementary externality-sensitive attributes, with the value of each attribute being greater for experts than for novices. In Study 1, data were collected and analyzed for the purpose of identifying such features in online role-playing games. The results can also be generalized to convergent products, such as TV games that have been redesigned as online games or mobile games found in Study 2. For the introduction of a convergent product to be successful, our research suggests that the potential market-segment focus should be on knowledgeable consumers who accept such products more readily.

  9. Mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH) in female Fischer 344 rats; accumulation of wax components; implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barp, Laura; Biedermann, Maurus; Grob, Koni; Blas-Y-Estrada, Florence; Nygaard, Unni C; Alexander, Jan; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to three MOSH mixtures: oils largely below and above C25 (S-C25 and L-C25) and a 1:1 mixture of L-C25 with a wax; doses of 400, 1000 and 4000mg/kg feed were administered during 120days. MOSH were determined by on-line HPLC-GC-FID in liver, spleen, adipose tissue and the carcass. The composition of the hydrocarbons accumulated in the tissues was further analyzed by comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC). MOSH in the mass range of C26-30 were more strongly accumulated than those between C20-25, which does not support the present classification of MOSH differentiating at n-C25 for risk assessment. Compared to the total of the MOSH, n-alkanes and n-alkyl monocyclic naphthenes were generally enriched in adipose tissue. In liver and spleen, n-alkanes up to C25 were eliminated, but strongly accumulated at around C30. Based on this profile, poor solubility and the melting points, it is hypothesized that crystallization protects these wax components against metabolism and elimination. In the liver, relative retention of n-alkanes decreased again beyond C30, accentuated at high exposure, suggesting reduced absorption. Compared to the animal data, accumulation of n-alkanes from food sources, such as apples, into human tissues seems low, perhaps because of low absorption due to their presence in crystalline form. A series of dominant isoalkanes, accumulated in all tissues analyzed, was characterized, though without proposing a structure. Implications on present regulation of white mineral oil products are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Alternative methods for the wool wax extraction from wool scouring wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crespi, M.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wool fibers have to be properly washed out before being processed into fabrics. This scouring process generates high pollutant wastes in two forms, a liquid phase and a solid phase. Both phases contain a large amount of the grease (wool wax generated by the animal which may be recovered and purified to obtain lanolin, a highly valued product. To evaluate the amount of grease in such wastes, Soxhlet extraction with organic solvent is the technique more widely used in laboratories worldwide as it provides a high grease recovery although it is a time and solvent consuming technique. The present work compares alternative extraction techniques to the Soxhlet extraction (Microwave, automated Soxhlet and Supercritical Fluids recovering 100% of the grease, reducing the time of analysis, the solvent consumption and the waste generation.Las fibras de lana, tras obtenerlas de las ovejas y antes de ser procesadas industrialmente, han de ser lavadas. Este proceso genera residuos altamente contaminantes que pueden obtenerse en dos formas diferentes, una fase líquida y una fase sólida. Ambas fases contienen, entre otros, una gran cantidad de la grasa generada por las ovejas y que se puede recuperar y purificar para obtener lanolina, un producto de alto valor industrial. Para evaluar la cantidad de grasa contenida en dichos efluentes, la técnica más extendida en los laboratorios es la extracción por Soxhlet, la cual consume tiempo y disolventes orgánicos pero obteniendo altos porcentajes de recuperación. En el presente trabajo se compara el porcentaje de recuperación de la cera de lana de efluentes industriales mediante técnicas alternativas a la tradicional (Microondas, Soxhlet automatizado y Fluidos Supercríticos obteniendo recuperaciones del 100%, reduciendo el tiempo de análisis, el consumo de disolvente y la generación de residuos.

  11. Modeling Klebsiella pneumoniae pathogenesis by infection of the wax moth Galleria mellonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, José Luis; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Tomás, Anna; Garmendia, Junkal; Bengoechea, José A

    2013-10-01

    The implementation of infection models that approximate human disease is essential for understanding pathogenesis at the molecular level and for testing new therapies before they are entered into clinical stages. Insects are increasingly being used as surrogate hosts because they share, with mammals, essential aspects of the innate immune response to infections. We examined whether the larva of the wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used as a host model to conceptually approximate Klebsiella pneumoniae-triggered pneumonia. We report that the G. mellonella model is capable of distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Klebsiella strains. Moreover, K. pneumoniae infection of G. mellonella models some of the known features of Klebsiella-induced pneumonia, i.e., cell death associated with bacterial replication, avoidance of phagocytosis by phagocytes, and the attenuation of host defense responses, chiefly the production of antimicrobial factors. Similar to the case for the mouse pneumonia model, activation of innate responses improved G. mellonella survival against subsequent Klebsiella challenge. Virulence factors necessary in the mouse pneumonia model were also implicated in the Galleria model. We found that mutants lacking capsule polysaccharide, lipid A decorations, or the outer membrane proteins OmpA and OmpK36 were attenuated in Galleria. All mutants activated G. mellonella defensive responses. The Galleria model also allowed us to monitor Klebsiella gene expression. The expression levels of cps and the loci implicated in lipid A remodeling peaked during the first hours postinfection, in a PhoPQ- and PmrAB-governed process. Taken together, these results support the utility of G. mellonella as a surrogate host for assessing infections with K. pneumoniae.

  12. Using a Computational Study of Hydrodynamics in the Wax Lake Delta to Examine Data Sharing Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a complex dataset used to study the circulation and wind-driven flows in the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana, USA under winter storm conditions. The whole package bundles a large dataset (approximately 74 GB, which includes the numerical model, software and scripts for data analysis and visualization, as well as detailed documentation. The raw data came from multiple external sources, including government agencies, community repositories, and deployed field instruments and surveys. Each raw dataset goes through the processes of data QA/QC, data analysis, visualization, and interpretation. After integrating multiple datasets, new data products are obtained which are then used with the numerical model. The numerical model undergoes model verification, testing, calibration, and optimization. With a complex algorithm of computation, the model generates a structured output dataset, which is, after post-data analysis, presented as informative scientific figures and tables that allow interpretations and conclusions contributing to the science of coastal physical oceanography. Performing this study required a tremendous amount of effort. While the work resulted in traditional dissemination via a thesis, journal articles and conference proceedings, more can be gained. The data can be reused to study reproducibility or as preliminary investigation to explore a new topic. With thorough documentation and well-organized data, both the input and output dataset should be ready for sharing in a domain or institutional repository. Furthermore, the data organization and documentation also serves as a guideline for future research data management and the development of workflow protocols. Here we will describe the dataset created by this study, how sharing the dataset publicly could enable validation of the current study and extension by new studies, and the challenges that arise prior to sharing the dataset.

  13. Modeling Klebsiella pneumoniae Pathogenesis by Infection of the Wax Moth Galleria mellonella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insua, José Luis; Llobet, Enrique; Moranta, David; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Tomás, Anna; Garmendia, Junkal

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of infection models that approximate human disease is essential for understanding pathogenesis at the molecular level and for testing new therapies before they are entered into clinical stages. Insects are increasingly being used as surrogate hosts because they share, with mammals, essential aspects of the innate immune response to infections. We examined whether the larva of the wax moth Galleria mellonella could be used as a host model to conceptually approximate Klebsiella pneumoniae-triggered pneumonia. We report that the G. mellonella model is capable of distinguishing between pathogenic and nonpathogenic Klebsiella strains. Moreover, K. pneumoniae infection of G. mellonella models some of the known features of Klebsiella-induced pneumonia, i.e., cell death associated with bacterial replication, avoidance of phagocytosis by phagocytes, and the attenuation of host defense responses, chiefly the production of antimicrobial factors. Similar to the case for the mouse pneumonia model, activation of innate responses improved G. mellonella survival against subsequent Klebsiella challenge. Virulence factors necessary in the mouse pneumonia model were also implicated in the Galleria model. We found that mutants lacking capsule polysaccharide, lipid A decorations, or the outer membrane proteins OmpA and OmpK36 were attenuated in Galleria. All mutants activated G. mellonella defensive responses. The Galleria model also allowed us to monitor Klebsiella gene expression. The expression levels of cps and the loci implicated in lipid A remodeling peaked during the first hours postinfection, in a PhoPQ- and PmrAB-governed process. Taken together, these results support the utility of G. mellonella as a surrogate host for assessing infections with K. pneumoniae. PMID:23836821

  14. Role of Indole Production on Virulence of Vibrio cholerae Using Galleria mellonella Larvae Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuidate, Taiyeebah; Tansila, Natta; Saengkerdsub, Suwat; Kongreung, Jetnaphang; Bakkiyaraj, Dhamodharan; Vuddhakul, Varaporn

    2016-09-01

    Cell to cell communication facilitated by chemical signals plays crucial roles in regulating various cellular functions in bacteria. Indole, one such signaling molecule has been demonstrated to control various bacterial phenotypes such as biofilm formation and virulence in diverse bacteria including Vibrio cholerae. The present study explores some key factors involved in indole production and the subsequent pathogenesis of V. cholerae. Indole production was higher at 37 °C than at 30 °C, although the growth at 37 °C was slightly higher. A positive correlation was observed between indole production and biofilm formation in V. cholerae. Maximum indole production was detected at pH 7. There was no significant difference in indole production between clinical and environmental V. cholerae isolates, although indole production in one environmental isolate was significantly different. Both growth and indole production showed relevant changes with differences in salinity. An indole negative mutant strain was constructed using transposon mutagenesis and the direct effect of indole on the virulence of V. cholerae was evaluated using Galleria mellonella larvae model. Comparison to the wild type strain, the mutant significantly reduced the mortality of G. mellonella larvae which regained its virulence after complementation with exogenous indole. A gene involved in indole production and the virulence of V. cholerae was identified.

  15. The role of energy policy in agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk Justyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production by agricultural biogas plants has recently recorded considerable growth in Visegrad countries. The development was enhanced by European Union’s efforts to increase the proportion of energy produced from renewable sources. The paper aims to assess the role of energy policy in the development of agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad region. Conducted studies have shown that among various forms of support for energy production from renewable energy sources, the price system prevails, including the support by feed in tariffs and bonuses. Feed in tariffs were adopted in Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. Another kind of support system – a quota system – was adopted in Poland, what includes tendering and certificate systems. The results confirm the adoption of legal framework was necessary step to enable agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries, but itself it was not enough to stimulate development of agricultural biogas energy production significantly. Rapid development in each country was recorded only after the certain financial support systems took effect, what made production of agricultural biogas energy economically efficient for investors. The production of energy from agricultural biogas grew the most in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the financial support was the highest. Nevertheless, the protracted process of changes in legal framework and transformation of energy policy, certain measures including state-controlled price-making systems, risk regarding with auction system might hamper agricultural biogas energy production further development.

  16. 76 FR 66663 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Illinois; Consumer Products and AIM Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... requirements for consumer products that contain perchloroethylene or methylene chloride. (7) Additional..., storage, disposal, destruction, or decomposition. AIM coatings are paints, varnishes, and other similar... wax strippers, products containing ozone-depleting compounds, and charcoal lighter material. (3) Test...

  17. The role of vanadium bromoperoxidase in the biosynthesis of halogenated marine natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Alison; Carter-Franklin, Jayme N

    2004-02-01

    Halogenated natural products are frequently reported metabolites in marine seaweeds. These compounds span a range from halogenated indoles, terpenes, acetogenins, phenols, etc., to volatile halogenated hydrocarbons that are produced on a very large scale. In many cases these halogenated marine metabolites possess biological activities of pharmacological interest. Given the abundance of halogenated marine natural products found in marine organisms and their potentially important biological activities, the biogenesis of these compounds has intrigued marine natural product chemists for decades. Over a quarter of a century ago, a possible role for haloperoxidase enzymes was first suggested in the biogenesis of certain halogenated marine natural products, although this was long before haloperoxidases were discovered in marine organisms. Since that time, FeHeme- and Vanadium-haloperoxidases (V-HPO) have been discovered in many marine organisms. The structure and catalytic activity of vanadium haloperoxidases is reviewed herein, including the importance of V-HPO-catalyzed bromination and cyclization of terpene substrates.

  18. Drivers of productivity in Vietnamese SMEs: The role of management standards and innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda; Calza, Elisa; Goedhuys, Micheline

    2017-01-01

    international standards, the main findings show that the possession of an internationally recognized standard certificate leads to significant productivity premium. We further investigate the relationship between technological innovation and standard adoption. We find that the likelihood of certificate adoption......Using a rich panel dataset of SMEs active in the manufacturing sector in Viet Nam, this paper investigates the drivers of firm productivity, focusing on the role played by international management standards certification. We develop and test the hypothesis that, controlling for technological...... innovation (product and process) and other variables related to technological capabilities, international standards are still conducive to higher productivity, through improved management practices associated with their adoption. In line with the requirement of continuous improvement implied by most...

  19. The Role of Synthetic Biology in the Design of Microbial Cell Factories for Biofuel Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, Verónica Leticia; Rodríguez, Analía; Cristóbal, Héctor Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Insecurity in the supply of fossil fuels, volatile fuel prices, and major concerns regarding climate change have sparked renewed interest in the production of fuels from renewable resources. Because of this, the use of biodiesel has grown dramatically during the last few years and is expected to increase even further in the future. Biodiesel production through the use of microbial systems has marked a turning point in the field of biofuels since it is emerging as an attractive alternative to conventional technology. Recent progress in synthetic biology has accelerated the ability to analyze, construct, and/or redesign microbial metabolic pathways with unprecedented precision, in order to permit biofuel production that is amenable to industrial applications. The review presented here focuses specifically on the role of synthetic biology in the design of microbial cell factories for efficient production of biodiesel. PMID:22028591

  20. User roles and contributions during the new product development process in collaborative innovation communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Qing; An, Weijin; Peng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Collaborative innovation (co-innovation) community emerges as a new product design platform where companies involve users in the new product development (NPD) process. Large numbers of users participate and contribute to the process voluntarily. This exploratory study investigates the heterogeneous roles of users based on a global co-innovation project in online community. Content analysis, social network analysis and cluster method are employed to measure user behaviors, distinguish user roles, and analyze user contributions. The study identifies six user roles that emerge during the NPD process in co-innovation community: project leader, active designer, generalist, communicator, passive designer, and observer. The six user roles differ in their contribution forms and quality. This paper contributes to research on co-innovation in online communities, including design team structure, user roles and their contribution to design task and solution, as well as user value along the process. In addition, the study provides practices guidance on implementing project, attracting users, and designing platform for co-innovation community practitioners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. AGPase: its role in crop productivity with emphasis on heat tolerance in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Gautam; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2015-10-01

    AGPase, a key enzyme of starch biosynthetic pathway, has a significant role in crop productivity. Thermotolerant variants of AGPase in cereals may be used for developing cultivars, which may enhance productivity under heat stress. Improvement of crop productivity has always been the major goal of plant breeders to meet the global demand for food. However, crop productivity itself is influenced in a large measure by a number of abiotic stresses including heat, which causes major losses in crop productivity. In cereals, crop productivity in terms of grain yield mainly depends upon the seed starch content so that starch biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in this process have been a major area of investigation for plant physiologists and plant breeders alike. Considerable work has been done on AGPase and its role in crop productivity, particularly under heat stress, because this enzyme is one of the major enzymes, which catalyses the rate-limiting first committed key enzymatic step of starch biosynthesis. Keeping the above in view, this review focuses on the basic features of AGPase including its structure, regulatory mechanisms involving allosteric regulators, its sub-cellular localization and its genetics. Major emphasis, however, has been laid on the genetics of AGPases and its manipulation for developing high yielding cultivars that will have comparable productivity under heat stress. Some important thermotolerant variants of AGPase, which mainly involve specific amino acid substitutions, have been highlighted, and the prospects of using these thermotolerant variants of AGPase in developing cultivars for heat prone areas have been discussed. The review also includes a brief account on transgenics for AGPase, which have been developed for basic studies and crop improvement.

  2. Wax Modeling and Image Analysis for Classroom-Scale Lava Flow Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, E. L.; Clarke, A. B.; Vanderkluysen, L.

    2016-12-01

    The use of polyethylene glycol wax (PEG 600) as an analog for lava allows for a visual representation of the complex physical process occurring in natural lava flows, including cooling, breakouts, and crust and lobe formation. We used a series of cameras positioned around a tank filled with chilled water as a lab bench to observe and quantify lava flow morphology and motion. A peristaltic pump connected to a vent at the base of the tank delivered dyed wax simulating effusive eruptions similar to those of Kilauea in Hawai`i. By varying the eruptive conditions such as wax temperature and eruption rate, students can observe how the crust forms on wax flows, how different textures result, and how a flow field evolves with time. Recorded footage of the same `eruption' can then be quantitatively analyzed using free software like ImageJ and Tracker to quantify time-series of spreading rate, change in height, and appearance of different surface morphologies. Additional dye colors can be added periodically to further illustrate how lava is transported from the vent to the periphery of a flow field (e.g., through a tube system). Data collected from this activity can be compared to active lava flow footage from Hawai`i and with numerical models of lava flow propagation, followed by discussions of the application of these data and concepts to predicting the behavior of lava in hazard management situations and interpreting paleomagnetic, petrologic, and mapping of older eruptions.

  3. Biochemical analysis of leaf waxes and thrips resistance in onion selections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrips (Thrips tabaci) is a serious insect pest of onion and is a vector for Iris yellow spot virus (IYSV). Lower amounts of epicuticular waxes on onion leaves have been associated with fewer thrips, less feeding damage, and lower incidence of IYSV. In this study, 10 onion selections that showed les...

  4. Cross-linking of LDPE/wax blends by using dicumyl peroxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Igor Krupa

    Abstract. Thermal properties of cross-linked and uncross-linked LDPE/wax blends were investigated. The blends were prepared by thoroughly mixing the powdery ingredients, followed by pressing at 180 °C for ten minutes. The extent of cross-linking was determined by means of gravimetric analysis of the gel content of the ...

  5. Genetic mapping of Sbbmc, a major locus controlling the profuse wax trait of sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum bicolor is one of the most valuable “fail safe” cereal crop species and is a rich repository of genes for abiotic stress tolerance that await discovery. As an example, Sorghum exhibits cuticle which produces profuse amount of epicuticular wax (bloom) on sheaths and leaves that serves as one...

  6. Structural identification of the diester preen gland wax in the Red Knot (Calidris canutus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dekker, M.; Dongen, B.E. van; Schouten, S.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The intact C32-C48 diester wax esters of the preen gland of the migrating bird Calidris canutus are shown, using synthesized standards, to comprise predominantly C12-C16 alkane-1,2-diols esterified with octanoic, decanoic, and dodecanoic acid at one position, and with predominantly even-numbered

  7. Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial and antifungal effects of high pH (9, 10) and paraffin wax were determined. Determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of the combined treatments was achieved by aerobic mesophilic count of bacteria and fungi on the surface of the tomatoes, peppers and oranges using serial dilution and pour ...

  8. The casting of western sculpture during the XIXth century: sand casting versus lost wax casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, T.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss research into bronze casting techniques as practiced during the XIXth and early XXth century. Both natural sand casting (fonte au sable naturel) and lost wax casting (fonte à la cire perdue) were employed during this period and sometimes rivalled for commissions. Before the

  9. Making Work: Demonstrating Thermodynamic Concepts with Solar-Powered Wax and Rubber Heat Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Construction details are provided for simple heat engines that use candle wax and elastomers as working substances. The engines are constructed using common household materials and can be easily constructed in a school classroom or at home. They work reliably and are useful tools for demonstrating the conversion of heat to mechanical work. They…

  10. Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... 362. Hall DJ (1981). Innovation in Citrus Waxing. An overview. pp: 258– 263. Ihekoronye AI, Ngoddy PO (1985). Food Microorganisms and Food. Spoilage. Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics. Macmillan Publishers, London. pp. 106–107. Jay JM (2003). Microbial Spoilage of Food.

  11. Plumage reflectance is not affected by preen wax composition in red knots Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, J; Korsten, P

    It has recently been shown that sandpipers (Scolopacidae) abruptly switch the chemical composition of their preen gland secretions from mono- to diester waxes just before the period of courtship. The timing and context of the shift suggested that diesters could provide a visible quality signal

  12. Wax barrier for use with in situ processes for treating formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Carter, Ernest E.; Son, Jaime Santos; Bai, Taixu; Khoda Verdian, Mohamad Fereydoon

    2010-04-27

    Methods for forming a barrier around at least a portion of a treatment area in a subsurface formation are described herein. A material including wax may be introduced into one or more wellbores. The material introduced into two or more wells may mix in the formation and congeal to form a barrier to fluid flow.

  13. Efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Mediterranean Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests were conducted that evaluated efficacy of wax matrix bait stations for Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) adults in Guatemala. Bait stations were exposed to outdoor conditions to determine effect of weathering on longevity as indicated by bait station age. Results of laboratory tests found that ba...

  14. Physical characteristics of tetrahydroxy and acylated derivatives of jojoba liquid wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols, mainly (C38:2-C46:2). The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and therefore is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the Jojoba (Simmondsia...

  15. Physical characteristics of tetrahydroxy and acylated derivatives of Jojoba liquid wax in lubricant applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long-chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols, mainly C38:2-C46:2. The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and, therefore, is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the jojoba (Simmondsia...

  16. Growth, yield and quality responses to gibberellic acid (GA3)of Wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... anthocyanin content, total phenol and antioxidant activity was higher in GA3 treated fruits. From this study, it can be concluded that spraying with 50 mg/L GA3 once a week results in better yield and quality of jambu madu fruits under field conditions. Key words: Gibberellin, growth, quality, wax apple, yield.

  17. Association between food mixing ability and mandibular movements during chewing of a wax cube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, E; Fueki, K; Igarashi, Y

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether masticatory movements during chewing of a wax cube associate with food mixing ability. Twenty-six dentate subjects (mean age 25.3 years) were directed to chew a two-coloured paraffin wax cube for 10 strokes on preferred chewing side. Mixing Ability Index (MAI) was determined from the colour mixture and shape of the chewed wax cube. MAI was employed as an estimate of food mixing ability. Mandibular movements during chewing of the wax cube were recorded using a six-degrees-of freedom jaw movements recording system, and motion of a lower incisal point of the mandible was computed. Twelve parameters of masticatory movements in relation to mandibular excursion, angle, velocity, cycle duration, duration of each phase were measured for each masticatory cycle. In addition, unilateral maximum biting was performed, and the maximum force during biting was measured using a force-transducer. A multiple regression analysis identified vertical amplitude, closing duration, closing angle and maximum bite force as significant predictors accounting for 63% of inter-subject variation (adjusted R(2)) in the MAI (P movements seem to have an influence on the MAI in dentate subjects.

  18. Investigation of Carnuba Wax as Matrix in the Formulation of Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the drug entrapment efficiency, release potential and drug release mechanisms of solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) prepared with different concentrations of two non ionic surfactants using carnauba wax as the lipid matrix. SLMs were prepared by melt dispersion technique, whereby ...

  19. Clustering of comb and propolis waxes based on the distribution of aliphatic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custodio Angela R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition data for 41 samples of propolis waxes and 9 samples of comb waxes of Apis mellifera collected mainly in Brazil were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. For chemometrical analysis, the distribution of hydrocarbons and residues of alcohols and carboxylic acids of monoesters were considered. The clustering obtained revealed chemical affinities and differences not previously grasped by simple eye-inspection of the data. No consistent differences were detected between comb and propolis waxes. These and previous results suggest that hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, aliphatic alcohols and esters from both comb and propolis waxes are bee-produced compounds and, hence, the differences detected between one and another region are dependent on genetic factors related to the insects rather than the local flora. The samples analyzed were split into two main clusters, one of them comprising exclusively material collected in the State of São Paulo. The results are discussed with respect to the africanization of honeybees that first took place in that State and therefrom irradiated to other parts of Brazil.

  20. Effect of Zeolite Treatment on the Blooming Behavior of Paraffin Wax in Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan B. Pajarito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The blooming behavior of paraffin wax in natural rubber (NR composites was studied as function of zeolite treatment. Three types of zeolite treatment were treated as factors: acid activation using hydrochloric acid (HCl solution, ion exchange using tetradecyldimethyl amine (TDA chloride salt, and organic modification using glycerol monostearate (GMS. The zeolite was treated according to a 23 full factorial design of experiment. Attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical structure of treated zeolite. Treated zeolite was applied as filler to NR composites deliberately compounded with high amount of paraff in wax. The amount of bloomed wax in surface of NR composite sheets was monitored with time at 50oC. Results show the bloom amount to be linear with the square root of time. NR composites reinforced with untreated, acid-activated, and ion-exchanged zeolite fillers indicate reduction in wax blooming as compared to unfilled NR. The bloom rate (slope and initial bloom (y-intercept were determined from the experimental plots. Analysis of variance (ANOVA shows the bloom rate to be signif icantly increased when zeolite fillers are treated with GMS. Meanwhile, initial bloom was significantly enhanced when zeolite fillers are treated with TDA chloride salt and GMS. The significant increase in bloom rate and initial bloom can be attributed to the softening of the NR matrix at high amounts of TDA chloride salt and GMS.

  1. Effect of Soil Moisture Management on the Quality of Wax apple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Chen

    On the other hand, the effect of FI treatment on soil available elements, the concentration of leaf elements and fruit color were all highest, and the fruit cracking percentage was lower than for other treatments in alluvial soil. To improve the quality of wax apple, it may be treated by different management of soil moisture for the ...

  2. The Role of Productive Water Use in Women’s Livelihoods: Evidence from Rural Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily van Houweling

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing livelihoods and promoting gender equity are primary goals of rural development programmes in Africa. This article explores the role of productive water use in relation to these goals based on 1860 household surveys and 15 women’s focus groups conducted in four regions of Senegal with small-scale piped water systems. The piped systems can be considered 'domestic plus' systems because they were designed primarily for domestic use, and also to accommodate small-scale productive uses including livestock-raising and community-gardening. This research focuses on the significance of productive water use in the livelihood diversification strategies of rural women. In Senegal, we find that access to water for productive purposes is a critical asset for expanding and diversifying rural livelihoods. The time savings associated with small piped systems and the increased water available allowed women to enhance existing activities and initiate new enterprises. Women’s livelihoods were found to depend on productive use activities, namely livestock-raising and gardening, and it is estimated that one half of women’s incomes is linked to productive water use. While these findings are largely positive, we find that water service and affordability constraints limit the potential benefits of productive water use for women and the poorest groups. Implications for targeting women and the poorest groups within the domestic plus approach are discussed.

  3. Biochemical stress indicators of greater wax moth exposure to organophosphorus insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Içen, Ender; Armutçu, Ferah; Büyükgüzel, Kemal; Gürel, Ahmet

    2005-04-01

    Although acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the primary target of organophosphorus insecticides (OPs), increasing evidence regarding their secondary effects suggests that OPs disturb homeostasis of insects by generating free radical intermediates that trigger lipid peroxidation. We therefore investigated alterations in lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, in conjunction with AChE activity as biochemical stress indicators in greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.) larvae for OPs methyl parathion (MP) and ethyl parathion (EP). The effects of MP and EP were first investigated by rearing the young larvae on an artificial diet containing 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 ppm of each insecticide. Second, the mature larvae were injected with 0.05, 0.5, 5, 50, and 500 ng of insecticides for determining the changes in biochemical stress responses. The diet with lowest level of MP significantly decreased the activities of all measured enzymes, whereas it increased MDA content. However ALT and AST were significantly higher in the larvae reared with the diet with high levels of MP than in control larvae. All tested levels of MP resulted in a decrease in AChE activity. The lowest level of EP in diet (0.01 ppm) significantly increased ALT activity, whereas it reduced that of AChE. This insecticide at 0.1 ppm resulted in reduced AST activity, but 1 ppm in diet elevated AST activity and MDA content. EP at 0.1 ppm and higher levels in the diet reduced ALT activity. All dietary EP levels significantly decreased AChE activity. ALT, AST, and AChE were lower in larvae fed with the diet containing 100 ppm ethyl parathion compared with larvae on control diet. MP at 50 ng per larva increased ALT and AST activities from 35.42 +/- 0.74 and 26.34 +/- 0.83 to 203.57 +/- 1.09, and 122.90 +/- 1.21 U/g, respectively, when the mature larvae were injected. All injected doses of EP dramatically reduced

  4. Virulence of serotype M3 Group A Streptococcus strains in wax worms (Galleria mellonella larvae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, M Ebru; Cantu, Concepcion C; Beres, Stephen B; Musser, James M

    2011-01-01

    Group A Streptococcus (GAS) causes human infections that range in severity from pharyngitis (“strep-throat”) to necrotizing fasciitis (“flesh-eating disease”). To facilitate investigation of the molecular basis of host-pathogen interactions, infection models capable of rapidly screening for differences in GAS strain virulence are needed. To this end, we developed a Galleria mellonella larvae (wax worm) model of invasive GAS infection and used it to compare the virulence of serotype M3 GAS strains. We found that GAS causes severe tissue damage and kills wax worms in a dose-dependent manner. The virulence of genetically distinct GAS strains was compared by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and determining 50% lethal doses (LD50). Host-pathogen interactions were further characterized using quantitative culture, histopathology and TaqMan assays. GAS strains known to be highly pathogenic in mice and monkeys caused significantly lower survival and had significantly lower LD50s in wax worms than GAS strains associated with attenuated virulence or asymptomatic carriage. Furthermore, isogenic inactivation of proven virulence factors resulted in a significantly increased LD50 and decreased lesion size compared to the wild-type strain, a finding that also strongly correlates with animal studies. Importantly, survival analysis and LD50 determination in wax worms supported our hypothesis that a newly emerged GAS subclone that is epidemiologically associated with more human necrotizing fasciitis cases than its progenitor lineage has significantly increased virulence. We conclude that GAS virulence in wax worms strongly correlates with the data obtained in vertebrate models, and thus, the Galleria mellonella larva is a useful host organism to study GAS pathogenesis. PMID:21258213

  5. Altitude effect on leaf wax carbon isotopic composition in humid tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mong Sin; Feakins, Sarah J.; Martin, Roberta E.; Shenkin, Alexander; Bentley, Lisa Patrick; Blonder, Benjamin; Salinas, Norma; Asner, Gregory P.; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2017-06-01

    The carbon isotopic composition of plant leaf wax biomarkers is commonly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. Adding to the limited calibration information available for modern tropical forests, we analyzed plant leaf and leaf wax carbon isotopic compositions in forest canopy trees across a highly biodiverse, 3.3 km elevation gradient on the eastern flank of the Andes Mountains. We sampled the dominant tree species and assessed their relative abundance in each tree community. In total, 405 sunlit canopy leaves were sampled across 129 species and nine forest plots along the elevation profile for bulk leaf and leaf wax n-alkane (C27-C33) concentration and carbon isotopic analyses (δ13C); a subset (76 individuals, 29 species, five forest plots) were additionally analyzed for n-alkanoic acid (C22-C32) concentrations and δ13C. δ13C values display trends of +0.87 ± 0.16‰ km-1 (95% CI, r2 = 0.96, p families, suggesting the biochemical response to environment is robust to taxonomic turnover. We calculate fractionations and compare to adiabatic gradients, environmental variables, leaf wax n-alkane concentrations, and sun/shade position to assess factors influencing foliar chemical response. For the 4 km forested elevation range of the Andes, 4-6‰ higher δ13C values are expected for upland versus lowland C3 plant bulk leaves and their n-alkyl lipids, and we expect this pattern to be a systematic feature of very wet tropical montane environments. This elevation dependency of δ13C values should inform interpretations of sedimentary archives, as 13C-enriched values may derive from C4 grasses, petrogenic inputs or upland C3 plants. Finally, we outline the potential for leaf wax carbon isotopes to trace biomarker sourcing within catchments and for paleoaltimetry.

  6. Analog modeling of fault asperity kinematics using a modified squeezebox design and wax media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D. J.; Swain, T. C.; Paquette, P.; Mookerjee, M.; Acosta, T.

    2016-12-01

    Fault movement is strongly influenced by the physical characteristics of the fault surfaces. Fault surfaces are generally non-planar, and have a certain amount of roughness to them, which manifests as fault asperities. In order for a fault to continue moving along its preexisting surface, the asperities must either move past each other, which involve moving a large volume of rock around these obstacles, or create new fractures that "decapitate" and pulverize these asperities, ultimately leading to a smoother fault surface. We explore a new way to investigate fault asperity kinematics using a squeeze-box analog deformation rig. The more typical and classic squeeze-box model uses sand and/or clay to demonstrate fault and fold deformations. We have designed and built a new analog modeling rig that utilizes a dual wax analog model. One constituent is white spherical wax particles that have been embedded in a lower-melting-temperature black matrix wax. Deformation of the analog material is facilitated by the addition of heating elements lining the underside and exterior walls of the squeeze-box reservoir. An aluminum asperity is secured to the floor of the reservoir. Additional overburden is simulated with a polyethylene bag filled with lead shot that rest on the top surface of the wax block during deformation. Once the deformation experiment is completed, the wax block can be finely sectioned, polished and scanned in preparation for analysis. Here, we provide proof of concept by demonstrating that we were able to generate realistic looking deformation features at different strain rate and temperature model conditions.

  7. Recent advances in endophytic exopolysaccharides: Production, structural characterization, physiological role and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Xingchi; Pu, Huimin; Liu, Shuang; Kan, Juan; Jin, Changhai

    2017-02-10

    Endophytes are microorganisms that colonize living, internal tissues of plants without causing any immediate, overt negative effects. In recent years, both endophytic bacteria and fungi have been demonstrated to be excellent exopolysaccharides (EPS) producers. This review focuses on the recent advances in EPS produced by endophytes, including its production, isolation and purification, structural characterization, physiological role and biological activity. In general, EPS production is influenced by media components and cultivation conditions. The structures of purified EPS range from linear homopolysaccharides to highly branched heteropolysaccharides. These structurally novel EPS not only play important roles in plant-endophyte interactions; but also exhibit several biological functions, such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic and prebiotic activities. In order to utilize endophytic EPS on an industrial scale, both yield and productivity enhancement strategies are required at several levels. Besides, the exact mechanisms on the physiological roles and biological functions of EPS should be elucidated in future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of branch architecture in assimilate production and partitioning: the example of Apple (Malus domestica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julienne eFanwoua

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the role of branch architecture in carbon production and allocation is essential to gain more insight into the complex process of assimilate partitioning in fruit trees. This mini review reports on the current knowledge of the role of branch architecture in carbohydrate production and partitioning in apple. The first-order carrier branch of apple illustrates the complexity of branch structure emerging from bud activity events and encountered in many fruit trees. Branch architecture influences carbon production by determining leaf exposure to light and by affecting leaf internal characteristics related to leaf photosynthetic capacity. The dynamics of assimilate partitioning between branch organs depends on the stage of development of sources and sinks. The sink strength of various branch organs and their relative positioning on the branch also affect partitioning. Vascular connections between branch organs determine major pathways for branch assimilate transport. We propose directions for employing a modelling approach to further elucidate the role of branch architecture on assimilate partitioning.

  9. Margarine from organogel of healthy vegetable oils and plant wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organogelator that can turn vegetable oil into a gel with a small quantity has drawn a lot of interests as a potential alternative for saturated fats and trans fat-containing solid fats in margarine and spread products. However, it is not practically used in those products yet. This research shows...

  10. Identification of In-Chain-Functionalized Compounds and Methyl-Branched Alkanes in Cuticular Waxes of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racovita, Radu C; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    In this work, cuticular waxes from flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem were investigated in search for novel wax compounds. Seven wax compound classes were detected that had previously not been reported, and their structures were elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of various derivatives. Six of the classes were identified as series of homologs differing by two methylene units, while the seventh was a homologous series with homologs with single methylene unit differences. In the waxes of flag leaf blades, secondary alcohols (predominantly C27 and C33), primary/secondary diols (predominantly C28) and esters of primary/secondary diols (predominantly C50, combining C28 diol with C22 acid) were found, all sharing similar secondary hydroxyl group positions at and around C-12 or ω-12. 7- and 8-hydroxy-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35), 7- and 8-oxo-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35), and 4-alkylbutan-4-olides (predominantly C28) were found both in flag leaf and peduncle wax mixtures. Finally, a series of even- and odd-numbered alkane homologs was identified in both leaf and peduncle waxes, with an internal methyl branch preferentially on C-11 and C-13 of homologs with even total carbon number and on C-12 of odd-numbered homologs. Biosynthetic pathways are suggested for all compounds, based on common structural features and matching chain length profiles with other wheat wax compound classes.

  11. Identification of In-Chain-Functionalized Compounds and Methyl-Branched Alkanes in Cuticular Waxes of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu C Racovita

    Full Text Available In this work, cuticular waxes from flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem were investigated in search for novel wax compounds. Seven wax compound classes were detected that had previously not been reported, and their structures were elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of various derivatives. Six of the classes were identified as series of homologs differing by two methylene units, while the seventh was a homologous series with homologs with single methylene unit differences. In the waxes of flag leaf blades, secondary alcohols (predominantly C27 and C33, primary/secondary diols (predominantly C28 and esters of primary/secondary diols (predominantly C50, combining C28 diol with C22 acid were found, all sharing similar secondary hydroxyl group positions at and around C-12 or ω-12. 7- and 8-hydroxy-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35, 7- and 8-oxo-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35, and 4-alkylbutan-4-olides (predominantly C28 were found both in flag leaf and peduncle wax mixtures. Finally, a series of even- and odd-numbered alkane homologs was identified in both leaf and peduncle waxes, with an internal methyl branch preferentially on C-11 and C-13 of homologs with even total carbon number and on C-12 of odd-numbered homologs. Biosynthetic pathways are suggested for all compounds, based on common structural features and matching chain length profiles with other wheat wax compound classes.

  12. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  13. The role of the supplementary motor area (SMA) in word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, F-Xavier; Chainay, Hanna; Lehericy, Stéphane; Cohen, Laurent

    2006-03-03

    The supplementary motor area (SMA) is a key structure for behavioral planning and execution. Recent research on motor control conducted with monkeys and humans has put to light an anatomical and functional distinction between pre-SMA and SMA-proper. According to this view, the pre-SMA would be involved in higher level processes while the SMA-proper would be more closely tied to motor output. We extended this general framework to the verbal domain, in order to investigate the role of the SMA in speech production. We conducted two speech production experiments with fMRI where we manipulated parameters such as familiarity, complexity or constraints on word selection. The results reveal a parcellation of the SMA into three distinct regions, according to their involvement in different aspects of word production. More specifically, following a rostrocaudal gradient, we observed differential activations related to lexical selection, linear sequence encoding and control of motor output. A parallel organization was observed in the dorsolateral frontal cortex. By refining its anatomical and functional parcellation, these results clarify the roles of the SMA in speech production.

  14. An experimental investigation of shell and tube latent heat storage for solar dryer using paraffin wax as heat storage material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented study the shell and tube type latent heat storage (LHS has been designed for solar dryer and paraffin wax is used as heat storage material. In the first part of the study, the thermal and heat transfer characteristics of the latent heat storage system have been evaluated during charging and discharging process using air as heat transfer fluid (HTF. In the last section of the study the effectiveness of the use of an LHS for drying of food product and also on the drying kinetics of a food product has been determined. A series of experiments were conducted to study the effects of flow rate and temperature of HTF on the charging and discharging process of LHS. The temperature distribution along the radial and longitudinal directions was obtained at different time during charging process to analyze the heat transfer phenomenon in the LHS. Thermal performance of the system is evaluated in terms of cumulative energy charged and discharged, during the charging and discharging process of LHS, respectively. Experimental results show that the LHS is suitable to supply the hot air for drying of food product during non-sunshine hours or when the intensity of solar energy is very low. Temperature gain of air in the range of 17 °C to 5 °C for approximately 10 hrs duration was achieved during discharging of LHS.

  15. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant E...

  16. Experimental investigations of thermophysical properties of some paraffin waxes industrially manufactured in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbińkowski, Piotr; Zmywaczyk, Janusz; Koniorczyk, Piotr

    2017-07-01

    Phase-change materials (PCM) can be applied as a heat absorbing/releasing medium in passive cooling systems. Such systems can be used in cooling and temperature stabilization of electronic components, i.e., Li-ion batteries, photovoltaic modules or light emitting diodes (LED). In order to optimize heat transfer in passive cooling systems experimental studies of PCM thermophysical properties are necessary. A good PCM candidate for passive cooling systems may be paraffin waxes due to their relatively high latent heat of fusion (L 200 J.g-1), suitable for working of electronic devices range of melting temperatures (22 °C - 68 °C) and a reasonable price. However, their main drawback is a relatively low thermal conductivity k ranging from 0.148 W.m-1.K-1 to 0.358 W.m-1.K-1. In this paper were presented results of experimentally determined temperature characteristics of thermophysical parameters of four paraffin waxes industrially manufactured in Jasło/Poland by POLWAX. The density ρ of the test paraffin waxes determined at room temperature (20 °C) using a laboratory balance RADWAG X/60/220 comprised from 0.82 g.cm-3 to 0.94 g.cm-3. The thermal diffusivity κ of paraffin waxes was tested within temperature range from -50 °C to 30 °C every 20 °C interval using the NETZSCH LFA 467 HyperFlash. The test specimens having form of cylinder were 12.7 mm in diameter and 2.15 - 2.20 mm in height. Prior to the experiment the face and the back surface of each specimen were coated with a thin layer of graphite 33 having a thickness of several micrometers in accordance with the recommendation given by NETZSCH. The thermal diffusivity of the test paraffin waxes within temperature interval -40 °C - 20 °C was determined to be 0.083 mm2.s-1 to 0.216 mm2.s-1. Thermal effects and the apparent heat capacity cp of the tested materials were measured in the temperature range from -10 °C to 100 °C using the NETZSCH DSC 404 F1 Pegasus at 10 K.min-1 heating/cooling rates in an

  17. The role of NGO in informal seed production and dissemination: The case of eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekadu Beyene

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Seed is the basic input to crop production. Farmer-based seed production as an alternative agricultural technology transfer is increasingly given especial attention in developing countries where food insecurity is critical. This paper aims to assess the seed production and dissemination strategy among smallholder farmers in eastern Ethiopia that has been introduced by Hararghe Catholic Secretariat (a Non-GovernmentalOrganization. A survey of 160 households in four administrative districts and focus group discussions were used to collect data. While narratives helped understand the process, logistic regressionwas used to identify determinants of land allocation to seed production. Results indicate the crucial role of informal networks and social capital as facilitators of access to production inputs, information and knowledge. The informal seed supply system initiated by the NGO has a huge potential to benefit smallholder farmers by improving their access to higher-yielding varieties of various crops, thereby contributing to an increase in their wellbeing. However, the traditional practice of seed exchange, influenced by social relations, will remain uneconomical to seed producers. Thus, the paper suggests that this potential can be further exploited if some preconditions such as establishment of seed banks, investment in human capital, removal of the underlying constraints and creation of reliable seed markets are given emphasis.

  18. THE ROLE OF ATTITUDE IN MEDIATING CONSUMER KNOWLEDGE INFLUENCE TOWARDS THE PURCHASE INTENTION OF GREEN PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Sagung Ayu Wulandari,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Protecting the environment has become a main idea for some modern companies in applying the green marketing strategy. Many consumers perceive that a product with natural raw material can give a better benefit both in terms of health issue and environment. The purpose of this study is to find out the role of attitude in mediating consumer knowledge influence towards the purchase intention of green product Ever-E 250 in Denpasar.The samples were 110 respondents from all over Denpasar taken with the purposive sampling method and path analysis. The result of the study shows that consumer knowledge has significant and positive influence towards the attitude and purchase intention of green product Ever-E 250. The attitude variable has been proven to be able to mediate consumer knowledge influence towards the purchase intention of green product Ever-E 250 in Denpasar significantly, while the mediation happen is partial, so that the attitude variable functions as a mediator of consumer knowledge influence towards the purchase intention of green product.

  19. Variations of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Among C3 and C4 Gramineae Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua; Guo, Na; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-11-01

    Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. At the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata, and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants, except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n-alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C29 was the most abundant n-alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n-alkane was C31 or C33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n-alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n-alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups, except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. Roles and responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to natural health products: key informant interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunde, Shade; Boon, Heather; Hirschkorn, Kristine; Welsh, Sandy; Bajcar, Jana

    2010-03-01

    Although many pharmacies sell natural health products (NHPs), there is no clear definition as to the roles and responsibilities (if any) of pharmacists with respect to these products. The purpose of this study was to explore pharmacy and stakeholder leaders' perceptions of pharmacists' professional NHP roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with pharmacy leaders (n=17) and stakeholder (n=18) leaders representing consumers, complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, conventional health care practitioners, and industry across Canada. All participants believed a main NHP responsibility for pharmacists was in safety monitoring, although a one challenge identified in the interviews was pharmacists' general lack of NHP knowledge; however, stakeholder leaders did not expect pharmacists to be experts, but should have a basic level of knowledge about NHPs. Participants described pharmacists' professional roles and responsibilities for NHPs as similar to those for over-the-counter drugs; more awareness of existing NHP-related pharmacy policies is needed, and pharmacy owners/managers should provide additional training to ensure front-line pharmacists have appropriate knowledge of NHPs sold in the pharmacy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Australian athletes' health behaviours and perceptions of role modelling and marketing of unhealthy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunseit, Anne C; MacNiven, Rona; Orr, Rhonda; Grassmayr, Matt; Kelly, Bridget; Davies, Daniel; Colagiuri, Stephen; Bauman, Adrian E

    2012-04-01

    This study examined Australian athletes' support for athletes' role in promoting physical activity and obesity prevention, the acceptability of unhealthy products promotion in sport, and their own health behaviours. Surveys were conducted with (n = 1990) elite and sub-elite athletes recruited from 22 sports across Australia. Athletes' perceptions and behaviours were analysed across demographic and sport-related factors (e.g. individual vs team sport) and correlations calculated between perceptions and health behaviours. Most respondents supported a role for athletes in promoting physical activity and obesity prevention, and disagreed that athletes should promote unhealthy foods and alcohol (73.9%). Athletes reported low smoking rates, but high rates of binge drinking. Female, younger, individual and amateur athletes had more health-positive perceptions and healthier behaviours than older, male, team and professional athletes. More sympathy towards junk food and alcohol advertising in sport and less support for athletes as role models were associated with more unhealthy behaviours. Elite athletes are receptive to supporting health promotion through sport and many are not in agreement with the promotion of unhealthy products in sport or by sports people. Improving elite athletes' health behaviours would benefit not only the individual but also health promotion within elite sport.

  2. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rybak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence o f fatglobules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions.It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  3. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  4. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  5. The role of climate in balancing soil production and sediment yield in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, K. P.

    2013-12-01

    New Zealand hosts some of the highest specific sediment yields on the planet reaching up to nearly 30,000 t km-2 yr-1. Sediment yields measure the export of sediment from a basin and give an indication of erosion from hillslopes. In New Zealand high sediment yields correlate with high annual precipitation and high rates of tectonic strain (Hicks et al., 1996). It is, however, unclear how soil production keeps pace with such extreme erosion. Here, this question is investigated by modelling soil production as a function of local climate parameters. Two simple models for building climate into soil production are through effective energy and mass transfer, EEMT, (Rasmussen and Tabor, 2007) and primary chemical weathering. When applied to ~30 year climate data, these models highlight the variability of potential soil production across New Zealand. Due partially to high annual rainfall, some of the fastest erosion rates on the west coast of the South Island are nearly in balance with soil production. In other regions such as the east coast of the North Island, hotspots exist where annual sediment yields exceed reasonable soil production rates such that additional mechanisms must operate to generate sediment and make up this deficit. Globally, precipitation tends to increase and temperature decreases with increasing elevation. In New Zealand, increasing elevations also roughly correlate with an increase in mean basin slope angle and the percent of a basin at >30° slopes. As a result, modelled soil production also tends to increase with increasing mean basin slope angle. This correlation occurs independent of erosion feedbacks on the modelled soil production rates. This relationship presents an intriguing scenario in which the topography of the mountain range may be maintained by climate through variations in soil production. Even with rapid modelled soil production at high precipitation rates and/or high temperatures and/or high temperatures, many basins cannot keep pace

  6. An essential role for katanin p80 and microtubule severing in male gamete production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza O'Donnell

    Full Text Available Katanin is an evolutionarily conserved microtubule-severing complex implicated in multiple aspects of microtubule dynamics. Katanin consists of a p60 severing enzyme and a p80 regulatory subunit. The p80 subunit is thought to regulate complex targeting and severing activity, but its precise role remains elusive. In lower-order species, the katanin complex has been shown to modulate mitotic and female meiotic spindle dynamics and flagella development. The in vivo function of katanin p80 in mammals is unknown. Here we show that katanin p80 is essential for male fertility. Specifically, through an analysis of a mouse loss-of-function allele (the Taily line, we demonstrate that katanin p80, most likely in association with p60, has an essential role in male meiotic spindle assembly and dissolution and the removal of midbody microtubules and, thus, cytokinesis. Katanin p80 also controls the formation, function, and dissolution of a microtubule structure intimately involved in defining sperm head shaping and sperm tail formation, the manchette, and plays a role in the formation of axoneme microtubules. Perturbed katanin p80 function, as evidenced in the Taily mouse, results in male sterility characterized by decreased sperm production, sperm with abnormal head shape, and a virtual absence of progressive motility. Collectively these data demonstrate that katanin p80 serves an essential and evolutionarily conserved role in several aspects of male germ cell development.

  7. The role of temperature and temperature-induced drought on forest productivity in the Northern Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Pérez, Guiomar; Vico, Giulia

    2017-04-01

    Forests play an important role in the climate system and the global carbon cycle and is of considerable socioeconomic importance for Northern countries. For example, Sweden has pursued more intensive forest harvesting as a way of fulfilling the requirements of the EU renewable energy directive. Due to ecological and economical role of forests, it is imperative to better understand the physical and biological processes leading to potential changes in productivity. There is no consensus regarding the net effect of raising temperatures on vegetation productivity in this area. There exist the idea that in response to warmer temperatures, forests located in cold regions may benefit from longer growing seasons and, consequently, become more productive. However, radial growth and wood density measurements suggest that in recent decades, there has been a "divergence" between warming and tree growth, with localized shifts to a negative relationship between temperature and growth. This unexpected adverse response of forests in northern areas under warming is consistent with the fact that they are becoming more vulnerable to warm-related disturbances including temperature-induced drought stress. Here we focus on satellite NDVI record as an indicator of greenness vegetation across the Northern Countries for the period 2000 to present and explore corresponding relationships with high-resolution gridded climate data from E-OBS. By focusing on the whole Sweden, we were able to assess whether the role played by each climatic driver (precipitation, temperature and a dryness index) differed in different locations. In particular, a Partial Least Square (PLS) regression analysis was conducted to investigate the model component structure among the potential drivers explaining the annual variations of the mean NDVI observed during the growing season. We observed how forests respond differently to climatic drivers and their extremes when the increasing temperature occurs together with

  8. Leaf wax biomarker reconstruction of Early Pleistocene hydrological variation during hominin evolution in West Turkana, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, R.; Russell, J. M.; Cohen, A. S.; Feibel, C. S.; Beck, C.; Castañeda, I. S.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is thought to play a critical role in human evolution; however, this hypothesis is difficult to test due to a lack of long, high-quality paleoclimate records from key hominin fossil locales. To address this issue, we examine Plio-Pleistocene lake sediment drill cores from East Africa that were recovered by the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project, an international effort to study the environment in which our hominin ancestors evolved and dispersed. With new data we test various evolutionary hypotheses, such as the "variability selection" hypothesis, which posits that high-frequency environmental variations selected for generalist traits that allowed hominins to expand into variable environments. We analyzed organic geochemical signals of climate in lake cores from West Turkana, Kenya, which span 1.87-1.38 Ma and contain the first fossils from Homo erectus. In particular, we present a compound-specific hydrogen isotopic analysis of terrestrial plant waxes (δDwax) that records regional hydrology. The amount effect dominates water isotope fractionation in the tropics; therefore, these data are interpreted to reflect mean annual rainfall, which affects vegetation structure and thus, hominin habitats. The canonical view of East Africa is that climate became drier and increasingly felt high-latitude glacial-interglacial cycles during the Plio-Pleistocene. However, the drying trend seen in some records is not evident in Turkana δDwax, signifying instead a climate with a steady mean state. Spectral and moving variance analyses indicate paleohydrological variations related to both high-latitude glaciation (41 ky cycle) and local insolation-forced monsoons (21 ky cycle). An interval of particularly high-amplitude rainfall variation occurs at 1.7 Ma, which coincides with the intensification of the Walker Circulation. These results identify high- and low-latitude controls on East African paleohydrology during Homo erectus evolution. In particular, the

  9. New approaches for genotyping paraffin wax embedded breast tissue from patients with cancer: the Iowa women’s health study

    OpenAIRE

    Thyagarajan, B; Anderson, K E; Kong, F.; Selk, F R; Lynch, C F; Gross, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The use of paraffin wax embedded tissue samples as a source of DNA for genotype analysis has been limited because of difficulties in DNA extraction and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis.

  10. The Role of Brand Trust on Parents’ Purchase Intentions of Baby-Care Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülnil AYDIN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the role of brand trust in the consumer-brand relationship for both global and national brands. The model developed for this goal is applied to two rival brands in the baby care products market in Turkey, one of which is global and the other is national. To test the research model, a structural equation modeling approach is followed. The study reveals that the effect of the brand trust on repurchasing intention is greater than its effect on relational commitment, and that this effect is observed particularly in the case of national brands.

  11. A future perspective on the role of industrial biotechnology for chemicals production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John; Breuer, Michael; Mink, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The development of recombinant DNA technology, the need for renewable raw materials and a green, sustainable profile for future chemical processes have been major drivers in the implementation of industrial biotechnology. The use of industrial biotechnology for the production of chemicals is well...... established in the pharmaceutical industry but is moving down the value chain toward bulk chemicals. Chemical engineers will have an essential role in the development of new processes where the need is for new design methods for effective implementation, just as much as new technology. Most interesting...

  12. The Role of Experience When Utilizing Inter-organizational Relationships for New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    on the importance of inter-organizational relationships stimulated by the idea that firms operate in networks and should therefore be strategic about who to include in e.g. NPD projects. A growing literature has concluded that trust and experience are vital tacit skills to build, which may be crucial......The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of collaborative experience on interorganizational collaborations in the new product development (NPD) process, and whether collaborative experience can act as a mediating and moderating variable. The paper is motivated by the growing literature...

  13. Fugitive Emissions from the Bakken Shale Illustrate Role of Shale Production in Global Ethane Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 +/- 0.07 (2 sigma) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  14. Fugitive emissions from the Bakken shale illustrate role of shale production in global ethane shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-05-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 ± 0.07 (2σ) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  15. Language Production in Children With and At Risk for Delay: Mediating Role of Parenting Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Dainelys; Bagner, Daniel M; Pruden, Shannon M; Nichols-Lopez, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the effect of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), a parent-training intervention for child behavior problems, on child language production. Participants were 46 children (ages 20-70 months) with externalizing behavior problems and with or at risk for developmental delay. Parent-child dyads were randomly assigned to a waitlist control or immediate treatment group. Parenting skills learned during PCIT (i.e., "do skills") and children's word tokens and word types were measured at baseline and 4 months later. Findings suggest an indirect effect of parent do skills on the relation between group and child word types, such that more parent do skills predicted more child word types for families receiving PCIT. The present study found that mothers' use of child-directed skills played an important role in the growth and improvement of child language. Results suggest that parent-training interventions targeting child behavior problems may also foster child language production.

  16. Mini-Review: The Role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in the Production of Gin and Vodka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Pauley

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The spirit beverages of vodka and gin are often produced from a neutral spirits base. These neutral spirits are derived from the distillation of fermented carbohydrates of agricultural origin. The fermentations in the production of these beverages are not often reported in great detail and to some extent are shrouded in mystery. The roles of fermentation and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are essential to the complete process, and without fermentation there would not be alcohol to distil. Nevertheless, it is not the yeast that is perceived to contribute to the distinctive consumer experiences, which are associated with these beverages. However, there are opportunities for the development of new strains of S. cerevisiae for the production of neutral spirits, which have a high ethanol yield, are tolerant of ethanol stress, and produce low levels of congeners.

  17. The Role of Everyday Life Products and Social Practices in Sustainable Transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Louise; Remmen, Arne

    2011-01-01

    and the way we live. When opting for a low carbon society, the innovation dynamics of everyday life products as well as consumption and practice patterns become an important field of investigation. Hence, to approach consumption aspects of using and interacting with energy using products, it is important...... to kill (Røpke, 2009), so in order to make people change practice, alternate routines that work has to be proposed and accepted. Practice theory can help understanding how practices work, and thus clarifying what has to be included in a study of potentials for a sustainable transition. Social practices...... and the aspect of consumers being practitioners is an interesting subject to investigate further in relation to Geels’ Multi Level Perspective (MLP) on technological transitions. As the role of user practices in system change seems to be neglected in the MLP of transitions (Genus and Coles, 2008), analyzing...

  18. Controversies Regarding the Role of Dairy Products in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seymour Mishkin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products may affect inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients who are either lactose intolerant or who are allergic to the proteins in these foods. The actual incidence of these conditions in IBD patients is not entirely clear. Whether either of these conditions results in benign symptomatic discomfort or can actually contribute to the relapse and/or clinical activity of IBD is also unclear. Physicians differ widely in the advice they give their patients; some dogmatically advise avoidance of dairy products when the diagnosis is made while others discount their possible role in the management of IBD. On the basis of the author’s and his group’s experience and review of the literature, a balanced and exploratory approach by patients, physicians and dieticians is advised.

  19. Comb and propolis waxes from Brazil (states of São Paulo and Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negri Giuseppina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of propolis and comb waxes of Apis mellifera were analyzed. Monoesters predominated, followed by hydrocarbons. The constituents were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Wide variations in the patterns of hydrocarbons, acids and alcohols of the esters were found. Hydrocarbon chains cover the range C23 - C35, C27 and C31 alkanes predominating. The main carboxylic acid was C16:0, followed by C18:0 and C18:1. The alcohols were predominantly saturated n-homologues, ranging from C24 to C32, C30 being the most abundant, followed by C24. No differences were found to allow a distinction, suggesting a common origin for both wax sources.

  20. Determination of quality attributes in wax jambu fruit using NIRS and PLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Thayna R; Mata, Ana L M L; Duarte, Márcia M L; Lima, Kássio M G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop an analytical method to predict total anthocyanins content (TAC) and total phenolic compounds (TPC) in intact wax jambu fruit [Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merryl et Perry] using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and partial least squares (PLS). The estimation accuracy was based on parameters such as root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), correlation coefficients [calibration (rc) and prediction (rp) set] and ratio of performance to deviation (RPD). TAC, rp = 0.98, RMSEP = 9.0 mg L(-1) and RPD = 5.19 were attained using second derivative pre-treatment. TPC, rp = 0.94, RMSEP = 22.18 (mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g) and RPD = 3.27 (excellent accuracy) were also obtained using second derivative pre-treatment. These findings suggest that the NIRS and PLS algorithms can be used to determine TCA and TPC in intact wax jambu fruit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Linking shoreline displacement to environmental conditions in the Wax Lake Delta, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleynse, N.; Hiatt, M. R.; Sangireddy, H.; Passalacqua, P.

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of river deltas are not well-understood in part because of scarcity of historical data that document the growth or retreat of their channel networks, islands and shorelines. In particular, the mapping of deltaic shorelines is not trivial, however recent developments allow for their extraction from satellite and aerial imagery. Here, we present an analysis of environmental data and Landsat imagery of the Wax Lake Delta, a naturally-developing river delta in the shallow Atchafalaya Basin, Gulf of Mexico, USA. The image-based shoreline corresponds to the hydrodynamic shoreline, that is, the boundary of the subaerial and subaqueous portions of the delta, however, can be related to a morphodynamically-relevant shoreline by application of our method [Geleynse et al., 2012] to bathymetric-topographic data. Moreover, the effect of tides, river floods, wind, and vegetation cover on the extracted shorelines of the Wax Lake Delta can be identified.

  2. Shoreline response to environmental forcings: A case study in the Wax Lake Delta, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geleynse, Nathanael; Hiatt, Matt; Sangireddy, Harish; Passalacqua, Paola; Mohrig, David

    2013-04-01

    River deltas are well-known landforms within both hydrology and geology. However, both their hydrodynamics and morphodynamics are not well understood, in part because of scarcity of historical data that document the growth or retreat of their channel networks, islands and associated shorelines. Here, we present an analysis of Landsat imagery of the Wax Lake Delta, a young and relatively rapidly prograding delta in the shallow Atchafalaya Basin, Gulf of Mexico. Taking advantage of a recently developed semi-automatic shoreline extraction method [Geleynse et al, 2012], we show how suitably-defined shorelines can be retrieved from satellite imagery. The effect of tides, river floods, storm surges, and vegetation cover on the extracted shoreline of Wax Lake Delta can be quantified as well as the physical relationship between the boundary of the subareal and subaqueous portions of the delta (hydrodynamic shoreline) and the morphodynamic shoreline.

  3. The role of spatial dynamics in the stability, resilience, and productivity of an estuarine fish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, L A; Cadrin, S X; Secor, D H

    2010-03-01

    Understanding mechanisms that support long-term persistence of populations and sustainability of productive fisheries is a priority in fisheries management. Complex spatial structure within populations is increasingly viewed as a result of a plastic behavioral response that can have consequences for the dynamics of a population. We incorporated spatial structure and environmental forcing into a population model to examine the consequences for population stability (coefficient of variation of spawning-stock biomass), resilience (time to recover from disturbance), and productivity (spawning-stock biomass). White perch (Morone americana) served as a model species that exhibits simultaneous occurrence of migratory and resident groups within a population. We evaluated the role that contingents (behavioral groups within populations that exhibit divergent life histories) play in mitigating population responses to unfavorable environmental conditions. We used age-structured models that incorporated contingent-specific vital rates to simulate population dynamics of white perch in a sub-estuary of Chesapeake Bay, USA. The dynamics of the population were most sensitive to the proportion of individuals within each contingent and to a lesser degree to the level of correlation in recruitment between contingents in their responses to the environment. Increased representation of the dispersive contingent within populations resulted in increased productivity and resilience, but decreased stability. Empirical evidence from the Patuxent River white perch population was consistent with these findings. A high negative correlation in resident and dispersive contingent recruitment dynamics resulted in increased productivity and stability, with little effect on resilience. With high positive correlation between contingent recruitments, the model showed similar responses in population productivity and resilience, but decreased stability. Because contingent structure involves differing

  4. The Role of Eucalyptus Globulus Forest and Products in Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroja, L.; Dias, A.C.; Capela, I. [Environmental and Planning Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2006-01-15

    This study is a contribution to the ongoing debate about the selection of the approach for carbon accounting in wood products to be used, in the future, in the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Two accounting approaches are used in this analysis: the stock-change approach and the atmospheric-flow approach. They are applied to the Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus forest sector. To achieve this objective, the fluxes of wood removed from the forest are tracked through its life cycle, which includes products manufacture (mainly pulp and paper), use and final disposal (landfilling, incineration and composting). This study develops a framework to the estimation of carbon sequestration in the forest of E. globulus, a fast growing species, more specifically, in the calculation of the conversion factors such as bark and foliage percentages and densities, used to convert wood volumes into total biomass. A mass balance approach based on real data from mills is also proposed, in order to assess carbon emissions from wood processing. The results show that E. globulus forest sector was a carbon sink, but the magnitude of the carbon sequestration differs substantially depending on the accounting approach used. The contribution of the forest ecosystem was smaller than the aggregated contribution of wood products in use and in landfills (including industrial waste), which reinforces the role that wood products play in national carbon budgets.

  5. Microbial interactions during sugar cane must fermentation for bioethanol production: does quorum sensing play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brexó, Ramon Peres; Sant'Ana, Anderson de Souza

    2018-03-01

    Microbial interactions represent important modulatory role in the dynamics of biological processes. During bioethanol production from sugar cane must, the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and wild yeasts is inevitable as they originate from the raw material and industrial environment. Increasing the concentration of ethanol, organic acids, and other extracellular metabolites in the fermentation must are revealed as wise strategies for survival by certain microorganisms. Despite this, the co-existence of LAB and yeasts in the fermentation vat and production of compounds such as organic acids and other extracellular metabolites result in reduction in the final yield of the bioethanol production process. In addition to the competition for nutrients, reduction of cellular viability of yeast strain responsible for fermentation, flocculation, biofilm formation, and changes in cell morphology are listed as important factors for reductions in productivity. Although these consequences are scientifically well established, there is still a gap about the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing these interactions. This review aims to discuss the potential occurrence of quorum sensing mechanisms between bacteria (mainly LAB) and yeasts and to highlight how the understanding of such mechanisms can result in very relevant and useful tools to benefit the biofuels industry and other sectors of biotechnology in which bacteria and yeast may co-exist in fermentation processes.

  6. The multiple roles of titin in muscle contraction and force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Walter

    2018-01-20

    Titin is a filamentous protein spanning the half-sarcomere, with spring-like properties in the I-band region. Various structural, signaling, and mechanical functions have been associated with titin, but not all of these are fully elucidated and accepted in the scientific community. Here, I discuss the primary mechanical functions of titin, including its accepted role in passive force production, stabilization of half-sarcomeres and sarcomeres, and its controversial contribution to residual force enhancement, passive force enhancement, energetics, and work production in shortening muscle. Finally, I provide evidence that titin is a molecular spring whose stiffness changes with muscle activation and actin-myosin-based force production, suggesting a novel model of force production that, aside from actin and myosin, includes titin as a "third contractile" filament. Using this three-filament model of sarcomeres, the stability of (half-) sarcomeres, passive force enhancement, residual force enhancement, and the decrease in metabolic energy during and following eccentric contractions can be explained readily.

  7. Use of Bone Wax During Laparoscopic Renal Ablative Procedures: Optimizing Port Utilization and Reducing Tract-Site Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Zorn, Kevin C.; Gofrit, Ofer N.; Shalhav, Arieh L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the use of a hemostatic wax sealant during laparoscopic renal ablative procedures to allow airtight transabdominal access of the treatment probe through a standard 5-mm port. Methods: Following Tru-cut biopsy of the renal mass, Bone Wax was used to occlude the external opening of an established 5-mm laparoscopic port. The cryotherapy or radiofrequency treatment probe was then passed through the waxy material and inserted appropriately into the renal lesion while pneumoper...

  8. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome, and development of SSR markers in wax gourd (Benicasa hispida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wax gourd is a widely used vegetable of Cucuribtaceae, and also has important medicinal and health values. However, the genomic resources of wax gourd were scarcity, and only a few nucleotide sequences could be obtained in public databases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we examined transcriptome in wax gourd. More than 44 million of high quality reads were generated from five different tissues of wax gourd using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 4 Gbp data were generated, and de novo assembled into 65,059 unigenes, with an N50 of 1,132 bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known protein database, 36,070 (55.4% showed significant similarity to known proteins in Nr database, and 24,969 (38.4% had BLAST hits in Swiss-Prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,994 of wax gourd unigenes were assigned to GO term annotation, and 23,977 were found to have COG classifications. In addition, a total of 18,713 unigenes were assigned to 281 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, 6,242 microsatellites (simple sequence repeats were detected as potential molecular markers in wax gourd. Two hundred primer pairs for SSRs were designed for validation of the amplification and polymorphism. The result showed that 170 of the 200 primer pairs were successfully amplified and 49 (28.8% of them exhibited polymorphisms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study enriches the genomic resources of wax gourd and provides powerful information for future studies. The availability of this ample amount of information about the transcriptome and SSRs in wax gourd could serve as valuable basis for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, molecular genetics and molecular breeding of this important vegetable crop.

  9. Effects of D-003 (sugarcane wax acids) on the physical exercise on static bicycle test

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez, Pablo; Illnait, José; Fernández, Lilia; Mesa, Meylis; Fernández, Julio; Gámez, Rafael; Más, Rosa; Gómez, Mainel; Ruiz, Dalmer; Jardines, Yunaisi

    2010-01-01

    Physical inactivity and low maximal exercise oxygen consumption (VO2max) are predictors of mortality and coronary events in adults, respectively. Lowering serum cholesterol and platelet aggregation benefits cardiovascular function in aging persons. D-003, a mixture of sugarcane wax acids, exhibits antiplatelet and cholesterol-lowering effects, and could benefit the performance of middle-aged and older subjects in effort tests. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled st...

  10. Bees wax polyphenols as suppressor of CC1--induced oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilakumar, K R; Krishna, K R S; Chandramohan, G; Khanum, F; Bawa, A S

    2007-01-01

    Bee's wax produced by honeybees is rich in polyphenols. As the polyphenols are thought to protect cell constituents against oxidative damage through scavenging of free radicals, the present work was undertaken to evaluate the effects of polyphenols extracted from bees wax on the oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) in rats. The polyphenols extracted by 80% methanol from bee wax (PBW) were fed to Wistar rats at 100 mg/kg body weight and 200 mg/kg body weight for 14 days in order to study its antioxidative and antihepatotoxic effects against CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg body weight)-induced stress. On 15th day all the rats were sacrificed, blood was collected for serum and organs/tissues were excised for biochemical analysis. The results showed a significant decrease in hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities viz. catalase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a significant increase in glutathione S-transferase (GST) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) by CCl4, probably due to the peroxidative effects. The prophylactic use of PBW at 200 mg/kg level resulted in a significant increase in CCl4-induced reduction in catalase, G-6-PDH, GSSGR and SOD. The hepatic levels of lipid peroxides viz. malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and lipid hydroperoxides, enhanced by the administration of CCl4 were brought down by the ingestion of PBW at a level of 200 mg/kg. The hepatotoxicity caused by the administration of CCl4 was reduced significantly. Hence, it is concluded that the polyphenols from bees wax exhibit hepatoprotective and antioxidative properties in

  11. Effect of expanded graphite on the phase change materials of high density polyethylene/wax blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlMaadeed, M.A., E-mail: m.alali@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, 2713 Doha (Qatar); Labidi, Sami [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, 2713 Doha (Qatar); Krupa, Igor [QAPCO Polymer Chair, Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Karkri, Mustapha [Université Paris-Est CERTES, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France)

    2015-01-20

    Highlights: • Expanded graphite (EG) and low melting point (42.3 °C) wax were added to HDPE to form phase change material. • EG was well dispersed in the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. • EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. • The addition of a relatively small quantity of EG enhances the heat conduction in the composite. • HDPE/40% RT42 that contained up to 15% EG demonstrated excellent mechanical and thermal properties and can be used as PCM. - Abstract: Phase change materials fabricated from high density polyethylene (HDPE) blended with 40 or 50 wt% commercial wax (melting point of 43.08 °C) and up to 15 wt% expanded graphite (EG) were studied. Techniques including scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and an experimental device to measure diffusivity and conductivity (DICO) were used to determine the microstructural, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites. The composites possessed good mechanical properties. Additionally, no leaching was observed during material processing or characterization. Although the Young’s modulus increased with the addition of EG, no significant changes in tensile strength were detected. The maximum Young’s modulus achieved was 650 MPa for the HDPE/40% wax composite with 15 wt% EG. The EG was well dispersed within the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. The incorporation of EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. The intensification of thermal conductivity occurred with increasing fractions of EG, which was attributed to the high thermal conductivity of graphite. The maximum quantity of heat stored by latent heat was found for the HDPE/40% wax composite with EG. The addition of a relatively small quantity

  12. Triterpenoid profile of fruit and leaf cuticular waxes of edible honeysuckle Lonicera caerulea var. kamtschatica

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał Becker; Cezary Pączkowski; Anna Szakiel

    2017-01-01

    Edible honeysuckle (honeyberry) Lonicera caerulea is becoming popular as a novel berry crop with several useful features such as early fruit ripening and exceptional hardiness, particularly resistance to pests and diseases as well as severe frosts in winter and droughts in summer. The triterpenoid profile of fruit and leaf cuticular waxes of edible honeysuckle (a Russian cultivar Chernichka) was analyzed by GC-MS. The major compounds identified were the tetracyclic triterpenoids campesterol, ...

  13. Model predictions for the WAXS signals of healthy and malignant breast duct biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, R. J.

    2014-03-01

    A wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) measurement could potentially be used to determine whether a biopsy of a breast duct is healthy or malignant. A ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) occurs when the epithelial cells lining the wall start to replicate and invade the duct interior. Since cells are composed mainly of water a WAXS signal of DCIS could contain a larger component due to water. A model approximates that a breast duct biopsy consists of connective tissue (c.t.) and cells. For a 2 mm diameter 3.81 mm thick healthy duct biopsy, the volumes in cubic mm are 11.56 c.t. and 0.41 cells whereas 6.64 c.t. and 5.33 cells for DCIS. The differential linear scattering coefficients (μs) for both types of biopsies were calculated using the sum vc.t.μsc.t. + vcellμscell where v denotes fractional volume. The cell was assumed to be composed of water, lipids (fat), and other atoms associated with RNA, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. The μscell was calculated using the sum 0.771μswater + 0.023μsfat + 0.206μsother. The μs of c.t., water, and fat were available from literature whereas the independent atomic model approximation was used to calculate values for μsother. A WAXS model provided predictions of the number of 6 degree scattered photons Ns for incident 50 kV beams on healthy and malignant ducts. The sum of Ns between 31.5 biopsies. Using Poisson statistics, two Gaussian distributions, and a descision threshold set at their intersection, the false positive and false negative probabilities were 4.7% and 5.0%. This work suggests that DCIS could potentially be diagnosed via energy dispersive WAXS measurements.

  14. Effects of Aridity and Vegetation on Plant-wax δD in Modern Lake Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polissar, P. J.; Freeman, K. H.

    2010-12-01

    Plant waxes are preserved over geologic timescales, and are found in diverse ancient sediments and soils. Observations that these molecules have hydrogen isotopic signatures that can be systematically related to that of modern precipitation have fueled aspirations to reconstruct ancient precipitation δD values. However, molecular isotopic signatures also reflect climate and plant physiological factors, and until better understood, these limit our ability to quantitatively interpret sedimentary lipid records. To advance our understanding of the influence of both ecosystem flora and climate (especially aridity) at the field scale, we analyzed the deuterium content of plant-waxes from sediments in 28 modern lakes located in watersheds which receive precipitation with a wide range of δD values, and are characterized by distinct vegetation types and regional climates. We found that the apparent isotopic fractionation (ɛa) between plant-wax n-alkanes and precipitation differs with watershed ecosystem type and structure, and decreases with increasing regional aridity as measured by enrichment of 2H and 18O associated with evaporation of lake waters. The most negative ɛa values represent signatures least affected by aridity; these values were: -125 ± 5 ‰ for tropical evergreen and dry forests, -130 ‰ for a temperate broadleaf forest, -120 ± 9 ‰ for the high-altitude tropical páramo (herbs, shrubs and grasses), and -98 ± 6 ‰ for North American montane gymnosperm forests. Minimum ɛa values reflect ecosystem-dependent differences in leaf water enrichment and soil evaporation. Slopes of lipid/lakewater isotopic enrichments differ slightly with ecosystem structure (i.e. open shrublands vs. forests) and overall are quite small (slopes = 0 to 2), indicating low sensitivity of lipid δD variations to aridity compared with coexisting lake waters. This finding provides an approach for reconstructing ancient precipitation signatures based on plant-wax

  15. Sequences of epicuticular wax structures along stems in four selected tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaszewski Dominik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wax layer formation accompanies the processes of epidermis and cuticle formation. To examine these changes, observationsalong current-year long shoots of four woody species (Acer negundo, A. rufinerve, Gymnocladus dioica, and Gingko biloba were made. Long shoots are suitable objects for such observations, because from the same stem, several samples can be obtained that represent a well-defined sequence of fragments of different ages.

  16. Preparation and evaluation of waxes/fat microspheres loaded with lithium carbonate for controlled release

    OpenAIRE

    Gowda D.; Shivakumar H

    2007-01-01

    To minimize the unwanted toxic effects of anti maniac drug lithium carbonate by kinetic control of drug release, it was entrapped into gastro resistant, biodegradable, waxes and fat such as beeswax, cetostearyl alcohol, spermaceti and cetylalcohol microspheres using meltable emulsified dispersion cooling induced solidification technique utilizing a wetting agent. Solid, discrete, reproducible free flowing microspheres were obtained. The yield of the microspheres was up to 90.0%. More t...

  17. Structural and Functional Analysis of Bacillus subtilis YisP Reveal a Role of its Product in Biofilm Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinxin; Hu, Yumei; Zheng, Yingying; Zhu, Wei; Li, Kai; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Ren, Feifei; Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Nega, Mulugeta; Bogue, Shannon; López, Daniel; Kolter, Roberto; Götz, Friedrich; Guo, Rey-Ting; Oldfield, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Summary YisP is involved in biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis and has been predicted to produce C30 isoprenoids. We determined the structure of YisP and observe that it adopts the same fold as squalene and dehydrosqualene synthases. However, the first aspartate-rich motif found in essentially all isoprenoid synthases is aspartate-poor in YisP, and cannot catalyze head-to-head condensation reactions. We find that YisP acts as a phosphatase, catalyzing formation of farnesol from farnesyl diphosphate, and is the first phosphatase to adopt the fold seen in the head-to-head prenyl synthases. Farnesol restores biofilm formation in a Δyisp mutant, and modifies lipid membrane structure similarly to the virulence factor, staphyloxanthin. The work clarifies the role of YisP in biofilm formation and suggests an intriguing possibility that many of the YisP-like homologs found in other bacteria may also have interesting products and functions. PMID:25308276

  18. Structural and functional analysis of Bacillus subtilis YisP reveals a role of its product in biofilm production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xinxin; Hu, Yumei; Zheng, Yingying; Zhu, Wei; Li, Kai; Huang, Chun-Hsiang; Ko, Tzu-Ping; Ren, Feifei; Chan, Hsiu-Chien; Nega, Mulugeta; Bogue, Shannon; López, Daniel; Kolter, Roberto; Götz, Friedrich; Guo, Rey-Ting; Oldfield, Eric

    2014-11-20

    YisP is involved in biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis and has been predicted to produce C30 isoprenoids. We determined the structure of YisP and observed that it adopts the same fold as squalene and dehydrosqualene synthases. However, the first aspartate-rich motif found in essentially all isoprenoid synthases is aspartate poor in YisP and cannot catalyze head-to-head condensation reactions. We find that YisP acts as a phosphatase, catalyzing formation of farnesol from farnesyl diphosphate, and that it is the first phosphatase to adopt the fold seen in the head-to-head prenyl synthases. Farnesol restores biofilm formation in a Δyisp mutant and modifies lipid membrane structure similarly to the virulence factor staphyloxanthin. This work clarifies the role of YisP in biofilm formation and suggests an intriguing possibility that many of the YisP-like homologs found in other bacteria may also have interesting products and functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Arabidopsis ketoacyl-CoA synthase 16 (KCS16) forms C36 /C38 acyl precursors for leaf trichome and pavement surface wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegebarth, Daniela; Buschhaus, Christopher; Joubès, Jérôme; Thoraval, Didier; Bird, David; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-09-01

    The aliphatic waxes sealing plant surfaces against environmental stress are generated by fatty acid elongase complexes, each containing a β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) enzyme that catalyses a crucial condensation forming a new C─C bond to extend the carbon backbone. The relatively high abundance of C35 and C37 alkanes derived from C36 and C38 acyl-CoAs in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes (relative to other epidermis cells) suggests differences in the elongation machineries of different epidermis cell types, possibly involving KCS16, a condensing enzyme expressed preferentially in trichomes. Here, KCS16 was found expressed primarily in Arabidopsis rosette leaves, flowers and siliques, and the corresponding protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The cuticular waxes on young leaves and isolated leaf trichomes of ksc16 loss-of-function mutants were depleted of C35 and C37 alkanes and alkenes, whereas expression of Arabidopsis KCS16 in yeast and ectopic overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in accumulation of C36 and C38 fatty acid products. Taken together, our results show that KCS16 is the sole enzyme catalysing the elongation of C34 to C38 acyl-CoAs in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes and that it contributes to the formation of extra-long compounds in adjacent pavement cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Role of cultural tourism in the marketing of local products and their reputation: the case of southern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane ABICHOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a contribution to the reflection on the local marketing of local products and their reputation front of phenomenon of globalization of agro-industrial products. It mobilizes the concept of territorial amenity as a source of licensing of a terroir and examines its potential role in consumer behavior, taking into account the individual psychological differences. Perceptions of local products by the consumer and the reasons related to the purchase of these products are analyzed. From a qualitative study we define the contours of the local product of a consumer point of view while highlighting the different motivations behind the consumption of these products.

  1. Alkanes in flower surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis influence attraction to Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, A; Sarkar, N; Barik, A

    2013-08-01

    Extraction, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed 15 alkanes representing 97.14% of the total alkanes in the surface waxes of Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng flowers. Nonacosane was the prevailing alkane followed by hexatriacontane, nonadecane, heptacosane, and hentriacontane, accounting for 39.08%, 24.24%, 13.52%, 6.32%, and 5.12%, respectively. The alkanes from flower surface waxes followed by a synthetic mixture of alkanes mimicking alkanes of flower surface waxes elicited attraction of the female insect, Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) between 2 and 10-μg/mL concentrations in a Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassay under laboratory conditions. Synthetic nonadecane from 178.28-891.37 ng, heptacosane from 118.14-590.72 ng, and nonacosane at 784.73 ng showed attraction of the insect. A synthetic mixture of 534.82 ng nonadecane, 354.43 ng heptacosane, and 2,354.18 ng nonacosane elicited highest attraction of A. foveicollis.

  2. Composition of secondary alcohols, ketones, alkanediols, and ketols in Arabidopsis thaliana cuticular waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Miao; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis wax components containing secondary functional groups were examined (i) to test the biosynthetic relationship between secondary alcohols and ketols and (ii) to determine the regiospecificity and substrate preference of the enzyme involved in ketol biosynthesis. The stem wax of Arabidopsis wild type contained homologous series of C27 to C31 secondary alcohols (2.4 μg cm−2) and C28 to C30 ketones (6.0 μg cm−2) dominated by C29 homologues. In addition, compound classes containing two secondary functional groups were identified as C29 diols (∼0.05 μg cm−2) and ketols (∼0.16 μg cm−2). All four compound classes showed characteristic isomer distributions, with functional groups located between C-14 and C-16. In the mah1 mutant stem wax, diols and ketols could not be detected, while the amounts of secondary alcohols and ketones were drastically reduced. In two MAH1-overexpressing lines, equal amounts of C29 and C31 secondary alcohols were detected. Based on the comparison of homologue and isomer compositions between the different genotypes, it can be concluded that biosynthetic pathways lead from alkanes to secondary alcohols, and via ketones or diols to ketols. It seems plausible that MAH1 is the hydroxylase enzyme involved in all these conversions in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:19346242

  3. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  4. Application of carnauba-based wax maintains postharvest quality of 'Ortanique' tangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ligia de Castro Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating compositional changes in the quality of 'Ortanique' tangor after coating with the carnauba-based waxes Aruá Tropical® or Star Light®. The storage conditions studied simulated those of local marketing (22 ± 2 °C, 60 ± 5% RH. Non-destructive analysis, mass loss, peel color, and sensory evaluation, were performed upon coating and every three days up to the fifteenth day of storage. Destructive analysis, peel moisture content, chlorophyll of the peel, pulp color, juice content, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, pH, and soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio, were performed upon coating and every four days up to the sixteenth day of storage. The assay was conducted using an entirely randomized design, with three replications (destructive analyses or ten replications (non-destructive analyses, in a split plot scheme. Wax-coating, especially Aruá Tropical®, maintained fruit freshness by reducing mass loss and peel dehydration and retaining green color. Peel moisture content, chlorophyll content, and juice content had lower rates in the wax coated fruits. Puncture force, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, and soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio varied vary little over the course of storage. Sensory evaluation showed that the application of Aruá Tropical keeps 'Ortanique' tangor fresher for 6 days longer for commercialization.

  5. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Díaz Napal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera. The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1. The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50 of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm2, respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm2, respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm2 or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50 of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm2 for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  6. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Napal, Georgina; Carpinella, María C; Palacios, Sara M

    2016-08-11

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae) led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae) and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera). The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1). The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50) of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm², respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm², respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm² or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50) of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm² for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  7. Micro- and nanoscale structures of mesiodens dentin: Combined study of FTIR and SAXS/WAXS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgun, Ozlem Marti; Bayari, Sevgi Haman; Ide, Semra; Polat, Günseli Guven; Kalkhoran, Ilghar Orujalipoor

    2015-01-01

    A mesiodens is the most common type of supernumerary tooth present in conjunction to normal dentition. A mesiodens may commonly occur in the central region of the upper or lower jaw. A mesiodens is different from normal teeth in terms of structure and shape. The aim of this study is to evaluate the micro- and nanoscale structural properties of mesiodens dentin by combined small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS/WAXS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Five freshly extracted, noncarious mesiodens and five normal dentin disks prepared from human incisor teeth were compared. Using FTIR, the phosphate-to-amide I, carbonate-to-phosphate, and carbonate-to-amide I band area ratios and the crystallinity index were quantified. SAXS/WAXS were used to study the nanostructure of mesiodens. An increase in the mineral content in the mesiodens dentin with respect to the normal group was found. Crystallinity was also significantly increased and the protein content decreased in the mesiodens dentin compared with that of normal dentin. SAXS/WAXS results revealed that mesiodens dentin has a more calcified tissue. Further, SAXS analysis revealed a nonuniform distribution of dentin fibrils in mesiodens. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan A,

    2011-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that replacing a wax PCM heat sink with a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by eliminating the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively.

  9. Safety and efficacy of bone wax in patients on oral anticoagulant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marta; Krasny, Kornel; Fiedor, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular conditions, apart from neoplastic diseases, remain the major cause of death in developed countries; therefore, the number of patients receiving oral anticoagulants is constantly increasing. Anticoagulant therapy considerably reduced mortality in patients with history of myocardial infarction among others. Although many interventions may be performed without withdrawal of the anticoagulant and tooth extraction was qualified as a procedure of low hemorrhage risk, a majority of dentists refer the patient to a cardiologist several days before the elective tooth extraction to withdraw anticoagulants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of bone wax used to stop bleeding after dental procedures in a group of patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy and find an answer to a question, whether it is justified to temporarily withdraw anticoagulants for this type of procedures. The study involved 176 patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy undergoing tooth extraction (154 subjects) or surgical extraction of a retained tooth (48 subjects). After the procedure, in each case the alveolus was filled with bone wax to stop bleeding. In all patients involved in the study bleeding from the alveolus was successfully stopped during the procedure. None of the subjects reported increased bleeding from the operational site after coming back home. Bone wax is a good, efficient, and safe material to block bleeding from the alveolus following tooth extractions, also in patients on chronic anticoagulant therapy. The study demonstrated that withdrawal or adjustment of anticoagulant therapy is not necessary before an elective tooth extraction.

  10. Enhanced Thermo-Optical Switching of Paraffin-Wax Composite Spots under Laser Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Asmaa; Salah, Abeer; Fattah, Gamal Abdel

    2017-05-12

    Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin's rather low thermal conductivity. In this paper, the use of different carbon fillers as thermal conductivity enhancers for paraffin has been investigated, and a novel structure based on spot of paraffin wax as a thermo-optic switch is presented. Thermo-optical switching parameters are enhanced with the addition of graphite and graphene, due to the extreme thermal conductivity of the carbon fillers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) are performed on paraffin wax composites, and specific heat capacities are calculated based on DSC measurements. Thermo-optical switching based on transmission is measured as a function of the host concentration under conventional electric heating and laser heating of paraffin-carbon fillers composites. Further enhancements in thermo-optical switching parameters are studied under Nd:YAG laser heating. This novel structure can be used in future networks with huge bandwidth requirements and electric noise free remote aerial laser switching applications.

  11. An oral controlled release system for ambroxol hydrochloride containing a wax and a water insoluble polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Na; Guo, Ju Hong; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Tang, Xing

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to develop and optimize oral sustained-release formulations for Ambroxol hydrochloride matrix pellets using a combination of wax and water-insoluble polymer, glyceryl behenate (Compritol 888 ATO) and Ethylcellulose (EC(7 FP)). It involved three factors: the content of Compritol 888 ATO (X(1)), EC(7 FP) (X(2)), and the matrix formation methods (X(3)), as independent variables. The drug release percentages at 1, 2 and 4 h were the target responses and were restricted to 15-45% (Y(1)), 45-80% (Y(2)) and 80-100% (Y(3)), respectively. The final blend formulation prepared by extrusion spheronization, was achieved with 27.00% (w/w) Ambroxol hydrochloride, 48.70% (w/w) Compritol 888 ATO, and 24.30% (w/w) EC(7 Fp) with 40 degrees C for 12 h. Comparing the single matrix materials consisting of just the wax or water-insoluble in the complex matrix system containing wax and water-insoluble polymer, the release of the drug can be far more retarded, when the formulations have undergone the process of heat treatment. Furthermore, the combination of the two polymers, with flexible matrix formation methods, will offer a very promising way of producing matrix pellets instead of coated controlled-release pellets to meet various demands of drug release.

  12. Anti-adhesive effects of plant wax coverage on insect attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorb, Elena V; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2017-11-09

    The long period of reciprocal antagonistic coevolution between some insect and plant species has led to the development of plant surface attributes that reduce insect attachment. These features serve as a defence against herbivores, sap-sucking insects and nectar robbers, contribute to a temporary capture of insect pollinators, and prevent the escape of insects from traps of carnivorous plants. This review summarises the literature on attachment-mediated insect-plant interactions. A short introduction to attachment systems of insects is presented and the effect of three-dimensional epicuticular waxes on insect attachment is illustrated by many examples. Special attention is given to the mechanisms of the anti-attachment properties of plant wax structures (the roughness hypothesis, the contamination hypothesis, the fluid-adsorption hypothesis, and the wax-dissolving hypothesis) and their ecological implications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Separation of boron from borated paraffin wax by pyrohydrolysis and alkali extraction methods and its determination using ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raut, Vaibhavi Vishwajeet; Jeyakumar, Subbiah; Shah, Dipti Jayesh; Thakur, Uday Kumar; Tomar, Bhupendra Singh; Ramakumar, Karanam Lakshminarayana

    2015-01-01

    A method based on the pyrohydrolysis extraction of boron and its quantification with ion chromatography was proposed for paraffin waxes borated with H3BO3 and B4C. The optimum pyrohydrolysis conditions were identified. Wax samples were mixed with U3O8, which prevents the sample from flare up, and also accelerates the extraction of boron. Pyrohydrolysis was carried out with moist O2 at 950°C for 60 and 90 min for wax with H3BO3 and wax with B4C, respectively. Two simple methods of separation based on alkali extraction and melting wax in alkali were also developed exclusively for wax with H3BO3. In all the separations, the recovery of B was above 98%. During IC separation, B was separated as boron-mannitol anion complex. Linear calibration was obtained it between 0.1 and 50 ppm of B, and LOD was calculated as 5 ppb (S/N = 3). The reproducibility was better than 5% (RSD).

  14. The role of ethnic identity and perceived ethnic norms in the purchase of ethnical food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrus, Giuseppe; Nenci, Anna Maria; Caddeo, Pierluigi

    2009-02-01

    The role of group and individual variables in the purchasing of ethnical food products was tested through an extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) model. A total of 100 Indian female immigrants, living in Rome, Italy, were administered a self-reported questionnaire measuring the classical TPB variables (attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, behavioral intentions and self-reported behaviors) plus 3 additional variables: identification with the Indian ethnic group, perceived norms of the Indian ethnic group, and past behavior. Results confirmed that the new variables introduced are distinct from the original TPB components. As expected, variables at both the individual and group level play a role in predicting purchasing of ethnical foods products. Hierarchical multiple regressions showed that past behavior, ethnical identification, and perceived group norms explain an additional proportion of variance in intentions and self-reported behaviors, independently of attitudes, subjective norms and perceived control. A significant 2-way interaction between ethnical identification and perceived group norms was also detected: as predicted, the highest levels of ethnical food purchasing behavior were reported by high ethnical identifiers with stronger ethnical group norms, while the lowest levels were reported by low ethnical identifiers with weaker ethnical group norms. Theoretical and practical implications of results are discussed.

  15. Role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and oxidative stress in vascular complications in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Sho-ichi; Maeda, Sayaka; Matsui, Takanori; Ueda, Seiji; Fukami, Kei; Okuda, Seiya

    2012-05-01

    A non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and amino groups of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids contributes to the aging of macromolecules, whose process has been known to progress at an accelerated rate under hyperglycemic and/or oxidative stress conditions. Over a course of days to weeks, early glycation products undergo further reactions such as rearrangements and dehydration to become irreversibly cross-linked, fluorescent protein derivatives termed advanced glycation end products (AGEs). In this paper, we review the role of AGE-oxidative stress axis and its therapeutic interventions in vascular complications in diabetes. AGEs elicit oxidative stress generation and subsequently cause inflammatory and thrombogenic reactions in various types of cells via interaction with a receptor for AGEs (RAGE), thereby being involved in vascular complications in diabetes. In addition, mitochondrial superoxide generation has been shown to play an important role in the formation and accumulation of AGEs under diabetic conditions. Further, we have recently found that a pathophysiological crosstalk between AGE-RAGE axis and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could contribute to the progression of vascular damage in diabetes. These observations suggest that inhibition of AGE-RAGE-oxidative stress axis or blockade of its interaction with RAS is a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing vascular complications in diabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Role of Information Technology in Building up Knowledge Economy Producting and using Information in Libraries and Information Centers

    OpenAIRE

    Dr I. Mohssin; NedaL AL-Ahmad

    2005-01-01

    The study reveals the relation between information production processes and building up knowledge economy and clarifies the role of libraries and Information Technology in producing information for the purpose of using it in bulking up knowledge economy.

  17. Role of fatty acid composites in the toxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles used in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, JuOae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Alsulimani, Helal Hussain; Choi, Jee Eun; Lee, Joo-Kyung; Kim, AhYoung; Park, Bae Ho; Kim, Jonghan; Lee, HeaYeon

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in the cosmetic industry results in products with better efficacy and functionality. However, recent advances in molecular toxicology have revealed that NP exposure can promote cytotoxicity and oxidative damage, which has raised health concerns in the use of NPs in personal care products. Nevertheless, the mechanistic basis for the toxicity and safety of cosmetic NPs is poorly understood. The goal of the study was to determine the cytotoxicity and intracellular distribution of titanium dioxide (TiO2) NPs containing fatty acid composites (palmitoleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid and oleic acid) commonly used in cosmetic products. Two types of cells, human fibroblast skin cells and adenocarcinoma lung cells, were exposed to either bare TiO2 NPs or TiO2 NPs mixed with fatty acids for up to 48 hr. NMR analysis confirmed that the fatty acid composites remained in the NPs after wash. The cytotoxicity of TiO2 NPs was determined by cell viability measurement using quantitative confocal microscopy, and the localization of two different forms of TiO2 NPs were assessed using electron spectroscopic imaging with transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 NPs containing fatty acids posed significantly reduced cytotoxicity (80-88% decreases) than bare NPs in both cell types. Furthermore, there was less intracellular penetration of the NPs containing fatty acid composites compared with bare NPs. These results provide important insights into the role of fatty acids in protecting the cells from possible toxicity caused by NPs used in the production of cosmetic products.

  18. Role of plant expression systems in antibody production for passive immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdi, Vikram; Depicker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunization is a method to achieve immediate protection against infectious agents by administering pathogen-specific antibodies. It has proven to be lifesaving for many acute infections, and it is now also used for cancer treatment. Passive immunization therapies, however, are extremely expensive because they require large amounts of specific antibodies that are produced predominantly in mammalian expression systems. The cost for manufacturing plant-made antibodies is estimated to be comparatively low since plant production systems require relatively less capital investments. In addition, they are not prone to mammalian pathogens, which also eases downstream processing along with making it a safe expression system. Moreover, some of the recent developments in transient expression have enabled rapid, cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practices) compliant manufacturing of antibodies. Whether lower production costs will be reflected in a lower market price for purified antibodies will be known when more plant-produced antibodies come to the market. Promisingly, the current molecular techniques in the field of in planta expression have enabled high-level production of a variety of antibodies in different plant organs, like roots/tubers/fruits, leaves and seeds, of a variety of plants, like potato, tobacco, maize, rice, tomato and pea, providing a very wide range of possible plant-based passive immunization therapies. For instance, the production of antibodies in edible tissues would allow for a unique, convenient, needle-less, oral passive immunization at the gastric mucosal surface. The technological advances, together with the innate capacity of plant tissues to assemble complex antibodies, will enable carving a niche in the antibody market. This non-exhaustive review aims to shed light on the role of plants as a flexible expression system for passive immunotherapy, which we envisage to progress alongside the conventional production platforms to manufacture

  19. Modeling the role of nitrification in open ocean productivity and the nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yool, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The ocean is an important component of the global carbon cycle, and currently serves as the principal sink for anthropogenic CO(2) from the atmosphere. A key role in the natural oceanic carbon cycle is played by the plankton ecosystem, which acts to elevate the storage capacity of the ocean, but it is believed that this will experience change in the future in response to anthropogenic forcing. One of the approaches used to understand and forecast the oceanic carbon cycle is ecosystem modeling, and this is typically grounded on the nitrogen cycle because of the strong regulatory role this element plays in biological productivity. Nitrification is one of the central processes in the oceanic nitrogen cycle, one whose role may change in the future, but also one with a particular relevance to observational efforts to quantify the biological carbon cycle. Here, we describe and summarize current efforts to model nitrification in pelagic open ocean ecosystems, and look forward to future avenues for progress. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Leaf Wax δ13C Varies with Elevation in the Peruvian Andes and Western Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M. S.; Feakins, S. J.; Ponton, C.; Peters, T.; West, A. J.; Galy, V.; Bentley, L. P.; Salinas, N.; Shenkin, A.; Martin, R.; Asner, G. P.; Malhi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Plant leaf wax carbon isotopic composition (δ13Cwax) reflects the net isotopic effects associated with diffusion into the leaf, fixation of carbon by Rubisco and biosynthesis of individual leaf wax biochemicals. As declining pCO2 with elevation affects the first two fractionations, we expect to find an isotopic gradient in δ13Cwax, if the fractionation of leaf wax biosynthesis is constant. To test this, we report δ13Cwax values from 500 samples of leaves collected by tree-climbers from the upper canopy from 9 forest-inventory plots spanning a 3.5km elevation transect in the Peruvian Andes and western Amazonia during the CHAMBASA field campaign. These samples provide a unique opportunity to study the relationship between δ13Cwax and pCO2 in diverse species across this remote tropical montane forest and lowland rainforest. The very wet climate throughout (2-5 m rainfall per year) minimizes fractionation effects due to stomatal restrictions (i.e. water use efficiency) that may be an important factor elsewhere. Preliminary results show δ13Cwax values on average increase with elevation by ~1.5‰/km, a trend consistent with bulk plant δ13C in previous studies. The mean epsilon between bulk and C29 n-alkane is -7.3±2.2‰. Inter-sample differences are large on the order of 10‰. Shaded leaves and understory leaves are found to be depleted relative to sunlit leaves, presumably due to a lower photosynthetic rate and use of respired CO2 in the understory. C29 n-alkanes are on average ~2.5‰ more depleted than C30 n-alkanoic acids, indicating fractionation during selective decarboxylation. We further compare results from plants with soil and river sediments to provide insights into how leaf wax signals are archived in soils and exported from the landscape. We find a ~1.4‰/km gradient in forest soils similar to plants. We observe a ~2‰ offset between C29 n-alkane in plant leaves and in soils across the elevation profile, which is likely a signal of degradation