WorldWideScience

Sample records for wax production role

  1. Oils; lubricants; paraffin-wax compositions; hydrocarbon condensation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1934-04-04

    Petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, kerosene, Diesel fuel oil, lubricating-oil, and paraffin wax, and like hydrocarbons such as are obtainable from shale oil and by the hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials, are improved by addition of products obtained by condensing a cyclic hydrocarbon with a saturated dihalogen derivative of an aliphatic hydrocarbon containing less than five carbon atoms. The addition of the condensation products increases the viscosity of the hydrocarbon oils specified, and is particularly useful in the case of lubricating-oils; addition of the condensation products to paraffin wax increases the transparency and adherent properties of the wax, and is useful in the manufacture of moulded articles such as candles; the products may also be used in solid lubricating-compositions.

  2. A news magnetic tools designed by ECOPETROL to inhibit wax in the petroleum production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez U, C.; Medina Z, C. [ECOPETROL, Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (Colombia); Pena C, A. [INSERPET, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1996-12-31

    The deposition of wax and asphaltenes in production systems cause plugging in the flow lines reducing the oil production and increasing significantly the produced barrels prices. A wax magnetic inhibition technique has been tested with great success. The method has been improved with the use of magnetic tools. This work describes the experience and the results obtained with these tools. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. A news magnetic tools designed by ECOPETROL to inhibit wax in the petroleum production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelaez U, C; Medina Z, C [ECOPETROL, Instituto Colombiano del Petroleo (Colombia); Pena C, A [INSERPET, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    1997-12-31

    The deposition of wax and asphaltenes in production systems cause plugging in the flow lines reducing the oil production and increasing significantly the produced barrels prices. A wax magnetic inhibition technique has been tested with great success. The method has been improved with the use of magnetic tools. This work describes the experience and the results obtained with these tools. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Evaluation of Wax Deposition and Its Control During Production of Alaska North Slope Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao Zhu; Jack A. Walker; J. Liang

    2008-12-31

    Due to increasing oil demand, oil companies are moving into arctic environments and deep-water areas for oil production. In these regions of lower temperatures, wax deposits begin to form when the temperature in the wellbore falls below wax appearance temperature (WAT). This condition leads to reduced production rates and larger pressure drops. Wax problems in production wells are very costly due to production down time for removal of wax. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a solution to wax deposition. In order to develop a solution to wax deposition, it is essential to characterize the crude oil and study phase behavior properties. The main objective of this project was to characterize Alaskan North Slope crude oil and study the phase behavior, which was further used to develop a dynamic wax deposition model. This report summarizes the results of the various experimental studies. The subtasks completed during this study include measurement of density, molecular weight, viscosity, pour point, wax appearance temperature, wax content, rate of wax deposition using cold finger, compositional characterization of crude oil and wax obtained from wax content, gas-oil ratio, and phase behavior experiments including constant composition expansion and differential liberation. Also, included in this report is the development of a thermodynamic model to predict wax precipitation. From the experimental study of wax appearance temperature, it was found that wax can start to precipitate at temperatures as high as 40.6 C. The WAT obtained from cross-polar microscopy and viscometry was compared, and it was discovered that WAT from viscometry is overestimated. From the pour point experiment it was found that crude oil can cease to flow at a temperature of 12 C. From the experimental results of wax content, it is evident that the wax content in Alaskan North Slope crude oil can be as high as 28.57%. The highest gas-oil ratio for a live oil sample was observed to be 619.26 SCF

  5. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  6. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

    2004-03-31

    In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of production since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase FTS. The separation problem is further compounded by catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. Existing pilot-scale equipment was modified to include a filtration test apparatus. After undergoing an extensive plant shakedown period, filtration tests with cross-flow filter modules using simulant FTS wax slurry were conducted. The focus of these early tests was to find adequate mixtures of polyethylene wax to simulate FTS wax. Catalyst particle size analysis techniques were also developed. Initial analyses of the slurry and filter permeate particles will be used by the research team to design improved filter media and cleaning strategies.

  7. Role of needle surface waxes in dynamic exchange of mono- and sesquiterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joensuu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs produced by plants have a major role in atmospheric chemistry. The different physicochemical properties of BVOCs affect their transport within and out of the plant as well as their reactions along the way. Some of these compounds may accumulate in or on the waxy surface layer of conifer needles and participate in chemical reactions on or near the foliage surface. The aim of this work was to determine whether terpenes, a key category of BVOCs produced by trees, can be found on the epicuticles of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and, if so, how they compare with the terpenes found in shoot emissions of the same tree. We measured shoot-level emissions of pine seedlings at a remote outdoor location in central Finland and subsequently analysed the needle surface waxes for the same compounds. Both emissions and wax extracts were clearly dominated by monoterpenes, but the proportion of sesquiterpenes was higher in the wax extracts. There were also differences in the terpene spectra of the emissions and the wax extracts. The results, therefore, support the existence of BVOC associated to the epicuticular waxes. We briefly discuss the different pathways for terpenes to reach the needle surfaces and the implications for air chemistry.

  8. Crystallography of waxes - an electron diffraction study of refined and natural products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1997-02-01

    The crystal structure of four waxes has been investigated by electron crystallography. Two of these waxes, including a refined petroleum product (Gulfwax) and a material from lignite (montan wax), form well ordered crystals and their structure could be solved quantitatively from the observed 0022-3727/30/3/018/img1 diffraction patterns. As also found previously for simpler binary n-paraffin solid solutions, the average structure resembles that of a pure paraffin (e.g. n-0022-3727/30/3/018/img2) but with a Gaussian distribution of atomic occupancies near the chain ends to account for the statistical distribution of chain lengths within a lamella. Two other waxes from living organisms, South African bee honeycomb and the leaves of the Brazilian carnauba palm, are much less ordered, even though they share the same methylene subcell packing of the most crystalline parts of the previous materials. It appears that these waxes cannot fully separate into distinct lamellae, perhaps due to the presence of very long `tie' molecules, and are therefore `frustrated' crystal structures.

  9. Purification of a jojoba embryo wax synthase, cloning of its cDNA, and production of high levels of wax in seeds of transgenic arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardizabal, K D; Metz, J G; Sakamoto, T; Hutton, W C; Pollard, M R; Lassner, M W

    2000-03-01

    Wax synthase (WS, fatty acyl-coenzyme A [coA]: fatty alcohol acyltransferase) catalyzes the final step in the synthesis of linear esters (waxes) that accumulate in seeds of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis). We have characterized and partially purified this enzyme from developing jojoba embryos. A protein whose presence correlated with WS activity during chromatographic fractionation was identified and a cDNA encoding that protein was cloned. Seed-specific expression of the cDNA in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred high levels of WS activity on developing embryos from those plants. The WS sequence has significant homology with several Arabidopsis open reading frames of unknown function. Wax production in jojoba requires, in addition to WS, a fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and an efficient fatty acid elongase system that forms the substrates preferred by the FAR. We have expressed the jojoba WS cDNA in Arabidopsis in combination with cDNAs encoding the jojoba FAR and a beta-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (a component of fatty acid elongase) from Lunaria annua. (13)C-Nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of pooled whole seeds from transgenic plants indicated that as many as 49% of the oil molecules in the seeds were waxes. Gas chromatography analysis of transmethylated oil from individual seeds suggested that wax levels may represent up to 70% (by weight) of the oil present in those seeds.

  10. Production of wax esters via microbial oil synthesis from food industry waste and by-product streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, Aikaterini; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Efthymiou, Maria-Nefeli; Gardeli, Chryssavgi; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Aguieiras, Erika C G; Freire, Denise M G; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis A

    2017-12-01

    The production of wax esters using microbial oils was demonstrated in this study. Microbial oils produced from food waste and by-product streams by three oleaginous yeasts were converted into wax esters via enzymatic catalysis. Palm oil was initially used to evaluate the influence of temperature and enzyme activity on wax ester synthesis catalysed by Novozyme 435 and Lipozyme lipases using cetyl, oleyl and behenyl alcohols. The highest conversion yields (up to 79.6%) were achieved using 4U/g of Novozyme 435 at 70°C. Transesterification of microbial oils to behenyl and cetyl esters was achieved at conversion yields up to 87.3% and 69.1%, respectively. Novozyme 435 was efficiently reused for six and three cycles during palm esters and microbial esters synthesis, respectively. The physicochemical properties of microbial oil derived behenyl esters were comparable to natural waxes. Wax esters from microbial oils have potential applications in cosmetics, chemical and food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of new type of synthetic waxes on reduced production and compaction temperature of asphalt mixture with reclaimed asphalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentová, Tereza; Benešová, Lucie; Mastný, Jan; Valentin, Jan

    2017-09-01

    Lower mixing and paving temperatures of asphalt mixtures, which are an important issue in recent years, with respect to increased energy demand of civil engineering structures during their processing, allow reduction of this demand and result in minimized greenhouse gas production. In present time, there are many possibilities how to achieve reduction of production temperature during the mixing and paving of an asphalt mixture. The existing solutions distinguish in target operating temperature behaviour which has to be achieved in terms of good workability. This paper is focused on technical solutions based on use of new types of selected synthetic and bio-based waxes. In case of bio-based additive sugar cane wax was used, which is free of paraffins and is reclaimed as waste product during processing of sugar cane. The used waxes are added to bituminous binder in form of free-flowing granules or fine-grained powder. Synthetic waxes are represented by new series of Fischer-Tropsch wax in form of fine granules as well as by polyethylene waxes in form of fine-grained powder or granules. Those waxes were used to modify a standard paving grade bitumen dosed into asphalt mixture of ACsurf type containing up to 30 % of reclaimed asphalt (RA).

  12. Ear wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    See your provider if your ears are blocked with wax and you are unable to remove the wax. Also call if you have an ear wax blockage and you develop new symptoms, such as: Drainage from the ear Ear pain Fever Hearing loss that continues after you clean the wax

  13. Oleogels of virgin olive oil with carnauba wax and monoglyceride as spreadable products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öǧütcü, M.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The oleogels of virgin olive oil with carnauba wax and monoglyceride were prepared to determine the most suitable spreadable product. The oil binding capacities of monoglyceride oleogels were higher than those of the carnauba wax oleogels. There was no true crystalline structure with carnauba wax at 3%. Although the highest solid fat content was in the 10% monoglyceride oleogel (9.38%, it was 12.15% in the commercial breakfast margarine at 20 °C. The peak melting temperature of the margarine was 47.11 °C, and among all oleogels, monoglyceride oleogel at 7% addition had the closest value (48.70 °C. The melting enthalpies of the oleogels ranged from 1.25 to 103.97 J·g−1, while it was 94.19 J·g−1 for the margarine sample. The firmness and stickiness values were usually lower in the oleogel samples than those of the margarine sample. There was no significant change in the texture parameters during storage, indicating good structural stability. The polarized light microscopy pictures revealed rod-like crystals for carnauba wax and rosette-like aggregates for monoglyceride oleogels. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples have revealed a β´-type polymorphic structure for the oleogels. These oleogels can be used in a spreadable, breakfast margarin-like product to promote new consumption habits for this healthy oil.Se prepararon oleogeles de aceites de oliva virgen con cera de carnaúba y monoglicéridos para encontrar el producto más adecuado para untar. La capacidad de unión de aceites de oleogeles de monoglicéridos fue más alto que el de los oleogeles de cera de carnaúba. No hubo ninguna estructura cristalina verdadera con cera de carnaúba al 3%. Aunque el mayor contenido de grasa sólida fue con el 10 % de oleogeles de monoglicérido (9,38 %, fue del 12.15 % en el de margarina comercial a 20 °C. La temperatura pico de fusión de la margarina fue 47,11 ºC, y entre todos los oleogeles, los de monoglicérido al 7 % tuvo el valor m

  14. 21 CFR 178.3710 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Petroleum wax. 178.3710 Section 178.3710 Food and... and Production Aids § 178.3710 Petroleum wax. Petroleum wax may be safely used as a component of nonfood articles in contact with food, in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Petroleum wax is a...

  15. The Role of Reactive Iron in Organic Carbon Burial of the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, T. S.; Shields, M. R.; Gelinas, Y.; Allison, M. A.; Twilley, R.

    2016-02-01

    Deltaic systems are responsible for 41% of the total organic carbon buried on continental shelves (Smith et al., 2015). Furthermore, 21.5 ± 8.6% of the organic carbon in marine sediments is reported to be associated to reactive iron phases (Lalonde et al., 2012). Here, we examine the role of reactive iron in preserving organic carbon across a chronosequence in deltaic soils/sediments of the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana. This prograding delta is part of the youngest subdelta of the Mississippi River Delta and serves as a model for deltas in an active progradational stage. We report the proportion, δ13C, lignin phenol content, and fatty acid content of organic carbon associated to iron in three unique environments along the delta topset. We found that over 15 % of the organic carbon in the top 0.5 meters was associated to reactive iron phases at our sampling locations. However, this amount varied between the mudflat, meadow, and canopy dominated sites. Moreover, the type of binding shifts from 1:1 sorption in the sediment dominated (mudflat) region to chelation/co-precipitation in the more soil-dominated regions. Acidic lignin phenols are preferentially sorbed in the mudflat region, which likely occurs pre-depositionally. These results add to our knowledge of the carbon burial processes in young deltas and present new questions about the selective preservation of organic compounds in deltaic sediments.

  16. Diversity of cuticular wax among Salix species and Populus species hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Bevilacqua, Eddie; Smart, Lawrence B

    2002-08-01

    The leaf cuticular waxes of three Salix species and two Populus species hybrids, selected for their ability to produce high amounts of biomass, were characterized. Samples were extracted in CH(2)Cl(2) three times over the growing season. Low kV SEM was utilized to observe differences in the ultrastructure of leaf surfaces from each clone. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups, and the variation in wax components due to clone, sample time, and their interaction was identified. All Salix species and Populus species hybrids showed differences in total wax load at each sampling period, whereas the pattern of wax deposition over time differed only between the Salix species. A strong positive relationship was identified between the entire homologous series of alcohols and total wax load in all clones. Similarly strong relationships were observed between fatty acids and total wax load as well as fatty acids and alcohols in two Salix species and one Populus species hybrid. One Salix species, S. dasyclados, also displayed a strong positive relationship between alcohols and alkanes. These data indicate that species grown under the same environmental conditions produce measurably different cuticular waxes and that regulation of wax production appears to be different in each species. The important roles cuticular waxes play in drought tolerance, pest, and pathogen resistance, as well as the ease of wax extraction and analysis, strongly suggest that the characteristics of the cuticular wax may prove to be useful selectable traits in a breeding program.

  17. Functional expression and characterization of five wax ester synthases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and their utility for biodiesel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Shuobo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wax ester synthases (WSs can synthesize wax esters from alcohols and fatty acyl coenzyme A thioesters. The knowledge of the preferred substrates for each WS allows the use of yeast cells for the production of wax esters that are high-value materials and can be used in a variety of industrial applications. The products of WSs include fatty acid ethyl esters, which can be directly used as biodiesel. Results Here, heterologous WSs derived from five different organisms were successfully expressed and evaluated for their substrate preference in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We investigated the potential of the different WSs for biodiesel (that is, fatty acid ethyl esters production in S. cerevisiae. All investigated WSs, from Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798, Rhodococcus opacus PD630, Mus musculus C57BL/6 and Psychrobacter arcticus 273-4, have different substrate specificities, but they can all lead to the formation of biodiesel. The best biodiesel producing strain was found to be the one expressing WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus DSM 8798 that resulted in a biodiesel titer of 6.3 mg/L. To further enhance biodiesel production, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase was up-regulated, which resulted in a 30% increase in biodiesel production. Conclusions Five WSs from different species were functionally expressed and their substrate preference characterized in S. cerevisiae, thus constructing cell factories for the production of specific kinds of wax ester. WS from M. hydrocarbonoclasticus showed the highest preference for ethanol compared to the other WSs, and could permit the engineered S. cerevisiae to produce biodiesel.

  18. Oxidized Polyethylene Wax as a Potential Carbon Source for PHA Production

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    Iza Radecka

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We report on the ability of bacteria to produce biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA using oxidized polyethylene wax (O-PEW as a novel carbon source. The O-PEW was obtained in a process that used air or oxygen as an oxidizing agent. R. eutropha H16 was grown for 48 h in either tryptone soya broth (TSB or basal salts medium (BSM supplemented with O-PEW and monitored by viable counting. Study revealed that biomass and PHA production was higher in TSB supplemented with O-PEW compared with TSB only. The biopolymers obtained were preliminary characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The detailed structural evaluation at the molecular level was performed by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS. The study revealed that, when TSB was supplemented with O-PEW, bacteria produced PHA which contained 3-hydroxybutyrate and up to 3 mol % of 3-hydroxyvalerate and 3-hydroxyhexanoate co-monomeric units. The ESI-MS/MS enabled the PHA characterization when the content of 3-hydroxybutyrate was high and the appearance of other PHA repeating units was very low.

  19. THERMOLYSIS OF FOAM PRODUCTS FORMED AT THE FLOTATION EXTRACTION OF COPPER AND NICKEL IONS BY HELP OF WAX PEAT

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    V. F. Sazonova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There thermogravimetric study of foam product at the flotation extraction of cop­per and nickel ions by wax peat results are described. It shown that oxidizing roasting of foam products (i.e. hydrated soaps of polyvalent metals proceeds in several steps. At the first step (t<100 °С dehydration takes place. At the next ones (t=160^665 °С The thermic destruction and burning of organic compounds occurs. The residue is the of metal oxides.

  20. 21 CFR 582.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Carnauba wax. 582.1978 Section 582.1978 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Product. Carnauba wax. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  1. Role of Wax Ester Synthase/Acyl Coenzyme A:Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase in Oleaginous Streptomyces sp. Strain G25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röttig, Annika; Strittmatter, Carl Simon; Schauer, Jennifer; Hiessl, Sebastian; Daniel, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recently, we isolated a novel Streptomyces strain which can accumulate extraordinarily large amounts of triacylglycerol (TAG) and consists of 64% fatty acids (dry weight) when cultivated with glucose and 50% fatty acids (dry weight) when cultivated with cellobiose. To identify putative gene products responsible for lipid storage and cellobiose utilization, we analyzed its draft genome sequence. A single gene encoding a wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT) was identified and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzyme AtfG25 showed acyltransferase activity with C12- or C16-acyl-CoA, C12 to C18 alcohols, or dipalmitoyl glycerol. This acyltransferase exhibits 24% amino acid identity to the model enzyme AtfA from Acinetobacter baylyi but has high sequence similarities to WS/DGATs from other Streptomyces species. To investigate the impact of AtfG25 on lipid accumulation, the respective gene, atfG25, was inactivated in Streptomyces sp. strain G25. However, cells of the insertion mutant still exhibited DGAT activity and were able to store TAG, albeit in lower quantities and at lower rates than the wild-type strain. These findings clearly indicate that AtfG25 has an important, but not exclusive, role in TAG biosynthesis in the novel Streptomyces isolate and suggest the presence of alternative metabolic pathways for lipid accumulation which are discussed in the present study. IMPORTANCE A novel Streptomyces strain was isolated from desert soil, which represents an extreme environment with high temperatures, frequent drought, and nutrient scarcity. We believe that these harsh conditions promoted the development of the capacity for this strain to accumulate extraordinarily large amounts of lipids. In this study, we present the analysis of its draft genome sequence with a special focus on enzymes potentially involved in its lipid storage. Furthermore, the activity and importance of the detected

  2. Integrated Process for Extraction of Wax as a Value-Added Co-Product and Improved Ethanol Production by Converting Both Starch and Cellulosic Components in Sorghum Grains

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    Nhuan P. Nghiem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Grain sorghum is a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production due to its high starch content, which is equivalent to that of corn, and has been successfully used in several commercial corn ethanol plants in the United States. Some sorghum grain varieties contain significant levels of surface wax, which may interact with enzymes and make them less efficient toward starch hydrolysis. On the other hand, wax can be recovered as a valuable co-product and as such may help improve the overall process economics. Sorghum grains also contain lignocellulosic materials in the hulls, which can be converted to additional ethanol. An integrated process was developed, consisting of the following steps: 1. Extraction of wax with boiling ethanol, which is the final product of the proposed process; 2. Pretreatment of the dewaxed grains with dilute sulfuric acid; 3. Mashing and fermenting of the pretreated grains to produce ethanol. During the fermentation, commercial cellulase was also added to release fermentable sugars from the hulls, which then were converted to additional ethanol. The advantages of the developed process were illustrated with the following results: (1 Wax extracted (determined by weight loss: ~0.3 wt % of total mass. (2 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using raw grains: 86.1 g/L. (3 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed grains: 106.2 g/L (23.3% improvement. (4 Final ethanol concentration at 25 wt % solid using dewaxed and acid-treated grains (1 wt % H2SO4 plus cellulase (CTec2: 117.8 g/L (36.8% improvement.

  3. Enhanced ethanol production by removal of cutin and epicuticular waxes of wheat straw by plasma assisted pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kádár, Zsófia; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    as with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) imaging. Compounds resulting from wax degradation were analyzed in the washing water of PAP wheat straw. The wax removal enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis yield and, consequently, the efficiency of wheat straw conversion into ethanol. In total, PAP increased the conversion...

  4. Phototransformation of the herbicide sulcotrione on maize cuticular wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Halle, Alexandra; Drncova, Daniela; Richard, Claire

    2006-05-01

    Vegetation plays a key role in environmental cycling and the fate of many organic pollutants. This is especially the case for pesticides because plant leaves are their first reaction environment after application. It is commonly accepted that photochemical reactions of pollutants on plants predominantly take place in the cuticular wax coating of the leaves. Thus, we used films made of either cuticular wax extracted from maize or carnauba gray wax as a model support. Under simulated sunlight irradiation, sulcotrione (a new class of triketone herbicides) sorbed on cuticular wax films was photolyzed and mainly underwent an intramolecular cyclization. The photoproduct is a chromone derivative which was isolated and fully characterized. It is reported for the first time as a sulcotrione degradation product. The photoreactivity of formulated sulcotrione at the surface of cuticular waxes was investigated too. It photodegraded more rapidly than nonformulated sulcotrione. This study also shows that the rate of sulcotrione photolysis was much faster than the rate of penetration into the wax; photolysis should be, thus, a relevant process in real conditions.

  5. Molecular and Evolutionary Mechanisms of Cuticular Wax for Plant Drought Tolerance

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    Dawei Xue

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cuticular wax, the first protective layer of above ground tissues of many plant species, is a key evolutionary innovation in plants. Cuticular wax safeguards the evolution from certain green algae to flowering plants and the diversification of plant taxa during the eras of dry and adverse terrestrial living conditions and global climate changes. Cuticular wax plays significant roles in plant abiotic and biotic stress tolerance and has been implicated in defense mechanisms against excessive ultraviolet radiation, high temperature, bacterial and fungal pathogens, insects, high salinity, and low temperature. Drought, a major type of abiotic stress, poses huge threats to global food security and health of terrestrial ecosystem by limiting plant growth and crop productivity. The composition, biochemistry, structure, biosynthesis, and transport of plant cuticular wax have been reviewed extensively. However, the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms of cuticular wax in plants in response to drought stress are still lacking. In this review, we focus on potential mechanisms, from evolutionary, molecular, and physiological aspects, that control cuticular wax and its roles in plant drought tolerance. We also raise key research questions and propose important directions to be resolved in the future, leading to potential applications of cuticular wax for water use efficiency in agricultural and environmental sustainability.

  6. Cgl2 plays an essential role in cuticular wax biosynthesis in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongming; Tang, Jun; Liu, Zezhou; Dong, Xin; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Ye, Zhibiao; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei

    2017-11-28

    The aerial parts of most land plants are covered with cuticular wax which is important for plants to avoid harmful factors. There is still no cloning study about wax synthesis gene of the alcohol-forming pathway in Brassica species. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that, compared with wild type (WT), wax crystal are severely reduced in both the adaxial and abaxial sides of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) leaves from the LD10GL mutant. Genetic analysis results revealed that the glossy trait of LD10GL is controlled by a single recessive gene, and fine mapping results revealed that the target gene Cgl2 (Cabbage glossy 2) is located within a physical region of 170 kb on chromosome 1. Based on sequence analysis of the genes in the mapped region, the gene designated Bol013612 was speculated to be the candidate gene. Gene Bol013612 is homologous to Arabidopsis CER4, which encodes fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase. Sequencing identified a single nucleotide substitution at an intron/exon boundary that results in an insertion of six nucleotides in the cDNA of Bol013612 in LD10GL. The phenotypic defect of LD10GL was confirmed by a functional complementation test with Arabidopsis mutant cer4. Our results indicated that wax crystals of cabbage mutant LD10GL are severely reduced and mutation of gene Bol013612 causes a glossy phenotype in the LD10GL mutant.

  7. Content of Wax during Dewaxing Process: Adopting a DOE Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Eghbali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil content of the wax produced in a dewaxing process is the key economic parameter that should be reduced as much as possible. Some factors such as the type of solvents, cooling rate, temperature, and solvent to oil ratio influence the dewaxing process. Due to the fact that crude oil differs from place to place and since the operational conditions for wax extraction vary for different types of crude oil, the objective of this work is to study the operational conditions for wax production from an Iranian raffinate sample used in Sepahan Oil Company. All the experiments are conducted based on a design of experiment (DOE technique for minimizing the oil content of the wax produced. The effects of five factors have been determined quantitatively and appropriate levels are suggested for reducing the oil content. The results show that the solvent ratio, solvent composition, and cooling rate play the most important role in minimizing the oil content of the produced wax.

  8. New advances in hydrogen production via the catalytic decomposition of wax by-products using nanoparticles of SBA frame-worked MoO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naggar, Ahmed M.A.; Gobara, Heba M.; El Sayed, Hussien A.; Soliman, Fathi S.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Feedstock-to-gases & hydrogen conversion using the Mo-SBA15 catalyst compared to commercial catalysts. - Highlights: • Synthesis of meso-porous molybdenum oxide catalyst in SBA framework. • Confirming the structural characteristics of this catalyst by different analyses. • New trend for the H_2 & CH_4, production is revealed in this work. • Nano-carbon species of well-ordered structure was produced. • In-situ non-pressurized-low temperature wax isomerization was imposed. - Abstract: The alternative energy sources in general and hydrogen based energy in particular have been currently grabbing great attention. Hydrogen is an efficient green source for power generation owing to its huge energy content. The operational costs and the hydrogen output are the key factors in the selection of a certain technique for the hydrogen production industrially. This study summarizes a new route for hydrogen production starting from a bit complicated hydrogen-containing molecules. Particular attention is given during this work towards a direct pyrrolysis catalytic conversion of long chains n-paraffin into hydrogen with in-situ production of nano-structured carbon particles. The simultaneous isomerization of the n-paraffin contented in the feedstock is also discussed during this process. This research study had provided new advances in the hydrogen production based on carrying out the production process at non-severe conditions namely; low operational temperatures and no pressure was applied. The introduction of a meso-porous molybdenum oxide catalyst for the catalytic hydrogen production is also a point of novelty for the presented work. Promising results have been disclosed at the end of this investigation; approximately 60 wt.% of the feedstock was converted to fuel gases while nearly 30 wt.% of the feed had turned as nano-carbon species. The hydrogen productivity had been detected as high as 42 wt.% of the original feedstock. This in fact might

  9. Paraffin wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elborne, W

    1917-06-16

    Powdered, granulated, or finely divided paraffin is obtained by subjecting paraffin to a grinding, crushing, or disintegrating operation in the presence of an alcohol such as ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol (wood spirit), or methylated spirit. The alcohol is afterwards removed by a current of air and is recovered. The product can be used in conjunction with a heating-agent for producing smoke or vapor for use in warfare.

  10. Wax deposition in crude oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assuncao, Pablo Morelato; Rodrigues, Lorennzo Marrochi Nolding [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Engenharia de Petroleo; Romero, Mao Ilich [University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States). Enhanced Oil Recovery Institute], e-mail: mromerov@uwyo.edu

    2010-07-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons which consists of aromatics, paraffins, naphthenics, resins asphaltenes, etc. When the temperature of crude oil is reduced, the heavy components, like paraffin, will precipitate and deposit on the pipe internal wall in the form of a wax-oil gel. The gel deposit consists of wax crystals that trap some amount of oil. As the temperature gets cooler, more wax will precipitate and the thickness of the wax gel will increase, causing gradual solidification of the crude and eventually the oil stop moving inside the offshore pipeline. Crude oil may not be able to be re-mobilized during re-startup. The effective diameter will be reduced with wax deposition, resulting in several problems, for example, higher pressure drop which means additional pumping energy costs, poor oil quality, use of chemical components like precipitation inhibitors or flowing facilitators, equipment failure, risk of leakage, clogging of the ducts and process equipment. Wax deposition problems can become so sever that the whole pipeline can be completely blocked. It would cost millions of dollars to remediate an offshore pipeline that is blocked by wax. Wax solubility decreases drastically with decreasing temperature. At low temperatures, as encountered in deep water production, is easy to wax precipitate. The highest temperature below which the paraffins begins to precipitate as wax crystals is defined as wax appearance temperature (WAT). Deposition process is a complex free surface problem involving thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, mass and heat transfer. In this work, a numerical analysis of wax deposition by molecular diffusion and shear dispersion mechanisms in crude oil pipeline is studied. Diffusion flux of wax toward the wall is estimated by Fick's law of diffusion, in similar way the shear dispersion; wax concentration gradient at the solid-liquid interface is obtained by the volume fraction conservation equation; and since the wax deposition

  11. Preparing paraffin wax, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1935-12-27

    A process is described for preparing paraffin wax by separation from substances containing bitumen, consisting of treating the raw material at an elevated temperature under such moderate conditions and by means of such organic solvents that the bitumen present in the raw material or formed in the process dissolves as well as the asphaltic and phenolic substances and the humic acids which may be said to be neither extracts nor decomposed materials, and then submitting the products and extracts to a treatment with hydrogen gas, which is effected below 300/sup 0/C, and passing the material over fixed hydrogenation catalysts above 300/sup 0/C by means of hydrogenation catalysts finely dispersed in carbonaceous materials all avoiding decomposition with the formation of volatile products.

  12. The Molecular Level Characterization of Biodegradable Polymers Originated from Polyethylene Using Non-Oxygenated Polyethylene Wax as a Carbon Source for Polyhydroxyalkanoate Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian; Jiang, Guozhan; Hill, David; Adamus, Grazyna; Kwiecień, Iwona; Zięba, Magdalena; Sikorska, Wanda; Green, Matthew; Kowalczuk, Marek; Radecka, Iza

    2017-08-28

    There is an increasing demand for bio-based polymers that are developed from recycled materials. The production of biodegradable polymers can include bio-technological (utilizing microorganisms or enzymes) or chemical synthesis procedures. This report demonstrates the corroboration of the molecular structure of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) obtained by the conversion of waste polyethylene (PE) via non-oxygenated PE wax (N-PEW) as an additional carbon source for a bacterial species. The N-PEW, obtained from a PE pyrolysis reaction, has been found to be a beneficial carbon source for PHA production with Cupriavidus necator H16. The production of the N-PEW is an alternative to oxidized polyethylene wax (O-PEW) (that has been used as a carbon source previously) as it is less time consuming to manufacture and offers fewer industrial applications. A range of molecular structural analytical techniques were performed on the PHAs obtained; which included nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Our study showed that the PHA formed from N-PEW contained 3-hydroxybutyrate (HB) with 11 mol% of 3-hydroxyvalerate (HV) units.

  13. Process for separating liquid hydrocarbons from waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowa, F J

    1948-03-08

    A process is described for the separation of liquid hydrocarbons from waxes comprising adding to a mixture of liquid hydrocarbons and waxes a sufficient quantity of an organo-silicon compound to cause the separation of the hydrocarbon and wax. The organo-silicon compounds are selected from the class of organic silicanes and their hydrolysis products and polymers. The silicanes have the formula R/sub y/SiX/sub z/, in which R is a saturated or unsaturated hydrocarbon radical, X is a halogen or another hydrocarbon radical or an -OR group, y has a value 1, 2, or 3 and z has a value 1, 2, or 3.

  14. THE PRODUCTION OF COMPLEX PROFILE DETAILS BY COMBINED METHOD OF LOST-WAX CASTING AND OF CONSUMABLE PATTERN MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Shinsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological process of receiving figurine castings of a heat resisting alloy HN57KTVYuMBL brand developed and tested by authors a combined method of oflost-wax casting (pouring gate system and of consumable expanded polystyrene pattern in shell forms kompleks modify ceramics promotes decrease in crack formation of forms at the expense of correctly picked up temperature and time mode of annealing of a form with model. Besides this method allows to receive figurine castings with minimization of an allowance for machining of details, to increase their geometrical accuracy and to lower a roughness.

  15. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    OpenAIRE

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at aroun...

  16. Policosanol fabrication from insect wax and optimization by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju; Ma, Liyi; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Zhongquan; Wang, Youqiong; Li, Kai; Chen, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is a famous biological resource for the role in economic production in China. Insect wax is a good source of policosanol, which may is a candidate supplement in foodstuff and pharmaceuticals that has important physiological activities. Therefore, this work aims to investigate a high-yield and rapid method for policosanol fabrication from insect wax. The conditions for policosanol fabrication were optimized as follows: an oil bath temperature of 112.7°C and reductant dosage of 0.97 g (used for the reduction of 10.00 g of insect wax). The yield of policosanol reached 83.20%, which was 4 times greater than that of existing methods, such as saponification. The total content of policosanol obtained under the optimal conditions reached 87%. In other words, a high yield of policosanol was obtained from insect wax (723.84 mg/g), that was 55 times higher than that generated from beeswax-brown via saponification. The concentrations of metal residues in policosanol were within the limits of the European Union regulations and EFSA stipulation. The LD50 values for oral doses of insect wax and policosanol were both > 5 g/kg. Policosanol was fabricated via solvent-free reduction from insect wax using LiAlH4 at a high yield. The fabrication conditions were optimized. Policosanol and insect wax showed high security, which made them potential candidates as supplements in foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The rapid and high-yield method has great potential for commercial manufacturing of policosanol.

  17. The β-Ketoacyl-CoA Synthase HvKCS1, Encoded by Cer-zh, Plays a Key Role in Synthesis of Barley Leaf Wax and Germination of Barley Powdery Mildew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Haslam, Tegan M; Krüger, Anna; Schneider, Lizette M; Mishina, Kohei; Samuels, Lacey; Yang, Hongxing; Kunst, Ljerka; Schaffrath, Ulrich; Nawrath, Christiane; Chen, Guoxiong; Komatsuda, Takao; von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny

    2018-04-01

    The cuticle coats the primary aerial surfaces of land plants. It consists of cutin and waxes, which provide protection against desiccation, pathogens and herbivores. Acyl cuticular waxes are synthesized via elongase complexes that extend fatty acyl precursors up to 38 carbons for downstream modification pathways. The leaves of 21 barley eceriferum (cer) mutants appear to have less or no epicuticular wax crystals, making these mutants excellent tools for identifying elongase and modification pathway biosynthetic genes. Positional cloning of the gene mutated in cer-zh identified an elongase component, β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (CER-ZH/HvKCS1) that is one of 34 homologous KCSs encoded by the barley genome. The biochemical function of CER-ZH was deduced from wax and cutin analyses and by heterologous expression in yeast. Combined, these experiments revealed that CER-ZH/HvKCS1 has a substrate specificity for C16-C20, especially unsaturated, acyl chains, thus playing a major role in total acyl chain elongation for wax biosynthesis. The contribution of CER-ZH to water barrier properties of the cuticle and its influence on the germination of barley powdery mildew fungus were also assessed.

  18. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  19. The glossyhead1 allele of acc1 reveals a principal role for multidomain acetyl-coenzyme a carboxylase in the biosynthesis of cuticular waxes by Arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Shiyou

    2011-09-23

    A novel mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), having highly glossy inflorescence stems, postgenital fusion in floral organs, and reduced fertility, was isolated from an ethyl methanesulfonate-mutagenized population and designated glossyhead1 (gsd1). The gsd1 locus was mapped to chromosome 1, and the causal gene was identified as a new allele of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase1 (ACC1), a gene encoding the main enzyme in cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A synthesis. This, to our knowledge, is the first mutant allele of ACC1 that does not cause lethality at the seed or early germination stage, allowing for the first time a detailed analysis of ACC1 function in mature tissues. Broad lipid profiling of mature gsd1 organs revealed a primary role for ACC1 in the biosynthesis of the very-long-chain fatty acids (C 20:0 or longer) associated with cuticular waxes and triacylglycerols. Unexpectedly, transcriptome analysis revealed that gsd1 has limited impact on any lipid metabolic networks but instead has a large effect on environmental stress-responsive pathways, especially senescence and ethylene synthesis determinants, indicating a possible role for the cytosolic malonyl-coenzyme A-derived lipids in stress response signaling. © 2011 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Wax combs mediate nestmate recognition by guard honeybees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Ettorre, Patrizia; Wenseleers, Tom; Dawson, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that the wax combs are important in the acquisition of colony odour in the honeybee, Apis mellifera. However, many of these studies were conducted in the laboratory or under artificial conditions. We investigated the role of the wax combs in nestmate recognition in the natural...

  1. Wax Point Determinations Using Acoustic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, D.T.; Jubin, R.T.; Schmidt, T.W.

    2001-06-01

    The thermodynamic characterization of the wax point of a given crude is essential in order to maintain flow conditions that prevent plugging of undersea pipelines. This report summarizes the efforts made towards applying an Acoustic Cavity Resonance Spectrometer (ACRS) to the determination of pressures and temperatures at which wax precipitates from crude. Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc., the CRADA participant, supplied the ACRS. The instrumentation was shipped to Dr. Thomas Schmidt of ORNL, the CRADA contractor, in May 2000 after preliminary software development performed under the guidance of Dr. Samuel Colgate and Dr. Evan House of the University of Florida, Gainesville, Fl. Upon receipt it became apparent that a number of modifications still needed to be made before the ACRS could be precisely and safely used for wax point measurements. This report reviews the sequence of alterations made to the ACRS, as well as defines the possible applications of the instrumentation once the modifications have been completed. The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Phillips Petroleum Company, Inc. (Participant) and Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation (Contractor) was the measurement of the formation of solids in crude oils and petroleum products that are commonly transported through pipelines. This information is essential in the proper design, operation and maintenance of the petroleum pipeline system in the United States. Recently, new petroleum discoveries in the Gulf of Mexico have shown that there is a potential for plugging of undersea pipeline because of the precipitation of wax. It is important that the wax points of the expected crude oils be well characterized so that the production facilities for these new wells are capable of properly transporting the expected production. The goal of this work is to perform measurements of solids formation in crude oils and petroleum products supplied by the Participant. It is

  2. Microencapsulation of Flavors in Carnauba Wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Bugarski

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM, while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  3. Microencapsulation of flavors in carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanovic, Jelena; Manojlovic, Verica; Levic, Steva; Rajic, Nevenka; Nedovic, Viktor; Bugarski, Branko

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this study is the development of flavor wax formulations aimed for food and feed products. The melt dispersion technique was applied for the encapsulation of ethyl vanillin in wax microcapsules. The surface morphology of microparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), while the loading content was determined by HPLC measurements. This study shows that the decomposition process under heating proceeds in several steps: vanilla evaporation occurs at around 200 °C, while matrix degradation starts at 250 °C and progresses with maxima at around 360, 440 and 520 °C. The results indicate that carnauba wax is an attractive material for use as a matrix for encapsulation of flavours in order to improve their functionality and stability in products.

  4. Effects of a wax organogel and alginate gel complex on holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, James R; Rogers, Michael A; Cant, John P; McBride, Brian W; Osborne, Vern R

    2018-02-20

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) select an ideal organogel for the oil phase of a novel gel encapsulation technology, (b) optimize the formulation of an organogel and sodium alginate-based gel complex, and (c) examine the rumen protective ability of the gel by measuring 48-h in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production from encapsulated dried and ground holy basil leaves. A rice-bran wax and canola oil organogel was selected for the oil phase of the gel complex as this combination had a 48-h dry matter disappearance of 6%, the lowest of all organogels analyzed. The gel complex was formulated by homogenizing the organogel with a sodium alginate solution to create a low-viscosity oil-in-water emulsion. Average dry matter disappearance of gel-encapsulated holy basil was 19%, compared to 42% for the free, unprotected holy basil. However, gel encapsulation of holy basil stimulated gas production. Specifically, gas production of encapsulated holy basil was four times higher than the treatment with holy basil added on top of the gel prior to incubation rather than encapsulated within the gel. Although the gel itself was highly degradable, it is speculated encapsulation thwarted holy basil's antimicrobial activity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. The Roles of Sphagnum and Cyperaceae in the Methane Cycle of an Ombrotrophic Bog Revealed by the Carbon Isotope Ratios of Leaf Waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isles, P. D.; Nichols, J. E.; Peteet, D. M.; Kenna, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    Methane is a strong greenhouse gas, and the role of the terrestrial carbon cycle in the concentrations of atmospheric methane is poorly understood. What is clear, is that northern peatlands are a significant source of methane to the atmosphere. A recent discovery, and a topic of much scrutiny, has been the relationship between Sphagnum in peatlands and symbiotic methanotrophic bacteria. These bacteria oxidize methane produced at depth in peatlands before it is released to the atmosphere, contributing 13C-depleted CO2 to Sphagnum photosynthate. We seek to better understand the fate of methane produced in peatlands at depth, and the relationship between methane release from peatland surfaces and parameters such as temperature, moisture, and vegetation type. We compare carbon isotope ratios of leaf wax n-alkanes from sphagnum and vascular plants and major element chemistry at three different microhabitats, hummock, hollow, and sedge tussock, in Mer Bleue an ombrotrophic peatland near Ottowa, Ontario, Canada. We use these compound-specific carbon isotope measurements to constrain the amount of methane-derived CO2 incorporated by Sphagnum. We also compare our multiannually resolved down-core measurements to data from long-term monitoring of climate parameters and methane flux from the same microhabitats to ground-truth our sedimentary signature of methane with instrumental measurements.

  6. Geometric accuracy of wax bade models manufactured in silicon moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the test results of the geometric accuracy of wax blade models manufactured in silicon moulds in the Rapid Tooling process, with the application of the Vacuum Casting technology. In batch production casting waxes are designed for the manufacture of models and components of model sets through injection into a metal die. The objective of the tests was to determine the possibility of using traditional wax for the production of casting models in the rapid prototyping process. Blade models made of five types of casting wax were measured. The definition of the geometric accuracy of wax blade models makes it possible to introduce individual modifications aimed at improving their shape in order to increase the dimensional accuracy of blade models manufactured in the rapid prototyping process.

  7. Gluconeogenesis from storage wax in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, R A; Huang, A H

    1977-08-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the beta oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1978 - Carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Carnauba wax. 184.1978 Section 184.1978 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1978 Carnauba wax. (a) Carnauba wax (CAS Reg. No. 008-015-869) is obtained from the leaves and buds of the Brazilian wax palm Copernicia cerifera Martius. The wax is hard...

  9. Development of a Parafin Wax deposition Unit for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Angelo, Greta; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Pedersen, David Bue

    2014-01-01

    . This project illustrates the redesign of an extrusion unit for the deposition of paraffin wax in Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) instead of the conventional polymeric materials. Among the benefits and brought by the use of paraffin wax in such system are: the possibility to make highly complex and precise...... parts to subsequently use in a Lost Wax Casting process, multi-material Additive Manufacturing and the use of wax as support material during the production of complicated parts. Moreover it is believed that including waxes among the materials usable in FDM would promote new ways of using and exploring...

  10. Rapid atmospheric transport and large-scale deposition of recently synthesized plant waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Daniel B.; Ladd, S. Nemiah; Schubert, Carsten J.; Kahmen, Ansgar

    2018-02-01

    Sedimentary plant wax 2H/1H ratios are important tools for understanding hydroclimate and environmental changes, but large spatial and temporal uncertainties exist about transport mechanisms from ecosystem to sediments. To assess atmospheric pathways, we collected aerosol samples for two years at four locations within a ∼60 km radius in northern Switzerland. We measured n-alkane distributions and 2H/1H ratios in these samples, and from local plants, leaf litter, and soil, as well as surface sediment from six nearby lakes. Increased concentrations and 2H depletion of long odd chain n-alkanes in early summer aerosols indicate that most wax aerosol production occurred shortly after leaf unfolding, when plants synthesize waxes in large quantities. During autumn and winter, aerosols were characterized by degraded n-alkanes lacking chain length preferences diagnostic of recent biosynthesis, and 2H/1H values that were in some cases more than 100‰ higher than growing season values. Despite these seasonal shifts, modeled deposition-weighted average 2H/1H values of long odd chain n-alkanes primarily reflected summer values. This was corroborated by n-alkane 2H/1H values in lake sediments, which were similar to deposition-weighted aerosol values at five of six sites. Atmospheric deposition rates for plant n-alkanes on land were ∼20% of accumulation rates in lakes, suggesting a role for direct deposition to lakes or coastal oceans near similar production sources, and likely a larger role for deposition on land and transport in river systems. This mechanism allows mobilization and transport of large quantities of recently produced waxes as fine-grained material to low energy sedimentation sites over short timescales, even in areas with limited topography. Widespread atmospheric transfer well before leaf senescence also highlights the importance of the isotopic composition of early season source water used to synthesize waxes for the geologic record.

  11. Structure and Biosynthesis of Branched Wax Compounds on Wild Type and Wax Biosynthesis Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busta, Lucas; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-06-01

    The cuticle is a waxy composite that protects the aerial organs of land plans from non-stomatal water loss. The chemical make-up of the cuticular wax mixture plays a central role in defining the water barrier, but structure-function relationships have not been established so far, in part due to gaps in our understanding of wax structures and biosynthesis. While wax compounds with saturated, linear hydrocarbon tails have been investigated in detail, very little is known about compounds with modified aliphatic tails, which comprise substantial portions of some plant wax mixtures. This study aimed to investigate the structures, abundances and biosynthesis of branched compounds on the species for which wax biosynthesis is best understood: Arabidopsis thaliana. Microscale derivatization, mass spectral interpretation and organic synthesis identified homologous series of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on flowers and leaves, respectively. These comprised approximately 10-15% of wild type wax mixtures. The abundances of both branched wax constituents and accompanying unbranched compounds were reduced on the cer6, cer3 and cer1 mutants but not cer4, indicating that branched compounds are in part synthesized by the same machinery as unbranched compounds. In contrast, the abundances of unbranched, but not branched, wax constituents were reduced on the cer2 and cer26 mutants, suggesting that the pathways to both types of compounds deviate in later steps of chain elongation. Finally, the abundances of branched, but not unbranched, wax compounds were reduced on the cer16 mutant, and the (uncharacterized) CER16 protein may therefore be controlling the relative abundances of iso-alkanes and iso-alcohols on Arabidopsis surfaces. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Effects of sunflower wax coating on physicochemical changes of mangifera indica L. in storage life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soomro, R.K.; Sherazi, S.T.H.

    2013-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruit has a relatively short storage life due to perishable nature. In order to increases the storage life of langra mangoes, fruits were coated with sunflower wax. Mangoes were stored at room and refrigerated temperature. Sunflower wax coating protects the mangoes in greater proportion to change their color, weight loss, moisture loss, pH and total soluble solids content. The sensorial panel also favors the grander role of sunflower wax coating. Application of sunflower wax coatings had no effect on vitamin C content of mangoes variety and could increases mango storage time around 30 days under regular storage conditions. Sunflower wax coating also inhibited the growth of micro-organisms. The data reveal that by applying a sunflower wax coating effectively prolongs the quality which attributes and extends the shelf life of mango. (author)

  13. Simple Synthesis Hydrogenated Castor Oil Fatty Amide Wax and Its Coating Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiuzhu; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Rui; Zhao, Zhong

    2017-07-01

    A simple method for incorporating amine groups in hydrogenated castor oil (HCO) to produce wax for beeswax or carnauba wax substitution in packaging and coating was developed. From the conversion rate of the products, HCO was reacted with ethanolamine at 150°C for 5 h, and the molar ratio of HCO and ethanolamine was 1:4. The hardness of the final product was seven times higher than that of beeswax, the cohesiveness of the final product was 1.3 times higher than that of beeswax and approximately one half of that of carnauba wax, and the melting point of the final product is 98°C. The Fourier transform Infrared spectroscopy showed that the amide groups were incorporated to form the amide products. In coating application, the results showed that the force of the final product coating cardboard was higher than that of beeswax and paraffin wax and less than that of carnauba wax. After 24 h soaking, the compression forces were decreased. HCO fatty acid wax can be an alternative wax for carnauba wax and beeswax in coating applications.

  14. The MIEL1 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Negatively Regulates Cuticular Wax Biosynthesis in Arabidopsis Stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong Gil; Kim, Juyoung; Suh, Mi Chung; Seo, Pil Joon

    2017-07-01

    Cuticular wax is an important hydrophobic layer that covers the plant aerial surface. Cuticular wax biosynthesis is shaped by multiple layers of regulation. In particular, a pair of R2R3-type MYB transcription factors, MYB96 and MYB30, are known to be the main participants in cuticular wax accumulation. Here, we report that the MYB30-INTERACTING E3 LIGASE 1 (MIEL1) E3 ubiquitin ligase controls the protein stability of the two MYB transcription factors and thereby wax biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. MIEL1-deficient miel1 mutants exhibit increased wax accumulation in stems, with up-regulation of wax biosynthetic genes targeted by MYB96 and MYB30. Genetic analysis reveals that wax accumulation of the miel1 mutant is compromised by myb96 or myb30 mutation, but MYB96 is mainly epistatic to MIEL1, playing a predominant role in cuticular wax deposition. These observations indicate that the MIEL1-MYB96 module is important for balanced cuticular wax biosynthesis in developing inflorescence stems. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Synthesis of oleyl oleate wax esters in Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iven, Tim; Hornung, Ellen; Heilmann, Mareike; Feussner, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Seed oil composed of wax esters with long-chain monoenoic acyl moieties represents a high-value commodity for industry. Such plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters are biodegradable and can have excellent properties for lubrication. In addition, wax ester oil may represent a superior substrate for biodiesel production. In this study, we demonstrate that the low-input oil seed crop Camelina sativa can serve as a biotechnological platform for environmentally benign wax ester production. Two biosynthetic steps catalysed by a fatty alcohol-forming acyl-CoA reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS) are sufficient to achieve wax ester accumulation from acyl-CoA substrates. To produce plant-derived sperm oil-like liquid wax esters, the WS from Mus musculus (MmWS) or Simmondsia chinensis (ScWS) were expressed in combination with the FAR from Mus musculus (MmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei (MaFAR) in seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana and Camelina sativa. The three analysed enzyme combinations Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/Oleo3:EYFP:MmWS, Oleo3:mCherry:MmFAR1∆c/ScWS and MaFAR/ScWS showed differences in the wax ester molecular species profiles and overall biosynthetic performance. By expressing MaFAR/ScWS in Arabidopsis or Camelina up to 59% or 21% of the seed oil TAGs were replaced by wax esters, respectively. This combination also yielded wax ester molecular species with highest content of monounsaturated acyl moieties. Expression of the enzyme combinations in the Arabidopsis fae1 fad2 mutant background high in oleic acid resulted in wax ester accumulation enriched in oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1 > 60%), suggesting that similar values may be obtained with a Camelina high oleic acid line. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riekel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 μm. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 μm and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 μm beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk

  17. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riekel, C. E-mail: riekel@esrf.fr

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 {mu}m. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 {mu}m and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 {mu}m beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk.

  18. Applications of micro-SAXS/WAXS to study polymer fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekel, C.

    2003-01-01

    Instrumentation and selected applications for X-ray microdiffraction experiments on polymer and biopolymer fibers at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) microfocus beamline are reviewed. Combined SAXS/WAXS experiments can be performed on single fibers with a beam size down to about 5 μm. WAXS experiments can be performed down to about 2 μm and in exceptional cases down to 0.1 μm beam size. The instrumental possibilities are demonstrated for the production line of spider silk.

  19. Effects of cuticular wax on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Fang, Xiangjun; Zheng, Yonghua

    2018-01-15

    The blueberry fruit has a light-blue appearance because its blue-black skin is covered with a waxy bloom. This layer is easily damaged or removed during fruit harvesting and postharvest handling. We investigated the effects of wax removal on the postharvest quality of blueberry fruit and their possible mechanisms. The removal of natural wax on the fruit was found to accelerate the postharvest water loss and decay, reduce the sensory and nutritional qualities, and shorten the shelf-life. Wax removal decreased the activities of antioxidant enzymes and contents of antioxidants, and accelerated accumulation of ROS and lipid peroxidation, especially at the later period of storage. Moreover, the organellar membrane structure was disrupted in fruit with wax removed. These results indicate that cuticular wax plays an important role in maintaining the postharvest quality and delaying fruit senescence. The results should improve our understanding for better preservation of postharvest quality of blueberry fruit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in Cuticular Wax Composition of Two Blueberry Cultivars during Fruit Ripening and Postharvest Cold Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Chen, Hangjun; Wu, Weijie; Fang, Xiangjun

    2018-03-21

    Cuticular wax plays an important role for the quality of blueberry fruits. In this study, the cuticular wax composition of two blueberry cultivars, 'Legacy' ( Vaccinium corymbosum) and 'Brightwell' ( Vaccinium ashei), was examined during fruit ripening and postharvest cold storage. The results showed that wax was gradually deposited on the epidermis of blueberry fruits and the content of major wax compounds, except that for diketones, increased significantly during fruit ripening. The total wax content was 2-fold greater in 'Brightwell' blueberries than that in 'Legacy' blueberries during fruit ripening. The total wax content of both cultivars decreased during 30 days of storage at 4 °C, and the variation of cuticular wax composition was cultivar-dependent. The content of diketones decreased significantly in 'Legacy' blueberries, while the content of triterpenoids and aliphatic compounds showed different fold changes in 'Brightwell' blueberries after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. Overall, our study provided a quantitative and qualitative overview of cuticular wax compounds of blueberry fruits during ripening and postharvest cold storage.

  1. Gluconeogenesis from Storage Wax in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Robert A.; Huang, Anthony H. C.

    1977-01-01

    The cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seeds contained 50 to 60% of their weight as intracellular wax esters. During germination there was a gradual decrease in the wax content with a concomitant rise in soluble carbohydrates, suggesting that the wax played the role of a food reserve. Thin layer chromatography revealed that both the fatty alcohol and fatty acid were metabolized. The disappearance of wax was matched with an increase of catalase, a marker enzyme of the gluconeogenic process in other fatty seedlings. Subcellular organelles were isolated by sucrose gradient centrifugation from the cotyledons at the peak stage of germination. The enzymes of the β oxidation of fatty acid and of the glyoxylate cycle were localized in the glyoxysomes but not in the mitochondria. The glyoxysomes had specific activities of individual enzymes similar to those of the castor bean glyoxysomes. An active alkaline lipase was detected in the wax bodies at the peak stage of germination but not in the ungerminated seeds. No lipase was detected in glyoxysomes or mitochondria. After the wax in the wax bodies had been extracted with diethyl ether, the organelle membrane was isolated and it still retained the alkaline lipase. The gluconeogenesis from wax in the jojoba seedling appears to be similar, but with modification, to that from triglyceride in other fatty seedlings. Images PMID:16660087

  2. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Bačić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill., both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fused and agglomerated rapidly to various extents of morphologically different types of amorphous wax crusts, primarily compact and particulate ones. This process begins very early, especially in polluted Risnjak site, and may be interpreted as a possible result of air pollution. However, the recrystalization, or production of new tubules, also appears relatively quickly in mostly cases. Quantitative estimations indicate a very large total amount of amorphous wax crusts in the current-year needles, and a very high percentage of the same wax in previous-year needles. Amorphous wax crusts cover stomatal pores, as well as the rims, disturbing the normal gas exchange. Statistically there is a signicant tendency of increase in wax degradation in the needles of the polluted site in comparison with those of the unpolluted one, but there is an insignificant wax degradation among the needles of damaged trees within each site. These results confirmed most of the research done in our preliminary report.

  3. 21 CFR 186.1555 - Japan wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Japan wax. 186.1555 Section 186.1555 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1555 Japan wax. (a) Japan wax (CAS Reg. No. 8001-39-6), also known as Japan... fruits of the oriental sumac, Rhus succedanea (Japan, Taiwan, and Indo-China), R. vernicifera (Japan...

  4. McWRI1, a transcription factor of the AP2/SHEN family, regulates the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the apple fruit surface under low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Qianlong; Zhang, Kezhong; Yang, Mingfeng

    2017-01-01

    Cuticular waxes of plant and organ surfaces play an important role in protecting plants from biotic and abiotic stress and extending the freshness, storage time and shelf life in the post-harvest agricultural products. WRI1, a transcription factor of AP2/SHEN families, had been found to trigger the related genes taking part in the biosynthesis of seed oil in many plants. But whether WRI1 is involved in the biosynthesis of the cuticular waxes on the Malus fruits surface has been unclear. We investigated the changes of wax composition and structure, the related genes and WRI1 expression on Malus asiatica Nakai and sieversii fruits with the low temperature treatments, found that low temperature induced the up-regulated expression of McWRI1, which promoted gene expression of McKCS, McLACs and McWAX in very-long-chain fatty acid biosynthesis pathway, resulting in the accumulation of alkanes component and alteration of wax structure on the fruit surface. Corresponding results were verified in McWRI1 silenced by VIGS, and WRI1 silenced down-regulated the related genes on two kinds of fruits, it caused the diversity alteration in content of some alkanes, fatty acid and ester component in two kinds of fruits. We further conducted Y1H assay to find that McWRI1 transcription factor activated the promoter of McKCS, McLAC and McWAX to regulate their expression. These results demonstrated that McWRI1 is involved in regulating the genes related synthesis of very long chain fatty acid on surface of apple fruits in storage process, providing a highlight for improvement of the modified atmosphere storage of apple fruits. PMID:29073205

  5. Physical properties of beeswax, sunflower wax, and candelilla wax mixtures and organogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is increased interest in natural waxes as alternatives to partially hydrogenated oils and saturated fats as oil structuring agents. Using relatively low concentrations (0.5-5%), natural waxes are able to form crystalline networks, or organogels, which bind liquid oil. Each natural wax is uniqu...

  6. Surfactants from petroleum paraffin wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassem, T.M.; Hussein, M.H.; El Sayed, A.S.

    Paraffin wax from Egyptian petroleum was purified and then oxidized to fatty acids which were esterified to form their methyl esters, fractionated and then hydrolysed. The obtained fatty acids were converted into the corresponding primary amines which were converted with ethylene oxide to form nonionic surfactants. The prepared primary amines were also converted into tertiary amines and then converted into cationic surfactants through condensation with benzyl chloride or 1-chloromethylnaphthalene. Also, amine oxide surfactants were prepared by oxidation of the tertiary amines with hydrogen peroxide. The surface active properties of all the prepared surfactants were determined, and the effect of their chemical structure on the surfactant properties are discussed in this paper.

  7. The Use of Biobased Surfactant Obtained by Enzymatic Syntheses for Wax Deposition Inhibition and Drag Reduction in Crude Oil Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil plays an important role in providing the energy supply of the world, and pipelines have long been recognized as the safest and most efficient means of transporting oil and its products. However, the transportation process also faces the challenges of asphaltene-paraffin structural interactions, pipeline pressure losses and energy consumption. In order to determine the role of drag-reducing surfactant additives in the transportation of crude oils, experiments of wax deposition inhibition and drag reduction of different oil in pipelines with a biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses were carried out. The results indicated that heavy oil transportation in the pipeline is remarkably enhanced by creating stable oil-in-water (O/W emulsion with the surfactant additive. The wax appearance temperature (WAT and pour point were modified, and the formation of a space-filling network of interlocking wax crystals was prevented at low temperature by adding a small concentration of the surfactant additive. A maximum viscosity reduction of 70% and a drag reduction of 40% for light crude oil flows in pipelines were obtained with the surfactant additive at a concentration of 100 mg/L. Furthermore, a successful field application of the drag-reducing surfactant in a light crude oil pipeline in Daqing Oilfield was demonstrated. Hence, the use of biobased surfactant obtained by enzymatic syntheses in oil transportation is a potential method to address the current challenges, which could result in a significant energy savings and a considerable reduction of the operating cost.

  8. Aplikasi Wax Sebagai Salah Satu Material Di Bidang Kedokteran Gigi

    OpenAIRE

    Rika Jamilah Israwati Lubis

    2008-01-01

    Wax merupakan salah satu bahan termoplastik yang terdiri dari berbagai bahan organis dan bahan alami sehingga membuatnya sebagai bahan dengan sifat-sifat yang sangat berguna. Unsur-unsur pokok dental wax terdiri dari 3 suraber utama, yaitu : mineral, serangga (hewani), dan sayur-sayuran (tumbuh-tumbuhan). Wax yang berasal dari bahan mineral diantaranya adalah paraffin wax dan microcrystallin wax yang diperoleh dari hasil residu petroleum melalui proses destilasi. Wax yang berasal dari serangg...

  9. Wax inhibitor based on ethylene vinyl acetate with methyl methacrylate and diethanolamine for crude oil pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisuzzaman, S. M.; Abang, S.; Bono, A.; Krishnaiah, D.; Karali, R.; Safuan, M. K.

    2017-06-01

    Wax precipitation and deposition is one of the most significant flow assurance challenges in the production system of the crude oil. Wax inhibitors are developed as a preventive strategy to avoid an absolute wax deposition. Wax inhibitors are polymers which can be known as pour point depressants as they impede the wax crystals formation, growth, and deposition. In this study three formulations of wax inhibitors were prepared, ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene vinyl acetate co-methyl methacrylate (EVA co-MMA) and ethylene vinyl acetate co-diethanolamine (EVA co-DEA) and the comparison of their efficiencies in terms of cloud point¸ pour point, performance inhibition efficiency (%PIE) and viscosity were evaluated. The cloud point and pour point for both EVA and EVA co-MMA were similar, 15°C and 10-5°C, respectively. Whereas, the cloud point and pour point for EVA co-DEA were better, 10°C and 10-5°C respectively. In conclusion, EVA co-DEA had shown the best % PIE (28.42%) which indicates highest percentage reduction of wax deposit as compared to the other two inhibitors.

  10. Soil water stress affects both cuticular wax content and cuticle-related gene expression in young saplings of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Provost, Grégoire; Domergue, Frédéric; Lalanne, Céline; Ramos Campos, Patricio; Grosbois, Antoine; Bert, Didier; Meredieu, Céline; Danjon, Frédéric; Plomion, Christophe; Gion, Jean-Marc

    2013-07-01

    The cuticle is a hydrophobic barrier located at the aerial surface of all terrestrial plants. Recent studies performed on model plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, have suggested that the cuticle may be involved in drought stress adaptation, preventing non-stomatal water loss. Although forest trees will face more intense drought stresses (in duration and intensity) with global warming, very few studies on the role of the cuticle in drought stress adaptation in these long-lived organisms have been so far reported. This aspect was investigated in a conifer, maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.), in a factorial design with two genetic units (two half-sib families with different growth rates) and two treatments (irrigated vs non-irrigated), in field conditions. Saplings were grown in an open-sided greenhouse and half were irrigated three times per week for two growing seasons. Needles were sampled three times per year for cuticular wax (composition and content) and transcriptome (of 11 genes involved in cuticle biosynthesis) analysis. Non-irrigated saplings (i) had a higher cuticular wax content than irrigated saplings and (ii) overexpressed most of the genes studied. Both these trends were more marked in the faster growing family. The higher cuticular wax content observed in the non-irrigated treatment associated with strong modifications in products from the decarbonylation pathway suggest that cuticular wax may be involved in drought stress adaptation in maritime pine. This study provides also a set of promising candidate genes for future forward genetic studies in conifers.

  11. Analysis of the constituents in jojoba wax used as a food additive by LC/MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Atsuko; Jin, Zhe-Long; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Tanamoto, Kenichi

    2005-10-01

    Jojoba wax is a natural gum base used as a food additive in Japan, and is obtained from jojoba oil with a characteristically high melting point. Although the constituents of jojoba oil have been reported, the quality of jojoba wax used as a food additive has not yet been clarified. In order to evaluate its quality as a food additive and to obtain basic information useful for setting official standards, we investigated the constituents and their concentrations in jojoba wax. LC/MS analysis of the jojoba wax showed six peaks with [M+H]+ ions in the range from m/z 533.6 to 673.7 at intervals of m/z 28. After isolation of the components of the four main peaks by preparative LC/MS, the fatty acid and long chain alcohol moieties of the wax esters were analyzed by methanolysis and hydrolysis, followed by GC/MS. The results indicated that the main constituents in jojoba wax were various kinds of wax esters, namely eicosenyl octadecenoate (C20:1-C18:1) (1), eicosenyl eicosenoate (C20:1-C20:1) (II), docosenyl eicosenoate (C22:1-C20:1) (III), eicosenyl docosenoate (C20:1-C22:1) (IV) and tetracosenyl eiosenoate (C24:1-C20:1) (V). To confirm and quantify the wax esters in jojoba wax directly, LC/MS/MS analysis was performed. The product ions corresponding to the fatty acid moieties of the wax esters were observed, and by using the product ions derived from the protonated molecular ions of wax esters the fatty acid moieties were identified by MRM analysis. The concentrations of the wax esters I, II and III, in jojoba wax were 5.5, 21.4 and 37.8%, respectively. In summary, we clarified the main constituents of jojoba wax and quantified the molecular species of the wax esters without hydrolysis by monitoring their product ions, using a LC/MS/MS system.

  12. 21 CFR 872.6890 - Intraoral dental wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intraoral dental wax. 872.6890 Section 872.6890...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6890 Intraoral dental wax. (a) Identification. Intraoral dental wax is a device made of wax intended to construct patterns from which custom made metal...

  13. 21 CFR 172.888 - Synthetic petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Synthetic petroleum wax. 172.888 Section 172.888... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.888 Synthetic petroleum wax. Synthetic petroleum wax may be safely used in or on foods in accordance with the following conditions: (a) Synthetic petroleum wax is a...

  14. Extracting paraffin and mineral waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, I C

    1930-01-17

    In a process for freezing liquids, particularly for precipitating wax from oils such as petroleum or shale oils, the liquid to be treated is cooled first in vessels 10, 11, and 12 by chilled liquid from the final separating tanks 22, then in vessels 13, 14 and 15 by brine cooled by an evaporator 38 and finally in vessels 16,17, 18 directly by the evaporator of a refrigerating plant. The cooling in vessels 10, 11, 12 is regulated by recirculating some of the chilled liquid through the valved pipe 30 while that in tanks 13, 14, 15 is regulated by short-circuiting the brine circulation through a tank 35. Refrigerant vapour from the evaporators in vessels 16, 17, 18 may return through pipe 61 to the compressor or absorber of the plant 45 or it may be withdrawn by pump 58. By the operation of valves A, B, 47, and a valve in pipe 61, the pressures in the evaporators may be varied individually to regulate the cooling in each vessel. Mechanical stirrers are provided in tanks 16, 17, 18.

  15. Refining of wax-containing oil by distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1930-04-28

    A continuous method is disclosed for producing low cold test oil from wax-containing mineral oil, which comprises continuously heating the oil in a tubular heater with avoidance of cracking, and fractionating the resulting liquid and vapor in a fractionating tower with reflux to produce a wax-containing fraction having therein substantially all of the amorphous wax and being sufficiently free of crystalline wax so as to be waxable by a method suitable for the removal of amorphous wax.

  16. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing; Yi, Xin; Xiao, Kang; Li, Shunbo; Kodzius, Rimantas; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia

    2013-01-01

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  17. Wax-bonding 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xiuqing

    2013-10-10

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes . The hot-melt adhesive wax can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by vacuating and venting the chip in a hot-water bath. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of the wax-based microfluidic chip, we tested the PCR compatibility with the chip materials first. Then we applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation (EP ). Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein (GFP) recombinant Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration.

  18. Modeling the hydration process of bean grains coated with carnauba wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Almeida da Paixão

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Edible waxes are widely used to maintain foodstuff until they are consumed. However, some products may be subjected to industrial procedures, such as hydration, prior to their consumption. Hydration of a material is a complex process, which aims to reconstitute the original characteristics of a product when in contact with a liquid phase. An important agricultural product that requires this procedure is beans. Thus, the purpose of this work is to study the hydration process of beans (cultivar BRSMG Majestoso in different temperatures and concentrations of carnauba wax, which is applied on the product surface. Beans with initial moisture content of 0.2015, 0.1972 and 0.1745 (d.b. corresponding to treatments 0 (witness, 1 (wax diluted in water in the ratio 1:1, and 2 (carnauba wax, without dilution were used. Later, these samples were imbibed in distilled water at temperatures of 20, 30 and 40 ºC, for 15 h. The temperature and the carnauba wax influenced the water absorption rate. The Peleg model described satisfactory experimental data and the Mitscherlich model presented biased residual distribution. The constants C1 and C2 of the Peleg model exhibited opposite behaviors with increasing temperatures in the hydration process.

  19. Understanding the distribution of natural wax in starch-wax films using synchrotron-based FTIR (S-FTIR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Delina; Tobin, Mark J; Guo, Qipeng; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-02-15

    High amylose starch-glycerol (HAG) films were produced incorporating beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax in the presence and absence of Tween-80 in order to determine the distribution of wax in the films during the film formation process. The distribution of these waxes within the film was studied using Synchrotron based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (S-FTIR) which provided 2D mapping along the thickness of the film. The incorporation of 5% and 10% wax in HAG films produced randomly distributed wax or wax-rich domains, respectively, within these films. Consequently, the addition of these waxes to HAG increased the surface roughness and hydrophobicity of these films. The addition of Tween-80 caused variations in wax-rich bands within the films. The HAG+carnauba wax+Tween-80 films exhibited domed wax-rich domains displayed with high integrated CH2 absorption value at the interior of the films, rougher surface and higher contact angle values than the other films. The S-FTIR 2D images indicated that the distribution of wax in starch-wax films correlated with the roughness and hydrophobicity of the starch-wax films. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermal Cracking to Improve the Qualification of the Waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.; Agblevor, F. A.; Chen, C. G.; Feng, J.

    2018-05-01

    Thermal cracking of waxes at mild conditions (430-500°C) has been reconsidered as a possible refining technology for the production of fuels and chemicals. In this study, the more moderate thermal cracking was investigated to process Uinta Basin soft waxes to achieve the required pour point so that they can be pumped to the refineries. The best thermal cracking conditions were set 420°C and 20 minutes. The viscosity and density of the final liquid product were respectively achieved as 2.63 mP•s and 0.784 g/cm3 at 40°C. The result of FT-IR analysis of the liquid product indicated that the unsaturated hydrocarbons were produced after thermal cracking, which was corroborated by the 13C NMR spectrum. The GC analysis of the final gas product indicated that the hydrogen was produced; the dehydrogenation reaction was also proved by the elemental analysis and HHV results. The pour point of the final liquid product met the requirement.

  1. wax matrix tablets and its implication on dissolution prof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetaminophen-wax matrix tablet and hence its implication on dissolution profile. Acetaminophen-wax ... inertness, cost effectiveness, non- toxicity and more importantly their ... Liver Poole, England) at constant load (30 arbitrary units on the ...

  2. Review of data on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, T; Bury, D; Fautz, R; Hauser, M; Huber, B; Markowetz, A; Mishra, S; Rettinger, K; Schuh, W; Teichert, T

    2017-10-05

    Mineral oils and waxes used in cosmetic products, also referred to as "personal care products" outside the European Union, are mixtures of predominantly saturated hydrocarbons consisting of straight-chain, branched and ring structures with carbon chain lengths greater than C16. They are used in skin and lip care cosmetic products due to their excellent skin tolerance as well as their high protecting and cleansing performance and broad viscosity options. Recently, concerns have been raised regarding potential adverse health effects of mineral oils and waxes from dermal application of cosmetics. In order to be able to assess the risk for the consumer the dermal penetration potential of these ingredients has to be evaluated. The scope and objective of this review are to identify and summarize publicly available literature on the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products. For this purpose, a comprehensive literature search was conducted. A total of 13 in vivo (human, animal) and in vitro studies investigating the dermal penetration of mineral oils and waxes has been identified and analysed. The majority of the substances were dermally adsorbed to the stratum corneum and only a minor fraction reached deeper skin layers. Overall, there is no evidence from the various studies that mineral oils and waxes are percutaneously absorbed and become systemically available. Thus, given the absence of dermal uptake, mineral oils and waxes as used in cosmetic products do not present a risk to the health of the consumer. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttunen, S.

    1994-01-01

    In xerophytes, like conifers, the epicuticular wax is well developed. Especially in and around stomatal entrances, a thick wax coating is present. Epicuticular waxes are modified by changes in plant growth conditions such as temperature, relative humidity, irradiance, and wind, or acid rain. The fine structure of epicuticular waxes, their chemistry, and ecophysiological function are modified, especially in evergreen, long-lived conifer needles with characteristic crystalline wax structures. During needle flushing and development, wax structure is easily modified. Acid rain-treated Scots pine needles had 50% less epicuticular waxes in early August. Pollution-induced delayed development, destruction, and disturbances have been identified in many plant species. The structural changes in wax crystals are known. Acid rain or polluted air can destroy the crystalloid epicuticular waxes in a few weeks. In Pinus sylvestris, the first sign of pollution effect is the fusion of wax tubes. In Picea abies and P. sitchensis, modifications of crystalloid wax structure are known. In Californian pine trees phenomena of recrystallization of wax tubes on second-year needles were observed after delayed epicuticular wax development in Pinus ponderosa and P. coulteri. Thus, the effects of air pollutants are modified by climate. Accelerated senescence of leaves and needles have been associated with natural and anthropogenic stresses. The accelerated erosion rate of epicuticular waxes has been measured under air pollution conditions. Many short-term air pollution experiments have failed to show any structural changes in epicuticular wax structures. The quantity and quality of needle waxes grown in open-top chambers, glass houses, or polluted air before treatment, differ from field conditions and make it difficult to detect effects of any treatment. (orig.)

  4. Dental students' preferences and performance in crown design: conventional wax-added versus CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, R Duane; Hopp, Christa D; Augustin, Marcus A

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate dental students' perceptions of traditional waxing vs. computer-aided crown design and to determine the effectiveness of either technique through comparative grading of the final products. On one of twoidentical tooth preparations, second-year students at one dental school fabricated a wax pattern for a full contour crown; on the second tooth preparation, the same students designed and fabricated an all-ceramic crown using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) technology. Projects were graded for occlusion and anatomic form by three faculty members. On completion of the projects, 100 percent of the students (n=50) completed an eight-question, five-point Likert scalesurvey, designed to assess their perceptions of and learning associated with the two design techniques. The average grades for the crown design projects were 78.3 (CAD) and 79.1 (wax design). The mean numbers of occlusal contacts were 3.8 (CAD) and 2.9(wax design), which was significantly higher for CAD (p=0.02). The survey results indicated that students enjoyed designing afull contour crown using CAD as compared to using conventional wax techniques and spent less time designing the crown using CAD. From a learning perspective, students felt that they learned more about position and the size/strength of occlusal contacts using CAD. However, students recognized that CAD technology has limits in terms of representing anatomic contours and excursive occlusion compared to conventional wax techniques. The results suggest that crown design using CAD could be considered as an adjunct to conventional wax-added techniques in preclinical fixed prosthodontic curricula.

  5. 75 FR 63200 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... five-year review concerning the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China. SUMMARY... antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from China would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  6. 75 FR 80843 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-282 (Third Review)] Petroleum Wax Candles... Tariff Act of 1930 (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax... contained in USITC Publication 4207 (December 2010), entitled Petroleum Wax Candles from China...

  7. 21 CFR 172.886 - Petroleum wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register... it is very hygroscopic and will react with some metal containers in the presence of air. Phosphoric... high enough to keep the wax melted. (Note: In preheating the sulfoxide-acid mixture, remove the stopper...

  8. ETHNOECOLOGY AND ETHNOBOTANY OF THE PALM CARNAUBA WAX IN BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ferreira de Sousa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of ethnoecological and ethnobotanical of carnauba wax (Copernicia prunifera (Miller H. E. Moore, Arecaceae in an extractive community of municipality of Ipanguaçu, Rio Grande do Norte state. We interviewed key informants, using the technique of inducing nonspecific, guided tour and direct observation to confirm the data. According to most residents of Pedro Ezequiel Araújo community, the area of carnauba wax in the region is natural. In the research ethnoecological, 73% of informants reported the occurrence of “a different kind of carnauba”, known as “white carnauba” phenotypically distinct from the “common carnauba wax” by presenting clear stipe, smaller fruits and absence of spines on the petiole, and is rare at the study site. Much of the informants observed phenological phases of carnauba wax, being consistent in stating that the species has fruits dispersed by bats. In ethnobotany, powder wax was cited by all as the most important product extracted from leaves of carnauba and the most used, followed by fruit, stem and root. Were still reported the division of work in the extraction of powder wax from the carnauba. The results of this research will contribute to knowledge of ethnobotanical and ethnoecological carnauba, supporting strategies for management and conservation of natural populations.

  9. Biodegradation of paraffin wax by crude Aspergillus enzyme preparations for potential use in removing paraffin deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junhui; Xue, Quanhong; Gao, Hui; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-01

    Paraffin deposition problems have plagued the oil industry. Whist mechanical and chemical methods are problematic, microbiological method of paraffin removal is considered an alternative. However, studies have mainly investigated the use of bacteria, with little attention to the potential of fungi. The performance of six Aspergillus isolates to degrade paraffin wax was evaluated under laboratory conditions using solid enzyme preparations. The results showed that all the six enzyme preparations efficiently improved the solubility of paraffin wax in n-hexane and degraded n-alkanes in paraffin wax. The degradation process was accompanied by dynamic production of gases (CO2 and H2 ) and organic acids (oxalate and propionate). The shape of wax crystals markedly changed after enzymatic degradation, with a rough surface and a loose structure. This study indicates that extracellular enzymes from Aspergillus spp. can efficiently degrade paraffin wax. These enzyme preparations have the potential for use in oil wells with paraffin deposition problems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Chemical composition of raw and deresinated peat waxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bel' kevich, P I; Ivanova, L A; Piskunova, T A; Tserlyukevich, Ya V; Yurkevich, E A

    1980-01-01

    Research was conducted using absorption chromatography and spectroscopy to study the changes in the chemical composition of raw peat wax taking place in the deresination process. Characteristics of the raw, deresinated waxes and resins removed are given. The fractions obtained showed that both raw and deresinated wax contain the same basic compound classes: hydrocarbons, alcohols, complex ether and acids; but their proportions in the waxes are different. After deresination most of the dark-colored polyfunctional compounds, a portion of the soluble unsaturated hydrocarbons and alcohols, and all the sterenes transfer into the resin. This causes the light color and specific physical properties of deresinated wax. (13 refs.) (In Russian)

  11. Role of Osmotic Adjustment in Plant Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gebre, G.M.

    2001-01-11

    Successful implementation of short rotation woody crops requires that the selected species and clones be productive, drought tolerant, and pest resistant. Since water is one of the major limiting factors in poplar (Populus sp.) growth, there is little debate for the need of drought tolerant clones, except on the wettest of sites (e.g., lower Columbia River delta). Whether drought tolerance is compatible with productivity remains a debatable issue. Among the many mechanisms of drought tolerance, dehydration postponement involves the maintenance of high leaf water potential due to, for example, an adequate root system. This trait is compatible with productivity, but requires available soil moisture. When the plant leaf water potential and soil water content decline, the plant must be able to survive drought through dehydration tolerance mechanisms, such as low osmotic potential or osmotic adjustment. Osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potential are considered compatible with growth and yield because they aid in the maintenance of leaf turgor. However, it has been shown that turgor alone does not regulate cell expansion or stomatal conductance and, therefore, the role of osmotic adjustment is debated. Despite this finding, osmotic adjustment has been correlated with grain yield in agronomic crop species, and gene markers responsible for osmotic adjustment are being investigated to improve drought tolerance in productive progenies. Although osmotic adjustment and low osmotic potentials have been investigated in several forest tree species, few studies have investigated the relationship between osmotic adjustment and growth. Most of these studies have been limited to greenhouse or container-grown plants. Osmotic adjustment and rapid growth have been specifically associated in Populus and black spruce (Picea mariuna (Mill.) B.S.P.) progenies. We tested whether these relationships held under field conditions using several poplar clones. In a study of two hybrid poplar

  12. Simulation of temperature-pressure profiles and wax deposition in gas-lift wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevic Snezana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas-lift is an artificial lift method in which gas is injected down the tubing- -casing annulus and enters the production tubing through the gas-lift valves to reduce the hydrostatic pressure of the formation fluid column. The gas changes pressure, temperature and fluid composition profiles throughout the production tubing string. Temperature and pressure drop along with the fluid composition changes throughout the tubing string can lead to wax, asphaltenes and inorganic salts deposition, increased emulsion stability and hydrate formation. This paper presents a new model that can sucesfully simulate temperature and pressure profiles and fluid composition changes in oil well that operates by means of gas-lift. This new model includes a pipe-in-pipe segment (production tubing inside production casing, countercurrent flow of gas-lift gas and producing fluid, heat exchange between gas-lift gas and the surrounding ambient – ground; and gas-lift gas with the fluid in the tubing. The model enables a better understanding of the multiphase fluid flow up the production tubing. Model was used to get insight into severity and locations of wax deposition. The obtained information on wax deposition can be used to plan the frequency and depth of wax removing operations. Model was developed using Aspen HYSYS software.

  13. Effects of air pollutants on epicuticular wax chemical composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, K.E.; McQuattie, C.J.; Rebbeck, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    There are numerous reports in the literature of modifications to epicuticular wax structure as a consequence of exposure to air pollutants. Most authors have used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to describe changes in wax crystallite morphology or distribution. ''Erosion'' or ''weathering'' of crystalline structure into an amorphous state is the most common observation, particularly in the case of conifer needles having the characteristic tube crystallites comprised of nonacosan-10-ol. Wax structure is largely determined by its chemical composition. Therefore, many of the reported changes in wax structure due to air pollutants probably arise from direct interactions between pollutants such as ozone and wax biosynthesis. The literature describing changes in wax composition due to pollutants is briefly reviewed. New evidence is introduced in support of the hypothesis for a direct interaction between air pollutants and epicuticular wax Biosynthesis. (orig.)

  14. Low-pressure injection molding of alumina ceramics using a carnauba wax binder: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo Nogueira, R.E.F.; Bezerra, A.C.; Santos, F.C. dos [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Centro de Tecnologia-UFC, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Sousa, M.R. de; Acchar, W. [Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica, Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, UFRN-Campus Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    Carnauba wax, a natural product from Northeastern Brazil, has found application in the processing of ceramics. However, the use of pure carnauba wax is not recommended due to its narrow melting range and poor mechanical properties. In the present work carnauba wax based organic vehicles with the addition of low-density polyethylene and stearic acid were developed for use in the low-pressure injection molding of alumina ceramics. Viscosimetric testing was employed for the determination of optimal composition of the organic vehicle. The optimal content of ceramic powder in the mixture was also determined. All the materials used are easily available in the Brazilian market. A simple ceramic part was injected at low pressures (0.6 MPa) using a semi-automatic injection molding machine. For this purpose a double cavity mold was designed and built. Preliminary results demonstrate the technical viability of the process using the organic vehicle developed. (orig.)

  15. Anti-botrytis activity in epicuticular waxes of young grape berries of Vitis vinifera (Pinot noir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Comménil

    1996-03-01

    The evidence of a substance which exhibits a strong inhibition on the conidial germination of Botrytis cinerea was made after epicuticular waxes chromatographic analysis and biological tests. This compound, characterized by a Rf (0,2 closely related to the Rf of the primary alcohols, was present in the wax extracts originated from bloom and immature grape berries stages and it was absent in the extracts issued to the mature grape berries. The concentration of the conidial germination inhibitor was markedly different between the sensible (S792 and tolerant (T7613 cultivars of Pinot vineyards. Also this antifungal product would be considereted as an hypothetical resistance marked against Botrytis cinerea.

  16. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hentz, Matthew; Hall, David G.; Shatters, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of ‘naturally waxed’ and ‘dewaxed’ nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed. PMID:25793934

  17. Wax co-cracking synergism of high density polyethylene to alternative fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Motawie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attempts have been made to understand the thermal degradation of high density polyethylene (HDPE and their combined co-cracking using different ratios of HDPE and petroleum wax under nitrogen atmosphere. We have conducted the experiments using HDPE as the raw material and petroleum wax as co-feed by at 400 and 450 °C reaction temperatures. The product distribution was noted along with reaction time of 0.5–3 h for the degradation. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA technique was used to measure the weight change of the feedstock as a function of temperature and time. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC was used to determine the degradation temperature. Products were characterized using gas chromatography (GC and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, some other standard physical methods were used to determine the main properties of the liquid products. Results show that the mixed plastic-wax samples could be converted into gases, gasoline, and middle distillate depending upon the composition of feed polymer/wax ratio. It was found that the products mostly consisted of paraffin and olefin compounds, with carbon numbers of C1–C4, C5–C9 and C10–C19 in the case of gases, gasoline and middle distillate respectively.

  18. Thermal characterizations of the paraffin wax/low density polyethylene blends as a solid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soojong; Moon, Heejang; Kim, Jinkon, E-mail: jkkim@kau.ac.kr

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Regression rate of blends fuel is higher than polymer fuel. • LDPE is an effective mixing ingredient for the combustion efficiency. • Blends fuel is a uniform mixture with two degradation steps. • LDPE plays a positive role for the low sensitivity to the thermal deformation • Blends with low LDPE content can be an effective fuel for hybrid rocket application. - Abstract: Thermal characterizations of a novel solid fuel for hybrid rocket application, based on the paraffin wax blends with low density polyethylene (LDPE) concentration of 5% (SF-5) and 10% (SF-10) were conducted. Both the increased regression rate in comparison with the polymeric fuel, and the improved combustion efficiency in comparison with the pure paraffin fuel reveal that the blend fuels achieve higher combustion performance. The morphology of the shape stabilized paraffin wax/LDPE blends was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the SEM observation indicated the blends have uniform mixtures, they showed two degradation steps confirming the immiscibility of components in the crystalline phase from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results showed that the melting temperature of LDPE in the blends decreased with an increase of paraffin wax content. The decreasing total specific melting enthalpy of blended fuels with decreasing paraffin wax content is in fairly good agreement with the additive rule. In thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) seems to decrease with an increase of LDPE loading, however, the loaded LDPE do merely affect the LCTE in case of the blends with low LDPE concentration. It was found that a blend of low concentration of LDPE with a relatively high concentration of paraffin wax can lead to a potential novel fuel for rocket application, a contrary case with respect to the field of phase change materials (PCM) where a blend of high concentration

  19. Thermal characterizations of the paraffin wax/low density polyethylene blends as a solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soojong; Moon, Heejang; Kim, Jinkon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Regression rate of blends fuel is higher than polymer fuel. • LDPE is an effective mixing ingredient for the combustion efficiency. • Blends fuel is a uniform mixture with two degradation steps. • LDPE plays a positive role for the low sensitivity to the thermal deformation • Blends with low LDPE content can be an effective fuel for hybrid rocket application. - Abstract: Thermal characterizations of a novel solid fuel for hybrid rocket application, based on the paraffin wax blends with low density polyethylene (LDPE) concentration of 5% (SF-5) and 10% (SF-10) were conducted. Both the increased regression rate in comparison with the polymeric fuel, and the improved combustion efficiency in comparison with the pure paraffin fuel reveal that the blend fuels achieve higher combustion performance. The morphology of the shape stabilized paraffin wax/LDPE blends was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Although the SEM observation indicated the blends have uniform mixtures, they showed two degradation steps confirming the immiscibility of components in the crystalline phase from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) results showed that the melting temperature of LDPE in the blends decreased with an increase of paraffin wax content. The decreasing total specific melting enthalpy of blended fuels with decreasing paraffin wax content is in fairly good agreement with the additive rule. In thermomechanical analysis (TMA), the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (LCTE) seems to decrease with an increase of LDPE loading, however, the loaded LDPE do merely affect the LCTE in case of the blends with low LDPE concentration. It was found that a blend of low concentration of LDPE with a relatively high concentration of paraffin wax can lead to a potential novel fuel for rocket application, a contrary case with respect to the field of phase change materials (PCM) where a blend of high concentration

  20. Molecular and Biochemical Characterization of Cotton Epicuticular Wax in Defense Against Cotton Leaf Curl Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Azmat Ullah; Shahid, Ahmad Ali; Rao, Abdul Qayyum; Bajwa, Kamran Shehzad; Samiullah, Tahir Rehman; Muzaffar, Adnan; Nasir, Idrees Ahmad; Husnain, Tayyab

    2015-12-01

    Gossypium arboreumis resistant to Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus and its cognate Cotton leaf curl Multan beta satellite ( CLCuBuV and CLCuMB ). However, the G. arboreum wax deficient mutant (GaWM3) is susceptible to CLCuV . Therefore, epicuticular wax was characterized both quantitatively and qualitatively for its role as physical barrier against whitefly mediated viral transmission and co-related with the titer of each viral component (DNA-A, alphasatellite and betasatellite) in plants. The hypothesis was the CLCuV titer in cotton is dependent on the amount of wax laid down on plant surface and the wax composition. Analysis of the presence of viral genes, namely alphasatellite, betasatellite and DNA-A, via real-time PCR in cotton species indicated that these genes are detectable in G. hirsutum , G. harknessii and GaWM3, whereas no particle was detected in G. arboreum . Quantitative wax analysis revealed that G. arboreum contained 183 μg.cm -2 as compared to GaWM3 with only 95 μg.cm -2 . G. hirsutum and G. harknessii had 130 μg.cm -2 and 146 μg.cm -2 , respectively. The GCMS results depicted that Lanceol, cis was 45% in G. harknessii . Heptadecanoic acid was dominant in G. arboreum with 25.6%. GaWM3 had 18% 1,2,-Benenedicarboxylic acid. G. hirsutum contained 25% diisooctyl ester. The whitefly feeding assay with Nile Blue dye showed no color in whiteflies gut fed on G. arboreum . In contrast, color was observed in the rest of whiteflies. From results, it was concluded that reduced quantity as well as absence of (1) 3-trifluoroacetoxytetradecane, (2) 2-piperidinone,n-|4-bromo-n-butyl|, (3) 4-heptafluorobutyroxypentadecane, (4) Silane, trichlorodocosyl-, (5) 6- Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester, and (6) Heptadecanoicacid,16-methyl-,methyl ester in wax could make plants susceptible to CLCuV , infested by whiteflies.

  1. Sintering of wax for controlling release from pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Reena; Poddar, S S; Chivate, Amit

    2007-09-14

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate incorporation of hydrophobic (ie, waxy) material into pellets using a thermal sintering technique and to evaluate the pellets in vitro for controlled release. Pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization technology were formulated with a water-soluble drug, microcrystalline cellulose, and carnauba wax. Powdered carnauba wax (4%-20%) prepared by grinding or by emulsification was studied with an attempt to retard the drug release. The inclusion of ground or emulsified carnauba wax did not sustain the release of theophylline for more than 3 hours. Matrix pellets of theophylline prepared with various concentrations of carnauba wax were sintered thermally at various times and temperatures. In vitro drug release profiles indicated an increase in drug release retardation with increasing carnauba wax concentration. Pellets prepared with ground wax showed a higher standard deviation than did those prepared with emulsified wax. There was incomplete release at the end of 12 hours for pellets prepared with 20% ground or emulsified wax. The sintering temperature and duration were optimized to allow for a sustained release lasting at least 12 hours. The optimized temperature and duration were found to be 100 degrees C and 140 seconds, respectively. The sintered pellets had a higher hydrophobicity than did the unsintered pellets. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that the carnauba wax moved internally, thereby increasing the surface area of wax within the pellets.

  2. Evolutionary Conserved Function of Barley and Arabidopsis 3-KETOACYL-CoA SYNTHASES in Providing Wax Signals for Germination of Powdery Mildew Fungi1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenbach, Denise; Jansen, Marcus; Franke, Rochus B.; Hensel, Goetz; Weissgerber, Wiebke; Ulferts, Sylvia; Jansen, Irina; Schreiber, Lukas; Korzun, Viktor; Pontzen, Rolf; Kumlehn, Jochen; Pillen, Klaus; Schaffrath, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    For plant pathogenic fungi, such as powdery mildews, that survive only on a limited number of host plant species, it is a matter of vital importance that their spores sense that they landed on the right spot to initiate germination as quickly as possible. We investigated a barley (Hordeum vulgare) mutant with reduced epicuticular leaf waxes on which spores of adapted and nonadapted powdery mildew fungi showed reduced germination. The barley gene responsible for the mutant wax phenotype was cloned in a forward genetic screen and identified to encode a 3-KETOACYL-CoA SYNTHASE (HvKCS6), a protein participating in fatty acid elongation and required for synthesis of epicuticular waxes. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the mutant has significantly fewer aliphatic wax constituents with a chain length above C-24. Complementation of the mutant restored wild-type wax and overcame germination penalty, indicating that wax constituents less present on the mutant are a crucial clue for spore germination. Investigation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) transgenic plants with sense silencing of Arabidopsis REQUIRED FOR CUTICULAR WAX PRODUCTION1, the HvKCS6 ortholog, revealed the same germination phenotype against adapted and nonadapted powdery mildew fungi. Our findings hint to an evolutionary conserved mechanism for sensing of plant surfaces among distantly related powdery mildews that is based on KCS6-derived wax components. Perception of such a signal must have been evolved before the monocot-dicot split took place approximately 150 million years ago. PMID:25201879

  3. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  4. Flow and linear coefficient of thermal expansion of four types of Base Plate waxes compared with ADA standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monzavi A

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Waxes have a lot of applications in dentistry. Such materials are of thermoplastic type that undergoes deformation in different temperatures. Two important properties of base plate waxes are flow and their coefficient of linear thermal expansion. Recently, different institutions, inside the country, produce dentistry waxes, while they have not been standardized. Consequently, consumers' dissatisfaction are observed. In this research, the two above- mentioned factors were compared between three kinds of Iranian waxes with Cavex that is foreign production, based on test number 24 of ADA. To measure the flow rate in the temperatures of 23, 37 and 45°c, Wilcoxon statistical analysis was used. The results showed that in 23°c, the flow rate of Cavex and Azardent waxes met ADA standards; however, it was not true for two others types. In 37°c, the flow of none of the waxes was standardized and in 45°c their flow was acceptable, moreover, thermal expansion coefficient, for Cavex and Azardent types, was based on ADA standard.

  5. A new experimental method to prevent paraffin - wax formation on the crude oil wells: A field case study in Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elhaddad Elnori E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wax formation and deposition is one of the most common problems in oil producing wells. This problem occurs as a result of the reduction of the produced fluid temperature below the wax appearance temperature (range between 46°C and 50°C and the pour point temperature (range between 42°C and 44°C. In this study, two new methods for preventing wax formation were implemented on three oil wells in Libya, where the surface temperature is, normally, 29°C. In the first method, the gas was injected at a pressure of 83.3 bar and a temperature of 65°C (greater than the pour point temperature during the gas-lift operation. In the second method, wax inhibitors (Trichloroethylene-xylene (TEX, Ethylene copolymers, and Comb polymers were injected down the casings together with the gas. Field observations confirmed that by applying these techniques, the production string was kept clean and no wax was formed. The obtained results show that the wax formation could be prevented by both methods.

  6. Evaluation of methods for wax determination in crude oil; Avaliacao de metodos de determinacao de parafinas em petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Julio Cesar M.; Silva, Maria do Socorro A.J. da; Vasconcellos, Rosa C.U. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Tamanqueira, Juliana B. [Fundacao Gorceix, Ouro Preto, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Determining the wax content of crude oil is of great importance for petroleum industry, especially for production, storage and transportation of crude oils. Many different methodologies of wax determining are available in the technical literature. However, the selection of the most suitable method must be in accordance with the aim of the analysis and observing the specificities of each technique. The purpose of this work was to determine the performance of different techniques of wax determining applied to characterization of precipitation properties of waxy compounds in crude oils. Twelve samples of crude oils proceeding from the main Brazilian oil producing sedimentary basins were selected for this study. These samples were analyzed by three important analytical techniques of wax determining: precipitation by cooled solvent; liquid chromatography with precipitation by cooled solvent; and liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography. Differential scanning calorimetry data related to the wax crystallization in these oils were used as parameters of validation. The results obtained in this study indicate that the liquid chromatography followed by gas chromatography method has the best performance for wax determining in crude oils. (author)

  7. Catalytic cracking of slack wax with molten mixtures containing aluminum chloride and bromide. [Wax obtained in the process of dewaxing lubricating oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsuka, Y; Oizumi, K; Tamai, Y

    1983-09-01

    The catalytic cracking of slack wax with molten mixtures of AlCl/sub 3/ (aluminum chloride) and AlBr/sub 3/ (aluminum bromide) was investigated in an atmospheric semi-batch reactor at low temperatures of 100 to 160/sup 0/C. The cracking rate was proportional to the amount of unreacted wax. The conversion at 135/sup 0/C reached 25 wt % under typical reaction conditions. About 95 wt % of the cracking products consisted of isobutane, 2-methylbutane, and methylpentanes, ca. 50% of these isoparaffins being isobutane. The difference in cracking activity between this catalyst and a solid acid catalyst is discussed based on the product distribution. Hardly any reaction took place without HCl, which shows that the presence of HCl is essential for this cracking. The cracking rate increased sharply with an increase in the amount of the catalyst. The rate did not depend on the composition of the AlCl/sub 3//sup -/ AlBr/sub 3/ catalyst, but the product distribution did depend on it and the content of the gasoline fraction in the products increased with an increase in the concentration of AlBr/sub 3/. The cracking residue was characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopy. The results show that the cracking reaction probably occurs heterogeneously at the interface between the liquid wax and the molten catalyst. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  8. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinju

    2018-01-01

    Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential. PMID:29438422

  9. Surfactants and Desensitizing Wax Substitutes for TNT-Based Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-01

    greatly with the source of crude oil. Some crudes contain little wax. The U.S. crudes from Pennsylvania and the midcontinent areas contain high...years ago in Egypt for many different purposes. The term wax comes to us from the Anglo-Saxon "weax," the name given to material from the bee ...usually produced in the wild and not by large scale cultivation. Although plants produce small amounts of waxes in their tissues, seeds and pollen

  10. In vivo evaluation of insect wax for hair growth potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinju Ma

    Full Text Available Insect wax is secreted by Ericerus pela Chavanness. It has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China, but few reports have been published on the hair growth-promoting effect of insect wax. In this work, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of insect wax on model animals. Different concentrations of insect wax were topically applied to the denuded backs of mice, and 5% minoxidil was applied topically as a positive control. We found that insect wax significantly promoted hair growth in a dose-dependent manner, 45% and 30% insect wax both induced hair to regrow, while less visible hair growth was observed in blank controls on the 16th day. The experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax exhibited significant differences in hair scores compared to blank controls, and hair lengths in the 45% and 30% insect wax group was significantly longer than in blank controls on the 16th and 20th days. There were no new hair follicles forming in the treated areas, and the hair follicles were prematurely converted to the anagen phase from the telogen phase in experimental areas treated with 45% and 30% insect wax. Both 45% and 30% insect wax upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor expression. The results indicated that 45% and 30% insect wax showed hair growth-promoting potential approximately as potent as 5% minoxidil by inducing the premature conversion of telogen-to-anagen and by prolonging the mature anagen phase rather than increasing the number of hair follicles, which was likely related to the upregulation of VEGF expression. The dissociative policosanol in insect wax was considered the key ingredient most likely responsible for the hair growth promoting potential.

  11. Effect of solvent extraction on Tunisian esparto wax composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saâd Inès

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The increase of needs for renewable and vegetable based materials will help to drive the market growth of vegetable waxes. Because of their highly variable composition and physicochemical properties, plant waxes have found numerous applications in the: food, cosmetic, candle, coating, polish etc... The aim of this project is to determine the effect of solvent extraction (petroleum ether and ethanol on Tunisian esparto wax composition. The GC-MS was applied in order to determine the waxes compositions. Then, physicochemical parameters of these two samples of waxes: acid value, saponification value, iodine value and melting point were measured in order to deduct their properties and possible fields of uses. Results showed that esparto wax composition depended on the solvent extraction and that major components of the two samples of waxes were: alkanes, esters of fatty acids and phenols. Furthermore, esparto waxes were characterized by an antioxidant and antibacterial activities but the potential of these activities depended on the solvent of wax extraction.

  12. Absorption and distribution of orally administered jojoba wax in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaron, A; Samoiloff, V; Benzioni, A

    1982-03-01

    The liquid wax obtained from the seeds of the arid-land shrub jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) is finding increasing use in skin treatment preparations. The fate of this wax upon reaching the digestive tract was studied. 14C-Labeled wax was administered intragastrically to mice, and the distribution of the label in the body was determined as a function of time. Most of the wax was excreted, but a small amount was absorbed, as was indicated by the distribution of label in the internal organs and the epididymal fat. The label was incorporated into the body lipids and was found to diminish with time.

  13. Modeling of asphaltene and wax precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, F.; Sarathi, P.; Jones, R.

    1991-01-01

    This research project was designed to focus on the development of a predictive technique for organic deposition during gas injection for petroleum EOR. A thermodynamic model has been developed to describe the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition on asphaltene precipitation. The proposed model combines regular solution theory with Flory-Huggins polymer solutions theory to predict maximum volume fractions of asphaltene dissolved in oil. The model requires evaluation of vapor-liquid equilibria, first using an equation of state followed by calculations of asphaltene solubility in the liquid-phase. A state-of-the-art technique for C{sub 7+} fraction characterization was employed in developing this model. The preliminary model developed in this work was able to predict qualitatively the trends of the effects of temperature, pressure, and composition. Since the mechanism of paraffinic wax deposition is different from that of asphaltene deposition, another thermodynamic model based on the solid-liquid solution theory was developed to predict the wax formation. This model is simple and can predict the wax appearance temperature with reasonable accuracy. Accompanying the modeling work, experimental studies were conducted to investigate the solubility of asphaltene in oil land solvents and to examine the effects of oil composition, CO{sub 2}, and solvent on asphaltene precipitation and its properties. This research focused on the solubility reversibility of asphaltene in oil and the precipitation caused by CO{sub 2} injection at simulated reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. These experiments have provided many observations about the properties of asphaltenes for further improvement of the model, but more detailed information about the properties of asphaltenes in solution is needed for the development of more reliable asphaltene characterization techniques. 50 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Study of phase transition in hard microcrystalline waxes and wax blends by differential scanning calorimetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, S.; Agrawal, K. M.; Khan, H. U.; Sikora, Antonín

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 22, 3 & 4 (2004), s. 337-345 ISSN 1091-6466 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK4050111 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : phase transition * hard microscrystalline waxes * differential scanning calorimetry Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.312, year: 2004

  15. Presence of carotinoids in peat wax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurkevich, E.A.; Dolidovich, E.F.; Bel' kevich, P.I.; Sheremet, L.S.; Drozdovskaya, S.V.

    1986-05-01

    Discusses biologically active substances present in peat which have various pharmacological properties. Describes separation of fractions rich in carotinoids from extracts of wax tar obtained by benzine treatment of highly decomposed pine-cotton grass peat. Extraction was carried out using hot ethanol. States that although identification of individual carotinoid in the fractions separated is very difficult due to complicity of composition, the tests carried out made it possible to infer that fractions studied contain not only xanthophylls but also fucoxanthains (formed in small amounts in nature) with fairly stable structure. Ultraviolet and infrared spectra of the carotinoid containing fraction in ethanol extracts are given. 6 refs.

  16. Thermodynamics Prediction of Wax Precipitation in Black Oil Using Regular Solution Model and Plus Fraction Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The precipitation of wax/solid paraffin during production, transportation, and processing of crude oil is a serious problem. It is essential to have a reliable model to predict the wax appearance temperature and the amount of solid precipitated at different conditions. This paper presents a work to predict the solid precipitation based on solid-liquid equilibrium with regular solution-molecular thermodynamic theory and characterization of the crude oil plus fraction. Due to the differences of solubility characteristics between solid and liquid phase, the solubility parameters of liquid and solid phase are calculated by a modified model. The heat capacity change between solid and liquid phase is considered and estimated in the thermodynamic model. An activity coefficient based thermodynamic method combined with two characteristic methods to calculate wax precipitation in crude oil, especially heavy oil, has been tested with experimental data. The results show that the wax appearance temperature and the amount of weight precipitated can be predicted well with the experimental data.

  17. A prediction method for the wax deposition rate based on a radial basis function neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xie

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The radial basis function neural network is a popular supervised learning tool based on machinery learning technology. Its high precision having been proven, the radial basis function neural network has been applied in many areas. The accumulation of deposited materials in the pipeline may lead to the need for increased pumping power, a decreased flow rate or even to the total blockage of the line, with losses of production and capital investment, so research on predicting the wax deposition rate is significant for the safe and economical operation of an oil pipeline. This paper adopts the radial basis function neural network to predict the wax deposition rate by considering four main influencing factors, the pipe wall temperature gradient, pipe wall wax crystal solubility coefficient, pipe wall shear stress and crude oil viscosity, by the gray correlational analysis method. MATLAB software is employed to establish the RBF neural network. Compared with the previous literature, favorable consistency exists between the predicted outcomes and the experimental results, with a relative error of 1.5%. It can be concluded that the prediction method of wax deposition rate based on the RBF neural network is feasible.

  18. A review on wax printed microfluidic paper-based devices for international health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundemir, S; Uguz, A K; Ulgen, K

    2017-07-01

    Paper-based microfluidics has attracted attention for the last ten years due to its advantages such as low sample volume requirement, ease of use, portability, high sensitivity, and no necessity to well-equipped laboratory equipment and well-trained manpower. These characteristics have made paper platforms a promising alternative for a variety of applications such as clinical diagnosis and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological substances. Among the wide range of fabrication methods for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices ( μ PADs), the wax printing method is suitable for high throughput production and requires only a commercial printer and a heating source to fabricate complex two or three-dimensional structures for multipurpose systems. μ PADs can be used by anyone for in situ diagnosis and analysis; therefore, wax printed μ PADs are promising especially in resource limited environments where people cannot get sensitive and fast diagnosis of their serious health problems and where food, water, and related products are not able to be screened for toxic elements. This review paper is focused on the applications of paper-based microfluidic devices fabricated by the wax printing technique and used for international health. Besides presenting the current limitations and advantages, the future directions of this technology including the commercial aspects are discussed. As a conclusion, the wax printing technology continues to overcome the current limitations and to be one of the promising fabrication techniques. In the near future, with the increase of the current interest of the industrial companies on the paper-based technology, the wax-printed paper-based platforms are expected to take place especially in the healthcare industry.

  19. The role of prostaglandins in livestock production | Okon | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... synthesized) fashion. Prostaglandins are therefore regarded as essential mediators of female reproductive processes, hence, this paper seeks to review the role of Prostaglandins which is exploited in livestock production especially oestrus synchronization and induced parturition. KEYWORDS: Prostaglandins, Production ...

  20. 75 FR 56528 - EPA's Role in Advancing Sustainable Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... action if you manufacture, distribute, label, certify, verify, and purchase or use consumer, commercial... particular, how do you see EPA's role in: Assembling information and databases. Identifying sustainability ``hotspots'' and setting product sustainability priorities. Evaluating the multiple impacts of products...

  1. Wax Impaction in Nigerian School Children. | Eziyi | East and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Impacted wax has been classified as an ear disease. It can cause pain, itching, tinnitus hearing loss or otitis externa. The prevalence of cerumen impaction varies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of impacted ear wax in primary school children and to determine, if there is any association ...

  2. Statistical Optimization of Sustained Release Venlafaxine HCI Wax Matrix Tablet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalekar, M R; Madgulkar, A R; Sheladiya, D D; Kshirsagar, S J; Wable, N D; Desale, S S

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to prepare a sustained release drug delivery system of venlafaxine hydrochloride by using a wax matrix system. The effects of bees wax and carnauba wax on drug release profile was investigated. A 3(2) full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Amounts of carnauba wax (X(1)) and bees wax (X(2)) were selected as independent variables and release after 12 h and time required for 50% (t(50)) drug release were selected as dependent variables. A mathematical model was generated for each response parameter. Both waxes retarded release after 12 h and increases the t(50) but bees wax showed significant influence. The drug release pattern for all the formulation combinations was found to be approaching Peppas kinetic model. Suitable combination of two waxes provided fairly good regulated release profile. The response surfaces and contour plots for each response parameter are presented for further interpretation of the results. The optimum formulations were chosen and their predicted results found to be in close agreement with experimental findings.

  3. Influence of Different Waxes on the Physical Properties of Linear ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    2005-12-22

    Dec 22, 2005 ... viscosity of a polymer melt. In many instances it ... amounts of different waxes on the viscosity (melt flow) of ..... Since the MFI is a direct measure of the viscosity .... melt flow index increasing with increasing wax content. There.

  4. Biochemical response of sweet potato to bemul-wax coating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas Linn) tuber is a very nutritious but highly perishable crop that is subject to high wastages due to non-availability of appropriate storage techniques. This work assessed the effectiveness of treating the tubers with calcium chloride dip (CCD), bemul-wax (B-wax) and their combinations ...

  5. Pickering emulsions stabilized by paraffin wax and Laponite clay particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caifu; Liu, Qian; Mei, Zhen; Wang, Jun; Xu, Jian; Sun, Dejun

    2009-08-01

    Emulsions containing wax in dispersed droplets stabilized by disc-like Laponite clay particles are prepared. Properties of the emulsions prepared at different temperatures are examined using stability, microscopy and droplet-size analysis. At low temperature, the wax crystals in the oil droplets can protrude through the interface, leading to droplet coalescence. But at higher temperatures, the droplet size decreases with wax concentration. Considering the viscosity of the oil phase and the interfacial tension, we conclude that the wax is liquid-like during the high temperature emulsification process, but during cooling wax crystals appear around the oil/water interface and stabilize the droplets. The oil/water ratio has minimal effect on the emulsions between ratios of 3:7 and 7:3. The Laponite is believed to stabilize the emulsions by increasing the viscosity of the continuous phase and also by adsorbing at the oil/water interface, thus providing a physical barrier to coalescence.

  6. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soradech, Sitthiphong; Petchtubtim, Intira; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu; Muangman, Thanchanok

    2016-03-22

    In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w) was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (%) and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax) significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity.

  7. Purifying oils and waxes. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1926-01-27

    Fractions of petroleum, shale oil, coal oil, and paraffin wax are refined by passing the vapour under reduced pressure through fuller's earth, bauxite, silica gel, or other adsorbent at a temperature not substantially more than sufficient to maintain the vapour phase. The vapour may be passed in succession through adsorbent of increasing strength. Treatment with sulphuric acid, or with alkali, or with both may precede treatment with absorbent, and this successive treatment may be repeated any number of times. The action is accelerated by passing a current of inert gas insufficient to affect the vacuum materially along with the vapours. In an example a 160 to 225/sup 0/C kerosene fraction is treated with sulphuric acid of 10 percent strength, and passed into a fuller's earth chamber under a vacuum of 27 in. of mercury and heated by steam to about 140/sup 0/C. The apparatus is described.

  8. The Effect of Paraffin Wax to Properties of Radiation Vulcanization Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim; Sofian Ibrahim; Muhammad Saiful Omar

    2015-01-01

    Dipping factories often encounter a serious problem with high tackiness of the finish products during storage. The tackiness effect can be lead to rejection of products. This tackiness effect of natural (NR) rubber film originates in the free rubber chain ends at the surface of the film. The tackiness is not depends on the degree of crosslinking (vulcanization), since radiation itself unable to reduce the tackiness effect. The RVNRL requires addition of additive or anti-tack agent into formulation to reduce tackiness effect. In this experiment, paraffin wax manufactured by Emulco Sdn Bhd under the trade name Aquawax 48 was added into RVNRL formulation as anti-tack and the effect of paraffin wax to physical and mechanical properties of RVNRL was study. (author)

  9. The role of water in food products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neacşu, A. N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Food is an indispensable factor for humans and animals, because it provides the energy and substances necessary for developing the metabolic processes, which generate the body’s growth. It is the source and regulator of exchange processes between the body and the environment. Since ancient times man has received the necessary nutrients from the environment but the operation and maintenance of the body physiology constantly needs energy. In this work we focus on the chemical composition of food, and more specifically, on the amount of water contained in food products (humidity, as a factor influencing the stability and quality of food products.

  10. Plant surface wax affects parasitoid's response to host footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostás, Michael; Ruf, Daniel; Zabka, Vanessa; Hildebrandt, Ulrich

    2008-10-01

    The plant surface is the substrate upon which herbivorous insects and natural enemies meet and thus represents the stage for interactions between the three trophic levels. Plant surfaces are covered by an epicuticular wax layer which is highly variable depending on species, cultivar or plant part. Differences in wax chemistry may modulate ecological interactions. We explored whether caterpillars of Spodoptera frugiperda, when walking over a plant surface, leave a chemical trail (kairomones) that can be detected by the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris. Chemistry and micromorphology of cuticular waxes of two barley eceriferum wax mutants ( cer-za.126, cer-yp.949) and wild-type cv. Bonus (wt) were assessed. The plants were then used to investigate potential surface effects on the detectability of caterpillar kairomones. Here we provide evidence that C. marginiventris responds to chemical footprints of its host. Parasitoids were able to detect the kairomone on wild-type plants and on both cer mutants but the response to cer-yp.949 (reduced wax, high aldehyde fraction) was less pronounced. Experiments with caterpillar-treated wt and mutant leaves offered simultaneously, confirmed this observation: no difference in wasp response was found when wt was tested against cer-za.126 (reduced wax, wt-like chemical composition) but wt was significantly more attractive than cer-yp.949. This demonstrates for the first time that the wax layer can modulate the detectability of host kairomones.

  11. The Preparation and Performances of Self-Dispersed Nanomicron Emulsified Wax Solid Lubricant Ewax for Drilling Fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An oil-in-water nanomicron wax emulsion with oil phase content 45 wt% was prepared by using the emulsifying method of surfactant-in-oil. The optimum prepared condition is 85°C, 20 min, and 5 wt% complex emulsifiers. Then the abovementioned nanomicron emulsifying wax was immersed into a special water-soluble polymer in a certain percentage by the semidry technology. At last, a solidified self-dispersed nanomicron emulsified wax named as Ewax, a kind of solid lubricant for water based drilling fluid, was obtained after dried in the special soluble polymer containing emulsifying wax in low temperature. It is shown that the adhesion coefficient reduced rate (ΔKf is 73.5% and the extreme pressure (E-P friction coefficient reduced rate (Δf is 77.6% when the produced Ewax sample was added to fresh water based drilling fluid at dosage 1.0 wt%. In comparison with other normal similar liquid products, Ewax not only has better performances of lubrication, filtration loss control property, heat resistance, and tolerance to salt and is environmentally friendly, but also can solve the problems of freezing in the winter and poor storage stability of liquid wax emulsion in oilfield applications.

  12. WAX ActiveLibrary: a tool to manage information overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanka, R; O'Brien, C; Heathfield, H; Buchan, I E

    1999-11-01

    WAX Active-Library (Cambridge Centre for Clinical Informatics) is a knowledge management system that seeks to support doctors' decision making through the provision of electronic books containing a wide range of clinical knowledge and locally based information. WAX has been piloted in several regions in the United Kingdom and formally evaluated in 17 GP surgeries based in Cambridgeshire. The evaluation has provided evidence that WAX Active-Library significantly improves GPs' access to relevant information sources and by increasing appropriate patient management and referrals this might also lead to an improvement in clinical outcomes.

  13. MEDITERRANEAN FOREST TREE DECLINE IN ITALY: RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN DROUGHT, POLLUTANTS AND THE WAX STRUCTURE OF LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. PAOLETTI

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available After presenting the situation of forest decline in Italy and analyzing the factors that play a contributing role, tbis paper studies the response of the epicuticular wax structures and the stomata in ten broadleaf species and one conifer to fog-like treatments with acids andlor surfactants and to severe water stress. The main results are that wax structure alterations vary in intensity in the different species studied and that the microstructural alterations observed in field conditions cannot be attributed only to severe drought. since sample trccs put through water stress simulations do nol differ significantly from controls. In the artificial surfactant treatment, a positive relationship between structural damage to tbe stomata and transpiration suggests possible synergies between the effects of drought and those of pollutants in inducing stress conditions in Mediterranean vegetation.

  14. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  15. Oil-structuring characterization of natural waxes in canola oil oleogels: Rheological, thermal, and oxidative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural waxes (candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax) were utilized as canola oil structurants to produce oleogels and their physicochemical properties were evaluated from rheological, thermal, and oxidative points of view. The oleogels with candelilla wax exhibited the highest hardness, followe...

  16. Biochemical characterization and substrate specificity of jojoba fatty acyl-CoA reductase and jojoba wax synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklaszewska, Magdalena; Banaś, Antoni

    2016-08-01

    Wax esters are used in industry for production of lubricants, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. The only natural source of wax esters is jojoba oil. A much wider variety of industrial wax esters-containing oils can be generated through genetic engineering. Biotechnological production of tailor-made wax esters requires, however, a detailed substrate specificity of fatty acyl-CoA reductases (FAR) and wax synthases (WS), the two enzymes involved in wax esters synthesis. In this study we have successfully characterized the substrate specificity of jojoba FAR and jojoba WS. The genes encoding both enzymes were expressed heterologously in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the activity of tested enzymes was confirmed by in vivo studies and in vitro assays using microsomal preparations from transgenic yeast. Jojoba FAR exhibited the highest in vitro activity toward 18:0-CoA followed by 20:1-CoA and 22:1-CoA. The activity toward other 11 tested acyl-CoAs was low or undetectable as with 18:2-CoA and 18:3-CoA. In assays characterizing jojoba WS combinations of 17 fatty alcohols with 14 acyl-CoAs were tested. The enzyme displayed the highest activity toward 14:0-CoA and 16:0-CoA in combination with C16-C20 alcohols as well as toward C18 acyl-CoAs in combination with C12-C16 alcohols. 20:1-CoA was efficiently utilized in combination with most of the tested alcohols. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consumption patterns and intra-household roles in the production, processing and marketing of soyabeans in the Northern Agricultural Zone of Benue State, Nigeria. AE Agwu, J Ellah, E Ekweagwu, JC Iwuchukwu ...

  18. Role of Household Members in Kolanut Production and Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Keyword: Household roles, kolanut, production, marketing ..... management system (i.e. they manage their kola farm by themselves), while 1.2% of ... obvious because land preparation is a tedious operation, hence not many women.

  19. Designing maleic anhydride-{alpha}-olifin copolymeric combs as wax crystal growth nucleators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Hemant P. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 002 (India); Kiranbala; Bharambe, D.P. [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 001 (India); Agrawal, K.S. [Department of Petrochemical Technology, Polytechnic, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 002 (India); Nagar, A. [MH ASSET, ONGC, Mumbai (India)

    2010-09-15

    Modification of the wax crystal habit is of great practical interest during transportation and processing of crude oil at low temperature. Various pour point depressant (PPD) additives can facilitate this modification by different mechanisms. Comb shaped polymer additives are known to depress the pour point of crude oil by providing different nucleation sites for the precipitation of wax. This paper describes performance based design, synthesis, characterization and evaluation of comb shaped polymeric diesters. Copolymers of maleic anhydride with different unsaturated C{sub 22} esters were synthesized and copolymers then reacted with two unsaturated fatty alcohols. All products were characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopy and Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC). Rheological properties of crude (with and without additive) were studied by Advance Rheometer AR-500. In this study the additive based on oleic acid was evaluated as good PPD and rheology modifier. (author)

  20. Evaluation of Physical Properties of Wax Mixtures Obtained From Recycling of Patterns Used in Precision Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki R.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the properties of selected certified mixtures used to make wax patterns for the production of precision castings for the aerospace industry. In addition, an assessment of the recycled mixtures consisting of certified wax materials recovered during autoclaving was carried out. Hardness was tested via a proposed method based on penetration, creep related deformation, bending strength and linear contraction. The hardness was studied on laboratory specimens and patterns made with the use of injection molding equipment. For these patterns, linear contraction was estimated at variable pressure and for different temperature injection parameters. Deformations connected with creep and resistance were evaluated on cylindrical specimens. Differences in creep resistance in relation to the hardness were observed depending on the type of pattern mixtures. Recycled mixture has a greater resistance and smaller linear contraction than certified mixtures used for making sprue, raisers and other parts of filler system.

  1. Reproduction and subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, R A; Re, T A; Babish, J G; Cox, G E; Voss, K A; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    The reproductive performance of Wistar rats fed carnauba wax at levels of 0.1, 0.3 or 1% in the diet and the effects of subchronic administration of carnauba wax at these dose levels on the resultant progeny were studied. Reproductive indices, body-weight gain, food consumption, haematological and clinical chemical data, ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations were used to study the possible toxic or pathological effects. Serum free fatty acid levels were found to be decreased in male and female rats fed carnauba wax at dietary levels of 0.3 and 1.0%. No other effects of feeding carnauba wax at levels up to 1.0% of the diet were observed.

  2. The effects of magnetic fields on carnauba wax electret formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clator, Irvin G.

    1987-08-01

    The results of thermally stimulated depolarization current and effective surface charge-density measurements indicate that magnetic fields do not produce carnauba wax electrets and that previously reported data can be attributed to nonmagnetic effects.

  3. Characterization and chemical composition of epicuticular wax from banana leaves grown in Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suporn Charumanee

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of epicuticular wax extracted from leaves of Kluai Namwa, a banana cultivar which is widely grown in Northern Thailand. Its genotype was identified by a botanist. The wax was extracted using solvent extraction. The fatty acid profiles and physicochemical properties of the wax namely melting point, congealing point, crystal structures and polymorphism, hardness, color, and solubility were examined and compared to those of beeswax, carnauba wax and paraffin wax. The results showed that the genotype of Kluai Namwa was Musa acuminata X M. balbisiana (ABB group cv. Pisang Awak. The highest amount of wax extracted was 274 μg/cm2 surface area. The fatty acid composition and the physicochemical properties of the wax were similar to those of carnauba wax. It could be suggested that the banana wax could be used as a replacement for carnauba wax in various utilizing areas.

  4. Mineral and tar oils and paraffin and mineral waxes, extracting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1927-09-01

    In the extraction of soluble bodies from coal and the like carbonaceous material, the coal is preheated in a closed vessel and then heated under pressure with the solvent. The pressure in either or both stages may be increased by gases or vapours more or less inert under the conditions, e.g. hydrogen, steam, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. In an example, brown coal is maintained at 300/sup 0/C for 10 hours, thus producing a pressure of 100 atmospheres, and is then extracted for 10 hours at 300/sup 0/C and 100 atmospheres with benzene in a closed vessel. Over 60 per cent of the coal is dissolved. After separation of the undissolved coal and removal of the solvent the soluble products may be treated with either to extract resinous matter, and then with cyclohexane to extract wax-like matters. Alternatively the soluble products, alone or in solution or with the undissolved coal, may be destructively hydrogenated, or be cracked in presence of activated aluminium and hydrogen chloride.

  5. Gender roles in agricultural production in the Seychelles | Uzokwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the role of each member of the family in food production, investigated the type of farming activities the farm families are engaged in, gender specific roles, level of participation of the female gender, gender stereotypes and suggested the use of the information for policy advocacy and strengthening of ...

  6. CARNAUBA WAX USED AS AN HYDROPHOBIC AGENT FOR EXPANDED VERMICULITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.F. Melo

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the use of carnauba wax as an expansion and hydrophobicity agent for vermiculite, to be utilized in the sorption process of oil in water. Evaluation of the system (oil-water-hydrophobic vermiculite submersion percentage was considered in assessing the performance of vermiculite in comparison to a Mexican turf. Carnauba wax seems to be more efficient in both fresh and salt waters.

  7. Subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, R A; Cox, G E; Babish, J G; Gallo, M A; Hess, F G; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    Carnauba wax fed at levels of 0.1, 0.3 and 1% in the diet to beagle dogs for 28 wk did not produce evidence of toxicity or pathological effects. Body weight gain, food consumption, clinical chemical, haematological, and urine analysis data, and organ weights of animals fed carnauba wax were comparable with those of control animals. Ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations revealed no significant treatment-related findings.

  8. Sintering of wax for controlling release from pellets

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Reena; Poddar, S. S.; Chivate, Amit

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate incorporation of hydrophobic (ie, waxy) material into pellets using a thermal sintering technique and to evaluate the pellets in vitro for controlled release. Pellets prepared by extrusion-spheronization technology were formulated with a water-soluble drug, microcrystalline cellulose, and carnauba wax. Powdered carnauba wax (4%–20%) prepared by grinding or by emulsification was studied with an attempt to retard the drug release. The inclusio...

  9. Effects of UV-B radiation on wax biosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Paul, N.; Percy, K.; Broadbent, P.; McLaughlin, C.; Mullineaux, P.; Creissen, G.; Wellburn, A.

    1994-01-01

    Two genotypes of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) were exposed in controlled environment chambers to three levels of biologically effective ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B BE ; 280-320nm): 0, 4.54 (ambient) and 5.66 (∼ 25% enhancement) kJ m -2 d -1 . After 28 days, the quantity of wax deposited on leaf surfaces was determined gravimetrically; epicuticular wax chemical composition was determined by capillary gas chromatography with homologue assignments confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Leaf wettability was assessed by measuring the contact angle of water droplets placed on leaf surfaces. Tobacco wax consisted of three major hydrocarbon classes: Straight-chain alkanes (C 27 -C 33 ) which comprised ∼ 59% of the hydrocarbon fraction, containing a predominance of odd-chain alkanes with C 31 as the most abundant homologue; branched-chain alkanes (C 25 -C 32 ) which comprised ∼38% of the hydrocarbon fraction with anteiso 3-methyltriacontane (C 30 ) as the predominant homologue; and fatty acids (C 14 -C 18 ) which comprised ∼ 3% of the wax. Exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation reduced the quantity of wax on the adaxial surface of the transgenic mutant, and resulted in marked changes in the chemical composition of the wax on the exposed leaf surface. Enhanced UV-B decreased the quantity of straight-chain alkanes, increased the quantity of branched-chain alkanes and fatty acids, and resulted in shifts toward shorter straight-chain lengths. Furthermore, UV-B-induced changes in wax composition were associated with increased wettability of tobacco leaf surfaces. Overall, the data are consistent with the view that UV-B radiation has a direct and fundamental effect on wax biosynthesis. Relationships between the physico-chemical nature of the leaf surface and sensitivity to UV-B radiation are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Nest wax triggers worker reproduction in the bumblebee Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottler-Hoermann, Ann-Marie; Schulz, Stefan; Ayasse, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Social insects are well known for their high level of cooperation. Workers of the primitively eusocial bumblebee Bombus terrestris are able to produce male offspring in the presence of a queen. Nonetheless, they only compete for reproduction, in the so-called competition phase, when the workforce is large enough to support the rearing of reproductives. So far, little is known about the proximate mechanisms underlying the shift between altruism and selfish behaviour in bumblebee workers. In this study, we have examined the influence of chemical cues from the nest wax on the onset of worker reproduction. Chemical analyses of wax extracts have revealed that the patterns and amounts of cuticular lipids change considerably during colony development. These changes in wax scent mirror worker abundance and the presence of fertile workers. In bioassays with queen-right worker groups, wax affects the dominance behaviour and ovarian development of workers. When exposed to wax from a colony in competition phase, workers start to compete for reproduction. We suggest that wax scent enables workers to time their reproduction by providing essential information concerning the social condition of the colony.

  11. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  12. FAR5, a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase, is involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis of the leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yulin; Wang, Yanting; Li, Tingting; Chai, Guaiqiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Shan, Liwei; Li, Chunlian; Xiao, Enshi; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-03-01

    A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against non-stomatal water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It comprises a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Results show that primary alcohols are the major components of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf blade cuticular waxes. Here, the characterization of TaFAR5 from wheat cv Xinong 2718, which is allelic to TAA1b, an anther-specific gene, is reported. Evidence is presented for a new function for TaFAR5 in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols of leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat. Expression of TaFAR5 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to production of C22:0 primary alcohol. The transgenic expression of TaFAR5 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv MicroTom leaves resulted in the accumulation of C26:0, C28:0, and C30:0 primary alcohols. TaFAR5 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR5 was expressed at high levels in the leaf blades, anthers, pistils, and seeds. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged TaFAR5 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of primary alcohol biosynthesis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the TaFAR5 protein possessed a molecular mass of 58.4kDa, and it was also shown that TaFAR5 transcript levels were regulated in response to drought, cold, and abscisic acid (ABA). Overall, these data suggest that TaFAR5 plays an important role in the synthesis of primary alcohols in wheat leaf blade. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Monitoring agrochemical diffusion through cuticle wax with coherent Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Nicholas P.; Thomson, Niall; Padia, Faheem; Moger, Julian

    2018-02-01

    The world's population is increasing rapidly and higher calorific diets are becoming more common; as a consequence the demand for grain is predicted to increase by more than 50% by 2050 without a significant increase in the available agricultural land. Maximising the productivity of the existing agricultural land is key to maintaining food security and agrochemicals continue to be a key enabler for the efficiency gains required. However, agrochemicals can be susceptible to significant losses and thus often require further chemical to be applied to compensate. Sources of such losses include spray drift, poor spray retention/capture by the target and poor penetration through the plant cuticle. Adjuvants can be used to help mitigate such losses but characterising how they alter the movement of the active ingredients (AIs) can be challenging. In this contribution we demonstrate the use of coherent Raman Scattering (CRS) as a tool to enable in-situ, real-time, label free characterisation of agrochemical AI as they move through wax.

  14. Development of Wax-Incorporated Emulsion Gel Beads for the Encapsulation and Intragastric Floating Delivery of the Active Antioxidant from Tamarindus indica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthiphong Soradech

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, tamarind (Tamarindus indica L. seed extracts with potential antioxidant activity and toxicity to cancer cells were developed as functional foods and nutraceutical ingredients in the form of emulsion gel beads. Three extracts were obtained from ethanol and water: TSCH50, TSCH95 and TSCH. All extracts exhibited high potential for superoxide anion scavenging activity over the IC50 range < 5–11 µg/mL and had no toxic effects on normal cells, however, the water extract (TSCH was the most effective due to its free radical scavenging activity and toxicity in mitochondrial membranes of cancer cells. Next a study was designed to develop a new formulation for encapsulation and intragastric floating delivery of tamarind seed extract (TSCH using wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads, which were prepared using a modified ionotropic gelation technique. Tamarind seed extract at 1% (w/w was used as the active ingredient in all formulations. The effect of the types and amounts of wax on the encapsulation efficiency and percentage of the active release of alginate gel beads was also investigated. The results demonstrated that the incorporation of both waxes into the gel beads had an effect on the percentage of encapsulation efficiency (% and the percentage of the active ingredient release. Furthermore, the addition of water insoluble waxes (carnauba and bee wax significantly retarded the release of the active ingredient. The addition of both waxes had a slight effect on drug release behavior. Nevertheless, the increase in incorporated waxes in all formulations could sustain the percentage of active ingredient release. In conclusion, wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads using a modified ionotropic gelation technique could be applied for the intragastric floating delivery and controlled release of functional food and nutraceutical products for their antioxidant and anticancer capacity.

  15. Investigation of liquid wax components of Egyptian jojoba seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallah, Mohammed Hassan; El-Shami, Safinaz Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    Egyptian jojoba seeds newly cultivated in Ismailia desert in Egypt promoted us to determine its lipid components. Fatty alcohols, fatty acids, wax esters and sterols patterns were determined by capillary GLC whereas, tocopherols profile, isopropenoid alcohols and sterylglycosides were determined by HPLC. The Egyptian seeds are rich in wax esters (55 %) with fatty alcohols C20:1 and C22:1 as major components and amounted to 43.0 % and 45.6 % respectively followed by C24:1 and C18:1(9.6 % and 1.3 % respectively). The fatty acids profile showed that C20:1 is the major constituent (60 %) followed by C18:1 and C22:1 (14.5 and 11.8 % respectively) whereas C24:1 was present at low concentration amounted to 1.6 %. In addition, the Egyptian jojoba wax contained C18:2 fatty acid at a level of 8.7 %. Wax esters composition showed that the local wax had C42 and C40 esters as major components amounted to 51.1 and 30.1 % respectively. Also, it had C44 and C38 at reasonable amounts (10.0 and 6.3 % respectively). Whereas C36 and C46 were present at lower concentrations amounted to 1.4 and 1.1 respectively. The sterols analysis showed the presence of campe-, stigma-, beta-sito-, and isofuco- sterol amounting to 18.4 %, 6.9 %, 68.7 %, and 6.0 % respectively. The tocopherols pattern revealed that the local seed wax contained gamma-tocopherol as major constituent (79.2 %) followed by alpha-tocopherol (20.3 %). beta-tocopherol as well as delta-tocopherol were found as minor constituents. The isopropenoid alcohols and the sterylglycosides (free and acylated) were not detected. The wax is proposed to be used in oleo chemistry and cosmetics.

  16. The role of fission products in whole core accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, A R [FRSD, UKAEA, RNPDE, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Teague, H J [SRD, UKAEA, Culcheth, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1977-07-01

    The review of the role of fission products in whole-core accidents falls into two parts. Firstly, there is a discussion of the hypothetical accidents usually considered in the UK and how they are dealt with. Secondly, there is a discussion of individual topics where fission products are known to be important or might be so. There is a brief discussion of the UK work on the establishment of an equation of state for unirradiated fuel and how this might be extended to incorporate fission product effects. The main issue is the contribution of fission products to the effective vapour pressure and the experimental programme on the pulsed reactor VIPER investigates this. Fission products may influence the probability of occurrence and the severity of MFCIs. Finally, the fission product effects in the pre-disassembly, disassembly and recriticality stages of an accident are discussed. (author)

  17. Role of configuration management in improving quality of metal products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, U.; Kalsoom, T.

    2007-01-01

    The Configuration Management (CM) is an imperative discipline which helps in producing quality metal products for the customers. CM implements a graded approach to Configuration Items whose failure poses human as well as product losses. Effective CM provides information to Project Management, Quality Control, and Quality Assurance in identifying schedules and processes related to metal component production. The CM is a supportive function, mostly working side by side with Quality Assurance and Quality Control in the development / production of metal parts. The CM provides tools and guidelines for managing a product while Quality Assurance verifies and validates the same outside the scope of Configuration Audits. Configuration Management raises productivity of metal product, makes-available design reuse, reduces service and support costs, enhances visibility and eliminates rework on metal products. The elements of CM i.e. Identification, Control, Status Accounting and Audits playa vital role to enhance the quality of metal products. Only established CM System can make it possible to swing initial development criteria to final user friendly metal products. The challenges of today in our metal industry are to design and develop state-of-the-art products, for which, CM ideas given in this paper, will help to achieve all the set goals. (author)

  18. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    OpenAIRE

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-01-01

    Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to cer...

  19. Services trade restrictiveness and manufacturing productivity : the role of institutions

    OpenAIRE

    BEVERELLI, Cosimo; FIORINI, Matteo; HOEKMAN, Bernard M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effect of services trade restrictiveness on manufacturing productivity for a broad cross-section of countries at different stages of economic development. Decreasing services trade restrictiveness has a positive indirect impact on the manufacturing sectors that use services as intermediate inputs in production. We identify a critical role of local institutions in shaping this effect: countries with high institutional capacity benefit the most from services trade policy reforms in...

  20. Laboratory Deposition Apparatus to Study the Effects of Wax Deposition on Pipe Magnetic Field Leakage Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Mohd Fauzi Abd

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Accurate technique for wax deposition detection and severity measurement on cold pipe wall is important for pipeline cleaning program. Usually these techniques are validated by conventional techniques on laboratory scale wax deposition flow loop. However conventional techniques inherent limitations and it is difficult to reproduce a predetermine wax deposit profile and hardness at designated location in flow loop. An alternative wax deposition system which integrates modified pour casting method and cold finger method is presented. This system is suitable to reproduce high volume of medium hard wax deposit in pipe with better control of wax deposit profile and hardness.

  1. Unheimlich. From Wax Figures to the Uncanny Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Conte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In his pioneering History of Portraiture in Wax, Julius von Schlosser traced back the age-old history of a material which at that time seemed to be already antiquated, if not obsolete. Wax sculptures were rejected and ousted from art history because of their excessive similarity and adherence to models. One hundred years later, however, hyperrealism got its revenge with Maurizio Cattelan’s celebrated hanging children. Moving from that controversial artwork and focusing on the heated polemics over it, my paper will address the question of the well-known Unheimlichkeit of wax figures, investigated by Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud in the early Twentieth Century and nowadays becoming increasingly topical thanks to the recent debate about the existence and nature of the so called Uncanny Valley.

  2. Role of Household Members in Kolanut Production and Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed roles of household members in kolanut production and marketing in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 80 kolanut farmers. Data were collected from the respondents using structured interview schedule. Data were presented and analyzed using frequency counts, ...

  3. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Biotechnology ... Essential to these roles is their rapid transport across the plasma membrane, which is catalyzed ... The aim of this review is to critically discuss short-chain fatty acids production and the functional ... Two major functions of monocarboxylate transporter proteins, namely the facilitation of the ...

  4. The Role of Ideology and "Habitus" in Educational Media Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The notion that embedded meanings exist within media, and are informed by particular ideologies, is far from new. Analyses of curriculum, however, rarely examine empirically the role of these ideologies or the context of production. Instead, the ideologies are attributed to a "producer" representing particular power relationships or…

  5. The Role of Capital Productivity in British Airways' Financial Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Peter

    1999-01-01

    British Airways (BA) was privatised in 1987, but its financial recovery occurred a number of years earlier. This recovery was sustained throughout the early 1990s economic recession, a period when few major airlines were operating profitably. This paper examines the role of productivity developments at British Airways from the early 1980s through 1996. The emphasis is on capital productivity and investment, but changes in capital intensity and labour productivity are also evaluated. Various measures are considered for both capital and labour productivity: outputs are measured in available tonne-kms (ATKS) and revenue tonne-kms (RTKs), with the former preferred over the latter two measures, after adjustment for work performed by BA for others. Capital inputs are measured in equivalent lease costs adjusted to constant prices with a different treatment of flight and ground equipment or assets. Labour inputs are derived from total payroll costs deflated by a UK wage price index. The airline made considerable capital investments over the period and at the same time went through two major processes of labour restructuring. This resulted in a gradual increase in capital intensity, relative high labour productivity growth, but poor capital productivity performance. However, capital investment played an important role in the airline's sustained labour and total factor productivity over the whole period.

  6. Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegria, N.; Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Idoeta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a siliceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the siliceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238 U, 232 Th and 235 U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This is

  7. Calculation of the store house worker dose in a lost wax foundry using MCNP-4C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, Natalia; Legarda, Fernando; Herranz, Margarita; Idoeta, Raquel

    2005-01-01

    Lost wax casting is an industrial process which permits the transmutation into metal of models made in wax. The wax model is covered with a silicaceous shell of the required thickness and once this shell is built the set is heated and wax melted. Liquid metal is then cast into the shell replacing the wax. When the metal is cool, the shell is broken away in order to recover the metallic piece. In this process zircon sands are used for the preparation of the silicaceous shell. These sands have varying concentrations of natural radionuclides: 238U, 232Th and 235U together with their progenics. The zircon sand is distributed in bags of 50 kg, and 30 bags are on a pallet, weighing 1,500 kg. The pallets with the bags have dimensions 80 cm x 120 cm x 80 cm, and constitute the radiation source in this case. The only pathway of exposure to workers in the store house is external radiation. In this case there is no dust because the bags are closed and covered by plastic, the store house has a good ventilation rate and so radon accumulation is not possible. The workers do not touch with their hands the bags and consequently skin contamination will not take place. In this study all situations of external irradiation to the workers have been considered; transportation of the pallets from vehicle to store house, lifting the pallets to the shelf, resting of the stock on the shelf, getting down the pallets, and carrying the pallets to production area. Using MCNP-4C exposure situations have been simulated, considering that the source has a homogeneous composition, the minimum stock in the store house is constituted by 7 pallets, and the several distances between pallets and workers when they are at work. The photons flux obtained by MCNP-4C is multiplied by the conversion factor of Flux to Kerma for air by conversion factor to Effective Dose by Kerma unit, and by the number of emitted photons. Those conversion factors are obtained of ICRP 74 table 1 and table 17 respectively. This

  8. THE ROLE OF PRODUCT AUDIT POLICY IN INCREASING ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VIOLETA RĂDULESCU

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In terms of markets more competitive, competitive advantage becomes a problem getting increasingly more difficult. Offer organization is the first element that can provide differentiation from competitors, the organization should regularly monitor the performance of their products in the market to achieve its objectives. Marketing decisions regarding product policy of the organization should be made after a comprehensive analysis within specific steps of strategic marketing planning. It is necessary, therefore a thorough analysis of the product portfolio of the organizations. In this regard an important role hold product audit policy and brand audit. This paper aims to present the steps and methods to be used for effective analysis of the product portfolio of the organization to effective competition on the relevant market.

  9. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Wax Precipitation Modeled with Many Mixed Solid Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Robert A.; Madsen, Jesper; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of the Coutinho UNIQUAC model for solid wax phases has been examined. The model can produce as many mixed solid phases as the number of waxy components. In binary mixtures, the solid rich in the lighter component contains little of the heavier component but the second phase shows sub......-temperature and low-temperature forms, are pure. Model calculations compare well with the data of Pauly et al. for C18 to C30 waxes precipitating from n-decane solutions. (C) 2004 American Institute of Chemical Engineers....

  11. Three-dimensional wax patterning of paper fluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Christophe; Koehne, Jessica; Ricco, Antonio J; Crooks, Richard M

    2014-06-17

    In this paper we describe a method for three-dimensional wax patterning of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs). The method is rooted in the fundamental details of wax transport in paper and provides a simple way to fabricate complex channel architectures such as hemichannels and fully enclosed channels. We show that three-dimensional μPADs can be fabricated with half as much paper by using hemichannels rather than ordinary open channels. We also provide evidence that fully enclosed channels are efficiently isolated from the exterior environment, decreasing contamination risks, simplifying the handling of the device, and slowing evaporation of solvents.

  12. Role of coral reefs in global ocean production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crossland, C J; Hatcher, B G; Smith, S V [CSIRO Institute of Natural Resources and Environment, Dickson, ACT (Australia)

    1991-01-01

    Coral reefs cover some 600 thousand square kilometres of the earth's surface (0.17% of the ocean surface). First order estimates show coral reefs to contribute about 0.05% of the estimated net CO{sub 2} fixation rate of the global oceans. Gross CO{sub 2} fixation is relatively high (of the order 700 x 10{sup 12}g C year{sup -1}), but most of this material is recycled within the reefs. Excess (net) production of organic material (E) is much smaller, of the order 20 x 10{sup 12}g C year{sup -1}. 75% of E is available for export from coral reefs to adjacent areas. Comparison of estimates for net production by reefs and their surrounding oceans indicates that the excess production by coral reefs is similar to new production in the photic zone of oligotrophic oceans. Consequently, estimates for global ocean production should as a first approximation include reefal areas with the surrounding ocean when assigning average net production rates. It can be concluded that organic production by reefs plays a relatively minor role in the global scale of fluxes and storage of elements. In comparison, the companion process of biologically-mediated inorganic carbon precipitation represents a major role for reefs. While reef production does respond on local scales to variation in ocean climate, neither the absolute rates nor the amount accumulated into organic pools appear to be either sensitive indicators or accurate recorders of climatic change in most reef systems. Similarly, the productivity of most reefs should be little affected by currently predicted environmental changes resulting from the greenhouse effect. 86 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. High-level accumulation of oleyl oleate in plant seed oil by abundant supply of oleic acid substrates to efficient wax ester synthesis enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Hornung, Ellen; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Biotechnology enables the production of high-valued industrial feedstocks from plant seed oil. The plant-derived wax esters with long-chain monounsaturated acyl moieties, like oleyl oleate, have favorite properties for lubrication. For biosynthesis of wax esters using acyl-CoA substrates, expressions of a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax synthase (WS) in seeds are sufficient. For optimization of the enzymatic activity and subcellular localization of wax ester synthesis enzymes, two fusion proteins were created, which showed wax ester-forming activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . To promote the formation of oleyl oleate in seed oil, WSs from Acinetobactor baylyi ( Ab WSD1) and Marinobacter aquaeolei ( Ma WS2), as well as the two created fusion proteins were tested in Arabidopsis to evaluate their abilities and substrate preference for wax ester production. The tested seven enzyme combinations resulted in different yields and compositions of wax esters. Expression of a FAR of Marinobacter aquaeolei ( Ma FAR) with Ab WSD1 or Ma WS2 led to a high incorporation of C 18 substrates in wax esters. The Ma FAR/TM Mm AWAT2- Ab WSD1 combination resulted in the incorporation of more C 18:1 alcohol and C 18:0 acyl moieties into wax esters compared with Ma FAR/ Ab WSD1. The fusion protein of a WS from Simmondsia chinensis ( Sc WS) with MaFAR exhibited higher specificity toward C 20:1 substrates in preference to C 18:1 substrates. Expression of Ma FAR/ Ab WSD1 in the Arabidopsis fad2 fae1 double mutant resulted in the accumulation of oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1) in up to 62 mol% of total wax esters in seed oil, which was much higher than the 15 mol% reached by Ma FAR/ Ab WSD1 in Arabidopsis Col-0 background. In order to increase the level of oleyl oleate in seed oil of Camelina , lines expressing Ma FAR/ Sc WS were crossed with a transgenic high oleate line. The resulting plants accumulated up to >40 mg g seed -1 of wax esters, containing 27-34 mol% oleyl oleate. The

  14. The Role of Promotion in Milling and Bakery Products Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu-Bogdan Constantin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrespective of the avenue chosen for the retail of milling and bakery products, a key role in sales growth is the one played by promotion, information of the future customers as to the characteristics of the products, the execution and sale conditions. Such information process takes place by means of the promotional mix, consisting of a blend of advertising, sales promotion, public relations tools, trademarks, promotional events, and sales forces. The milling and baking industry uses, to certain extent, all the components of the promotional mix. Product promotion is central both to sales growth, as well as to educating, advising and informing consumers as to how they can select quality milling and bakery products.

  15. Influence of the wax application time on cassava conservation; Influencia del momento de aplicación de un recubrimiento en la conservación de yuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Rendón

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article, product of a research project, shows the results of the evaluation of the influence of the time between harvest and the application of a natural wax in the deterioration of cassava roots; this time was called time of application. Tao chemistry Ltda. wax TAO FRESH ROOT was used in the development of this work. Three factors were considered for the evaluation:the quality of cassava roots, such as: physiological deterioration, loss of weight and dry matter content. They were evaluated in two varieties of cassava,five moments of application (1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h for a period of 21 days. The moment of application at 6 h presented the lowest averages of physiological deterioration and weight loss.This article is presented to establish the potential ofnatural waxes as a technique for the preservation of cassavaroots, highlighting the moment of application as an influential factor in the extension of the life of this product.

  16. ASPHALT-RESIN-WAX DEPOSITS ANALYSIS WITH PETROLEUM REFINERY EQUIPMENT USAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda Bondar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The methodology and analysis of wax deposits formed in-water-cooling tower, cistern and tank from wax petroleum were developed. It was shown, that deposits consist of organic (>90% and inorganic components – the first one was enriched by high molecular wax hydrocarbons, the second one – by mechanical impurities. The methods of deposits utilization were proposed

  17. Wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate for intragastric floating drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Asavapichayont, Panida; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-Anan, Manee; Limmatvapirat, Sontaya; Piriyaprasarth, Suchada

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prepare wax-incorporated pectin-based emulsion gel beads using a modified emulsion-gelation method. The waxes in pectin-olive oil mixtures containing a model drug, metronidazole, were hot-melted, homogenized and then extruded into calcium chloride solution. The beads formed were separated, washed with distilled water and dried for 12 h. The influence of various types and amounts of wax on floating and drug release behavior of emulsion gel beads of calcium pectinate was investigated. The drug-loaded gel beads were found to float on simulated gastric fluid if the sufficient amount of oil was used. Incorporation of wax into the emulsion gel beads affected the drug release. Water-soluble wax (i.e. polyethylene glycol) increased the drug release while other water-insoluble waxes (i.e. glyceryl monostearate, stearyl alcohol, carnauba wax, spermaceti wax and white wax) significantly retarded the drug release. Different waxes had a slight effect on the drug release. However, the increased amount of incorporated wax in the formulations significantly sustained the drug release while the beads remained floating. The results suggest that wax-incorporated emulsion gel beads could be used as a carrier for intragastric floating drug delivery.

  18. Gourds: Bitter, Bottle, Wax, Snake, Sponge and Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor cucurbits include bitter gourd, bottle gourd, wax gourd, snake gourd, and sponge and ridge gourd, which are significant dietary sources of nutrients such as vitamin A and C, iron and calcium. These cucurbits are cultivated and marketed by smallholder farmers and remain important components of ...

  19. Effects of wax treatment on quality and postharvest physiology of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cell membrane permeability and malondialdehyde content when compared with those in control. This waxing also improved total sugars and the contents of ascorbic acid in pineapple fruits. These results suggested that this treatment might be a useful technique to alleviate chilling injury and maintain fruit quality during ...

  20. Structural characterization of wax esters by electron ionization mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urbanová, Klára; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Valterová, Irena; Háková, Martina; Cvačka, Josef

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 1 (2012), s. 204-213 ISSN 0022-2275 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : interpretation * neutral lipids * spectral database * waxes Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.386, year: 2012

  1. Uncovered secret of a Vasseur-Tramond wax model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J F; Gutiérrez, B; Montes, J M; Ballestriero, R

    2016-01-01

    The technique of anatomical wax modelling reached its heyday in Italy during the 18th century, through a fruitful collaboration between sculptors and anatomists. It soon spread to other countries, and prestigious schools were created in England, France, Spain and Austria. Paris subsequently replaced Italy as the major centre of manufacture, and anatomical waxes were created there from the mid-19th century in workshops such as that of Vasseur-Tramond. This workshop began to sell waxes to European Faculties of Medicine and Schools of Surgery around 1880. Little is known of the technique employed in the creation of such artefacts as this was deemed a professional secret. To gain some insight into the methods of construction, we have studied a Vasseur-Tramond wax model in the Valladolid University Anatomy Museum, Spain, by means of multi-slice computerised tomography and X-ray analysis by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the hair. These results have revealed some of the methods used to make these anatomical models and the materials employed. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  2. Effect of asphaltenes on crude oil wax crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriz, Pavel; Andersen, Simon Ivar

    2005-01-01

    The paper summarizes the experimental work done on asphaltene influenced wax crystallization. Three different asphaltenes (from stable oil, instable oil, and deposit) were mixed at several concentrations or dispersions into the waxy crude oil. These blends were evaluated by viscometry and yield s...

  3. Leaf waxes in litter and topsoils along a European transect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schäfer, I. K.; Lanny, V.; Franke, J.; Eglinton, T. I.; Zech, M.; Vysloužilová, Barbora; Zech, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2016), s. 551-564 ISSN 2199-3971 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : leaf waxes * soil s Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www. soil -journal.net/2/551/2016/ soil -2-551-2016.pdf

  4. Investigation of wax precipitation in crude oil: Experimental and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Jafari Behbahani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a series of experiments were carried to investigation of rheological behavior of crude oil using waxy crude oil sample in the absence/presence of flow improver such as ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer. The rheological data covered the temperature range of 5–30 °C. The results indicated that the performance of flow improver was dependent on its molecular weight. Addition of small quantities of flow improver, can improve viscosity and pour point of crude oil. Also, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model using Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP topology has been developed to account wax appearance temperature and the amount of precipitated wax and the model was verified using experimental data given in this work and reported in the literature. In order to compare the performance of the proposed model based on Artificial Neural Network, the wax precipitation experimental data at different temperatures were predicted using solid solution model and multi-solid phase model. The results showed that the developed model based on Artificial Neural Network can predict more accurately the wax precipitation experimental data in comparison to the previous models such as solid solution and multi-solid phase model with AADs less than 0.5%. Furthermore, the number of parameters required for the Artificial Neural Network (ANN model is less than the studied thermodynamic models.

  5. EPICUTICULAR WAX COMPOSITION OF SOME EUROPEAN SEDUM SPECIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEVENS, JF; THART, H; BOLCK, A; ZWAVING, JH; MALINGRE, TM

    Epicuticular waxes from 30 species of Sedum and 2 species of Sempervivoideae, i.e. Aeonium spathulatum and Sempervivum nevadense, have been analysed by GC and GC-MS. The Sedum taxa examined were S. acre, S. album, S. series Alpestria (13 species), S. anglicum, S. brevifolium, S. litoreum, S. lydium,

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Sugar Cane Wax Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and characterize indomethacin (IM) microspheres prepared with sugar cane wax microsperes. Methods: Microspheres were prepared by melt-emulsified dispersion and cooling-induced solidification method. The microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differntial scanning calorimetry ...

  7. Epicuticular wax on cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) leaves does not constitute the cuticular transpiration barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisler, Viktoria; Schreiber, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Epicuticular wax of cherry laurel does not contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which must be established by intracuticular wax. Barrier properties of cuticles are established by cuticular wax deposited on the outer surface of the cuticle (epicuticular wax) and in the cutin polymer (intracuticular wax). It is still an open question to what extent epi- and/or intracuticular waxes contribute to the formation of the transpiration barrier. Epicuticular wax was mechanically removed from the surfaces of isolated cuticles and intact leaf disks of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) by stripping with different polymers (collodion, cellulose acetate and gum arabic). Scanning electron microscopy showed that two consecutive treatments with all three polymers were sufficient to completely remove epicuticular wax since wax platelets disappeared and cuticle surfaces appeared smooth. Waxes in consecutive polymer strips and wax remaining in the cuticle after treatment with the polymers were determined by gas chromatography. This confirmed that two treatments of the polymers were sufficient for selectively removing epicuticular wax. Water permeability of isolated cuticles and cuticles covering intact leaf disks was measured using (3)H-labelled water before and after selectively removing epicuticular wax. Cellulose acetate and its solvent acetone led to a significant increase of cuticular permeability, indicating that the organic solvent acetone affected the cuticular transpiration barrier. However, permeability did not change after two subsequent treatments with collodion and gum arabic or after treatment with the corresponding solvents (diethyl ether:ethanol or water). Thus, in the case of P. laurocerasus the epicuticular wax does not significantly contribute to the formation of the cuticular transpiration barrier, which evidently must be established by the intracuticular wax.

  8. Operation of passive wax flashover and LiF ion sources on extraction applied-B ion diodes on SABRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuneo, M.E.; Hanson, D.L.; Smith, J.R.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Coats, R.S.; Bernard, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors are fielding wax flashover and LiF anodes on an extraction ion diode on SABRE (Sandia Accelerator and Beam Research Experiment), a magnetically insulated linear induction voltage adder, presently providing a 6 MV, 300 kA output. These anodes are passive sources of principally hydrocarbon and lithium beams. In applied-B ion diodes, passive ion sources use the applied voltage to produce the required ions either through an electron assisted desorption and surface flashover process, and/or through field emission mechanisms. Passive sources therefore require power delivered to the diode before ions will be turned-on. Passive sources provide a simple way to generate ions to test accelerator performance, accelerator to diode coupling, diagnostics, and to study sources of divergence and divergence reduction techniques. The authors will discuss the effect of magnetic field geometry and the important role of cathode feed electrons in the formation and evolution of the A-K gap electron sheath in the diode. Experimental data on diode operation and beam production will be compared to the predictions of PIC code simulations

  9. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples

  10. Critical role of NKT cells in posttransplant alloantibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerer, J M; Swamy, P; Sanghavi, P B; Wright, C L; Abdel-Rasoul, M; Elzein, S M; Brutkiewicz, R R; Bumgardner, G L

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported that posttransplant alloantibody production in CD8-deficient hosts is IL-4+ CD4+ T cell-dependent and IgG1 isotype-dominant. The current studies investigated the hypothesis that IL-4-producing natural killer T cells (NKT cells) contribute to maximal alloantibody production. To investigate this, alloantibody levels were examined in CD8-deficient WT, CD1d KO and Jα18 KO transplant recipients. We found that the magnitude of IgG1 alloantibody production was critically dependent on the presence of type I NKT cells, which are activated by day 1 posttransplant. Unexpectedly, type I NKT cell contribution to enhanced IgG1 alloantibody levels was interferon-γ-dependent and IL-4-independent. Cognate interactions between type I NKT and B cells alone do not stimulate alloantibody production. Instead, NKT cells appear to enhance maturation of IL-4+ CD4+ T cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report to substantiate a critical role for type I NKT cells in enhancing in vivo antibody production in response to endogenous antigenic stimuli. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  11. Replication of specifically microstructured surfaces in A356-alloy via lost wax investment casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Todor; Bührig-Polaczek, Andreas; Vroomen, Uwe; Hartmann, Claudia; Holtkamp, Jens; Gillner, Arnold; Bobzin, Kirsten; Bagcivan, Nazlim; Theiss, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    A common way of realizing microstructural features on metallic surfaces is to generate the designated pattern on each single part by means of microstructuring technologies such as e.g. laser ablation, electric discharge machining or micromilling. The disadvantage of these process chains is the limited productivity due to the additional processing of each part. The approach of this work is to replicate microstructured surfaces from a master pattern via lost wax investment casting in order to reach a higher productivity. We show that microholes of different sizes ( 15–22 µm at depths of 6–14 µm) can be replicated in AlSi7Mg-alloy from a laser-structured master pattern via investment casting. However, some loss of molding accuracy during the multi-stage molding process occurs. Approximately 50% of the original microfeature's heights are lost during the wax injection step. In the following process step of manufacturing a gypsum-bonded mold, a further loss in the surface quality of the microfeatures can be observed. In the final process step of casting the aluminum melt, the microfeatures are filled without any loss of molding accuracy and replicate the surface quality of the gypsum mold. The contact angle measurements of ultrapure water on the cast surfaces show a decrease in wettability on the microstructured regions (75°) compared to the unstructured region (60°)

  12. Cultural perceptions and the productive roles of rural Pakistani women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraz, T S

    1992-01-01

    The roles of rural Pakistani women in agricultural production are described with numerous examples from a village study by Anwar and Bilquees, and the author's research in a Punjabi village (Rajpur) to show cultural perceptions of women and their work, and the nature of productive activities inside the house and outside on the farm. The cultural perceptions are related to the image of women as dependent/private wives and mothers. A broad definition of production is used to include activities, such as churning milk which generates income and saves expenditures and making butter which fulfills household needs and is sold in the market for cash. Rajpur is a village engaged in social change. Men seek work outside the villages, and women take on work previously assumed by men. Women contribute considerably to the year-round production and processing of major crops. The productive labor of women by major crop type and activity type are described and charted. Tending livestock is performed exclusively by men. Handicraft activity at home reduces expenditure for buying these items in the local markets. Most women were unaware of the savings and "indirect" income their work contributed to the household. Work for wages is viewed as men's work. Women's mobility beyond the fields and home is still limited; market activity must be conducted with a male present and women do not earn cash. The division of labor is conceived by men for women because of women's cultural identity. Women are perceived as "chase daughters/sisters, fertile wives, and nurturing mothers." There are punishments or social rewards for proper behavior. Women in their private domain are expected to "look good within the house," which is viewed as a feminine world. The outside world is masculine. Women are also seen as lacking reasoning ability and their motherhood roles limit their capability to cope with external affairs. There is great value attached to the invisibility of women physically, socially, and

  13. Studies on Hydrotreating Process of Microcrystalline Wax Produced from Marine Belayim Crude Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EI Karashi, S.; Marawan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Microcrystalline wax was produced from solvent dewaxing process of vacuum residue raffinate produced from Marine Belayim origin. The untreated microcrystalline wax contains trace amounts of sulfur, oxygen, nitrogen and organometallic compounds as well as heavy aromatics which affect the properties of wax applications in pharmaceutical and technical fields . Microcrystalline wax hydrotreating process was studied using digital controlled unit and Ni O-MoO 3 / Al 2 O 3 catalyst, where operating parameters that controlled the efficiency of the hydrotreated wax were studied separately at different values including reactor temperature, reactor pressure, liquid hourly space velocity and hydrogen to hydrocarbon ratio . Hydrotreated microcrystalline wax at operating conditions (temperature 300 degree C, pressure 73 kg/cm 2 , LHS V 0.52 h-l and H 2 /HC ratio 266.6 Nm 3 /m 3 ) has the best quality to be used as food grade wax

  14. The polyketide components of waxes and the Cer-cqu gene cluster encoding a novel polyketide synthase, the β-diketone synthase, DKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wettstein, Penny

    2017-01-01

    The primary function of the outermost, lipophilic layer of plant aerial surfaces, called the cuticle, is preventing non-stomatal water loss. Its exterior surface is often decorated with wax crystals, imparting a blue-grey color. Identification of the barley Cer-c, -q and -u genes forming the 101 kb...... Cer-cqu gene cluster encoding a novel polyketide synthase-the β-diketone synthase (DKS), a lipase/carboxyl transferase, and a P450 hydroxylase, respectively, establishes a new, major pathway for the synthesis of plant waxes. The major product is a β-diketone (14,16-hentriacontane) aliphatic that forms...

  15. Radiotherapic Valuation of Paraffin Wax for Patients with Oral Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Kyung Su; Seo, Seuk Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Yoo, Sook Heun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hosdital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    This study is designed to investigate radiotherapic valuation of Paraffin Wax, which is newly formed for this study and generally utilized in dentistry, and Mouth Piece and Putty impression, which are commonly used in radiotherapy, for oral cavity as a compensator. Each compensator was formed by 10 x 10 x 1 cm and measured radiation dose attenuation ratio with reference of water phantom which is made of tissue-equivalent materials. Two patients with oral cancer underwent DRR (Digitally Reconstructed Radiogrph) of Offline Review Program of Aria System and Portal vision for 5 times for each material to evaluate reproducibility by each filling materials. Moreover, MU (monitor unit) changes by dose absorption were considered in the case of inevitable implication of an filling materials in the range for radiotherapy. Radiation dose attenuation ratios were shown -0.7{approx}+3.7% for Mouth Piece, +0.21{approx}+0.39% for Paraffin Wax and -2.71{approx}-1.76% for Putty impression. Error ranges of reproducibility of positions were measured {+-}3 mm for Mouth Piece, {+-}2 mm for Paraffin Wax and {+-}2 mm for Putty impression. Difference of prescription MU from dose absorption with an filling material increased +7.8% (250 MU) in Putty impression and -0.9% (230 MU) in Paraffin Wax as converted into a percentage from the standard phantom, Water 232 MU. Dose reduction of boundary between cavity and tissue was observed for Mouth Piece. Mouth Piece also had low reproducibility of positions as it had no reflection of anatomy of oral cavity even though it was a proper material to separate Maxilla and Mandible during therapy. On the other hand, Putty impression was a suitable material to correctly re-position oral cavity as before. However, it risked normal tissues getting unnecessary over irradiation and it caused radiation dose decrease by -2.5% for 1cm volume in comparison of it of water phantom. Dose reduction in Paraffin Wax, Fat Tissue-Equivalent Material, was smaller than other

  16. Radiotherapic Valuation of Paraffin Wax for Patients with Oral Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Kyung Su; Seo, Seuk Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Yoo, Sook Heun

    2011-01-01

    This study is designed to investigate radiotherapic valuation of Paraffin Wax, which is newly formed for this study and generally utilized in dentistry, and Mouth Piece and Putty impression, which are commonly used in radiotherapy, for oral cavity as a compensator. Each compensator was formed by 10 x 10 x 1 cm and measured radiation dose attenuation ratio with reference of water phantom which is made of tissue-equivalent materials. Two patients with oral cancer underwent DRR (Digitally Reconstructed Radiogrph) of Offline Review Program of Aria System and Portal vision for 5 times for each material to evaluate reproducibility by each filling materials. Moreover, MU (monitor unit) changes by dose absorption were considered in the case of inevitable implication of an filling materials in the range for radiotherapy. Radiation dose attenuation ratios were shown -0.7∼+3.7% for Mouth Piece, +0.21∼+0.39% for Paraffin Wax and -2.71∼-1.76% for Putty impression. Error ranges of reproducibility of positions were measured ±3 mm for Mouth Piece, ±2 mm for Paraffin Wax and ±2 mm for Putty impression. Difference of prescription MU from dose absorption with an filling material increased +7.8% (250 MU) in Putty impression and -0.9% (230 MU) in Paraffin Wax as converted into a percentage from the standard phantom, Water 232 MU. Dose reduction of boundary between cavity and tissue was observed for Mouth Piece. Mouth Piece also had low reproducibility of positions as it had no reflection of anatomy of oral cavity even though it was a proper material to separate Maxilla and Mandible during therapy. On the other hand, Putty impression was a suitable material to correctly re-position oral cavity as before. However, it risked normal tissues getting unnecessary over irradiation and it caused radiation dose decrease by -2.5% for 1cm volume in comparison of it of water phantom. Dose reduction in Paraffin Wax, Fat Tissue-Equivalent Material, was smaller than other impressions and

  17. Mechanical properties of carving wax with various Ca-bentolite filter composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widjijono Widjijono

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The carving wax is used as a medium in dental anatomy study. This wax composes of many waxes and sometimes a filler is added. Carving wax is not sold in Indonesian market. Whereas the gradients of carving wax such as beeswax, paraffin and bentonite are abundant in Indonesia. Based on that fact, to make high quality and standard,the exact composition if this carving wax should be known. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of carving wax composition with Ca-bentonite filler on the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion. Methods: Five carving wax compositions were made with paraffin, Ca-bentonite, carnauba wax, and beeswax in ratio (% weight: 50:20:25:5 (KI, 55:15:25:5 (KII, 60:10:25:5 (KIII, 65:5:25:5 (KIV, 70:0:25:5(KV. All components were melted, then poured into the melting point, hardness, and thermal expansion moulds (n = 5. Three carving wax properties were tested: melting point by melting point apparatus; hardness by penetrometer; thermal expansion by digital sliding caliper. The data were analyzed statistically using One-Way ANOVA and LSD0.05. Result: The Ca-bentonite addition influenced the melting point and thermal expansion of carving wax with significant differences between KI and other groups (p < 0.05. Ca-bentonite addition influenced the carving wax hardness and the mean differences among the groups were significant (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Ca-bentonite filler addition on the composition of carving wax influenced the physical and mechanical properties. The carving wax with high Ca-bentonite concentration had high melting point and hardness, but low thermal expansion.

  18. Forest and wood products role in carbon sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampson, R.N.

    1997-12-31

    An evaluation of the use of U.S. forests and forest products for carbon emission mitigation is presented. The current role of forests in carbon sequestration is described in terms of regional differences and forest management techniques. The potential for increasing carbon storage by converting marginal crop and pasture land, increasing timberland growth, reducing wildfire losses, and changing timber harvest methods is examined. Post-harvest carbon flows, environmental impacts of wood products, biomass energy crops, and increased use of energy-conserving trees are reviewed for their potential in reducing or offsetting carbon emissions. It is estimated that these techniques could offset 20 to 40 percent of the carbon emitted annually in the U.S. 39 refs., 5 tabs.

  19. The role of the production scheduling system in rescheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinowski, K.; Grabowik, C.; Kempa, W.; Paprocka, I.

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents the rescheduling problem in the context of cooperation between production scheduling system (PSS) and other units in an integrated manufacturing environment - decision makers and software systems. The main aim is to discuss the PSS functionality for maximizing automation of the rescheduling process, reducing the response time and improving the quality of generated solutions. PSSs operate in the meeting of tactical and operational level of planning and control, and play an important role in the production preparation and control. On the basis of information about orders, technology and production system state (e.g. resources availability) they prepare and/or update a detailed plan of production flow - a schedule. All necessary data for scheduling and rescheduling are usually collected in other systems both from organizational and technical production preparation, e.g. ERP, PLM, MES, CAPP or others, as well as they are entered directly by the decision- makers/operators. Data acquired in this way are often incomplete and inconsistent. Therefore the existing rescheduling software works according to interactive method - rather support but does not replace the human decision maker in tasks planning. When rescheduling, due to the limited amount of time to make a decision this interaction is particularly important. An additional problem arises in data acquisition, in the process of data exchanging between systems or in the identification of new data sources and their processing. Different approaches to rescheduling were characterized, including those solutions, where all these operations are carried out by an autonomous system and those in which scheduling is performed only upon request from the outside, for the newly created scheduling data representing the current state of the production system.

  20. Methods of studying aging and stabilization of spray-congealed solid dispersions with carnauba wax. 1. Microcalorimetric investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emås, M; Nyqvist, H

    2000-03-20

    Rapidly cooled materials are often unstable as a result of changes in their physical properties due to imperfect crystallization. In the process of spray-congealing, melted material is atomized into droplets which very quickly solidify. This increases the possibility of the material crystallizing in different metastable forms. In this study it is shown that isothermal microcalorimetry can be used to observe the change in the thermodynamic state of spray-congealed carnauba wax during storage. In order to accelerate the thermodynamic change in the spray-congealed wax, three annealing procedures have been developed and compared using isothermal microcalorimetry. By means of annealing, a spray-congealed product closer to a thermodynamically stable state has been achieved.

  1. Tidal modulated flow and sediment flux through Wax Lake Delta distributary channels: Implications for delta development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hanegan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Delft3D model of the Wax Lake Delta was developed to simulate flow and sediment flux through delta distributary channels. The model was calibrated for tidal constituents as well as velocity and sediment concentration across channel transects. The calibrated model was then used to simulate full spring–neap tidal cycles under constant low flow upstream boundary conditions, with grain size variation in suspended load represented using two sediment fractions. Flow and sediment flux results through distributary channel cross-sections were examined for spatial and temporal variability with the goal of characterizing the role of tides in sediment reworking and delta development. The Wax Lake Delta has prograded through channel extension, river mouth bar deposition, and channel bifurcation. Here we show that tidal modulation of currents influences suspended sand transport, and spatial acceleration through distributary channels at low tides is sufficient to suspend sand in distal reaches during lower flows. The basinward-increasing transport capacity in distributary channels indicates that erosive channel extension could be an important process, even during non-flood events.

  2. Study of Plant Waxes Using Low Temperature Method for ESEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neděla, Vilém; Tihlaříková, Eva; Schiebertová, P.; Zajícová, I.; Schwarzerová, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, S3 (2016), s. 1180-1181 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22777S; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) LO1211 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : ESEM * plant waxes * low temperature method Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  3. The role of syllables in sign language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baus, Cristina; Gutiérrez, Eva; Carreiras, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional role of syllables in sign language and how the different phonological combinations influence sign production. Moreover, the influence of age of acquisition was evaluated. Deaf signers (native and non-native) of Catalan Signed Language (LSC) were asked in a picture-sign interference task to sign picture names while ignoring distractor-signs with which they shared two phonological parameters (out of three of the main sign parameters: Location, Movement, and Handshape). The results revealed a different impact of the three phonological combinations. While no effect was observed for the phonological combination Handshape-Location, the combination Handshape-Movement slowed down signing latencies, but only in the non-native group. A facilitatory effect was observed for both groups when pictures and distractors shared Location-Movement. Importantly, linguistic models have considered this phonological combination to be a privileged unit in the composition of signs, as syllables are in spoken languages. Thus, our results support the functional role of syllable units during phonological articulation in sign language production.

  4. Wax solidification of drying agents containing tritiated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishikawa, M.; Kido, H.

    1984-01-01

    It is necessary to immobilize the tritium not to give any impact on the environmental biosphere because tritium may give profound effects in the metabolic pathway. One of the most probable methods of immobilizing tritium would be incorporation of tritiated water in solid forms. Any drying or dehydration technique would be effective in a tritium cleanup system for off-gas streams containing tritium or tritiated water. Commonly used drying agents such as activated alumina, silica gel, molecular sieves and calcium sulfate are of value for removal of water vapour from air or other gases. For long term tritium storage, however, these adsorptive materials should be enveloped to prevent contact with water or water vapour because the rate of leaching, evaporation or diffusion of tritium from these porous materials is so large. The beeswax solidification method of the packed bed of drying agents adsorbing tritiated water is developed in this study, where the wax solidification procedure is performed by pouring the melt of wax into the void space of the packed bed of the drying agents and successive gradual cooling. The observed values of diffusivity or permeability of tritium in the wax solidified materials are about one-thousandth of those obtained for the cement block. Effect of coating on the rate of leaching is also discussed

  5. Radiological properties of a wax-gypsum compensator material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plessis, F.C.P. du; Willemse, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the radiological properties of a compensator material consisting of wax and gypsum is presented. Effective attenuation coefficients (EACs) have been determined from transmission measurements with an ion chamber in a Perspex phantom. Measurements were made at 80 and 100 cm source-to-skin distance (SSD) for beam energies of 6, 8, and 15 MV, for field sizes ranging from narrow beam geometries up to 40x40 cm 2 , and at measurement depths of maximum dose build-up, 5 and 10 cm. A parametrization equation could be constructed to predict the EAC values within 4% uncertainty as a function of field size and depth of measurement. The EAC dependence on off-axis position was also quantified at each beam energy and SSD. It was found that the compensator material reduced the required thickness for compensation by 26% at 8 MV when compared to pure paraffin wax for a 10x10 cm 2 field. Relative surface ionization (RSI) measurements have been made to quantify the effect of scattered electrons from the wax-gypsum compensator. Results indicated that for 80 cm SSD the RSI would exceed 50% for fields larger than 15x15 cm 2 . At 100 cm SSD the RSI values were below 50% for all field sizes used

  6. Modified paraffin wax for improvement of histological analysis efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jin Ik; Lim, Kook-Jin; Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2010-08-01

    Paraffin wax is usually used as an embedding medium for histological analysis of natural tissue. However, it is not easy to obtain enough numbers of satisfactory sectioned slices because of the difference in mechanical properties between the paraffin and embedded tissue. We describe a modified paraffin wax that can improve the histological analysis efficiency of natural tissue, composed of paraffin and ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) resin (0, 3, 5, and 10 wt %). Softening temperature of the paraffin/EVA media was similar to that of paraffin (50-60 degrees C). The paraffin/EVA media dissolved completely in xylene after 30 min at 50 degrees C. Physical properties such as the amount of load under the same compressive displacement, elastic recovery, and crystal intensity increased with increased EVA content. EVA medium (5 wt %) was regarded as an optimal composition, based on the sectioning efficiency measured by the numbers of unimpaired sectioned slices, amount of load under the same compressive displacement, and elastic recovery test. Based on the staining test of sectioned slices embedded in a 5 wt % EVA medium by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E), Masson trichrome (MT), and other staining tests, it was concluded that the modified paraffin wax can improve the histological analysis efficiency with various natural tissues. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Physical Characteristics of Tetrahydroxy and Acylated Derivatives of Jojoba Liquid Wax in Lubricant Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harry-O'kuru, Rogers E; Biresaw, Girma; Gordon, Sherald; Xu, Jingyuan

    2018-01-01

    Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long-chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols mainly C38:2-C46:2. The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and, therefore, is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the jojoba ( Simmondsia chinensis ) plant which occurs naturally in the Sonora Desert in the United States and northwestern Mexico as well as in the northeastern Sahara desert. The seed contains 50-60% oil by dry weight. The plant has been introduced into Australia, Argentina, and Israel for commercial production of the jojoba oil. As a natural lubricant, we are seeking to explore its potential as a renewable industrial lubricant additive. Thus, we have chemically modified the carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil structure in order to improve its already good resistance to air oxidation so as to enhance its utility as well as its shelf life in nonpersonal care applications. To achieve this goal, we have hydroxylated its -C=C- bonds. Acylation of the resulting hydroxyl moieties has generated short-chain vicinal acyl substituents on the oil which keep the wax liquid, improving its cold flow properties and also protecting it from auto-oxidation and rancidity.

  8. Physical Characteristics of Tetrahydroxy and Acylated Derivatives of Jojoba Liquid Wax in Lubricant Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogers E. Harry-O’kuru

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long-chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols mainly C38:2–C46:2. The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and, therefore, is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis plant which occurs naturally in the Sonora Desert in the United States and northwestern Mexico as well as in the northeastern Sahara desert. The seed contains 50–60% oil by dry weight. The plant has been introduced into Australia, Argentina, and Israel for commercial production of the jojoba oil. As a natural lubricant, we are seeking to explore its potential as a renewable industrial lubricant additive. Thus, we have chemically modified the carbon-carbon double bonds in the oil structure in order to improve its already good resistance to air oxidation so as to enhance its utility as well as its shelf life in nonpersonal care applications. To achieve this goal, we have hydroxylated its –C=C– bonds. Acylation of the resulting hydroxyl moieties has generated short-chain vicinal acyl substituents on the oil which keep the wax liquid, improving its cold flow properties and also protecting it from auto-oxidation and rancidity.

  9. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick C. Joyce; Mark C. Thies

    1999-03-31

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, is to be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Aspen Plus{trademark} was used to perform process simulation studies on the proposed extraction process, with Redlich-Kwong-Soave (RKS) being used for the thermodynamic property model. In summary, we have made comprehensive VLE measurements for short alkane + long alkane systems over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, dramatically increasing the amount of high-quality data available for these simple, yet highly relevant systems. In addition, our work has demonstrated that, surprisingly, no current thermodynamic model can adequately predict VLE behavior for these systems. Thus, process simulations (such as those for our proposed SCF extraction process) that incorporate these systems can currently only give results that are qualitative at best. Although significant progress has been made in the past decade, more experimental and theoretical work remain to be done before the phase equilibria of asymmetric alkane mixtures can be predicted with confidence.

  10. Influence of light, UV-B radiation, and herbicides on wax biosynthesis of cucumber seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevini, M.; Steinmüller, D.

    1987-01-01

    The behavior of cuticular alkane-1-ols and alkanes were studied in different developmental stages of cucumber seedlings grown in the dark or under white light, with or without UV-B radiation or in presence of wax biosynthesis inhibitors, trichloroacetic acid and metolachlor. Accumulation of alkane-1-ols increased light independently with seedling age. Synthesis of alkanes was strictly light and dose dependent. Addition of UV-B radiation did not alter the amounts of alkanes or alcohols, however, the distribution of homologues was shifted towards shorter chain homologues. Treatments with Cl 3 AcOH resulted in strong inhibition of alkane accumulation, whereas the amount of alkane-1-ols was changed neither at low nor at moderate concentrations of Cl 3 AcOH but their homologue distribution shifted towards longer chain lengths. This shifting was depressed in the presence of UV-B. At high concentrations of Cl 3 Ac0H similar homologue distributions as produced by UV-B (shift to shorter homologues) were observed. Metolachlor treatment resulted in an inhibition of alkane-1-ol production connected with rising amounts of alkanes, predominantly of short chain species. A simple model of wax biosynthesis is proposed which describes the interactions with white light, UV-B radiation and herbicides. (author)

  11. Characterization of a plant leaf cuticle model wax, phase behaviour of model wax–water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagerström, Anton; Kocherbitov, Vitaly; Westbye, Peter; Bergström, Karin; Mamontova, Varvara; Engblom, Johan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system. • Eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated model wax. • The total transition enthalpy is smaller for the cuticle wax than for the model wax. • Water has a large plasticizing effect on cuticle wax. • The thermotropic transitions of model wax fit in the window of extracted leaf waxes. - Abstract: We investigated the thermotropic phase behaviour of plant leaf intracuticular wax and two representatives of its main components, 1-docosanol (C 22 H 45 OH) and dotriacontane (C 32 H 66 ), in dry and hydrated state. One objective was to obtain a model wax, which can be used to estimate formulations effects on cuticle diffusivity in vitro. The two wax components were chosen based on results from Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry analysis of cuticular wax. The wax was extracted from Clivia Miniata Regel leaves and contained 68% primary alcohols (C 16 –C 32 ) and 16% n-alkanes (C 21 –C 33 ). Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Polarized Light Microscopy and Small- and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction were used to characterize the cuticular extract and the phase behaviour of the C 22 H 45 OH/C 32 H 66 /H 2 O model system. Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system and eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated state. The thermotropic transitions of the model wax occur within the broader transition region of the extracted leaf wax

  12. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Babaahmadi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-05-20

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied and compared using drag (stress ramp and steady flow) and oscillatory shear (stress and frequency sweeps) tests. Although, none of the organogels satisfied the rheological definition of a "strong gel" (G″/G' (ω) ≤ 0.1), on comparing the samples, the strongest gel (highest critical stress and dynamic, apparent, and static yield stresses) was obtained not with wax containing the highest proportion of wax esters alone (sunflower wax, SFW) but with wax containing wax esters along with a higher proportion of fatty alcohols (carnauba wax, CRW) although at a comparatively higher Cg (4%wt for latter compared to 0.5%wt for former). As expected, gel formation by waxes containing a high proportion of lower melting fatty acids (berry, BW, and fruit wax, FW) required a comparatively higher Cg (6 and 7%wt, respectively), and in addition, these gels showed the lowest values for plateau elastic modulus (G'LVR) and a prominent crossover point at higher frequency. The gelation temperatures (TG'=G″) for all the studied gels were lower than room temperature, except for SFW and CRW. The yielding-type behavior of gels was evident, with most gels showing strong shear sensitivity and a weak thixotropic recovery. The rheological behavior was combined with the results of thermal analysis and microstructure studies (optical, polarized, and cryo-scanning electron microscopy) to explain the gelation properties of these waxes.

  13. Characterization of a plant leaf cuticle model wax, phase behaviour of model wax–water systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagerström, Anton, E-mail: anton.fagerstrom@mah.se [Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Kocherbitov, Vitaly [Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden); Westbye, Peter; Bergström, Karin [Agro Applications Europe, AkzoNobel Surface Chemistry AB, Stenungsund (Sweden); Mamontova, Varvara [Ecological and Chemical Research, St. Petersburg Scientific Research Center for Ecological Safety, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Engblom, Johan [Biomedical Science, Faculty of Health and Society, Malmö University, Malmö (Sweden)

    2013-11-10

    Highlights: • Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system. • Eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated model wax. • The total transition enthalpy is smaller for the cuticle wax than for the model wax. • Water has a large plasticizing effect on cuticle wax. • The thermotropic transitions of model wax fit in the window of extracted leaf waxes. - Abstract: We investigated the thermotropic phase behaviour of plant leaf intracuticular wax and two representatives of its main components, 1-docosanol (C{sub 22}H{sub 45}OH) and dotriacontane (C{sub 32}H{sub 66}), in dry and hydrated state. One objective was to obtain a model wax, which can be used to estimate formulations effects on cuticle diffusivity in vitro. The two wax components were chosen based on results from Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry analysis of cuticular wax. The wax was extracted from Clivia Miniata Regel leaves and contained 68% primary alcohols (C{sub 16}–C{sub 32}) and 16% n-alkanes (C{sub 21}–C{sub 33}). Differential Scanning Calorimetry, Polarized Light Microscopy and Small- and Wide Angle X-ray Diffraction were used to characterize the cuticular extract and the phase behaviour of the C{sub 22}H{sub 45}OH/C{sub 32}H{sub 66}/H{sub 2}O model system. Four individual crystalline phases were discovered in the model wax–water system and eutectic melting occurred in both dry and hydrated state. The thermotropic transitions of the model wax occur within the broader transition region of the extracted leaf wax.

  14. Productivity Effects of United States Multinational Enterprises : The Roles of Market Orientation and Regional Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi

    2010-01-01

    Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.

  15. Development of hydrophilic dental wax without surfactant using a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Yong-Hee; Choi, Eun-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Dental wax (DW), a low-melting and high-molecular-weight organic mixture, is widely used in dentistry for forming moulds of teeth. Hydrophilicity is an important property for DW, as a wet dental investment is used to surround the wax before wax burnout is performed. However, recent attempts to improve the hydrophilicity of DW using a surfactant have resulted in the reduced mechanical properties of the dental investment, leading to the failure of the dental restoration. This study applied a non-thermal air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (AAPPJ) for DW surface treatment and investigated its effect on both DW hydrophilicity and the dental investment's mechanical properties. The results showed that the application of the AAPPJ significantly improved the hydrophilicity of the DW, and that the results were similar to that of cleaner-treated DW using commercially available products with surfactant. A surface chemical analysis indicated that the improvement of hydrophilicity was related to an increase in the number of oxygen-related bonds on the DW surface following the removal of carbon hydrate in both AAPPJ and cleaner-treated DW. However, cleaner treatment compromised the mechanical property of the dental investment when the dental investment was in contact with the treated DW, while the AAPPJ treatment did not. Therefore, the use of AAPPJ to treat DW is a promising method for accurate dental restoration, as it induces an improvement in hydrophilicity without harming the dental investment. (paper)

  16. Effect of waste wax and chain structure on the mechanical and physical properties of polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. AlMaadeed

    2015-05-01

    The wax dispersion in the matrix strongly depends on the percentage of wax added to the polymer and the molecular structure of the polymer. It was found that increasing the wax content enhances the phase separation. LDPE undergoes less phase separation due to its highly branched structure composed of a network of short and long chain branches. The wax has no pronounced plasticising effect on the polymer. This is clearly manifested in LDPE as no change in the melting temperature occurred. LLDPE and HDPE were slightly affected by a high concentration of wax (30% and 40%. This is due to the non-uniform distribution of short chain branching along the LLDPE and HDPE main chains, which can interact with the wax structure.

  17. Role of Antioxidants and Natural Products in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanisamy Arulselvan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a comprehensive array of physiological response to a foreign organism, including human pathogens, dust particles, and viruses. Inflammations are mainly divided into acute and chronic inflammation depending on various inflammatory processes and cellular mechanisms. Recent investigations have clarified that inflammation is a major factor for the progression of various chronic diseases/disorders, including diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, eye disorders, arthritis, obesity, autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory bowel disease. Free radical productions from different biological and environmental sources are due to an imbalance of natural antioxidants which further leads to various inflammatory associated diseases. In this review article, we have outlined the inflammatory process and its cellular mechanisms involved in the progression of various chronic modern human diseases. In addition, we have discussed the role of free radicals-induced tissue damage, antioxidant defence, and molecular mechanisms in chronic inflammatory diseases/disorders. The systematic knowledge regarding the role of inflammation and its associated adverse effects can provide a clear understanding in the development of innovative therapeutic targets from natural sources that are intended for suppression of various chronic inflammations associated diseases.

  18. Role of C5 Activation Products in Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Ward

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Complement activation products are known to be generated in the setting of both experimental and human sepsis. C5 activation products (C5a anaphylatoxin and the membrane attack complex [MAC] C5b-9 are generated during sepsis following infusion of endotoxin, or after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP, which produces polymicrobial sepsis. C5a reacts with its receptors C5aR and C5L2 in a manner that creates the “cytokine storm”, and is associated with development of multiorgan failure (MOF. A number of other complications arising from the interaction of C5a with its receptors include apoptosis of lymphoid cells, loss of innate immune functions of neutrophils (PMNs, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, cardiomyopathy, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and complications associated with MOF. Neutralization of C5a in vivo or absence/blockade of C5a receptors greatly reduces the adverse events in the setting of sepsis, markedly attenuates MOF, and greatly improves survival. Regarding the possible role of C5b-9 in sepsis, the literature is conflicting. Some studies suggest that C5b-9 is protective, while other studies suggest the contrary. Clearly, in human sepsis, C5a and its receptors may be logical targets for interception.

  19. Characterization and chemical composition of epicuticular wax from banana leaves grown in Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Suporn Charumanee; Songwut Yotsawimonwat; Panee Sirisa-ard; Kiatisak Pholsongkram

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the physicochemical properties and chemical composition of epicuticular wax extracted from leaves of Kluai Namwa, a banana cultivar which is widely grown in Northern Thailand. Its genotype was identified by a botanist. The wax was extracted using solvent extraction. The fatty acid profiles and physicochemical properties of the wax namely melting point, congealing point, crystal structures and polymorphism, hardness, color, and solubility were examin...

  20. Methods for separating boron from borated paraffin wax and its determination by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeyakumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Boron compounds are found to be useful in shielding against high-energy neutrons. In radiotherapy treatments, in order to protect occupational workers and patients from the undesirable neutron and gamma doses, paraffin wax containing B 4 C/boric acid is used. Low-level borate wastes generated from the nuclear power plants have been immobilized with paraffin wax using a concentrate waste drying system (CWDS). Borated paraffin waxes are prepared by mixing calculated amounts of either boric acid or boron carbide with the molten wax. This necessitates the determination of boron at different locations in order to check the homogeneous distribution of B over the borated wax. The determination of boron in nuclear materials is inevitable due to its high neutron absorption cross section. For the determination of boron in borated waxes, not many methods have been reported. A method based on the pyrohydrolysis extraction of boron and its quantification with ion chromatography was proposed for paraffin waxes borated with H 3 BO 3 and B 4 C. The B 4 C optimum pyrohydrolysis conditions were identified. Wax samples were mixed with U 3 O 8 , which prevents the sample from flare up, and also accelerates the extraction of boron. Pyrohydrolysis was carried out with moist O 2 at 950℃ for 60 and 90 min for wax with H 3 BO 3 and wax with B 4 C, respectively. Two simple methods of separation based on alkali extraction and melting wax in alkali were also developed exclusively for wax with H 3 BO 3 . In all the separations, the recovery of B was above 98%. During IC separation, B was separated as boron-mannitol anion complex. Linear calibration was obtained between 0.1 and 50 ppm of B, and LOD was calculated as 5 ppb (S/N=3). The reproducibility was better than 5% (RSD)

  1. The Occurrence of Paraffin and Other Petroleum Waxes in the Marine Environment: A Review of the Current Legislative Framework and Shipping Operational Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Suaria

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the various materials that make up marine debris, lumps of petroleum waxes such as paraffin and microcrystalline wax, are regularly found on beaches worldwide, although not included in the current definition of marine litter. Ingestion by marine organisms is occasionally documented in the scientific literature and mass beaching events are frequently reported along the European coasts, with obvious detrimental consequences to the local communities that have to manage the clean-up and disposal of this substance. According to Annex II of the MARPOL regulation, petroleum waxes are classified as “high viscosity, solidifying, and persistent floating products,” whose discharge at sea of tank-washing residues is strictly regulated, but currently permitted within certain limits. Starting from the description of a large stranding event occurred along the Italian coasts in 2017, we review the existing knowledge and regulatory framework and urge the relevant authorities to address this issue, showing that wax pollution is creating evident damages to the European coastal municipalities. Pending further investigations on the potential hazard that this kind of pollution is posing to marine ecosystems, we suggest a careful and more stringent revision of the policies regulating discharges of these products at sea.

  2. Antiprotozoal activity of extracts and isolated triterpenoids of 'carnauba' (Copernicia prunifera) wax from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Buana C; Araújo, Bruno Q; Carvalho, Adonias A; Freitas, Sâmya Danielle L; Maciel, Dayany da S Alves; Ferreira, Ari José S; Tempone, Andre G; Martins, Ligia F; Alexandre, Tatiana R; Chaves, Mariana H; Lago, João Henrique G

    2016-12-01

    'Carnauba' wax is a natural product obtained from the processing of the powder exuded from Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore (Arecaceae). This material is widely used in the Brazilian folk medicine, including the treatment of rheumatism and syphilis. To investigate the antiprotozoal activity of hexane and EtOH extracts from the 'carnauba' wax as well as from the isolated compounds from the bioactive extracts. Two different samples of 'carnauba' (C. prunifera) waxes - types 1 and 4 - were individually extracted using hexane (EH) and EtOH (EE). Aliquots of hexane (type 1 - EH-1 and EH-4) and EtOH (type 4 - EE-1 and EE-4) extracts were tested against promastigote (2-200 μg/mL in DMSO during 48 h at 24 °C) and amastigote (3-150 μg/mL in DMSO during 120 h at 37 °C) forms of Leishmania infantum as well as against trypomastigote (3-150 μg/mL in DMSO during 24 h at 37 °C) forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Bioactive extracts EH-1 and EE-4 were subjected to a bioactivity-guided fractionation to afford three dammarane-type triterpenoids (1-3). The in vitro antiprotozoal activities of the obtained compounds were evaluated as described above. Additionally, the cytotoxicity activity of compounds 1-3 against mammalian conjunctive cells (NCTC - 2-200 μg/mL in DMSO during 48 h at 37 °C) was determined. From the bioactive hexane and EtOH extracts from the 'carnauba' (C. prunifera) wax, were isolated three dammarane-type triterpenoids: (24R*)-methyldammar-25-ene-3β,20-diol (carnaubadiol, 1), (24R*)-methyldammara-20,25-dien-3-one (2) and (24R*)-methyldammara-20,25-dien-3α-ol (3). These compounds were identified based on the analysis of NMR and MS spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-3 were effective against the intracellular amastigotes of L. infantum, with IC 50 values ranging from 8 to 52 μM, while compounds 1 and 3 displayed activity against trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi with IC 50 values of 15 and 35 μM, respectively. The mammalian

  3. Structural-mechanical model of wax crystal networks—a mesoscale cellular solid approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Yukihiro; Marangoni, Alejandro G

    2014-01-01

    Mineral waxes are widely used materials in industrial applications; however, the relationship between structure and mechanical properties is poorly understood. In this work, mineral wax-oil networks were characterized as closed-cell cellular solids, and differences in their mechanical response predicted from structural data. The systems studied included straight-chain paraffin wax (SW)-oil mixtures and polyethylene wax (PW)-oil mixtures. Analysis of cryogenic-SEM images of wax-oil networks allowed for the determination of the length (l) and thickness (t) of the wax cell walls as a function of wax mass fraction (Φ). A linear relationship between t/l and Φ (t/l ∼ Φ 0.89 ) suggested that wax-oil networks were cellular solids of the closed-cell type. However, the scaling behavior of the elastic modulus with the volume fraction of solids did not agree with theoretical predictions, yielding the same scaling exponent, μ = 0.84, for both waxes. This scaling exponent obtained from mechanical measurements could be predicted from the scaling behavior of the effective wax cell size as a function of wax mass fraction in oil obtained by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy. Microscopy studies allowed us to propose that wax-oil networks are structured as an ensemble of close-packed spherical cells filled with oil, and that it is the links between cells that yield under simple uniaxial compression. Thus, the Young’s moduli for the links between cells in SW and PW wax systems could be estimated as E L (SW) = 2.76 × 10 9 Pa and E L (PW) = 1.64 × 10 9 Pa, respectively. The structural parameter responsible for the observed differences in the mechanical strength between the two wax-oil systems is the size of the cells. Polyethylene wax has much smaller cell sizes than the straight chain wax and thus displays a higher Young’s modulus and yield stress. (papers)

  4. Radiotherapy in differentiated thyroid cancer: Optimal dose distribution using a wax bolus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Stucklschweiger, G.; Oechs, A.; Pakish, B.; Hackl, A.; Preidler, K.; Szola, D.

    1994-01-01

    The study includes 53 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, who underwent surgical and radioiodine therapy as well as hormone therapy. Postoperative radiotherapy was performed in all patients in 'mini-mantle-technique' with parallel opposed fields, followed by an anterior boost-field with electrons up to 60-64 Gy, using a wax bolus for optimal dose distribution in the target volume sparing out the spinal cord as much as possible. The dose to the spinal cord did not exceed 44 Gy in any case. The study shows that radiotherapy with doses up to 60-64 Gy plays an important role in postsurgical therapeutic management. Therefore nonradical surgery is a less important prognostic factor for survival and local recurrence in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer than histological diagnosis in combination with age and lymph node involvement

  5. Characterization of rice bran wax policosanol and its nanoemulsion formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishaka A

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aminu Ishaka,1,2 Mustapha Umar Imam,1 Rozi Mahamud,3 Abu Bakar Zakaria Zuki,4 Ismail Maznah1 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria; 3Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, 4Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia Abstract: Policosanol, a mixture of long-chain alcohols found in animal and plant waxes, has several biological effects; however, it has a bioavailability of less than 10%. Therefore, there is a need to improve its bioavailability, and one of the ways of doing this is by nanoemulsion formulation. Different droplet size distributions are usually achieved when emulsions are formed, which solely depends on the preparation method used. Mostly, emulsions are intended for better delivery with maintenance of the characteristics and properties of the leading components. In this study, policosanol was extracted from rice bran wax, its composition was determined by gas chromatography mass spectrophotometry, nanoemulsion was made, and the physical stability characteristics were determined. The results showed that policosanol nanoemulsion has a nanosize particle distribution below 100 nm (92.56–94.52 nm, with optimum charge distribution (-55.8 to -45.12 mV, pH (6.79–6.92 and refractive index (1.50; these were monitored and found to be stable for 8 weeks. The stability of policosanol nanoemulsion confers the potential to withstand long storage times. Keywords: rice bran wax, policosanol, nanoemulsion, characterization

  6. Laser-assisted fabrication of batteries on wax paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitnis, G; Ziaie, B; Tan, T

    2013-01-01

    The functionality of paper-based diagnostic devices can be significantly enhanced by their integration with an on-board energy source. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of paper-based electrochemical cells on wax paper using CO 2 laser surface treatment and micromachining. A four cell zinc–copper battery shows a steady open-circuit voltage of ∼3 V and can provide 0.25 mA for at least 30 min when connected to a 10 kΩ load. Higher voltages and current values can be obtained by adjusting the number and size of electrochemical cells in the battery without changing the fabrication process. (paper)

  7. The effect of animated images on persuasion: The mediator role of hedonic responses and the moderator role of product category

    OpenAIRE

    Hussant-Zebian, Rola

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to highlight the mediator role of hedonic responses in the relation between animated images and attitudinal responses. It has another objective which is to show off the moderator role of product category. To this purpose, we have manipulated two categories of advertising opposing computer animated to non-computer animated images. We have also seetwo product categories : a high involvement product and a low involvement one.

  8. Two bifunctional enzymes from the marine protist Thraustochytrium roseum: biochemical characterization of wax ester synthase/acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase activity catalyzing wax ester and triacylglycerol synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Mao, Zejing; Luo, Ling; Wan, Xia; Huang, Fenghong; Gong, Yangmin

    2017-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) and wax esters (WEs) are important neutral lipids which serve as energy reservoir in some plants and microorganisms. In recent years, these biologically produced neutral lipids have been regarded as potential alternative energy sources for biofuel production because of the increased interest on developing renewable and environmentally benign alternatives for fossil fuels. In bacteria, the final step in TAG and WE biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by wax ester synthase/acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA):diacylglycerol acyltransferase (WS/DGAT). This bifunctional WS/DGAT enzyme is also a key enzyme in biotechnological production of liquid WE via engineering of plants and microorganisms. To date, knowledge about this class of biologically and biotechnologically important enzymes is mainly from biochemical characterization of WS/DGATs from Arabidopsis, jojoba and some bacteria that can synthesize both TAGs and WEs intracellularly, whereas little is known about WS/DGATs from eukaryotic microorganisms. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two bifunctional WS/DGAT enzymes (designated TrWSD4 and TrWSD5) from the marine protist Thraustochytrium roseum . Both TrWSD4 and TrWSD5 comprise a WS-like acyl-CoA acyltransferase domain and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) have substantial WS and lower DGAT activity. They exhibit WS activity towards various-chain-length saturated and polyunsaturated acyl-CoAs and fatty alcohols ranging from C 10 to C 18 . TrWSD4 displays WS activity with the lowest K m value of 0.14 μM and the highest k cat / K m value of 1.46 × 10 5  M -1  s -1 for lauroyl-CoA (C 12:0 ) in the presence of 100 μM hexadecanol, while TrWSD5 exhibits WS activity with the lowest K m value of 0.96 μM and the highest k cat / K m value of 9.83 × 10 4  M -1  s -1 for decanoyl-CoA (C 10:0 ) under the same reaction condition. Both WS/DGAT enzymes have the highest WS activity at 37 and 47

  9. Propolis and vegetable wax in the conservation of Hass avocadoPrópolis e cera vegetal na conservação de abacate Hass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality of Hass avocado submitted to application of propolis and vegetable wax. The selected fruits were submitted to the treatments (1 without wax and without propolis, (2 with vegetable wax, (3 propolis alcoholic extract 100%, (4 wax and etanol 70%, (5 propolis alcoholic extract 2% and wax, (6 propolis alcoholic extract 4% and wax, (7 propolis alcoholic extract 6% and wax, (8 propolis alcoholic extract 8% and wax, and (9 propolis alcoholic extract 10% and wax. The fruits were maintained under refrigeration (10 ± 1 ºC and 90 ± 5% relative humidity, being appraised every three days for 15 days and more 3 days of commercialization simulation at room temperature (23± 1 ºC and 18% relative humidity.The evaluation parameters were the weight loss, respiratory activity, pH, firmness, tritable acidity (AT, soluble solids (SS, and ratio. The results of weigth loss, respiratory activity and firmness were the most significant to show the difference among the treatments. ‘Hass’ avocado fruits submitted the application of propolis associated the vegetable wax present smaller weight loss, CO2 production and firmness in relation to the control fruits. The fruits of the treatment with propolis alcoholic extract 2% and wax presented the most promising results. Objetivou-se neste trabalho avaliar a aplicação de própolis e cera vegetal na qualidade pós-colheita do abacate ‘Hass’. Os frutos selecionados foram submetidos aos tratamentos (1 sem cera e sem própolis, (2 com cera vegetal, (3 extrato alcoólico de própolis 100%, (4 cera e etanol 70%, (5 extrato alcoólico de própolis 2% e cera, (6 extrato alcoólico de própolis 4% e cera, (7 extrato alcoólico de própolis 6% e cera, (8 extrato alcoólico de própolis 8% e cera e (9 extrato alcoólico de própolis 10% e cera. Os frutos foram mantidos sob refrigeração (10 ± 1 ºC e 90 ± 5% umidade relativa, sendo avaliados a cada três dias durante 15 dias

  10. Preliminary evaluation of an aqueous wax emulsion for controlled-release coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walia, P S; Stout, P J; Turton, R

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the use of an aqueous carnauba wax emulsion (Primafresh HS, Johnson Wax) in a spray-coating process. This involved assessing the effectiveness of the wax in sustaining the release of the drug, theophylline. Second, the process by which the drug was released from the wax-coated pellets was modeled. Finally, a method to determine the optimum blend of pellets with different wax thicknesses, in order to yield a zero-order release profile of the drug, was addressed. Nonpareil pellets were loaded with theophylline using a novel powder coating technique. These drug-loaded pellets were then coated with different levels of carnauba wax in a 6-in. diameter Plexiglas fluid bed with a 3.5-in. diameter Wurster partition. Drug release was measured using a spin-filter dissolution device. The study resulted in continuous carnauba wax coatings which showed sustained drug release profile characteristics typical of a barrier-type, diffusion-controlled system. The effect of varying wax thickness on the release profiles was investigated. It was observed that very high wax loadings would be required to achieve long sustained-release times. The diffusion model, developed to predict the release of the drug, showed good agreement with the experimental data. However, the data exhibited an initial lag-time for drug release which could not be predicted a priori based on the wax coating thickness. A method of mixing pellets with different wax thicknesses was proposed as a way to approximate zero-order release.

  11. Establishing very long-chain fatty alcohol and wax ester biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian; Nielsen, Jens; Siewers, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Wax esters (WEs) are neutral lipids and can be used for a broad range of commercial applications, including personal care products, lubricants, or coatings. They are synthesized by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS). At present, commercially used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products were restricted to C28-C36 WEs. These rather short WEs make up only a very small percentage of the total WEs in natural jojoba oil. The synthesis of longer chain WEs (up to C44) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has so far only been achieved after substrate feeding. Here we identified new routes for producing very long-chain fatty alcohols (VLCFOHs) up to a chain length of C22 by heterologous expression of a FAR derived from Apis mellifera (AmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (Maqu_2220) in S. cerevisiae and achieved maximum yields of 3.22 ± 0.36 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW) and 7.84 ± 3.09 mg/g CDW, respectively, after 48 h. Moreover, we enabled the synthesis of jojoba-like WEs up to a chain length of C42, catalyzed by a combination of Maqu_2220 together with the WS from S. chinensis (SciWS) and the S. cerevisiae elongase Elo2p, with a maximum yield of 12.24 ± 3.35 mg/g CDW after 48 h. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1025-1035. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Analysis of sorghum wax and carnauba wax by reversed phase liquid chromatography mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorghum is a genus in the grass family, which is used for both grain and forage production throughout the world. In the United States, sorghum grain is predominantly used as livestock feed, and in ethanol production. In recent years however, sorghum grain has been investigated for other industrial a...

  13. BraLTP1, a lipid transfer protein gene involved in epicuticular wax deposition, cell proliferation and flower development in Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs constitute large multigene families that possess complex physiological functions, many of which remain unclear. This study isolated and characterized the function of a lipid transfer protein gene, BraLTP1 from Brassica rapa, in the important oilseed crops Brassica napus. BraLTP1 encodes a predicted secretory protein, in the little known VI Class of nsLTP families. Overexpression of BnaLTP1 in B. napus caused abnormal green coloration and reduced wax deposition on leaves and detailed wax analysis revealed 17-80% reduction in various major wax components, which resulted in significant water-loss relative to wild type. BnaLTP1 overexpressing leaves exhibited morphological disfiguration and abaxially curled leaf edges, and leaf cross-sections revealed cell overproliferation that was correlated to increased cytokinin levels (tZ, tZR, iP, and iPR in leaves and high expression of the cytokinin biosynthsis gene IPT3. BnaLTP1-overexpressing plants also displayed morphological disfiguration of flowers, with early-onset and elongated carpel development and outwardly curled stamen. This was consistent with altered expression of a a number of ABC model genes related to flower development. Together, these results suggest that BraLTP1 is a new nsLTP gene involved in wax production or deposition, with additional direct or indirect effects on cell division and flower development.

  14. Composition of epicuticular wax on Prosopis glandulosa leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayeux, H.S. Jr.; Wilkinson, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Epicuticular wax on leaves of field-grown honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) trees consisted of 35% esters, 32% alkanes, 25% free fatty alcohols, and 7% free fatty acids. Aldehydes were present in very low concentrations. The number of carbon atoms (C n ) of alkanes ranged from 25 to 31, with a maximum (57%) at 29. Esters consisted of fatty acids with C n of 16, 18, and 20, with most (70%) at 18 and fatty alcohols with C n of 24-32. The C n of free fatty alcohols and free fatty acids also ranged from 24 to 32. Only primary alcohols were present. Immediately after exposure of glasshouse-grown seedlings to 14 CO 2 for 4 h, 60% of the recovered 14 C was incorporated into free fatty acids; the percentage decreased progressively to 18% 8 h after exposure and remained stable thereafter. The proportion of 14 C in free fatty alcohols increased from ca. 12% immediately after exposure to 14 CO 2 to 55% at 8 h. Little 14 C was associated with other wax components over the 24-h period; 3% or less was incorporated into alkanes

  15. Characterisation of wax works of art by gas chromatographic procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regert, M; Langlois, J; Colinart, S

    2005-10-14

    To identify the various natural and synthetic substances used by sculptors at the end of the 19th century, several contemporary reference samples were investigated by high temperature gas chromatography (HT GC) and HT GC-MS. Using specific chromatographic conditions and minimising sample preparation, we could separate, detect and identify a wide range of biomolecular markers covering a great variety of molecular weights and volatilities, with a minimum amount of sample, in a single run. Beeswax, spermaceti, carnauba, candellila and Japan waxes as well as pine resin derivatives, animal fats, paraffin, ozokerite and stearin, used as additives in wax works of art, were chemically investigated. In the case of low volatile compounds, transbutylation was performed. The structure of long-chain esters of spermaceti was elucidated for the first time by HT GC-MS analysis. Such a method was then carried out on 10 samples collected on a statuette of Junon by Antoine-Louis Barye (Louvre Museum, Paris, France) and on a sculpture by Aimé-Jules Dalou (Musée de la Révolution Française, Vizille, France). The analytical results obtained provide new data on the complex recipes elaborated by sculptors at the end of the 19th century.

  16. Inverse gradients in leaf wax δD and δ13C values along grass blades of Miscanthus sinensis: implications for leaf wax reproduction and plant physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Li; Huang, Yongsong

    2013-06-01

    Compound specific hydrogen and carbon isotopic ratios of higher plant leaf waxes have been extensively used in paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. However, studies so far have focused on the comparison of leaf wax isotopic differences in bulk leaf samples between different plant species. We sampled three different varieties of tall grasses (Miscanthus sinensis) in six segments from base to tip and determined hydrogen and carbon isotopic ratios of leaf waxes, as well as hydrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios of leaf water samples. We found an increasing, base-to-tip hydrogen isotopic gradient along the grass blades that can probably be attributed to active leaf wax regeneration over the growth season. Carbon isotopic ratios, on the other hand, show opposite trends to hydrogen isotopic ratios along the grass blades, which may reflect different photosynthetic efficiencies at different blade locales.

  17. Healthier meat and meat products: Their role as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez Colmenero, Francisco; Carballo, José; Cofrades, Susana

    2001-01-01

    This review deals with the implications of meat and meat products for human health. It analyses the effect of the presence or absence of various factors: fat, fatty acid composition, cholesterol, calorific value, salt, nitrite or lipid oxidation products that can cause health problems. Bearing in mind these considerations, it then describes the strategies used in animal production, treatment of meat raw material and reformulation of meat products to obtain healthier meat and meat products. Fu...

  18. Gender roles in cotton production and management of related organizations in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maboudou Alidou, G.; Niehof, A.

    2013-01-01

    Women’s productive roles have generated important debates, heuristic as well as practical, in the scientific and development community. In Benin, women farmers are playing a key role, particularly in agriculture and cotton production, where they are involved throughout the production process.

  19. Development and Performance Evaluation of Image-Based Robotic Waxing System for Detailing Automobiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Ying; Hsu, Bing-Cheng

    2018-05-14

    Waxing is an important aspect of automobile detailing, aimed at protecting the finish of the car and preventing rust. At present, this delicate work is conducted manually due to the need for iterative adjustments to achieve acceptable quality. This paper presents a robotic waxing system in which surface images are used to evaluate the quality of the finish. An RGB-D camera is used to build a point cloud that details the sheet metal components to enable path planning for a robot manipulator. The robot is equipped with a multi-axis force sensor to measure and control the forces involved in the application and buffing of wax. Images of sheet metal components that were waxed by experienced car detailers were analyzed using image processing algorithms. A Gaussian distribution function and its parameterized values were obtained from the images for use as a performance criterion in evaluating the quality of surfaces prepared by the robotic waxing system. Waxing force and dwell time were optimized using a mathematical model based on the image-based criterion used to measure waxing performance. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed robotic waxing system and image-based performance evaluation scheme.

  20. Effect of soil moisture management on the quality of wax apple | Lin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wax apple (Syzygium samarngense Merr.et Perry) was one of the economically planted fruits in Taiwan. This research was conducted to evaluate the effects of different soil moisture management on increasing wax apple quality. It was preceded at two different soil properties (shallow soil and alluvial soil) in Pingtung, ...

  1. Morphology and accumulation of epicuticular wax on needles of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constance A. Harrington; William C. Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have documented differences in epicuticular wax among several tree species but little attention has been paid to changes in accumulation of foliar wax that can occur during the year. We sampled current-year needles from the terminal shoots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) in late June/early...

  2. In vivo chemical and structural analysis of plant cuticular waxes using stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohn, George R; Mansfield, Jessica C; Parker, David; Lind, Rob; Perfect, Sarah; Seymour, Mark; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Love, John; Moger, Julian

    2015-05-01

    The cuticle is a ubiquitous, predominantly waxy layer on the aerial parts of higher plants that fulfils a number of essential physiological roles, including regulating evapotranspiration, light reflection, and heat tolerance, control of development, and providing an essential barrier between the organism and environmental agents such as chemicals or some pathogens. The structure and composition of the cuticle are closely associated but are typically investigated separately using a combination of structural imaging and biochemical analysis of extracted waxes. Recently, techniques that combine stain-free imaging and biochemical analysis, including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy microscopy and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy microscopy, have been used to investigate the cuticle, but the detection sensitivity is severely limited by the background signals from plant pigments. We present a new method for label-free, in vivo structural and biochemical analysis of plant cuticles based on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. As a proof of principle, we used SRS microscopy to analyze the cuticles from a variety of plants at different times in development. We demonstrate that the SRS virtually eliminates the background interference compared with coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy imaging and results in label-free, chemically specific confocal images of cuticle architecture with simultaneous characterization of cuticle composition. This innovative use of the SRS spectroscopy may find applications in agrochemical research and development or in studies of wax deposition during leaf development and, as such, represents an important step in the study of higher plant cuticles. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Composition and morphology of cuticular wax in blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wenjing; Gao, Haiyan; Cao, Shifeng; Fang, Xiangjun; Chen, Hangjun; Xiao, Shangyue

    2017-03-15

    The chemical composition and morphology of cuticular wax in mature fruit of nine blueberry cultivars were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Triterpenoids and β-diketones were the most prominent compounds, accounting for on average 64.2% and 16.4% of the total wax, respectively. Ursolic or oleanolic acid was identified as the most abundant triterpenoids differing in cultivars. Two β-diketones, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione, were detected in cuticular wax of blueberry fruits for the first time. Notably, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione were only detected in highbush (V. corymbosum) and rabbiteye (V. ashei) blueberries, respectively. The results of SEM showed that a large amount of tubular wax deposited on the surface of blueberry fruits. There was no apparent difference in wax morphology among the nine cultivars. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Company competencies as a network: The role of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bove, Karsten

    2000-01-01

    investigate these matters in a survey with top managers in 513 Danish production companies. Ten areas important for achieving company objectives are identified. These are product development, market intelligence, production management, strategy and vision, sales, market responsiveness, promotion, internal co......-operation, image, and finally supply management. Product development is rated a fairly important competence as it ranks four with sales, market responsiveness, and production management as numbers one to three. Yet a distressing negative impact on overall company success is found for product development......Product development managers and academics like to assure themselves and each other that new product development is one of the most critical areas of company competence and contributes positively to company success But does top management agree? Because if they do not, the consequences will heavily...

  5. Food production in developing countries - the role of plant biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    D. I. Ferreira

    1995-01-01

    The world is facing major problems with regard to food production. Agricultural land suffers from various conditions which make it less efficient for crop production while the rapid population growth, especially in developing countries, raises concern for sustainable food production. The Green Revolution has failed to secure sustainable food production and it is hoped that biotechnology will facilitate the transition to more sustainable agriculture. Excellent progress has been made with b...

  6. Bio-paraffins: alternative products to petroleum paraffins; Bioparafinas: produtos alternativos as parafinas de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Anie Daniela Medeiros [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Hidrorrefino e Processos Especiais; Oliveira, Claudia Cristina Cardoso Calvano de; Carvalho, Ivone de Freitas; Silva, Danilo do Carmo Santos; Cruz, Valeria Senra da Silva [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Gerencia de Lubrificantes e Produtos Especiais]. E-mails: anie.lima, claudiacristina, ivone, danilosilva, vsenra@petrobras.com.br

    2007-04-15

    Market trends and social and environmental issues encouraged the vegetal wax presence in the world-wide paraffin market. This work presents the most commercialized vegetal waxes, soy and pal, comparing their physicochemical characteristics and their applicability with the paraffins obtained from petroleum. It also presents a characterization of the carnauba wax, produced exclusively in Brazil and a comparison with paraffins from petroleum. The carnauba wax is an alternative product, with good applicability as a substitute for waxes from petroleum or a petroleum/vegetal mixture. The characteristics of palm and soy waxes show the possible application in candles, cosmetics, foods and others industries. Brazil, having a great agricultural potential, represents a source of vegetal wax that could be use to meet the market demands. (author)

  7. Boosting aquaculture production systems in Osun state: Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This scenario leaves a high percentage of the population who depend on fish and fish products food insecure, and thus, the need to boost aquaculture production to argument the supply from the wild. The study therefore looks into the possibility of boosting the production systems through the use of micro-credit and ...

  8. 76 FR 773 - Petroleum Wax Candles From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-504] Petroleum Wax Candles From... Trade Commission (``ITC'') that revocation of the antidumping duty order on petroleum wax candles from... order on petroleum wax candles from the PRC pursuant to section 751(c)(2) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  9. The spider-web of company competencies: The role of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Bove, Karsten; Grunert, Klaus G.

    This paper examines the role of product development in relation to other key competencies like, eg, production management, sale scompetencies and company image. Based on a representative study of Danish production companies we examine how product development influences overall company success, an...

  10. Marginal adaptation of four inlay casting waxes on stone, titanium, and zirconia dies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Kapsampeli, Vassiliki; Kitsou, Aikaterini; Kirmanidou, Yvone; Fotiou, Anna; Pissiotis, Argirios L; Calvani, Pasquale Lino; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Kudara, Yukio

    2014-07-01

    Different inlay casting waxes do not produce copings with satisfactory marginal accuracy when used on different die materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the marginal accuracy of 4 inlay casting waxes on stone dies and titanium and zirconia abutments and to correlate the findings with the degree of wetting between the die specimens and the inlay casting waxes. The inlay casting waxes tested were Starwax (Dentaurum), Unterziehwachs (Bredent), SU Esthetic wax (Schuler), and Sculpturing wax (Renfert). The marginal opening of the waxes was measured with a stereomicroscope on high-strength stone dies and on titanium and zirconia abutments. Photographic images were obtained, and the mean marginal opening for each specimen was calculated. A total of 1440 measurements were made. Wetting between die materials and waxes was determined after fabricating stone, titanium, and zirconia rectangular specimens. A calibrated pipette was used to place a drop of molten wax onto each specimen. The contact angle was calculated with software after an image of each specimen had been made with a digital camera. Collected data were subjected to a 2-way analysis of variance (α=.05). Any association between marginal accuracy and wetting of different materials was found by using the Pearson correlation. The wax factor had a statistically significant effect both on the marginal discrepancy (F=158.31, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=68.09, P<.001). A statistically significant effect of the die material factor both on the marginal adaptation (F=503.47, P<.001) and contact angle values (F=585.02, P<.001) was detected. A significant correlation between the marginal accuracy and the contact angle values (Pearson=0.881, P=.01) was also found. Stone dies provided wax copings with the best marginal integrity, followed by titanium and zirconia abutments. Unterziehwachs (Bredent), wax produced the best marginal adaptation on different die materials. A significant correlation was found

  11. Company competencies as a network: The role of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harmsen, Hanne; Grunert, Klaus G.; Bove, Karsten

    2000-01-01

    Product development managers and academics like to assure themselves and each other that new product development is one of the most critical areas of company competence and contributes positively to company success But does top management agree? Because if they do not, the consequences will heavily...... influence the resource allocation to product development and career possibilities of NPD's. This study examines how top managers view the importance of product development relative to other central competence areas. While asking managers about their perception is one way of evaluating the importance, its...... contribution to company success is another important measure. In this study the impact of product development, relative to other important competence areas is measured to further assess how critical product development actually is for overall company success. Hanne Harmsen, Klaus G. Grunert and Karsten Bove...

  12. Role of coal combustion products in sustainable construction materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naik, T.R.; Siddique, R.; Vaniker, S. [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI (USA). UWM Center for Products Utilization, College of Engineering and Applied Science

    2003-07-01

    The paper describes various coal combustion products, CCPs produced in the process of power generation. These include fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag and flue gas desulfurization products. Typical test protocol used for testing, analysis and evaluation of CCPs, as well as the current best recycling use options for these materials are discussed. Materials, productions, properties, and potential applications in the manufacture of emerging materials for sustainable construction, as well as environmental impact are also briefly discussed. 47 refs., 16 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Abiotic condensation synthesis of glyceride lipids and wax esters under simulated hydrothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushdi, Ahmed I; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2006-04-01

    Precursor compounds for abiotic proto cellular membranes are necessary for the origin of life. Amphipathic compounds such as fatty acids and acyl glycerols are important candidates for micelle/bilayer/vesicle formation. Two sets of experiments were conducted to study dehydration reactions of model lipid precursors in aqueous media to form acyl polyols and wax esters, and to evaluate the stability and reactions of the products at elevated temperatures. In the first set, mixtures of n-nonadecanoic acid and ethylene glycol in water, with and without oxalic acid, were heated at discrete temperatures from 150 ( composite function)C to 300 ( composite function)C for 72 h. The products were typically alkyl alkanoates, ethylene glycolyl alkanoates, ethylene glycolyl bis-alkanoates and alkanols. The condensation products had maximum yields between 150 ( composite function)C and 250 ( composite function)C, and were detectable and thus stable under hydrothermal conditions to temperatures acid and glycerol were heated using the same experimental conditions, with and without oxalic acid, between 100 ( composite function)C and 250 ( composite function)C. The main condensation products were two isomers each of monoacylglycerols and diacylglycerols at all temperatures, as well as minor amounts of the fatty acid anhydride and methyl ester. The yield of glyceryl monoheptanoates generally increased with increasing temperature and glyceryl diheptanoates decreased noticeably with increasing temperature. The results indicate that condensation reactions and abiotic synthesis of organic lipid compounds under hydrothermal conditions occur easily, provided precursor concentrations are sufficiently high.

  14. Happiness matters: the role of well-being in productivity

    OpenAIRE

    DiMaria, Charles Henri; Peroni, Chiara; Sarracino, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This article is about the link between people’s subjective well-being, defined as an evaluation of one’s own life, and productivity. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that subjective well-being contributes to productivity using a two step approach: first, we establish whether subjective well-being can be a candidate variable to study Total Factor Productivity; second, we assess how much subjective well-being contributes to productivity at aggregate level through efficiency gains. We adopt ...

  15. The effect of the environment on the structure, quantity and composition of spruce needle wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenthardt-Goerg, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    The tubular structure (10-nonacosanol), as formed in spring on the wax surface of new spruce needles (Picea abies (L.)Karst.), or as regenerated on previous-year needles, becomes gradually fused and flattened in relation to needle exposure, particularly wind and rain. Structural flattening does not necessarily imply changes in wax quantity, composition or lead to changes in needle transpiration or photosynthesis, and was approximately reproduced by bathing excised twigs in water (with pH having little effect). In 4-year-old plants of one clone planted out at a Swiss plateau and alpine sites, changes in wax structure were similar to those found in mature trees. No such changes were found in plants with O 3 , SO 2 , ambient air, charcoal-filtered air, or in plants grown outside the chambers but shielded from rain. Area-related needle wax quantity in mature trees differed between the two sites, but did not differ in young plants under different treatments (fumigation or planted out at the sites). Minor differences in wax composition, however, were found to be related to the ozone dose of the fumigation or the ambient ozone dose at the sites. In each needle wax sample, 68 compounds grouped into 12 constituent classes were quantified. The quantity of the individual substituent classes varied among wax samples from genetically different mature trees at the two sites in a tree-specific way. Variation of these quantities was not larger than among young cloned plants after different treatments. (orig.)

  16. Anatomical models and wax Venuses: art masterpieces or scientific craft works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballestriero, R

    2010-02-01

    The art of wax modelling has an ancient origin but rose to prominence in 14th century Italy with the cult of votive artefacts. With the advent of Neoclassicism this art, now deemed repulsive, continued to survive in a scientific environment, where it flourished in the study of normal and pathological anatomy, obstetrics, zoology and botany. The achievement of having originated the creation of anatomical models in coloured wax must be ascribed to a joint effort undertaken by the Sicilian wax modeller Gaetano Giulio Zumbo and the French surgeon Guillaume Desnoues in the late 17th century. Interest in anatomical wax models spread throughout Europe during the 18th century, first in Bologna with Ercole Lelli, Giovanni Manzolini and Anna Morandi, and then in Florence with Felice Fontana and Clemente Susini. In England, the art of anatomical ceroplastics was brought to London from Florence by the sculptor Joseph Towne. Throughout the centuries many anatomical artists preferred this material due to the remarkable mimetic likeness obtained, far surpassing any other material. Independent of the material used, whether wood, wax or clay, anatomical models were always considered merely craft works confined to hospitals or faculties of medicine and have survived to this day only because of their scientific interest. Italian and English waxes are stylistically different but the remarkable results obtained by Susini and Towne, and the fact that some contemporary artists are again representing anatomical wax bodies in their works, makes the border that formerly separated art and craft indistinguishable.

  17. Phase Change Insulation for Energy Efficiency Based on Wax-Halloysite Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yafei; Thapa, Suvhashis; Weiss, Leland; Lvov, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials (PCMs) have gained extensive attention in thermal energy storage. Wax can be used as a PCM in solar storage but it has low thermal conductivity. Introducing 10% halloysite admixed into wax yields a novel composite (wax-halloysite) which has a thermal conductivity of 0.5 W/mK. To increase the base conductivity, graphite and carbon nanotubes were added into the PCM composite improving its thermal energy storage. Thermal conductivity of wax-halloysite-graphite (45/45/10%) composite showed increased conductivity of 1.4 W/mK (3 times higher than the base wax-halloysite composite). Wax- halloysite-graphite-carbon nanotubes (45/45/5/5%) composite showed conductivity of 0.85 W/mK while maintaining the original shape perfectly until 91 °C (above the original wax melting point). Thermal conductivity can be further increased with higher doping of carbon nanotubes. This new composites are promising heat storage material due to good thermal stability, high thermal/electricity conductivity and ability to preserve its shape during phase transitions

  18. Development of formulations and processes to incorporate wax oleogels in ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulim Botega, Daniele C; Marangoni, Alejandro G; Smith, Alexandra K; Goff, H Douglas

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of emulsifiers, waxes, fat concentration, and processing conditions on the application of wax oleogel to replace solid fat content and create optimal fat structure in ice cream. Ice creams with 10% or 15% fat were formulated with rice bran wax (RBW), candelilla wax (CDW), or carnauba wax (CBW) oleogels, containing 10% wax and 90% high-oleic sunflower oil. The ice creams were produced using batch or continuous freezing processes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the microstructure of ice cream and the ultrastructure of oleogel droplets in ice cream mixes. Among the wax oleogels, RBW oleogel had the ability to form and sustain structure in 15% fat ice creams when glycerol monooleate (GMO) was used as the emulsifier. TEM images revealed that the high degree of fat structuring observed in GMO samples was associated with the RBW crystal morphology within the fat droplet, which was characterized by the growth of crystals at the outer edge of the droplet. Continuous freezing improved fat structuring compared to batch freezing. RBW oleogels established better structure compared to CDW or CBW oleogels. These results demonstrate that RBW oleogel has the potential to develop fat structure in ice cream in the presence of GMO and sufficiently high concentrations of oleogel. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Accuracy of ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination technique: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rahul; Al-Keraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Kathuria, Nidhi; Gandhi, P V; Bhide, S V

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the ringless casting and accelerated wax-elimination techniques can be combined to offer a cost-effective, clinically acceptable, and time-saving alternative for fabricating single unit castings in fixed prosthodontics. Sixty standardized wax copings were fabricated on a type IV stone replica of a stainless steel die. The wax patterns were divided into four groups. The first group was cast using the ringless investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the second group was cast using the ringless investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method; the third group was cast using the conventional metal ring investment technique and conventional wax-elimination method; the fourth group was cast using the metal ring investment technique and accelerated wax-elimination method. The vertical marginal gap was measured at four sites per specimen, using a digital optical microscope at 100× magnification. The results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA to determine statistical significance. The vertical marginal gaps of castings fabricated using the ringless technique (76.98 ± 7.59 μm) were significantly less (p castings fabricated using the conventional metal ring technique (138.44 ± 28.59 μm); however, the vertical marginal gaps of the conventional (102.63 ± 36.12 μm) and accelerated wax-elimination (112.79 ± 38.34 μm) castings were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The ringless investment technique can produce castings with higher accuracy and can be favorably combined with the accelerated wax-elimination method as a vital alternative to the time-consuming conventional technique of casting restorations in fixed prosthodontics. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Employment and productivity: The role of the tax wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea FESTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available After the economic crisis, many countries aim at reducing unemployment and foster productivity. To address these issues one of the most common policy indications recommends lowering the tax wedge on labour in order to increase employment and growth. As a consequence, a review of the empirical studies focused on the relation between tax wedge, employment and productivity is an useful and demanding exercise, especially in those European countries where the topic is on the front page of the domestic policy debate because the productivity growth is low and the tax wedge on labour is high.

  1. Tectonic microplates in a wax model of sea-floor spreading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, Richard F; Ragnarsson, Rolf; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    Rotating, growing microplates are observed in a wax analogue model of sea-floor spreading. Wax microplates are kinematically similar to sea-floor tectonic microplates in terms of spreading rate and growth rate. Furthermore, their spiral pseudofault geometry is quantitatively consistent with Schouten's oceanic microplate model. These results suggest that Schouten's edge-driven microplate model captures the kinematics of tectonic microplate evolution on Earth. Based on the wax observations, a theory for the nucleation of overlapping spreading centres, the precursors of tectonic microplates, is developed

  2. Caffeine and theobromine in epicuticular wax of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athayde, M L; Coelho, G C; Schenkel, E P

    2000-12-01

    Caffeine and theobromine were identified and quantified in leaf epicuticular waxes of Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. (Aquifoliaceae). The total epicuticular leaf wax content was ca. 0.5% on average of dry leaf weight. Epicuticular caffeine and theobromine contents varied from 0.16 to 127.6 microg/mg and from 0 to 9.5 microg/mg of wax, respectively. For some selected samples, the intracellular methylxanthine concentration was also determined. A positive correlation was found between inner and epicuticular caffeine contents.

  3. Workers' Well-Being and Productivity: The Role of Bargaining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jean

    1983-01-01

    Bargaining that makes available facilities for satisfaction of workers' basic needs can contribute to increased productivity, which in turn enhances competitiveness. Such bargaining can be an effective means of extending and reinforcing national economic planning. (SK)

  4. The role of new product development on export market share

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing change on customers’ needs on selecting customers’ needs, which may influence requirements on designing products and services as well as export sale and company’s market shares in domestic and international market. In the present study, through descriptive approach with qualitative method and case study, we investigate important key factors influencing on new product development and products’ successive factors at overseas nutritional market. In addition by presenting a new model in accordance with the present condition of the organization we explore the closest product development model and affective factors influencing them. The study investigates 36 factors and extracts six important ones, which influence product development including intelligent information, process research and development, strategy introduced, participation strategy, market survey and differentiation strategy.

  5. Gender Role in Sustainable Palm Oil Production in Imo State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    Abstracted by: EBSCOhost, Electronic Journals Service (EJS),. Vol. .... food processing and pharmaceutical industries, production of toiletries, paints, etc.) .... strides witnessed in Malaysia who collected palm fruits from Nigeria can be traced to.

  6. Mushroom as a product and their role in mycoremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Kulshreshtha, Shweta; Mathur, Nupur; Bhatnagar, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Mushroom has been used for consumption as product for a long time due to their flavor and richness in protein. Mushrooms are also known as mycoremediation tool because of their use in remediation of different types of pollutants. Mycoremediation relies on the efficient enzymes, produced by mushroom, for the degradation of various types of substrate and pollutants. Besides waste degradation, mushroom produced a vendible product for consumption. However, sometimes they absorb the pollutant in t...

  7. Role of Biotechnology in Animal Production Systems in Hot Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Hansen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Developments in the biological sciences in the last three decades have revolutionized mankind's ability to manipulate the genetics, cell biology and physiology of biological organisms. These techniques, collectively termed biotechnology, create the opportunity for modifying domestic animals in ways that markedly increase the efficiency of production. Among the procedures being developed for animal production systems are marker-assisted selection of specific alleles of a gene that are associated with high production, production of transgenic animals , super ovulation and embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, embryo sexing and cloning, production of large amounts of previously-rare proteins through use of genetically -engineered bacteria or other cells, and identification of new biologically-active molecules as potential regulators of animal function. To date, most uses of biotechnology have concentrated on problems of general relevance to animal agriculture rather than specific problems related to livestock production in hot climates. However, it is likely that biotechnology will be used for this latter purpose also. Strategies to increase disease resistance using marker-assisted selection, production of transgenic animals expressing viral proteins, and recombinant cytokines to enhance immune function should prove useful to reducing the incidence and seventy of various tropical diseases. Additionally, there are methods to reduce effects of heat stress on oestrus detection and establishment of pregnancy. These include remote sensing of oestrus, ovulation synchronization systems and embryo transfer. More research regarding the physiological processes determining heat tolerance and of the pathways through which heat stress alters physiological function will be required before molecular biology techniques can be used to reduce the adverse effects of heat stress on animal production.

  8. Particulate pollutants are capable to 'degrade' epicuticular waxes and to decrease the drought tolerance of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Juergen; Pariyar, Shyam

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution causes the amorphous appearance of epicuticular waxes in conifers, usually called wax 'degradation' or 'erosion', which is often correlated with tree damage symptoms, e.g., winter desiccation. Previous investigations concentrated on wax chemistry, with little success. Here, we address the hypothesis that both 'wax degradation' and decreasing drought tolerance of trees may result from physical factors following the deposition of salt particles onto the needles. Pine seedlings were sprayed with dry aerosols or 50 mM solutions of different salts. The needles underwent humidity changes within an environmental scanning electron microscope, causing salt expansion on the surface and into the epistomatal chambers. The development of amorphous wax appearance by deliquescent salts covering tubular wax fibrils was demonstrated. The minimum epidermal conductance of the sprayed pine seedlings increased. Aerosol deposition potentially 'degrades' waxes and decreases tree drought tolerance. These effects have not been adequately considered thus far in air pollution research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of product designers in the transition towards the circular economy : A reality check

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumter, D.X.; Bakker, C.A.; Balkenende, A.R.; Bakker, C.; Mugge, R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the role of product designers in the transition towards the circular economy. Both scientific and grey literature show remarkable optimism when it comes to role strategic and coordinating role designers could play in this transition process. However, there has been little

  10. Role of varieties in sustainable rice production in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman Omar; Saad Abdullah

    2002-01-01

    Rice is the staple food of Malaysians. Rice production in Malaysia is concentrated in granary areas, which are provided with irrigation facilities. There is no plan to increase the size or the number of these granary areas, thus productivity per unit area must be increased to sustain the current level of self-sufficiency. Variety determines the potential productivity; environment and crop management determine how much of this potential is realized. Crop management is very important, as any drop in the level of management will effect productivity. However there are characteristics / factors that can be incorporated into varieties which can buffer the effect of environment and crop management. Pests and diseases can result in severe yield loss and lead to non-sustainable production. Varietal resistance to some of these diseases can be incorporated into rice varieties. Active breeding to incorporate rice resistance to blast, PMV (tungro), bacterial blight and brown planthopper is being currently carried out Factors that determine or justify the active breeding status are: importance of Oe pests diseases, resistance sources and the availability of efficient screening procedure. Sheath blight is also an important disease in direct seeded crops as it can cause severe yield loss, but good resistant sources are not available for incorporation and the screening procedure is also not very efficient. Biotechnologists are working hard to introduce resistance from other crops and also develop other resistance mechanisms for sheath blight. Water, shortage or excess, is a major cause of non-sustainable production. The breeding of short-term varieties can overcome water problems or shortages. Negative interaction between varietal characteristics and environment do occur. Finally farmers have to decide which factors of the environment cannot be easily controlled, and choose the correct varieties in order to achieve sustainable production. (Author)

  11. China's evolving role in global production networks: Implications for Trump's trade war

    OpenAIRE

    Athukorala, Prema-chandra

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines China's evolving role in global production networks and its implications for assessing the potential impact of the "trade war" declared by President Trump. The analysis, which is based on a systematic disaggregation of trade based on global production sharing into components and final assembly, suggests that the Sino-US trade gap is a structural phenomenon driven by the pivotal role played by China within East Asia cantered production networks. The global competitiveness o...

  12. The Role of e-Portfolios in Supporting Productive Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Tai, Mui; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    e-Portfolios are a form of authentic assessment with formative functions that include showcasing and sharing learning artifacts, documenting reflective learning processes, connecting learning across various stages and enabling frequent feedback for improvements. This paper examines how e-portfolios take up these formative roles to support…

  13. role of mass media in agricultural productivity in adamawa state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH

    2011-09-12

    Sep 12, 2011 ... LTD PRINTED IN NIGERIA ISSN 1596-2903 ... The study examined the role of mass media in agriculture in ..... television are cost of the hardware, cost of maintenance ... Government Area of Kebbi State: A case study of state ...

  14. Role of Mass Media in Agricultural Productivity in Adamawa State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the role of mass media in agriculture in Adamawa State. Specifically, it focused on the extent to which mass media have been used to communicate agricultural information dissemination, farmers' media preference, challenges experienced in accessing information through the media and the need to ...

  15. Heavy meson production at Saturne: the role of baryon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bornec, Y.

    1991-01-01

    A selection of experiments performed at SATURNE which demonstrate the role played by N* resonances is presented. Nucleon-nucleon and proton-deuteron reactions are discussed and analyzed. Recent theoretical interpretations are also briefly described. (R.P.) 27 refs., 20 figs

  16. The role of production control in the development of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, G J; Nijhuis, F J

    1996-01-01

    Burnout is an increasingly important problem in modern work organizations. Few studies, however, have explicitly applied an adequate theoretical understanding of the performance of modern organizations. This article aims to initiate both a discussion of this phenomenon and higher-quality research into the emergence of burnout based on an understanding of the economic-technological rationalization and control (management control) of production and service processes. In applying production control, both technical and bureaucratic, group and attitudinal control systems are increasingly integrated. This so-called systematic control strategy is one of the major causes of burnout. The cumulative effect of an increasing workload combined with reduced resources due to economic considerations and technocratic implementation of production control is assumed to be relevant to the development of burnout. The authors' propositions apply to service workers in human service organizations and to key workers in enterprises using flexible specialization combined with self-directed work groups.

  17. The role of whey in functional dairy food production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Tratnik

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Modern life style also enhances a need for creation of better dairyproducts, in comparison with traditional ones, possessing functionalcharacteristics. Whey is consisted primarily of lactose, proteins of high nutritive value, important minerals and imunoactive compounds, as well as vitamins of B group. It can be used for fermented probiotic drinks and albumin cheese production. Using new methods of pressure membrane filtration and demineralisation the economic manufacture of whey, as a valuable source of nutrients, is enabled. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the possibilities of sweet whey, especially whey protein concentrates, use in functional dairy products manufacture from cow’s and goat’s milk. The paper is based on the published scientific research performed in the Laboratory for Technology of Milk and Dairy Products of the Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology University of Zagreb.

  18. A leaf wax biomarker record of early Pleistocene hydroclimate from West Turkana, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, R. L.; Russell, J. M.; Feibel, C.; Beck, C.; Castañeda, I.; Deino, A.; Cohen, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Climate is thought to play a critical role in human evolution; however, this hypothesis is difficult to test due to a lack of long, high-quality paleoclimate records from key hominin fossil locales. To address this issue, we analyzed organic geochemical indicators of climate in a drill core from West Turkana, Kenya that spans ∼1.9-1.4 Ma, an interval that includes several important hominin evolutionary transitions. We analyzed the hydrogen isotopic composition of terrestrial plant waxes (δDwax) to reconstruct orbital-timescale changes in regional hydrology and their relationship with global climate forcings and the hominin fossil record. Our data indicate little change in the long-term mean hydroclimate during this interval, in contrast to inferred changes in the level of Lake Turkana, suggesting that lake level may be responding dominantly to deltaic progradation or tectonically-driven changes in basin configuration as opposed to hydroclimate. Time-series spectral analyses of the isotopic data reveal strong precession-band (21 kyr) periodicity, indicating that regional hydroclimate was strongly affected by changes in insolation. We observe an interval of particularly high-amplitude hydrologic variation at ∼1.7 Ma, which occurs during a time of high orbital eccentricity hence large changes in processionally-driven insolation amplitude. This interval overlaps with multiple hominin species turnovers, the appearance of new stone tool technology, and hominin dispersal out of Africa, supporting the notion that climate variability played an important role in hominin evolution.

  19. The role of safe practices in hospitals’ total factor productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy R Huerta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Timothy R Huerta1, Mark A Thompson2, Eric W Ford31Center for Health Innovation, Education, and Research, 2Rawls College of Business, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA; 3Forsyth Medical Center Distinguished Professor of Health Care, The University of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC, USAAbstract: The dual aims of improving safety and productivity are a major part of the health care reform movement hospital leaders must manage. Studies exploring the two phenomena conjointly and over time are critical to understanding how change in one dimension influences the other over time. A Malmquist approach is used to assess hospitals’ relative productivity levels over time. Analysis of variance (ANOVA algorithms were executed to assess whether or not the Malmquist Indices (MIs correlate with the safe practices measure. The American Hospital Association’s annual survey and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services’ Case Mix Index for fiscal years 2002–2006, along with Leapfrog Group’s annual survey for 2006 were used for this study. Leapfrog Group respondents have significantly higher technological change (TC and total factor productivity (TFP than nonrespondents without sacrificing technical efficiency changes. Of the three MIs, TC (P < 0.10 and TFP (P < 0.05 had significant relationships with the National Quality Forum’s Safe Practices score. The ANOVA also indicates that the mean differences of TFP measures progressed in a monotonic fashion up the Safe Practices scale. Adherence to the National Quality Forum’s Safe Practices recommendations had a major impact on hospitals’ operating processes and productivity. Specifically, there is evidence that hospitals reporting higher Safe Practices scores had above average levels of TC and TFP gains over the period assessed. Leaders should strive for increased transparency to promote both quality improvement and increased productivity.Keywords: safety, productivity, quality, safe

  20. Jet production and the dynamical role of color

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1977-05-01

    It is discussed how multiparticle jets which originate from quarks, multiquarks, hadrons, or gluons can be distinguished by their quantum number retention, leading particle distributions, and hadronic multiplicity. The possible quantitative connection between initial color separation and hadron multiplicity is emphasized. Evidence for wee quark exchange as a dominant hadronic mechanism is presented. Also discussed are several new mechanisms for gluon jet production. Finally, the possibility of utilizing a high multiplicity trigger to expose gluon exchange and production contributions in hadron- and lepton-induced reactions are considered

  1. The Role Of Rural Women In Crop And Poultry Production In Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the roles of rural women in crops and poultry production in rural areas in Cross River State, and their contribution to food production and preservation. The paper also revealed that rural women participate in food production and bearing responsibility for food marketing and distribution, family health, ...

  2. The role of moral leadership for sustainable consumption and production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkhuyzen, O.M.; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we argue that an adequate understanding of sustainable consumption and production (SCP) involves a mature consciousness of the interdependence between ourselves and the rest of our human family and its habitat. The principles, the actions and the vision that form the basis for SCP are

  3. Role of catalysis in sustainable production of synthetic elastomers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    productions, the impact of synthetic elastomer business cannot be overlooked. The need of ... Keywords. Elastomers; catalysis; tyres and automobiles; mechanism; manufacturing process. 1. ..... level fractional factorial design model was also developed to ..... Polybutadiene can be manufactured by a number of pro- cesses ...

  4. The role of moral leadership for sustainable production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkhuyzen, O.M.; Karlsson-Vinkhuyzen, S.I.S.E.

    2014-01-01

    The principles, the actions and the vision that form the basis for sustainable production and consumption (SCP) are not unknown, but there is a considerable gap between knowledge and action, and behavioural incentives are not sufficient for system change. In this paper we explore a key missing

  5. The Polyketide Components of Waxes and the Cer-cqu Gene Cluster Encoding a Novel Polyketide Synthase, the β-Diketone Synthase, DKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wettstein-Knowles, Penny

    2017-07-10

    The primary function of the outermost, lipophilic layer of plant aerial surfaces, called the cuticle, is preventing non-stomatal water loss. Its exterior surface is often decorated with wax crystals, imparting a blue-grey color. Identification of the barley Cer-c , -q and -u genes forming the 101 kb Cer-cqu gene cluster encoding a novel polyketide synthase-the β-diketone synthase (DKS), a lipase/carboxyl transferase, and a P450 hydroxylase, respectively, establishes a new, major pathway for the synthesis of plant waxes. The major product is a β-diketone (14,16-hentriacontane) aliphatic that forms long, thin crystalline tubes. A pathway branch leads to the formation of esterified alkan-2-ols.

  6. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-11-04

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  7. Effect of matrix granulation and wax coating on the dissolution rates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disintegrating) granules consisting of paracetamol (drug) and acrylatemethacrylate copolymer, a matrix forming material. The effect of coating the matrix granules with wax on the drug release profiles was also investigated. The objective was to ...

  8. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-01

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax o

  9. Development and Properties of a Wax Ester Hydrolase in the Cotyledons of Jojoba Seedlings 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Anthony H. C.; Moreau, Robert A.; Liu, Kitty D. F.

    1978-01-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent Km value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 μM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax). PMID:16660288

  10. Development and properties of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, A H; Moreau, R A; Liu, K D

    1978-03-01

    The activity of a wax ester hydrolase in the cotyledons of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) seedlings increased drastically during germination, parallel to the development of the gluconeogenic process. The enzyme at its peak of development was obtained in association with the wax body membrane, and its properties were studied. It had an optimal activity at alkaline pH (8.5-9). The apparent K(m) value for N-methylindoxylmyristate was 93 muM. It was stable at 40 C for 30 min but was inactivated at higher temperature. Various divalent cations and ethylenediaminetetraacetate had little effect on the activity. p-Chloromercuribenzoate was a strong inhibitor of the enzyme activity, and its effect was reversed by subsequent addition of dithiothreitol. It had a broad substrate specificity with highest activities on monoglycerides, wax esters, and the native substrate (jojoba wax).

  11. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang; Liu, Yang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct

  12. "Wax bloom" on beeswax cultural heritage objects: exploring the causes of the phenomenon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartl, B.; Kobera, Libor; Drábková, K.; Ďurovič, M.; Brus, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 7 (2015), s. 509-513 ISSN 0749-1581 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : 13-C NMR * wax bloom * efflorescence Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.226, year: 2015

  13. Bee waxes: a model of characterization for using as base simulator tissue in teletherapy with photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Rogerio Matias Vidal da; Souza, Divanizia do Nascimento

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a model of characterization and selection of bee waxes which makes possible to certify the usage viability of that base simulator tissue in the manufacture of appropriated objects for external radiotherapy with mega volt photon beams. The work was divide into three stages, where was evaluated physical and chemical properties besides the aspects related to the capacity of beam attenuation. All the process was carefully accompanied related to the wax origin such as the bee specimen and the flora surrounding the beehives. The chemical composition of the waxes is similar to others simulators usually used in radiotherapy. The behavior of mass attenuation coefficient in the radiotherapeutic energy range is comparable to other simulators, and consequently to the soft tissue. The proposed model is efficient and allows the affirmative that the usage of determined bee wax as base simulator tissue is convenient

  14. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Reji P; Nair, Vivek V; Harshakumar, K; Ravichandran, R; Lylajam, S; Viswambaran, Prasanth

    2018-01-01

    Different pattern materials do not produce copings with satisfactory, marginal accuracy when used on stone dies at varying time intervals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the vertical marginal accuracy of patterns formed from three materials, namely, thermoplastic resin, light cured wax and inlay casting wax at three-time intervals of 1, 12, and 24 h. A master die (zirconia abutment mimicking a prepared permanent maxillary central incisor) and metal sleeve (direct metal laser sintering crown #11) were fabricated. A total of 30 stone dies were obtained from the master die. Ten patterns were made each from the three materials and stored off the die at room temperature. The vertical marginal gaps were measured using digital microscope at 1, 12, and 24 h after reseating with gentle finger pressure. The results revealed a significant statistical difference in the marginal adaptation of three materials at all the three-time intervals. Light cured wax was found to be most accurate at all time intervals, followed by thermoplastic resin and inlay casting wax. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between all pairs of materials. The change in vertical marginal gap from 1 to 24 h between thermoplastic resin and light cured wax was not statistically significant. The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25-70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  15. Accuracy of Digitally Fabricated Wax Denture Bases and Conventional Completed Complete Dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogna Stawarczyk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the accuracy of digitally fabricated wax trial dentures and conventionally finalized complete dentures in comparison to a surface tessellation language (STL-dataset. A generated data set for the denture bases and the tooth sockets was used, converted into STL-format, and saved as reference. Five mandibular and 5 maxillary denture bases were milled from wax blanks and denture teeth were waxed into their tooth sockets. Each complete denture was checked on fit, waxed onto the dental cast, and digitized using an optical laboratory scanning device. The complete dentures were completed conventionally using the injection method, finished, and scanned. The resulting STL-datasets were exported into the three-dimensional (3D software GOM Inspect. Each of the 5 mandibular and 5 maxillary complete dentures was aligned with the STL- and the wax trial denture dataset. Alignment was performed based on a best-fit algorithm. A three-dimensional analysis of the spatial divergences in x-, y- and z-axes was performed by the 3D software and visualized in a color-coded illustration. The mean positive and negative deviations between the datasets were calculated automatically. In a direct comparison between maxillary wax trial dentures and complete dentures, complete dentures showed higher deviations from the STL-dataset than the wax trial dentures. The deviations occurred in the area of the teeth as well as in the distal area of the denture bases. In contrast, the highest deviations in both the mandibular wax trial dentures and the mandibular complete dentures were observed in the distal area. The complete dentures showed higher deviations on the occlusal surfaces of the teeth compared to the wax dentures. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM-fabricated wax dentures exhibited fewer deviations from the STL-reference than the complete dentures. The deviations were significantly greater in the

  16. POTENSI LILIN LEBAH HUTAN THE POTENTIAL BEES WAXS FROM WILD BEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Junus

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This research was carried out to examine the ability of forest resources in producing total (amount nest, hive comb lowering and beeswax of giant honey bee. The method used in this research was survey method. This research was conducted in July 2015 in Sialang Honey Community Cooperative (KOPMAS located in Sungai Pagar village, Riau province. The result indicated that a. The research location was suitable for giant honey bee (Apis dorsata development, b. The number of hive combs lowering from 15 trees was 411 combs with 67 times lowering, c. The average of hive comb weight in every lowering was around 40.6 kg. d. Beeswax production at every harvest time was 273.6 kg. The conclusions from this research were: 1. The number of giant honey bee hive combs from various trees and the weight of hive combs were not the same. 2. The amount of beeswax was equivalent to the production of bee hive comb. It is suggested that: 1. The utilization of giant honey bees wax should be designed so it can be used as a commodity to increase people’s incomes. 2. Certain policies are needed to develop giant honey bee activity around forest areas in order to produce more hive comb and beeswax.

  17. Isolation and recrystallization of epicuticular waxes from Sorbus and Cotoneaster leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Ganeva Tsveta; Stefanova Miroslava; Koleva Dimitrina; Ruiz Segundo Ríos

    2015-01-01

    Wax morphology and chemical composition are widely accepted to be important for the protective properties of the leaf’s surface and also valuable characteristics in plant systematics. The leaves of Sorbus domestica L. and Cotoneaster granatensis Boiss., species of two large genera with intricate taxonomy referred to subtribe Pyrinae, Rosaceae (formerly subfamily Maloideae), were studied by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and performing different methods of wax isola...

  18. ETHNOECOLOGY AND ETHNOBOTANY OF THE PALM CARNAUBA WAX IN BRAZILIAN SEMI-ARID

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Ferreira de Sousa; Richeliel Albert Rodrigues Silva; Talita Geovanna Fernandes Rocha; José Augusto da Silva Santana; Fábio de Almeida Vieira

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of ethnoecological and ethnobotanical of carnauba wax (Copernicia prunifera (Miller) H. E. Moore, Arecaceae) in an extractive community of municipality of Ipanguaçu, Rio Grande do Norte state. We interviewed key informants, using the technique of inducing nonspecific, guided tour and direct observation to confirm the data. According to most residents of Pedro Ezequiel Araújo community, the area of carnauba wax in the region is natural. In the r...

  19. Epicuticular wax on stomata of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mili.)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomislav Bačić; Ljiljana Krstin; Jadranka Roša; Željko Popović

    2011-01-01

    Condition of epistomatal wax on the abaxial surface of the current and previous-year needles of damaged silver fir trees (Abies alba Mill.), both from the polluted Risnjak and "clean" Donja Dobra sites in Gorski Kotar region, both influenced by pollutants coming from Europe, during two years, three times a year, were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope. In the course of time the wax tubules on the epistomatal rims of stomata in polluted, but also in "clean" needles surface, become fuse...

  20. A review of the performance and structural considerations of paraffin wax hybrid rocket fuels with additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Kirsty; Adali, Sarp; Pitot, Jean; Brooks, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Paraffin wax as a hybrid rocket fuel has not been comprehensively characterised, especially regarding the structural feasibility of the material in launch applications. Preliminary structural testing has shown paraffin wax to be a brittle, low strength material, and at risk of failure under launch loading conditions. Structural enhancing additives have been identified, but their effect on motor performance has not always been considered, nor has any standard method of testing been identified between research institutes. A review of existing regression rate measurement techniques on paraffin wax based fuels and the results obtained with various additives are collated and discussed in this paper. The review includes 2D slab motors that enable visualisation of liquefying fuel droplet entrainment and the effect of an increased viscosity on the droplet entrainment mechanism, which can occur with the addition of structural enhancing polymers. An increased viscosity has been shown to reduce the regression rate of liquefying fuels. Viscosity increasing additives that have been tested include EVA and LDPE. Both these additives increase the structural properties of paraffin wax, where the elongation and UTS are improved. Other additives, such as metal hydrides, aluminium and boron generally offer improvements on the regression rate. However, very little consideration has been given to the structural effects these additives have on the wax grain. A 40% aluminised grain, for example, offers a slight increase in the UTS but reduces the elongation of paraffin wax. Geometrically accurate lab-scale motors have also been used to determine the regression rate properties of various additives in paraffin wax. A concise review of all available regression rate testing techniques and results on paraffin wax based hybrid propellants, as well as existing structural testing data, is presented in this paper.

  1. Increasing Dominance - the Role of Advertising, Pricing and Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Kretschmer, Tobias; Rösner, Mariana

    2010-01-01

    Despite the empirical relevance of advertising strategies in concentrated markets, the economics literature is largely silent on the effect of persuasive advertising strategies on pricing, market structure and increasing (or decreasing) dominance. In a simple model of persuasive advertising and pricing with differentiated goods, we analyze the interdependencies between ex-ante asymmetries in consumer appeal, advertising and prices. Products with larger initial appeal to consumers will ...

  2. Testing of sawdust-wax firelogs in an open fireplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, J.

    1992-01-01

    A total of 14 emissions tests of sawdust-wax firelogs were conducted in an open fireplace. Twelve tests used a cold-to-cold test cycle (i.e., they included the initial light-up and final charcoal phases which are not included in certification tests for wood stoves). Of these 12 tests, half were with wood and half with firelogs. Firelogs were equivalent to or better than wood in all measured parameters except heat output rate, Specifically, the firelogs had lower PM and CO emission rates by about 66 and 78 percent, respectively, had lower creosote accumulation per hour by about 66 percent, had lower opacity, and had comparable efficiency despite a lower burn rate. The heat output rate from the wood fires rose faster and peaked earlier, but the average heat output for the main load (2 hours) phases was about the same (about 6000 to 7000 BTU/hr) for the large size firelogs. Opacity was measured continuously and never exceeded the limits of 20 and 40 percent in the Washington State 1988 woodburning emissions regulation. All these results are based on using the firelogs as their instructions specify - namely using one log at a time and starting it with a match in a room temperature fireplace

  3. Physico-chemical properties and efficacy of silk fibroin fabric coated with different waxes as wound dressing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanokpanont, Sorada; Damrongsakkul, Siriporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Aramwit, Pornanong

    2013-04-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) has been widely used as a wound dressing material due to its suitable physical and biological characteristics. In this study, a non-adhesive wound dressing which applies to cover the wound surface as an absorbent pad that would absorb wound fluid while accelerate wound healing was developed. The modification of SF fabrics by wax coating was purposed to prepare the non-adhesive wound dressing that is required in order to minimize pain and risk of repeated injury. SF woven fabrics were coated with different types of waxes including shellac wax, beeswax, or carnauba wax. Physical and mechanical properties of the wax-coated SF fabrics were characterized. It was clearly observed that all waxes could be successfully coated on the SF fabrics, possibly due to the hydrophobic interactions between hydrophobic domains of SF and waxes. The wax coating improved tensile modulus and percentage of elongation of the SF fabrics due to the denser structure and the thicker fibers coated. The in vitro degradation study demonstrated that all wax-coated SF fabrics remained up to 90% of their original weights after 7 weeks of incubation in lysozyme solution under physiological conditions. The wax coating did not affect the degradation behavior of the SF fabrics. A peel test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was carried out in the partial- and full-thickness wounds of porcine skin in comparison to that of the commercial wound dressing. Any wax-coated SF fabrics were less adhesive than the control, as confirmed by less number of cells attached and less adhesive force. This might be that the wax-coated SF fabrics showed the hydrophobic property, allowing the loosely adherence to the hydrophilic wound surface. In addition, the in vivo biocompatibility test of the wax-coated SF fabrics was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats with subcutaneous model. The irritation scores indicated that the carnauba wax-coated SF fabric was not irritant while the shellac wax or beeswax-coated SF

  4. Evaluation of four apicultural products for hive colonization by honey ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four apicultural products (honey, bee wax, slum gum and propolis) were evaluated for their potentials to attract the African honey bee (Apis mellifera adansonii) colony into artificial hives and their effect on infestation by apicultural insect pests. Ten grammes each of propolis, bee wax and slum gum and 10 ml of honey were ...

  5. Prediction of wax buildup in 24 inch cold, deep sea oil loading line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, R.G.; Sattler, R.E.; Tolonen, W.J.; Pitchford, A.C.

    1981-10-01

    When designing pipelines for cold environments, it is important to know how to predict potential problems due to wax deposition on the pipeline's inner surface. The goal of this work was to determine the rate of wax buildup and the maximum, equlibrium wax thickness for a North Sea field loading line. The experimental techniques and results used to evaluate the waxing potential of the crude oil (B) are described. Also, the theoretic model which was used for predicting the maximum wax deposit thickness in the crude oil (B) loading pipeline at controlled temperatures of 40 F (4.4 C) and 100 F (38 C), is illustrated. Included is a recommendation of a procedure for using hot oil at the end of a tanker loading period in order to dewax the crude oil (B) line. This technique would give maximum heating of the pipeline and should be followed by shutting the hot oil into the pipeline at the end of the loading cycle which will provide a hot oil soaking to help soften existing wax. 14 references.

  6. Problems in interpreting effects of air pollutants on spruce epicuticular waxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermadinger-Stabentheiner, E.

    1994-01-01

    Spruce needles are covered with rod-like crystals, which also fill the antechambers of the stomata with a dense meshwork. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) is very useful for studying epicuticular wax structure; with no intricate or laborious preparation, it is possible to obtain valuable information about the needle surface. Because the epicuticular wax layer forms a barrier between the plant and its environment, all influences that reach the surface from outside impact on this layer and, therefore, changes in epicuticular wax structure serve as diagnostic criteria for damage caused by air pollutants. This pollution influence begins as fusion of wax rods at the tips and results finally in total loss of the crystalline structure. Despite the simplicity of SEM investigations, alterations (artefacts) can occur to wax structures that may be confused with alterations caused by air pollutants (i.e., a too dense layer of twigs and needles, or careless handling with tweezers, results in mechanical damage that often influences the entire surface). Overheating occurring during transport or preparation and/or incorrect storage also produce artefacts. If the occurrence of such artefacts is taken into consideration, several contradictory interpretations of effects of air pollutants on epicuticular waxes can be explained. (orig.)

  7. QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS METHOD OF DETECTION OF WAX CONTENT IN GORENGAN USING SMARTPHONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Yulia

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wax is one of the compounds that can be misused to be added to Gorengan, Indonesian fritter, to keep them crispy. Gorengan containing wax is difficult to identify visually, so a quick and easy method of detecting wax content is required. The purpose of this research is to develop and evaluate the analytical performance of detecting wax content in gorengan using smartphone. Gorengan sample was dissolved with hexane and then added reagent that will give discoloration followed by analysis using smartphone. Some analysis performance parameters were evaluated in terms of linearity and detection limit, qualitative analysis capability, precision, and selectivity test. The developed method was also applied in some gorengan samples. The result shows that the detection of wax content in gorengan can be conducted by using reagent consisting of NaOH, Schift, and curcumin (1 : 2 : 2. Performance analysis shows that the linearity measurement at concentration between 10% and 25% has correlation coefficient (r of 0.9537 with detection limit at concentration of 2% and precision (%RSD less than 3%. The developed method can be applied for the detection of wax content in gorengan in the market.

  8. Epicuticular waxes from caatinga and cerrado species and their efficiency against water loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Antonio F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the contents and chemical composition of the foliar epicuticular waxes of species from the caatinga (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Capparis yco, Maytenus rigida and Ziziphus joazeiro and cerrado (Aristolochia esperanzae, Didymopanax vinosum, Strychnos pseudoquina and Tocoyena formosa were evaluated as to the resistance to water loss by means of an experimental device constructed for this purpose. In general, the waxes of the caatinga species investigated were more efficient against water loss than cerrado species. Increase of the thickness of the waxy deposits from 40 to 90m g.cm-2 had no significant effect on the resistance to water loss. The chemistry of the wax constituents was shown to be an important factor to determine the degree of resistance to evaporation. n-Alkanes and alcoholic triterpenes were the most efficient barriers, while hentriacontan-16-one (a ketone and ursolic acid (an acid triterpene revealed lowefficiency. The higher efficiency of the waxes of the leaves from caatinga species (mainly those of C. yco and Z. joazeiro is probably accounted for the predominance of n-alkanes in their composition. The lower efficiency of the waxes of A. pyrifolium (caatinga, T. formosa and A. esperanzae (both species from the cerrado is probably a consequence of the predominance of triterpenoids in the waxes of the two former species and hentriacontan-16-one in the latter.

  9. Electrochemical behaviors of wax-coated Li powder/Li 4Ti 5O 12 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han Eol; Seong, Il Won; Yoon, Woo Young

    The wax-coated Li powder specimen was effectively synthesized using the drop emulsion technique (DET). The wax layer on the powder was verified by SEM, Focused Ion Beam (FIB), EDX and XPS. The porosity of a sintered wax-coated Li electrode was measured by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and compared with that of a bare, i.e., un-coated Li electrode. The electrochemical behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode cell was examined by the impedance analysis and cyclic testing methods. The cyclic behavior of the wax-coated Li powder anode with the Li 4Ti 5O 12 (LTO) cathode cell was examined at a constant current density of 0.35 mA cm -2 with the cut-off voltages of 1.2-2.0 V at 25 °C. Over 90% of the initial capacity of the cell remained even after the 300th cycle. The wax-coated Li powder was confirmed to be a stable anode material.

  10. The use of paraffin wax in a new solar cooker with inner and outer reflectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabacigil Bihter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the potential use and effectiveness of paraffin wax in a new solar cooker was experimentally investigated during daylight and late evening hours. For these experiments, a cooker having an inner reflecting surface was designed, constructed by filling paraffin wax and metal shavings. The side- and sub-surface temperatures of the paraffin wax in the cooker are measured in the summer months of June and July. The thermal efficiency of the cooker was tested on different conditions. The results show that the optimum angle of the outer reflector is 30°. Here, the peak temperature of the paraffin wax in the solar cooker was 83.4 °C. The average solar radiation reflected makes a contribution of 9.26% to the temperature of paraffin wax with the outer reflector. The solar cooker with the outer reflector angle of 30° receives also reflected radiation from the inner reflectors. Besides, the heating time is decreased to approximately 1 hour. The designed solar cooker can be effectively used with 30.3% daily thermal efficiency and paraffin wax due to the amount of energy stored.

  11. Wax encapsulation of water-soluble compounds for application in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, M; Van Benthum, W A J; Boer, B; Von Harras, J; Visser, A

    2006-11-01

    Water-soluble ingredients have been successfully encapsulated in wax using two preparation techniques. The first technique ('solid preparation') leads to relatively large wax particles. The second technique ('liquid preparation') leads to relatively small wax particles immersed in vegetable oil. On the first technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (dissolved at low concentration in water) has been achieved making use of beeswax and PGPR. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 2 mm, is about 30% after 16 weeks storage in water at room temperature. To form such capsules a minimum wax mass of 40% relative to the total mass is needed. High amounts of salt or acids at the inside water phase causes more leaking, probably because of the osmotic pressure difference. Osmotic matching of inner and outer phase can lead to a dramatic reduction in leakage. Fat capsules are less suitable to incorporate water soluble colourants. The reason for this could be a difference in crystal structure (fat is less ductile and more brittle). On the second technique: stable encapsulation of water-soluble colourants (encapsulated in solid wax particles) has been achieved making use of carnauba wax. The leakage from the capsules, for instance of size 250 mm, is about 40% after 1 weeks storage in water at room temperature.

  12. Waxes and plastic film in relation to the shelf life of yellow passion fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Wagner Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The high perishability of the yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa reduces its postharvest conservation and availability, mainly for in natura consumption. These losses of quality and commercial value occur due to the high respiration and loss of water. This work aimed to evaluate the influence of a modified atmosphere - wax emulsions and plastic film - on the shelf life of the yellow passion fruit. Plastic film (Cryovac D-955, 15 mum thickness reduced fresh weight loss and fruit wilting, kept higher fruit and rind weight and higher pulp osmotic potential over the storage period. However, it was not efficient in the control of rottenness. Sparcitrus wax (22-23% polyethylene/maleyc resin caused injury to the fruit, high fruit weight losses and wilting and resulted in lower pulp osmotic potential; this wax lead to a higher concentration of acid and a lower relation of soluble solids/acidity. Among the tested waxes, Fruit Wax (18-21% carnauba wax was the best, promoting reduced weight loss, wilting and rottenness.

  13. Effects of Wax Coating on the Moisture Loss of Cucumbers at Different Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wax coating on moisture loss of cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L., cv. Jinglv were investigated at different temperatures. Cucumbers were treated with 10% (volume : volume wax and then stored at 15, 20, 25, or 30°C and 55% relative humidity. The changes in the mass of samples were recorded every 6 h. Results showed that wax coating along with low temperature was very effective in preventing moisture loss of cucumbers during simulated distribution. After 48 h storage, moisture loss in wax treated cucumbers at 15°C was 45% lower than the control at 30°C. Furthermore, a kinetic model was developed to study the influence of temperature on moisture loss based on the Arrhenius law. The model successfully described changes in cucumber moisture loss at different temperatures during storage. The shelf life of cucumber was also predicted using the kinetic model. A synergistic effect was found between wax coating and storage temperature on cucumber shelf life. Wax coating combined with low storage temperature was an effective method to extend the shelf life of cucumber fruit.

  14. Electrically conductive carbon nanofiber/paraffin wax composites for electric thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kun; Han Baoguo; Yu Xun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon nanofiber (CNF)/paraffin wax composite is found to be a promising electric thermal storage material. ► The thermal storage capacity of CNF/paraffin wax composite is five times of traditional electric thermal storage material. ► CNF is shown to be an effective conductive filler for the composite. - Abstract: The research of electric thermal storage (ETS) has attracted a lot of attention recently, which converts off-peak electrical energy into thermal energy and release it later at peak hours. In this study, new electric thermal storage composites are developed by employing paraffin wax as thermal storage media and carbon nanofiber (CNF) as conductive fillers. Electric heating and thermal energy release performances of the CNF/paraffin wax composites are experimentally investigated. Experimental results show that, when the composites are heated to about 70 °C, the developed electrically conductive CNF/paraffin wax composites present a thermal storage capacity of about 280 kJ/kg, which is five times of that of traditional thermal storage medium such as ceramic bricks (54 kJ/kg). The CNF/paraffin wax composites can also effectively store the thermal energy and release the thermal energy in later hours.

  15. Estimating productivity with multi-product firms, pricing heterogeneity and the role of international trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smeets, Valerie Anne Rolande; Warzynski, Frederic Michel Patrick

    In this paper, we analyze the relationship between exports, imports and firm productivity. We use a rich product-firm-level dataset providing both revenue and quantities of all products for a large panel of Danish manufacturing firms over the period 1998-2008 and link it to firms’ international...

  16. Carnauba wax p-methoxycinnamic diesters: Characterisation, antioxidant activity and simulated gastrointestinal digestion followed by in vitro bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Claisa Andréa Silva; Vieira, Ícaro Gusmão Pinto; Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; Muniz, Celli Rodrigues; Gonzaga, Maria Leônia da Costa; Guedes, Maria Izabel Florindo

    2016-04-01

    The beneficial biological effects of cinnamic acid derivatives and the lack of studies on the antioxidant activity and bioavailability of cinnamic esters from carnauba wax, diesters were extracted from carnauba wax powder. Their structural, physical and morphological characteristics, antioxidant activity and in vitro bioaccessibility were measured. p-Methoxycinnamic diester (PCO-C) was identified, which has a crystalline, apolar structure and exhibited significant antioxidant activity (107.27 ± 3.92 μM Trolox/g of dry weight) before and after simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion and 32.46% bioaccessibility. In human cells, PCO-C (250 μg/mL) inhibited the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, with an effect similar to that of Trolox (80 μM). Thermogravimetric analysis showed that PCO-C had high thermal stability and high UV absorption between 250 and 350 nm. These results indicate that this compound is promising as an antioxidant for pharmaceutical and food industry applications, such as the development of active packaging and functional foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition of the epicuticular and intracuticular wax layers on Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Hamet et Perr. de la Bathie) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Maarseveen, Clare; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-05-01

    Epicuticular and intracuticular waxes from both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the leaves of Kalanchoe daigremontiana were analyzed. All wax mixtures were found to contain approximately equal amounts of triterpenoids and very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives. The triterpenoid fraction consisted of glutinol (8-19% of the total wax) and friedelin (4-9%), together with smaller amounts of glutanol, glutinol acetate, epifriedelanol, germanicol and beta-amyrin. The VLCFA derivatives comprised C27-C35 alkanes (19-37% of the total wax), C32-C34 aldehydes (3-7%), C32 and C34 fatty acids (0.2-3%), C26-C36 primary alcohols (4-8%), and C42-C52 alkyl esters (2-9%). The wax layers were found to differ in triterpenoid amounts, with the intracuticular wax containing higher percentages of most triterpenoids than the epicuticular wax. Friedelin, the only triterpenoid ketone present, showed the opposite distribution with higher proportions in the epicuticular wax. VLCFA derivatives also accumulated to higher percentages in the epicuticular than in the intracuticular wax layer. Epicuticular wax crystals were observed on both the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces.

  18. International Production Networks: The Role of East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Gamilovna Mazitova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a concept of international production integration which considers international production networks (IPNs as multi-dimensional structures with relational links and consisting of chains (goods, value creation, etc., characterized by linear connections. Formation and functioning of IPNs are subject to economies of scale and are well described by the theory of fragmentation. When analyzing the functioning of IPNs considerable attention needs to be devoted to the relative composition of trade flows they generate with respect to inter- and intra-industry trade. The authors classify production networks by their spatial scale into two types: regional and global. Then the researchers verify the hypothesis that the majority of East Asian IPNs are global. This hypothesis is confirmed using the analysis of foreign trade and investment flows. The analysis of foreign trade statistics of individual countries (China, Cambodia and Vietnam and certain industries (textiles, clothing and leather using the regional trade intensity index (RTII shows that the prevailing part of IPNs in mentioned countries as well as in selected sectors are global IPNs, that is, the hypothesis is fully confirmed. At the same time RTII dynamics demonstrates that a growing number of China's IPNs are turning towards the global type; on the contrary, a growing number of Cambodia's IPNs are transforming to the regional type; and there are two opposite trends in Vietnam: a growing number of IPNs in textiles, clothing and leather goods are tend towards the regional type but when considering the industry as a whole a growing number of IPNs are becoming global. The majority of East Asian IPNs in textiles, clothing and leather goods are global due to the fact that these networks are controlled by global brands (mainly of European and American origin

  19. Wax on, wax off

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bos, Nicky Peter Maria; Grinsted, Lena; Holman, Luke

    2011-01-01

    of a waxy layer of colony-specific hydrocarbons on the body surface. Genetic and environmental differences between colony members may confound recognition and social cohesion, so many species perform behaviors that homogenize the odor label, such as mouth-to-mouth feeding and allogrooming. Here, we test....... We also found evidence that olfactory cues on the nest soil influence nestmate recognition, but this effect was not observed in all colonies. These results demonstrate that cuticular hydrocarbons deposited on the nest soil are important in creating uniformity in the odor label and may also contribute...

  20. [Using ecology thinking reconstructing traditional agronomy: role of production ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song-Liang

    2012-08-01

    Traditional agronomy, as a discipline or specialty, is originated from the reductionism thinking of neoteric experimental sciences and motivated by the great success of industrialized revolution, but loses the ensemble grasp of the relationships between agricultural organisms and their resources and environment, i.e., agroecosystem mechanism. Moreover, due to the excessively relying on exogenous fossil energy input and the monoculture with a few highly productive crop cultivars, the agricultural interior sustainability has unceasingly lost, making our mankind facing the double crises of grain security and food safety. Therefore, it is imperative to reconstruct the traditional agronomy and its educational system. In this paper, the author proposed to link traditional agronomy with ecology, establishing agroecology as the core subject and agroecosystem management as the core applied system, and in particular, establishing 'production ecology' to fill up the wide gap between the crop cultivation and farming system and the crop genetics and breeding, the two second grade disciplines under agronomy. Ideologically and methodologically, this proposal could provide disciplinary, scientific, and educational bases to authentically implement the strategy of sustainable development of agriculture.

  1. The role of stamens in ethylene production in Ipomoea nil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, H.G.

    1989-01-01

    Ethylene production inhibits filament and corolla growth during young stages in flower development, and it promotes corolla unfolding and senescence in Ipomoea nil. Initial studies with the in vitro application of gibberellic acid (GA 3 ), demonstrated that decreased filament growth occurred when the anthers remained attached to the filaments during the young stages in development. The removal of the anthers from intact plants did not enhance filament growth until the synthesis of wound ethylene was inhibited by applied aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or cobalt chloride. It was hypothesized that the anthers were source tissues and that the filaments were transport vectors for the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to regulate growth events in the various floral organs. To test this hypothesis, endogenous IAA and ACC and ethylene production were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or gas chromatography. The transport of 14 C-IAA and 14 C-ACC through filament segments and filaments within intact flower buds also was examined during flower development

  2. MANAGING JOINT PRODUCTION MOTIVATION : THE ROLE OF GOAL FRAMING AND GOVERNANCE MECHANISMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, Siegwart; Foss, Nicolai J.

    We contribute to the microfoundations of organizational performance by proffering the construct of joint production motivation. Under such motivational conditions individuals see themselves as part of a joint endeavor, each with his or her own roles and responsibilities; generate shared

  3. Analysis of the role of strategic products in sustainable rural livelihoods (Case study: saffron production in the Roshtkhar rural district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Asghari Lafmejani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Saffron is the most expensive agricultural and pharmaceutical product in the world. It is significant for several reasons such as having high water productivity compared to other crops. It is providing rural employment and preventing their migration, having high medicinal and spice values, ease of maintenance and transportation. Most importantly, it is producing a high revenue compared to other agricultural products. On this basis, due to the suitability of some parts of Iran to saffron production and the role of this product in the livelihood of rural households, assessment of the sustenance impacts of saffron production in the active villages seems absolutely necessary. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to assess the status of saffron production and its role in the livelihood of rural households of the Roshtkhar Rural District. This research was done based on a descriptive-analytic approach. In this regard, the role of saffron cultivation in 355 households living in 13 villages with over 100 households in the study rural district was investigated. To this goal, after conducting documentary studies and initial field visits, a wide range of measures proportional to the circumstances of the study villages were adopted. Then, data collection was performed based on the selected indices and questionnaires were distributed to be filled by villagers and households... To analyze the data, the relevant statistical and spatial analyses were done through the application of Expert choice, SPSS, and ArcGIS software packages. The research findings indicated that the annual revenues derived from saffron production in 43.9% of the households under study were more than they obtained from other sources of income. Through the analysis of the study data, it can be concluded that saffron production has a significant effect on the improvement of the residents’ livelihood in the Roshtkhar Rural District and this fact has reinforced the households

  4. The Role of Extrinsic Product Cues in Consumers’ Preferences and Purchase Intentions: Mediating and Moderating Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aayed Qasem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to investigate the roles of several information-cues setting on consumers' purchase intention by highlighting the intervening roles of brand preferences and the moderating roles of social factors. This study was conducted in Yemen, as a representative of consumers from less-developed countries. A multistage cluster-sampling was employed. A total of 600 questionnaires were distributed. This study found that in high-involvement products, consumers used three-way extrinsic cues interaction as indicators for brand quality. This suggests that there is an intervening role of brand preferences which enhances the purchase intention according to consumers' roles and status.

  5. A comparative evaluation of the marginal adaptation of a thermoplastic resin, a light cured wax and an inlay casting wax on stone dies: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji P Gopalan

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The marginal adaptation of all the three materials used, was well within the acceptable range of 25–70 μm. The resin pattern materials studied revealed significantly less dimensional change than inlay casting wax on storage at 1, 12, and 24 h time intervals. They may be employed in situations where high precision and delayed investing is expected.

  6. Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Activation and Handling Through Wax Enclosure Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klettlinger, Jennifer L. S.; Yen, Chia H.; Nakley, Leah M.; Surgenor, Angela D.

    2016-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis is considered a gas to liquid process which converts syn-gas, a gaseous mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, into liquids of various hydrocarbon chain length and product distributions. Cobalt based catalysts are used in F-T synthesis and are the focus of this paper. One key concern with handling cobalt based catalysts is that the active form of catalyst is in a reduced state, metallic cobalt, which oxidizes readily in air. In laboratory experiments, the precursor cobalt oxide catalyst is activated in a fixed bed at 350 ?C then transferred into a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with inert gas. NASA has developed a process which involves the enclosure of active cobalt catalyst in a wax mold to prevent oxidation during storage and handling. This improved method allows for precise catalyst loading and delivery into a CSTR. Preliminary results indicate similar activity levels in the F-T reaction in comparison to the direct injection method. The work in this paper was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  7. Comparison the Marginal and Internal Fit of Metal Copings Cast from Wax Patterns Fabricated by CAD/CAM and Conventional Wax up Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, M; Torabi, K; Farjood, E; Khaledi, AAR

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Metal-ceramic crowns are most commonly used as the complete coverage restorations in clinical daily use. Disadvantages of conventional hand-made wax-patterns introduce some alternative ways by means of CAD/CAM technologies. Purpose: This study compares the marginal and internal fit of copings cast from CAD/CAM and conventional fabricated wax-patterns. Materials and Method: Twenty-four standardized brass dies were prepared and randomly divided into 2 groups according to the wax-patterns fabrication method (CAD/CAM technique and conventional method) (n=12). All the wax-patterns were fabricated in a standard fashion by means of contour, thickness and internal relief (M1-M12: representative of CAD/CAM group, C1-C12: representative of conventional group). CAD/CAM milling machine (Cori TEC 340i; imes-icore GmbH, Eiterfeld, Germany) was used to fabricate the CAD/CAM group wax-patterns. The copings cast from 24 wax-patterns were cemented to the corresponding dies. For all the coping-die assemblies cross-sectional technique was used to evaluate the marginal and internal fit at 15 points. The Student’s t- test was used for statistical analysis (α=0.05). Results: The overall mean (SD) for absolute marginal discrepancy (AMD) was 254.46 (25.10) um for CAD/CAM group and 88.08(10.67) um for conventional group (control). The overall mean of internal gap total (IGT) was 110.77(5.92) um for CAD/CAM group and 76.90 (10.17) um for conventional group. The Student’s t-test revealed significant differences between 2 groups. Marginal and internal gaps were found to be significantly higher at all measured areas in CAD/CAM group than conventional group (pmarginal and internal fit than CAD/CAM (machine-milled) technique. All the factors for 2 groups were standardized except wax pattern fabrication technique, therefore, only the conventional group results in copings with clinically acceptable margins of less than 120um. PMID:24724133

  8. Social role conflict predicts stimulated cytokine production among men, not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Hoffer, Lauren C; Chen, Edith

    2016-11-01

    To assess whether perceived role conflict is associated with stimulated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and glucocorticoid sensitivity, and whether these associations are moderated by sex. 153 healthy adults (aged 45.8±5.5years, 78% female) listed their 3 main social roles and indicated the amount of role conflict they perceived between each pair of social roles. Subsequently, participants underwent blood draws and leukocyte response to microbial challenge and glucocorticoid sensitivity were assessed by incubating whole blood with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of hydrocortisone. Stimulated levels of Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) were measured. Multiple regression analyses controlling for sociodemographics revealed significant sex×role conflict interactions for LPS-stimulated production of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα (all interaction psrole conflict was associated with greater pro-inflammatory cytokine production in response to microbial stimulation only among men, not women. There also were significant sex×role conflict interactions with respect to glucocorticoid sensitivity for IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα production (all interaction psrole conflict was unrelated to glucocorticoid sensitivity among women, but associated with less sensitivity to glucocorticoid signaling among men. Perceived social role conflict, indicating greater perceived demand across multiple social roles, may take a greater toll on the regulation of inflammatory processes among men compared to women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Role of L2 Learner Goal Differences in Task-Generated Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Maad, Mohamed Ridha

    2016-01-01

    In light of the growing interest in the cognitive approach to task in second language (L2) research, comparatively little has been done to examine such effect over time and the role of individual differences (IDs). The present study was designed to verify some longitudinal evidence for the role of tasks in L2 production and whether IDs, in the…

  10. 100% ♥ Indonesia: Role of Government Campaign to Promote Local Products in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Salehudin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the role of government buy-local campaign to increase consumer willingness to purchase local products in Indonesia. This paper also aims to identify relevant mediating variables between exposure to “buy local” campaign and willingness to purchase local products. This research use questionnaire data from 394 respondents selected using purposive sampling method. Product specific constructs are asked and analyzed separately in four different product categories (e.g. Produce, Leather, Culinary and Creative products. Data was analyzed using Structural Equation Model and compared further between product categories. The study found that exposure to the buy local promotion campaign does increase consumer ethnocentrism, attitude toward the campaign and toward domestic products. Consumer ethnocentrism does increase attitude toward domestic product and willingness to purchase local products.

  11. Numerical performance study of paraffin wax dispersed with alumina in a concentric pipe latent heat storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valan Arasu Amirtham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat energy storage systems using paraffin wax could have lower heat transfer rates during melting/freezing processes due to its inherent low thermal conductivity. The thermal conductivity of paraffin wax can be enhanced by employing high conductivity materials such as alumina (Al2O3. A numerical analysis has been carried out to study the performance enhancement of paraffin wax with nanoalumina (Al2O3 particles in comparison with simple paraffin wax in a concentric double pipe heat exchanger. Numerical analysis indicates that the charge-discharge rates of thermal energy can be greatly enhanced using paraffin wax with alumina as compared with a simple paraffin wax as PCM.

  12. The role of micronutrients in crop production and human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imtiaz, M.; Rashid, A.

    2010-01-01

    The soils in Pakistan across 22 Mha cultivated area are predominantly alluvial and loessal, alkaline in pH, calcareous and low in organic matter. These factors are mainly responsible for nutrient fixation in soil and low availability to plants. Zinc (Zn) deficiency in Pakistan was the first micro nutrient disorder recognised in early 1970s as a cause of hadda disease in rice. After identification of Zn deficiency, extensive research has been carried out during last four decades on micro nutrient deficiencies in soils and their drastic effects on crops. Subsequently, field-scale deficiencies of zinc (Zn) boron (B) and iron (Fe) have been established in many field and horticultural crops. The most widespread deficiency is of Zn as 70 % of the soils of Pakistan are Zn deficient and observed in rice, wheat, cotton, maize, sunflower, sugarcane, brassica, potato and in many other crops along with citrus and deciduous fruits. Boron deficiency is another major nutritional disorder which severely affects rice, cotton, wheat, sugarbeet, peanut, citrus and deciduous fruits. The third field-scale disorder is Fe chlorosis which has been exhibited in peanut, chickpea, cotton, citrus, ornamentals and many tree species. Copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) deficiencies are of localized occurrence. The mineral elements like Zn, Fe and Cu are as crucial for human health as organic compounds such as carbohydrates, fats, protein and vitamins. The daily dietary intake of young adult ranges from 10-60 mg for Fe, 2-3 mg for Cu and 15 mg for Zn. Intake less than these values can cause slow physiological processes. These micronutrients deficiencies in soil are not only hampering the crop productivity but also are deteriorating produce quality. High consumption of cereal based foods with low contents of micronutrients is causing health hazards in humans. The contents of micronutrients in food can be elevated either by supplementation, fortification or by agricultural strategies i.e., bio

  13. Review of the Factors that Influence the Condition of Wax Deposition in Subsea Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh Junyi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When crude oil is transported via sub-sea pipeline, the temperature of the pipeline decreases at a deep depth which causes a difference in temperature with the crude oil inside. This causes the crude oil to dissipate its heat to the surrounding until thermal equilibrium is achieved. This is also known as the cloud point where wax begins to precipitate and solidifies at the walls of the pipeline which obstruct the flow of fluid. The main objective of this review is to quantify the factors that influence wax deposition such as temperature difference between the wall of the pipeline and the fluid flowing within, the flow rate of the fluid in the pipeline and residence time of the fluid in the pipeline. It is found the main factor that causes wax deposition in the pipeline is the difference in temperature between the petroleum pipeline and the fluid flowing within. Most Literature deduces that decreasing temperature difference results in lower wax content deposited on the wall of the pipeline. The wax content increases with rising flow rate. As for the residence time, the amount of deposited wax initially increases when residence time increases until it reaches a peak value and gradually decreases. Flow-loop system and cold finger apparatus were used in literature investigations to determine the trends above. Three new models are generated through a regression analysis based on the results from other authors. These new models form a relationship between temperature difference, flow rate, residence time and Reynolds number with wax deposition. These models have high values of R-square and adjusted R-square which demonstrate the reliability of these models.

  14. Anatomically realistic ultrasound phantoms using gel wax with 3D printed moulds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maneas, Efthymios; Xia, Wenfeng; Nikitichev, Daniil I.; Daher, Batol; Manimaran, Maniragav; Wong, Rui Yen J.; Chang, Chia-Wei; Rahmani, Benyamin; Capelli, Claudio; Schievano, Silvia; Burriesci, Gaetano; Ourselin, Sebastien; David, Anna L.; Finlay, Malcolm C.; West, Simeon J.; Vercauteren, Tom; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2018-01-01

    Here we describe methods for creating tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantoms based on patient anatomy using a soft material called gel wax. To recreate acoustically realistic tissue properties, two additives to gel wax were considered: paraffin wax to increase acoustic attenuation, and solid glass spheres to increase backscattering. The frequency dependence of ultrasound attenuation was well described with a power law over the measured range of 3-10 MHz. With the addition of paraffin wax in concentrations of 0 to 8 w/w%, attenuation varied from 0.72 to 2.91 dB cm-1 at 3 MHz and from 6.84 to 26.63 dB cm-1 at 10 MHz. With solid glass sphere concentrations in the range of 0.025-0.9 w/w%, acoustic backscattering consistent with a wide range of ultrasonic appearances was achieved. Native gel wax maintained its integrity during compressive deformations up to 60%; its Young’s modulus was 17.4  ±  1.4 kPa. The gel wax with additives was shaped by melting and pouring it into 3D printed moulds. Three different phantoms were constructed: a nerve and vessel phantom for peripheral nerve blocks, a heart atrium phantom, and a placental phantom for minimally-invasive fetal interventions. In the first, nerves and vessels were represented as hyperechoic and hypoechoic tubular structures, respectively, in a homogeneous background. The second phantom comprised atria derived from an MRI scan of a patient with an intervening septum and adjoining vena cavae. The third comprised the chorionic surface of a placenta with superficial fetal vessels derived from an image of a post-partum human placenta. Gel wax is a material with widely tuneable ultrasound properties and mechanical characteristics that are well suited for creating patient-specific ultrasound phantoms in several clinical disciplines.

  15. Role of fission product in whole core accidents: research in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.F.; Deitrich, L.W.

    1977-01-01

    The techniques being developed in the United States for analyzing postulated whole-core accidents in LMFBRs are briefly reviewed. The key mechanistic analysis methods are discussed in detail. Important research projects in the area of fission product effects are examined. Some typical results on the role of fission products in whole-core accidents are presented

  16. Understanding the Role of Neuroscience in Brain Based Products: A Guide for Educators and Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvan, Lesley J.; Christodoulou, Joanna A.

    2010-01-01

    The term "brain" based is often used to describe learning theories, principles, and products. Although there have been calls urging educators to be cautious in interpreting and using such material, consumers may find it challenging to understand the role of the brain and to discriminate among brain based products to determine which would be…

  17. Biodiversity: role of non-timber forest products in food security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-timber forest products (NTFPS) are biological materials from the ecosystem which range from plants, parts of plants, fungi, animals and animal products that are consumed either as food, condiments, spices or medicine. NTFPS have been identified to play an important role in providing primary health and nutritional ...

  18. Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R. K.; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared...

  19. Moderating Role of Product Involvement on the Relationship Between Brand Personality and Brand Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    SUDDIN LADA; SAMSINAR MD. SIDIN; KENNY TEOH GUAN CHENG

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from observations by consumer behavior theorists and product involvement studies, the present study seeks to investigate the moderating role of product involvement on the relationship between brand personality and brand loyalty. A total of 958 respondents participated in this study. They completed a 14-items questionnaire to measure product involvement, and a 32-items and 16-items questionnaire to measure brand personality and brand loyalty respectively. Results suggest that the effec...

  20. Effect of high dose SO2 and ethylene exposure on the structure of epicuticular wax of picea pungens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrie, J.; Berg, V.

    1994-01-01

    Conifers in polluted air generally exhibit accelerated degradation of epicuticular wax, but it is not clear whether the change is due to direct exposure to the pollutant or some other mechanism. Needles from blue spruce (Picea pungens) were exposed to sulfur dioxide or ethylene gas at 0 to 10,000 microliters per liter for 2 to 196 h; samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Neither gas caused changes in the wax crystals, although late in the growing season a fungal infestation was associated with degradation of wax structures. This supports hypotheses explaining accelerated epicuticular wax degradation by indirect effects of exposure to air pollutants. (orig.)

  1. Expanded cellular clones carrying replication-competent HIV-1 persist, wax, and wane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Gurule, Evelyn E; Brennan, Timothy P; Gerold, Jeffrey M; Kwon, Kyungyoon J; Hosmane, Nina N; Kumar, Mithra R; Beg, Subul A; Capoferri, Adam A; Ray, Stuart C; Ho, Ya-Chi; Hill, Alison L; Siliciano, Janet D; Siliciano, Robert F

    2018-03-13

    The latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4 + T cells is a major barrier to cure. Several lines of evidence suggest that the latent reservoir is maintained through cellular proliferation. Analysis of this proliferative process is complicated by the fact that most infected cells carry defective proviruses. Additional complications are that stimuli that drive T cell proliferation can also induce virus production from latently infected cells and productively infected cells have a short in vivo half-life. In this ex vivo study, we show that latently infected cells containing replication-competent HIV-1 can proliferate in response to T cell receptor agonists or cytokines that are known to induce homeostatic proliferation and that this can occur without virus production. Some cells that have proliferated in response to these stimuli can survive for 7 d while retaining the ability to produce virus. This finding supports the hypothesis that both antigen-driven and cytokine-induced proliferation may contribute to the stability of the latent reservoir. Sequencing of replication-competent proviruses isolated from patients at different time points confirmed the presence of expanded clones and demonstrated that while some clones harboring replication-competent virus persist longitudinally on a scale of years, others wax and wane. A similar pattern is observed in longitudinal sampling of residual viremia in patients. The observed patterns are not consistent with a continuous, cell-autonomous, proliferative process related to the HIV-1 integration site. The fact that the latent reservoir can be maintained, in part, by cellular proliferation without viral reactivation poses challenges to cure.

  2. Roles Prioritization of Hydrogen Production Technologies for Promoting Hydrogen Economy in the Current State of China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Gao, Suzhao; Tan, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen production technologies play an important role in the hydrogen economy of China. However, the roles of different technologies played in promoting the development of hydrogen economy are different. The role prioritization of various hydrogen production technologies is of vital importance...... information. The prioritization results by using the proposed method demonstrated that the technologies of coal gasification with CO2 capture and storage and hydropower-based water electrolysis were regarded as the two most important hydrogen production pathways for promoting the development of hydrogen...... for the stakeholders/decision-makers to plan the development of hydrogen economy in China and to allocate the finite R&D budget reasonably. In this study, DPSIR framework was firstly used to identify the key factors concerning the priorities of various hydrogen production technologies; then, a fuzzy group decision...

  3. EFFECT OF OIL TEMPERATURE ON THE WAX DEPOSITION OF CRUDE OIL WITH COMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Quan

    Full Text Available Abstract Wax deposition behavior was investigated in a set of one-inch experiment flow loops, using a local crude oil with high wax content. The temperature of the oil phase is chosen as a variable parameter while the temperature of the coolant media is maintained constant. Detailed composition of the deposit is characterized using High Temperature Gas Chromatography. It was found that the magnitude of the diffusion of the heavier waxy components (C35-C50 decreases when the oil temperature decreases, but the magnitude of the diffusion of the lighter waxy components increases. This result means that the diffusion of wax molecules shifts towards lower carbon number, which further proves the concept of molecular diffusion. Meanwhile, a meaningful phenomenon is that the mass of the deposit increases with the oil temperature decrease, which definitely proves the influence of wax solubility on deposition, while the formation of an incipient gel layer reflects the fact that an increase in the mass of the deposit does not mean a larger wax percentage fraction at lower oil temperature.

  4. [Comparative adaptation of crowns of selective laser melting and wax-lost-casting method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-qiang; Shen, Qing-yi; Gao, Jian-hua; Wu, Xue-ying; Chen, Li; Dai, Wen-an

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) and wax-lost-casting method, so as to provide an experimental basis for clinic. Co-Cr alloy full crown were fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting for 24 samples in each group. All crowns were cemented with zinc phosphate cement and cut along longitudinal axis by line cutting machine. The gap between crown tissue surface and die was measured by 6-point measuring method with scanning electron microscope (SEM). The marginal adaptation of crowns fabricated by SLM and wax-lost-casting were compared statistically. The gap between SLM crowns were (36.51 ± 2.94), (49.36 ± 3.31), (56.48 ± 3.35), (42.20 ± 3.60) µm, and wax-lost-casting crowns were (68.86 ± 5.41), (58.86 ± 6.10), (70.62 ± 5.79), (69.90 ± 6.00) µm. There were significant difference between two groups (P casting method and SLM method provide acceptable marginal adaptation in clinic, and the marginal adaptation of SLM is better than that of wax-lost-casting method.

  5. Heat transfer enhancement in energy storage in spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax and metal beads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettouney, Hisham; Alatiqi, Imad; Al-Sahali, Mohammad; Al-Hajirie, Khalida

    2006-01-01

    Energy storage is an attractive option to conserve limited energy resources, where more than 50% of the generated industrial energy is discarded in cooling water and stack gases. This study focuses on the evaluation of heat transfer enhancement in phase change energy storage units. The experiments are performed using spherical capsules filled with paraffin wax and metal beads. The experiments are conducted by inserting a single spherical capsule filled with wax and metal beads in a stream of hot/cold air. Experimental measurements include the temperature field within the spherical capsule and in the air stream. To determine the enhancement effects of the metal beads, the measured data is correlated against those for a spherical capsule filled with pure wax. Data analysis shows a reduction of 15% in the melting and solidification times upon increasing the number and diameter of the metal beads. This reduction is caused by a similar decrease in the thermal load of the sphere due to replacement of the wax by metal beads. The small size of the spherical capsule limits the enhancement effects; this is evident upon comparison of the heat transfer in a larger size, double pipe energy storage unit, where 2% of the wax volume is replaced with metal inserts, result in a three fold reduction in the melting/solidification time and a similar enhancement in the heat transfer rate

  6. Benefits of mass customized products: moderating role of product involvement and fashion innovativeness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjung; Yoo, Jungmin

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to explore impacts and benefits of mass customized products on emotional product attachment, favorable attitudes toward a mass customization program, and the ongoing effect on loyalty intentions. This study further investigated how benefits, attachment, attitudes, and loyalty intentions differed as a function of involvement and fashion innovativeness. 290 female online shoppers in South Korea participated in an online survey. Results of this study revealed that perceived benefits positively influenced emotional product attachment and attitudes toward a mass customization program. In addition, attachment positively influenced attitudes, which in turn affected loyalty intentions. This study also found that benefits, attachment, attitudes, and loyalty intentions were all higher in highly involved consumers (high fashion innovators) than those in less involved consumers (low fashion innovators). This study concludes with theoretical and practical implications for mass customization programs.

  7. Benefits of mass customized products: moderating role of product involvement and fashion innovativeness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjung Park

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore impacts and benefits of mass customized products on emotional product attachment, favorable attitudes toward a mass customization program, and the ongoing effect on loyalty intentions. This study further investigated how benefits, attachment, attitudes, and loyalty intentions differed as a function of involvement and fashion innovativeness. 290 female online shoppers in South Korea participated in an online survey. Results of this study revealed that perceived benefits positively influenced emotional product attachment and attitudes toward a mass customization program. In addition, attachment positively influenced attitudes, which in turn affected loyalty intentions. This study also found that benefits, attachment, attitudes, and loyalty intentions were all higher in highly involved consumers (high fashion innovators than those in less involved consumers (low fashion innovators. This study concludes with theoretical and practical implications for mass customization programs.

  8. Importance And Role Of Competence In Professional Career Of Product Develop Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenović, Aleksandar; Banić, Milan; Miltenović, Vojislav

    2015-07-01

    Product development is a creative task where is systematically created a new product, which makes possible to firms to offer attractive, innovative and market oriented products. In conditions of fierce competition and saturated markets, companies that do not innovate are stagnating and disappear from the market. Innovation is therefore every intervention which can reduce production costs, enables optimum utilization of available human, energy and material resources, improve product quality, improve the placement, which leads to an increase in competitiveness. A prerequisite for fulfillment of the above-mentioned tasks is that the companies have engineers with the appropriate competencies, which are able to, through creativity, innovation and fascinating technique of creating new or improving existing products and lunch it on the market. The paper discusses the role and importance of the competences that are necessary for a successful professional career of product development engineers.

  9. Role of joined farmer groups in enhancing production and farmers income

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsyad, M.; Rahmadanih; Bulkis, S.; Hasnah; Sulili, A.; Darwis; Bustan, A.; Aswad, M.

    2018-05-01

    Production and farmers income still becomes a global issue in economic development. The study aims to (1) describe the implementation of the role of Joined farmer groups (called Gapoktan) in accordance its function and (2) to analyze the role of Gapoktan in increasing production and farming income. The study was conducted in Camba Sub District, Maros District, South Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2017 and choosing Aspana Gapoktan as Case Unit. Data collection is done by a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. Qualitative data were collected by Focus Group Discussions method, indepth interview and document study while quantitative data was collected through survey method on 60 farmers respondents. The results showed that, (1) Aspana Gapoktan has implemented a role related to its function as a business unit in the provision of production facilities and farming as well as marketing but has not implemented roles related to its function as a processing business unit, and saving and loan (2) Gapoktan role in increasing production and income of farming is facilitating procurement of farm inputs and agricultural production tools for farmers and developing various commodities in farming activities, especially horticultural crops. More than 44.00% of farmers perceived that their production increased about 10.00% - 25.00% and more than 68.00% of farmers perceived that their income increased by about 10.00% - 25.00% for the last three years. It is necessary to increase the role of Gapoktan through (1) the procurement of horticultural product processing industry and (2) doing savings and loan activities by utilizing 40.00% of funds managed by Gapoktan or through the formation of cooperatives under the management of Gapoktan.

  10. GC-MS Metabolomics to Evaluate the Composition of Plant Cuticular Waxes for Four Triticum aestivum Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent D. Lavergne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is an important food crop, and biotic and abiotic stresses significantly impact grain yield. Wheat leaf and stem surface waxes are associated with traits of biological importance, including stress resistance. Past studies have characterized the composition of wheat cuticular waxes, however protocols can be relatively low-throughput and narrow in the range of metabolites detected. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS metabolomics methods were utilized to provide a comprehensive characterization of the chemical composition of cuticular waxes in wheat leaves and stems. Further, waxes from four wheat cultivars were assayed to evaluate the potential for GC-MS metabolomics to describe wax composition attributed to differences in wheat genotype. A total of 263 putative compounds were detected and included 58 wax compounds that can be classified (e.g., alkanes and fatty acids. Many of the detected wax metabolites have known associations to important biological functions. Principal component analysis and ANOVA were used to evaluate metabolite distribution, which was attributed to both tissue type (leaf, stem and cultivar differences. Leaves contained more primary alcohols than stems such as 6-methylheptacosan-1-ol and octacosan-1-ol. The metabolite data were validated using scanning electron microscopy of epicuticular wax crystals which detected wax tubules and platelets. Conan was the only cultivar to display alcohol-associated platelet-shaped crystals on its abaxial leaf surface. Taken together, application of GC-MS metabolomics enabled the characterization of cuticular wax content in wheat tissues and provided relative quantitative comparisons among sample types, thus contributing to the understanding of wax composition associated with important phenotypic traits in a major crop.

  11. Cuticular waxes in alpine meadow plants: climate effect inferred from latitude gradient in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanjun; Guo, Na; He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua

    2015-09-01

    Alpine meadow ecosystems are susceptible to climate changes. Still, climate impact on cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants is poorly understood. Assessing the variations of cuticular wax in alpine meadow plants across different latitudes might be useful for predicting how they may respond to climate change. We studied nine alpine meadows in a climate gradient in the east side of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, with mean annual temperature ranging from -7.7 to 3.2°C. In total, 42 plant species were analyzed for cuticular wax, averaged 16 plant species in each meadow. Only four plant species could be observed in all sampling meadows, including Kobresia humilis,Potentilla nivea,Anaphalis lacteal, and Leontopodium nanum. The amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax in the four plant species varied among sampling meadows, but no significant correlation could be observed between them and temperature, precipitation, and aridity index based on plant species level. To analyze the variations of cuticular wax on community level, we averaged the amounts of n-alkanes, aliphatic acids, primary alcohols, and total cuticular wax across all investigated plant species in each sampling site. The mean annual temperature, mean temperature in July, and aridity index were significantly correlated with the averaged amounts of wax compositions and total cuticular wax. The average chain length of n-alkanes in both plant and soil linearly increased with increased temperature, whereas reduced with increased aridity index. No significant correlation could be observed between mean annual precipitation and mean precipitation from June to August and the cuticular wax amounts and average chain length. Our results suggest that the survival of some alpine plants in specific environments might be depended on their abilities in adjusting wax deposition on plant leaves, and the alpine meadow plants as a whole respond to climate change, benefiting the stability of alpine meadow ecosystem.

  12. Lost in Translation: Product Label Language and the Mediating Role of Authenticity on Purchase Intention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Traganou, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Should an exported product that is produced in a specific country keep the native language on its label or not? In this study, we explore how the role of native language of an origin-labelled product impacts consumer response. Based on an online experiment with consumers in the US (N=981) using...... as stimuli an olive oil product originating from Tunisia, our findings suggest that the presence of native language on a product’s label has a positive effect on product authenticity, which, in turn, increases purchase intention. However, this process is conditional on country of origin (COO) preferences...

  13. The role of metabolic engineering in the production of secondary metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1998-01-01

    In the production of secondary metabolites yield and productivity are the most important design parameters. The focus is therefore to direct the carbon fluxes towards the product of interest, and this can be obtained through metabolic engineering whereby directed genetic changes are introduced...... into the production strain. In this process it is, however, important to analyze the metabolic network through measurement of the intracellular metabolites and the flux distributions. Besides playing an important role in the optimization of existing processes, metabolic engineering also offers the possibility...

  14. Retained bone wax on CT at one year after dacryocystorhinostomy: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Dong Woo; Jeong, Jin Yeok; Lee, Jong Ah; Lee, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    A 71-year-old man with chronic rhinosinusitis presented with a purulent, foul-smelling nasal discharge and obstruction. One year earlier he had been treated with a dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. During the procedure, bone wax had been used to control bleeding in the anterior upper nasal cavity. On computed tomographic imaging, a fat-density lesion was seen in the anterior upper sinonasal cavity and was found to be hypointense or signal-void on all magnetic resonance imaging sequences. The lesion, which proved to consist of bone wax, was surgically removed. Here, we present the imaging features of retained bone wax in a patient with clinically diagnosed chronic rhinosinusitis after dacryocystorhinostomy

  15. Retained bone wax on CT at one year after dacryocystorhinostomy: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Park, Dong Woo; Jeong, Jin Yeok [Guri Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Ah; Lee, Young Jun [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul Hospital, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    A 71-year-old man with chronic rhinosinusitis presented with a purulent, foul-smelling nasal discharge and obstruction. One year earlier he had been treated with a dacryocystorhinostomy for nasolacrimal duct obstruction. During the procedure, bone wax had been used to control bleeding in the anterior upper nasal cavity. On computed tomographic imaging, a fat-density lesion was seen in the anterior upper sinonasal cavity and was found to be hypointense or signal-void on all magnetic resonance imaging sequences. The lesion, which proved to consist of bone wax, was surgically removed. Here, we present the imaging features of retained bone wax in a patient with clinically diagnosed chronic rhinosinusitis after dacryocystorhinostomy.

  16. Development of lamellar structures in natural waxes - an electron diffraction investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorset, Douglas L. [Electron Diffraction Department, Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, Inc., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    1999-06-07

    When they are recrystallized from the melt, natural plant or insect waxes tend to form solid phases with a nematic-like structure (i.e. a parallel array of polymethylene chains with little or no aggregation of the molecules into distinct layers). An electron diffraction study of carnauba wax and two types of beeswax has shown that the degree of molecular organization into lamellar structures can be enhanced by annealing in the presence of benzoic acid, which also acts as an epitaxial substrate. Nevertheless, the resultant layer structure in the annealed solid is not the same as that found for paraffin wax fractions refined from petroleum. Probably because of a small but significant fraction of a very long chain ingredient, the lamellar separation is incomplete, incorporating a number of 'bridging molecules' that span the nascent lamellar interface.The same phenomenon has been described recently for a low molecular weight polyethylene. (author)

  17. Development of lamellar structures in natural waxes - an electron diffraction investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorset, Douglas L.

    1999-06-01

    When they are recrystallized from the melt, natural plant or insect waxes tend to form solid phases with a nematic-like structure (i.e. a parallel array of polymethylene chains with little or no aggregation of the molecules into distinct layers). An electron diffraction study of carnauba wax and two types of beeswax has shown that the degree of molecular organization into lamellar structures can be enhanced by annealing in the presence of benzoic acid, which also acts as an epitaxial substrate. Nevertheless, the resultant layer structure in the annealed solid is not the same as that found for paraffin wax fractions refined from petroleum. Probably because of a small but significant fraction of a very long chain ingredient, the lamellar separation is incomplete, incorporating a number of `bridging molecules' that span the nascent lamellar interface.The same phenomenon has been described recently for a low molecular weight polyethylene.

  18. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Yiqiang

    2012-01-13

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct printing of the mask onto a polymer sheet using a commercial wax printer. The wax layer was then transferred to a PMMA substrate using a thermal laminator, exposed using deep-UV (with a wavelength of 254 nm), developed in an IPA:water solution, and completed by bonding on a PMMA cap layer. A sample microfluidic device fabricated with this method is also presented, with the microchannel as narrow as 50 μm. The whole process is easy to perform without the requirement for any microfabrication facilities. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  19. The analysis of the wax foundry models fabrication process for the CPX3000 device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Budzik

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibilities of creating wax founding models by means of CPX3000 device. The device is used for Rapid Prototypingof models made of foundry wax in an incremental process. The paper also presents problems connected with choosing technologicalparameters for incremental shaping which influence the accuracy of created models. Issues connected with post-processing are alsodescribed. This process is of great importance for obtaining geometrically correct models. The analysis of parameters of cleaning models from supporting material is also presented. At present CPX3000 printer is the first used in Poland device by 3D Systems firm for creating wax models. The printer is at The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering at Rzeszów University of Technology.

  20. Printed wax masks for 254 nm deep-UV pattering of PMMA-based microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yiqiang; Liu, Yang; Li, Huawei; Foulds, Ian G

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a new technique for masking deep-UV exposure of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) using a printed wax mask. This technique provides an inexpensive and bulk fabrication method for PMMA structures. The technique involves the direct printing of the mask onto a polymer sheet using a commercial wax printer. The wax layer was then transferred to a PMMA substrate using a thermal laminator, exposed using deep-UV (with a wavelength of 254 nm), developed in an IPA:water solution, and completed by bonding on a PMMA cap layer. A sample microfluidic device fabricated with this method is also presented, with the microchannel as narrow as 50 µm. The whole process is easy to perform without the requirement for any microfabrication facilities. (technical note)

  1. Procedures for extraction and purification of leaf wax biomarkers from peats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Nichols

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palaeoecological and palaeoclimate reconstruction, using leaf wax biomarkers, is a relatively new sub-discipline of peatland science. The ability to process large numbers of samples rapidly for biomarkers makes this type of analysis particularly appealing. This review is a guide to the preparation of leaf waxes for analysis by gas chromatography. The main phases of preparation are extraction of soluble organic compounds from sediment, separation of the total extract into fractions of differing polarity, and the derivatisation of polar functional groups. The procedures described here are not meant be exhaustive of all organic geochemical possibilities in peatlands, but a distillation of methods for the preparation of leaf waxes that are commonly and increasingly being used in palaeoecological and palaeoclimatological studies.

  2. Effects of irradiation in combination with waxing on the essential oils in orange peel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussaid, M.; Lacroix, M.; Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Boubekri, C.

    2000-01-01

    The study evaluated the effects of waxing and irradiation dose on the essential oils in orange peel. Mature oranges (Maroc late) waxed or unwaxed were treated with 0-2 kGy radiation. Volatiles in the peel were extracted and analyzed by G.C. D-limonene was significantly lower (P≤0.05) in waxed oranges; levels in samples treated with 2 kGy were higher than those treated with 0 or 1 kGy. Linalool, methyl anthranilate and 3.7-dimethyl-2.6-octadienal decreased as the dose increased. The analysis of variance indicates that only linalool was influenced by post-irradiation storage time. The level of this compound increased with storage time. (author)

  3. Traces of music carved in wax: The collection of phonographic recordings from the Institute of Musicology SASA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajić-Mihajlović Danka

    2017-01-01

    relation, for studies of heritage and activities at the field of preserving traditional music. Given the specificity of the area from which the collection predominantly originates, it can have a significant value for social engagement in overcoming conflicts with music. Finally, the attainability of wax plates now serves as an incentive for reassessing the role of Kosta P. Manojlović in cultural history and research of traditional music in Serbia and in the region.

  4. The role of nutrients, productivity and climate in determining tree fruit production in European forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Martínez, Marcos; Vicca, Sara; Janssens, Ivan A; Espelta, Josep Maria; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-01-01

    Fruit production (NPP f ), the amount of photosynthates allocated to reproduction (%GPP f ) and their controls for spatial and species-specific variability (e.g. nutrient availability, climate) have been poorly studied in forest ecosystems. We characterized fruit production and its temporal behaviour for several tree species and resolved the effects of gross primary production (GPP), climate and foliar nutrient concentrations. We used data for litterfall and foliar nutrient concentration from 126 European forests and related them to climatic data. GPP was estimated for each forest using a regression model. Mean NPP f ranged from c. 10 to 40 g C m -2  yr -1 and accounted for 0.5-3% of GPP. Forests with higher GPPs produced larger fruit crops. Foliar zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were associated positively with NPP f , whereas foliar Zn and potassium (K) were negatively related to its temporal variability. Maximum NPP f and interannual variability of NPP f were higher in Fagaceae than in Pinaceae species. NPP f and %GPP f were similar amongst the studied species despite the different reproductive temporal behaviour of Fagaceae and Pinaceae species. We report that foliar concentrations of P and Zn are associated with %GPP f , NPP f and its temporal behaviour. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  5. 75 FR 38121 - Petroleum Wax Candles From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... major inputs into production); and factors related to the ability to shift supply among different... proportion of the total domestic production of the product. In its original determination and its expedited... the same or comparable products which the Commission conducts under Title VII of the Act, or in...

  6. Effect of gamma radiation and entomopathogenic nematodes on greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Linnaeus) [Lep., Pyralidae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, R.M.S.

    2008-01-01

    The greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (L.), is a lepidoptera insect; its larval stage, feeds on wax and pollen stored in combs of active honey bee colonies (Milam, 1970). It does not attack adult bees but destructs combs of a weak colony by chewing the comb; spinning silk-lined tunnels through the cell wall and over the face of the comb, which prevent the bees to emerge by their abdomen from their cell, so they die by starvation as they unable to escape from their cell. They also eat out a place to spin their cocoons in the soft wood of the bee hive. Galleria mellonella can also destroy stored honey combs. Therefore, it is considered a major pest of the honeybee. Damage will vary with the level of infestation and the time that has elapsed since the infestation first began. In time, stored combs may be completely destroyed and the frames and combs become filled with a mass of tough, silky web. In ideal conditions for wax moth development, a box (super) of combs may be rendered useless in about a week. Damage occurs mainly in the warm and hot months of the year when wax moths are most active. However, considerable damage can still occur during the cool part of late autumn and early spring as greater wax moth can produce a large amount of metabolic heat which can raise the immediate temperature around them by up to 25 degree C above the normal environment temperature. At the time of storage, combs that are apparently free of wax moth may contain eggs that will hatch later. They should be monitored

  7. Co-metabolism of DDT by the newly isolated bacterium, Pseudoxanthomonas sp. wax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangli Wang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Microbial degradation of 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (DDT is the most promising way to clean up DDT residues found in the environment. In this paper, a bacterium designated as wax, which was capable of co-metabolizing DDT with other carbon sources, was isolated from a long-term DDT-contaminated soil sample by an enrichment culture technique. The new isolate was identified as a member of the Pseudoxanthomonas sp., based on its morphological, physiological and biochemical properties, as well as by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In the presence of 100 mg l-1 glucose, the wax strain could degrade over 95% of the total DDT, at a concentration of 20 mg l-1, in 72 hours, and could degrade over 60% of the total DDT, at a concentration of 100 mg l-1, in 144 hours. The wax strain had the highest degradation efficiency among all of the documented DDT-degrading bacteria. The wax strain could efficiently degrade DDT at temperatures ranging from 20 to 37ºC, and with initial pH values ranging from 7 to 9. The bacterium could also simultaneously co-metabolize 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenylethane (DDD, 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl-1,1-dichlorethylene (DDE, and other organochlorine compounds. The wax strain could also completely remove 20 mg kg-1 of DDT from both sterile and non-sterile soils in 20 days. This study demonstrates the significant potential use of Pseudoxanthomonas sp. wax for the bioremediation of DDT in the environment.

  8. The effects of surgicel and bone wax hemostatic agents on bone healing: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Nooh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biological effects of hemostatic agends on the physiological healing process need to be tested. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oxidized cellulose (surgicel and bone wax on bone healing in goats′ feet. Materials and Methods: Three congruent circular bone defects were created on the lateral aspects of the right and left metacarpal bones of ten goats. One defect was left unfilled and acted as a control; the remaining two defects were filled with bone wax and surgicel respectively. The 10 animals were divided into two groups of 5 animals each, to be sacrificed at the 3rd and 5th week postoperatively. Histological analysis assessing quality of bone formed and micro-computed tomography (MCT measuring the quantities of bone volume (BV and bone density (BD were performed. The results of MCT analysis pertaining to BV and BD were statistically analyzed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and posthoc least significant difference tests. Results: Histological analysis at 3 weeks showed granulation tissue with new bone formation in the control defects, active bone formation only at the borders for surgicel filled defects and fibrous encapsulation with foreign body reaction in the bone wax filled defects. At 5 weeks, the control and surgicel filled defects showed greater bone formation; however the control defects had the greatest amount of new bone. Bone wax filled defects showed very little bone formation. The two-way ANOVA for MCT results showed significant differences for BV and BD between the different hemostatic agents during the two examination periods. Conclusion: Surgicel has superiority over bone wax in terms of osseous healing. Bone wax significantly hinders osteogenesis and induces inflammation.

  9. The deformation of wax patterns and castings in investment casting technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dimensional accuracy of the final casting of Inconel alloy 738 LC is affected by many aspects. One of them is the choice of method and time of cooling wax model for precision investment casting. The main objective was to study the initial deformation of the complex shape of the casting of the rotor blades. Various approaches have been tested for cooling wax pattern. When wax models are cooling on the air, without clamping in jig for cooling, deviations from the ideal shape of the casting are very noticeable (up to 8 mm and most are in extreme positions of the model. When blade is cooled in fixing jig in water environment, the resulting deviations compared with cooling in air are significantly larger, sometimes up to 10 mm. This itself does not mean that the final shape of the casting is dimensionally more accurate with usage of wax models, which have deviations from the ideal position smaller. Another deformation occurs when shell mould is produced around wax pattern and furthermore deformations emerge while casting of blade is cooling. This paper demonstrates first steps in describing complex process of deformations of Inconel alloy blades produced with investment casting technology by comparing results from thermal imagery, simulations in foundry simulation software ProCAST 2010 and measurements from CNC scanning system Carl Zeiss MC 850. Conclusions are so far not groundbreaking, but it seems deformations of wax pattern and deformations of castings do in some cases cancel each other by having opposite directions. Describing entirely whole process of deformations will help increase precision of blade castings so that models at the beginning and blades in the end are the same.

  10. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2011-01-22

    In this body of work we have been developing and characterizing paper based microfluidic fabrication technologies to produce low cost biological analysis. Specifically we investigated the performance of paper microfluidics that had been bonded using wax or acrylic glue, and characterized the affect of these and other microfluidic materials on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax or cyanoacrylate-based resin as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax or simple cyanoacrylate-based resin can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The wax bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by evacuating the channels of adhesive material in a hot-water. We applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation. Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein recombinant E. coli bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. The chip bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin was tested by measuring protein concentration and carrying out DNA capillary electrophoresis. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of our microfluidic chip fabrication technology, we tested the PCR compatibility of our chip materials along with various other common materials

  11. Cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance in wheat near-isogenic lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianmin Song

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that wheat grain yield is seriously affected by drought stress, and leaf cuticular wax is reportedly associated with drought tolerance. However, most studies have focused on cuticular wax biosynthesis and model species. The effects of cuticular wax on wheat drought tolerance have rarely been studied. The aims of the current study were to study the effects of leaf cuticular wax on wheat grain yield under drought stress using the above-mentioned wheat NILs and to discuss the possible physiological mechanism of cuticular wax on high grain yield under drought stress. Compared to water-irrigated (WI conditions, the cuticular wax content (CWC in glaucous and non-glaucous NILs under drought-stress (DS conditions both increased; mean increase values were 151.1% and 114.4%, respectively, which was corroborated by scanning electronic microscopy images of large wax particles loaded on the surfaces of flag leaves. The average yield of glaucous NILs was higher than that of non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions in 2014 and 2015; mean values were 7368.37 kg·ha-1 and 7103.51 kg·ha-1. This suggested that glaucous NILs were more drought-tolerant than non-glaucous NILs (P = 0.05, which was supported by the findings of drought tolerance indices TOL and SSI in both years, the relatively high water potential and relative water content, and the low ELWL. Furthermore, the photosynthesis rate (Pn of glaucous and non-glaucous wheat NILs under DS conditions decreased by 7.5% and 9.8%, respectively; however, glaucous NILs still had higher mean values of Pn than those of non-glaucous NILs, which perhaps resulted in the higher yield of glaucous NILs. This could be explained by the fact that glaucous NILs had a smaller Fv/Fm reduction, a smaller PI reduction and a greater ABS/RC increase than non-glaucous NILs under DS conditions. This is the first report to show that wheat cuticular wax accumulation is associated with drought tolerance. Moreover

  12. Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of carnauba wax (E 903) as a food additive

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS)

    2012-01-01

    The Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources added to Food (ANS) delivers a scientific opinion re-evaluating the safety of carnauba wax (E 903). Carnauba wax (E 903) is authorised in the EU as food additive as glazing agent. It has been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) and by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) who allocated an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 7 mg/kg bw/day. The SCF did not establish an ADI but considered the use of ca...

  13. Evaluation of experimental data for wax and diamondoids solubility in gaseous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohammadi, Amir H.; Gharagheizi, Farhad; Eslamimanesh, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The Leverage statistical approach is herein applied for evaluation of experimental data of the paraffin waxes/diamondoids solubility in gaseous systems. The calculation steps of this algorithm consist of determination of the statistical Hat matrix, sketching the Williams Plot, and calculation......-Santiago and Teja correlations are used to calculate/estimate the solubility of paraffin waxes (including n-C24H50 to n-C33H68) and diamondoids (adamantane and diamantane) in carbon dioxide/ethane gases, respectively. It can be interpreted from the obtained results that the applied equations for calculation...

  14. The branding role that product labelling plays within integrated marketing communication

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. This study focuses on empirically determining the branding role that product labelling plays as a strategic element in Integrated Marketing Communication functioning within the food and beverage industry. This research topic was selected for a number of reasons. Firstly, there is a general misconception of the definition of the term Integrated Marketing Communication. Secondly, there is also an emergence of the perception that labelling plays an important role as a strategic element i...

  15. The Roles of Seaweed on Climate Change, Food Security and Natural Product

    OpenAIRE

    A. Niarthiningsih; Wahyudin, Elly

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the potential role of seaweed in reducing global warming and climate change, contributing to food security and producing natural products. The role of seaweed on controlling climate change is through reducing carbon dioxide and converting seaweed into the bio fuel. The use of bio-fuel could reduce the traditional hydrocarbon as energy that produces carbon emission. Fresh and processed seaweed are commonly used as a food. This may contribute significantly to ...

  16. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris Canutus (Aves: Scolopacidae) by GC/MS and GC/MS/MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Dekker, M.H.A.; Piersma, T.

    2000-01-01

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing

  17. Molecular analysis of intact preen waxes of Calidris canutus (Aves : Scolopacidae) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, MHA; Piersma, T; Damste, JSS; Dekker, Marlèn H.A.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    The intact preen wax esters of the red knot Calidris canutus were studied with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and GC/MS/MS. In this latter technique, transitions from the molecular ion to fragment ions representing the fatty acid moiety of the wax esters were measured, providing

  18. Geometrical effects of conventional and digital prosthodontic planning wax-ups on lateral occlusal contact number, contact area, and steepness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared the effect of conventional and digital wax-ups on three lateral occlusion variables: contact number, contact area, and steepness. Dental casts of 10 patients with Angle Class I relationship were included in the study. All patients required fixed prosthodontic treatment that would affect lateral occlusion. The casts of all patients received conventional and digital wax-ups. For pretreatment, conventional wax-up, and digital wax-up casts, contact number, contact area, and occlusion steepness were measured at four lateral positions, that is, at excursions of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 mm from maximal intercuspation. Lateral occlusion scheme variables were affected by use of diagnostic wax-ups. For all types of casts, contact number decreased as excursion increased. The two types of wax-ups had similar contact number patterns, and contact number was significantly greater for these casts than for pretreatment casts in the earlier stages of excursion. Similarly, contact area gradually decreased with increasing excursion in the pretreatment and conventional and digital wax-up casts. There was only a minimal decrease in occlusion steepness as excursion increased. However, lateral occlusion was generally steeper for digital wax-up casts.

  19. Production, inventories and HEU in the world uranium market: Production's vital role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underhill, D.H.

    1997-01-01

    This paper analyses recent uranium supply and demand relationship and projects supply through 2010. The extremely depressed record low market prices have led to the ongoing annual inventory drawdown of over 25,000 t U resulting from the current 45% world production shortfall. The policy of the European Union and anti-dumping related activities in the USA are restricting imports of uranium from CIS producers to a majority of the world's nuclear utilities. These factors are reducing low priced uranium supply and forcing buyers to again obtain more of their requirements from producers. It discusses how the sale of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) produced from of 550 t High Enriched Uranium (HEU) from Russia and Ukraine could potentially supply about 15% of world requirements through 2010. However, legislation currently being developed by the US Congress may ration the sale of this material, extending the LEU supply well into the next century. Nuclear generation capacity and its uranium requirements are projected to grow at about 1.5% through 2010. Demand for new uranium purchases is however, increasing at the much higher rate of 25-30% over the next 10-15 years. This increasing demand in the face of decreasing supply is resulting in a market recovery in which the spot price for non-CIS produced uranium has risen over 25% since October 1994. Prices will continue to increase as the market equilibrium shifts from a balance with alternative excess low priced supply to an equilibrium between production and demand. 19 refs, 14 figs, 2 tabs

  20. Comparative investigations of T cell receptor gamma gene rearrangements in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissues by capillary electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M; Funder, A D; Bendix, K

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To compare clonal T cell receptor gamma (TCRgamma) gene rearrangements in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded (FFPE) tissue, using capillary electrophoresis for use in diagnostics, as T cell lymphomas may be difficult to diagnose by conventional methods.METHODS: The DNA for PCR......% for patient specimens and the specificity 100%. The junctional region between the Vgamma and Jgamma segments was specific for each patient.CONCLUSIONS: Capillary electrophoresis of PCR products from frozen and FFPE tissue is suitable for detecting clonal TCRgamma gene rearrangements. It is important, however...

  1. Using a Computational Study of Hydrodynamics in the Wax Lake Delta to Examine Data Sharing Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a complex dataset used to study the circulation and wind-driven flows in the Wax Lake Delta, Louisiana, USA under winter storm conditions. The whole package bundles a large dataset (approximately 74 GB, which includes the numerical model, software and scripts for data analysis and visualization, as well as detailed documentation. The raw data came from multiple external sources, including government agencies, community repositories, and deployed field instruments and surveys. Each raw dataset goes through the processes of data QA/QC, data analysis, visualization, and interpretation. After integrating multiple datasets, new data products are obtained which are then used with the numerical model. The numerical model undergoes model verification, testing, calibration, and optimization. With a complex algorithm of computation, the model generates a structured output dataset, which is, after post-data analysis, presented as informative scientific figures and tables that allow interpretations and conclusions contributing to the science of coastal physical oceanography. Performing this study required a tremendous amount of effort. While the work resulted in traditional dissemination via a thesis, journal articles and conference proceedings, more can be gained. The data can be reused to study reproducibility or as preliminary investigation to explore a new topic. With thorough documentation and well-organized data, both the input and output dataset should be ready for sharing in a domain or institutional repository. Furthermore, the data organization and documentation also serves as a guideline for future research data management and the development of workflow protocols. Here we will describe the dataset created by this study, how sharing the dataset publicly could enable validation of the current study and extension by new studies, and the challenges that arise prior to sharing the dataset.

  2. Plum coatings of lemongrass oil-incorporating carnauba wax-based nanoemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, In-Hah; Lee, Hanna; Kim, Jung Eun; Song, Kyung Bin; Lee, Youn Suk; Chung, Dae Sung; Min, Sea C

    2013-10-01

    Nanoemulsions containing lemongrass oil (LO) were developed for coating plums and the effects of the nanoemulsion coatings on the microbial safety and physicochemical storage qualities of plums during storage at 4 and 25 °C were investigated. The emulsions used for coating were produced by mixing a carnauba wax-based solution (18%, w/w) with LO at various concentrations (0.5% to 4.0%, w/w) using dynamic high pressure processing at 172 MPa. The coatings were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 and their ability to preserve various physicochemical qualities of plums. Uniform and continuous coatings on plums, formed with stable emulsions, initially inhibited S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 by 0.2 to 2.8 and 0.8 to 2.7 log CFU/g, respectively, depending on the concentration of LO and the sequence of coating. The coatings did not significantly alter the flavor, fracturability, or glossiness of the plums. The antimicrobial effects of the coatings against S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 were demonstrated during storage at 4 and 25 °C. The coatings reduced weight loss and ethylene production by approximately 2 to 3 and 1.4 to 4.0 fold, respectively, and also retarded the changes in lightness and the concentration of phenolic compounds in plums during storage. The firmness of coated plums was generally higher than uncoated plums when stored at 4 °C and plum respiration rates were reduced during storage. Coatings containing nanoemulsions of LO have the potential to inhibit Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 contamination of plums and may extend plum shelf life. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  3. Production of heavy greases from lignite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1921-03-18

    A process is described for the extraction of heavy greases and wagon greases and their equivalents, by separation from bitumins, resins, and waxes contained in lignite, peat, bituminous shale, fossil wax, paraffin, etc., characterized by the fact that for the extraction are used solvents of high boiling point, such as mineral oils, grease oils, tar oils, and other equivalents, which are not eliminated and at the same time constitute a part of the product obtained.

  4. Online estimation of wax deposition thickness in single-phase sub-sea pipelines based on acoustic chemometrics: A feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Halstensen, Maths; Arvoh, Benjamin Kaku; Amundsen, Lene; Hoffmann, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Wax deposition in sub-sea oil producing pipelines is a concern to the oil producing companies. The deposition of wax in pipelines can cause serious economic implications if not monitored and controlled. Several researchers have developed models and investigated the deposition of wax in crude oil pipelines. As of today, there is no off the shelf instrument available for reliable online estimation of the wax depo- sition thickness in sub-sea pipelines. Acoustic chemometrics was applied to inves...

  5. The medical effects of radioactive fall-out: role of stable end-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, B.A.; Cardarelli, J.C.; Boling, E.A.; Sinex, F.M.

    1980-01-01

    To summarize, from preliminary observations on the possible effects of radioactive fall-out, it may be inferred that in addition to the secondary products of ionizing irradiation per se, the stable end-products of the transmutation of certain radionuclides may adversely influence cellular metabolism, including mutagenesis. The discussion of the possible role of intracellular barium as an end-product of 137Cs decay is offered as an example of an unpredictable number of broad ecological, as well as the more limited medical, effects that may be of both clinical and climatological significance

  6. IAQ performance of interior finishing products and the role of LCA

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ampofo-Anti, N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available of interior finishing products to be more performance-oriented, where performance is defined in terms of the life cycle human health effects 4 . 3.0 LCA – the science-based tool Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a science-based tool which is designed... of interior finishing products and the role of LCA Naalamkai Ampofo-Anti, Senior Researcher, CSIR 1.0 Introduction The environmental rating and certification of products is a voluntary, market-based response by industry and business to the consumer’s...

  7. The Role of the Technology Supplier in the Politics of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian

    1996-01-01

    from a multitude of positions outside the factory. This includes the impacts through formation of subjectivity, labour market, social security, the origin of rawmateriel, ie.the production chains, and the technology used in the factory. On the basis of a Danish study the role of the technology supplier......This paper examines the relations between the technology supplier and the customer factory as an element of the politics of production. It is initially argued that labour process theory cannot limit itself to the analysis of individual enterprises. The politics in production is actually impacted...

  8. The Moderating Roles of Relationship Quality and Dependency in Retailers’ New Product Adoption Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.M. van Everdingen (Yvonne); L.M. Sloot (Laurens); P.C. Verhoef (Peter)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis study contributes to the retail adoption literature by explicitly focusing on the role of both profit-related and relationship variables in explaining new product adoption decisions by retailers, instead of considering either one of these groups of variables in isolation as has been

  9. The role of value-informed pricing in market-oriented product innovation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, T.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the positive effect of a market orientation on new product success is widely accepted and the market orientation literature has increased its understanding of how a market orientation leads to performance, the extant literature has overlooked the role of value-informed pricing in the

  10. The Role of Value-Informed Pricing in Market-Oriented Product Innovation Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, Th.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the positive effect of a market orientation on new product success is widely accepted and the market orientation literature has increased its understanding of how a market orientation leads to performance, the extant literature has overlooked the role of value-informed pricing in the

  11. Role of women in livestock production: A socio-economic analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study focused on the role of women in livestock management with emphasis on milk production. Data for the study was collected via structured questionnaire from 120 women livestock farmers in five local governments of Sokoto state. The result of the analysis shows that majority of the women were in age range of ...

  12. Drivers of productivity in Vietnamese SMEs : The role of management standards and innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calza, E.; Goedhuys, M.; Trifković, N.

    2018-01-01

    Using a rich panel dataset of small and medium scale manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) active in the manufacturing sector in Viet Nam, this paper investigates the drivers of firm productivity, focusing on the role played by international management standards certification. We test the hypothesis

  13. Health care capital market and product market constraints and the role of the chief financial officer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J R; Smith, D G

    2001-01-01

    To understand better the financial management practices and strategies of modern health care organizations, we conducted interviews with chief financial officers (CFOs) of several leading health care systems. The constraints imposed on health care systems by both capital and product markets has made the role of the CFO a challenge.

  14. Gender Role in Sustainable Palm Oil Production in Imo State, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explored gender role in sustainable palm oil production in selected communities of Imo State. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 60 respondents for the study. Data were collected using interview schedule and analyzed using mean score and percentage. The estimated average monthly income of ...

  15. The role of designer expertise in source selection during product metaphor generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cila, N.; Hekkert, P.P.M.; Visch, V.T.

    2012-01-01

    Metaphors have a communicative role in design that entails a transfer of meaning from an entity (i.e. source) to the designed product (i.e. target). In this paper, we investigate the effect of the expertise of designer on the accessibility of the sources that they employ in metaphors. In the study

  16. The role of phytohormone on the production of berberine in the calli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of phytohormone on the production of berberine in the calli cultures of an endangered medicinal plant, turmeric ( Coscinium fenestratum l. ) ... The presence of berberine was first checked by preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) and then confirmed by High Pressure Liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass ...

  17. Regional economic development in Europe : the role of total factor productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Klasing, Mariko J.; Milionis, Petros

    2018-01-01

    Regional economic development in Europe: the role of total factor productivity. Regional Studies. This paper documents the fact that the large and persistent differences in economic development across subnational regions in European Union countries can largely be attributed to differences in total

  18. The role of social identity and attitudes toward sustainability brands in buying behavior for organic products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, J.; Hoogendam, K.

    2011-01-01

    Green consumerism and the role of eco-marketing have become increasingly important for increasing the market share of sustainable (non-) food products. The current study examines the effect of social identification with certain green consumer groups on brand knowledge, brand attitude and buying

  19. Complement plays a central role in Candida albicans-induced cytokine production by human PBMCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shih-Chin; Sprong, Tom; Joosten, Leo A B

    2012-01-01

    In experimental studies, the role of complement in antifungal host defense has been attributed to its opsonizing capability. In this study, we report that in humans an activated complement system mainly augments Candida albicans-induced host proinflammatory cytokine production via C5a-C5aR signal...

  20. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Sikkema, R.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and

  1. The role of off-line and online strategies for successful product positioning

    OpenAIRE

    Yaneva D. E.; Zlateva D. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of the article is done on off-line and online strategies that companies use for their successful positioning. The goal is to establish the role and the significance of the strategies for successful product positioning in off-line and online environment.

  2. Role of nitric oxide and flavohemoglobin homolog genes in Aspergillus nidulans sexual development and mycotoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavohemoglobins are widely distributed proteins in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, conferring resistance against nitrosative stress. In the present study we investigated the role of two flavohemoglobin homologous genes, fhbA and fhbB, in morphogenesis and in the production of the mycotox...

  3. Foreign-Born Women Faculty Work Roles and Productivity at Research Universities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    Using the data from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) survey, the study examined foreign-born women faculty members' work roles and productivity in the areas of teaching, research, and service in comparison with their US-born counterparts at research universities in the US. The findings provided some evidence to suggest…

  4. Increased accumulation of cuticular wax and expression of lipid transfer protein in response to periodic drying events in leaves of tree tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2006-01-01

    Cuticular wax deposition and composition affects drought tolerance and yield in plants. We examined the relationship between wax and dehydration stress by characterizing the leaf cuticular wax of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L. Graham) grown under periodic dehydration stress. Total leaf cuticular wax load increased after each of three periods of dehydration stress using a CH2Cl2 extraction process. Overall, total wax load increased 1.5- to 2.5-fold, but composition of the wax was not altered. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups; n-hentriacontane was the largest component (>75%) with alcohols and fatty acids representing drying event. Leaves excised from plants subjected to multiple drying events were more resistant to water loss compared to leaves excised from well-watered plants, indicating that there is a negative relationship between total wax load and epidermal conductance. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are thought to be involved in the transfer of lipids through the extracellular matrix for the formation of cuticular wax. Using northern analysis, a 6-fold increase of tree tobacco LTP gene transcripts was observed after three drying events, providing further evidence that LTP is involved in cuticle deposition. The simplicity of wax composition and the dramatic wax bloom displayed by tree tobacco make this an excellent species in which to study the relationship between leaf wax deposition and drought tolerance.

  5. The role of basal ganglia in language production: evidence from Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macoir, Joël; Fossard, Marion; Mérette, Chantal; Langlois, Mélanie; Chantal, Sophie; Auclair-Ouellet, Noémie

    2013-01-01

    According to the dominant view in the literature, basal ganglia do not play a direct role in language but are involved in cognitive control required by linguistic and non-linguistic processing. In Parkinson's disease, basal ganglia impairment leads to motor symptoms and language deficits; those affecting the production of verbs have been frequently explored. According to a controversial theory, basal ganglia play a specific role in the conjugation of regular verbs as compared to irregular verbs. We report the results of 15 patients with Parkinson's disease in experimental conjugation tasks. They performed below healthy controls but their performance did not differ for regular and irregular verbs. These results confirm that basal ganglia are involved in language processing but do not play a specific role in verb production.

  6. Effect of Zeolite Treatment on the Blooming Behavior of Paraffin Wax in Natural Rubber Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan B. Pajarito

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The blooming behavior of paraffin wax in natural rubber (NR composites was studied as function of zeolite treatment. Three types of zeolite treatment were treated as factors: acid activation using hydrochloric acid (HCl solution, ion exchange using tetradecyldimethyl amine (TDA chloride salt, and organic modification using glycerol monostearate (GMS. The zeolite was treated according to a 23 full factorial design of experiment. Attenuated total reflectance – Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR spectroscopy was used to characterize the chemical structure of treated zeolite. Treated zeolite was applied as filler to NR composites deliberately compounded with high amount of paraff in wax. The amount of bloomed wax in surface of NR composite sheets was monitored with time at 50oC. Results show the bloom amount to be linear with the square root of time. NR composites reinforced with untreated, acid-activated, and ion-exchanged zeolite fillers indicate reduction in wax blooming as compared to unfilled NR. The bloom rate (slope and initial bloom (y-intercept were determined from the experimental plots. Analysis of variance (ANOVA shows the bloom rate to be signif icantly increased when zeolite fillers are treated with GMS. Meanwhile, initial bloom was significantly enhanced when zeolite fillers are treated with TDA chloride salt and GMS. The significant increase in bloom rate and initial bloom can be attributed to the softening of the NR matrix at high amounts of TDA chloride salt and GMS.

  7. Morphology evaluation of biodegradable copolyesters based on dimerized fatty acid studied by DSC, SAXS and WAXS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozlowska, A.; Gromadzki, Daniel; El Fray, M.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 6 (2008), s. 85-88 ISSN 1230-3666 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : multiblock copolymers * DSC * WAXS Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.439, year: 2008

  8. Hearing and evasive behavior in the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella (Pyralidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skals, Niels; Surlykke, Annemarie

    2000-01-01

    Greater wax moths (Galleria mellonella L., Pyraloidea) use ultrasound sensitive ears to detect clicking conspeci®cs and echolocating bats. Pyralid ears have four sensory cells, A1±4. The audiogram of G. mellonella has best frequency at 60 kHz with a threshold around 47 dB sound pressure level. A1...

  9. New MALDI matrices based on lithium salts for the analysis of hydrocarbons and wax esters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Petra; Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Hanus, Robert; Pecková, K.; Cvačka, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 7 (2014), s. 628-638 ISSN 1076-5174 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0139 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : cuticular hydrocarbons * lipids * lithium attachment * MALDI matrix * waxes Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.379, year: 2014

  10. Clustering of comb and propolis waxes based on the distribution of aliphatic constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Custodio Angela R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition data for 41 samples of propolis waxes and 9 samples of comb waxes of Apis mellifera collected mainly in Brazil were treated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA. For chemometrical analysis, the distribution of hydrocarbons and residues of alcohols and carboxylic acids of monoesters were considered. The clustering obtained revealed chemical affinities and differences not previously grasped by simple eye-inspection of the data. No consistent differences were detected between comb and propolis waxes. These and previous results suggest that hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids, aliphatic alcohols and esters from both comb and propolis waxes are bee-produced compounds and, hence, the differences detected between one and another region are dependent on genetic factors related to the insects rather than the local flora. The samples analyzed were split into two main clusters, one of them comprising exclusively material collected in the State of São Paulo. The results are discussed with respect to the africanization of honeybees that first took place in that State and therefrom irradiated to other parts of Brazil.

  11. The casting of western sculpture during the XIXth century: sand casting versus lost wax casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, T.P.C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will discuss research into bronze casting techniques as practiced during the XIXth and early XXth century. Both natural sand casting (fonte au sable naturel) and lost wax casting (fonte à la cire perdue) were employed during this period and sometimes rivalled for commissions. Before the

  12. Physical characteristics of tetrahydroxy and acylated derivatives of jojoba liquid wax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jojoba liquid wax is a mixture of esters of long chain fatty acids and fatty alcohols, mainly (C38:2-C46:2). The oil exhibits excellent emolliency on the skin and therefore is a component in many personal care cosmetic formulations. The virgin oil is a component of the seed of the Jojoba (Simmondsia...

  13. In vitro and In vivo Characterisation of Piroxicam-Loaded Dika Wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate piroxicam-loaded lipospheres and evaluate their in vitro and in vivo properties. Method: Piroxicam-loaded lipospheres were prepared by hot homogenization technique using dika wax and Phospholipon® 90G (1:1, 1:2 and 2:1) as the lipid matrix. Characterisation, based on particle size

  14. 1H and 13C NMR spectral assignments of four dammarane triterpenoids from carnauba wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cysne, Juliana de Brito; Braz-Filho, Raimundo; Assunção, Marcus Vinícius; Uchoa, Daniel E de Andrade; Silveira, Edilberto R; Pessoa, Otília Deusdênia L

    2006-06-01

    The phytochemical investigation of carnauba wax led to the isolation of three new dammarane triterpenoids 1, 2 and 4, together with the known triterpene 3. The structures of the new compounds were determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and by comparison with published data for closely related compounds. 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Plumage reflectance is not affected by preen wax composition in red knots Calidris canutus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reneerkens, J; Korsten, P

    It has recently been shown that sandpipers (Scolopacidae) abruptly switch the chemical composition of their preen gland secretions from mono- to diester waxes just before the period of courtship. The timing and context of the shift suggested that diesters could provide a visible quality signal

  16. Cross-linking of LDPE/wax blends by using dicumyl peroxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Igor Krupa

    They are not soluble in many solvents due to their high crystallinity, but they ... macroradical formation via thermal decomposition of organic peroxides.6,7,8 A ... as potential applications of LDPE/wax blends are concerned, lower viscosity of ...

  17. Investigation of Carnuba Wax as Matrix in the Formulation of Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate the drug entrapment efficiency, release potential and drug release mechanisms of solid lipid microparticles (SLMs) prepared with different concentrations of two non ionic surfactants using carnauba wax as the lipid matrix. SLMs were prepared by melt dispersion technique, whereby ...

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of D-003 obtained from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  19. Antibacterial and antifungal effect of high pH and paraffin wax ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial and antifungal effects of high pH (9, 10) and paraffin wax were determined. Determination of antibacterial and antifungal activity of the combined treatments was achieved by aerobic mesophilic count of bacteria and fungi on the surface of the tomatoes, peppers and oranges using serial dilution and pour ...

  20. Spectroscopic characterization of Simultaneous determination of Albendazol from the sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrero Delange, David; Cora Medina, Miriam; Laguna Granja, Abilio; Gonzalez Canavaciolo, Victor L

    2013-01-01

    D-003, an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) purified from sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) wax with cholesterol-lowering and antioxidant effects, is composed of a mixture of free saturated very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), each within specific relative concentration ranges as determined by the gas chromatography (GC). However, the spectroscopic characterization of D-003 had not been previously reported

  1. In search of low cost biological analysis: Wax or acrylic glue bonded paper microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas; Gong, Xiuqing; Li, Shunbo; Qin, Jianhua; Wen, Weijia; Wu, Jinbo; Xiao, Kang; Yi, Xin

    2011-01-01

    We report a simple, low-cost and detachable microfluidic chip incorporating easily accessible paper, glass slides or other polymer films as the chip materials along with adhesive wax or cyanoacrylate-based resin as the recycling bonding material. We use a laser to cut through the paper or film to form patterns and then sandwich the paper and film between glass sheets or polymer membranes. The hot-melt adhesive wax or simple cyanoacrylate-based resin can realize bridge bonding between various materials, for example, paper, polymethylmethacrylate film, glass sheets, or metal plate. The wax bonding process is reversible and the wax is reusable through a melting and cooling process. With this process, a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip is achievable by evacuating the channels of adhesive material in a hot-water. We applied the wax-paper based microfluidic chip to HeLa cell electroporation. Subsequently, a prototype of a 5-layer 3D chip was fabricated by multilayer wax bonding. To check the sealing ability and the durability of the chip, green fluorescence protein recombinant E. coli bacteria were cultured, with which the chemotaxis of E. coli was studied in order to determine the influence of antibiotic ciprofloxacin concentration on the E. coli migration. The chip bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin was tested by measuring protein concentration and carrying out DNA capillary electrophoresis. To study the biocompatibility and applicability of our microfluidic chip fabrication technology, we tested the PCR compatibility of our chip materials along with various other common materials employed in the fabrication of microfluidic chips including: silicon, several kinds of silicon oxide, glasses, plastics, wax, and adhesives, etc. Two-temperature PCR was performed with these materials to determine their PCR-inhibitory effect. In most of the cases, addition of bovine serum albumin effectively improved the reaction yield. We also studied the individual PCR components

  2. Metabolism of dietary fatty alcohol, fatty acid, and wax ester in carp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankura, Mitsumasa; Kayama, Mitsu; Iijima, Noriaki.

    1987-01-01

    Lipids in various tissues of the carp, Cyprinus carpio were analyzed. The fates of force-fed [1- 14 C]palmitic acids, [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol, and oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate, were compared with those given in vitro experiments. Major lipid classes in all except adipose tissue were found to be polar lipids (phospholipids) and triacylglycerols. The major fatty acids in nearly all the tissues were 16 : 0, 18 : 1, 18 : 2, and 22 : 6. Although the radioactivity incorporation into wax esters from [1- 14 C]palmitic acid and [1- 14 C]cetyl alcohol for various tissue homogenates was quite high, in vivo incorporation of these labelled compounds into wax esters was very low and radioactivity was distributed mainly in the lipids of muscle, skin, hepatopancreas, intestine, and gill. Almost all the radioactivity in various tissues was present in phospatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Most of the oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was easily hydrolyzed by various tissue homogenates. Force-fed oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was hydrolyzed in the intestine and then transported to other tissues, such as muscle, kin, gill, and hepatopancreas. Moreover, released radioactivity from oleyl[1- 14 C]linoleate was present in mainly phosphatidylcholine and triacylglycerols. Radioactivity was also detected in wax esters in plasma. Certain amounts for fatty acids released from [1- 14 C]triolein in the hepatopancreas homogenates were incorporated into wax esters; this was stimulated by the addition of oleyl alcohol. The present results indicate extensive hydrolysis of wax ester to possibly occur in the intestine and certain portions of the fatty alcohol moiety to be resterfied. The portions may be oxidized to fatty acids and which subsequently behave as dietary fatty acids. (author) 50 ref

  3. Experimental analysis, modeling and simulation of a solar energy accumulator with paraffin wax as PCM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, A.; Henríquez-Vargas, L.; Aravena, R.; Sepúlveda, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Enhancement of paraffin wax thermal conductivity using soft drink can stripes. • Thermal analysis and simulations results agree well with experimental data. • Increase in accumulator thermal efficiencies through addition of external aluminum stripes. • Proposed accumulator allows up to 13,000 kJ of energy storage. - Abstract: Soft drink cans filled with paraffin wax mixed with 7.5% aluminum stripes, obtained from disposable cans, doubled the thermal conductivity of cans filled only with paraffin wax. Promising results obtained in a prototype heat exchanger encouraged the construction of this unit 6 times bigger. We experimentally evaluated and model a heat exchanger for solar energy accumulation, composed by 300 disposable soft drink cans filled with a total of 59.25 kg of paraffin wax mixed with 7.5% aluminum stripes. The effect of adding 2.75 kg of aluminum fins for enhancing heat transfer from the outer surface of the cans to the circulant air was experimentally analyzed. In sunny days, the wax melted completely in about 4 h. The accumulated energy in form of latent heat (about 13,000 kJ) allowed to increase the temperature of 0.040 kg/s of circulant air in at least 20 °C during a period of 2.5 h. For an air mass rate of 0.018 kg/s the period was extended practically to 5 h. The accumulator thermal analysis was presented and a subsequent numerical simulation with Matlab was performed to compare with the experimental results obtaining good agreement specially for higher air mass flow rates. The low cost accumulator presented is of simple construction and will allow extended use of solar energy for applications such as drying processes or household calefaction system.

  4. Implementing the clinical nurse leader role using the Virginia Mason Production System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Charleen; Nelson-Peterson, Dana L

    2007-11-01

    More than 90 members of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing and 190 practice sites have partnered to develop the clinical nurse leader (CNL) role. The partnership has created synergy between education and practice and nurtured innovation and diffusion of learning on a national basis. In this ongoing department, the editor, Jolene Tornabeni, MA, RN, FAAN, FACHE, showcases a variety of nurse leaders who discuss their new patient care delivery models in preparation for the CNL role and CNLs who highlight partnerships with their clinical colleagues to improve patient care. In this article, the authors discuss the needs for changes in the nursing care delivery model, the implementation of the role of the CNL using the tools of the Virginia Mason Production System, as well as early outcomes and future opportunities for the expansion of the CNL role.

  5. The role of product design in consumers' choices in the individual insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, M Susan; Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Escarce, José J; Kapur, Kanika

    2007-12-01

    To evaluate the role of health plan benefit design and price on consumers' decisions to purchase health insurance in the nongroup market and their choice of plan. Administrative data from the three largest nongroup insurers in California and survey data about those insured in the nongroup market and the uninsured in California. We fit a nested logit model to examine the effects of plan characteristics on consumer choice while accounting for substitutability among certain groups of products. Product choice is quite sensitive to price. A 10 percent decrease in the price of a product would increase its market share by about 20 percent. However, a 10 percent decrease in prices of all products would only increase overall market participation by about 4 percent. Changes in the generosity of coverage will also affect product choice, but have only small effects on overall participation. A 20 percent decrease in the deductible or maximum out-of-pocket payment of all plans would increase participation by about 0.3-0.5 percent. Perceived information search costs and other nonprice barriers have substantial effects on purchase of nongroup coverage. Modest subsidies will have small effects on purchase in the nongroup market. New product designs with higher deductibles are likely to be more attractive to healthy purchasers, but the new benefit designs are likely to have only small effects on market participation. In contrast, consumer education efforts have a role to play in helping to expand coverage.

  6. The role of sensory perception in the development and targeting of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Carrie M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2007-01-01

    To examine tobacco industry research on smoking-related sensory effects, including differences in sensory perception across smoker groups, and to determine whether this research informed targeted product development and impacted the development of commercial tobacco products. We searched previously secret internal tobacco industry documents available online through document databases housed at Tobacco Documents Online, the British American Tobacco Document Archive and the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library. We identified relevant documents using a snowball sampling method to first search the databases using an initial set of key words and to then establish further search terms. Sensory research is a priority within the tobacco industry directly impacting commercial markets both in the United States and internationally. Sensory factors contribute to smoker satisfaction and product acceptance, and play an important role in controlling puffing behavior. Cigarette manufacturers have capitalized on distinct sensory preferences across gender, age and ethnic groups by tailoring products for specific populations. Regulation of tobacco products is needed to address product changes that are used to reinforce or contribute to tobacco dependence; for instance, the incorporation of additives that target attributes such as smoothness, harshness and aftertaste. Greater understanding of the role of sensory effects on smoking behavior may also help to inform the development of tobacco treatment options that support long-term tobacco abstinence.

  7. Involving consumers in product design through collaboration: the case of online role-playing games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Shu-Yu

    2010-12-01

    The release of software attributes to users by software designers for the creation of user-designed forms is regarded as a producer-consumer collaboration, leading consumers to expend significant effort on a specific product. This article identifies such software/product attributes within online role-playing games and then explores how consumers' prior experience affects the evaluation of such attributes. In this article, product attributes comprise customized, content, and interactive externality-sensitive and complementary externality-sensitive attributes, with the value of each attribute being greater for experts than for novices. In Study 1, data were collected and analyzed for the purpose of identifying such features in online role-playing games. The results can also be generalized to convergent products, such as TV games that have been redesigned as online games or mobile games found in Study 2. For the introduction of a convergent product to be successful, our research suggests that the potential market-segment focus should be on knowledgeable consumers who accept such products more readily.

  8. Distinct roles of two anaplerotic pathways in glutamate production induced by biotin limitation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hiroki; Orishimo, Keita; Shirai, Tomokazu; Hirasawa, Takashi; Nagahisa, Keisuke; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Wachi, Masaaki

    2008-07-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum is a biotin auxotrophic bacterium in which glutamate production is induced under biotin-limited conditions. During glutamate production, anaplerotic reactions catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and a biotin-containing enzyme pyruvate carboxylase (PC) are believed to play an important role in supplying oxaloacetate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. To understand the distinct roles of PEPC and PC on glutamate production by C. glutamicum, we observed glutamate production induced under biotin-limited conditions in the disruptants of the genes encoding PEPC (ppc) and PC (pyc), respectively. The pyc disruptant retained the ability to produce high amounts of glutamate, and lactate was simultaneously produced probably due to the increased intracellular pyruvate levels. On the other hand, the ppc knockout mutant could not produce glutamate. Additionally, glutamate production in the pyc disruptant was enhanced by overexpression of ppc rather than disruption of the lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldh), which is involved in lactate production. Metabolic flux analysis based on the 13C-labeling experiment and measurement of 13C-enrichment in glutamate using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that the flux for anaplerotic reactions in the pyc disruptant was lower than that in the wild type, concomitantly increasing the flux for lactate formation. Moreover, overexpression of ppc increased this flux in both the pyc disruptant and the wild type. Our results suggest that the PEPC-catalyzed anaplerotic reaction is necessary for glutamate production induced under biotin-limited conditions, because PC is not active during glutamate production, and overexpression of ppc effectively enhances glutamate production under biotin-limited conditions.

  9. Combined hydrogen and carbon isotopes of plant waxes as an indicator of drought impacts on ancient Maya agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax δD, δ13C, and Δ14C analyses in two lake sediment cores from southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change. Plant-wax specific Δ14C ages indicate a large input of pre-aged plant waxes into lake sediment. Comparison of plant-wax δD records with other regional hydroclimate proxy records suggest that plant-wax ages are evenly distributed around plant-wax radiocarbon ages, and that applying an age model based on plant-wax radiocarbon ages is appropriate for these lake sediments. We evaluate how differences in plant-wax age distributions influence stable isotope records to assess the age uncertainty associated with records of climate and vegetation change derived from plant-wax stable isotopes. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax δ13C is largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δ13C would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analysis of plant-wax δD and δ13C from both lakes indicates increasingly divergent trends following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend to correspond with low plant-wax δ13C values and vice versa. This pattern is consistent with

  10. The role of energy policy in agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chodkowska-Miszczuk Justyna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy production by agricultural biogas plants has recently recorded considerable growth in Visegrad countries. The development was enhanced by European Union’s efforts to increase the proportion of energy produced from renewable sources. The paper aims to assess the role of energy policy in the development of agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad region. Conducted studies have shown that among various forms of support for energy production from renewable energy sources, the price system prevails, including the support by feed in tariffs and bonuses. Feed in tariffs were adopted in Czech Republic, Hungary and Slovakia. Another kind of support system – a quota system – was adopted in Poland, what includes tendering and certificate systems. The results confirm the adoption of legal framework was necessary step to enable agricultural biogas energy production in Visegrad countries, but itself it was not enough to stimulate development of agricultural biogas energy production significantly. Rapid development in each country was recorded only after the certain financial support systems took effect, what made production of agricultural biogas energy economically efficient for investors. The production of energy from agricultural biogas grew the most in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, where the financial support was the highest. Nevertheless, the protracted process of changes in legal framework and transformation of energy policy, certain measures including state-controlled price-making systems, risk regarding with auction system might hamper agricultural biogas energy production further development.

  11. Identification of In-Chain-Functionalized Compounds and Methyl-Branched Alkanes in Cuticular Waxes of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu C Racovita

    Full Text Available In this work, cuticular waxes from flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem were investigated in search for novel wax compounds. Seven wax compound classes were detected that had previously not been reported, and their structures were elucidated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of various derivatives. Six of the classes were identified as series of homologs differing by two methylene units, while the seventh was a homologous series with homologs with single methylene unit differences. In the waxes of flag leaf blades, secondary alcohols (predominantly C27 and C33, primary/secondary diols (predominantly C28 and esters of primary/secondary diols (predominantly C50, combining C28 diol with C22 acid were found, all sharing similar secondary hydroxyl group positions at and around C-12 or ω-12. 7- and 8-hydroxy-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35, 7- and 8-oxo-2-alkanol esters (predominantly C35, and 4-alkylbutan-4-olides (predominantly C28 were found both in flag leaf and peduncle wax mixtures. Finally, a series of even- and odd-numbered alkane homologs was identified in both leaf and peduncle waxes, with an internal methyl branch preferentially on C-11 and C-13 of homologs with even total carbon number and on C-12 of odd-numbered homologs. Biosynthetic pathways are suggested for all compounds, based on common structural features and matching chain length profiles with other wheat wax compound classes.

  12. Understanding nucleic acid structural changes by comparing wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) experiments to molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabit, Suzette A.; Katz, Andrea M.; Pollack, Lois [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Tolokh, Igor S. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Drozdetski, Aleksander [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Baker, Nathan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Onufriev, Alexey V. [Department of Computer Science, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) is emerging as a powerful tool for increasing the resolution of solution structure measurements of biomolecules. Compared to its better known complement, small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), WAXS targets higher scattering angles and can enhance structural studies of molecules by accessing finer details of solution structures. Although the extension from SAXS to WAXS is easy to implement experimentally, the computational tools required to fully harness the power of WAXS are still under development. Currently, WAXS is employed to study structural changes and ligand binding in proteins; however, the methods are not as fully developed for nucleic acids. Here, we show how WAXS can qualitatively characterize nucleic acid structures as well as the small but significant structural changes driven by the addition of multivalent ions. We show the potential of WAXS to test all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and to provide insight into understanding how the trivalent ion cobalt(III) hexammine (CoHex) affects the structure of RNA and DNA helices. We find that MD simulations capture the RNA structural change that occurs due to addition of CoHex.

  13. Compound-Specific Radiocarbon Dating Reveals the Age Distribution of Plant-Wax Biomarkers Exported to the Bengal Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, V.; French, K. L.; Hein, C. J.; Haghipour, N.; Wacker, L.; Kudrass, H.; Eglinton, T. I.

    2017-12-01

    The stable isotope composition of leaf-wax compounds preserved in lacustrine and marine sediments has been widely used to reconstruct terrestrial paleo-environments. However, the timescales of plant-wax storage in continental reservoirs before riverine export are not well known, representing a key uncertainty in paleo-environment studies. We couple numerical models with bulk and leaf-wax fatty acid organic 13C and 14C signatures hosted in a high-deposition-rate sediment core from the Bengal shelf canyon in order to estimate storage timescales within the Ganges-Brahmaputra catchment area. The fatty acid 14C record reveals a muted nuclear weapons bomb spike, requiring that the Ganges-Brahmaputra river system exports a mixture of young and old (pre-aged) leaf-wax compounds. According to numerical simulations, 79-83% of the leaf-wax fatty acids in this core are sourced from continental reservoirs that store organic carbon on an average of 1000-1200 calendar years, while the remainder has an average age of 15 years. These results demonstrate that a majority of the leaf-wax compounds produced in the Ganges-Brahmaputra river basin was stored in soils, floodplains, and wetlands prior to its export to the Bengal Fan. We will discuss the implications of these findings for plant-wax based paleoenvironmental records.

  14. Effect of spatial distribution of wax and PEG-isocyanate on the morphology and hydrophobicity of starch films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscat, Delina; Adhikari, Raju; Tobin, Mark J; McKnight, Stafford; Wakeling, Lara; Adhikari, Benu

    2014-10-13

    This study proposes a novel method for improving surface hydrophobicity of glycerol plasticized high amylose (HAG) films. We used polyethylene glycol isocyanate (PEG-iso) crosslinker to link HAG and three natural waxes (beeswax, candelilla wax and carnauba wax) to produce HAG+wax+PEG-iso films. The spatial distributions of wax and PEG-iso across the thickness of these films were determined using Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The hydrophobicity and surface morphology of the films were determined using contact angle (CA) and scanning electron microscopic measurements, respectively. The distribution patterns of wax and the PEG-iso across the thickness of the film, and the nature of crystalline patterns formed on the surface of these films were found to be the key factors affecting surface hydrophobicity. The highest hydrophobicity (CA >90°) was created when the PEG-iso was primarily distributed in the interior of the films and a hierarchical circular pinnacle structure of solidified wax was formed on the surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. User roles and contributions during the new product development process in collaborative innovation communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Qing; An, Weijin; Peng, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Collaborative innovation (co-innovation) community emerges as a new product design platform where companies involve users in the new product development (NPD) process. Large numbers of users participate and contribute to the process voluntarily. This exploratory study investigates the heterogeneous roles of users based on a global co-innovation project in online community. Content analysis, social network analysis and cluster method are employed to measure user behaviors, distinguish user roles, and analyze user contributions. The study identifies six user roles that emerge during the NPD process in co-innovation community: project leader, active designer, generalist, communicator, passive designer, and observer. The six user roles differ in their contribution forms and quality. This paper contributes to research on co-innovation in online communities, including design team structure, user roles and their contribution to design task and solution, as well as user value along the process. In addition, the study provides practices guidance on implementing project, attracting users, and designing platform for co-innovation community practitioners. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of technological innovation in creating radically new product meanings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the concept of technological epiphanies from the literature on design driven innovation. A technological epiphany is defined as a product innovation that can be considered radical, both in terms of technology as well as the meaning and experiences it creates through its design....... Three cases of technological epiphanies from the hearing aid industry are analyzed and discussed in terms of how they represent a radical innovation in technology as well as in product meaning and which role the technological aspect has played in the radical innovation of the meaning of the product....... Three different ways in which technology can function as an enabler for the innovation of product meanings are explored and a fourth is found is found during the analysis. The paper concludes by suggesting directions for future research....

  17. AGPase: its role in crop productivity with emphasis on heat tolerance in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Gautam; Gupta, Pushpendra Kumar

    2015-10-01

    AGPase, a key enzyme of starch biosynthetic pathway, has a significant role in crop productivity. Thermotolerant variants of AGPase in cereals may be used for developing cultivars, which may enhance productivity under heat stress. Improvement of crop productivity has always been the major goal of plant breeders to meet the global demand for food. However, crop productivity itself is influenced in a large measure by a number of abiotic stresses including heat, which causes major losses in crop productivity. In cereals, crop productivity in terms of grain yield mainly depends upon the seed starch content so that starch biosynthesis and the enzymes involved in this process have been a major area of investigation for plant physiologists and plant breeders alike. Considerable work has been done on AGPase and its role in crop productivity, particularly under heat stress, because this enzyme is one of the major enzymes, which catalyses the rate-limiting first committed key enzymatic step of starch biosynthesis. Keeping the above in view, this review focuses on the basic features of AGPase including its structure, regulatory mechanisms involving allosteric regulators, its sub-cellular localization and its genetics. Major emphasis, however, has been laid on the genetics of AGPases and its manipulation for developing high yielding cultivars that will have comparable productivity under heat stress. Some important thermotolerant variants of AGPase, which mainly involve specific amino acid substitutions, have been highlighted, and the prospects of using these thermotolerant variants of AGPase in developing cultivars for heat prone areas have been discussed. The review also includes a brief account on transgenics for AGPase, which have been developed for basic studies and crop improvement.

  18. The influence of vegetation on the transport pathways and residence time of surface water on the deltaic islands of Wax Lake Delta, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliver, E. A.; Edmonds, D. A.; Shaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    The coastal deltas of the world are vital ecosystems that disproportionately support the world's population and biological productivity. Recent studies indicate vegetation may have significant influence on the development and structure of the deltaic islands composing these deltas. However, there is little convincing data drawn from natural systems. Here we present a 2D numerical modeling study of the interaction of surface water flow and vegetation on Wax lake Delta, LA, USA. We use a seamless digital elevation model (DEM) of the Wax Lake Delta (WLD) as the initial topographic condition. The deltaic island elevation data for the DEM is derived from LiDAR data, while the channel and delta front bathymetry is derived from single and multi-beam data. The upstream boundary conditions are set by discharge data from the USGS gauge located in the Wax Lake Outlet at Calumet, LA and the downstream water level boundary condition comes from tidal data from the NOAA gauge located in the Atchafalaya Delta at Amerada Pass, LA. The deltaic islands in our seamless DEM are populated by two general vegetation communities of different canopy density and height: a subaerial-intermediate community and a subaqueous community. In our study we explore how variations in discharge coming into the delta and extent of the general vegetation communities at different times of the year influence the transport pathways and residence time of surface water on the levees and within the interdistributary wetlands of the deltaic islands. A better understanding of vegetation's influence on these elements of deltaic island development and organization could prove valuable for informing design of wetland restoration projects.

  19. Leaf surface wax is a source of plant methane formation under UV radiation and in the presence of oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Rolsted, M. M. M.

    2014-01-01

    to this, we demonstrated that the UV radiation-induced CH4 emission is independent of leaf area index above unity. Further, we observed that the presence of O2 in the atmosphere was necessary for achieving the highest rates of CH4 emission. Methane formation from leaf surface wax is supposedly a two...... investigated the potential of the leaf surface wax itself as a source of UV radiationinduced leaf aerobic CH4 formation. Isolated leaf surface wax emitted CH4 at substantial rates in response to UV radiation. This discovery has implications for how the phenomenon should be scaled to global levels. In relation...

  20. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant E...

  1. An experimental investigation of shell and tube latent heat storage for solar dryer using paraffin wax as heat storage material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Agarwal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the presented study the shell and tube type latent heat storage (LHS has been designed for solar dryer and paraffin wax is used as heat storage material. In the first part of the study, the thermal and heat transfer characteristics of the latent heat storage system have been evaluated during charging and discharging process using air as heat transfer fluid (HTF. In the last section of the study the effectiveness of the use of an LHS for drying of food product and also on the drying kinetics of a food product has been determined. A series of experiments were conducted to study the effects of flow rate and temperature of HTF on the charging and discharging process of LHS. The temperature distribution along the radial and longitudinal directions was obtained at different time during charging process to analyze the heat transfer phenomenon in the LHS. Thermal performance of the system is evaluated in terms of cumulative energy charged and discharged, during the charging and discharging process of LHS, respectively. Experimental results show that the LHS is suitable to supply the hot air for drying of food product during non-sunshine hours or when the intensity of solar energy is very low. Temperature gain of air in the range of 17 °C to 5 °C for approximately 10 hrs duration was achieved during discharging of LHS.

  2. The Role of Productive Water Use in Women’s Livelihoods: Evidence from Rural Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily van Houweling

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing livelihoods and promoting gender equity are primary goals of rural development programmes in Africa. This article explores the role of productive water use in relation to these goals based on 1860 household surveys and 15 women’s focus groups conducted in four regions of Senegal with small-scale piped water systems. The piped systems can be considered 'domestic plus' systems because they were designed primarily for domestic use, and also to accommodate small-scale productive uses including livestock-raising and community-gardening. This research focuses on the significance of productive water use in the livelihood diversification strategies of rural women. In Senegal, we find that access to water for productive purposes is a critical asset for expanding and diversifying rural livelihoods. The time savings associated with small piped systems and the increased water available allowed women to enhance existing activities and initiate new enterprises. Women’s livelihoods were found to depend on productive use activities, namely livestock-raising and gardening, and it is estimated that one half of women’s incomes is linked to productive water use. While these findings are largely positive, we find that water service and affordability constraints limit the potential benefits of productive water use for women and the poorest groups. Implications for targeting women and the poorest groups within the domestic plus approach are discussed.

  3. Optimization of Factors Affecting Beauveria bassiana Fungus Ability in Control of Greater Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella L. by Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Heidari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stored product pests are a major problem in the storage of agricultural products that cause damage from harvest until consumption. Greater Wax Moth (Galleria mellonella L. is one of the most important pests of stored products and beehives. The most common method to control this pest in many countries is use of chemical compounds. However, these compounds have disadvantages such as pesticide residues in wax, the development of resistance in pest and irreversible effects on the environment and humans. The use of insect pathogenic fungi due to its low risk on mammals and natural enemies can be a good alternative to conventional chemical pesticides. Response surface methodology (RSM is a statistical technique that is employed to optimize processes that are affected by several variables. This technique uses regression analysis to obtain optimal equations to estimate the values. Using this method, while maintaining the quality in the experiments, the number of those could be reduced. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate response surface methodology to determine the effect of optimum lethal level of concentration of B. bassiana conidia, temperature as well as humidity variables on the mortality of fifth instar larvae of greater wax moth. Materials and Methods: Wax moth-eating insects were raised in plastic containers containing artificial food and old black wax at 30 ± 1 ° C and a relative humidity of 85 ± 1 % and photoperiod of 14:10 h (L: D. Isolation of insect pathogenic fungus B. bassiana was done by using Galleria Bait Method (GBM. For this purpose, after preparation of the fungus suspension from the infected larvae, 1 ml volume of the suspension was transferred to the water-agar 1.2% and then sealed petri dishes incubated at 30 ° C for three days. After identifying the single colony and formation of pure isolates, microscopic slides were prepared and eventually recovered isolates were recognized as B. bassiana. The

  4. Improving Supplier Performance in New Product Development: The Role of Supplier Development

    OpenAIRE

    Potter, Antony; Lawson, Benn; Krause, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Suppliers play an increasingly central role in helping firms achieve their new product development (NPD) goals. Although much attention has focused on managing the buyer-supplier interface, we know little about how firms can enhance a supplier’s ability to contribute to an NPD effort. Thus, we propose a theoretical model that conceptualizes supplier development activities within inter-organizational NPD projects as bilateral knowledge-sharing processes. Antecedents (supplier responsibility,...

  5. Role of mutation in improving rice productivity-retrospect and prospect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarti, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    With the recent development in the hybrid rice breeding and rice biotechnology, the role of mutation induction in genetic manipulation deserves special importance. In many instances, the major constraint in hybrid rice breeding is lack of suitable cytoplasmic male sterile line. There is immense scope for developing such male sterile lines through use of mutation tool. In this paper improvement of rice productivity with particular reference to attainments in India have been discussed. 50 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs

  6. Variations of Leaf Cuticular Waxes Among C3 and C4 Gramineae Herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuji; Gao, Jianhua; Guo, Na; Guo, Yanjun

    2016-11-01

    Modern C4 plants are commonly distributed in hot and dry environments whereas C3 plants predominate in cool and shade areas. At the outmost of plant surface, the deposition and chemical composition of cuticular waxes vary under different environmental conditions. However, whether such variation of cuticular wax is related to the distribution of C3 and C4 under different environmental conditions is still not clear. In this study, leaves of six C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in spring, Roegneria kamoji, Polypogon fugax, Poa annua, Avena fatua, Alopecurus aequalis, and Oplismenus undulatifolius, and four C4 and one C3 Gramineae herbs distributed in summer, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, S. plicata, and O. undulatifolius, were sampled and analyzed for cuticular wax. Plates were the main epicuticular wax morphology in both C3 and C4 plants except S. plicata. The plates melted in C4 plants but not in C3 plants. The total cuticular wax amounts in C4 plants were significantly lower than those in C3 plants, except for O. undulatifolius. Primary alcohols were the most abundant compounds in C3 plants, whereas n-alkanes were relatively the most abundant compounds in C4 plants. C 29 was the most abundant n-alkane in C3 plants except for O. undulatifolius, whereas the most abundant n-alkane was C 31 or C 33 in C4 plants. The average chain length (ACL) of n-alkanes was higher in C4 than in C3 plants, whereas the ACL of n-alkanoic acids was higher in C3 than C4 plants. The cluster analysis based on the distribution of n-alkanes clearly distinguished C3 and C4 plants into two groups, except for O. undulatifolius which was grouped with C4 plants. These results suggest that the variations of cuticular waxes among C3 and C4 Gramineae herbs are related to the distribution of C3 and C4 plants under different environmental conditions. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  7. A discrete role for alternative oxidase under hypoxia to increase nitric oxide and drive energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishwakarma, Abhaypratap; Kumari, Aprajita; Mur, Luis A J; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis

    2018-03-28

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is an integral part of the mitochondrial electron transport and can prevent reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production under non-stressed, normoxic conditions. Here we assessed the roles of AOX by imposing stress under normoxia in comparison to hypoxic conditions using AOX over expressing (AOX OE) and anti-sense (AOX AS) transgenic Arabidopsis seedlings and roots. Under normoxic conditions stress was induced with the defence elicitor flagellin (flg22). AOX OE reduced NO production whilst this was increased in AOX AS. Moreover AOX AS also exhibited an increase in superoxide and therefore peroxynitrite, tyrosine nitration suggesting that scavenging of NO by AOX can prevent toxic peroxynitrite formation under normoxia. In contrast, during hypoxia interestingly we found that AOX is a generator of NO. Thus, the NO produced during hypoxia, was enhanced in AOX OE and suppressed in AOX AS. Additionally, treatment of WT or AOX OE with the AOX inhibitor SHAM inhibited hypoxic NO production. The enhanced levels of NO correlated with expression of non-symbiotic haemoglobin, increased NR activity and ATP production. The ATP generation was suppressed in nia1,2 mutant and non symbiotic haemoglobin antisense line treated with SHAM. Taken together these results suggest that hypoxic NO generation mediated by AOX has a discrete role by feeding into the haemoglobin-NO cycle to drive energy efficiency under conditions of low oxygen tension. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Managing satisfaction in cultural events: Exploring the role of core and peripheral product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Cuadrado-García

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper measures satisfaction with a cultural event following an innovative approach by differentiating between the art form itself (core product and the main attributes connected with it (augmented product. 122 individuals (out of 820 visitors were interviewed on their overall satisfaction and on different aspects of their visiting experience. Multivariate techniques such as ANOVA, principal component factor analysis and regression were performed to analyse the data. Results show the importance of both the core and the peripheral product in measuring satisfaction with a cultural event, thereby highlighting their importance for product management in the arts. The small sample, the specificity of the data and the bias of the distribution have prevented further multivariate analysis. A future area of research is on antecedents to customer satisfaction in the arts field. The contribution of peripheral elements to satisfaction should not be underestimated. Despite artists’ freedom to produce the work of art, a series of peripheral elements should be designed along with the other variables of the marketing mix in order to adapt and differentiate the artistic production to the target audience. This paper contributes a different perspective to measuring satisfaction in the arts context while considering the role of the core product and its peripherals.

  9. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  10. Changes to subaqueous delta bathymetry following a high river flow event, Wax Lake Delta, LA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaling, A. R.; Shaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    Sediment transport capacity is increased during high river flow (flood) events which are characterized by discharges that exceed the 15 year median daily statistic. The Wax Lake Delta (WLD) in coastal Louisiana has experienced 19 of these high flow events in the past 20 years, yet the depositional patterns of single floods are rarely measured in a field-scale deltaic setting. We characterize flood deposition and erosion patterns on the subaqueous portion of the WLD by differencing two Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) constructed from bathymetric surveys before and after the third largest flood in the WLD's recorded history. The total suspended sediment discharge for the 496 day inter-survey period was 2.14x107 cubic meters measured 21 km upstream of the delta apex. The difference map showed 1.06x107 cubic meters of sediment was deposited and 8.2x106 cubic meters was eroded, yielding 2.40x106 cubic meters of net deposition in the survey area ( 79.7 km2 ). Therefore the average deposition rate was 0.061 mm/day. Channel planform remained relatively unchanged for five out of six distributary passes however Gadwall Pass experienced a maximum channel displacement of 166 m ( 1 channel width) measured from the thalweg centerline. Channel tip extension was negligible. In addition, channel displacement was not concentrated at any portion along the channel centerline. Maximum erosion occurred within channel margins and increased upstream whereas maximum deposition occurred immediately outside the channel margins. Sediment eroded from the survey area was either subsequently re-deposited or transported out of the system. Our results show that up to 77.4% of deposition in the survey area originated from sediment eroded during the flood. Surprisingly, only 11.2% of the total suspended sediment discharge was retained in the subaqueous portion of the delta after the flood. We conclude that a high flow event does not produce channel progradation. Rather, high flow causes delta

  11. Leaf wax biomarker reconstruction of Early Pleistocene hydrological variation during hominin evolution in West Turkana, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupien, R.; Russell, J. M.; Cohen, A. S.; Feibel, C. S.; Beck, C.; Castañeda, I. S.

    2016-12-01

    Climate change is thought to play a critical role in human evolution; however, this hypothesis is difficult to test due to a lack of long, high-quality paleoclimate records from key hominin fossil locales. To address this issue, we examine Plio-Pleistocene lake sediment drill cores from East Africa that were recovered by the Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project, an international effort to study the environment in which our hominin ancestors evolved and dispersed. With new data we test various evolutionary hypotheses, such as the "variability selection" hypothesis, which posits that high-frequency environmental variations selected for generalist traits that allowed hominins to expand into variable environments. We analyzed organic geochemical signals of climate in lake cores from West Turkana, Kenya, which span 1.87-1.38 Ma and contain the first fossils from Homo erectus. In particular, we present a compound-specific hydrogen isotopic analysis of terrestrial plant waxes (δDwax) that records regional hydrology. The amount effect dominates water isotope fractionation in the tropics; therefore, these data are interpreted to reflect mean annual rainfall, which affects vegetation structure and thus, hominin habitats. The canonical view of East Africa is that climate became drier and increasingly felt high-latitude glacial-interglacial cycles during the Plio-Pleistocene. However, the drying trend seen in some records is not evident in Turkana δDwax, signifying instead a climate with a steady mean state. Spectral and moving variance analyses indicate paleohydrological variations related to both high-latitude glaciation (41 ky cycle) and local insolation-forced monsoons (21 ky cycle). An interval of particularly high-amplitude rainfall variation occurs at 1.7 Ma, which coincides with the intensification of the Walker Circulation. These results identify high- and low-latitude controls on East African paleohydrology during Homo erectus evolution. In particular, the

  12. No Acoustic Evidence from RHD for a Right Hemisphere Role in Prosody Production: A Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weed, Ethan; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    No acoustic evidence from RHD for a right hemisphere role in prosody production: A meta-analysis. Ethan Weed and Riccardo Fusaroli (Aarhus University, Denmark) Poster : The right hemisphere (RH) is often thought to have a special role in prosody comprehension and production in general...... by regression analysis of funnel plots for F0 (z = 1.5937, p = 0.1110). Intensity did show evidence of publication bias (z = -4.1582, p role for the RH in prosody...

  13. Long-term evaluation of the needle surface wax condition of Pinus sylvestris around different industries in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupcinskiene, Eugenija; Huttunen, Satu

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the annual dynamics of needle surface wax erosion and wettability in Scots pines exposed to a gradient of industrial pollutants emitted from the main factories of Lithuania: a nitrogen fertilizer factory, an oil refinery and a cement factory. Decreased emissions (in the case of the oil refinery and the cement factory) were reflected in the increased structural surface area (SSA, i.e. area covered by tubular waxes) on the needles. The nearly constant amount of emissions from the nitrogen fertilizer factory within the 1994-2000 period corresponded to negligible annual differences in SSA. Annual changes in the hydrophobicity of needles on the investigated transects were small. Despite the decreased pollution within the 7-year period, industrial emissions are still causing significantly accelerated wax erosion and increased wettability in needles sampled from the stands most heavily affected by pollutants. - Tubular wax on the pine needle surface reflects changes/differences in industrial emissions

  14. Comparison of ossification of demineralized bone, hydroxyapatite, Gelfoam, and bone wax in cranial defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papay, F A; Morales, L; Ahmed, O F; Neth, D; Reger, S; Zins, J

    1996-09-01

    Demineralized bone allografts in the repair of calvarial defects are compared with other common bone fillers. This study uses a video-digitizing radiographic analysis of calvarial defect ossification to determine calcification of bone defects and its relation to postoperative clinical examination and regional controls. The postoperative clinical results at 3 months demonstrated that bony healing was greatest in bur holes filled with demineralized bone and hydroxyapatite. Radiographic analysis demonstrated calcification of demineralized bone-filled defects compared to bone wax- and Gelfoam-filled regions. Hydroxyapatite granules are radiographically dense, thus not allowing accurate measurement of true bone healing. The results suggest that demineralized bone and hydroxyapatite provide better structural support via bone healing to defined calvarial defects than do Gelfoam and bone wax.

  15. A comparison of epicuticular wax of Pinus sylvestris needles from three sites in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnelly, A.; Dowding, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three forest stands of Pinus sylvestris were chosen for comparison in Ireland. Needles from three year classes were collected. Cuticular transpiration curves showed that the rate of water loss from 1-year-old needles was faster than either 2-year-old or current-year needles at all sites. The amount of epicuticular wax extracted was similar to that reported in the literature. Needle wettability increased with needle age. Amorphous wax coverage was estimated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and was found to increase with needle age. Algal cells were noted on needles of all ages at one site and appeared to affect transpiration and microroughness. The presence of fungal hyphae was also noted. (orig.)

  16. The importance of being Florentine: a journey around the world for wax anatomical Venuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ceglia, Francesco Paolo

    2011-01-01

    This article reconstructs the 19th century history of events regarding a few female wax anatomical models made in Florence. More or less faithful copies of those housed in Florence's Museum of Physics and Natural History, these models were destined for display in temporary exhibitions. In their travels through Europe and the United States, they transformed the expression "Florentine Venus" into a sort of brand name used to label and offer respectability to pieces of widely varying quality.

  17. Effect of expanded graphite on the phase change materials of high density polyethylene/wax blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlMaadeed, M.A., E-mail: m.alali@qu.edu.qa [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, 2713 Doha (Qatar); Labidi, Sami [Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, 2713 Doha (Qatar); Krupa, Igor [QAPCO Polymer Chair, Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar); Karkri, Mustapha [Université Paris-Est CERTES, 61 avenue du Général de Gaulle, 94010 Créteil (France)

    2015-01-20

    Highlights: • Expanded graphite (EG) and low melting point (42.3 °C) wax were added to HDPE to form phase change material. • EG was well dispersed in the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. • EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. • The addition of a relatively small quantity of EG enhances the heat conduction in the composite. • HDPE/40% RT42 that contained up to 15% EG demonstrated excellent mechanical and thermal properties and can be used as PCM. - Abstract: Phase change materials fabricated from high density polyethylene (HDPE) blended with 40 or 50 wt% commercial wax (melting point of 43.08 °C) and up to 15 wt% expanded graphite (EG) were studied. Techniques including scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and an experimental device to measure diffusivity and conductivity (DICO) were used to determine the microstructural, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites. The composites possessed good mechanical properties. Additionally, no leaching was observed during material processing or characterization. Although the Young’s modulus increased with the addition of EG, no significant changes in tensile strength were detected. The maximum Young’s modulus achieved was 650 MPa for the HDPE/40% wax composite with 15 wt% EG. The EG was well dispersed within the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. The incorporation of EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. The intensification of thermal conductivity occurred with increasing fractions of EG, which was attributed to the high thermal conductivity of graphite. The maximum quantity of heat stored by latent heat was found for the HDPE/40% wax composite with EG. The addition of a relatively small quantity

  18. Effect of expanded graphite on the phase change materials of high density polyethylene/wax blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlMaadeed, M.A.; Labidi, Sami; Krupa, Igor; Karkri, Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Expanded graphite (EG) and low melting point (42.3 °C) wax were added to HDPE to form phase change material. • EG was well dispersed in the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. • EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. • The addition of a relatively small quantity of EG enhances the heat conduction in the composite. • HDPE/40% RT42 that contained up to 15% EG demonstrated excellent mechanical and thermal properties and can be used as PCM. - Abstract: Phase change materials fabricated from high density polyethylene (HDPE) blended with 40 or 50 wt% commercial wax (melting point of 43.08 °C) and up to 15 wt% expanded graphite (EG) were studied. Techniques including scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and an experimental device to measure diffusivity and conductivity (DICO) were used to determine the microstructural, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites. The composites possessed good mechanical properties. Additionally, no leaching was observed during material processing or characterization. Although the Young’s modulus increased with the addition of EG, no significant changes in tensile strength were detected. The maximum Young’s modulus achieved was 650 MPa for the HDPE/40% wax composite with 15 wt% EG. The EG was well dispersed within the composites and did not affect the melting or crystallization of the HDPE matrix. The incorporation of EG increased the thermal stability of the composites by reducing chain mobility and inhibiting degradation. The intensification of thermal conductivity occurred with increasing fractions of EG, which was attributed to the high thermal conductivity of graphite. The maximum quantity of heat stored by latent heat was found for the HDPE/40% wax composite with EG. The addition of a relatively small quantity

  19. Diagnosis of lymphoma in paraffin wax sections by nested PCR and immunohistochemistry.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura, Y; Nanba, E; Inui, S; Tanigawa, T; Ichihara, K

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry can be used to diagnose malignant lymphoma. METHODS: Paraffin wax embedded tissue sections from 31 patients with malignant lymphoma were analysed by nested PCR and immunohistochemistry using standard protocols. RESULTS: Nested PCR amplification of 1 pg DNA confirmed monoclonality in B cell lymphoma; PCR amplification of 10 pg DNA confirmed monoclonality in T cell lymphoma. Twenty seven (87%) samples w...

  20. De novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome, and development of SSR markers in wax gourd (Benicasa hispida.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wax gourd is a widely used vegetable of Cucuribtaceae, and also has important medicinal and health values. However, the genomic resources of wax gourd were scarcity, and only a few nucleotide sequences could be obtained in public databases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we examined transcriptome in wax gourd. More than 44 million of high quality reads were generated from five different tissues of wax gourd using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Approximately 4 Gbp data were generated, and de novo assembled into 65,059 unigenes, with an N50 of 1,132 bp. Based on sequence similarity search with known protein database, 36,070 (55.4% showed significant similarity to known proteins in Nr database, and 24,969 (38.4% had BLAST hits in Swiss-Prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 14,994 of wax gourd unigenes were assigned to GO term annotation, and 23,977 were found to have COG classifications. In addition, a total of 18,713 unigenes were assigned to 281 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, 6,242 microsatellites (simple sequence repeats were detected as potential molecular markers in wax gourd. Two hundred primer pairs for SSRs were designed for validation of the amplification and polymorphism. The result showed that 170 of the 200 primer pairs were successfully amplified and 49 (28.8% of them exhibited polymorphisms. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study enriches the genomic resources of wax gourd and provides powerful information for future studies. The availability of this ample amount of information about the transcriptome and SSRs in wax gourd could serve as valuable basis for studies on the physiology, biochemistry, molecular genetics and molecular breeding of this important vegetable crop.

  1. Real-time monitoring and measurement of wax deposition in pipelines via non-invasive electrical capacitance tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock Sow Mei, Irene; Ismail, Idris; Shafquet, Areeba; Abdullah, Bawadi

    2016-02-01

    Tomographic analysis of the behavior of waxy crude oil in pipelines is important to permit appropriate corrective actions to be taken to remediate the wax deposit layer before pipelines are entirely plugged. In this study, a non-invasive/non-intrusive electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) system has been applied to provide real-time visualization of the formation of paraffin waxes and to measure the amount of wax fraction from the Malay Basin waxy crude oil sample under the static condition. Analogous expressions to estimate the wax fraction of the waxy crude oil across the temperatures range of 30-50 °C was obtained by using Otsu’s and Kuo’s threshold algorithms. Otsu’s method suggested that the wax fraction can be estimated by the correlation coefficient β =0.0459{{T}3}-5.3535{{T}2}+200.36T-2353.7 while Kuo’s method provides a similar correlation with β =0.0741{{T}3}-8.4915{{T}2}+314.96T-3721.2 . These correlations show good agreements with the results which are obtained from the conventional weighting method. This study suggested that Kuo’s threshold algorithm is more promising when integrated into the ECT system compared to Otsu’s algorithm because the former provides higher accuracy wax fraction measurement results below the wax appearance temperature for waxy crude oil. This study is significant because it serves as a preliminary investigation for the application of ECT in the oil and gas industry for online measurement and detection of wax fraction without causing disturbance to the process flow.

  2. Fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple as affected by localized Application of GA3 under field conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Khandaker, Mohammad Moneruzzaman; Boyce, Amru Nasrulhaq; Osman, Normaniza; Golam, Faruq; Rahman, M. Motior; Sofian-Azirun, M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of gibberellin (GA3) on the fruit development, pigmentation and biochemical properties of wax apple. The wax apple trees were rubbing treated with 0, 20, 50 and 100 mgGA3/l under field conditions. The localized application (rubbing) of 50 mg GA3/l significantly increased the fruit set, fruit length and diameter, color development, weight and yieldcompared to the control. In addition, GA3 treatments significantly reduced the fruit drop. With regard to the fr...

  3. Role of the tunisian central pharmacy in the import of radio-pharmaceutical products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souissi Jaziri, Camelia; Moulahi, L.

    2013-01-01

    In Tunisia the centralized organization of the medicine sector has a strategic and economic importance. It presents particular characteristics concerning the importation and the control of drugs. Tcp has a monopoly on the importation of drugs for the country, which enters in the state policy for the control of drug purchasing costs, their availability in different region of the country and their guarantee and quality. The Tcp has a crucial role in the availability of drugs and in the holding safety stock and strategic reserve of the imported pharmaceutical products, either for the public or private sector. The Tcp has to stock up medicaments, chemical and pharmaceutical products, objects of bandages, instruments, accessory tools and other supplies necessary for the human and veterinary medicine. The Tcp packages any specialized or not medicament and all other products or supplies. The Tcp provides medicaments and products entering within the framework of its task to different health groups and hospitals. The Tcp provides distributors, laboratories and pharmacies over the country. In Tunisia the import of radioisotopes used in the medical domain is attributed to the Tcp. The objective is to centralize purchases and to guarantee: the security, the availability as well as the traceability. The Tcp supply radiopharmaceutical products for diagnostic and therapy purposes according to an authorization delivered annually by the National Center of Radiation Protection (NCRP). An authorization of removal used at the customs allows the clearance of products at the level of the air freights by the transit service of the Tcp. Regarding the evolution of purchases of radio-pharmaceutical products, their importation remained stable during the last three years. Indeed, it is approximately around 1MDT annually (954 121 DT in 2010, 939 956 in 2011 and 1047 967 in 2012). Sources of supply are divided between 4 suppliers: International IBA-CISBIO (49.9 pour cent), COVIDIEN EX (TYCO

  4. Phase Change Material Trade Study: A Comparison Between Wax and Water for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Hodgson, Ed; Stephan, Ryan A,

    2011-01-01

    Phase change material heat sinks have been recognized as an important tool in optimizing thermal control systems for space exploration vehicles and habitats that must deal with widely varying thermal loads and environments. In order to better focus technology investment in this arena, NASA has supported a trade study with the objective of identifying where the best potential pay-off can be found among identified aqueous and paraffin wax phase change materials and phase change material heat sink design approaches. The study used a representative exploration mission with well understood parameters to support the trade. Additional sensitivity studies were performed to ensure the applicability of study results across varying systems and destinations. Results from the study indicate that replacing a wax PCM heat sink with a water ice PCM heat sink has the potential to decrease the equivalent system mass of the mission s vehicle through a combination of a smaller heat sink and a slight 5% increase in radiator size or the addition of a lightweight heat pump. An evaluation of existing and emerging PCM heat sink technologies indicates that further mass savings should be achievable through continued development of those technologies. The largest mass savings may be realized by eliminating the melting and freezing pressure of wax and water, respectively.

  5. Effects of ozone exposures on epicuticular wax of ponderosa pine needles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bytnerowicz, A.; Turunen, M.

    1994-01-01

    Two-year-old ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa L.) seedlings were exposed during the 1989 and 1990 growing seasons to ozone in open-top chambers placed in a forested location at Shirley Meadow, Greenhorn Mountain Range, Sierra Nevada. The ozone treatments were as follows: charcoal-filtered air (CF); charcoal-filtered air with addition of ambient concentrations of ozone (CF + O 3 ); and charcoal-filtered air with addition of doubled concentrations of ozone (CF + 2 x O 3 ). Ozone effects on ponderosa pine seedlings progressed and accumulated over two seasons of exposure. Throughout the first season, increased visible injury and accelerated senescence of the foliage were noted. Subsequently, during the second season of ozone exposure, various physiological and biochemical changes in the foliage took place. All these changes led to reduced growth and biomass of the seedlings. Epistomatal waxes of needles from the CA + 2 x O 3 treatment had an occluded appearance. This phenomenon may be caused by earlier phenological development of needles from the high-ozone treatments and disturbed development and synthesis of waxes. It may also be caused by chemical degradation of waxes by exposures to high ozone concentrations. (orig.)

  6. Trimethylamine (fishy odor) adsorption by biomaterials: effect of fatty acids, alkanes, and aromatic compounds in waxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boraphech, Phattara; Thiravetyan, Paitip

    2015-03-02

    Thirteen plant leaf materials were selected to be applied as dried biomaterial adsorbents for polar gaseous trimethylamine (TMA) adsorption. Biomaterial adsorbents were efficient in adsorbing gaseous TMA up to 100% of total TMA (100 ppm) within 24 h. Sansevieria trifasciata is the most effective plant leaf material while Plerocarpus indicus was the least effective in TMA adsorption. Activated carbon (AC) was found to be lower potential adsorbent to adsorb TMA when compared to biomaterial adsorbents. As adsorption data, the Langmuir isotherm supported that the gaseous TMA adsorbed monolayer on the adsorbent surface and was followed pseudo-second order kinetic model. Wax extracted from plant leaf could also adsorb gaseous TMA up to 69% of total TMA within 24 h. Another 27-63% of TMA was adsorbed by cellulose and lignin that naturally occur in high amounts in plant leaf. Subsequently, the composition appearing in biomaterial wax showed a large quantity of short-chain fatty acids (≤C18) especially octadecanoic acid (C18), and short-chain alkanes (C12-C18) as well as total aromatic components dominated in the wax, which affected TMA adsorption. Hence, it has been demonstrated that plant biomaterial is a superior biosorbent for TMA removal.

  7. Biodiesel from Jojoba oil-wax: Transesterification with methanol and properties as a fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canoira, Laureano; Alcantara, Ramon; Garcia-Martinez, Jesus; Carrasco, Jesus [Department of Chemical Engineering and Fuels, School of Mines, Polytechnic University of Madrid, Rios Rosas 21, 28003-Madrid (Spain)

    2006-01-15

    The Jojoba oil-wax is extracted from the seeds of the Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider), a perennial shrub that grows in semi desert areas in some parts of the world. The main uses of Jojoba oil-wax are in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, but new uses could arise related to the search of new energetic crops. This paper summarizes a process to convert the Jojoba oil-wax to biodiesel by transesterification with methanol, catalysed with sodium methoxide (1wt% of the oil). The transesterification reaction has been carried out in an autoclave at 60 deg C, with a molar ratio methanol/oil 7.5:1, and vigorous stirring (600rpm), reaching a quantitative conversion of the oil after 4h. The separation of the fatty acid methyl esters (the fraction rich in FAME, 79% FAME mixture; 21% fatty alcohols; 51% of methyl cis-11-eicosenoate) from the fatty alcohols rich fraction (72% fatty alcohols; 28% FAME mixture; 26% of cis-11-eicosen-1-ol, 36% of cis-13-docosen-1-ol) has been accomplished in a single crystallization step at low temperature (-18 deg C) from low boiling point petroleum ether. The fraction rich in FAME has a density (at 15 deg C), a kinematic viscosity (at 40 deg C), a cold filter plugging point and a high calorific value in the range of the European standard for biodiesel (EN 14214)

  8. Application of carnauba-based wax maintains postharvest quality of 'Ortanique' tangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Ligia de Castro Machado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating compositional changes in the quality of 'Ortanique' tangor after coating with the carnauba-based waxes Aruá Tropical® or Star Light®. The storage conditions studied simulated those of local marketing (22 ± 2 °C, 60 ± 5% RH. Non-destructive analysis, mass loss, peel color, and sensory evaluation, were performed upon coating and every three days up to the fifteenth day of storage. Destructive analysis, peel moisture content, chlorophyll of the peel, pulp color, juice content, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, pH, and soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio, were performed upon coating and every four days up to the sixteenth day of storage. The assay was conducted using an entirely randomized design, with three replications (destructive analyses or ten replications (non-destructive analyses, in a split plot scheme. Wax-coating, especially Aruá Tropical®, maintained fruit freshness by reducing mass loss and peel dehydration and retaining green color. Peel moisture content, chlorophyll content, and juice content had lower rates in the wax coated fruits. Puncture force, soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, and soluble solids to titratable acidity ratio varied vary little over the course of storage. Sensory evaluation showed that the application of Aruá Tropical keeps 'Ortanique' tangor fresher for 6 days longer for commercialization.

  9. Enhanced Thermo-Optical Switching of Paraffin-Wax Composite Spots under Laser Heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Asmaa; Salah, Abeer; Fattah, Gamal Abdel

    2017-05-12

    Thermo-optical switches are of particular significance in communications networks where increasingly high switching speeds are required. Phase change materials (PCMs), in particular those based on paraffin wax, provide wealth of exciting applications with unusual thermally-induced switching properties, only limited by paraffin's rather low thermal conductivity. In this paper, the use of different carbon fillers as thermal conductivity enhancers for paraffin has been investigated, and a novel structure based on spot of paraffin wax as a thermo-optic switch is presented. Thermo-optical switching parameters are enhanced with the addition of graphite and graphene, due to the extreme thermal conductivity of the carbon fillers. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) are performed on paraffin wax composites, and specific heat capacities are calculated based on DSC measurements. Thermo-optical switching based on transmission is measured as a function of the host concentration under conventional electric heating and laser heating of paraffin-carbon fillers composites. Further enhancements in thermo-optical switching parameters are studied under Nd:YAG laser heating. This novel structure can be used in future networks with huge bandwidth requirements and electric noise free remote aerial laser switching applications.

  10. Control of the wax moth Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae by the male sterile technique (MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Reza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we examined the control of wax moth using the male sterile technique (MST with gamma-rays. To determine the safe and effective dosage of gamma-rays capable of sterilizing male pupae of the wax moth, male pupae were exposed to increasing single doses of gamma-rays (250, 300, 350 and 400 Gy. The release ratio of sterile to normal males was also studied in a similar experiment. Treatments included sterile males, normal males and virgin females at the following ratios: 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1, 4:1:1 and 5:1:1. Possible parthenogenetic reproduction of this pest was also examined. The results showed that 350 Gy was the most effective dose capable of sterilizing the male pupae of the wax moth. The best release ratio was established at four sterile males, one normal male for each normal female (4:1:1. Also females were incapable of producing offspring without males.

  11. Insecticidal Properties of a Highly Potent Wax Isolated from Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Díaz Napal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bioassay-guided fractionation of an ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Dolichandra cynanchoides Cham. (Bignoniaceae led to the isolation of a natural wax with anti-insect activity against Spodoptera frugiperda (Noctuidae and Epilachna paenulata (Coleptera. The compound was identified spectroscopically as an ester of a C27 fatty acid and a C25 alcohol, pentacosyl heptacosanoate (1. The effective doses of 1 for 50% feeding inhibition (ED50 of S. frugiperda and E. paenulata were 0.82 and 8.53 µg/cm2, respectively, in a choice test, while azadirachtin showed ED50 of 0.10 and 0.59 µg/cm2, respectively. In a no-choice test, both insects refused to feed on leaves treated with 1 at doses of 0.1 µg/cm2 or greater inhibiting larval growth and dramatically reducing survival. The lethal doses 50 (LD50 of 1 were 0.39 and 0.68 µg/cm2 for S. frugiperda and E. paenulata, respectively. These results indicate that 1 has potential for development as botanical insecticides. Similar esters might be obtainable in large quantities as many edible crops produce wax esters that are discarded during food processing. Research on these materials could lead to the detection of similar waxes with insecticidal activity.

  12. Composition of secondary alcohols, ketones, alkanediols, and ketols in Arabidopsis thaliana cuticular waxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Miao; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis wax components containing secondary functional groups were examined (i) to test the biosynthetic relationship between secondary alcohols and ketols and (ii) to determine the regiospecificity and substrate preference of the enzyme involved in ketol biosynthesis. The stem wax of Arabidopsis wild type contained homologous series of C27 to C31 secondary alcohols (2.4 μg cm−2) and C28 to C30 ketones (6.0 μg cm−2) dominated by C29 homologues. In addition, compound classes containing two secondary functional groups were identified as C29 diols (∼0.05 μg cm−2) and ketols (∼0.16 μg cm−2). All four compound classes showed characteristic isomer distributions, with functional groups located between C-14 and C-16. In the mah1 mutant stem wax, diols and ketols could not be detected, while the amounts of secondary alcohols and ketones were drastically reduced. In two MAH1-overexpressing lines, equal amounts of C29 and C31 secondary alcohols were detected. Based on the comparison of homologue and isomer compositions between the different genotypes, it can be concluded that biosynthetic pathways lead from alkanes to secondary alcohols, and via ketones or diols to ketols. It seems plausible that MAH1 is the hydroxylase enzyme involved in all these conversions in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:19346242

  13. Influence of putrescine and carnauba wax on functional and sensory quality of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) fruits during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Kalyan; Asrey, Ram; Pal, R K; Kaur, Charanjit; Jha, S K

    2014-01-01

    Functional properties (anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid and tannin) and sensory score were determined in pomegranate fruits at two storage temperatures (3 and 5 °C) after treatment with 2 mM putrescine and 1 : 10 carnauba wax (carnauba wax : water). The treatments (putrescine and carnauba wax) were given by immersion method followed by storage up to 60 days. Both treatments retained significantly higher anthocyanins, antioxidant, ascorbic acid, tannin and sensory qualities as compared with control fruits under both the storage conditions. Combined application of putrescine + carnauba wax showed better response in retaining functional properties than putrescine treated or nontreated fruits. The impacts of putrescine and carnauba wax treatments were found more pronounced after 30 days at 3-5 °C storage temperature in retaining functional and sensory qualities. After 60 days of storage, putrescine + carnauba wax retained about 25% higher antioxidant activity both at 3 and 5 °C storage temperatures.

  14. Development of the cuticular wax during growth of Kalanchoe daigremontiana (Hamet et Perr. de la Bathie) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maarseveen, Clare; Han, Hong; Jetter, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to monitor cuticular wax accumulation during leaf development of Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Leaves expanded linearly until they were 40-60 d old. Wax coverages of leaves on the third node increased steadily during initial leaf development, from 6.5 microg x cm(-2) on day 22 to 15.3 microg x cm(-2) on day 53, and then levelled off. Triterpenoids dominated the wax mixture throughout leaf development, but decreased from 74 to 40-45% in mature leaves, while very long-chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derivatives increased from 19 to 39-44%. The major VLCFA derivatives were alkanes, accompanied by fatty acids, primary alcohols, aldehydes and alkyl esters. In all compound classes, either C(34) or C(33) homologs predominated during leaf development. Eight different triterpenoids were identified, with glutinol constituting 70% of the fraction, and friedelin (20%) and germanicol (10%) as further major components of the young leaf wax. The glutinol percentage decreased, while the relative amounts of epifriedelanol and glutanol increased during development. Various leaf pairs upwards from the third node showed similar growth patterns and developmental time courses of cuticular wax amounts and composition. Based on these surface chemical analyses, the relative activities of biosynthetic pathways leading to various wax components can be assessed.

  15. Role of sodium hydroxide in the production of hydrogen gas from the hydrothermal gasification of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onwudili, Jude A.; Williams, Paul T. [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    The role of sodium hydroxide as a promoter of hydrogen gas production during the hydrothermal gasification of glucose and other biomass samples has been investigated. Experiments were carried out in a batch reactor with glucose and also in the presence of the alkali from 200 C, 2 MPa to 450 C, 34 MPa at constant water loading. Without sodium hydroxide, glucose decomposed to produce mainly carbon dioxide, water, char and tar. Furfural, its derivatives and reaction products dominated the ethyl acetate extract of the water (organic fraction) at lower reaction conditions. This indicated that the dehydration of glucose to yield these products was unfavourable to hydrogen gas production. In the presence of sodium hydroxide however, glucose initially decomposed to form mostly alkylated and hydroxylated carbonyl compounds, whose further decomposition yielded hydrogen gas. It was observed that at 350 C, 21.5 MPa, half of the optimum hydrogen gas yield had formed and at 450 C, 34 MPa, more than 80 volume percent of the gaseous effluent was hydrogen gas, while the balance was hydrocarbon gases, mostly methane ({>=}10 volume percent). Other biomass samples were also comparably reacted at the optimum conditions observed for glucose. The rate of hydrogen production for the biomass samples was in the following order; glucose > cellulose, starch, rice straw > potato > rice husk. (author)

  16. Arabidopsis ketoacyl-CoA synthase 16 (KCS16) forms C36 /C38 acyl precursors for leaf trichome and pavement surface wax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegebarth, Daniela; Buschhaus, Christopher; Joubès, Jérôme; Thoraval, Didier; Bird, David; Jetter, Reinhard

    2017-09-01

    The aliphatic waxes sealing plant surfaces against environmental stress are generated by fatty acid elongase complexes, each containing a β-ketoacyl-CoA synthase (KCS) enzyme that catalyses a crucial condensation forming a new C─C bond to extend the carbon backbone. The relatively high abundance of C 35 and C 37 alkanes derived from C 36 and C 38 acyl-CoAs in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes (relative to other epidermis cells) suggests differences in the elongation machineries of different epidermis cell types, possibly involving KCS16, a condensing enzyme expressed preferentially in trichomes. Here, KCS16 was found expressed primarily in Arabidopsis rosette leaves, flowers and siliques, and the corresponding protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The cuticular waxes on young leaves and isolated leaf trichomes of ksc16 loss-of-function mutants were depleted of C 35 and C 37 alkanes and alkenes, whereas expression of Arabidopsis KCS16 in yeast and ectopic overexpression in Arabidopsis resulted in accumulation of C 36 and C 38 fatty acid products. Taken together, our results show that KCS16 is the sole enzyme catalysing the elongation of C 34 to C 38 acyl-CoAs in Arabidopsis leaf trichomes and that it contributes to the formation of extra-long compounds in adjacent pavement cells. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Roles and responsibilities of pharmacists with respect to natural health products: key informant interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunde, Shade; Boon, Heather; Hirschkorn, Kristine; Welsh, Sandy; Bajcar, Jana

    2010-03-01

    Although many pharmacies sell natural health products (NHPs), there is no clear definition as to the roles and responsibilities (if any) of pharmacists with respect to these products. The purpose of this study was to explore pharmacy and stakeholder leaders' perceptions of pharmacists' professional NHP roles and responsibilities. Semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted with pharmacy leaders (n=17) and stakeholder (n=18) leaders representing consumers, complementary and alternative medicine practitioners, conventional health care practitioners, and industry across Canada. All participants believed a main NHP responsibility for pharmacists was in safety monitoring, although a one challenge identified in the interviews was pharmacists' general lack of NHP knowledge; however, stakeholder leaders did not expect pharmacists to be experts, but should have a basic level of knowledge about NHPs. Participants described pharmacists' professional roles and responsibilities for NHPs as similar to those for over-the-counter drugs; more awareness of existing NHP-related pharmacy policies is needed, and pharmacy owners/managers should provide additional training to ensure front-line pharmacists have appropriate knowledge of NHPs sold in the pharmacy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  19. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Rybak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence of fat globules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions. It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  20. The role of milk proteins in the structure formation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rybak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The structure of dairy products is a complex of proteins, fat, minerals and water that determines the texture and sensory properties of the product. Material and methods. The fermented milks (using the example of yogurt, cheese, ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts have been researched. Scientific articles, published during 2000 and 2014 years, as well as theses and monographs of dairy science have been analysed too. Methodology of the investigation is based upon the use of the methods of analysis, comparison and synthesis. Results and discussion. The scientific understanding of the milk proteins’ role in the structure formation of dairy product has been summarized. Negligible changes of structure as a result of compositional or technological changes can lead to shifts in the stability, texture and rheology of products, which are closely related to each other. The allowance of these properties has significant influence on the manufacturing. Acid coagulation is a major functional property of milk proteins, which used in the structure formation of cheese and fermented dairy products. However, the form and properties of milk curd depend on the heat treatment of milk before fermentation. Milk proteins exhibit other functional properties (emulsification and partial coalescence o f fatglobules, aeration and foam stability during a churning, viscosity increasing of external phase in the development of structure in the ice cream, aerated milk and frozen fruit desserts. Conclusions.It is expedient to use results into a further study of the structure formation mechanism of dairy products and the development of recommendations in order to an efficient production.

  1. The role of reserves and production in the market capitalization of oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, Bradley T.; Thompson, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the role proved reserves and production play in the market capitalization of publicly traded oil and gas companies engaged in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The paper provides two important contributions to the literature. First, we extend the existing research by utilizing the method of Robust Least Squares to estimate a multivariate market capitalization model that controls for firm type. Second, we document the impacts that oil and gas reserves to production ratios have on market capitalization. This is a key finding in the context of discounted net cash flow models and the findings suggest there is an optimal tradeoff between current and future production, given current volumes of reserves, the latter of which is valued positively by the market. Moreover, this optimal tradeoff or the optimal profit-maximizing intertemporal production choice is unique to the type of hydrocarbon being considered. Additionally, our findings highlight the importance of capital structure in the heavily capital intensive oil and gas industry. The results from this research should benefit both oil and gas companies and investors. Specifically, the results provide new and robust information as to the empirical relationships between key determinants of oil and gas company market valuations. - Highlights: • We utilized Robust Least Squares to estimate a multivariate market capitalization model. • There is a differential impact that oil and gas reserves to production ratios have on market capitalization. • The optimal profit-maximizing intertemporal production choice is unique to the type of hydrocarbon being considered. • Results provide new information as to the relationships between key determinants of oil and gas company market valuations.

  2. Adsorption of radioactive ions on carnauba-wax aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, A.; Keyser, U. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    A new method based on parallel aerosol size spectrometry and {gamma}-spectrometry is introduced for the measurement of short-lived radioactive ions, fission products or super-heavy elements produced at accelerators. Furthermore a new aerosol generator is presented.The possibility of controlling and changing the aerosol size distribution in the helium aerosol jet produced by the aerosol generator allows the process of the adsorption and transport of radioactive ions on aerosols to be examined for the first time. This is due to the fact that the distribution is surveyed on-line using a negligible part of its total volume and parallel to the transporting flow. The radioactivity of the transported ions is measured by a germanium detector in offline position. In principle, both an on- or offline position with narrow multi-detector geometry (e.g. {beta}{gamma}{gamma}) is possible. (orig.) With 8 figs., 14 refs.

  3. The Role of Experience When Utilizing Inter-organizational Relationships for New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Thomas Bøtker; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the role of collaborative experience on interorganizational collaborations in the new product development (NPD) process, and whether collaborative experience can act as a mediating and moderating variable. The paper is motivated by the growing literature...... on the importance of inter-organizational relationships stimulated by the idea that firms operate in networks and should therefore be strategic about who to include in e.g. NPD projects. A growing literature has concluded that trust and experience are vital tacit skills to build, which may be crucial...... in establishing successful relationships. However, the empirical evidence reported in the literature is still relatively scarce....

  4. The role of the Federal Trade Commission in advertising health products and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daynard, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Trade Commission plays a unique role in enforcing well-established standards ensuring that consumers can make informed purchase and use decisions about health-related products and services based on truthful, non-misleading advertising claims while encouraging competition. Deceptive and unfair practices are defined. The importance of the "net impression" that ads convey to consumers and the need for substantiation of objective, factual claims is explained. The FTC uses its enforcement powers and consumer and industry outreach to create a climate for preventing misleading advertising.

  5. A future perspective on the role of industrial biotechnology for chemicals production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John; Breuer, Michael; Mink, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The development of recombinant DNA technology, the need for renewable raw materials and a green, sustainable profile for future chemical processes have been major drivers in the implementation of industrial biotechnology. The use of industrial biotechnology for the production of chemicals is well...... established in the pharmaceutical industry but is moving down the value chain toward bulk chemicals. Chemical engineers will have an essential role in the development of new processes where the need is for new design methods for effective implementation, just as much as new technology. Most interesting...

  6. THE ROLE OF SOCIAL MEDIA IN THE CHOICE OF TOURIST PRODUCTS AND ETHICAL RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SİBEL SÜ ERÖZ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Internet usage rate increases rapidly with the development and spread of technology not only in our country but also in the world. It has been seen that consumers are affected by these channels in the purchases of goods and services, as well. Internet usage and social media has been appeared out as an important channel in the choice of tourist products in terms of tourism businesses as well. So it has been shown  the necessity that social media’s role must be analyze in the choice of tourist product and this platforms must be evaluate in the aspects of ethic. The literature review found that there isn’t a study in terms of tourism businesses. This study also demonstrated the need. In this context, the main purpose of the study, explain the function of social media in tourism enterprises within the scope of marketing ethics.

  7. Fugitive Emissions from the Bakken Shale Illustrate Role of Shale Production in Global Ethane Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, E. A.; Smith, M. L.; Murray, L. T.; Gvakharia, A.; Brandt, A. R.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Sweeney, C.; Travis, K.

    2016-01-01

    Ethane is the second most abundant atmospheric hydrocarbon, exerts a strong influence on tropospheric ozone, and reduces the atmosphere's oxidative capacity. Global observations showed declining ethane abundances from 1984 to 2010, while a regional measurement indicated increasing levels since 2009, with the reason for this subject to speculation. The Bakken shale is an oil and gas-producing formation centered in North Dakota that experienced a rapid increase in production beginning in 2010. We use airborne data collected over the North Dakota portion of the Bakken shale in 2014 to calculate ethane emissions of 0.23 +/- 0.07 (2 sigma) Tg/yr, equivalent to 1-3% of total global sources. Emissions of this magnitude impact air quality via concurrent increases in tropospheric ozone. This recently developed large ethane source from one location illustrates the key role of shale oil and gas production in rising global ethane levels.

  8. Controversies Regarding the Role of Dairy Products in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seymour Mishkin

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Dairy products may affect inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients who are either lactose intolerant or who are allergic to the proteins in these foods. The actual incidence of these conditions in IBD patients is not entirely clear. Whether either of these conditions results in benign symptomatic discomfort or can actually contribute to the relapse and/or clinical activity of IBD is also unclear. Physicians differ widely in the advice they give their patients; some dogmatically advise avoidance of dairy products when the diagnosis is made while others discount their possible role in the management of IBD. On the basis of the author’s and his group’s experience and review of the literature, a balanced and exploratory approach by patients, physicians and dieticians is advised.

  9. Excipients and their role in approved injectable products: current usage and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nema, Sandeep; Brendel, Ronald J

    2011-01-01

    This review article is a current survey of excipients used in approved injectable products. Information provided includes concentration ranges, function, frequency of use, and role in dosage form. This article is an update of a paper published more than a decade ago (reference 11). Since then many new products have been approved. Safety concerning excipients has evolved as the scientific community continues to learn about their usage. New excipients are being used in early phases of clinical trials to support novel therapeutic entities like RNAi, aptamers, anti-sense, fusion proteins, monoclonal antibodies, and variant scaffolds. Because these excipients are not inert, various pharmacopoeias are responding with monographs or informational chapters addressing excipient functionality. The final sections of this article discuss new excipients, serving specific needs that traditional excipients are unable to provide and for which safety studies are necessary to support a novel excipient for marketing applications. Excipients are added to parenteral dosage forms to serve a variety of functions including stabilization and as vehicles. This review article is a survey of excipients used in approved injectable products. Information provided includes excipient concentrations, functional roles, and frequency of use. This article is an update of an article originally published over a decade ago. Since then new products have been approved and safety concerns have evolved as the scientific community has learned about the usage of excipients. In addition, new excipients are being used in early phases of clinical trials to support novel therapeutic entities such as RNAi, aptamers, anti-sense, fusion proteins, monoclonal antibodies, and variant scaffolds. Because these excipients are not inert, various pharmacopoeias are responding with monographs or informational chapters addressing excipient functionality. The final sections of this article discuss new excipients, serving

  10. Temporary oil production, current account deterioration and the role of monetary and fiscal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper extends earlier work on the macroeconomic adjustment processes arising for an economy experiencing a temporary period of oil production. Emphasis is placed on developments in the current account, as reflected in foreign asset stock movements, after oil production ceases, as well as on the role that monetary, fiscal or fiscal/monetary policy can play in influencing current-account developments during this same period. The results presented suggest that, to improve the performance of the current account, irrespective of the wage adjustment mechanism operative, after oil production ceases, the major thrust of macroeconomic policy should operate through fiscal rather than monetary policy. However developments in non-oil output would be influenced by the wage adjustment mechanism. With wage indexation, a tight fiscal policy after oil production ceases leads to a higher level of non-oil output than in the no policy response case, or one where monetary policy alone is used. With no wage indexation, the use of monetary and/or fiscal policy leads to lower levels of non-oil output. The use of fiscal policy also has the added benefit of contributing to a lower consumer price level, again irrespective of the operative wage adjustment mechanism. If the emphasis of policy operates through monetary policy, irrespective of the wage adjustment mechanism, the current-account problem will be exacerbated since foreign assets stocks will be lower. In addition, non-oil output and consumer prices will be lower. (Author)

  11. The Role of Eucalyptus Globulus Forest and Products in Carbon Sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroja, L.; Dias, A.C.; Capela, I.

    2006-01-01

    This study is a contribution to the ongoing debate about the selection of the approach for carbon accounting in wood products to be used, in the future, in the national greenhouse gas inventories under the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Two accounting approaches are used in this analysis: the stock-change approach and the atmospheric-flow approach. They are applied to the Portuguese Eucalyptus globulus forest sector. To achieve this objective, the fluxes of wood removed from the forest are tracked through its life cycle, which includes products manufacture (mainly pulp and paper), use and final disposal (landfilling, incineration and composting). This study develops a framework to the estimation of carbon sequestration in the forest of E. globulus, a fast growing species, more specifically, in the calculation of the conversion factors such as bark and foliage percentages and densities, used to convert wood volumes into total biomass. A mass balance approach based on real data from mills is also proposed, in order to assess carbon emissions from wood processing. The results show that E. globulus forest sector was a carbon sink, but the magnitude of the carbon sequestration differs substantially depending on the accounting approach used. The contribution of the forest ecosystem was smaller than the aggregated contribution of wood products in use and in landfills (including industrial waste), which reinforces the role that wood products play in national carbon budgets

  12. The multiple roles of titin in muscle contraction and force production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Walter

    2018-01-20

    Titin is a filamentous protein spanning the half-sarcomere, with spring-like properties in the I-band region. Various structural, signaling, and mechanical functions have been associated with titin, but not all of these are fully elucidated and accepted in the scientific community. Here, I discuss the primary mechanical functions of titin, including its accepted role in passive force production, stabilization of half-sarcomeres and sarcomeres, and its controversial contribution to residual force enhancement, passive force enhancement, energetics, and work production in shortening muscle. Finally, I provide evidence that titin is a molecular spring whose stiffness changes with muscle activation and actin-myosin-based force production, suggesting a novel model of force production that, aside from actin and myosin, includes titin as a "third contractile" filament. Using this three-filament model of sarcomeres, the stability of (half-) sarcomeres, passive force enhancement, residual force enhancement, and the decrease in metabolic energy during and following eccentric contractions can be explained readily.

  13. Product development, strategy, product innovation performance, and the mediating role of knowledge utilization : evidence from subsidiares in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Benedetto, Di A.C.; Hoenig, S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the interplay of product development strategy, knowledge utilization, and product innovation performance in the context of Chinese subsidiaries of multinational companies. When firms strive to develop highly innovative products (breakthrough focus), the amount of resources

  14. Role of cultural tourism in the marketing of local products and their reputation: the case of southern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanane ABICHOU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a contribution to the reflection on the local marketing of local products and their reputation front of phenomenon of globalization of agro-industrial products. It mobilizes the concept of territorial amenity as a source of licensing of a terroir and examines its potential role in consumer behavior, taking into account the individual psychological differences. Perceptions of local products by the consumer and the reasons related to the purchase of these products are analyzed. From a qualitative study we define the contours of the local product of a consumer point of view while highlighting the different motivations behind the consumption of these products.

  15. The emerging roles of agricultural insurance and farmers cooperatives on sustainable rice productions in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopulisa, C.; Rismaneswati; Ramlan, A.; Suryani, I.

    2018-05-01

    Rice is the main staple food of most Asian countries including Indonesia. Most of the rice producers are constituted by small individual farmers characterized with mostly landless, have a less farming capitals and less access to pool resources and of course are confronted with various risk. Agriculture is faced with a lot of uncertainly most of which are not within the control of farmers. Global climatic change, climatic disasters, fluctuation of global economic and competitiveness of multinational company make difficulties of farmers to pursue his sustainable farming activity. The challenge and the role of government is to reduce uncertainly and to improve resiliency of the small farmer. Agriculture insurance shall focus on risk factors that are difficult to manage or cannot be managed by small farmers and it is should be viewed as just one aspect of the “holistic” risk management strategy. Technology, market, consumer, behaviour, development will always move forward, and no individual farmers can adapt this change alone, so small farmers need to corporate with each other that can optimized the resources they have. Cooperative could create possibilities, value added, shortening the supplied chain, made a product more effective and efficient, and finally can complete in domestic and global markets. Therefore, agriculture insurance as well a farmer cooperative may play an important role on sustainability of rice production in Indonesia. Nowadays and in the future agriculture sustainability is a not merely of technology problems but also a matter of economic-social-culture and politic issues within local, national, and international context.

  16. Role of the pre- and post-natal environment in developmental programming of health and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Lawrence P; Caton, Joel S

    2012-05-06

    The concept that developmental insults (for example, poor pre- or postnatal nutrition) can have long-term consequences on health and well-being of the offspring has been termed developmental programming. In livestock, developmental programming affects production traits, including growth, body composition, and reproduction. Although low birth weight was used as a proxy for compromised fetal development in the initial epidemiological studies, based on controlled studies using livestock and other animal models in the last two decades we now know that developmental programming can occur independently of any effects on birth weight. Studies in humans, rodents, and livestock also have confirmed the critical role of the placenta in developmental programming. In addition, the central role of epigenetic regulation in developmental programming has been confirmed. Lastly, relatively simple therapeutic/management strategies designed to 'rescue' placental development and function are being developed to minimize the effects of developmental programming on health and productivity of humans, livestock, and other mammals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Hair growth promoting effect of white wax and policosanol from white wax on the mouse model of testosterone-induced hair loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhan-di; Feng, Ying; Ma, Li-Yi; Li, Xian; Ding, Wei-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Ming

    2017-05-01

    White wax (WW) has been traditionally used to treat hair loss in China. However there has been no reporter WW and its extract responsible for hair growth-promoting effect on androgenetic alopecia. In this paper, we examined the hair growth-promoting effects of WW and policosanol of white wax (WWP) on model animal of androgenetic alopecia and the potential target cell of WW and WWP. WW (1, 10 and 20%) and WWP (0.5, 1 and 2%) were applied topically to the backs of mice. Finasteride (2%) was applied topically as a positive control. MTS assays were performed to evaluate cell proliferation in culture human follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPCs). The inhibition of WW and WWP for 5α- reductase were tested in Vitro. Results showed more lost hairs were clearly seen in mice treated with TP only and TP plus vehicle. Mice which received TP plus WW and WWP showed less hair loss. WW and WWP showed an outstanding hair growth-promoting activity as reflected by the follicular length, follicular density, A/T ratio, and hair bulb diameter. The optimal treatment effect was observed at 10% WW and 1% WWP, which were better than 2% finasteride treatment. MTS assay results suggested that WW and WWP remarkably increased the proliferation of HFDPCs. Inhibitor assay of 5α- reductase showed that WW and WWP inhibited significantly the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotesterone, and the IC 50 values of WW and WWP were higher than that of finasteride. In Conclusion, WW and WWP could act against testosterone-induced alopecia in mice, and they promoted hair growth by inhibiting 5α-reductase activity and HFDPCs proliferation. DPCs is the target cell of WW and WWP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and evaluation of a heat exchanger that uses paraffin wax and recycled materials as solar energy accumulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, Alejandro; Negrete, Daniela; Mahn, Andrea; Sepúlveda, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal conductivity of paraffin wax was improved with aluminum wool. • Aluminum wool surrounding the cans favored the energy recuperation from the wax. • The heat exchanger accumulated 3000 kJ energy. • The accumulated energy can be easily increased with larger units. • COMSOL simulated adequately the energy removal process from the cans. - Abstract: Soft drink cans filled with paraffin wax mixed with 5% w/w aluminum wool, obtained from disposable cans, doubled the thermal conductivity of cans filled only with paraffin wax. Thermal conductivity of the systems was determined by two ways: directly using a thermal conductivimeter, and indirectly based on temperature profiles and on the analytical solution of a cylinder. We designed, built and evaluated a heat exchanger for solar energy accumulation, composed by 48 disposable soft drink cans filled with a total of 9.5 kg of paraffin wax mixed with 5% w/w aluminum wool. In sunny days, the wax melted completely in 3 h. The accumulated energy of 3000 kJ, allowed increasing the temperature of 3.5 m 3 /h air flow rate from 20 to 40 °C during a period of 2 h. This application will allow extending the use of solar energy in drying processes or could be used as household calefaction system. The progress of the phase change front in time during the energy discharge period was simulated with COMSOL, whereas the effect of the number of cans and thermal conductivity of the paraffin wax on the air temperature increase was simulated with MATLAB

  19. Effect of emulsifier type and concentration, aqueous phase volume and wax ratio on physical, material and mechanical properties of water in oil lipsticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beri, A; Norton, J E; Norton, I T

    2013-12-01

    Water-in-oil emulsions in lipsticks could have the potential to improve moisturizing properties and deliver hydrophilic molecules to the lips. The aims of this work were (i) to investigate the effect of emulsifier type (polymer vs. monomer, and saturated vs. unsaturated chain) and concentration on droplet size and (ii) to investigate the effect of wax ratio (carnauba wax, microcrystalline wax, paraffin wax and performalene) and aqueous phase volume on material properties (Young's modulus, point of fracture, elastic modulus and viscous modulus). Emulsion formation was achieved using a high shear mixer. Results showed that the saturated nature of the emulsifier had very little effect on droplet size, neither did the use of an emulsifier with a larger head group (droplet size ~18-25 μm). Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) resulted in emulsions with the smallest droplets (~3-5 μm), as expected from previous studies that show that it produces a thick elastic interface. The results also showed that both Young's modulus and point of fracture increase with increasing percentage of carnauba wax (following a power law dependency of 3), but decrease with increasing percentage of microcrystalline wax, suggesting that the carnauba wax is included in the overall wax network formed by the saturated components, whereas the microcrystalline wax forms irregular crystals that disrupt the overall wax crystal network. Young's modulus, elastic modulus and viscous modulus all decrease with increasing aqueous phase volume in the emulsions, although the slope of the decrease in elastic and viscous moduli is dependent on the addition of solid wax, as a result of strengthening the network. This work suggests the potential use for emulsions in lipstick applications, particularly when PGPR is used as an emulsifier, and with the addition of solid wax, as it increases network strength. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. Production Suitability of an Electroform Conductive Wax Process for the Manufacture of Fluidic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-11-01

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