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Sample records for wavelength-sized gaas optomechanical

  1. Optomechanics: Diamonds take off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerer, Klemens; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Nanodiamonds that are levitated by light and are equipped with internal spin provide a new platform for performing quantum and optomechanical experiments with massive, environmentally isolated objects.

  2. Optomechanical systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kasunic, Keith J

    2015-01-01

    Covers the fundamental principles behind optomechanical design This book emphasizes a practical, systems-level overview of optomechanical engineering, showing throughout how the requirements on the optical system flow down to those on the optomechanical design. The author begins with an overview of optical engineering, including optical fundamentals as well as the fabrication and alignment of optical components such as lenses and mirrors. The concepts of optomechanical engineering are then applied to the design of optical systems, including the structural design of mechanical and optical co

  3. Nano-optomechanical transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, Peter T; El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Su, Mehmet Fatih; Reinke, Charles; Camacho, Ryan; Wang, Zheng; Davids, Paul

    2013-12-03

    A nano-optomechanical transducer provides ultrabroadband coherent optomechanical transduction based on Mach-wave emission that uses enhanced photon-phonon coupling efficiencies by low impedance effective phononic medium, both electrostriction and radiation pressure to boost and tailor optomechanical forces, and highly dispersive electromagnetic modes that amplify both electrostriction and radiation pressure. The optomechanical transducer provides a large operating bandwidth and high efficiency while simultaneously having a small size and minimal power consumption, enabling a host of transformative phonon and signal processing capabilities. These capabilities include optomechanical transduction via pulsed phonon emission and up-conversion, broadband stimulated phonon emission and amplification, picosecond pulsed phonon lasers, broadband phononic modulators, and ultrahigh bandwidth true time delay and signal processing technologies.

  4. Macroscopic Optomechanically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Jacob; Castelli, Alessandro; Martinez, Luis; Thompson, Johnathon; Chiao, Ray; Sharping, Jay

    Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) is an effect wherein the spectrum of a cavity resonance is modified through interference between coupled excitation pathways. In this work we investigate a macroscopic, 3D microwave, superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavity incorporating a niobium-coated, silicon-nitride membrane as the flexible boundary. The boundary supports acoustic vibrational resonances, which lead to coupling with the microwave resonances of the SRF cavity. The theoretical development and physical understanding of OMIT for our macroscopic SRF cavity is the same as that for other recently-reported OMIT systems despite vastly different optomechanical coupling factors and device sizes. Our mechanical oscillator has a coupling factor of g0 = 2 π . 1 ×10-5 Hz and is roughly 38 mm in diameter. The Q = 5 ×107 for the SRF cavity allows probing of optomechanical effects in the resolved sideband regime.

  5. Optomechanical parameter estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, Shan Zheng; Tsang, Mankei; Harris, Glen I; Bowen, Warwick P

    2013-01-01

    We propose a statistical framework for the problem of parameter estimation from a noisy optomechanical system. The Cramér–Rao lower bound on the estimation errors in the long-time limit is derived and compared with the errors of radiometer and expectation–maximization (EM) algorithms in the estimation of the force noise power. When applied to experimental data, the EM estimator is found to have the lowest error and follow the Cramér–Rao bound most closely. Our analytic results are envisioned to be valuable to optomechanical experiment design, while the EM algorithm, with its ability to estimate most of the system parameters, is envisioned to be useful for optomechanical sensing, atomic magnetometry and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. (paper)

  6. Colloquium: cavity optomechanics

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    Monday 14 November 2011, 17:00 Ecole de Physique, Auditoire Stueckelberg Université de Genève Cavity optomechanics: controlling micro mechanical oscillators with laser light Prof. Tobias Kippenberg EPFL, Lausanne Laser light can be used to cool and to control trapped ions, atoms and molecules at the quantum level. This has lead to spectacular advances such as the most precise atomic clocks. An outstanding frontier is the control with lasers of nano- and micro-mechancial systems. Recent advances in cavity optomechanics have allowed such elementary control for the first time, enabling mechanical systems to be ground state cooled leading to readout with quantum limited sensitivity and permitting to explore new device concepts resulting from radiation pressure.  

  7. Coherent coupling between radio frequency, optical, and acoustic waves in piezo-optomechanical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Krishna C.; Davanço, Marcelo I.; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect. Along with mechanical state preparation and sensitive readout, we use this to demonstrate an acoustic wave interference effect, similar to atomic coherent population trapping, in which RF-driven coherent mechanical motion is cancelled by optically-driven motion. Manipulating cavity optomechanical systems with equal facility through both photonic and phononic channels enables new architectures for signal transduction between the optical, electrical, and mechanical domains. PMID:27446234

  8. Optomechanically induced absorption in parity-time-symmetric optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Guo, Y. Q.; Pei, P.; Yi, X. X.

    2017-06-01

    We explore the optomechanically induced absorption (OMIA) in a parity-time- (PT -) symmetric optomechanical system (OMS). By numerically calculating the Lyapunov exponents, we find out the stability border of the PT -symmetric OMS. The results show that in the PT -symmetric phase the system can be either stable or unstable depending on the coupling constant and the decay rate. In the PT -symmetric broken phase the system can have a stable state only for small gain rates. By calculating the transmission rate of the probe field, we find that there is an inverted optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) at δ =-ωM and an OMIA at δ =ωM for the PT -symmetric optomechanical system. At each side of δ =-ωM there is an absorption window due to the resonance absorption of the two generated supermodes. Comparing with the case of optomechanics coupled to a passive cavity, we find that the active cavity can enhance the resonance absorption. The absorption rate at δ =ωM increases as the coupling strength between the two cavities increases. Our work provides us with a promising platform for controlling light propagation and light manipulation in terms of PT symmetry, which might have potential applications in quantum information processing and quantum optical devices.

  9. Optomechanical transistor with mechanical gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Z.; Tian, Lin; Li, Yong

    2018-04-01

    We study an optomechanical transistor, where an input field can be transferred and amplified unidirectionally in a cyclic three-mode optomechanical system. In this system, the mechanical resonator is coupled simultaneously to two cavity modes. We show that it only requires a finite mechanical gain to achieve the nonreciprocal amplification. Here the nonreciprocity is caused by the phase difference between the linearized optomechanical couplings that breaks the time-reversal symmetry of this system. The amplification arises from the mechanical gain, which provides an effective phonon bath that pumps the mechanical mode coherently. This effect is analogous to the stimulated emission of atoms, where the probe field can be amplified when its frequency is in resonance with that of the anti-Stokes transition. We show that by choosing optimal parameters, this optomechanical transistor can reach perfect unidirectionality accompanied with strong amplification. In addition, the presence of the mechanical gain can result in ultralong delay in the phase of the probe field, which provides an alternative to controlling light transport in optomechanical systems.

  10. Quantum control of optomechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, S.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the prospects of entanglement-enhanced quantum control of optomechanical systems. We first discuss several pulsed schemes in which the radiation-pressure interaction is used to generate EPR entanglement between the mechanical mode of a cavity-optomechanical system and a travelling-wave light pulse. The entanglement created in this way can be used as a resource for mechanical state preparation. On the basis of this protocol, we introduce an optomechanical teleportation scheme to transfer an arbitrary light state onto the mechanical system. Furthermore, we describe how one can create a mechanical non-classical state (i.e., a state with a negative Wigner function) by single-photon detection, and, in a similar protocol, how optomechanical systems can be used to demonstrate the violation of a Bell inequality. The second part of the thesis is dedicated to time-continuous quantum control protocols. Making use of optimal-control techniques, we analyse measurement-based feedback cooling of a mechanical oscillator and demonstrate that ground-state cooling is achievable in the sideband-resolved, blue-detuned regime. We then extend this homodyne-detection based setup and introduce the notion of a time-continuous Bell measurement---a generalisation of the standard continuous variable Bell measurement to a continuous measurement setting. Combining this concept with continuous feedback we analyse the generation of a squeezed mechanical steady state via time-continuous teleportation, and the creation of bipartite mechanical entanglement by entanglement swapping. Finally we discuss an experiment demonstrating the evaluation of the conditional optomechanical quantum state by Kalman filtering, constituting a important step towards time-continuous quantum control of optomechanical systems and the possible realisation of the protocols presented in this thesis. (author) [de

  11. Squeezed light in optomechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, G. I.; Taylor, M. A.; Hoff, Ulrich Busk

    2012-01-01

    Squeezed light enhanced optomechanical measurements are demonstrated in both intra-cavity and biological contexts, with respective enhancements of 1.0 and 2.7 dB. Quantum enhanced microrheology of the cytoplasm of a yeast cell is thereby realized.......Squeezed light enhanced optomechanical measurements are demonstrated in both intra-cavity and biological contexts, with respective enhancements of 1.0 and 2.7 dB. Quantum enhanced microrheology of the cytoplasm of a yeast cell is thereby realized....

  12. Generalized optomechanics and its applications quantum optical properties of generalized optomechanical system

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jin Jin

    2013-01-01

    A mechanical oscillator coupled to the optical field in a cavity is a typical cavity optomechanical system. In our textbook, we prepare to introduce the quantum optical properties of optomechanical system, i.e. linear and nonlinear effects. Some quantum optical devices based on optomechanical system are also presented in the monograph, such as the Kerr modulator, quantum optical transistor, optomechanical mass sensor, and so on. But most importantly, we extend the idea of typical optomechanical system to coupled mechanical resonator system and demonstrate that the combined two-level structure

  13. Review of cavity optomechanical cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong-Chun; Hu Yu-Wen; Xiao Yun-Feng; Wong Chee Wei

    2013-01-01

    Quantum manipulation of macroscopic mechanical systems is of great interest in both fundamental physics and applications ranging from high-precision metrology to quantum information processing. For these purposes, a crucial step is to cool the mechanical system to its quantum ground state. In this review, we focus on the cavity optomechanical cooling, which exploits the cavity enhanced interaction between optical field and mechanical motion to reduce the thermal noise. Recent remarkable theoretical and experimental efforts in this field have taken a major step forward in preparing the motional quantum ground state of mesoscopic mechanical systems. This review first describes the quantum theory of cavity optomechanical cooling, including quantum noise approach and covariance approach; then, the up-to-date experimental progresses are introduced. Finally, new cooling approaches are discussed along the directions of cooling in the strong coupling regime and cooling beyond the resolved sideband limit. (topical review - quantum information)

  14. Cavity Optomechanics at Millikelvin Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenehan, Sean Michael

    The field of cavity optomechanics, which concerns the coupling of a mechanical object's motion to the electromagnetic field of a high finesse cavity, allows for exquisitely sensitive measurements of mechanical motion, from large-scale gravitational wave detection to microscale accelerometers. Moreover, it provides a potential means to control and engineer the state of a macroscopic mechanical object at the quantum level, provided one can realize sufficiently strong interaction strengths relative to the ambient thermal noise. Recent experiments utilizing the optomechanical interaction to cool mechanical resonators to their motional quantum ground state allow for a variety of quantum engineering applications, including preparation of non-classical mechanical states and coherent optical to microwave conversion. Optomechanical crystals (OMCs), in which bandgaps for both optical and mechanical waves can be introduced through patterning of a material, provide one particularly attractive means for realizing strong interactions between high-frequency mechanical resonators and near-infrared light. Beyond the usual paradigm of cavity optomechanics involving isolated single mechanical elements, OMCs can also be fashioned into planar circuits for photons and phonons, and arrays of optomechanical elements can be interconnected via optical and acoustic waveguides. Such coupled OMC arrays have been proposed as a way to realize quantum optomechanical memories, nanomechanical circuits for continuous variable quantum information processing and phononic quantum networks, and as a platform for engineering and studying quantum many-body physics of optomechanical meta-materials. However, while ground state occupancies (that is, average phonon occupancies less than one) have been achieved in OMC cavities utilizing laser cooling techniques, parasitic absorption and the concomitant degradation of the mechanical quality factor fundamentally limit this approach. On the other hand, the high

  15. Optomechanic interactions in phoxonic cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Djafari-Rouhani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phoxonic crystals are periodic structures exhibiting simultaneous phononic and photonic band gaps, thus allowing the confinement of both excitations in the same cavity. The phonon-photon interaction can be enhanced due to the overlap of both waves in the cavity. In this paper, we discuss some of our recent theoretical works on the strength of the optomechanic coupling, based on both photoelastic and moving interfaces mechanisms, in different (2D, slabs, strips phoxonic crystals cavities. The cases of two-dimensional infinite and slab structures will enable us to mention the important role of the symmetry and degeneracy of the modes, as well as the role of the materials whose photoelastic constants can be wavelength dependent. Depending on the phonon-photon pair, the photoelastic and moving interface mechanisms can contribute in phase or out-of-phase. Then, the main part of the paper will be devoted to the optomechanic interaction in a corrugated nanobeam waveguide exhibiting dual phononic/photonic band gaps. Such structures can provide photonic modes with very high quality factor, high frequency phononic modes of a few GHz inside a gap and optomechanical coupling rate reaching a few MHz.

  16. Quantum optics of optomechanical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stannigel, K.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis proposes various setups in which micro-mechanical resonators and optomechanical systems can be combined with other quantum systems, such as solid-state qubits or atomic ensembles, in a beneficial way. These hybrid systems open up new ways for quantum control, and several protocols and applications for quantum information processing and, in particular, for quantum networks are presented. Part I describes an optically mediated coupling between the vibrational modes of a semi-transparent dielectric membrane and the center-of-mass motion of an atomic ensemble. Using the sophisticated toolbox available for the control of atomic systems, this setting enables an indirect manipulation of the membrane, including, for example, cooling it to the vibrational ground state. A fully quantum mechanical treatment of this open system is given in terms of the quantum stochastic Schrödinger equation. In Part II we explore the potential of optomechanical systems for quantum information processing applications. First, we introduce the concept of an optomechanical transducer, where a micro-mechanical resonator mediates an interaction between a solid-state based qubit on the one hand, and photons in an optical cavity on the other hand. The resulting qubit-light interface is shown to enable quantum state transfers between two distant solid-state qubits, thereby making them available for quantum networking applications. Second, we study multi-mode optomechanical systems in the single-photon single-phonon strong coupling regime. We predict quantum signatures of this interaction, which could be observed in future experiments, and provide a route towards possible applications of these systems as quantum information processing units. Part III presents a dissipative state preparation scheme for cascaded quantum networks. In such networks excitations can only propagate along a single spatial direction and the optomechanical transducer represents one way of realizing them. We show, in

  17. Micro-optomechanical trampoline resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Brian; Kleckner, Dustin; Sonin, Petro; Jeffrey, Evan; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2011-03-01

    Recently, micro-optomechanical devices have been proposed for implementation of experiments ranging from non-demolition measurements of phonon number to creation of macroscopic quantum superpositions. All have strenuous requirements on optical finesse, mechanical quality factor, and temperature. We present a set of devices composed of dielectric mirrors on Si 3 N4 trampoline resonators. We describe the fabrication process and present data on finesse and quality factor. The authors gratefully acknowledge support from NSF PHY-0804177 and Marie Curie EXT-CT-2006-042580.

  18. Feedback-enhanced sensitivity in optomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Glen I.; Andersen, Ulrik L.; Knittel, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    The intracavity power, and hence sensitivity, of optomechanical sensors is commonly limited by parametric instability. Here we characterize the degradation of sensitivity induced by parametric instability in a micron-scale cavity optomechanical system. Feedback via optomechanical transduction...... and electrical gradient force actuation is applied to suppress the parametric instability. As a result a 5.4-fold increase in mechanical motion transduction sensitivity is achieved to a final value of 1.9×10-18 mHz-1/2....

  19. Ultrasensitive and broadband magnetometry with cavity optomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bei-Bei; Bulla, Douglas; Bilek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    We achieved sensitivity of 30 pT/Hz1/2 and working bandwidth larger than 100 MHz, using cavity optomechanical magnetometry, and also demonstrated quantum light enhanced sensitivity in such a magnetometer.......We achieved sensitivity of 30 pT/Hz1/2 and working bandwidth larger than 100 MHz, using cavity optomechanical magnetometry, and also demonstrated quantum light enhanced sensitivity in such a magnetometer....

  20. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, M. J., E-mail: mweaver@physics.ucsb.edu; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Perock, B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Heeck, K.; Man, S. de [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Bouwmeester, D. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-01-18

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  1. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Perock, B.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Heeck, K.; Man, S. de; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-01

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si 3 N 4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators

  2. Nested trampoline resonators for optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, M. J.; Pepper, B.; Luna, F.; Buters, F. M.; Eerkens, H. J.; Welker, G.; Perock, B.; Heeck, K.; de Man, S.; Bouwmeester, D.

    2016-01-01

    Two major challenges in the development of optomechanical devices are achieving a low mechanical and optical loss rate and vibration isolation from the environment. We address both issues by fabricating trampoline resonators made from low pressure chemical vapor deposition Si3N4 with a distributed Bragg reflector mirror. We design a nested double resonator structure with 80 dB of mechanical isolation from the mounting surface at the inner resonator frequency, and we demonstrate up to 45 dB of isolation at lower frequencies in agreement with the design. We reliably fabricate devices with mechanical quality factors of around 400 000 at room temperature. In addition, these devices were used to form optical cavities with finesse up to 181 000 ± 1000. These promising parameters will enable experiments in the quantum regime with macroscopic mechanical resonators.

  3. Measurement-Induced Macroscopic Superposition States in Cavity Optomechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ulrich Busk; Kollath-Bönig, Johann; Neergaard-Nielsen, Jonas Schou

    2016-01-01

    A novel protocol for generating quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states of a bulk mechanical oscillator is proposed, compatible with existing optomechanical devices operating in the bad-cavity limit. By combining a pulsed optomechanical quantum nondemolition (QND) interaction...

  4. Levitated Optomechanics for Fundamental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muddassar; Bateman, James; Vovrosh, Jamie; Hempston, David; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2015-05-01

    Optomechanics with levitated nano- and microparticles is believed to form a platform for testing fundamental principles of quantum physics, as well as find applications in sensing. We will report on a new scheme to trap nanoparticles, which is based on a parabolic mirror with a numerical aperture of 1. Combined with achromatic focussing, the setup is a cheap and readily straightforward solution to trapping nanoparticles for further study. Here, we report on the latest progress made in experimentation with levitated nanoparticles; these include the trapping of 100 nm nanodiamonds (with NV-centres) down to 1 mbar as well as the trapping of 50 nm Silica spheres down to 10?4 mbar without any form of feedback cooling. We will also report on the progress to implement feedback stabilisation of the centre of mass motion of the trapped particle using digital electronics. Finally, we argue that such a stabilised particle trap can be the particle source for a nanoparticle matterwave interferometer. We will present our Talbot interferometer scheme, which holds promise to test the quantum superposition principle in the new mass range of 106 amu. EPSRC, John Templeton Foundation.

  5. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanaliloo, Behzad; Jayakumar, Harishankar; Hryciw, Aaron C.; Lake, David P.; Kaviani, Hamidreza; Barclay, Paul E.

    2015-10-01

    Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200 nm . The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7 ×105 and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5 fm /√{Hz } sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  6. Single-Crystal Diamond Nanobeam Waveguide Optomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Khanaliloo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Single-crystal diamond optomechanical devices have the potential to enable fundamental studies and technologies coupling mechanical vibrations to both light and electronic quantum systems. Here, we demonstrate a single-crystal diamond optomechanical system and show that it allows excitation of diamond mechanical resonances into self-oscillations with amplitude >200  nm. The resulting internal stress field is predicted to allow driving of electron spin transitions of diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers. The mechanical resonances have a quality factor >7×10^{5} and can be tuned via nonlinear frequency renormalization, while the optomechanical interface has a 150 nm bandwidth and 9.5  fm/sqrt[Hz] sensitivity. In combination, these features make this system a promising platform for interfacing light, nanomechanics, and electron spins.

  7. Wigner Function Reconstruction in Levitated Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Muddassar; Toroš, Marko; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate the reconstruction of theWigner function from marginal distributions of the motion of a single trapped particle using homodyne detection. We show that it is possible to generate quantum states of levitated optomechanical systems even under the efect of continuous measurement by the trapping laser light. We describe the opto-mechanical coupling for the case of the particle trapped by a free-space focused laser beam, explicitly for the case without an optical cavity. We use the scheme to reconstruct the Wigner function of experimental data in perfect agreement with the expected Gaussian distribution of a thermal state of motion. This opens a route for quantum state preparation in levitated optomechanics.

  8. Nano-optomechanics with optically levitated nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, Levi P.; Vamivakas, A. Nick

    2015-01-01

    Nano-optomechanics is a vibrant area of research that continues to push the boundary of quantum science and measurement technology. Recently, it has been realised that the optical forces experienced by polarisable nanoparticles can provide a novel platform for nano-optomechanics with untethered mechanical oscillators. Remarkably, these oscillators are expected to exhibit quality factors approaching ?. The pronounced quality factors are a direct result of the mechanical oscillator being freed from a supporting substrate. This review provides an overview of the basic optical physics underpinning optical trapping and optical levitation experiments, it discusses a number of experimental approaches to optical trapping and finally outlines possible applications of this nano-optomechanics modality in hybrid quantum systems and nanoscale optical metrology.

  9. Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, Matthew; Barclay, Paul E.; Hryciw, Aaron C.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors >2.8 × 10 5 and mode volumes 3 , and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to 8.0 × 10 4 intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 μm and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate g 0 /2π∼30 kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz

  10. Using reservoir-engineering to convert a coherent signal in optomechanics with small optomechanical cooperativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tao, E-mail: suiyueqiaoqiao@163.com [Key Lab of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Ministry of Education, and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); College of Physics, Tonghua Normal University, Tonghua 134000 (China); Wang, Tie [Department of Physics, College of Science, Yanbian University, Yanji, Jilin 133002 (China); Fu, Changbao [College of Physics, Tonghua Normal University, Tonghua 134000 (China); Su, Xuemei, E-mail: suxm@jlu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Ministry of Education, and College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2017-05-10

    Optomechanical dark mode plays a central role in effective mechanically-mediated conversion of two different cavity fields. In this paper, we present a more efficient method to utilize the dark mode to transfer a coherent signal. When an auxiliary cavity mode is exploited, two approaches are proposed to effectively eliminate the optomechanical bright mode, and only the optomechanical dark mode is left to facilitate state transfer. Even with small cooperativity and different losses for the two target modes, the internal cavity mode-conversion efficiency can also reach unity. - Highlights: • Reservoir-engineering is used for state conversion. • The optomechanical bright mode can be absolutely eliminated. • Small cooperativity and different losses are feasible for ideal conversion efficiency.

  11. Cavity optomechanics -- beyond the ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meystre, Pierre

    2011-05-01

    The coupling of coherent optical systems to micromechanical devices, combined with breakthroughs in nanofabrication and in ultracold science, has opened up the exciting new field of cavity optomechanics. Cooling of the vibrational motion of a broad range on oscillating cantilevers and mirrors near their ground state has been demonstrated, and the ground state of at least one such system has now been reached. Cavity optomechanics offers much promise in addressing fundamental physics questions and in applications such as the detection of feeble forces and fields, or the coherent control of AMO systems and of nanoscale electromechanical devices. However, these applications require taking cavity optomechanics ``beyond the ground state.'' This includes the generation and detection of squeezed and other non-classical states, the transfer of squeezing between electromagnetic fields and motional quadratures, and the development of measurement schemes for the characterization of nanomechanical structures. The talk will present recent ``beyond ground state'' developments in cavity optomechanics. We will show how the magnetic coupling between a mechanical membrane and a BEC - or between a mechanical tuning fork and a nanoscale cantilever - permits to control and monitor the center-of-mass position of the mechanical system, and will comment on the measurement back-action on the membrane motion. We will also discuss of state transfer between optical and microwave fields and micromechanical devices. Work done in collaboration with Dan Goldbaum, Greg Phelps, Keith Schwab, Swati Singh, Steve Steinke, Mehmet Tesgin, and Mukund Vengallatore and supported by ARO, DARPA, NSF, and ONR.

  12. Nonlinear effects in modulated quantum optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Tai-Shuang; Lü, Xin-You; Zheng, Li-Li; Wang, Mei; Li, Sha; Wu, Ying

    2017-05-01

    The nonlinear quantum regime is crucial for implementing interesting quantum effects, which have wide applications in modern quantum science. Here we propose an effective method to reach the nonlinear quantum regime in a modulated optomechanical system (OMS), which is originally in the weak-coupling regime. The mechanical spring constant and optomechanical interaction are modulated periodically. This leads to the result that the resonant optomechanical interaction can be effectively enhanced into the single-photon strong-coupling regime by the modulation-induced mechanical parametric amplification. Moreover, the amplified phonon noise can be suppressed completely by introducing a squeezed vacuum reservoir, which ultimately leads to the realization of photon blockade in a weakly coupled OMS. The reached nonlinear quantum regime also allows us to engineer the nonclassical states (e.g., Schrödinger cat states) of the cavity field, which are robust against the phonon noise. This work offers an alternative approach to enhance the quantum nonlinearity of an OMS, which should expand the applications of cavity optomechanics in the quantum realm.

  13. Enhanced optomechanical readout using optical coalescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genes, Claudiu; Xuereb, André; Pupillo, Guido

    2013-01-01

    of a symmetric Fabry-Pérot resonator strongly modifies the cavity response function, such that two longitudinal modes with different spatial parity are brought close to frequency degeneracy and interfere in the cavity output field. In the case of a movable middle reflector we show that the interference...... in this generic “optical coalescence” phenomenon gives rise to an enhanced frequency shift of the peaks of the cavity transmission that can be exploited in optomechanics....

  14. A microelectromechanically controlled cavity optomechanical sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Houxun; Srinivasan, Kartik; Aksyuk, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) have been applied to many measurement problems in physics, chemistry, biology and medicine. In parallel, cavity optomechanical systems have achieved quantum-limited displacement sensitivity and ground state cooling of nanoscale objects. By integrating a novel cavity optomechanical structure into an actuated MEMS sensing platform, we demonstrate a system with high-quality-factor interferometric readout, electrical tuning of the optomechanical coupling by two orders of magnitude and a mechanical transfer function adjustable via feedback. The platform separates optical and mechanical components, allowing flexible customization for specific scientific and commercial applications. We achieve a displacement sensitivity of 4.6 fm Hz -1/2 and a force sensitivity of 53 aN Hz -1/2 with only 250 nW optical power launched into the sensor. Cold-damping feedback is used to reduce the thermal mechanical vibration of the sensor by three orders of magnitude and to broaden the sensor bandwidth by approximately the same factor, to above twice the fundamental frequency of ≈40 kHz. The readout sensitivity approaching the standard quantum limit is combined with MEMS actuation in a fully integrated, compact, low-power, stable system compatible with Si batch fabrication and electronics integration. (paper)

  15. Optical tristability in a hybrid optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Nejad, A.; Askari, H. R.; Baghshahi, H. R.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of two cavities, which one of them is an optomechanical cavity that includes an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and the other is a traditional cavity which contains an atomic medium. Hamiltonian of the system is written in a rotating frame with a rotation frequency of the frequency of input field to the system. Using Heisenberg-Langevin equations of motion, the dynamics of the system is described. Applying the steady-state conditions leads to a system of equations of the mean values of the operators of the system. The stability condition of the system is satisfied numerically and behavior of optomechanical cavity is investigated in different situations to find the effect of changing of the parameters of the system on the type of its stability. We show proposed system has the capability of tristable behavior, where, the gain coefficient of OPA acts as a switch in changing the bistability of the system to a tristable manner. The building block of the tristability in this system can be figured out as the enhanced nonlinearity of the system due to the presence of OPA.

  16. Bathed, Strained, Attenuated, Annihilated: Towards Quantum Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Brian Jeffrey

    The field of optomechanics studies tiny devices that can be pushed mechanically by light. It is an extremely promising avenue towards tests of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale, by transferring quantum states of light to nano- or micromechanical objects. This dissertation concerns a long term research program to create quantum superpositions of a macroscopic mirror in an optomechanical cavity. This dissertation has two broad thrusts. The first focuses on microfabrication of a new type of device called optomechanical trampoline resonators, consisting of a small mirror on a cross-shaped tensed silicon nitride membrane. Devices have been fabricated with high mechanical and optical quality, including a 300 kHz device with quality factor 480,000, as well as a device of optical finesse 107,000. These devices are well into the sideband-resolved regime and suitable for optical cooling to the quantum ground state. One such device has been optically cooled to approximately 10 phonons. The second major thrust is theoretical. Creating a macroscopic superposition is a challenging problem, requiring optical cooling to the ground state, strong coupling, extremely high optical finesse and extremely low frequency. A realistic assessment of achievable parameters indicates that it is possible to achieve ground state cooling or strong coupling, but not both. This dissertation proposes a new technique using postselection to achieve macroscopic superpositions with only weak coupling. This relaxes some of the required parameters by orders of magnitude. Prospects for observing hypothetical novel decoherence mechanisms are also discussed.

  17. Double optomechanical transparency with direct mechanical interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ling-Chao; Shi Rao; Xu Jun; Hu Xiang-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We present a mechanism for double transparency in an optomechanical system. This mechanism is based on the coupling of a moving cavity mirror to a second mechanical oscillator. Due to the purely mechanical coupling and the radiation pressure, three pathways are established for excitations of the probe photons into the cavity photons. Destructive interference occurs at two different frequencies, leading to double transparency to the probe field. It is the coupling strength between the mechanical oscillators that determines the locations of the transparency windows. Moreover, the normal splitting appears for the generated Stokes field and the four-wave mixing process is inhibited on resonance. (paper)

  18. Quantum optomechanical piston engines powered by heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mari, A.; Farace, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-09-01

    We study two different models of optomechanical systems where a temperature gradient between two radiation baths is exploited for inducing self-sustained coherent oscillations of a mechanical resonator. From a thermodynamic perspective, such systems represent quantum instances of self-contained thermal machines converting heat into a periodic mechanical motion and thus they can be interpreted as nano-scale analogues of macroscopic piston engines. Our models are potentially suitable for testing fundamental aspects of quantum thermodynamics in the laboratory and for applications in energy efficient nanotechnology.

  19. Quantum optomechanical piston engines powered by heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mari, A; Farace, A; Giovannetti, V

    2015-01-01

    We study two different models of optomechanical systems where a temperature gradient between two radiation baths is exploited for inducing self-sustained coherent oscillations of a mechanical resonator. From a thermodynamic perspective, such systems represent quantum instances of self-contained thermal machines converting heat into a periodic mechanical motion and thus they can be interpreted as nano-scale analogues of macroscopic piston engines. Our models are potentially suitable for testing fundamental aspects of quantum thermodynamics in the laboratory and for applications in energy efficient nanotechnology. (paper)

  20. Optimal estimation of the optomechanical coupling strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernád, József Zsolt; Sanavio, Claudio; Xuereb, André

    2018-06-01

    We apply the formalism of quantum estimation theory to obtain information about the value of the nonlinear optomechanical coupling strength. In particular, we discuss the minimum mean-square error estimator and a quantum Cramér-Rao-type inequality for the estimation of the coupling strength. Our estimation strategy reveals some cases where quantum statistical inference is inconclusive and merely results in the reinforcement of prior expectations. We show that these situations also involve the highest expected information losses. We demonstrate that interaction times on the order of one time period of mechanical oscillations are the most suitable for our estimation scenario, and compare situations involving different photon and phonon excitations.

  1. An optomechanical model eye for ophthalmological refractive studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianpour, Ashkan; Tremblay, Eric J; Stamenov, Igor; Ford, Joseph E; Schanzlin, David J; Lo, Yuhwa

    2013-02-01

    To create an accurate, low-cost optomechanical model eye for investigation of refractive errors in clinical and basic research studies. An optomechanical fluid-filled eye model with dimensions consistent with the human eye was designed and fabricated. Optical simulations were performed on the optomechanical eye model, and the quantified resolution and refractive errors were compared with the widely used Navarro eye model using the ray-tracing software ZEMAX (Radiant Zemax, Redmond, WA). The resolution of the physical optomechanical eye model was then quantified with a complementary metal-oxide semiconductor imager using the image resolution software SFR Plus (Imatest, Boulder, CO). Refractive, manufacturing, and assembling errors were also assessed. A refractive intraocular lens (IOL) and a diffractive IOL were added to the optomechanical eye model for tests and analyses of a 1951 U.S. Air Force target chart. Resolution and aberrations of the optomechanical eye model and the Navarro eye model were qualitatively similar in ZEMAX simulations. Experimental testing found that the optomechanical eye model reproduced properties pertinent to human eyes, including resolution better than 20/20 visual acuity and a decrease in resolution as the field of view increased in size. The IOLs were also integrated into the optomechanical eye model to image objects at distances of 15, 10, and 3 feet, and they indicated a resolution of 22.8 cycles per degree at 15 feet. A life-sized optomechanical eye model with the flexibility to be patient-specific was designed and constructed. The model had the resolution of a healthy human eye and recreated normal refractive errors. This model may be useful in the evaluation of IOLs for cataract surgery. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Alq3 coated silicon nanomembranes for cavity optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogliano, Francesco; Ortu, Antonio; Camposeo, Andrea; Pisignano, Dario; Ciampini, Donatella; Fuso, Francesco; Arimondo, E.

    2016-09-01

    The optomechanical properties of a silicon-nitride membrane mirror covered by Alq3 and Silver layers are investigated. Excitation at two laser wavelengths, 780 and 405 nm, corresponding to different absorptions of the multilayer, is examined. Such dual driving will lead to a more flexible optomechanical operation. Topographic reconstruction of the whole static membrane deformation and cooling of the membrane oscillations are reported. The cooling, observed for blue laser detuning and produced by bolometric forces, is deduced from the optomechanical damping of the membrane eigenfrequency. We determine the presence of different contributions to the photothermal response of the membrane.

  3. Nonreciprocal frequency conversion in a multimode microwave optomechanical circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofanov, A. K.; Bernier, N. R.; Toth, L. D.; Koottandavida, A.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    Nonreciprocal devices such as isolators, circulators, and directional amplifiers are pivotal to quantum signal processing with superconducting circuits. In the microwave domain, commercially available nonreciprocal devices are based on ferrite materials. They are barely compatible with superconducting quantum circuits, lossy, and cannot be integrated on chip. Significant potential exists for implementing non-magnetic chip-scale nonreciprocal devices using microwave optomechanical circuits. Here we demonstrate a possibility of nonreciprocal frequency conversion in a multimode microwave optomechanical circuit using solely optomechanical interaction between modes. The conversion scheme and the results reflecting the actual progress on the experimental implementation of the scheme will be presented.

  4. Optomechanically induced transparency with Bose–Einstein condensate in double-cavity optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Wei; Gengzang, Duo-Jie; An, Xiu-Jia; Wang, Pei-Yu

    2018-03-01

    We propose a novel technique of generating multiple optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) of a weak probe field in hybrid optomechanical system. This system consists of a cigar-shaped Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC), trapped inside each high finesse Fabry-Pérot cavity. In the resolved sideband regime, the analytic solutions of the absorption and the dispersion spectrum are given. The tunneling strength of the two resonators and the coupling parameters of the each BEC in combination with the cavity field have the appearance of three distinct OMIT windows in the absorption spectrum. Furthermore, whether there is BEC in each cavity is a key factor in the number of OMIT windows determination. The technique presented may have potential applications in quantum engineering and quantum information networks. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11564034, 11105062, and 21663026) and the Scientific Research Funds of College of Electrical Engineering, Northwest University, China (Grant No. xbmuyjrc201115).

  5. Quadratic measurement and conditional state preparation in an optomechanical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A. Brawley, George; Vanner, Michael A.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator.......We experimentally demonstrate, for the first time, quadratic measurement of mechanical motion in an optomechanical system. We use this nonlinear easurement to conditionally prepare classical non-Gaussian states of motion of a micro-mechanical oscillator....

  6. Torsional Optomechanics of a Levitated Nonspherical Nanoparticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Thai M.; Ma, Yue; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon; Robicheaux, F.; Yin, Zhang-Qi; Li, Tongcang

    2016-09-01

    An optically levitated nanoparticle in vacuum is a paradigm optomechanical system for sensing and studying macroscopic quantum mechanics. While its center-of-mass motion has been investigated intensively, its torsional vibration has only been studied theoretically in limited cases. Here we report the first experimental observation of the torsional vibration of an optically levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum. We achieve this by utilizing the coupling between the spin angular momentum of photons and the torsional vibration of a nonspherical nanoparticle whose polarizability is a tensor. The torsional vibration frequency can be 1 order of magnitude higher than its center-of-mass motion frequency, which is promising for ground state cooling. We propose a simple yet novel scheme to achieve ground state cooling of its torsional vibration with a linearly polarized Gaussian cavity mode. A levitated nonspherical nanoparticle in vacuum will also be an ultrasensitive nanoscale torsion balance with a torque detection sensitivity on the order of 10-29 N m /√{Hz } under realistic conditions.

  7. Cavity optomechanics in a levitated helium drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress, L.; Schmidt, M. P.; Kashkanova, A. D.; Brown, C. D.; Harris, G. I.; Aiello, A.; Marquardt, F.; Harris, J. G. E.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a proposal for a type of optomechanical system based on a drop of liquid helium that is magnetically levitated in vacuum. In the proposed device, the drop would serve three roles: its optical whispering-gallery modes would provide the optical cavity, its surface vibrations would constitute the mechanical element, and evaporation of He atoms from its surface would provide continuous refrigeration. We analyze the feasibility of such a system in light of previous experimental demonstrations of its essential components: magnetic levitation of mm-scale and cm-scale drops of liquid He , evaporative cooling of He droplets in vacuum, and coupling to high-quality optical whispering-gallery modes in a wide range of liquids. We find that the combination of these features could result in a device that approaches the single-photon strong-coupling regime, due to the high optical quality factors attainable at low temperatures. Moreover, the system offers a unique opportunity to use optical techniques to study the motion of a superfluid that is freely levitating in vacuum (in the case of 4He). Alternatively, for a normal fluid drop of 3He, we propose to exploit the coupling between the drop's rotations and vibrations to perform quantum nondemolition measurements of angular momentum.

  8. Nonlinear optomechanical measurement of mechanical motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brawley, G.A.; Vanner, M R; Larsen, Peter Emil

    2016-01-01

    Precision measurement of nonlinear observables is an important goal in all facets of quantum optics. This allows measurement-based non-classical state preparation, which has been applied to great success in various physical systems, and provides a route for quantum information processing with oth......Precision measurement of nonlinear observables is an important goal in all facets of quantum optics. This allows measurement-based non-classical state preparation, which has been applied to great success in various physical systems, and provides a route for quantum information processing...... with otherwise linear interactions. In cavity optomechanics much progress has been made using linear interactions and measurement, but observation of nonlinear mechanical degrees-of-freedom remains outstanding. Here we report the observation of displacement-squared thermal motion of a micro-mechanical resonator...... by exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of the radiation-pressure interaction. Using this measurement we generate bimodal mechanical states of motion with separations and feature sizes well below 100 pm. Future improvements to this approach will allow the preparation of quantum superposition states, which can...

  9. Mode competition and hopping in optomechanical nano-oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingwang; Lin, Tong; Tian, Feng; Du, Han; Zou, Yongchao; Chau, Fook Siong; Zhou, Guangya

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the inter-mode nonlinear interaction in the multi-mode optomechanical nano-oscillator which consists of coupled silicon nanocantilevers, where the integrated photonic crystal nanocavities provide the coupling between the optical and mechanical modes. Due to the self-saturation and cross-saturation of the mechanical gain, the inter-mode competition is observed, which leads to the bistable operation of the optomechanical nano-oscillator: only one of the mechanical modes can oscillate at any one time, and the oscillation of one mode extremely suppresses that of the other with a side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) up to 40 dB. In the meantime, mode hopping, i.e., the optomechanical oscillation switches from one mode to the other, is also observed and found to be able to be provoked by excitation laser fluctuations.

  10. Dissipative optomechanics in a Michelson-Sagnac interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuereb, André; Schnabel, Roman; Hammerer, Klemens

    2011-11-18

    Dissipative optomechanics studies the coupling of the motion of an optical element to the decay rate of a cavity. We propose and theoretically explore a realization of this system in the optical domain, using a combined Michelson-Sagnac interferometer, which enables a strong and tunable dissipative coupling. Quantum interference in such a setup results in the suppression of the lower motional sideband, leading to strongly enhanced cooling in the non-sideband-resolved regime. With state-of-the-art parameters, ground-state cooling and low-power quantum-limited position transduction are both possible. The possibility of a strong, tunable dissipative coupling opens up a new route towards observation of such fundamental optomechanical effects as nonlinear dynamics. Beyond optomechanics, the suggested method can be readily transferred to other setups involving nonlinear media, atomic ensembles, or single atoms.

  11. Controllable chaos in hybrid electro-optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Lü, Xin-You; Ma, Jin-Yong; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Wu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a hybrid electro-optomechanical system (EOMS) that allows us to realize the controllable opto-mechanical nonlinearity by driving the microwave LC resonator with a tunable electric field. A controllable optical chaos is realized even without changing the optical pumping. The threshold and lifetime of the chaos could be optimized by adjusting the strength, frequency, or phase of the electric field. This study provides a method of manipulating optical chaos with an electric field. It may offer the prospect of exploring the controllable chaos in on-chip optoelectronic devices and its applications in secret communication. PMID:26948505

  12. Controllable chaos in hybrid electro-optomechanical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei; Lü, Xin-You; Ma, Jin-Yong; Xiong, Hao; Si, Liu-Gang; Wu, Ying

    2016-03-07

    We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a hybrid electro-optomechanical system (EOMS) that allows us to realize the controllable opto-mechanical nonlinearity by driving the microwave LC resonator with a tunable electric field. A controllable optical chaos is realized even without changing the optical pumping. The threshold and lifetime of the chaos could be optimized by adjusting the strength, frequency, or phase of the electric field. This study provides a method of manipulating optical chaos with an electric field. It may offer the prospect of exploring the controllable chaos in on-chip optoelectronic devices and its applications in secret communication.

  13. Optomechanical design of TMT NFIRAOS Subsystems at INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamontagne, Frédéric; Desnoyers, Nichola; Grenier, Martin; Cottin, Pierre; Leclerc, Mélanie; Martin, Olivier; Buteau-Vaillancourt, Louis; Boucher, Marc-André; Nash, Reston; Lardière, Olivier; Andersen, David; Atwood, Jenny; Hill, Alexis; Byrnes, Peter W. G.; Herriot, Glen; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2017-08-01

    The adaptive optics system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) is the Narrow-Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS). Recently, INO has been involved in the optomechanical design of several subsystems of NFIRAOS, including the Instrument Selection Mirror (ISM), the NFIRAOS Beamsplitters (NBS), and the NFIRAOS Source Simulator system (NSS) comprising the Focal Plane Mask (FPM), the Laser Guide Star (LGS) sources, and the Natural Guide Star (NGS) sources. This paper presents an overview of these subsystems and the optomechanical design approaches used to meet the optical performance requirements under environmental constraints.

  14. Steady-state entanglement activation in optomechanical cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; Ciccarello, Francesco; Fazio, Rosario; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2014-02-01

    Quantum discord, and related indicators, are raising a relentless interest as a novel paradigm of nonclassical correlations beyond entanglement. Here, we discover a discord-activated mechanism yielding steady-state entanglement production in a realistic continuous-variable setup. This comprises two coupled optomechanical cavities, where the optical modes (OMs) communicate through a fiber. We first use a simplified model to highlight the creation of steady-state discord between the OMs. We show next that such discord improves the level of stationary optomechanical entanglement attainable in the system, making it more robust against temperature and thermal noise.

  15. Optomechanical entanglement via non-degenerate parametric interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Qamar, Shahid

    2017-01-01

    We present a scheme for the optomechanical entanglement between a micro-mechanical mirror and the field inside a bimodal cavity system using a non-degenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). Our results show that the introduction of NOPA makes the entanglement stronger or more robust against the mean number of average thermal phonons and cavity decay. Interestingly, macroscopic entanglement depends upon the choice of the phase associated with classical field driving NOPA. We also consider the effects of input laser power on optomechanical entanglement. (paper)

  16. Optomechanical entanglement via non-degenerate parametric interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Rizwan; Qamar, Shahid

    2017-10-01

    We present a scheme for the optomechanical entanglement between a micro-mechanical mirror and the field inside a bimodal cavity system using a non-degenerate optical parametric amplifier (NOPA). Our results show that the introduction of NOPA makes the entanglement stronger or more robust against the mean number of average thermal phonons and cavity decay. Interestingly, macroscopic entanglement depends upon the choice of the phase associated with classical field driving NOPA. We also consider the effects of input laser power on optomechanical entanglement.

  17. Optomechanics in a Levitated Droplet of Superfluid Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charles; Harris, Glen; Harris, Jack

    2017-04-01

    A critical issue common to all optomechanical systems is dissipative coupling to the environment, which limits the system's quantum coherence. Superfluid helium's extremely low optical and mechanical dissipation, as well as its high thermal conductivity and its ability cool itself via evaporation, makes the mostly uncharted territory of superfluid optomechanics an exciting avenue for exploring quantum effects in macroscopic objects. I will describe ongoing work that aims to exploit the unique properties of superfluid helium by constructing an optomechanical system consisting of a magnetically levitated droplet of superfluid helium., The optical whispering gallery modes (WGMs) of the droplet, as well as the mechanical oscillations of its surface, should offer exceptionally low dissipation, and should couple to each other via the usual optomechanical interactions. I will present recent progress towards this goal, and also discuss the background for this work, which includes prior demonstrations of magnetic levitation of superfluid helium, high finesse WGMs in liquid drops, and the self-cooling of helium drops in vacuum.

  18. Quantum noise spectra for periodically driven cavity optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranas, E. B.; Akram, M. Javed; Malz, Daniel; Monteiro, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    A growing number of experimental setups in cavity optomechanics exploit periodically driven fields. However, such setups are not amenable to analysis by using simple, yet powerful, closed-form expressions of linearized optomechanics, which have provided so much of our present understanding of experimental optomechanics. In the present paper, we formulate a method to calculate quantum noise spectra in modulated optomechanical systems, which we analyze, compare, and discuss with two other recently proposed solutions: we term these (i) frequency-shifted operators, (ii) Floquet [Phys. Rev. A 94, 023803 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.023803], and (iii) iterative analysis [New J. Phys. 18, 113021 (2016), 10.1088/1367-2630/18/11/113021]. We prove that (i) and (ii) yield equivalent noise spectra and find that (iii) is an analytical approximation to (i) for weak modulations. We calculate the noise spectra of a doubly modulated system describing experiments of levitated particles in hybrid electro-optical traps. We show excellent agreement with Langevin stochastic simulations in the thermal regime and predict squeezing in the quantum regime. Finally, we reveal how otherwise-inaccessible spectral components of a modulated system can be measured in heterodyne detection through an appropriate choice of modulation frequencies.

  19. Collectively-enhanced optomechanical coupling in periodic arrays of scatterers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xuereb, André; Genes, Claudiu; Dantan, Aurelien Romain

    2013-01-01

    in linear optomechanical coupling strengths between the cavity field and collective motional modes of the array that may be several orders of magnitude larger than is possible with an equivalent reflective ensemble. We describe and interpret these effects in detail and investigate the nature of the scaling...... laws of the coupling strengths for the different transmissive points in various regimes....

  20. Directional amplifier in an optomechanical system with optical gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng; Song, L. N.; Li, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Directional amplifiers are crucial nonreciprocal devices in both classical and quantum information processing. Here we propose a scheme for realizing a directional amplifier between optical and microwave fields based on an optomechanical system with optical gain, where an active optical cavity and two passive microwave cavities are coupled to a common mechanical resonator via radiation pressure. The two passive cavities are coupled via hopping interaction to facilitate the directional amplification between the active and passive cavities. We obtain the condition of achieving optical directional amplification and find that the direction of amplification can be controlled by the phase differences between the effective optomechanical couplings. The effects of the gain rate of the active cavity and the effective coupling strengths on the maximum gain of the amplifier are discussed. We show that the noise added to this amplifier can be greatly suppressed in the large cooperativity limit.

  1. Mechanical Resonators for Quantum Optomechanics Experiments at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norte, R A; Moura, J P; Gröblacher, S

    2016-04-08

    All quantum optomechanics experiments to date operate at cryogenic temperatures, imposing severe technical challenges and fundamental constraints. Here, we present a novel design of on-chip mechanical resonators which exhibit fundamental modes with frequencies f and mechanical quality factors Q_{m} sufficient to enter the optomechanical quantum regime at room temperature. We overcome previous limitations by designing ultrathin, high-stress silicon nitride (Si_{3}N_{4}) membranes, with tensile stress in the resonators' clamps close to the ultimate yield strength of the material. By patterning a photonic crystal on the SiN membranes, we observe reflectivities greater than 99%. These on-chip resonators have remarkably low mechanical dissipation, with Q_{m}∼10^{8}, while at the same time exhibiting large reflectivities. This makes them a unique platform for experiments towards the observation of massive quantum behavior at room temperature.

  2. Levitated optomechanics with a fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontin, A.; Mourounas, L. S.; Geraci, A. A.; Barker, P. F.

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, quantum phenomena have been experimentally demonstrated on variety of optomechanical systems ranging from micro-oscillators to photonic crystals. Since single photon couplings are quite small, most experimental approaches rely on the realization of high finesse Fabry-Perot cavities in order to enhance the effective coupling. Here we show that by exploiting a, long path, low finesse fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer ground state cooling can be achieved. We model a 100 m long cavity with a finesse of 10 and analyze the impact of additional noise sources arising from the fiber. As a mechanical oscillator we consider a levitated microdisk but the same approach could be applied to other optomechanical systems.

  3. Controllable photon and phonon localization in optomechanical Lieb lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liang-Liang; Lü, Xin-You; Gao, Jin-Hua; Wu, Ying

    2017-07-24

    The Lieb lattice featuring flat band is not only important in strongly-correlated many-body physics, but also can be utilized to inspire new quantum devices. Here we propose an optomechanical Lieb lattice, where the flat-band physics of photon-phonon polaritons is demonstrated. The tunability of the band structure of the optomechanical arrays allows one to obtain an approximate photon or phonon flat band as well as the transition between them. This ultimately leads to the result that the controllable photon or phonon localization could be realized by the path interference effects. This study offers an alternative approach to explore the exotic photon and phonon many-body effects, which has potential applications in the future hybrid-photon-phonon quantum network and engineering new type solid-state quantum devices.

  4. Enhancing quantum effects via periodic modulations in optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Alessandro; Giovannetti, Vittorio

    2012-07-01

    Parametrically modulated optomechanical systems have been recently proposed as a simple and efficient setting for the quantum control of a micromechanical oscillator: relevant possibilities include the generation of squeezing in the oscillator position (or momentum) and the enhancement of entanglement between mechanical and radiation modes. In this paper we further investigate this modulation regime, considering an optomechanical system with one or more parameters being modulated over time. We first apply a sinusoidal modulation of the mechanical frequency and characterize the optimal regime in which the visibility of purely quantum effects is maximal. We then introduce a second modulation on the input laser intensity and analyze the interplay between the two. We find that an interference pattern shows up, so that different choices of the relative phase between the two modulations can either enhance or cancel the desired quantum effects, opening new possibilities for optimal quantum control strategies.

  5. A chip-scale integrated cavity-electro-optomechanics platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, M; Blasius, T D; Mayer Alegre, T P; Safavi-Naeini, A H; Meenehan, S; Cohen, J; Stobbe, S; Painter, O

    2011-12-05

    We present an integrated optomechanical and electromechanical nanocavity, in which a common mechanical degree of freedom is coupled to an ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal defect cavity and an electrical circuit. The system allows for wide-range, fast electrical tuning of the optical nanocavity resonances, and for electrical control of optical radiation pressure back-action effects such as mechanical amplification (phonon lasing), cooling, and stiffening. These sort of integrated devices offer a new means to efficiently interconvert weak microwave and optical signals, and are expected to pave the way for a new class of micro-sensors utilizing optomechanical back-action for thermal noise reduction and low-noise optical read-out.

  6. Present opto-mechanical design status of NFIRAOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Peter W. G.; Atwood, Jenny; Boucher, Marc-André; Fitzsimmons, Joeleff; Hill, Alexis; Herriot, Glen; Spanò, Paolo; Szeto, Kei; Wevers, Ivan

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the current opto-mechanical design of NFIRAOS (Narrow Field InfraRed Adaptive Optics System) for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The preliminary design update review for NFIRAOS was successfully held in December 2011, and incremental design progress has since occurred on several fronts. The majority of NFIRAOS is housed within an insulated and cooled enclosure, and operates at -30 C to reduce background emissivity. The cold optomechanics are attached to a space-frame structure, kinematically supported by bipods that penetrate the insulated enclosure. The bipods are attached to an exo-structure at ambient temperature, which also supports up to three client science instruments and a science calibration unit.

  7. Dynamical back-action effects in low loss optomechanical oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontin, Antonio; Prodi, Giovanni A. [INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Application, Povo (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, Povo (Italy); Bonaldi, Michele; Borrielli, Antonio [INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Application, Povo (Italy); Institute of Materials for Electronics and Magnetism, Nanoscience-Trento-FBK Division, Povo (Italy); Marino, Francesco [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); CNR-INO, Firenze (Italy); Marconi, Lorenzo [LENS, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Bagolini, Alvise [Microtechnology Laboratory FBK-CMM, Povo (Italy); Pandraud, Gregory [DIMES Technology Center-TU Delft (Netherlands); Serra, Enrico [INFN, Trento Institute for Fundamental Physics and Application, Povo (Italy); DIMES Technology Center-TU Delft (Netherlands); Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science (LISC), FBK-University of Trento, Povo (Italy); Marin, Francesco [INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); LENS, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    The problem of the stability of a cavity optomechanical system based on an oscillator having at the same time low optical and mechanical losses is addressed. As it is the aim to extend the use of optical squeezing as a tool for improving quantum limited displacement sensing at low frequency, a family of opto-mechanical devices designed to work at frequencies of about 100 kHz was developed. The devices actually meet the initial design goals, but new requirements have emerged from the analysis of their behavior in optical cavities, due to the interaction between the cavity locking system and the low order normal modes of the devices. (copyright 2014 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Optomechanical stability design of space optical mapping camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fuqiang; Cai, Weijun; Zhang, Fengqin; Li, Na; Fan, Junjie

    2018-01-01

    According to the interior orientation elements and imaging quality requirements of mapping application to mapping camera and combined with off-axis three-mirror anastigmat(TMA) system, high optomechanical stability design of a space optical mapping camera is introduced in this paper. The configuration is a coaxial TMA system used in off-axis situation. Firstly, the overall optical arrangement is described., and an overview of the optomechanical packaging is provided. Zerodurglass, carbon fiber composite and carbon-fiber reinforced silicon carbon (C/SiC) are widely used in the optomechanical structure, because their low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) can reduce the thermal sensitivity of the mirrors and focal plane. Flexible and unloading support are used in reflector and camera supporting structure. Epoxy structural adhesives is used for bonding optics to metal structure is also introduced in this paper. The primary mirror is mounted by means of three-point ball joint flexures system, which is attach to the back of the mirror. Then, In order to predict flexural displacements due to gravity, static finite element analysis (FEA) is performed on the primary mirror. The optical performance peak-to-valley (PV) and root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront errors are detected before and after assemble. Also, the dynamic finite element analysis(FEA) of the whole optical arrangement is carried out as to investigate the performance of optomechanical. Finally, in order to evaluate the stability of the design, the thermal vacuum test and vibration test are carried out and the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and elements of interior orientation are presented as the evaluation index. Before and after the thermal vacuum test and vibration test, the MTF, focal distance and position of the principal point of optical system are measured and the result is as expected.

  9. Cavity Opto-Mechanics using an Optically Levitated Nanosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-19

    center-of-mass motion of a levitated nanosphere. entanglement ∣ optical levitation ∣ quantum information One of the most intriguing questions associated...developed. Outlook An optically levitated opto-mechanical system can have remark- ably long coherence times, which potentially enables quantum phenomena...47) or facilitate novel quantum hybrid architectures (6). Note added: We have become aware of a recent, similar proposal to optically levitate and

  10. Opto-mechanical subsystem with temperature compensation through isothemal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, F. E. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An opto-mechanical subsystem for supporting a laser structure which minimizes changes in the alignment of the laser optics in response to temperature variations is described. Both optical and mechanical structural components of the system are formed of the same material, preferably beryllium, which is selected for high mechanical strength and good thermal conducting qualities. All mechanical and optical components are mounted and assembled to provide thorough thermal coupling throughout the subsystem to prevent the development of temperature gradients.

  11. Macroscopic quantum mechanics: theory and experimental concepts of optomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanbei

    2013-01-01

    Rapid experimental progress has recently allowed the use of light to prepare macroscopic mechanical objects into nearly pure quantum states. This research field of quantum optomechanics opens new doors towards testing quantum mechanics, and possibly other laws of physics, in new regimes. In the first part of this article, I will review a set of techniques of quantum measurement theory that are often used to analyse quantum optomechanical systems. Some of these techniques were originally designed to analyse how a classical driving force passes through a quantum system, and can eventually be detected with an optimal signal-to-noise ratio—while others focus more on the quantum-state evolution of a mechanical object under continuous monitoring. In the second part of this article, I will review a set of experimental concepts that will demonstrate quantum mechanical behaviour of macroscopic objects—quantum entanglement, quantum teleportation and the quantum Zeno effect. Taking the interplay between gravity and quantum mechanics as an example, I will review a set of speculations on how quantum mechanics can be modified for macroscopic objects, and how these speculations—and their generalizations—might be tested by optomechanics. (invited review)

  12. Laser Theory for Optomechanics: Limit Cycles in the Quantum Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lörch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Optomechanical systems can exhibit self-sustained limit cycles where the quantum state of the mechanical resonator possesses nonclassical characteristics such as a strongly negative Wigner density, as was shown recently in a numerical study by Qian et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 253601 (2012]. Here, we derive a Fokker-Planck equation describing mechanical limit cycles in the quantum regime that correctly reproduces the numerically observed nonclassical features. The derivation starts from the standard optomechanical master equation and is based on techniques borrowed from the laser theory due to Haake and Lewenstein. We compare our analytical model with numerical solutions of the master equation based on Monte Carlo simulations and find very good agreement over a wide and so far unexplored regime of system parameters. As one main conclusion, we predict negative Wigner functions to be observable even for surprisingly classical parameters, i.e., outside the single-photon strong-coupling regime, for strong cavity drive and rather large limit-cycle amplitudes. The approach taken here provides a natural starting point for further studies of quantum effects in optomechanics.

  13. Opto-mechanical assembly procurement for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, W.; Simon, T.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of the small optics procurements for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will be in the form of completely assembled, tested, and cleaned subsystems. These subsystems will be integrated into the NIF at LLNL. To accomplish this task, the procurement packages will include, optical and mechanical drawings, acceptance test and cleanliness requirements. In January 1999, the first such integrated opto-mechanical assembly was received and evaluated at LLNL. With the successful completion of this important trial procurement, we were able to establish the viability of purchasing clean, ready to install, opto-mechanical assemblies from vendors within the optics industry. 32 vendors were chosen from our supplier database for quote, then five were chosen to purchase from. These five vendors represented a cross section of the optics industry. From a ''value'' catalog supplier (that did the whole job internally) to a partnership between three specialty companies, these vendors demonstrated they have the ingenuity and capability to deliver cost competitive, NIF-ready, opto- mechanical assemblies. This paper describes the vendor selection for this procurement, technical requirements including packaging, fabrication, coating, and cleanliness specifications, then testing and verification. It also gives real test results gathered from inspections performed at LLNL that show how our vendors scored on the various requirements. Keywords: Opto-Mechanical, assembly, NIF, packaging, shipping, specifications, procurement, MIL-STD-1246C, surface cleanliness

  14. Lithium compensation of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Tavendale, A.J.

    1988-08-01

    Defects generated following Li diffusion into GaAs were studied by optical deep level transient spectroscopy (ODLTS) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). In an exploratory series of experiments, the effect of Li diffusion on existing trap spectra, defect generation and as a means for the compensation of GaAs was studied. The variables included diffusion temperature, initial trap spectra of GaAs and annealing periods. Detailed measurements of trap energies were made

  15. A self-calibrating optomechanical force sensor with femtonewton resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melcher, John; Stirling, Julian; Pratt, Jon R.; Shaw, Gordon A.; Cervantes, Felipe Guzmán

    2014-01-01

    We report the development of an ultrasensitive optomechanical sensor designed to improve the accuracy and precision of force measurements with atomic force microscopy. The sensors reach quality factors of 4.3 × 10 6 and force resolution on the femtonewton scale at room temperature. Self-calibration of the sensor is accomplished using radiation pressure to create a reference force. Self-calibration enables in situ calibration of the sensor in extreme environments, such as cryogenic ultra-high vacuum. The senor technology presents a viable route to force measurements at the atomic scale with uncertainties below the percent level

  16. Phonon number measurements using single photon opto-mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiri-Esfahani, S; Akram, U; Milburn, G J

    2012-01-01

    We describe a system composed of two coupled optical cavity modes with a coupling modulated by a bulk mechanical resonator. In addition, one of the cavity modes is irreversibly coupled to a single photon source. Our scheme is an opto-mechanical realization of the Jaynes–Cummings model where the qubit is a dual rail optical qubit while the bosonic degree of freedom is a matter degree of freedom realized as the bulk mechanical excitation. We show the possibility of engineering phonon number states of the mechanical oscillator in such a system by computing the conditional state of the mechanics after successive photon counting measurements. (paper)

  17. Selective Linear or Quadratic Optomechanical Coupling via Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Vanner

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The ability to engineer both linear and nonlinear coupling with a mechanical resonator is an important goal for the preparation and investigation of macroscopic mechanical quantum behavior. In this work, a measurement based scheme is presented where linear or square mechanical-displacement coupling can be achieved using the optomechanical interaction that is linearly proportional to the mechanical position. The resulting square-displacement measurement strength is compared to that attainable in the dispersive case that has a direct interaction with the mechanical-displacement squared. An experimental protocol and parameter set are discussed for the generation and observation of non-Gaussian states of motion of the mechanical element.

  18. Proposal for an optomechanical traveling wave phonon-photon translator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safavi-Naeini, Amir H; Painter, Oskar, E-mail: safavi@caltech.edu, E-mail: opainter@caltech.edu [Thomas J Watson, Sr., Laboratory of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper, we describe a general optomechanical system for converting photons to phonons in an efficient and reversible manner. We analyze classically and quantum mechanically the conversion process and proceed to a more concrete description of a phonon-photon translator (PPT) formed from coupled photonic and phononic crystal planar circuits. The application of the PPT to RF-microwave photonics and circuit QED, including proposals utilizing this system for optical wavelength conversion, long-lived quantum memory and state transfer from optical to superconducting qubits, is considered.

  19. A chip-scale integrated cavity-electro-optomechanics platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winger, M.; Blasius, T. D.; Mayer Alegre, T. P.

    2011-01-01

    We present an integrated optomechanical and electromechanical nanocavity, in which a common mechanical degree of freedom is coupled to an ultrahigh-Q photonic crystal defect cavity and an electrical circuit. The system allows for wide-range, fast electrical tuning of the optical nanocavity...... resonances, and for electrical control of optical radiation pressure back-action effects such as mechanical amplification (phonon lasing), cooling, and stiffening. These sort of integrated devices offer a new means to efficiently interconvert weak microwave and optical signals, and are expected to pave...

  20. Coherent interference effects and squeezed light generation in optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Kenan

    My Ph.D. dissertation is on the fundamental effects in optomechanical systems (OMS) and their important applications. The OMS are based on the possibility of the mechanical motion produced by few photons incident on the mechanical device. This dissertation presents several applications of the OMS in the area of storage of light in long-lived phonons, single mode optomechanical Ramsey interferometry, and generation of large amount of squeezing in the output radiation. The long-lived phonons can be monitored and controlled via optical means as was experimentally demonstrated. To show this, I develop the theory of transient electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). For further applications like state transfer, especially over very different frequency regimes, I consider double-cavity OMS, where the two cavities can correspond to different spectral domains, yet the state transfer is possible via phonons. The state transfer is based on a new effect, electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), where one uses a second control field from the other cavity to produce an absorption peak inside the EIT window. All these involve the interference of various path ways via which a final state is reached. The following chapter shows how Fano-like interference can arise in OMS. A Fano asymmetry parameter for OMS was defined. The last two chapters deal with the question if OMS can be efficient generators of squeezed light. I show by blue and red tuning the two cavities in a double-cavity OMS, one can generate effectively a two-mode parametric interaction which yields two-mode squeezed output with the squeezing magnitude of the order of 10dB. This requires a bath temperature of 10mK. Such temperatures obtained by using Helium dilution refrigerator are routinely used with superconducting OMS. The major part of this dissertation is devoted to the dispersive optomechanical interaction. However, the interaction can also be dissipative, where the mechanical displacement modulates

  1. A self-calibrating optomechanical force sensor with femtonewton resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melcher, John, E-mail: john.melcher@nist.gov; Stirling, Julian; Pratt, Jon R.; Shaw, Gordon A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Cervantes, Felipe Guzmán [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2014-12-08

    We report the development of an ultrasensitive optomechanical sensor designed to improve the accuracy and precision of force measurements with atomic force microscopy. The sensors reach quality factors of 4.3 × 10{sup 6} and force resolution on the femtonewton scale at room temperature. Self-calibration of the sensor is accomplished using radiation pressure to create a reference force. Self-calibration enables in situ calibration of the sensor in extreme environments, such as cryogenic ultra-high vacuum. The senor technology presents a viable route to force measurements at the atomic scale with uncertainties below the percent level.

  2. Normal-Mode Splitting in a Weakly Coupled Optomechanical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Massimiliano; Kralj, Nenad; Zippilli, Stefano; Natali, Riccardo; Borrielli, Antonio; Pandraud, Gregory; Serra, Enrico; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Vitali, David

    2018-02-01

    Normal-mode splitting is the most evident signature of strong coupling between two interacting subsystems. It occurs when two subsystems exchange energy between themselves faster than they dissipate it to the environment. Here we experimentally show that a weakly coupled optomechanical system at room temperature can manifest normal-mode splitting when the pump field fluctuations are antisquashed by a phase-sensitive feedback loop operating close to its instability threshold. Under these conditions the optical cavity exhibits an effectively reduced decay rate, so that the system is effectively promoted to the strong coupling regime.

  3. Diamond electro-optomechanical resonators integrated in nanophotonic circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rath, P.; Ummethala, S.; Pernice, W. H. P., E-mail: wolfram.pernice@kit.edu [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Diewald, S. [Center for Functional Nanostructures, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Lewes-Malandrakis, G.; Brink, D.; Heidrich, N.; Nebel, C. [Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Tullastr. 72, 79108 Freiburg (Germany)

    2014-12-22

    Diamond integrated photonic devices are promising candidates for emerging applications in nanophotonics and quantum optics. Here, we demonstrate active modulation of diamond nanophotonic circuits by exploiting mechanical degrees of freedom in free-standing diamond electro-optomechanical resonators. We obtain high quality factors up to 9600, allowing us to read out the driven nanomechanical response with integrated optical interferometers with high sensitivity. We are able to excite higher order mechanical modes up to 115 MHz and observe the nanomechanical response also under ambient conditions.

  4. Tunable two-photon correlation in a double-cavity optomechanical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bo Feng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Correlated photons are essential sources for quantum information processing. We propose a practical scheme to generate pairs of correlated photons in a controllable fashion from a double-cavity optomechanical system, where the variable optomechanical coupling strength makes it possible to tune the photon correlation at our will. The key operation is based on the repulsive or attractive interaction between the two photons intermediated by the mechanical resonator. The present protocol could provide a potential approach to coherent control of the photon correlation using the optomechanical cavity.

  5. Demonstration of Efficient Nonreciprocity in a Microwave Optomechanical Circuit*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, G. A.; Lecocq, F.; Cicak, K.; Simmonds, R. W.; Aumentado, J.; Teufel, J. D.

    2017-07-01

    The ability to engineer nonreciprocal interactions is an essential tool in modern communication technology as well as a powerful resource for building quantum networks. Aside from large reverse isolation, a nonreciprocal device suitable for applications must also have high efficiency (low insertion loss) and low output noise. Recent theoretical and experimental studies have shown that nonreciprocal behavior can be achieved in optomechanical systems, but performance in these last two attributes has been limited. Here, we demonstrate an efficient, frequency-converting microwave isolator based on the optomechanical interactions between electromagnetic fields and a mechanically compliant vacuum-gap capacitor. We achieve simultaneous reverse isolation of more than 20 dB and insertion loss less than 1.5 dB. We characterize the nonreciprocal noise performance of the device, observing that the residual thermal noise from the mechanical environments is routed solely to the input of the isolator. Our measurements show quantitative agreement with a general coupled-mode theory. Unlike conventional isolators and circulators, these compact nonreciprocal devices do not require a static magnetic field, and they allow for dynamic control of the direction of isolation. With these advantages, similar devices could enable programmable, high-efficiency connections between disparate nodes of quantum networks, even efficiently bridging the microwave and optical domains.

  6. Injection locking of optomechanical oscillators via acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani

    2018-04-01

    Injection locking is a powerful technique for synchronization of oscillator networks and controlling the phase and frequency of individual oscillators using similar or other types of oscillators. Here, we present the first demonstration of injection locking of a radiation-pressure driven optomechanical oscillator (OMO) via acoustic waves. As opposed to previously reported techniques (based on pump modulation or direct application of a modulated electrostatic force), injection locking of OMO via acoustic waves does not require optical power modulation or physical contact with the OMO and it can easily be implemented on various platforms. Using this approach we have locked the phase and frequency of two distinct modes of a microtoroidal silica OMO to a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). We have characterized the behavior of the injection locked OMO with three acoustic excitation configurations and showed that even without proper acoustic impedance matching the OMO can be locked to the PZT and tuned over 17 kHz with only -30 dBm of RF power fed to the PZT. The high efficiency, simplicity and scalability of the proposed approach paves the road toward a new class of photonic systems that rely on synchronization of several OMOs to a single or multiple RF oscillators with applications in optical communication, metrology and sensing. Beyond its practical applications, injection locking via acoustic waves can be used in fundamental studies in quantum optomechanics where thermal and optical isolation of the OMO are critical.

  7. Laser cooling of a harmonic oscillator's bath with optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xunnong; Taylor, Jacob

    Thermal noise reduction in mechanical systems is a topic both of fundamental interest for studying quantum physics at the macroscopic level and for application of interest, such as building high sensitivity mechanics based sensors. Similar to laser cooling of neutral atoms and trapped ions, the cooling of mechanical motion by radiation pressure can take single mechanical modes to their ground state. Conventional optomechanical cooling is able to introduce additional damping channel to mechanical motion, while keeping its thermal noise at the same level, and as a consequence, the effective temperature of the mechanical mode is lowered. However, the ratio of temperature to quality factor remains roughly constant, preventing dramatic advances in quantum sensing using this approach. Here we propose an efficient scheme for reducing the thermal load on a mechanical resonator while improving its quality factor. The mechanical mode of interest is assumed to be weakly coupled to its heat bath but strongly coupled to a second mechanical mode, which is cooled by radiation pressure coupling to a red detuned cavity field. We also identify a realistic optomechanical design that has the potential to realize this novel cooling scheme. Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

  8. A novel nano-sensor based on optomechanical crystal cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yeping; Ai, Jie; Ma, Jingfang

    2017-10-01

    Optical devices based on new sensing principle are widely used in biochemical and medical area. Nowadays, mass sensing based on monitoring the frequency shifts induced by added mass in oscillators is a well-known and widely used technique. It is interesting to note that for nanoscience and nanotechnology applications there is a strong demand for very sensitive mass sensors, being the target a sensor for single molecule detection. The desired mass resolution for very few or even single molecule detection, has to be below the femtogram range. Considering the strong interaction between high co-localized optical mode and mechanical mode in optomechanical crystal (OMC) cavities, we investigate OMC splitnanobeam cavities in silicon operating near at the 1550nm to achieve high optomechanical coupling rate and ultra-small motion mass. Theoretical investigations of the optical and mechanical characteristic for the proposed cavity are carried out. By adjusting the structural parameters, the cavity's effective motion mass below 10fg and mechanical frequency exceed 10GHz. The transmission spectrum of the cavity is sensitive to the sample which located on the center of the cavity. We conducted the fabrication and the characterization of this cavity sensor on the silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chip. By using vertical coupling between the tapered fiber and the SOI chip, we measured the transmission spectrum of the cavity, and verify this cavity is promising for ultimate precision mass sensing and detection.

  9. Controllable nonlinearity in a dual-coupling optomechanical system under a weak-coupling regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gui-Lei; Lü, Xin-You; Wan, Liang-Liang; Yin, Tai-Shuang; Bin, Qian; Wu, Ying

    2018-03-01

    Strong quantum nonlinearity gives rise to many interesting quantum effects and has wide applications in quantum physics. Here we investigate the quantum nonlinear effect of an optomechanical system (OMS) consisting of both linear and quadratic coupling. Interestingly, a controllable optomechanical nonlinearity is obtained by applying a driving laser into the cavity. This controllable optomechanical nonlinearity can be enhanced into a strong coupling regime, even if the system is initially in the weak-coupling regime. Moreover, the system dissipation can be suppressed effectively, which allows the appearance of phonon sideband and photon blockade effects in the weak-coupling regime. This work may inspire the exploration of a dual-coupling optomechanical system as well as its applications in modern quantum science.

  10. Optimal control of the power adiabatic stroke of an optomechanical heat engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathaee, M; Bahrampour, A R

    2016-08-01

    We consider the power adiabatic stroke of the Otto optomechanical heat engine introduced in Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 150602 (2014)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.112.150602. We derive the maximum extractable work of both optomechanical normal modes in the minimum time while the system experiences quantum friction effects. We show that the total work done by the system in the power adiabatic stroke is optimized by a bang-bang control. The time duration of the power adiabatic stroke is of the order of the inverse of the effective optomechanical-coupling coefficient. The optimal phase-space trajectory of the Otto cycle for both optomechanical normal modes is also obtained.

  11. Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} optomechanical crystals in the resolved-sideband regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanço, M., E-mail: mdavanco@nist.gov [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Ates, S.; Liu, Y. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Maryland NanoCenter, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Srinivasan, K. [Center for Nanoscale Science and Technology, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate sideband-resolved Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} optomechanical crystals supporting 10{sup 5} quality factor optical modes at 980 nm, coupled to ≈4 GHz frequency mechanical modes with quality factors of ≈3000. Optomechanical electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption are observed at room temperature and in atmosphere with intracavity photon numbers in excess of 10{sup 4}.

  12. Testing Quantum Gravity Induced Nonlocality via Optomechanical Quantum Oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Benincasa, Dionigi M T; Liberati, Stefano; Marin, Francesco; Marino, Francesco; Ortolan, Antonello

    2016-04-22

    Several quantum gravity scenarios lead to physics below the Planck scale characterized by nonlocal, Lorentz invariant equations of motion. We show that such nonlocal effective field theories lead to a modified Schrödinger evolution in the nonrelativistic limit. In particular, the nonlocal evolution of optomechanical quantum oscillators is characterized by a spontaneous periodic squeezing that cannot be generated by environmental effects. We discuss constraints on the nonlocality obtained by past experiments, and show how future experiments (already under construction) will either see such effects or otherwise cast severe bounds on the nonlocality scale (well beyond the current limits set by the Large Hadron Collider). This paves the way for table top, high precision experiments on massive quantum objects as a promising new avenue for testing some quantum gravity phenomenology.

  13. Beating quantum limits in an optomechanical sensor by cavity detuning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcizet, O.; Briant, T.; Heidmann, A.; Pinard, M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the quantum limits in an optomechanical sensor based on a detuned high-finesse cavity with a movable mirror. We show that the radiation pressure exerted on the mirror by the light in the detuned cavity induces a modification of the mirror dynamics and makes the mirror motion sensitive to the signal. This leads to an amplification of the signal by the mirror dynamics, and to an improvement of the sensor sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit, up to an ultimate quantum limit only related to the mechanical dissipation of the mirror. This improvement is somewhat similar to the one predicted in detuned signal-recycled gravitational-wave interferometers, and makes a high-finesse cavity a model system to test these quantum effects

  14. Near-field levitated quantum optomechanics with nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, M. L.; Molina-Terriza, G.; Volz, T.; Romero-Isart, O.

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically show that the dipole force of an ensemble of quantum emitters embedded in a dielectric nanosphere can be exploited to achieve near-field optical levitation. The key ingredient is that the polarizability from the ensemble of embedded quantum emitters can be larger than the bulk polarizability of the sphere, thereby enabling the use of repulsive optical potentials and consequently the levitation using optical near fields. In levitated cavity quantum optomechanics, this could be used to boost the single-photon coupling by combining larger polarizability to mass ratio, larger field gradients, and smaller cavity volumes while remaining in the resolved sideband regime and at room temperature. A case study is done with a nanodiamond containing a high density of silicon-vacancy color centers that is optically levitated in the evanescent field of a tapered nanofiber and coupled to a high-finesse microsphere cavity.

  15. Quantum synchronization in an optomechanical system based on Lyapunov control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenlin; Li, Chong; Song, Heshan

    2016-06-01

    We extend the concepts of quantum complete synchronization and phase synchronization, which were proposed in A. Mari et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 103605 (2013)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.111.103605, to more widespread quantum generalized synchronization. Generalized synchronization can be considered a necessary condition or a more flexible derivative of complete synchronization, and its criterion and synchronization measure are proposed and analyzed in this paper. As examples, we consider two typical generalized synchronizations in a designed optomechanical system. Unlike the effort to construct a special coupling synchronization system, we purposefully design extra control fields based on Lyapunov control theory. We find that the Lyapunov function can adapt to more flexible control objectives, which is more suitable for generalized synchronization control, and the control fields can be achieved simply with a time-variant voltage. Finally, the existence of quantum entanglement in different generalized synchronizations is also discussed.

  16. The opto-mechanical design process: from vision to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvamme, E. Todd; Stubbs, David M.; Jacoby, Michael S.

    2017-08-01

    The design process for an opto-mechanical sub-system is discussed from requirements development through test. The process begins with a proper mission understanding and the development of requirements for the system. Preliminary design activities are then discussed with iterative analysis and design work being shared between the design, thermal, and structural engineering personnel. Readiness for preliminary review and the path to a final design review are considered. The value of prototyping and risk mitigation testing is examined with a focus on when it makes sense to execute a prototype test program. System level margin is discussed in general terms, and the practice of trading margin in one area of performance to meet another area is reviewed. Requirements verification and validation is briefly considered. Testing and its relationship to requirements verification concludes the design process.

  17. Radiation-pressure-mediated control of an optomechanical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripe, Jonathan; Aggarwal, Nancy; Singh, Robinjeet; Lanza, Robert; Libson, Adam; Yap, Min Jet; Cole, Garrett D.; McClelland, David E.; Mavalvala, Nergis; Corbitt, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    We describe and demonstrate a method to control a detuned movable-mirror Fabry-Pérot cavity using radiation pressure in the presence of a strong optical spring. At frequencies below the optical spring resonance, self-locking of the cavity is achieved intrinsically by the optomechanical (OM) interaction between the cavity field and the movable end mirror. The OM interaction results in a high rigidity and reduced susceptibility of the mirror to external forces. However, due to a finite delay time in the cavity, this enhanced rigidity is accompanied by an antidamping force, which destabilizes the cavity. The cavity is stabilized by applying external feedback in a frequency band around the optical spring resonance. The error signal is sensed in the amplitude quadrature of the transmitted beam with a photodetector. An amplitude modulator in the input path to the cavity modulates the light intensity to provide the stabilizing radiation pressure force.

  18. Injection locking of optomechanical oscillators via acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke; Hossein-Zadeh, Mani

    2018-04-02

    Injection locking is an effective technique for synchronization of oscillator networks and controlling the phase and frequency of individual oscillators. As such, exploring new mechanisms for injection locking of emerging oscillators is important for their usage in various systems. Here, we present the first demonstration of injection locking of a radiation pressure driven optomechanical oscillator (OMO) via acoustic waves. As opposed to previously reported techniques (based on pump modulation or direct application of a modulated electrostatic force), injection locking of OMO via acoustic waves does not require optical power modulation or physical contact with the OMO and it can be easily implemented on various platforms to lock different types of OMOs independent of their size and structure. Using this approach we have locked the phase and frequency of two distinct modes of a microtoroidal silica OMO to a piezoelectric transducer (PZT). We have characterized the behavior of the injection locked OMO with three acoustic excitation configurations and showed that even without proper acoustic impedance, matching the OMO can be locked to the PZT and tuned over 17 kHz with only -30 dBm of RF power fed to the PZT. The high efficiency, simplicity, and scalability of the proposed approach paves the road toward a new class of photonic systems that rely on synchronization of several OMOs to a single or multiple RF oscillators with applications in optical communication, metrology, and sensing. Beyond its practical applications, injection locking via acoustic waves can be used in fundamental studies in quantum optomechanics where thermal and optical isolation of the OMO are critical.

  19. Nano-optomechanical system based on microwave frequency surface acoustic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Semere Ayalew

    Cavity optomechnics studies the interaction of cavity confined photons with mechanical motion. The emergence of sophisticated nanofabrication technology has led to experimental demonstrations of a wide range of novel optomechanical systems that exhibit strong optomechanical coupling and allow exploration of interesting physical phenomena. Many of the studies reported so far are focused on interaction of photons with localized mechanical modes. For my doctoral research, I did experimental investigations to extend this study to propagating phonons. I used surface travelling acoustic waves as the mechanical element of my optomechanical system. The optical cavities constitute an optical racetrack resonator and photonic crystal nanocavity. This dissertation discusses implementation of this surface acoustic wave based optomechanical system and experimental demonstrations of important consequences of the optomechanical coupling. The discussion focuses on three important achievements of the research. First, microwave frequency surface acoustic wave transducers were co-integrated with an optical racetrack resonator on a piezoelectric aluminum nitride film deposited on an oxidized silicon substrate. Acousto-optic modulation of the resonance modes at above 10 GHz with the acoustic wavelength significantly below the optical wavelength was achieved. The phase and modal matching conditions in this paradigm were investigated for efficient optmechanical coupling. Second, the optomechanical coupling was pushed further into the sideband resolved regime by integrating the high frequency surface acoustic wave transducers with a photonic crystal nanocavity. This device was used to demonstrate optomecahnically induced transparency and absorption, one of the interesting consequences of cavity optomechanics. Phase coherent interaction of the acoustic wave with multiple nanocavities was also explored. In a related experiment, the photonic crystal nanoscavity was placed inside an acoustic

  20. Molecular cavity optomechanics as a theory of plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelli, Philippe; Galland, Christophe; Piro, Nicolas; Kippenberg, Tobias J

    2016-02-01

    The exceptional enhancement of Raman scattering by localized plasmonic resonances in the near field of metallic nanoparticles, surfaces or tips (SERS, TERS) has enabled spectroscopic fingerprinting down to the single molecule level. The conventional explanation attributes the enhancement to the subwavelength confinement of the electromagnetic field near nanoantennas. Here, we introduce a new model that also accounts for the dynamical nature of the plasmon-molecule interaction. We thereby reveal an enhancement mechanism not considered before: dynamical backaction amplification of molecular vibrations. We first map the system onto the canonical Hamiltonian of cavity optomechanics, in which the molecular vibration and the plasmon are parametrically coupled. We express the vacuum optomechanical coupling rate for individual molecules in plasmonic 'hot-spots' in terms of the vibrational mode's Raman activity and find it to be orders of magnitude larger than for microfabricated optomechanical systems. Remarkably, the frequency of commonly studied molecular vibrations can be comparable to or larger than the plasmon's decay rate. Together, these considerations predict that an excitation laser blue-detuned from the plasmon resonance can parametrically amplify the molecular vibration, leading to a nonlinear enhancement of Raman emission that is not predicted by the conventional theory. Our optomechanical approach recovers known results, provides a quantitative framework for the calculation of cross-sections, and enables the design of novel systems that leverage dynamical backaction to achieve additional, mode-selective enhancements. It also provides a quantum mechanical framework to analyse plasmon-vibrational interactions in terms of molecular quantum optomechanics.

  1. Quantum entanglement and teleportation in pulsed cavity optomechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofer, Sebastian G. [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Gravitational Physics, Leibniz University Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Wieczorek, Witlef; Aspelmeyer, Markus [Vienna Center for Quantum Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Boltzmanngasse 5, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Hammerer, Klemens [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Institute for Gravitational Physics, Leibniz University Hannover, Callinstrasse 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    Entangling a mechanical oscillator with an optical mode is an enticing and yet a very challenging goal in cavity optomechanics. Here we consider a pulsed scheme to create Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type entanglement between a traveling-wave light pulse and a mechanical oscillator. The entanglement can be verified unambiguously by a pump-probe sequence of pulses. In contrast to schemes that work in a steady-state regime under a continuous-wave drive, this protocol is not subject to stability requirements that normally limit the strength of achievable entanglement. We investigate the protocol's performance under realistic conditions, including mechanical decoherence, in full detail. We discuss the relevance of a high mechanical Qf product for entanglement creation and provide a quantitative statement on which magnitude of the Qf product is necessary for a successful realization of the scheme. We determine the optimal parameter regime for its operation and show it to work in current state-of-the-art systems.

  2. Electron spin control and torsional optomechanics of an optically levitated nanodiamond in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongcang; Hoang, Thai; Ahn, Jonghoon; Bang, Jaehoon

    Electron spins of diamond nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers are important quantum resources for nanoscale sensing and quantum information. Combining such NV spin systems with levitated optomechanical resonators will provide a hybrid quantum system for many novel applications. Here we optically levitate a nanodiamond and demonstrate electron spin control of its built-in NV centers in vacuum. We observe that the strength of electron spin resonance (ESR) is enhanced when the air pressure is reduced. We also observe that oxygen and helium gases have different effects on both the photoluminescence and the ESR contrast of nanodiamond NV centers, indicating potential applications of NV centers in oxygen gas sensing. For spin-optomechanics, it is important to control the orientation of the nanodiamond and NV centers in a magnetic field. Recently, we have observed the angular trapping and torsional vibration of a levitated nanodiamond, which paves the way towards levitated torsional optomechanics in the quantum regime. NSF 1555035-PHY.

  3. Ultralow-Noise SiN Trampoline Resonators for Sensing and Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Christoph; Müller, Tina; Bourassa, Alexandre; Sankey, Jack C.

    2016-04-01

    In force sensing, optomechanics, and quantum motion experiments, it is typically advantageous to create lightweight, compliant mechanical elements with the lowest possible force noise. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of high-aspect-ratio, nanogram-scale Si3 N4 "trampolines" having quality factors above 4 ×107 and ringdown times exceeding 5 min (mHz linewidth). These devices exhibit thermally limited force noise sensitivities below 20 aN /Hz1 /2 at room temperature, which is the lowest among solid-state mechanical sensors. We also characterize the suitability of these devices for high-finesse cavity readout and optomechanics applications, finding no evidence of surface or bulk optical losses from the processed nitride in a cavity achieving finesse 40,000. These parameters provide access to a single-photon cooperativity C0˜8 in the resolved-sideband limit, wherein a variety of outstanding optomechanics goals become feasible.

  4. Multiple electromechanically-induced-transparency windows and Fano resonances in hybrid nano-electro-optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Kamran; Jing, Hui; Saif, Farhan

    2018-03-01

    We show multiple electromechanically-induced transparency (EMIT) windows in a hybrid nano-electro-optomechanical system in the presence of two-level atoms coupled to a single-mode cavity field. The multiple EMIT-window profile can be observed by controlling the atom field coupling as well as Coulomb coupling between the two charged mechanical resonators. We derive the analytical expression of the multiple-EMIT-windows profile and describe the splitting of multiple EMIT windows as a function of optomechanical coupling, atom-field coupling, and Coulomb coupling. In particular, we discuss the robustness of the system against the cavity decay rate. We compare the results of identical mechanical resonators to different mechanical resonators. We further show how the hybrid nano-electro-optomechanics coupled system can lead to the splitting of the multiple Fano resonances (MFR). The Fano resonances are very sensitive to decay terms in such systems, i.e., atoms, cavities, and the mechanical resonators.

  5. Optomechanically induced transparency in multi-cavity optomechanical system with and without one two-level atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Amjad; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-Shui

    2016-06-28

    We analytically study the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) in the N-cavity system with the Nth cavity driven by pump, probing laser fields and the 1st cavity coupled to mechanical oscillator. We also consider that one atom could be trapped in the ith cavity. Instead of only illustrating the OMIT in such a system, we are interested in how the number of OMIT windows is influenced by the cavities and the atom and what roles the atom could play in different cavities. In the resolved sideband regime, we find that, the number of cavities precisely determines the maximal number of OMIT windows. It is interesting that, when the two-level atom is trapped in the even-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is split and forms an extra OMIT window, but if the atom is trapped in the odd-labeled cavity, the central absorptive peak (odd N) or dip (even N) is only broadened and thus changes the width of the OMIT windows rather than induces an extra window.

  6. Doping assessment in GaAs nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goktas, N. Isik; Fiordaliso, Elisabetta Maria; LaPierre, R. R.

    2018-01-01

    Semiconductor nanowires (NWs) are a candidate technology for future optoelectronic devices. One of the critical issues in NWs is the control of impurity doping for the formation of p-n junctions. In this study, beryllium (p-type dopant) and tellurium (n-type dopant) in self-assisted GaAs NWs...

  7. GaAs optoelectronic neuron arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Steven; Grot, Annette; Luo, Jiafu; Psaltis, Demetri

    1993-01-01

    A simple optoelectronic circuit integrated monolithically in GaAs to implement sigmoidal neuron responses is presented. The circuit integrates a light-emitting diode with one or two transistors and one or two photodetectors. The design considerations for building arrays with densities of up to 10,000/sq cm are discussed.

  8. Subnanosecond photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.; Griffin, K.L.

    1991-04-01

    We are conducting research in photoconductive switching for the purpose of generating microwave pulses with amplitudes up to 50 kV. This technology has direct application to impulse radar and HPM sources. We are exploiting the very fast recombination rates of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) to explore the potential of GaAs as an on-off switch when operating in the linear mode (the linear mode is defined such that one carrier pair is generated for each photon absorbed). In addition, we are exploring the potential GaAs to act as a closing switch in ``avalanche`` mode at high fields. We have observed switch closing times of less than 200 psec with a 100 psec duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 psec with neutron irradiated GaAs at fields of tens of kV/cm. If the field is increased and the laser energy decreased, the laser can be used to trigger photoconductive switches into ``avalanche`` mode of operation in which carrier multiplication occurs. This mode of operation is quite promising since the switches close in less than 1 nsec while realizing significant energy gain (ratio of electrical energy in the pulse to optical trigger energy). We are currently investigating both large area (1 sq cm) and small area (< 1 sq mm) switches illuminated by GaAlAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 micrometers. Preliminary results indicate that the closing time of the avalanche switches depends primarily on the material properties of the devices with closing times of 300--1300 psec at voltages of 6--35 kV. We will present experimental results for linear, lock on and avalanche mode operation of GaAs photoconductive switches and how these pulses may be applied to microwave generation. 3 refs.

  9. Subnanosecond photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.; Griffin, K.L.

    1991-04-01

    We are conducting research in photoconductive switching for the purpose of generating microwave pulses with amplitudes up to 50 kV. This technology has direct application to impulse radar and HPM sources. We are exploiting the very fast recombination rates of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) to explore the potential of GaAs as an on-off switch when operating in the linear mode (the linear mode is defined such that one carrier pair is generated for each photon absorbed). In addition, we are exploring the potential GaAs to act as a closing switch in avalanche'' mode at high fields. We have observed switch closing times of less than 200 psec with a 100 psec duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 psec with neutron irradiated GaAs at fields of tens of kV/cm. If the field is increased and the laser energy decreased, the laser can be used to trigger photoconductive switches into avalanche'' mode of operation in which carrier multiplication occurs. This mode of operation is quite promising since the switches close in less than 1 nsec while realizing significant energy gain (ratio of electrical energy in the pulse to optical trigger energy). We are currently investigating both large area (1 sq cm) and small area (< 1 sq mm) switches illuminated by GaAlAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 micrometers. Preliminary results indicate that the closing time of the avalanche switches depends primarily on the material properties of the devices with closing times of 300--1300 psec at voltages of 6--35 kV. We will present experimental results for linear, lock on and avalanche mode operation of GaAs photoconductive switches and how these pulses may be applied to microwave generation. 3 refs.

  10. Subnanosecond photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.; Griffin, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    We are conducting research in photoconductive switching for the purpose of generating microwave pulses with amplitudes up to 50 kV. This technology has direct application to impulse radar and HPM sources. We are exploiting the very fast recombination rates of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) to explore the potential of GaAs as an on-off switch when operating in the linear mode (the linear mode is defined such that one carrier pair is generated for each photon absorbed). In addition, we are exploring the potential of GaAs to act as a closing switch in avalanche'' mode at high fields. We have observed switch closing times of less than 200 psec with 100 psec duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 psec with neutron irradiated GaAs at fields of tens of kV/cm. If the field is increased and the laser energy decreased, the laser can be used to trigger photoconductive switches into an avalanche'' mode of operation in which carrier multiplication occurs. This mode of operation is quite promising since the switches close in less than 1 nsec while realizing significant energy gain (ratio of electrical energy in the pulse to optical trigger energy). We are currently investigating both large are (1 sq cm) and small area (<1 sq mm) switches illuminated by GaAlAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 micrometers. Preliminary results indicate that the closing time of the avalanche switches depends primarily on the material properties of the devices with closing times of 300--1300 psec at voltages of 6-35 kV. We will present experimental results for linear, lock on and avalanche mode operation of GaAs photoconductive switches and how these pulses may be applied to microwave generation. 3 refs., 11 figs.

  11. Subnanosecond photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R. L.; Pocha, M. D.; Griffin, K. L.

    1991-04-01

    We are conducting research in photoconductive switching for the purpose of generating microwave pulses with amplitudes up to 50 kV. This technology has direct application to impulse radar and HPM sources. We are exploiting the very fast recombination rates of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) to explore the potential of GaAs as an on-off switch when operating in the linear mode (the linear mode is defined such that one carrier pair is generated for each photon absorbed). In addition, we are exploring the potential GaAs to act as a closing switch in 'avalanche' mode at high fields. We have observed switch closing times of less than 200 psec with a 100 psec duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 psec with neutron irradiated GaAs at fields of tens of kV/cm. If the field is increased and the laser energy decreased, the laser can be used to trigger photoconductive switches into 'avalanche' mode of operation in which carrier multiplication occurs. This mode of operation is quite promising since the switches close in less than 1 nsec while realizing significant energy gain (ratio of electrical energy in the pulse to optical trigger energy). We are currently investigating both large area (1 sq cm) and small area (less than 1 sq mm) switches illuminated by GaAlAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 micrometers. Preliminary results indicate that the closing time of the avalanche switches depends primarily on the material properties of the devices with closing times of 300-1300 psec at voltages of 6-35 kV. We will present experimental results for linear, lock on, and avalanche mode operation of GaAs photoconductive switches and how these pulses may be applied to microwave generation.

  12. PRECISION MOTION SYSTEM FOR OPTO-MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT OF MICROELECTRONICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Dainiak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a structure of precision motion system built on the basis of a circular multi-coordinate synchronous segment motor and reconfigurable parallel kinematic mechanism. The multi-coordinate synchronous segment motor may have from two to six movable segments depending on the design, and number of the segments generally defines an internal mobility of the motor. A specific feature of the parallel kinematic mechanism consists in the possibility of its structure reconfiguration by serial connection of two neighboring rods with the help of free elements of their spherical joints into triangular circuits with one spherical hinge at the common vertex. As result of this, the controlled motion of motor movable segments is transformed into the complex spatial displacement of circular platform with number of degrees of freedom up to six inclusively.A mathematical model for solution of the kinematic problem in the investigated parallel mechanism has been offered in the paper. The model allows to calculate a position of movable segments of multi-coordinate synchronous motor depending on the desired position and orientation of the executive circular platform. The parametric definition of base point positions in the motor segments in time allows eventually to form algorithms of programmable motions.The paper substantiates ability to embed the developed motion system into projection unit of opto-mechanical equipment while preserving traditional configuration scheme. This provides the possibility of adaptive adjustment of optical elements during operation; it allows to adjust the optical elements when the geometry of projection system is changed due to deterioration. As result, main characteristics of projection system: resolution, depth of field and image contrast and distortion are maintained at the required level. The developed motion system can be used as a coordinate system of positioning, alignment and scanning in the assembly and other

  13. Optomechanical System Development of the AWARE Gigapixel Scale Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hui S.

    Electronic focal plane arrays (FPA) such as CMOS and CCD sensors have dramatically improved to the point that digital cameras have essentially phased out film (except in very niche applications such as hobby photography and cinema). However, the traditional method of mating a single lens assembly to a single detector plane, as required for film cameras, is still the dominant design used in cameras today. The use of electronic sensors and their ability to capture digital signals that can be processed and manipulated post acquisition offers much more freedom of design at system levels and opens up many interesting possibilities for the next generation of computational imaging systems. The AWARE gigapixel scale camera is one such computational imaging system. By utilizing a multiscale optical design, in which a large aperture objective lens is mated with an array of smaller, well corrected relay lenses, we are able to build an optically simple system that is capable of capturing gigapixel scale images via post acquisition stitching of the individual pictures from the array. Properly shaping the array of digital cameras allows us to form an effectively continuous focal surface using off the shelf (OTS) flat sensor technology. This dissertation details developments and physical implementations of the AWARE system architecture. It illustrates the optomechanical design principles and system integration strategies we have developed through the course of the project by summarizing the results of the two design phases for AWARE: AWARE-2 and AWARE-10. These systems represent significant advancements in the pursuit of scalable, commercially viable snapshot gigapixel imaging systems and should serve as a foundation for future development of such systems.

  14. Uncertainty contributions due to different measurement strategies applied to optomechanical hole plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    The work described in this paper deals with influence parameters in optical measurements, with particular respect to the choice of measurement strategy, which strongly affects the results of measurement. In this investigation, an optomechanical hole plate developed by DTU was measured with an opt...

  15. Optical-response properties in an atom-assisted optomechanical system with a mechanical pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Jian; Chen, Hao; Liu, Wen-Xiao; Li, Hong-Rong

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the optical-response properties of a coherent-mechanical pumped optomechanical system (OMS) coupled to a Λ-type three-level atomic ensemble. Due to the optomechanical and the cavity-atom couplings, the optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomena could both be observed from our proposal. In the presence of a coherent mechanical pump, we show that the OMIT behavior of the probe field exhibits a phase-dependent effect, leading to the switch from OMIT to optomechanically induced absorption or amplification, while the feature of EIT remains unchanged. The distinctly different effects of the mechanical pump on OMIT and EIT behavior assure us that the absorption (amplification) and transparency of the output probe field can be simultaneously observed. Moreover, a tunable switch from slow to fast light can also be realized by tuning the phase and amplitude of the mechanical pump. In particular, the presence of the atomic ensemble can further adjust the group delay, providing additional flexibility for achieving the tunable switch.

  16. Panel fabrication utilizing GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardesich, N.

    1984-01-01

    The development of the GaAs solar cells for space applications is described. The activities in the fabrication of GaAs solar panels are outlined. Panels were fabricated while introducing improved quality control, soldering laydown and testing procedures. These panels include LIPS II, San Marco Satellite, and a low concentration panel for Rockwells' evaluation. The panels and their present status are discussed.

  17. Optical pumping of hot phonons in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, C.L.; Yu, P.Y.

    1982-01-01

    Optical pumping of hot LO phonons in GaAs has been studied as a function of the excitation photon frequency. The experimental results are in good agreement with a model calculation which includes both inter- and intra-valley electron-phonon scatterings. The GAMMA-L and GAMMA-X intervalley electron-phonon interactions in GaAs have been estimated

  18. Linearity of photoconductive GaAs detectors to pulsed electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, L.H.

    1995-01-01

    The response of neutron damaged GaAs photoconductor detectors to intense, fast (50 psec fwhm) pulses of 16 MeV electrons has been measured. Detectors made from neutron damaged GaAs are known to have reduced gain, but significantly improved bandwidth. An empirical relationship between the observed signal and the incident electron fluence has been determined

  19. Dynamical back-action at 5.5 GHz in a corrugated optomechanical beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Urrios, D., E-mail: daniel.navarrourrios@nano.cnr.it [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, Edifici ICN2, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze – CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, Pisa, I-56127 (Italy); Gomis-Bresco, J.; Alzina, F. [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, Edifici ICN2, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); El-Jallal, S. [IEMN, Universite de Lille 1, Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); PRILM, Université Moulay Ismail, Faculté des sciences, Meknès (Morocco); Oudich, M.; Pennec, Y.; Djafari-Rouhani, B. [IEMN, Universite de Lille 1, Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Pitanti, A. [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze – CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, Pisa, I-56127 (Italy); Capuj, N. [Depto. Física, Universidad de la Laguna, 38206 (Spain); Tredicucci, A. [NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze – CNR and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, Pisa, I-56127 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Griol, A.; Martínez, A. [Nanophotonics Technology Center, Universitat Politècnica de València, Valencia (Spain); Sotomayor Torres, C. M. [Catalan Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Campus UAB, Edifici ICN2, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the optomechanical properties of a breathing mechanical mode oscillating at 5.5 GHz in a 1D corrugated Si nanobeam. This mode has an experimental single-particle optomechanical coupling rate of |g{sub o,OM}| = 1.8 MHz (|g{sub o,OM}|/2π = 0.3 MHz) and shows strong dynamical back-action effects at room temperature. The geometrical flexibility of the unit-cell would lend itself to further engineering of the cavity region to localize the mode within the full phononic band-gap present at 4 GHz while keeping high g{sub o,OM} values. This would lead to longer lifetimes at cryogenic temperatures, due to the suppression of acoustic leakage.

  20. Spatial confinement of acoustic and optical waves in stubbed slab structure as optomechanical resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Changsheng, E-mail: lcs135@163.com; Huang, Dan; Guo, Jierong

    2015-02-20

    We theoretically demonstrate that acoustic waves and optical waves can be spatially confined in the same micro-cavity by specially designed stubbed slab structure. The proposed structure presents both phononic and photonic band gaps from finite element calculation. The creation of cavity mode inside the band gap region provides strong localization of phonon and photon in the defect region. The practical parameters to inject cavity and work experimentally at telecommunication range are discussed. This structure can be precisely fabricated, hold promises to enhance acousto-optical interactions and design new applications as optomechanical resonator. - Highlights: • A resonator simultaneously supports acoustic and optical modes. • Strong spatial confinement and slow group velocity. • Potential to work as active optomechanical resonator.

  1. Multi-dimensional single-spin nano-optomechanics with a levitated nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, Levi P.; von Haartman, Eva; Rosenholm, Jessica M.; Nick Vamivakas, A.

    2015-10-01

    Considerable advances made in the development of nanomechanical and nano-optomechanical devices have enabled the observation of quantum effects, improved sensitivity to minute forces, and provided avenues to probe fundamental physics at the nanoscale. Concurrently, solid-state quantum emitters with optically accessible spin degrees of freedom have been pursued in applications ranging from quantum information science to nanoscale sensing. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid nano-optomechanical system composed of a nanodiamond (containing a single nitrogen-vacancy centre) that is levitated in an optical dipole trap. The mechanical state of the diamond is controlled by modulation of the optical trapping potential. We demonstrate the ability to imprint the multi-dimensional mechanical motion of the cavity-free mechanical oscillator into the nitrogen-vacancy centre fluorescence and manipulate the mechanical system's intrinsic spin. This result represents the first step towards a hybrid quantum system based on levitating nanoparticles that simultaneously engages optical, phononic and spin degrees of freedom.

  2. Optical-response properties in hybrid optomechanical systems with quadratic coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xue-Jian; Wang, Xin; Liu, Li-Na; Liu, Wen-Xiao; Fang, Ai-Ping; Li, Hong-Rong

    2018-02-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical-response properties of the four-mode quadratically coupled optomechanical system (OMS), in which two standard OMSs with quadratic coupling are coupled to each other via a common waveguide. In the presence of a strong control field applied to one cavity and a weak probe field applied to the other, we show that by suitably tuning the system parameters, there appears the normal mode splitting, optomechanically induced absorption, and double or triple electromagnetically induced transparency phenomena in the probe absorption spectrum. In particular, the explicit physical explanations for those fantastic phenomena are detailed discussed. Moreover, we also show that our proposal can be exploited to implement the optical switch as well as the slow and fast light effects.

  3. Enhancing a slow and weak optomechanical nonlinearity with delayed quantum feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyou; Safavi-Naeini, Amir H.

    2017-07-01

    A central goal of quantum optics is to generate large interactions between single photons so that one photon can strongly modify the state of another one. In cavity optomechanics, photons interact with the motional degrees of freedom of an optical resonator, for example, by imparting radiation pressure forces on a movable mirror or sensing minute fluctuations in the position of the mirror. Here, we show that the optical nonlinearity arising from these effects, typically too small to operate on single photons, can be sufficiently enhanced with feedback to generate large interactions between single photons. We propose a protocol that allows photons propagating in a waveguide to interact with each other through multiple bounces off an optomechanical system. The protocol is analysed by evolving the full many-body quantum state of the waveguide-coupled system, illustrating that large photon-photon interactions mediated by mechanical motion may be within experimental reach.

  4. Acousto-optic modulation and opto-acoustic gating in piezo-optomechanical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Krishna C.; Davanço, Marcelo I.; Ilic, B. Robert; Kyhm, Ji-Hoon; Song, Jin Dong; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic wave devices provide a promising chip-scale platform for efficiently coupling radio frequency (RF) and optical fields. Here, we use an integrated piezo-optomechanical circuit platform that exploits both the piezoelectric and photoelastic coupling mechanisms to link 2.4 GHz RF waves to 194 THz (1550 nm) optical waves, through coupling to propagating and localized 2.4 GHz acoustic waves. We demonstrate acousto-optic modulation, resonant in both the optical and mechanical domains, in which waveforms encoded on the RF carrier are mapped to the optical field. We also show opto-acoustic gating, in which the application of modulated optical pulses interferometrically gates the transmission of propagating acoustic pulses. The time-domain characteristics of this system under both pulsed RF and pulsed optical excitation are considered in the context of the different physical pathways involved in driving the acoustic waves, and modelled through the coupled mode equations of cavity optomechanics. PMID:28580373

  5. CIRP Interlaboratory Comparison of Coordinate Measuring Machines using an Optomechanical Hole Plate - Final Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Morace, Renata Erica

    2005-01-01

    be expected that the optomechanical hole plates can be calibrated using the DKD procedure with an uncertainty in the range between 0.5 µm and 2 µm. Using the hole plate, it is possible to compare the performance of measurements obtained using optical and mechanical CMMs. Optical CMM measurements can...... be divided in two groups. A group leading to deviations larger than 2 µm, and a group with deviations that are comparable to those using mechanical machines. All but one laboratory could perform reversal measurements. Transfer of traceability was established as follows: 8 using gauge blocks, 2 laser...... interferometers, 1 zerodur hole plate, 2 callipers, and 1 quartz standard. Out of the 23 measurement campaigns, 5 optical and 2 mechanical machines were not provided with establishment of traceability. The optomechanical hole plate is a suitable reference artefact providing traceability of CMMs, in particular...

  6. Macroscopic Entangled State Generation with Optomechanical Coupling of Two Mechanical Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew; Luna, Fernando; Buters, Frank; Heeck, Kier; de Man, Sven; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    Mechanical resonators with a large quantum position uncertainty are an excellent test system for proposed decoherence mechanisms in massive systems. We present a scheme to optomechanically entangle two mechanical resonators with large frequency separation via two tone driving and single photon projection measurements. The quantum position uncertainty can be tuned with a variable optical pulse displacement operation, and independent single photon readout of the two resonators provides robust verification of the quantum states of the system. This scheme is currently experimentally feasible in a number of high mass opto- and electro-mechanical systems. We demonstrate one such system with two spatially and frequency separated Si3N4 trampoline resonators. We also show how the resonators can be coupled with two tone driving and the single photon optomechanical coupling rates can be tuned.

  7. Peeled film GaAs solar cell development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilt, D.M.; Thomas, R.D.; Bailey, S.G.; Brinker, D.J.; DeAngelo, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    Thin film, single crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) solar cells could exhibit a specific power approaching 700 W/Kg including coverglass. A simple process has been described whereby epitaxial GaAs layers are peeled from a reusable substrate. This process takes advantage of the extreme selectivity (>10 6 ) of the etching rate of aluminum arsenide (AlAs) over GaAs in dilute hydrofloric acid (HF). The intent of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of using the peeled film technique to fabricate high efficiency, low mass GaAs solar cells. We have successfully produced a peeled film GaAs solar cell. The device, although fractured and missing the aluminum gallium arsenide (Al x Ga 1 - x As) window and antireflective (AR) coating, had a Voc of 874 mV and a fill factor of 68% under AMO illumination

  8. Guided Acoustic and Optical Waves in Silicon-on-Insulator for Brillouin Scattering and Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    APL PHOTONICS 1, 071301 (2016) Guided acoustic and optical waves in silicon-on- insulator for Brillouin scattering and optomechanics Christopher J...is possible to simultaneously guide optical and acoustic waves in the technologically important silicon on insulator (SOI) material system. Thin...high sound velocity — makes guiding acoustic waves difficult, motivating the use of soft chalcogenide glasses and partial or complete releases (removal

  9. Realizing a Circuit Analog of an Optomechanical System with Longitudinally Coupled Superconducting Resonators

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, C.; Petta, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    We realize a superconducting circuit analog of the generic cavity-optomechanical Hamiltonian by longitudinally coupling two superconducting resonators, which are an order of magnitude different in frequency. We achieve longitudinal coupling by embedding a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) into a high frequency resonator, making its resonance frequency depend on the zero point current fluctuations of a nearby low frequency LC-resonator. By employing sideband drive fields we e...

  10. The tomography inside of a Fourier Optics course: some opto-mechanical illustrative arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Z, G.; Rodriguez V, R.; Luna C, A.

    1999-01-01

    The introduction of tomography as an advanced topic to be included in a Fourier optics course at graduated level is proposed. It is shown a possible presentation sequence which features the use of typical Fourier optics techniques, as well as some well known opto-mechanical devices as examples. Finally, a simplified apparatus which illustrates the central Fourier theorem as an experimental project on Fourier optics is described. Corresponding experimental results are also shown. (Author)

  11. Mesoscopic chaos mediated by Drude electron-hole plasma in silicon optomechanical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiagui; Huang, Shu-Wei; Huang, Yongjun; Zhou, Hao; Yang, Jinghui; Liu, Jia-Ming; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Duan, Shukai; Wei Wong, Chee

    2017-01-01

    Chaos has revolutionized the field of nonlinear science and stimulated foundational studies from neural networks, extreme event statistics, to physics of electron transport. Recent studies in cavity optomechanics provide a new platform to uncover quintessential architectures of chaos generation and the underlying physics. Here, we report the generation of dynamical chaos in silicon-based monolithic optomechanical oscillators, enabled by the strong and coupled nonlinearities of two-photon absorption induced Drude electron–hole plasma. Deterministic chaotic oscillation is achieved, and statistical and entropic characterization quantifies the chaos complexity at 60 fJ intracavity energies. The correlation dimension D2 is determined at 1.67 for the chaotic attractor, along with a maximal Lyapunov exponent rate of about 2.94 times the fundamental optomechanical oscillation for fast adjacent trajectory divergence. Nonlinear dynamical maps demonstrate the subharmonics, bifurcations and stable regimes, along with distinct transitional routes into chaos. This provides a CMOS-compatible and scalable architecture for understanding complex dynamics on the mesoscopic scale. PMID:28598426

  12. Ultralow-Noise SiN Trampoline Resonators for Sensing and Optomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Reinhardt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In force sensing, optomechanics, and quantum motion experiments, it is typically advantageous to create lightweight, compliant mechanical elements with the lowest possible force noise. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of high-aspect-ratio, nanogram-scale Si_{3}N_{4} “trampolines” having quality factors above 4×10^{7} and ringdown times exceeding 5 min (mHz linewidth. These devices exhibit thermally limited force noise sensitivities below 20  aN/Hz^{1/2} at room temperature, which is the lowest among solid-state mechanical sensors. We also characterize the suitability of these devices for high-finesse cavity readout and optomechanics applications, finding no evidence of surface or bulk optical losses from the processed nitride in a cavity achieving finesse 40,000. These parameters provide access to a single-photon cooperativity C_{0}∼8 in the resolved-sideband limit, wherein a variety of outstanding optomechanics goals become feasible.

  13. Building mechanical Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and cluster states by harnessing optomechanical quantum steerable correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Huatang; Wei, Yanghua; Li, Gaoxiang

    2017-11-01

    Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and cluster states are two typical kinds of multipartite entangled states and can respectively be used for realizing quantum networks and one-way computation. We propose a feasible scheme for generating Gaussian GHZ and cluster states of multiple mechanical oscillators by pulsed cavity optomechanics. In our scheme, each optomechanical cavity is driven by a blue-detuned pulse to establish quantum steerable correlations between the cavity output field and the mechanical oscillator, and the cavity outputs are combined at a beam-splitter array with given transmissivity and reflectivity for each beam splitter. We show that by harnessing the light-mechanical steerable correlations, the mechanical GHZ and cluster states can be realized via homodyne detection on the amplitude and phase quadratures of the output fields from the beam-splitter array. These achieved mechanical entangled states can be viewed as the output states of an effective mechanical beam-splitter array with the mechanical inputs prepared in squeezed states with the light-mechanical steering. The effects of detection efficiency and thermal noise on the achieved mechanical states are investigated. The present scheme does not require externally injected squeezing and it can also be applicable to other systems such as light-atomic-ensemble interface, apart from optomechanical systems.

  14. Photon–phonon parametric oscillation induced by quadratic coupling in an optomechanical resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lin; Ji, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    A direct photon–phonon parametric effect of quadratic coupling on the mean-field dynamics of an optomechanical resonator in the large-scale-movement regime is found and investigated. Under a weak pumping power, the mechanical resonator damps to a steady state with a nonlinear static response sensitively modified by the quadratic coupling. When the driving power increases beyond the static energy balance, the steady states lose their stabilities via Hopf bifurcations, and the resonator produces stable self-sustained oscillation (limit-circle behavior) of discrete energies with step-like amplitudes due to the parametric effect of quadratic coupling, which can be understood roughly by the power balance between gain and loss on the resonator. A further increase in the pumping power can induce a chaotic dynamic of the resonator via a typical routine of period-doubling bifurcation, but which can be stabilized by the parametric effect through an inversion-bifurcation process back to the limit-circle states. The bifurcation-to-inverse-bifurcation transitions are numerically verified by the maximal Lyapunov exponents of the dynamics, which indicate an efficient way of suppressing the chaotic behavior of the optomechanical resonator by quadratic coupling. Furthermore, the parametric effect of quadratic coupling on the dynamic transitions of an optomechanical resonator can be conveniently detected or traced by the output power spectrum of the cavity field. (paper)

  15. Annealing-induced Fe oxide nanostructures on GaAs

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Y X; Ahmad, E; Xu, Y B; Thompson, S M

    2005-01-01

    We report the evolution of Fe oxide nanostructures on GaAs(100) upon pre- and post-growth annealing conditions. GaAs nanoscale pyramids were formed on the GaAs surface due to wet etching and thermal annealing. An 8.0-nm epitaxial Fe film was grown, oxidized, and annealed using a gradient temperature method. During the process the nanostripes were formed, and the evolution has been demonstrated using transmission and reflection high energy electron diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy...

  16. Electrode pattern design for GaAs betavoltaic batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haiyang; Yin Jianhua; Li Darang

    2011-01-01

    The sensitivities of betavoltaic batteries and photovoltaic batteries to series and parallel resistance are studied. Based on the study, an electrode pattern design principle of GaAs betavoltaic batteries is proposed. GaAs PIN junctions with and without the proposed electrode pattern are fabricated and measured under the illumination of 63 Ni. Results show that the proposed electrode can reduce the backscattering and shadowing for the beta particles from 63 Ni to increase the GaAs betavoltaic battery short circuit currents effectively but has little impact on the fill factors and ideal factors.

  17. Development of opto-mechanical tools and procedures for the new generation of RICH-detectors at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Laub, M; Ullaland, O

    2001-01-01

    This thesis is focused on development of opto-mechanical tools and procedures, which would contribute to the achievement of the best possible performance of new Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors. On the base of requirements, given by the physics objective of the LHCb detector, and an analysis of the detector opto-mechanical system, specifications of individual opto-mechanical components were determined. Spherical mirrors, planar mirrors and mirror adjustable mounts were the components of interest. Next, their parameters to be characterised were defined. Possible measurement methods were studied and relevant set ups based on suitable methods were developed. Meanwhile, available modern metrology technologies, like laser operated instruments or digital image processing, were applied with an attempt to innovate them and to increase their achievable performance limits. When applicable, the set ups were automated in order to make the measurements fast and reliable. An optical laboratory, devoted to the charac...

  18. Spin injection into GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endres, Bernhard

    2013-11-01

    In this work spin injection into GaAs from Fe and (Ga,Mn)As was investigated. For the realization of any spintronic device the detailed knowledge about the spin lifetime, the spatial distribution of spin-polarized carriers and the influence of electric fields is essential. In the present work all these aspects have been analyzed by optical measurements of the polar magneto-optic Kerr effect (pMOKE) at the cleaved edge of the samples. Besides the attempt to observe spin pumping and thermal spin injection into n-GaAs the spin solar cell effect is demonstrated, a novel mechanism for the optical generation of spins in semiconductors with potential for future spintronic applications. Also important for spin-based devices as transistors is the presented realization of electrical spin injection into a two-dimensional electron gas.

  19. Optical properties of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinlami, J. O.; Ashamu, A. O.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the optical properties of gallium arsenide (GaAs) in the photon energy range 0.6–6.0 eV. We obtained a refractive index which has a maximum value of 5.0 at a photon energy of 3.1 eV; an extinction coefficient which has a maximum value of 4.2 at a photon energy of 5.0 eV; the dielectric constant, the real part of the complex dielectric constant has a maximum value of 24 at a photon energy of 2.8 eV and the imaginary part of the complex dielectric constant has a maximum value of 26.0 at a photon energy of 4.8 eV; the transmittance which has a maximum value of 0.22 at a photon energy of 4.0 eV; the absorption coefficient which has a maximum value of 0.22 × 10 8 m −1 at a photon energy of 4.8 eV, the reflectance which has a maximum value of 0.68 at 5.2eV; the reflection coefficient which has a maximum value of 0.82 at a photon energy of 5.2 eV; the real part of optical conductivity has a maximum value of 14.2 × 10 15 at 4.8 eV and the imaginary part of the optical conductivity has a maximum value of 6.8 × 10 15 at 5.0 eV. The values obtained for the optical properties of GaAs are in good agreement with other results. (semiconductor physics)

  20. Preparation of GaAs photocathodes at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulhollan, G.; Clendenin, J.; Tang, H.

    1996-10-01

    The preparation of an atomically clean surface is a necessary step in the formation of negative electron affinity (NEA) GaAs. Traditional methods to this end include cleaving, heat cleaning and epitaxial growth. Cleaving has the advantage of yielding a fresh surface after each cleave, but is limited to small areas and is not suitable for specialized structures. Heat cleaning is both simple and highly successful, so it is used as a preparation method in virtually all laboratories employing a NEA source on a regular basis. Due to its high cost and complexity, epitaxial growth of GaAs with subsequent in vacuo transfer is not a practical solution for most end users of GaAs as a NEA electron source. While simple, the heating cleaning process has a number of disadvantages. Here, a variety of cleaning techniques related to preparation of an atomically clean GaAs surface without heating to 600 C are discussed and evaluated

  1. Comparisons of single event vulnerability of GaAs SRAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherford, T. R.; Hauser, J. R.; Diehl, S. E.

    1986-12-01

    A GaAs MESFET/JFET model incorporated into SPICE has been used to accurately describe C-EJFET, E/D MESFET and D MESFET/resistor GaAs memory technologies. These cells have been evaluated for critical charges due to gate-to-drain and drain-to-source charge collection. Low gate-to-drain critical charges limit conventional GaAs SRAM soft error rates to approximately 1E-6 errors/bit-day. SEU hardening approaches including decoupling resistors, diodes, and FETs have been investigated. Results predict GaAs RAM cell critical charges can be increased to over 0.1 pC. Soft error rates in such hardened memories may approach 1E-7 errors/bit-day without significantly reducing memory speed. Tradeoffs between hardening level, performance and fabrication complexity are discussed.

  2. Electrodeposition of Metal on GaAs Nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Einabad, Omid; Watkins, Simon; Kavanagh, Karen

    2010-10-01

    Copper (Cu) electrical contacts to freestanding gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires have been fabricated via electrodeposition. The nanowires are zincblende (111) oriented grown epitaxially on n-type Si-doped GaAs (111)B substrates by gold-catalyzed Vapor Liquid Solid (VLS) growth in a metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor. The epitaxial electrodeposition process, based on previous work with bulk GaAs substrates, consists of a substrate oxide pre-etch in dilute ammonium-hydroxide carried out prior to galvanostatic electrodeposition in a pure Cu sulphate aqueous electrolyte at 20-60^oC. For GaAs nanowires, we find that Cu or Fe has a preference for growth on the gold catalyst avoiding the sidewalls. After removing gold, both metals still prefer to grow only on top of the nanowire, which has the largest potential field.

  3. Diffusion of $^{52}$Mn in GaAs

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Following our previous diffusion studies performed with the modified radiotracer technique, we propose to determine the diffusion of Mn in GaAs under intrinsic conditions in a previously un-investigated temperature region. The aim of the presently proposed experiments is twofold. \\begin{itemize} \\item A quantitative study of Mn diffusion in GaAs at low Mn concentrations would be decisive in providing new information on the diffusion mechanism involved. \\item As Ga vacancies are expected to be involved in the Mn diffusion process it can be predicted that also the GaAs material growth technique most likely plays a role. To clarify this assumption diffusion experiments will be conducted for GaAs material grown by two different techniques. \\end{itemize} For such experiments we ask for two runs of 3 shifts (total of 6 shifts) with $^{52}$Mn$^{+}$ ion beam.

  4. Effect on cavity optomechanics of the interaction between a cavity field and a one-dimensional interacting bosonic gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Qing; Hu Xinghua; Liu, W. M.; Xie, X. C.; Ji Anchun

    2011-01-01

    We investigate optomechanical coupling between one-dimensional interacting bosons and the electromagnetic field in a high-finesse optical cavity. We show that by tuning interatomic interactions, one can realize effective optomechanics with mechanical resonators ranging from side-mode excitations of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) to particle-hole excitations of a Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas. We propose that this unique feature can be formulated to detect the BEC-TG gas crossover and measure the sine-Gordon transition continuously and nondestructively.

  5. Implantation annealing in GaAs by incoherent light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, D.E.; Ryan, T.G.; Soda, K.J.; Comer, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    Implanted GaAs has been successfully activated through concentrating the output of quartz halogen lamps to anneal in times of the order of 1 sec. The resulting layers are not restricted by the reduced mobilities and thermal instabilities of laser annealed GaAs. Better activation can be obtained than with furnace annealing but this generally requires maximum temperatures >= 1050degC. (author)

  6. Nonperturbative Dynamical Casimir Effect in Optomechanical Systems: Vacuum Casimir-Rabi Splittings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Macrì

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the dynamical Casimir effect using a fully quantum-mechanical description of both the cavity field and the oscillating mirror. We do not linearize the dynamics, nor do we adopt any parametric or perturbative approximation. By numerically diagonalizing the full optomechanical Hamiltonian, we show that the resonant generation of photons from the vacuum is determined by a ladder of mirror-field vacuum Rabi splittings. We find that vacuum emission can originate from the free evolution of an initial pure mechanical excited state, in analogy with the spontaneous emission from excited atoms. By considering a coherent drive of the mirror, using a master-equation approach to take losses into account, we are able to study the dynamical Casimir effect for optomechanical coupling strengths ranging from weak to ultrastrong. We find that a resonant production of photons out of the vacuum can be observed even for mechanical frequencies lower than the cavity-mode frequency. Since high mechanical frequencies, which are hard to achieve experimentally, were thought to be imperative for realizing the dynamical Casimir effect, this result removes one of the major obstacles for the observation of this long-sought effect. We also find that the dynamical Casimir effect can create entanglement between the oscillating mirror and the radiation produced by its motion in the vacuum field, and that vacuum Casimir-Rabi oscillations can occur. Finally, we also show that all these findings apply not only to optomechanical systems, but also to parametric amplifiers operating in the fully quantum regime.

  7. The opto-mechanical design for GMOX: a next-generation instrument concept for Gemini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smee, Stephen A.; Barkhouser, Robert; Robberto, Massimo; Ninkov, Zoran; Gennaro, Mario; Heckman, Timothy M.

    2016-08-01

    We present the opto-mechanical design of GMOX, the Gemini Multi-Object eXtra-wide-band spectrograph, a potential next-generation (Gen-4 #3) facility-class instrument for Gemini. GMOX is a wide-band, multi-object, spectrograph with spectral coverage spanning 350 nm to 2.4 um with a nominal resolving power of R 5000. Through the use of Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) technology, GMOX will be able to acquire spectra from hundreds of sources simultaneously, offering unparalleled flexibility in target selection. Utilizing this technology, GMOX can rapidly adapt individual slits to either seeing-limited or diffraction-limited conditions. The optical design splits the bandpass into three arms, blue, red, and near infrared, with the near-infrared arm being split into three channels covering the Y+J band, H band, and K band. A slit viewing camera in each arm provides imaging capability for target acquisition and fast-feedback for adaptive optics control with either ALTAIR (Gemini North) or GeMS (Gemini South). Mounted at the Cassegrain focus, GMOX is a large (1.3 m x 2.8 m x 2.0 m) complex instrument, with six dichroics, three DMDs (one per arm), five science cameras, and three acquisition cameras. Roughly half of these optics, including one DMD, operate at cryogenic temperature. To maximize stiffness and simplify assembly and alignment, the opto-mechanics are divided into three main sub-assemblies, including a near-infrared cryostat, each having sub-benches to facilitate ease of alignment and testing of the optics. In this paper we present the conceptual opto-mechanical design of GMOX, with an emphasis on the mounting strategy for the optics and the thermal design details related to the near-infrared cryostat.

  8. Subnanosecond linear GaAs photoconductive switching: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.; Griffin, K.L.; Hofer, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    We are conducting research in photoconductive switching for the purpose of generating subnanosecond pulses in the 25--50kV range. We are exploiting the very fast recombination rates of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) to explore the potential of GaAs as a closing and opening switch when operating in the linear mode (the linear mode is defined such that one carrier pair is generated for each photon absorbed). The closing time of a linear GaAs switch is theoretically limited by the characteristics of the laser pulse used to activate the switch (the carrier generation time in GaAs is /approximately/10/sup /minus/14/ sec) while the opening time is theoretically limited by the recombination time of the carriers. The recombination time is several ns for commercially available semi-insulating GaAs. Doping or neutron irradiation can reduce the recombination time to less than 100 ps. We have observed switch closing times of less than 200 ps with a 100 ps duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 ps with neutron irradiated GaAs at fields of tens of kV/cm. The illumination source was a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.06 /mu/m. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  9. Subnanosecond linear GaAs photoconductive switching, revision 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R. L.; Pocha, M. D.; Griffin, K. L.; Hofer, W. W.

    Research was conducted in photoconductive switching for the purpose of generating subnanosecond pulses in the 25 to 50kV range. The very fast recombination rates of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) was exploited to explore the potential of GaAs as a closing and opening switch when operating in the linear mode (the linear mode is defined such that one carrier pair is generated for each photon absorbed). The closing time of a linear GaAs switch is theoretically limited by the characteristics of the laser pulse used to activate the switch (the carrier generation time in GaAs is (approx. 10(-14) sec) while the opening time is theoretically limited by the recombination time of the carriers. The recombination time is several ns for commercially available semi-insulating GaAs. Doping or neutron irradiation can reduce the recombination time to less than 100 ps. Switch closing times of less than 200 ps with a 100 ps duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 ps with neutron irradiated GaAs at fields of tens of kV/cm was observed. The illumination source was a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1.06 microns.

  10. Design optimization of GaAs betavoltaic batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Haiyanag; Jiang Lan; Chen Xuyuan

    2011-01-01

    GaAs junctions are designed and fabricated for betavoltaic batteries. The design is optimized according to the characteristics of GaAs interface states and the diffusion length in the depletion region of GaAs carriers. Under an illumination of 10 mCi cm -2 63 Ni, the open circuit voltage of the optimized batteries is about ∼0.3 V. It is found that the GaAs interface states induce depletion layers on P-type GaAs surfaces. The depletion layer along the P + PN + junction edge isolates the perimeter surface from the bulk junction, which tends to significantly reduce the battery dark current and leads to a high open circuit voltage. The short circuit current density of the optimized junction is about 28 nA cm -2 , which indicates a carrier diffusion length of less than 1 μm. The overall results show that multi-layer P + PN + junctions are the preferred structures for GaAs betavoltaic battery design.

  11. Invariant-based inverse engineering for fluctuation transfer between membranes in an optomechanical cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, by invariant-based inverse engineering, we design classical driving fields to transfer quantum fluctuations between two suspended membranes in an optomechanical cavity system. The transfer can be quickly attained through a nonadiabatic evolution path determined by a so-called dynamical invariant. Such an evolution path allows one to optimize the occupancies of the unstable "intermediate" states; thus, the influence of cavity decays can be suppressed. Numerical simulation demonstrates that a perfect fluctuation transfer between two membranes can be rapidly achieved in one step, and the transfer is robust to both the amplitude noises and cavity decays.

  12. Microfabrication of large-area circular high-stress silicon nitride membranes for optomechanical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Serra

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In view of the integration of membrane resonators with more complex MEMS structures, we developed a general fabrication procedure for circular shape SiNx membranes using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE. Large area and high-stress SiNx membranes were fabricated and used as optomechanical resonators in a Michelson interferometer, where Q values up to 1.3 × 106 were measured at cryogenic temperatures, and in a Fabry-Pérot cavity, where an optical finesse up to 50000 has been observed.

  13. Hot electron emission can lead to damping of optomechanical modes in core-shell Ag@TiO2 nanocubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamulevičius, Sigitas; Peckus, Domantas; Rong, Hongpan

    2017-01-01

    Interactions between light and metal nanostructures are mediated by collective excitations of free electrons called surface plasmons, which depend primarily on geometry and dielectric environment. Excitation with ultrafast pulses can excite optomechanical modes that modulate the volume and shape...... resonance is being lost to the TiO2 as hot carriers instead of coupling to the optomechanical mode. Analysis of both ultrafast decay and characterization of optomechanical modes provides a dual accounting method to track energy dissipation in hybrid metal-semiconductor nanosystems for plasmon-enhanced solar...

  14. Opto-mechanical design of an image slicer for the GRIS spectrograph at GREGOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega Reyes, N.; Esteves, M. A.; Sánchez-Capuchino, J.; Salaun, Y.; López, R. L.; Gracia, F.; Estrada Herrera, P.; Grivel, C.; Vaz Cedillo, J. J.; Collados, M.

    2016-07-01

    An image slicer has been proposed for the Integral Field Spectrograph [1] of the 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST) [2] The image slicer for EST is called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera) [3] and it is a telecentric system with diffraction limited optical quality offering the possibility to obtain high resolution Integral Field Solar Spectroscopy or Spectro-polarimetry by coupling a polarimeter after the generated slit (or slits). Considering the technical complexity of the proposed Integral Field Unit (IFU), a prototype has been designed for the GRIS spectrograph at GREGOR telescope at Teide Observatory (Tenerife), composed by the optical elements of the image slicer itself, a scanning system (to cover a larger field of view with sequential adjacent measurements) and an appropriate re-imaging system. All these subsystems are placed in a bench, specially designed to facilitate their alignment, integration and verification, and their easy installation in front of the spectrograph. This communication describes the opto-mechanical solution adopted to upgrade GRIS while ensuring repeatability between the observational modes, IFU and long-slit. Results from several tests which have been performed to validate the opto-mechanical prototypes are also presented.

  15. A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenfield, Matt; Camacho, Ryan; Chan, Jasper; Vahala, Kerry J; Painter, Oskar

    2009-05-28

    The dynamic back-action caused by electromagnetic forces (radiation pressure) in optical and microwave cavities is of growing interest. Back-action cooling, for example, is being pursued as a means of achieving the quantum ground state of macroscopic mechanical oscillators. Work in the optical domain has revolved around millimetre- or micrometre-scale structures using the radiation pressure force. By comparison, in microwave devices, low-loss superconducting structures have been used for gradient-force-mediated coupling to a nanomechanical oscillator of picogram mass. Here we describe measurements of an optical system consisting of a pair of specially patterned nanoscale beams in which optical and mechanical energies are simultaneously localized to a cubic-micron-scale volume, and for which large per-photon optical gradient forces are realized. The resulting scale of the per-photon force and the mass of the structure enable the exploration of cavity optomechanical regimes in which, for example, the mechanical rigidity of the structure is dominantly provided by the internal light field itself. In addition to precision measurement and sensitive force detection, nano-optomechanics may find application in reconfigurable and tunable photonic systems, light-based radio-frequency communication and the generation of giant optical nonlinearities for wavelength conversion and optical buffering.

  16. Optical and mechanical design of a "zipper" photonic crystal optomechanical cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper; Eichenfield, Matt; Camacho, Ryan; Painter, Oskar

    2009-03-02

    Design of a doubly-clamped beam structure capable of localizing mechanical and optical energy at the nanoscale is presented. The optical design is based upon photonic crystal concepts in which patterning of a nanoscale-cross-section beam can result in strong optical localization to an effective optical mode volume of 0.2 cubic wavelengths ( (lambdac)(3)). By placing two identical nanobeams within the near field of each other, strong optomechanical coupling can be realized for differential motion between the beams. Current designs for thin film silicon nitride beams at a wavelength of lambda?= 1.5 microm indicate that such structures can simultaneously realize an optical Q-factor of 7x10(6), motional mass m(u) approximately 40 picograms, mechanical mode frequency Omega(M)/2pi approximately 170 MHz, and an optomechanical coupling factor (g(OM) identical with domega(c)/dx = omega(c)/L(OM)) with effective length L(OM) approximately lambda= 1.5 microm.

  17. 1 million-Q optomechanical microdisk resonators for sensing with very large scale integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermouet, M.; Sansa, M.; Banniard, L.; Fafin, A.; Gely, M.; Allain, P. E.; Santos, E. Gil; Favero, I.; Alava, T.; Jourdan, G.; Hentz, S.

    2018-02-01

    Cavity optomechanics have become a promising route towards the development of ultrasensitive sensors for a wide range of applications including mass, chemical and biological sensing. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) with state-of-the-art low-loss performance silicon optomechanical microdisks for sensing applications. We report microdisks exhibiting optical Whispering Gallery Modes (WGM) with 1 million quality factors, yielding high displacement sensitivity and strong coupling between optical WGMs and in-plane mechanical Radial Breathing Modes (RBM). Such high-Q microdisks with mechanical resonance frequencies in the 102 MHz range were fabricated on 200 mm wafers with Variable Shape Electron Beam lithography. Benefiting from ultrasensitive readout, their Brownian motion could be resolved with good Signal-to-Noise ratio at ambient pressure, as well as in liquid, despite high frequency operation and large fluidic damping: the mechanical quality factor reduced from few 103 in air to 10's in liquid, and the mechanical resonance frequency shifted down by a few percent. Proceeding one step further, we performed an all-optical operation of the resonators in air using a pump-probe scheme. Our results show our VLSI process is a viable approach for the next generation of sensors operating in vacuum, gas or liquid phase.

  18. Single-photon blockade in a hybrid cavity-optomechanical system via third-order nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, Bijita; Sarma, Amarendra K.

    2018-04-01

    Photon statistics in a weakly driven optomechanical cavity, with Kerr-type nonlinearity, are analyzed both analytically and numerically. The single-photon blockade effect is demonstrated via calculations of the zero-time-delay second-order correlation function g (2)(0). The analytical results obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation are in complete conformity with the results obtained through numerical solution of the quantum master equation. A systematic study on the parameter regime for observing photon blockade in the weak coupling regime is reported. The parameter regime where the photon blockade is not realizable due to the combined effect of nonlinearities owing to the optomechanical coupling and the Kerr-effect is demonstrated. The experimental feasibility with state-of-the-art device parameters is discussed and it is observed that photon blockade could be generated at the telecommunication wavelength. An elaborate analysis of the thermal effects on photon antibunching is presented. The system is found to be robust against pure dephasing-induced decoherences and thermal phonon number fluctuations.

  19. Investigation on influence parameters in measurements of the optomechanical hole plate using an optical coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation on influence parameters in optical coordinate measurements of the optomechanical hole plate. Special attention was paid to the background of the object, which strongly influences the measurement result. Furthermore, it is seen that...... influences, the measurements were all performed with no movements of the axes of the CMM....

  20. 3-D GaAs radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meikle, A.R.; Bates, R.L.; Ledingham, K.; Marsh, J.H.; Mathieson, K.; O'Shea, V.; Smith, K.M.

    2002-01-01

    A novel type of GaAs radiation detector featuring a 3-D array of electrodes that penetrate through the detector bulk is described. The development of the technology to fabricate such a detector is presented along with electrical and radiation source tests. Simulations of the electrical characteristics are given for detectors of various dimensions. Laser drilling, wet chemical etching and metal evaporation were used to create a cell array of nine electrodes, each with a diameter of 60 μm and a pitch of 210 μm. Electrical measurements showed I-V characteristics with low leakage currents and high breakdown voltages. The forward and reverse I-V measurements showed asymmetrical characteristics, which are not seen in planar diodes. Spectra were obtained using alpha particle illumination. A charge collection efficiency of 50% and a S/N ratio of 3 : 1 were obtained. Simulations using the MEDICI software package were performed on cells with various dimensions and were comparable with experimental results. Simulations of a nine-electrode cell with 10 μm electrodes with a 25 μm pitch were also performed. The I-V characteristics again showed a high breakdown voltage with a low leakage current but also showed a full depletion voltage of just 8 V

  1. Spectroscopy of GaAs quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, L.C.

    1985-07-01

    A new type of optical dipole transition in GaAs quantum wells has been observed. The dipole occurs between two envelope states of the conduction band electron wavefunction, and is called a quantum well envelope state transition (QWEST). The QWEST is observed by infrared absorption in three different samples with quantum well thicknesses 65, 82, and 92 A and resonant energies of 152, 121, and 108 MeV, respectively. The oscillator strength is found to have values of over 12, in good agreement with prediction. The linewidths are seen as narrow as 10 MeV at room temperature and 7 MeV at low temperature, thus proving a narrow line resonance can indeed occur between transitions of free electrons. Techniques for the proper growth of these quantum well samples to enable observation of the QWEST have also been found using (AlGa)As compounds. This QWEST is considered to be an ideal material for an all optical digital computer. The QWEST can be made frequency matched to the inexpensive Carbon Dioxide laser with an infrared wavelength of 10 microns. The nonlinearity and fast relaxation time of the QWEST indicate a logic element with a subpicosecond switch time can be built in the near future, with a power level which will eventually be limited only by the noise from a lack of quanta to above approximately 10 microwatts. 64 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs

  2. Spectroscopy of GaAs quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, L.C.

    1985-07-01

    A new type of optical dipole transition in GaAs quantum wells has been observed. The dipole occurs between two envelope states of the conduction band electron wavefunction, and is called a quantum well envelope state transition (QWEST). The QWEST is observed by infrared absorption in three different samples with quantum well thicknesses 65, 82, and 92 A and resonant energies of 152, 121, and 108 MeV, respectively. The oscillator strength is found to have values of over 12, in good agreement with prediction. The linewidths are seen as narrow as 10 MeV at room temperature and 7 MeV at low temperature, thus proving a narrow line resonance can indeed occur between transitions of free electrons. Techniques for the proper growth of these quantum well samples to enable observation of the QWEST have also been found using (AlGa)As compounds. This QWEST is considered to be an ideal material for an all optical digital computer. The QWEST can be made frequency matched to the inexpensive Carbon Dioxide laser with an infrared wavelength of 10 microns. The nonlinearity and fast relaxation time of the QWEST indicate a logic element with a subpicosecond switch time can be built in the near future, with a power level which will eventually be limited only by the noise from a lack of quanta to above approximately 10 microwatts. 64 refs., 35 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Atomic hydrogen cleaning of GaAs photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, M.; Price, J.; Sinclair, C.

    1997-01-01

    It is well known that surface contaminants on semiconductors can be removed when samples are exposed to atomic hydrogen. Atomic H reacts with oxides and carbides on the surface, forming compounds that are liberated and subsequently pumped away. Experiments at Jefferson lab with bulk GaAs in a low-voltage ultra-high vacuum H cleaning chamber have resulted in the production of photocathodes with high photoelectron yield (i.e., quantum efficiency) and long lifetime. A small, portable H cleaning apparatus also has been constructed to successfully clean GaAs samples that are later removed from the vacuum apparatus, transported through air and installed in a high-voltage laser-driven spin-polarized electron source. These results indicate that this method is a versatile and robust alternative to conventional wet chemical etching procedures usually employed to clean bulk GaAs

  4. 35-kV GaAs subnanosecond photoconductive switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocha, M.D.; Druce, R.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States))

    1990-12-01

    Photoconductive switches are one of the few devices that allow the generation of high-voltage electrical pulses with subnanosecond rise time. The authors are exploring high-voltage, fast-pulse generation using GaAs photoconductive switches. They have been able to generate 35-kV pulses with rise times as short as 135 ps using 5-mm gap switches and have achieved electric field hold-off of greater than 100 kV/cm. They have also been able to generate an approximately 500-ps FWHM on/off electrical pulse with an amplitude of approximately 3 kV using neutron-irradiated GaAs having short carrier life times. This paper describes the experimental results and discusses fabrication of switches and the diagnostics used to measure these fast signals. They also describe the experience with the nonlinear lock-on and avalanche modes of operation observed in GaAs.

  5. 35-kV GaAs subnanosecond photoconductive switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, Michael D.; Druce, Robert L.

    1990-12-01

    High-voltage, fast-pulse generation using GaAs photoconductive switches is investigated. It is possible to to generate 35-kV pulses with risetimes as short as 135 ps using 5-mm gap switches, and electric field hold-off of greater than 100 kV/cm is achieved. An approximately 500-ps FWHM on/off electrical pulse is generated with an amplitude of approximately 3 kV using neutron-irradiated GaAs having short carrier lifetimes. Experimental results are described, and fabrication of switches and the diagnostics used to measure these fast signals are discussed. Experience with the nonlinear lock-on and avalanche modes of operation observed in GaAs is also described.

  6. GaAs strip detectors: the Australian production program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, K.S.A.; Alexiev, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Australian High Energy Physics consortium (composed of the University of Melbourne, the University of Sydney and ANSTO) has been investigating the possibility of producing a large area wheel of SI GaAs detectors for the ATLAS detector array. To help assess the extent of Australia's role in this venture a few SI GaAs microstrip detectors are to be manufactured under contract by the CSIRO division of Radiophysics GaAs IC Prototyping Facility. The planned production of the devices is discussed. First, the reasons for producing the detectors here in Australia are examined, then some basic characteristics of the material are considered, and finally details are provided of the design used for the manufacture of the devices. Two sets of detectors will be produced using the standard Glasgow production recipe; SIGaAs and GaN. The Glasgow mask set is being used as a benchmark against which to compare the Australian devices

  7. Donor level of interstitial hydrogen in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, L.; Bonde Nielsen, K.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Peaker, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The first data evidencing the existence of the donor level of the interstitial hydrogen in GaAs are presented. The abundant formation of the (0/+) donor level after in situ low-temperature implantation of hydrogen into the depletion layer of GaAs Schottky diodes has been observed and the activation energy and annealing properties have been determined by Laplace DLTS. The activation energy for electron emission of this donor state is 0.14eV. Above 100K the hydrogen deep donor state is unstable, converting to a more stable form when there are electrons available for the capture process. A slightly perturbed form of the hydrogen donor in its neutral charge state can be recovered by illuminating the sample. This process releases twice as many electrons as the ionisation process of the hydrogen donor state itself. This fact, by analogy with the silicon case, evidences the negative-U behaviour of hydrogen in GaAs

  8. Microwave GaAs Integrated Circuits On Quartz Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter H.; Mehdi, Imran; Wilson, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    Integrated circuits for use in detecting electromagnetic radiation at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths constructed by bonding GaAs-based integrated circuits onto quartz-substrate-based stripline circuits. Approach offers combined advantages of high-speed semiconductor active devices made only on epitaxially deposited GaAs substrates with low-dielectric-loss, mechanically rugged quartz substrates. Other potential applications include integration of antenna elements with active devices, using carrier substrates other than quartz to meet particular requirements using lifted-off GaAs layer in membrane configuration with quartz substrate supporting edges only, and using lift-off technique to fabricate ultrathin discrete devices diced separately and inserted into predefined larger circuits. In different device concept, quartz substrate utilized as transparent support for GaAs devices excited from back side by optical radiation.

  9. Status of fully integrated GaAs particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunschweig, W.; Breibach, J.; Kubicki, Th.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Maesing, Th.; Rente, C.; Roeper, Ch.; Siemes, A.

    1999-01-01

    GaAs strip detectors are of interest because of their radiation hardness at room temperature and the high absorption coefficient of GaAs for x-rays. The detectors currently under development will be used in the VLQ-experiment at the H1 experiment at the HERA collider. This will be the first high energy physics experiment where GaAs detectors will be used. The detectors have a sensitive area of 5 x 4 cm with a pitch of 62 μ m. Due to the high density of channels the biasing resistors and coupling capacitors are integrated. For the resistors a resistive layer made of Cermet is used. The properties of the first fully integrated strip detector are presented

  10. Scanning microwave microscopy applied to semiconducting GaAs structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchter, Arne; Hoffmann, Johannes; Delvallée, Alexandra; Brinciotti, Enrico; Hapiuk, Dimitri; Licitra, Christophe; Louarn, Kevin; Arnoult, Alexandre; Almuneau, Guilhem; Piquemal, François; Zeier, Markus; Kienberger, Ferry

    2018-02-01

    A calibration algorithm based on one-port vector network analyzer (VNA) calibration for scanning microwave microscopes (SMMs) is presented and used to extract quantitative carrier densities from a semiconducting n-doped GaAs multilayer sample. This robust and versatile algorithm is instrument and frequency independent, as we demonstrate by analyzing experimental data from two different, cantilever- and tuning fork-based, microscope setups operating in a wide frequency range up to 27.5 GHz. To benchmark the SMM results, comparison with secondary ion mass spectrometry is undertaken. Furthermore, we show SMM data on a GaAs p-n junction distinguishing p- and n-doped layers.

  11. Nuclear spin warm up in bulk n -GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotur, M.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Vladimirova, M.; Jouault, B.; Korenev, V. L.; Kavokin, K. V.

    2016-08-01

    We show that the spin-lattice relaxation in n -type insulating GaAs is dramatically accelerated at low magnetic fields. The origin of this effect, which cannot be explained in terms of well-known diffusion-limited hyperfine relaxation, is found in the quadrupole relaxation, induced by fluctuating donor charges. Therefore, quadrupole relaxation, which governs low field nuclear spin relaxation in semiconductor quantum dots, but was so far supposed to be harmless to bulk nuclei spins in the absence of optical pumping, can be studied and harnessed in the much simpler model environment of n -GaAs bulk crystal.

  12. The GaAs electron source: simulations and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.V.; Ciullo, G.; Guidi, V.; Kudelainen, V.I.; Lamanna, G.; Lenisa, P.; Logachov, P.V.; Maciga, B.; Novokhatsky, A.; Tecchio, L.; Yang, B.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we calculate electron emission from GaAs photocathodes using the Monte Carlo technique. Typical data of energy spread of the electron beam are presented. For photoenergy ranging from 1.6 to 2.1 eV, the calculated longitudinal and transverse energy spreads are 14.4-78 and 4-14.7 meV respectively. Temporal measurement of GaAs photocathodes has been performed. The preliminary results show that the temporal response is faster than 200 ps. (orig.)

  13. Performance of a GaAs electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabrese, R.; Ciullo, G.; Della Mea, G.; Egeni, G.P.; Guidi, V.; Lamanna, G.; Lenisa, P.; Maciga, B.; Rigato, V.; Rudello, V.; Tecchio, L.; Yang, B.; Zandolin, S.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the performance improvement of a GaAs electron source. High quantum yield (14%) and constant current extraction (1 mA for more than four weeks) are achieved after a little initial decay. These parameters meet the requirements for application of the GaAs photocathode as a source for electron cooling devices. We also present the preliminary results of a surface analysis experiment, carried out by means of the RBS technique to check the hypothesis of cesium evaporation from the surface when the photocathode is in operation. (orig.)

  14. Transient radiation effects in GaAs semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.Y.; Stauber, M.; Ezzeddine, A.; Howard, J.W.; Constantine, A.G.; Becker, M.; Block, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing program to identify the response of GaAs devices to intense pulses of ionizing radiation. The program consists of experimental measurements at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's RPI electron linear accelerator (Linac) on generic GaAs devices built by Grumman Tachonics Corporation and the analysis of these results through computer simulation with the circuit model code SPICE (including radiation effects incorporated in the variations TRISPICE and TRIGSPICE and the device model code PISCES IIB). The objective of this program is the observation of the basic response phenomena and the development of accurate simulation tools so that results of Linac irradiations tests can be understood and predicted

  15. A low-frequency chip-scale optomechanical oscillator with 58 kHz mechanical stiffening and more than 100th-order stable harmonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongjun; Flores, Jaime Gonzalo Flor; Cai, Ziqiang; Yu, Mingbin; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Wen, Guangjun; Churchill, Layne; Wong, Chee Wei

    2017-06-29

    For the sensitive high-resolution force- and field-sensing applications, the large-mass microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and optomechanical cavity have been proposed to realize the sub-aN/Hz 1/2 resolution levels. In view of the optomechanical cavity-based force- and field-sensors, the optomechanical coupling is the key parameter for achieving high sensitivity and resolution. Here we demonstrate a chip-scale optomechanical cavity with large mass which operates at ≈77.7 kHz fundamental mode and intrinsically exhibiting large optomechanical coupling of 44 GHz/nm or more, for both optical resonance modes. The mechanical stiffening range of ≈58 kHz and a more than 100 th -order harmonics are obtained, with which the free-running frequency instability is lower than 10 -6 at 100 ms integration time. Such results can be applied to further improve the sensing performance of the optomechanical inspired chip-scale sensors.

  16. Molecular-beam epitaxy on shallow mesa gratings patterned on GaAs(311)A and (100) substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, Q.; Nötzel, R.; Schönherr, H.-P.; Ploog, K.H.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the morphology and properties of the surface formed by molecular-beam epitaxy on shallow mesa gratings on patterned GaAs(311)A and GaAs(100). On GaAs(311)A substrates, the corrugated surface formed after GaAs growth on shallow mesa gratings along [011] is composed of monolayer high

  17. Electro-Optomechanical Transduction & Quantum Hard-Sphere Model for Dissipative Rydberg-EIT Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Emil

    by two key parameters, the signal transfer efficiency and added noise temperature. In terms of these, we may evaluate its performance in various tasks ranging from classical signal detection to quantum state conversion between, e.g., superconducting circuitry and traveling optical signals. Having...... transduction functionality into the well-established framework of electrical engineering, thereby facilitating its implementation in potential applications such as nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and radio astronomy. We consider such optomechanical sensing of weak electrical signals and discuss how...... in a cold, optically dense cloud with light fields propagating under the condition of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). This can lead to strong and non-linear dissipative dynamics at the quantum level that prevent slow-light polaritons from coexisting within a blockade radius of one another...

  18. Strain coupling between nitrogen vacancy centers and the mechanical motion of a diamond optomechanical crystal resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, J. V.; Lee, K. W.; Ovartchaiyapong, P.; Bleszynski Jayich, A. C.

    Several experiments have recently demonstrated coupling between nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond and mechanical resonators via crystal strain. In the strong coupling regime, such devices could realize applications critical to emerging quantum technologies, including phonon-mediated spin-spin interactions and mechanical cooling with the NV center1. An outstanding challenge for these devices is generating higher strain coupling in high frequency devices while maintaining the excellent coherence properties of the NV center and high mechanical quality factors. As a step toward these objectives, we demonstrate single-crystal diamond optomechanical crystal resonators with embedded NV centers. These devices host highly-confined GHz-scale mechanical modes that are isolated from mechanical clamping losses and generate strain profiles that allow for large strain coupling to NV centers far from noise-inducing surfaces.

  19. Optomechanical considerations for the VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris I. Kaufman, John R. Celeste, Brent C. Frogget, Tony L. Lee, Brian J. GacGowan, Robert M. Malone, Edmund W. Ng, Tom W. Tunnell, Phillip W. Watts

    2006-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) requires optical diagnostics for measuring shock velocities in shock physics experiments. The velocity interferometer for any reflector measures shock velocities at a location remote to the NIF target chamber. Our team designed two systems, one for a polar port orientation, and the other to accommodate two equatorial ports. The polar-oriented design requires a 48-m optical relay to move the light from inside the target chamber to a separately housed measurement and laser illumination station. The currently operational equatorial design requires a much shorter relay of 21 m. Both designs posed significant optomechanical challenges due to the long optical path length, large quantity of optical elements, and stringent NIF requirements. System design had to tightly control the use of lubricants and materials, especially those inside the vacuum chamber; tolerate earthquakes and radiation; and consider numerous other tolerance, alignment, and steering adjustment issues. To ensure compliance with NIF performance requirements, we conducted a finite element analysis

  20. Large tuning of birefringence in two strip silicon waveguides via optomechanical motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2009-09-28

    We present an optomechanical method to tune phase and group birefringence in parallel silicon strip waveguides. We first calculate the deformation of suspended, parallel strip waveguides due to optical forces. We optimize the frequency and polarization of the pump light to obtain a 9 nm deformation for an optical power of 20 mW. Widely tunable phase and group birefringence can be achieved by varying the pump power, with maximum values of 0.026 and 0.13, respectively. The giant phase birefringence allows linear to circular polarization conversion within 30 microm for a pump power of 67 mW. The group birefringence gives a tunable differential group delay of 6fs between orthogonal polarizations. We also evaluate the tuning performance of waveguides with different cross sections.

  1. Controllable optical bistability in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Yan, Jia-Kai; Zhu, Xiao-Fei; Jiang, Cheng

    2018-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the optical bistable behavior in a three-mode optomechanical system with atom-cavity-mirror couplings. The effects of the cavity-pump detuning and the pump power on the bistable behavior are discussed detailedly, the impacts of the atom-pump detuning and the atom-cavity coupling strength on the bistability of the system are also explored, and the influences of the cavity-resonator coupling strength and the cavity decay rate are also taken into consideration. The numerical results demonstrate that by tuning these parameters the bistable behavior of the system can be freely switched on or off, and the threshold of the pump power for the bistability as well as the bistable region width can also be effectively controlled. These results can find potential applications in optical bistable switch in the quantum information processing.

  2. Opto-mechanical design of vacuum laser resonator for the OSQAR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hošek, Jan; Macúchová, Karolina; Nemcová, Šárka; Kunc, Štěpán.; Šulc, Miroslav

    2015-01-01

    This paper gives short overview of laser-based experiment OSQAR at CERN which is focused on search of axions and axion-like particles. The OSQAR experiment uses two experimental methods for axion search - measurement of the ultra-fine vacuum magnetic birefringence and a method based on the "Light shining through the wall" experiment. Because both experimental methods have reached its attainable limits of sensitivity we have focused on designing a vacuum laser resonator. The resonator will increase the number of convertible photons and their endurance time within the magnetic field. This paper presents an opto-mechanical design of a two component transportable vacuum laser resonator. Developed optical resonator mechanical design allows to be used as a 0.8 meter long prototype laser resonator for laboratory testing and after transportation and replacement of the mirrors it can be mounted on the LHC magnet in CERN to form a 20 meter long vacuum laser resonator.

  3. Controlling the opto-mechanics of a cantilever in an interferometer via cavity loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidsfeld, A. von, E-mail: avonschm@uos.de; Reichling, M., E-mail: reichling@uos.de [Fachbereich Physik, Universität Osnabrück, Barbarastraße 7, 49076 Osnabrück (Germany)

    2015-09-21

    In a non-contact atomic force microscope, based on interferometric cantilever displacement detection, the optical return loss of the system is tunable via the distance between the fiber end and the cantilever. We utilize this for tuning the interferometer from a predominant Michelson to a predominant Fabry-Pérot characteristics and introduce the Fabry-Pérot enhancement factor as a quantitative measure for multibeam interference in the cavity. This experimentally easily accessible and adjustable parameter provides a control of the opto-mechanical interaction between the cavity light field and the cantilever. The quantitative assessment of the light pressure acting on the cantilever oscillating in the cavity via the frequency shift allows an in-situ measurement of the cantilever stiffness with remarkable precision.

  4. Nonequilibrium Quantum Phase Transition in a Hybrid Atom-Optomechanical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Niklas; Bakhtiari, M. Reza; Pelster, Axel; Thorwart, Michael

    2018-02-01

    We consider a hybrid quantum many-body system formed by a vibrational mode of a nanomembrane, which interacts optomechanically with light in a cavity, and an ultracold atom gas in the optical lattice of the out-coupled light. The adiabatic elimination of the light field yields an effective Hamiltonian which reveals a competition between the force localizing the atoms and the membrane displacement. At a critical atom-membrane interaction, we find a nonequilibrium quantum phase transition from a localized symmetric state of the atom cloud to a shifted symmetry-broken state, the energy of the lowest collective excitation vanishes, and a strong atom-membrane entanglement arises. The effect occurs when the atoms and the membrane are nonresonantly coupled.

  5. Synchronization enhancement of indirectly coupled oscillators via periodic modulation in an optomechanical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Fan, Chu-Hui; Zhang, Han-Xiao; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2017-11-20

    We study the synchronization behaviors of two indirectly coupled mechanical oscillators of different frequencies in a doublecavity optomechanical system. It is found that quantum synchronization is roughly vanishing though classical synchronization seems rather good when each cavity mode is driven by an external field in the absence of temporal modulations. By periodically modulating cavity detunings or driving amplitudes, however, it is possible to observe greatly enhanced quantum synchronization accompanied with nearly perfect classical synchronization. The level of quantum synchronization observed here is, in particular, much higher than that for two directly coupled mechanical oscillators. Note also that the modulation on cavity detunings is more appealing than that on driving amplitudes when the robustness of quantum synchronization is examined against the bath's mean temperature or the oscillators' frequency difference.

  6. Radiation effects in pigtailed GaAs and GaA1As LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.

    1981-06-01

    Permanent and transient radiation effects have been studied in Plessey pigtailed, high radiance GaAs and GaAlAs LEDs using neutron, gamma ray and X-ray sources. The radiation-induced source of degradation in these devices was determined by also examining both bare, unpigtailed LEDs and separate samples of the Corning fibers used as pigtails. No transient effects were observed in the unpigtailed LEDs during either pulsed neutron or X-ray exposure. In contrast, the Corning doped silica fibers exhibited strong transient attenuation following pulsed X-ray bombardment. Permanent neutron damage in these pigtailed LEDs consisted essentially of light output degradation in the LED itself. Permanent gamma ray effects due to a Co-60 irradiation of 1 megarad were restricted to a small increase in attenuation in the fiber. The two primary radiation effects were then transient attenuation in the fiber pigtail and permanent neutron-induced degradation of the LED

  7. Phase control of entanglement and quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, F. X.; Mao, D.; Dai, Y. T.; Ficek, Z.; He, Q. Y.; Gong, Q. H.

    2017-12-01

    The theory of phase control of coherence, entanglement and quantum steering is developed for an optomechanical system composed of a single mode cavity containing a partially transmitting dielectric membrane and driven by short laser pulses. The membrane divides the cavity into two mutually coupled optomechanical cavities resulting in an effective three-mode closed loop system, two field modes of the two cavities and a mechanical mode representing the oscillating membrane. The closed loop in the coupling creates interfering channels which depend on the relative phase of the coupling strengths of the field modes to the mechanical mode. Populations and correlations of the output modes are calculated analytically and show several interesting phase dependent effects such as reversible population transfer from one field mode to the other, creation of collective modes, and induced coherence without induced emission. We find that these effects result from perfect mutual coherence between the field modes which is preserved even if one of the modes is not populated. The inseparability criterion for the output modes is also investigated and we find that entanglement may occur only between the field modes and the mechanical mode. We show that depending on the phase, the field modes can act on the mechanical mode collectively or individually resulting, respectively, in tripartite or bipartite entanglement. In addition, we examine the phase sensitivity of quantum steering of the mechanical mode by the field modes. Deterministic phase transfer of the steering from bipartite to collective is predicted and optimum steering corresponding to perfect EPR state can be achieved. These different types of quantum steering can be distinguished experimentally by measuring the coincidence rate between two detectors adjusted to collect photons of the output cavity modes. In particular, we find that the minima of the interference pattern of the coincidence rate signal the bipartite steering

  8. Femtosecond coherent emission from GaAs bulk microcavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurioli, Massimo; Bogani, Franco; Ceccherini, Simone; Colocci, Marcello; Beltram, Fabio; Sorba, Lucia

    1999-02-01

    The emission from a λ/2 GaAs bulk microcavity resonantly excited by femtosecond pulses has been characterized by using an interferometric correlation technique. It is found that the emission is dominated by the coherent signal due to light elastically scattered by disorder, and that scattering is predominantly originated from the lower polariton branch.

  9. Superconductivity and its pressure variation in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirmala Louis, C.; Jayam, Sr. Gerardin; Amalraj, A.

    2005-01-01

    The electronic band structure, metallization, phase transition and superconducting transition of gallium arsenide under pressure are studied using TB-LMTO method. Metallization occurs via indirect closing of band gap between Γ and X points. GaAs becomes superconductor under high pressure but before that it undergoes structural phase transition from ZnS phase to NaCl phase. The ground state properties are analyzed by fitting the calculated total energies to the Birch-Murnaghan's equation of state. The superconducting transition temperatures (T c ) obtained as a function of pressure for both the ZnS and NaCl structures and GaAs comes under the class of pressure induced superconductor. When pressure is increased T c increases in both the normal and high pressure structures. The dependence of T c on electron-phonon mass enhancement factor λ shows that GaAs is an electron-phonon-mediated superconductor. Also it is found that GaAs retained in their normal structure under high pressure give appreciably high T c . (author)

  10. Density-dependent electron scattering in photoexcited GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mics, Zoltán; D'’Angio, Andrea; Jensen, Søren A.

    2013-01-01

    —In a series of systematic optical pump - terahertz probe experiments we study the density-dependent electron scattering rate in photoexcited GaAs in a large range of carrier densities. The electron scattering time decreases by as much as a factor of 4, from 320 to 60 fs, as the electron density...

  11. Picosecond relaxation of X-ray excited GaAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tkachenko, V.; Medvedev, Nikita; Lipp, V.; Ziaja, B.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, Sep (2017), s. 15-21 ISSN 1574-1818 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : GaAS * X-ray excitation * picosecond relaxation Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 0.908, year: 2016

  12. Non-linear mixing in coupled photonic crystal nanobeam cavities due to cross-coupling opto-mechanical mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.ramos@csic.es; Frank, Ian W.; Deotare, Parag B.; Bulu, Irfan; Lončar, Marko [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    We investigate the coupling between mechanical and optical modes supported by coupled, freestanding, photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. We show that localized cavity modes for a given gap between the nanobeams provide weak optomechanical coupling with out-of-plane mechanical modes. However, we show that the coupling can be significantly increased, more than an order of magnitude for the symmetric mechanical mode, due to optical resonances that arise from the interaction of the localized cavity modes with standing waves formed by the reflection from thesubstrate. Finally, amplification of motion for the symmetric mode has been observed and attributed to the strong optomechanical interaction of our hybrid system. The amplitude of these self-sustained oscillations is large enough to put the system into a non-linear oscillation regime where a mixing between the mechanical modes is experimentally observed and theoretically explained.

  13. Substrate and Mg doping effects in GaAs nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perumal Kannappan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Mg doping of GaAs nanowires has been established as a viable alternative to Be doping in order to achieve p-type electrical conductivity. Although reports on the optical properties are available, few reports exist about the physical properties of intermediate-to-high Mg doping in GaAs nanowires grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE on GaAs(111B and Si(111 substrates. In this work, we address this topic and present further understanding on the fundamental aspects. As the Mg doping was increased, structural and optical investigations revealed: i a lower influence of the polytypic nature of the GaAs nanowires on their electronic structure; ii a considerable reduction of the density of vertical nanowires, which is almost null for growth on Si(111; iii the occurrence of a higher WZ phase fraction, in particular for growth on Si(111; iv an increase of the activation energy to release the less bound carrier in the radiative state from nanowires grown on GaAs(111B; and v a higher influence of defects on the activation of nonradiative de-excitation channels in the case of nanowires only grown on Si(111. Back-gate field effect transistors were fabricated with individual nanowires and the p-type electrical conductivity was measured with free hole concentration ranging from 2.7 × 1016 cm−3 to 1.4 × 1017 cm−3. The estimated electrical mobility was in the range ≈0.3–39 cm2/Vs and the dominant scattering mechanism is ascribed to the WZ/ZB interfaces. Electrical and optical measurements showed a lower influence of the polytypic structure of the nanowires on their electronic structure. The involvement of Mg in one of the radiative transitions observed for growth on the Si(111 substrate is suggested.

  14. Tunable optical nonreciprocity and a phonon-photon router in an optomechanical system with coupled mechanical and optical modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guolong; Xiao, Xiao; Li, Yong; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2018-02-01

    We propose a multimode optomechanical system to realize tunable optical nonreciprocity that has the prospect of making an optical diode for information technology. The proposed model consists of two subsystems, each of which contains two optical cavities, injected with a classical field and a quantum signal via a 50:50 beam splitter, and a mechanical oscillator, coupled to both cavities via optomechanical coupling. Meanwhile two cavities and an oscillator in a subsystem are respectively coupled to their corresponding cavities and an oscillator in the other subsystem. Our scheme yields nonreciprocal effects at different frequencies with opposite directions, but each effective linear optomechanical coupling can be controlled by an independent classical one-frequency pump. With this setup one is able to apply quantum states with large fluctuations, which extends the scope of applicable quantum states, and exploit the independence of paths. Moreover, the optimal frequencies for nonreciprocal effects can be controlled by adjusting the relevant parameters. We also exhibit the path switching of two directions, from a mechanical input to two optical output channels, via tuning the signal frequency. In experiment, the considered scheme can be tuned to reach small damping rates of the oscillators relative to those of the cavities, which is more practical and requires less power than in previous schemes.

  15. Generation and amplification of a high-order sideband induced by two-level atoms in a hybrid optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zeng-Xing; Xiong, Hao; Wu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    It is quite important to enhance and control the optomechanically induced high-order sideband generation to achieve low-power optical comb and high-sensitivity sensing with an integrable structure. Here we present and analyze a proposal for enhancement and manipulation of optical nonlinearity and high-order sideband generation in a hybrid atom-cavity optomechanical system that is coherently driven by a bichromatic input field consisting of a control field and a probe field and that works beyond the perturbative regime. Our numerical analysis with experimentally achievable parameters confirms that robust high-order sideband generation and typical spectral structures with nonperturbative features can be created even under weak driven fields. The dependence of the high-order sideband generation on the atomic parameters are also discussed in detail, including the decay rate of the atoms and the coupling parameter between the atoms and the cavity field. We show that the cutoff order as well as the amplitude of the higher-order sidebands can be well tuned by the atomic coupling strength and the atomic decay rate. The proposed mechanism of enhancing optical nonlinearity is quite general and can be adopted to optomechanical systems with different types of cavity.

  16. Spin dynamics in GaAs and (110)-GaAs heterostructures; Spindynamik in GaAs und (110)-GaAs-Heterostrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oertel, Stefan

    2012-07-01

    This thesis investigates the spin dynamics in both bulk GaAs and (llO)GaAs heterostructures using time- and polarization-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. In bulk GaAs the spin relaxation t ime is measured for the first time in the high temperature regime from 280 K to 400 K and is compared to numerical calculations. The numerical calculations are based on the spin relaxation theory of the Dyakonov-Perel mechanism effected by momentum scattering with polar optical phonons and electron-electron scattering and are in good agreement with the experimental results. Measurements of the dependence on the electron density serve to determine the energy dependent proportional factor between the electron density and the effective electron-electron scattering time. Also in bulk GaAs the interaction between the electron spin system and the nuclear spin system is investigated. The measured electron Lande g-factor under the influence of the nuclear magnetic field is used as an indicator to monitor the temporal evolution of the nuclear magnetic field under sustained dynamic nuclear polarization. Measurements with polarization modulated excitation enable the determination of the relevant time scale at which dynamic nuclear polarization takes place. Furthermore, the temporal evolution of the measured electron Lande g-factor shows the complex interplay of the dynamic nuclear polarization, the nuclear spin diffusion and the nuclear spin relaxation. In symmetric (110)-GaAs quantum wells the dependence of the inplane anisotropy of the electron Lande g-factor on the quantum well thickness is determined experimentally. The measurements are in very good agreement with calculations based upon k . p-theory and reveal a maximum of the anisotropy at maximum carrier localization in the quantum well. The origin of the anisotropy that is not present in symmetric (001) quantum wells is qualitatively described by means of a simplified model based on fourth-order perturbation theory. A

  17. Preferential adsorption of gallium on GaAs(111)B surfaces during the initial growth of Au-assisted GaAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu Haibo; Chen Xiaoshuang; Ding Zongling; Dong Ruibin; Lu Wei

    2010-01-01

    The mechanism of the preferential adsorption of Ga on GaAs(111)B surfaces during the initial growth of Au-assisted GaAs nanowires is studied by using first-principles calculations within density functional theory. The calculated results show that Au preadsorption on GaAs(111)B surface significantly enhances the stability of the Ga adatom in comparison with the adsorption of Ga on clean GaAs(111)B surface. The stabilization of the Ga adatom is due to charge transfers from the Ga 4p and 4s states to the Au 6s and As 4p states. The number of Ga adatoms stabilized on GaAs(111)B surfaces depends on the size of surface Au cluster. The reason is that Au acted as an electron acceptor on GaAs(111)B surface assists the charge transfer of Ga adatoms for filling the partial unoccupied bands of GaAs(111)B surface. Our results are helpful to understand the growth of Au-assisted GaAs nanowires.

  18. Femtosecond pulsed laser ablation of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trelenberg, T.W.; Dinh, L.N.; Saw, C.K.; Stuart, B.C.; Balooch, M.

    2004-01-01

    The properties of femtosecond-pulsed laser deposited GaAs nanoclusters were investigated. Nanoclusters of GaAs were produced by laser ablating a single crystal GaAs target in vacuum or in a buffer gas using a Ti-sapphire laser with a 150 fs minimum pulse length. For in-vacuum deposition, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that the average cluster size was approximately 7 nm for laser pulse lengths between 150 fs and 25 ps. The average cluster size dropped to approximately 1.5 nm at a pulse length of 500 ps. It was also observed that film thickness decreased with increasing laser pulse length. A reflective coating, which accumulated on the laser admission window during ablation, reduced the amount of laser energy reaching the target for subsequent laser shots and developed more rapidly at longer pulse lengths. This observation indicates that non-stoichiometric (metallic) ablatants were produced more readily at longer pulse lengths. The angular distribution of ejected material about the target normal was well fitted to a bi-cosine distribution of cos 47 θ+ cos 4 θ for ablation in vacuum using 150 fs pulses. XPS and AES revealed that the vacuum-deposited films contained excess amorphous Ga or As in addition to the stoichiometric GaAs nanocrystals seen with XRD. However, films containing only the GaAs nanocrystals were produced when ablation was carried out in the presence of a buffer gas with a pressure in excess of 6.67 Pa. At buffer gas pressure on the order of 1 Torr, it was found that the stoichiometry of the ablated target was also preserved. These experiments indicate that both laser pulse length and buffer gas pressure play important roles in the formation of multi-element nanocrystals by laser ablation. The effects of gas pressure on the target's morphology and the size of the GaAs nanocrystals formed will also be discussed

  19. Quantum opto-mechanics with micromirrors : combining nano-mechanics with quantum optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeblacher, S.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes more than four years of research on the effects of the radiation-pressure force of light on macroscopic mechanical structures. The basic system studied here is a mechanical oscillator that is highly reflective and part of an optical resonator. It interacts with the optical cavity mode via the radiation-pressure force. Both the dynamics of the mechanical oscillation and the properties of the light field are modified through this interaction. In our experiments we use quantum optical tools (such as homodyning and down-conversion) with the goal of ultimately showing quantum behavior of the mechanical center of mass motion. In this thesis we present several experiments that pave the way towards this goal and when combined should allow the demonstration of the envisioned quantum phenomena, including entanglement, teleportation and Schroeodinger cat states. The study of quantum behavior of truly macroscopic systems is a long outstanding goal, which will help to answer some of the most fundamental questions in quantum physics today: Why is the world around us classical and not quantum? Is there a size- or mass-limit to systems for them to behave according to quantum mechanics? Is quantum theory complete or do we have to extend it to include mechanisms such as decoherence? Can we use the quantum nature of macroscopic objects to, for example, improve the measurement precision of classical apparatuses? The experiments discussed in this thesis include the very first passive radiation-pressure cooling of a mechanical oscillator in a cryogenic optical resonator, as well as the experimental demonstration of radiation-pressure cooling close to the mechanical quantum ground state. Cooling of the mechanical motion is an important pre-condition for observing quantum effects of the mechanical oscillator. In another experiment, we have demonstrated that we are able to enter the strong-coupling regime of the optomechanical system a regime where coherent energy

  20. GaAs nanocrystals: Structure and vibrational properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayak, J.; Sahu, S.N.; Nozaki, S.

    2006-01-01

    GaAs nanocrystals were grown on indium tin oxide substrate by an electrodeposition technique. Atomic force microscopic measurement indicates an increase in the size of the nanocrystal with decrease in the electrolysis current density accompanied by the change in the shape of the crystallite. Transmission electron microscopic measurements identify the crystallite sizes to be in the range of 10-15 nm and the crystal structure to be orthorhombic. On account of the quantum size effect, the first optical transition was blue shifted with respect to the band gap of the bulk GaAs and the excitonic peak appeared prominent. A localized phonon mode ascribed to certain point defect occurred in the room temperature micro-Raman spectrum

  1. Testing a GaAs cathode in SRF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, E.; Kewisch, J.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Rao, T.; Wu, Q.; Holmes, D.

    2011-01-01

    RF electron guns with a strained superlattice GaAs cathode are expected to generate polarized electron beams of higher brightness and lower emittance than do DC guns, due to their higher field gradient at the cathode's surface and lower cathode temperature. We plan to install a bulk GaAs:Cs in a SRF gun to evaluate the performance of both the gun and the cathode in this environment. The status of this project is: In our 1.3 GHz 1/2 cell SRF gun, the vacuum can be maintained at nearly 10 -12 Torr because of cryo-pumping at 2K. With conventional activation of bulk GaAs, we obtained a QE of 10% at 532 nm, with lifetime of more than 3 days in the preparation chamber and have shown that it can survive in transport from the preparation chamber to the gun. The beam line has been assembled and we are exploring the best conditions for baking the cathode under vacuum. We report here the progress of our test of the GaAs cathode in the SRF gun. Future particle accelerators, such as eRHIC and the ILC require high-brightness, high-current polarized electrons. Strained superlattice GaAs:Cs has been shown to be an efficient cathode for producing polarized electrons. Activation of GaAs with Cs,O(F) lowers the electron affinity and makes it energetically possible for all the electrons, excited into the conduction band that drift or diffuse to the emission surface, to escape into the vacuum. Presently, all operating polarized electron sources, such as the CEBAF, are DC guns. In these devices, the excellent ultra-high vacuum extends the lifetime of the cathode. However, the low field gradient on the photocathode's emission surface of the DC guns limits the beam quality. The higher accelerating gradients, possible in the RF guns, generate a far better beam. Until recently, most RF guns operated at room temperature, limiting the vacuum to ∼10 -9 Torr. This destroys the GaAs's NEA surface. The SRF guns combine the excellent vacuum conditions of DC guns and the high accelerating

  2. Resistance Fluctuations in GaAs Nanowire Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Marasović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical study on resistance fluctuations in a series of nanowire-based grids. Each grid is made of GaAs nanowires arranged in parallel with metallic contacts crossing all nanowires perpendicularly. Electrical properties of GaAs nanowires known from previous experimental research are used as input parameters in the simulation procedure. Due to the nonhomogeneous doping, the resistivity changes along nanowire. Allowing two possible nanowire orientations (“upwards” or “downwards”, the resulting grid is partially disordered in vertical direction which causes resistance fluctuations. The system is modeled using a two-dimensional random resistor network. Transfer-matrix computation algorithm is used to calculate the total network resistance. It is found that probability density function (PDF of resistance fluctuations for a series of nanowire grids changes from Gaussian behavior towards the Bramwell-Holdsworth-Pinton distribution when both nanowire orientations are equally represented in the grid.

  3. X-ray electron density distribution of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1986-01-01

    Using ten X-ray structure amplitudes of strong reflections and nine weak reflections both, the valence electron and the difference electron density distribution of GaAs, are calculated. The experimental data are corrected for anomalous dispersion using a bond charge model. The calculated plots are compared with up to now published band structure-based and semiempirically calculated density plots. Taking into account the experimental data of germanium, measured on the same absolute scale, the difference density between GaAs and Ge is calculated. This exhibits the charge transfer between both the f.c.c.-sublattices as well as both, the shift and the decrease of the bond charge, quite closely connected to the theoretical results published by Baur et al. (author)

  4. Spin transport anisotropy in (110)GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odilon, D.D.C. Jr.; Rudolph, Joerg; Hey, Rudolf; Santos, Paulo V. [Paul-Drude-Institut fuer Festkoerperelektronik, Berlin (Germany); Iikawa, Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, IFGW, Campinas SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    Mobile piezoelectric potentials are used to coherently transport electron spins in GaAs(110) quantum wells (QW) over distances exceeding 60{mu}m. We demonstrate that the dynamics of mobile spins under external magnetic fields depends on the direction of motion in the QW plane. The weak piezoelectric fields impart a non-vanishing average velocity to the carriers, allowing for the direct observation of the carrier momentum dependence of the spin polarization dynamics. While transport along [001] direction presents high in-plane spin relaxation rates, transport along [ anti 110] shows a much weaker external field dependence due to the non-vanishing internal magnetic field. We show that the anisotropy is an intrinsic property of the underling GaAs matrix, associated with the bulk inversion asymmetry contribution to the LS-coupling.

  5. Vacancies and negative ions in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbel, C.

    1991-01-01

    We use positron lifetime studies performed in GaAs materials to show the defect properties which can be investigated by implanting positive positrons in semiconductors. The studies concern native and electron irradiation induced defects. These studies show that vacancy charge state and vacancy ionization levels can be determined from positron annihilation. They show also that positrons are trapped by negative ions and give information on their concentration

  6. Ion induced charge collection in GaAs MESFETs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A.; Knudson, A.; McMorrow, D.; Anderson, W.; Roussos, J.; Espy, S.; Buchner, S.; Kang, K.; Kerns, D.; Kerns, S.

    1989-01-01

    Charge collection measurements on GaAs MESFET test structures demonstrate that more charge can be collected at the gate than is deposited in the active layer and more charge can be collected at the drain than the total amount of charge produced by the ion. Enhanced charge collection at the gate edge is also observed. The current transients produced by the energetic ions have been measured directly with about 20 picosecond resolution

  7. Epitaxial growth on porous GaAs substrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grym, Jan; Nohavica, Dušan; Gladkov, Petar; Hulicius, Eduard; Pangrác, Jiří; Piksová, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2013), s. 59-64 ISSN 1631-0748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP102/10/1201; GA ČR GAP108/10/0253 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Electrochemical etching * Porous semiconductors * Epitaxial growth * GaAs Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers; JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2013

  8. Fast GaAs photoconductor responses to subnanosecond proton pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochet, T.

    1993-01-01

    GaAs photoconductors have been tailored to detect ultrafast proton pulses having energies ranging between 4 and 9 MeV. The sensitivity, the linearity and the speed of response of the devices are analyzed as a function of their neutron pre-irradiation treatment. The dependence of the sensitivity on the proton energy and the applied polarization is also studied. Finally, the experimental results are compared with a simple theoretical model

  9. Semi-insulating GaAs detectors of fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagatova, A.; Sedlackova, K.; Necas, V.; Zatko, B.; Dubecky, F.; Bohacek, P.

    2012-01-01

    The present work deals with the technology of HDPE neutron conversion layer application on the surface of semi-insulating (SI) GaAs detectors via developed polypropylene (PP) based glue. The influence of glue deposition on the electric properties of the detectors was studied as well as the ability of the detectors to register the fast neutrons from "2"3"9Pu-Be neutron source. (authors)

  10. Solar heating of GaAs nanowire solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shao-Hua; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2015-11-30

    We use a coupled thermal-optical approach to model the operating temperature rise in GaAs nanowire solar cells. We find that despite more highly concentrated light absorption and lower thermal conductivity, the overall temperature rise in a nanowire structure is no higher than in a planar structure. Moreover, coating the nanowires with a transparent polymer can increase the radiative cooling power by 2.2 times, lowering the operating temperature by nearly 7 K.

  11. Gaas Displacement Damage Dosimeter Based on Diode Dark Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warner Jeffrey H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available GaAs diode dark currents are correlated over a very large proton energy range as a function of displacement damage dose (DDD. The linearity of the dark current increase with DDD over a wide range of applied voltage bias deems this device an excellent candidate for a displacement damage dosimeter. Additional proton testing performed in situ enabled error estimate determination to within 10% for simulated space use.

  12. Ab initio study of hot electrons in GaAs

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Marco; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Ong, Chin Shen; Neaton, Jeffrey B.; Louie, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Hot carrier dynamics critically impacts the performance of electronic, optoelectronic, photovoltaic, and plasmonic devices. Hot carriers lose energy over nanometer lengths and picosecond timescales and thus are challenging to study experimentally, whereas calculations of hot carrier dynamics are cumbersome and dominated by empirical approaches. In this work, we present ab initio calculations of hot electrons in gallium arsenide (GaAs) using density functional theory and many-body perturbation...

  13. Stretchable Optomechanical Fiber Sensors for Pressure Determination in Compressive Medical Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandt, Joseph D; Moudio, Marie; Clark, J Kenji; Hardin, James; Argenti, Christian; Carty, Matthew; Lewis, Jennifer A; Kolle, Mathias

    2018-05-29

    Medical textiles are widely used to exert pressure on human tissues during treatment of post-surgical hematoma, burn-related wounds, chronic venous ulceration, and other maladies. However, the inability to dynamically sense and adjust the applied pressure often leads to suboptimal pressure application, prolonging treatment or resulting in poor patient outcomes. Here, a simple strategy for measuring sub-bandage pressure by integrating stretchable optomechanical fibers into elastic bandages is demonstrated. Specifically, these fibers possess an elastomeric photonic multilayer cladding that surrounds an extruded stretchable core filament. They can sustain repetitive strains of over 100%, and respond to deformation with a predictable and reversible color variation. Integrated into elastic textiles, which apply pressure as a function of their strain, these fibers can provide instantaneous and localized pressure feedback. These colorimetric fiber sensors are well suited for medical textiles, athletic apparel, and other smart wearable technologies, especially when repetitive, large deformations are required. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Opto-mechanical devices for the Antares automatic beam alignment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swann, T.; Combs, C.; Witt, J.

    1981-01-01

    Antares is a 24-beam CO 2 laser system for controlled fusion research, under construction at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Rapid automatic alignment of this system is required prior to each experimental shot. Unique opto-mechanical alignment devices, which have been developed specifically for this automatic alignment system, are discussed. A variable focus alignment telescope views point light sources. A beam expander/spatial filter processes both a visible Krypton Ion and a 10.6 μm CO 2 alignment laser. The periscope/carousel device provides the means by which the alignment telescope can sequentially view each of twelve optical trains in each power amplifier. The polyhedron alignment device projects a point-light source for both centering and pointing alignment at the polyhedron mirror. The rotating wedge alignment device provides a sequencing point-light source and also compensates for dispersion between visible and 10.6 μm radiation. The back reflector flip in remotely positions point-light sources at the back reflector mirrors. A light source box illuminates optic fibers with high intensity white light which is distributed to the various point-light sources in the system

  15. PHASES: Opto-mechanical solutions to perform absolute spectrophotometry from space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vather Dinesh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work provides an update of the current status of PHASES, which is a project aimed at developing a space-borne telescope to perform absolute flux calibrated spectroscopy of bright stars. PHASES will make it possible to measure micromagnitude photometric variations due to, e.g., exo-planet/moon transits. It is designed to obtain 1% RMS flux calibrated low resolution spectra in the wavelength range 370–960 nm with signal-to-noise ratios >100 for stars with V<10 in short integration times of ∼1 minute. The strategy to calibrate the system using A-type stars is outlined. PHASES will make possible a complete characterization of stars, some of them hosting planets. From the comparison of observed spectra with accurate model atmospheres stellar angular diameters will be determined with precisions of ∼0.5%. The light curves of transiting systems will be then used to extract the radius of the planet with similar precision. The demanding scientific requirements to be achieved under extreme observing conditions have shaped the optomechanical design. A computational model and a high-precision interferometric system have been developed to test the performance of the instrument.

  16. Transient chaos - a resolution of breakdown of quantum-classical correspondence in optomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanglei; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-10-17

    Recently, the phenomenon of quantum-classical correspondence breakdown was uncovered in optomechanics, where in the classical regime the system exhibits chaos but in the corresponding quantum regime the motion is regular - there appears to be no signature of classical chaos whatsoever in the corresponding quantum system, generating a paradox. We find that transient chaos, besides being a physically meaningful phenomenon by itself, provides a resolution. Using the method of quantum state diffusion to simulate the system dynamics subject to continuous homodyne detection, we uncover transient chaos associated with quantum trajectories. The transient behavior is consistent with chaos in the classical limit, while the long term evolution of the quantum system is regular. Transient chaos thus serves as a bridge for the quantum-classical transition (QCT). Strikingly, as the system transitions from the quantum to the classical regime, the average chaotic transient lifetime increases dramatically (faster than the Ehrenfest time characterizing the QCT for isolated quantum systems). We develop a physical theory to explain the scaling law.

  17. Multiharmonic Frequency-Chirped Transducers for Surface-Acoustic-Wave Optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiß, Matthias; Hörner, Andreas L.; Zallo, Eugenio; Atkinson, Paola; Rastelli, Armando; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Wixforth, Achim; Krenner, Hubert J.

    2018-01-01

    Wide-passband interdigital transducers are employed to establish a stable phase lock between a train of laser pulses emitted by a mode-locked laser and a surface acoustic wave generated electrically by the transducer. The transducer design is based on a multiharmonic split-finger architecture for the excitation of a fundamental surface acoustic wave and a discrete number of its overtones. Simply by introducing a variation of the transducer's periodicity p , a frequency chirp is added. This combination results in wide frequency bands for each harmonic. The transducer's conversion efficiency from the electrical to the acoustic domain is characterized optomechanically using single quantum dots acting as nanoscale pressure sensors. The ability to generate surface acoustic waves over a wide band of frequencies enables advanced acousto-optic spectroscopy using mode-locked lasers with fixed repetition rate. Stable phase locking between the electrically generated acoustic wave and the train of laser pulses is confirmed by performing stroboscopic spectroscopy on a single quantum dot at a frequency of 320 MHz. Finally, the dynamic spectral modulation of the quantum dot is directly monitored in the time domain combining stable phase-locked optical excitation and time-correlated single-photon counting. The demonstrated scheme will be particularly useful for the experimental implementation of surface-acoustic-wave-driven quantum gates of optically addressable qubits or collective quantum states or for multicomponent Fourier synthesis of tailored nanomechanical waveforms.

  18. Optomechanical performance of 3D-printed mirrors with embedded cooling channels and substructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mici, Joni; Rothenberg, Bradley; Brisson, Erik; Wicks, Sunny; Stubbs, David M.

    2015-09-01

    Advances in 3D printing technology allow for the manufacture of topologically complex parts not otherwise feasible through conventional manufacturing methods. Maturing metal and ceramic 3D printing technologies are becoming more adept at printing complex shapes, enabling topologically intricate mirror substrates. One application area that can benefit from additive manufacturing is reflective optics used in high energy laser (HEL) systems that require materials with a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), high specific stiffness, and (most importantly) high thermal conductivity to effectively dissipate heat from the optical surface. Currently, the limits of conventional manufacturing dictate the topology of HEL optics to be monolithic structures that rely on passive cooling mechanisms and high reflectivity coatings to withstand laser damage. 3D printing enables the manufacture of embedded cooling channels in metallic mirror substrates to allow for (1) active cooling and (2) tunable structures. This paper describes the engineering and analysis of an actively cooled composite optical structure to demonstrate the potential of 3D printing on the improvement of optomechanical systems.

  19. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; hide

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  20. Innovative opto-mechanical design of a laser head for compact thin-disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macúchová, Karolina; Smrž, Martin; Řeháková, Martina; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    We present recent progress in design of innovative versatile laser head for lasers based on thin-disk architecture which are being constructed at the HiLASE centre of the IOP in the Czech Republic. Concept of thin-disk laser technology allows construction of lasers providing excellent beam quality with high average output power and optical efficiency. Our newly designed thin-disk carrier and pump module comes from optical scheme consisting of a parabolic mirror and roof mirrors proposed in 90's. However, mechanical parts and a cooling system were in-house simplified and tailor-made to medium power lasers since no suitable setup was commercially available. Proposed opto-mechanical design is based on stable yet easily adjustable mechanics. The only water nozzle-cooled component is a room-temperature-operated thindisk mounted on a special cooling finger. Cooling of pump optics was replaced by heat conductive transfer from mirrors made of special Al alloy to a massive brass baseplate. Such mirrors are easy to manufacture and very cheap. Presented laser head was manufactured and tested in construction of Er and Yb doped disk lasers. Details of the latest design will be presented.

  1. Opto-mechanical design of optical window for aero-optics effect simulation instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-ming; Dong, Dengfeng; Zhou, Weihu; Ming, Xing; Zhang, Yan

    2016-10-01

    A complete theory is established for opto-mechanical systems design of the window in this paper, which can make the design more rigorous .There are three steps about the design. First, the universal model of aerodynamic environment is established based on the theory of Computational Fluid Dynamics, and the pneumatic pressure distribution and temperature data of optical window surface is obtained when aircraft flies in 5-30km altitude, 0.5-3Ma speed and 0-30°angle of attack. The temperature and pressure distribution values for the maximum constraint is selected as the initial value of external conditions on the optical window surface. Then, the optical window and mechanical structure are designed, which is also divided into two parts: First, mechanical structure which meet requirements of the security and tightness is designed. Finally, rigorous analysis and evaluation are given about the structure of optics and mechanics we have designed. There are two parts to be analyzed. First, the Fluid-Solid-Heat Coupled Model is given based on finite element analysis. And the deformation of the glass and structure can be obtained by the model, which can assess the feasibility of the designed optical windows and ancillary structure; Second, the new optical surface is fitted by Zernike polynomials according to the deformation of the surface of the optical window, which can evaluate imaging quality impact of spectral camera by the deformation of window.

  2. Opto-mechanical design for transmission optics in cryogenic space instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Gabby; Venema, Lars; Navarro, Ramón

    2017-11-01

    NOVA is involved in the development and realization of various optical astronomical instruments for groundbased as well as space telescopes, with a focus on nearand mid-infrared instrumentation. NOVA has developed a suite of scientific instruments with cryogenic optics for the ESO VLT and VLTI instruments: VISIR, MIDI, the SPIFFI 2Kcamera for SINFONI, X-shooter and MATISSE. Other projects include the cryogenic optics for MIRI for the James Webb Space Telescope and several E-ELT instruments. Mounting optics is always a compromise between firmly fixing the optics and preventing stresses within the optics. The fixing should ensure mechanical stability and thus accurate positioning in various gravity orientations, temperature ranges, during launch, transport or earthquake. On the other hand, the fixings can induce deformations and sometimes birefringence in the optics and thus cause optical errors. Even cracking or breaking of the optics is a risk, especially when using brittle infrared optical materials at the cryogenic temperatures required in instruments for infrared astronomy, where differential expansion of various materials amounts easily to several millimeters per meter. Special kinematic mounts are therefore needed to ensure both accurate positioning and low stress. This paper concentrates on the opto-mechanical design of optics mountings, especially for large transmission optics in cryogenic circumstances in space instruments. It describes the development of temperature-invariant ("a-thermal") kinematic designs, their implementation in ground based instrumentation and ways to make them suitable for space instruments.

  3. Lower- and higher-order aberrations predicted by an optomechanical model of arcuate keratotomy for astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Palos, Fernando; Lanchares, Elena; Calvo, Begoña; Cristóbal, José A

    2009-01-01

    To develop a realistic model of the optomechanical behavior of the cornea after curved relaxing incisions to simulate the induced astigmatic change and predict the optical aberrations produced by the incisions. ICMA Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. A 3-dimensional finite element model of the anterior hemisphere of the ocular surface was used. The corneal tissue was modeled as a quasi-incompressible, anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive behavior strongly dependent on the physiological collagen fibril distribution. Similar behaviors were assigned to the limbus and sclera. With this model, some corneal incisions were computer simulated after the Lindstrom nomogram. The resulting geometry of the biomechanical simulation was analyzed in the optical zone, and finite ray tracing was performed to compute refractive power and higher-order aberrations (HOAs). The finite-element simulation provided new geometry of the corneal surfaces, from which elevation topographies were obtained. The surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) of the simulated incisions according to the Lindstrom nomogram was computed by finite ray tracing. However, paraxial computations would yield slightly different results (undercorrection of astigmatism). In addition, arcuate incisions would induce significant amounts of HOAs. Finite-element models, together with finite ray-tracing computations, yielded realistic simulations of the biomechanical and optical changes induced by relaxing incisions. The model reproduced the SIA indicated by the Lindstrom nomogram for the simulated incisions and predicted a significant increase in optical aberrations induced by arcuate keratotomy.

  4. Transient chaos - a resolution of breakdown of quantum-classical correspondence in optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guanglei; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Grebogi, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the phenomenon of quantum-classical correspondence breakdown was uncovered in optomechanics, where in the classical regime the system exhibits chaos but in the corresponding quantum regime the motion is regular - there appears to be no signature of classical chaos whatsoever in the corresponding quantum system, generating a paradox. We find that transient chaos, besides being a physically meaningful phenomenon by itself, provides a resolution. Using the method of quantum state diffusion to simulate the system dynamics subject to continuous homodyne detection, we uncover transient chaos associated with quantum trajectories. The transient behavior is consistent with chaos in the classical limit, while the long term evolution of the quantum system is regular. Transient chaos thus serves as a bridge for the quantum-classical transition (QCT). Strikingly, as the system transitions from the quantum to the classical regime, the average chaotic transient lifetime increases dramatically (faster than the Ehrenfest time characterizing the QCT for isolated quantum systems). We develop a physical theory to explain the scaling law. PMID:27748418

  5. Photon blockade in optomechanical systems with a position-modulated Kerr-type nonlinear coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhou, Y. H.; Guo, Y. Q.; Yi, X. X.

    2018-03-01

    We explore the photon blockade in optomechanical systems with a position-modulated Kerr-type nonlinear coupling, i.e. H_int˜\\hat{a}\\dagger2\\hat{a}^2(\\hat{b}_1^\\dagger+\\hat{b}_1) . We find that the Kerr-type nonlinear coupling can enhance the photon blockade greatly. We evaluate the equal-time second-order correlation function of the cavity photons and find that the optimal photon blockade does not happen at the single photon resonance. By working within the few-photon subspace, we get an approximate analytical expression for the correlation function and the condition for the optimal photon blockade. We also find that the photon blockade effect is not always enhanced as the Kerr-type nonlinear coupling strength g 2 increases. At some values of g 2, the photon blockade is even weakened. For the system we considered here, the second-order correlation function can be smaller than 1 even in the unresolved sideband regime. By numerically simulating the master equation of the system, we also find that the thermal noise of the mechanical environment can enhance the photon blockade. We give out an explanation for this counter-intuitive phenomenon qualitatively.

  6. Burst annealing of high temperature GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, P. R.; Horne, W. E.

    1991-01-01

    One of the major limitations of solar cells in space power systems is their vulnerability to radiation damage. One solution to this problem is to periodically heat the cells to anneal the radiation damage. Annealing was demonstrated with silicon cells. The obstacle to annealing of GaAs cells was their susceptibility to thermal damage at the temperatures required to completely anneal the radiation damage. GaAs cells with high temperature contacts and encapsulation were developed. The cells tested are designed for concentrator use at 30 suns AMO. The circular active area is 2.5 mm in diameter for an area of 0.05 sq cm. Typical one sun AMO efficiency of these cells is over 18 percent. The cells were demonstrated to be resistant to damage after thermal excursions in excess of 600 C. This high temperature tolerance should allow these cells to survive the annealing of radiation damage. A limited set of experiments were devised to investigate the feasibility of annealing these high temperature cells. The effect of repeated cycles of electron and proton irradiation was tested. The damage mechanisms were analyzed. Limitations in annealing recovery suggested improvements in cell design for more complete recovery. These preliminary experiments also indicate the need for further study to isolate damage mechanisms. The primary objective of the experiments was to demonstrate and quantify the annealing behavior of high temperature GaAs cells. Secondary objectives were to measure the radiation degradation and to determine the effect of repeated irradiation and anneal cycles.

  7. Burst annealing of high temperature GaAs solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, P.R.; Horne, W.E.

    1991-01-01

    One of the major limitations of solar cells in space power systems is their vulnerability to radiation damage. One solution to this problem is to periodically heat the cells to anneal the radiation damage. Annealing was demonstrated with silicon cells. The obstacle to annealing of GaAs cells was their susceptibility to thermal damage at the temperatures required to completely anneal the radiation damage. GaAs cells with high temperature contacts and encapsulation were developed. The cells tested are designed for concentrator use at 30 suns AMO. The circular active area is 2.5 mm in diameter for an area of 0.05 sq cm. Typical one sun AMO efficiency of these cells is over 18 percent. The cells were demonstrated to be resistant to damage after thermal excursions in excess of 600 degree C. This high temperature tolerance should allow these cells to survive the annealing of radiation damage. A limited set of experiments were devised to investigate the feasibility of annealing these high temperature cells. The effect of repeated cycles of electron and proton irradiation was tested. The damage mechanisms were analyzed. Limitations in annealing recovery suggested improvements in cell design for more complete recovery. These preliminary experiments also indicate the need for further study to isolate damage mechanisms. The primary objective of the experiments was to demonstrate and quantify the annealing behavior of high temperature GaAs cells. Secondary objectives were to measure the radiation degradation and to determine the effect of repeated irradiation and anneal cycles

  8. Metallization systems for stable ohmic contacts to GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandon, J.L.; Douglas, K.D.; Vendura, G.; Kolawa, E.; So, F.C.T.; Nicolet, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    A metallization scheme to form reproducible and stable ohmic contacts to GaAs is described. The approach is based on the configuration: GaAs/X/Y/Z; where X is a thin metal film (e.g. Pt, Ti, Pd, Ru), Y is an electrically conducting diffusion barrier layer (TiN, W or W/sub 0.7/N/sub 0.3/), and Z is a thick metal layer (e.g. Ag) typically required for bonding or soldering purposes. The value and reproducibility of the contact resistance in these metallization systems results from the uniform steady-state solid-phase reaction of the metal X with GaAs. The stability of the contacts is achieved by the diffusion barrier layer Y, which not only confines the reaction of X with GaAs, but also prevents the top metal layer Z from interfering with this reaction. Applications of such contacts in fabricating stable solar cells are also discussed

  9. Nitridation of porous GaAs by an ECR ammonia plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M; Hullavarad, S S; Ganesan, V; Bhoraskar, S V

    2006-01-01

    The effect of surface porosity of GaAs on the nature of growth of GaN, by use of plasma nitridation of GaAs, has been investigated. Porous GaAs samples were prepared by anodic etching of n-type (110) GaAs wafers in HCl solution. Nitridation of porous GaAs samples were carried out by using an electron-cyclotron resonance-induced ammonia plasma. The formation of mixed phases of GaN was investigated using the grazing angle x-ray diffraction method. A remarkable improvement in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) compared with that of GaN synthesized by direct nitriding of GaAs surface has been observed. The PL intensity of nitrided porous GaAs at the temperature of 380 deg. C was found to be about two orders of magnitude higher as compared with the directly nitrided GaAs at the temperature of 500 deg. C. The changes in the morphology of nitrided porous GaAs have been investigated using both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

  10. Nitridation of porous GaAs by an ECR ammonia plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naddaf, M [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India); Department of Physics, Atomic Energy Commission of Syria, PO Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hullavarad, S S [Center for Superconductivity Research, Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Ganesan, V [Inter University Consortium, Indore (India); Bhoraskar, S V [Center for Advanced Studies in Material Science and Solid State Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411 007 (India)

    2006-02-15

    The effect of surface porosity of GaAs on the nature of growth of GaN, by use of plasma nitridation of GaAs, has been investigated. Porous GaAs samples were prepared by anodic etching of n-type (110) GaAs wafers in HCl solution. Nitridation of porous GaAs samples were carried out by using an electron-cyclotron resonance-induced ammonia plasma. The formation of mixed phases of GaN was investigated using the grazing angle x-ray diffraction method. A remarkable improvement in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) compared with that of GaN synthesized by direct nitriding of GaAs surface has been observed. The PL intensity of nitrided porous GaAs at the temperature of 380 deg. C was found to be about two orders of magnitude higher as compared with the directly nitrided GaAs at the temperature of 500 deg. C. The changes in the morphology of nitrided porous GaAs have been investigated using both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  11. Nitridation of porous GaAs by an ECR ammonia plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, M.; Hullavarad, S. S.; Ganesan, V.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2006-02-01

    The effect of surface porosity of GaAs on the nature of growth of GaN, by use of plasma nitridation of GaAs, has been investigated. Porous GaAs samples were prepared by anodic etching of n-type (110) GaAs wafers in HCl solution. Nitridation of porous GaAs samples were carried out by using an electron-cyclotron resonance-induced ammonia plasma. The formation of mixed phases of GaN was investigated using the grazing angle x-ray diffraction method. A remarkable improvement in the intensity of photoluminescence (PL) compared with that of GaN synthesized by direct nitriding of GaAs surface has been observed. The PL intensity of nitrided porous GaAs at the temperature of 380 °C was found to be about two orders of magnitude higher as compared with the directly nitrided GaAs at the temperature of 500 °C. The changes in the morphology of nitrided porous GaAs have been investigated using both scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy.

  12. Temperature dependent magnetic properties of the GaAs substrate of spin-LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, A; Harris, J S Jr; Parkin, S S P

    2006-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the magnetization of a light emitting diode having a ferromagnetic contact (spin-LED) is measured from 2 to 300 K in magnetic fields from 30 to 70 kOe and it is found that it originates from the GaAs substrate. The magnetization of GaAs comprises a van Vleck-type paramagnetic contribution to the susceptibility which scales inversely with the band gap of the semiconductor. Thus, the temperature dependence of the band gap of GaAs accounts for the non-linear temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility of GaAs and thus, at large magnetic fields, for the spin-LED

  13. X-ray diffraction from single GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas

    2012-11-12

    In recent years, developments in X-ray focussing optics have allowed to produce highly intense, coherent X-ray beams with spot sizes in the range of 100 nm and below. Together with the development of new experimental stations, X-ray diffraction techniques can now be applied to study single nanometer-sized objects. In the present work, X-ray diffraction is applied to study different aspects of the epitaxial growth of GaAs nanowires. Besides conventional diffraction methods, which employ X-ray beams with dimensions of several tens of {mu}m, special emphasis lies on the use of nanodiffraction methods which allow to study single nanowires in their as-grown state without further preparation. In particular, coherent X-ray diffraction is applied to measure simultaneously the 3-dimensional shape and lattice parameters of GaAs nanowires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. It is observed that due to a high density of zinc-blende rotational twins within the nanowires, their lattice parameter deviates systematically from the bulk zinc-blende phase. In a second step, the initial stage in the growth of GaAs nanowires on Si (1 1 1) surfaces is studied. This nanowires, obtained by Ga-assisted growth in molecular beam epitaxy, grow predominantly in the cubic zinc-blende structure, but contain inclusions of the hexagonal wurtzite phase close to their bottom interface. Using nanodiffraction methods, the position of the different structural units along the growth axis is determined. Because the GaAs lattice is 4% larger than silicon, these nanowires release their lattice mismatch by the inclusion of dislocations at the interface. Whereas NWs with diameters below 50 nm are free of strain, a rough interface structure in nanowires with diameters above 100 nm prevents a complete plastic relaxation, leading to a residual strain at the interface that decays elastically along the growth direction. Finally, measurements on GaAs-core/InAs-shell nanowire heterostructures are presented

  14. Control of slow-to-fast light and single-to-double optomechanically induced transparency in a compound resonator system: A theoretical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziauddin; Rahman, Mujeeb ur; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Qamar, Sajid

    2017-10-01

    The transmission characteristics of probe light field is investigated theoretically in a compound system of two coupled resonators. The proposed system consisted of two high-Q Fabry-Perot resonators in which one of the resonators is optomechanical. Optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT), having relatively large window, is noticed via strong coupling between the two resonators. We investigate tunable switching from single to double OMIT by increasing amplitude of the pump field. We notice that, control of slow and fast light can be obtained via the coupling strength between the two resonators.

  15. Tolerance of GaAs as an original substrate for HVPE growth of free standing GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Mio; Sato, T.; Suemasu, T.; Hasegawa, F.

    2004-09-01

    In order to investigate possibility of thick GaN growth on a GaAs substrate by halide vapar phase epitaxy (HVPE), GaN was grown on GaAs(111)/Ti wafer with Ti deposited by E-gun. It was found that surface treatment of the GaAs substrate by HF solution deteriorated greatly the tolerence of GaAs and that Ti can protected GaAs from erosion by NH3. By depositing Ti on GaAs(111)A surface, a millor-like GaN layer could be grown at 1000 °C for 1 hour without serious deterioration of the original GaAs substrate. By increasing the growth rate, a thick free standing GaN will be obtained with GaAs as an original substrate in near future.

  16. Tolerance of GaAs as an original substrate for HVPE growth of free standing GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Mio; Sato, T.; Suemasu, T.; Hasegawa, F. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Applied Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2004-09-01

    In order to investigate possibility of thick GaN growth on a GaAs substrate by halide vapar phase epitaxy (HVPE), GaN was grown on GaAs(111)/Ti wafer with Ti deposited by E-gun. It was found that surface treatment of the GaAs substrate by HF solution deteriorated greatly the tolerance of GaAs and that Ti can protected GaAs from erosion by NH{sub 3}. By depositing Ti on GaAs(111)A surface, a mirror-like GaN layer could be grown at 1000 C for 1 hour without serious deterioration of the original GaAs substrate. By increasing the growth rate, a thick free standing GaN will be obtained with GaAs as an original substrate in near future. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  17. Resolving the mystery of milliwatt-threshold opto-mechanical self-oscillation in dual-nanoweb fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Koehler

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It is interesting to pose the question: How best to design an optomechanical device, with no electronics, optical cavity, or laser gain, that will self-oscillate when pumped in a single pass with only a few mW of single-frequency laser power? One might begin with a mechanically resonant and highly compliant system offering very high optomechanical gain. Such a system, when pumped by single-frequency light, might self-oscillate at its resonant frequency. It is well-known, however, that this will occur only if the group velocity dispersion of the light is high enough so that phonons causing pump-to-Stokes conversion are sufficiently dissimilar to those causing pump-to-anti-Stokes conversion. Recently it was reported that two light-guiding membranes 20 μm wide, ∼500 nm thick and spaced by ∼500 nm, suspended inside a glass fiber capillary, oscillated spontaneously at its mechanical resonant frequency (∼6 MHz when pumped with only a few mW of single-frequency light. This was surprising, since perfect Raman gain suppression would be expected. In detailed measurements, using an interferometric side-probing technique capable of resolving nanoweb movements as small as 10 pm, we map out the vibrations along the fiber and show that stimulated intermodal scattering to a higher-order optical mode frustrates gain suppression, permitting the structure to self-oscillate. A detailed theoretical analysis confirms this picture. This novel mechanism makes possible the design of single-pass optomechanical oscillators that require only a few mW of optical power, no electronics nor any optical resonator. The design could also be implemented in silicon or any other suitable material.

  18. Electrical performance of conducting polymer (SPAN) grown on GaAs with different substrate orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, D. A.; Aziz, M.; Felix, J. F.; Al Saqri, N.; Taylor, D.; Albalawi, H.; Alghamdi, H.; Al Mashary, F.; Henini, M.

    2016-11-01

    This article reports the effect of n-type GaAs substrate orientation, namely (100), (311)A and (311)B, on the electrical properties of sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN)/GaAs heterojunction devices. In addition, the inhomogeneity of the interface between various GaAs substrates and SPAN is investigated in terms of barrier height and ideality factor by performing I-V measurements at different temperatures (20-420 K). The I-V results indicate that the value of the rectification ratio (IF/IR) at 0.5 V is higher for SPAN/(311)B GaAs samples than for SPAN/(100) GaAs and SPAN/(311)A GaAs samples. Moreover, the barrier height decreases and the ideality factor increases with decreasing temperature for all three heterostructure devices. The high value of mean barrier Φbarb of SPAN/(311)B (calculated from the plots of Φb 0 as a function of 1/2kT) confirms that the GaAs substrate orientation results in an increase of barrier homogeneities. Furthermore, the C-V characteristics were obtained at room temperature. The C-V measurements showed that the carrier distributions at the interface and away from the interface in high index (311) GaAs orientations are more uniform and have better barrier homogeneity than those grown on the conventional (100) GaAs substrates.

  19. Characterization of a Ga-assisted GaAs nanowire array solar cell on si substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boulanger, J. P.; Chia, A. C. E.; Wood, B.

    2016-01-01

    A single-junction core-shell GaAs nanowire (NW) solar cell on Si (1 1 1) substrates is presented. A Ga-assisted vapor–liquid–solid growth mechanism was used for the formation of a patterned array of radial p-i-n GaAs NWs encapsulated in AlInP passivation. Novel device fabrication utilizing facet-...

  20. Self-Assembled Monolayers of CdSe Nanocrystals on Doped GaAs Substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marx, E.; Ginger, D.S.; Walzer, Karsten

    2002-01-01

    This letter reports the self-assembly and analysis of CdSe nanocrystal monolayers on both p- and a-doped GaAs substrates. The self-assembly was performed using a 1,6-hexanedithiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) to link CdSe nanocrystals to GaAs substrates. Attenuated total reflection Fourier tran...

  1. Structure and homoepitaxial growth of GaAs(6 3 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Garcia, V.H.; Ramirez-Arenas, F.J.; Lastras-Martinez, A.; Cruz-Hernandez, E.; Pulzara-Mora, A.; Rojas-Ramirez, J.S.; Lopez-Lopez, M.

    2006-01-01

    We have studied the surface atomic structure of GaAs(6 3 1), and the GaAs growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on this plane. After the oxide desorption process at 585 deg. Creflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) showed along the [-1 2 0] direction a 2x surface reconstruction for GaAs(6 3 1)A, and a 1x pattern was observed for GaAs(6 3 1)B. By annealing the substrates for 60 min, we observed that on the A surface appeared small hilly-like features, while on GaAs(6 3 1)B surface pits were formed. For GaAs(6 3 1)A, 500 nm-thick GaAs layers were grown at 585 deg. C. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) images at the end of growth showed the self-formation of nanoscale structures with a pyramidal shape enlarged along the [5-9-3] direction. Transversal views of the bulk-truncated GaAs(6 3 1) surface model showed arrays of atomic grooves along this direction, which could influence the formation of the pyramidal structures

  2. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox and quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiongyi; Ficek, Zbigniew

    2014-02-01

    We study multipartite entanglement, the generation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) states, and quantum steering in a three-mode optomechanical system composed of an atomic ensemble located inside a single-mode cavity with a movable mirror. The cavity mode is driven by a short laser pulse, has a nonlinear parametric-type interaction with the mirror and a linear beam-splitter-type interaction with the atomic ensemble. There is no direct interaction of the mirror with the atomic ensemble. A threshold effect for the dynamics of the system is found, above which the system works as an amplifier and below which as an attenuator of the output fields. The threshold is determined by the ratio of the coupling strengths of the cavity mode to the mirror and to the atomic ensemble. It is shown that above the threshold, the system effectively behaves as a two-mode system in which a perfect bipartite EPR state can be generated, while it is impossible below the threshold. Furthermore, a fully inseparable tripartite entanglement and even further a genuine tripartite entanglement can be produced above and below the threshold. In addition, we consider quantum steering and examine the monogamy relations that quantify the amount of bipartite steering that can be shared between different modes. It is found that the mirror is more capable for steering of entanglement than the cavity mode. The two-way steering is found between the mirror and the atomic ensemble despite the fact that they are not directly coupled to each other, while it is impossible between the output of cavity mode and the ensemble which are directly coupled to each other.

  3. Cooperative effects between color centers in diamond: applications to optical tweezers and optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradac, Carlo; Prasanna Venkatesh, B.; Besga, Benjamin; Johnsson, Mattias; Brennen, Gavin; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel; Volz, Thomas; Juan, Mathieu L.

    2017-08-01

    Since the early work by Ashkin in 1970,1 optical trapping has become one of the most powerful tools for manipulating small particles, such as micron sized beads2 or single atoms.3 Interestingly, both an atom and a lump of dielectric material can be manipulated through the same mechanism: the interaction energy of a dipole and the electric field of the laser light. In the case of atom trapping, the dominant contribution typically comes from the allowed optical transition closest to the laser wavelength while it is given by the bulk polarisability for mesoscopic particles. This difference lead to two very different contexts of applications: one being the trapping of small objects mainly in biological settings,4 the other one being dipole traps for individual neutral atoms5 in the field of quantum optics. In this context, solid state artificial atoms present the interesting opportunity to combine these two aspects of optical manipulation. We are particularly interested in nanodiamonds as they constitute a bulk dielectric object by themselves, but also contain artificial atoms such as nitrogen-vacancy (NV) or silicon-vacancy (SiV) colour centers. With this system, both regimes of optical trapping can be observed at the same time even at room temperature. In this work, we demonstrate that the resonant force from the optical transition of NV centres at 637 nm can be measured in a nanodiamond trapped in water. This additional contribution to the total force is significant, reaching up to 10%. In addition, due to the very large density of NV centres in a sub-wavelength crystal, collective effects between centres have an important effect on the magnitude of the resonant force.6 The possibility to observe such cooperatively enhanced optical force at room temperature is also theoretically confirmed.7 This approach may enable the study of cooperativity in various nanoscale solid-state systems and the use of atomic physics techniques in the field of nano-manipulation and opto-mechanics.

  4. Opto-Mechanical systems design for polarimeter-interferometer on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Z.Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Liu, H.Q., E-mail: hqliu@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Ding, W.X.; Brower, D.L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Li, W.M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Lan, T. [University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zeng, L.; Yao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Jie, Y.X. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The POINT system has been designed double-pass horizontal 11-channel, and the probe beams are reflected by corner cube retro reflectors in the vacuum vessel for the first time. • ZEMAX calculations used to optimize the optical layout design are combined with the mechanical design from CATIA, providing a 3D visualization of the entire POINT system. • The massy, vibration isolation performance of optical table and optical tower are designed and vibration tested. - Abstract: An 11-channel Far-InfaRed (FIR) three-wave POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system has been successfully operated in 2015 EAST experimental campaign. For high accuracy measurement of POINT system, optimized optical system to reduce the stray light and crosstalk is very important. Optical design is done and improved by using ZEMAX software, in which spot size and energy distribution can be calculated in any position. The crosstalk and stray light can be reduced by optimized design of optical components and putting high extinction ratio materials in some key positions. Vibration isolation coefficient of optical platform is set to 90%. The optical platform and vibration isolation system are about 5 and 20 tons in weight respectively. To reduce vibration caused by the EAST hall, a more than 30 tons in weight stainless steel tower, filled with sand and mounted independent of the EAST machine, is constructed to ensure the stability of optics. Based on the optimized opto-mechanical design, the POINT system resolutions for Faraday rotation and line integral electron density measurements are 0.1° and 1 × 10{sup 16} m{sup −2}, respectively.

  5. Experimental opto-mechanics with levitated nanoparticles: towards quantum control and thermodynamic cycles (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Nikolai; Blaser, Florian; Delic, Uros; Grass, David; Dechant, Andreas; Lutz, Eric; Bathaee, Marzieh; Aspelmeyer, Markus

    2015-08-01

    Combining optical levitation and cavity optomechanics constitutes a promising approach to prepare and control the motional quantum state of massive objects (>10^9 amu). This, in turn, would represent a completely new type of light-matter interface and has, for example, been predicted to enable experimental tests of macrorealistic models or of non-Newtonian gravity at small length scales. Such ideas have triggered significant experimental efforts to realizing such novel systems. To this end, we have recently successfully demonstrated cavity-cooling of a levitated sub-micron silica particle in a classical regime at a pressure of approximately 1mbar. Access to higher vacuum of approx. 10^-6 mbar has been demonstrated using 3D-feedback cooling in optical tweezers without cavity-coupling. Here we will illustrate our strategy towards trapping, 3D-cooling and quantum control of nanoparticles in ultra-high vacuum using cavity-based feedback cooling methods and clean particle loading with hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. We will also discuss the current experimental progress both in 3D-cavity cooling and HCPCF-based transport of nanoparticles. As yet another application of cavity-controlled levitated nanoparticles we will show how to implement a thermodynamic Sterling cycle operating in the underdamped regime. We present optimized protocols with respect to efficiency at maximum power in this little explored regime. We also show that the excellent level of control in our system will allow reproducing all relevant features of such optimized protocols. In a next step, this will enable studies of thermodynamics cycles in a regime where the quantization of the mechanical motion becomes relevant.

  6. Temperature measurements on fast-rotating objects using a thermographic camera with an optomechanical image derotator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Bettina; Pape, Christian; Reithmeier, Eduard

    2017-08-01

    Increasing requirements concerning the quality and lifetime of machine components in industrial and automotive applications require comprehensive investigations of the components in conditions close to the application. Irregularities in heating of mechanical parts reveal regions with increased loading of pressure, draft or friction. In the long run this leads to damage and total failure of the machine. Thermographic measurements of rotating objects, e.g., rolling bearings, brakes, and clutches provide an approach to investigate those defects. However, it is challenging to measure fast-rotating objects accurately. Currently one contact-free approach is performing stroboscopic measurements using an infrared sensor. The data acquisition is triggered so that the image is taken once per revolution. This leads to a huge loss of information on the majority of the movement and to motion blur. The objective of this research is showing the potential of using an optomechanical image derotator together with a thermographic camera. The derotator follows the rotation of the measurement object so that quasi-stationary thermal images during motion can be acquired by the infrared sensor. Unlike conventional derotators which use a glass prism to achieve this effect, the derotator within this work is equipped with a sophisticated reflector assembly. These reflectors are made of aluminum to transfer infrared radiation emitted by the rotating object. Because of the resulting stationary thermal image, the operation can be monitored continuously even for fast-rotating objects. The field of view can also be set to a small off-axis region of interest which then can be investigated with higher resolution or frame rate. To depict the potential of this approach, thermographic measurements on a rolling bearings in different operating states are presented.

  7. Amateurism in an Age of Professionalism: An Empirical Examination of an Irish Sporting Culture: The GAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Keeler

    2013-07-01

    This research study recommends that the GAA adopt an innovative approach, through strategic decision-making, to allow the GAA to maintain its amateur ethos, and, yet, successfully compete in the professional sporting market. The strong links with the community must be both nurtured and enhanced. The GAA and Gaelic games must embrace the challenges that the branding success of foreign sports has brought. Player welfare issues for the elite players must be addressed while continuing to protect the club and its amateur structures. The study looks at the key metrics that are required to evolve the GAA. This entails not only focusing on the perceived importance of the amateur ethos to the GAA, but also developing the marketing, branding and profiling of Gaelic games to enhance the performance of an amateur sporting organization in an era of increased professionalism in sport.

  8. Laser-induced bandgap collapse in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Y.; Glezer, Eli N.; Huang, Li; Mazur, Eric

    1994-05-01

    We present recent time-resolved measurements of the linear dielectric constant of GaAs at 2.2 eV and 4.4 eV following femtosecond laser pulse excitation. In sharp contrast to predictions based on the widely used Drude model, the data show an interband absorption peak coming into resonance first with the 4.4 eV probe photon energy and then with the 2.2 eV probe photon energy, indicating major changes in the band structure. The time scale for these changes ranges from within 100 fs to a few picoseconds, depending on the incident pump pulse fluence.

  9. Investigation of Optically Induced Avalanching in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    by Bovino , et al 4 to increase the hold off voltage. The button switch design of Fig. 4c has been used by several researchers5 ’ 7 to obtain the...ul Long flashover palh Figure 3b. 434 Optical Jlatlern a. Mourou Switch b. Bovino Switch c. Button Switch Figure 4. Photoconductive Switches...Technology and Devices Laboratory, ERADCOM (by L. Bovino , et. all) 4 • The deposition recipe for the contacts is 1) 50 ANi (provides contact to GaAs

  10. Study of irradiation defects in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loualiche, S.

    1982-11-01

    Characterization techniques: C(V) differential capacity, DLTS deep level transient spectroscopy, DDLTS double deep level transient spectroscopy and DLOS deep level optical spectroscopy are studied and theoretical and experimental fundamentals are re-examined. In particular the centres created by ionic or electronic bombardment of p-type GaAs. New quantitative theoretical bases for the C(V) method are obtained. Study of the optical properties of traps due to irradiation using DLOS. The nature of irradiation defects are discussed [fr

  11. Surface passivation of liquid phase epitaxial GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexiev, D.; Butcher, K.S.A.; Mo, L.; Edmondson, M.

    1995-10-01

    Passivation of the liquid phase epitaxial GaAs surface was attempted using aqueous P 2 S 5 -NH 4 OH, (NH 4 ) 2 S x and plasma nitrogenation and hydrogenation. Results indicate that plasma nitrogenation with pretreatment of plasma hydrogenation produced consistent reduction in reverse leakage current at room temperature for all p and n type Schottky diodes. Some diodes showed an order of magnitude improvement in current density. (NH 4 ) 2 S x passivation also results in improved I-V characteristics, though the long term stability of this passivation is questionable. 26 refs., 6 figs

  12. Impact of GaAs buffer thickness on electronic quality of GaAs grown on graded Ge/GeSi/Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlin, J. A.; Ringel, S. A.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Bulsara, M.; Keyes, B. M.

    2000-01-01

    Minority carrier lifetimes and interface recombination velocities for GaAs grown on a Si wafer using compositionally graded GeSi buffers have been investigated as a function of GaAs buffer thickness using monolayer-scale control of the GaAs/Ge interface nucleation during molecular beam epitaxy. The GaAs layers are free of antiphase domain disorder, with threading dislocation densities measured by etch pit density of 5x10 5 -2x10 6 cm -2 . Analysis indicates no degradation in either minority carrier lifetime or interface recombination velocity down to a GaAs buffer thickness of 0.1 μm. In fact, record high minority carrier lifetimes exceeding 10 ns have been obtained for GaAs on Si with a 0.1 μm GaAs buffer. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy reveals that cross diffusion of Ga, As, and Ge at the GaAs/Ge interface formed on the graded GeSi buffers are below detection limits in the interface region, indicating that polarity control of the GaAs/Ge interface formed on GeSi/Si substrates can be achieved. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  13. Three-dimensional lattice rotation in GaAs nanowire growth on hydrogen-silsesquioxane covered GaAs (001) using molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dat Q.; Pham, Huyen T.; Higashimine, Koichi; Oshima, Yoshifumi; Akabori, Masashi

    2018-05-01

    We report on crystallographic behaviors of inclined GaAs nanowires (NWs) self-crystallized on GaAs (001) substrate. The NWs were grown on hydrogen-silsesquioxane (HSQ) covered substrates using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Commonly, the epitaxial growth of GaAs B (B-polar) NWs is prominently observed on GaAs (001); however, we yielded a remarkable number of epitaxially grown GaAs A (A-polar) NWs in addition to the majorly obtained B-polar NWs. Such NW orientations are always accompanied by a typical inclined angle of 35° from (001) plane. NWs with another inclined angle of 74° were additionally observed and attributed to be -oriented, not in direct epitaxial relation with the substrate. Such 74° NWs' existence is related to first-order three-dimensional (3D) lattice rotation taking place at the very beginning of the growth. It turns out that spatially 60° lattice rotation around directions at GaAs seeds is essentially in charge of A- and B-polar 74° NWs. Transmission electron microscope observations reveal a high density of twinning in the B-polar NWs and twin-free characteristic in the A-polar NWs.

  14. Subnanosecond, high voltage photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.; Griffin, K.L. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); O' Bannon, B.J. (Rockwell International Corp., Anaheim, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We are conducting research on the switching properties of photoconductive materials to explore their potential for generating high-power microwaves (HPM) and for high rep-rate switching. We have investigated the performance of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) in linear mode (the conductivity of the device follows the optical pulse) as well as an avalanche-like mode (the optical pulse only controls switch closing). Operating in the linear mode, we have observed switch closing times of less than 200 ps with a 100 ps duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 ps at several kV/cm fields using neutron irradiated GaAs. In avalanche and lock-on modes, high fields are switched with lower laser pulse energies, resulting in higher efficiencies; but with measurable switching delay and jitter. We are currently investigating both large area (1 cm{sup 2}) and small area (<1 mm{sup 2}) switches illuminated by AlGaAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1.06 {mu}m.

  15. Subnanosecond, high-voltage photoconductive switching in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, Robert L.; Pocha, Michael D.; Griffin, Kenneth L.; O'Bannon, Jim

    1991-03-01

    We are conducting research on the switching properties of photoconductive materials to explore their potential for generating highpower microwaves (HPM) and for high reprate switching. We have investigated the performance of Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) in linear mode (the conductivity of the device follows the optical pulse) as well as an avalanchelike mode (the optical pulse only controls switch closing) . Operating in the unear mode we have observed switch closing times of less than 200 Ps with a 100 ps duration laser pulse and opening times of less than 400 ps at several kV/cm fields using neutron irradiated GaAs. In avalanche and lockon modes high fields are switched with lower laser pulse energies resulting in higher efficiencies but with measurable switching delay and jitter. We are currently investigating both large area (1 cm2) and small area 1 mm2) switches illuminated by AlGaAs laser diodes at 900 nm and Nd:YAG lasers at 1. 06 tim.

  16. Low-energy particle treatment of GaAs surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincik, E.; Ivanco, J.; Brunner, R.; Jergel, M.; Falcony, C.; Ortega, L.; Kucera, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents results of a complex study of surface properties of high-doped (2x10 18 cm -3 ) and semi-insulating GaAs after an interaction with the particles coming from low-energy ion sources such as RF plasma and ion beams. The virgin samples were mechano-chemically polished liquid-encapsulated Czochralski-grown GaAs (100) oriented wafers. The crystals were mounted on the grounded electrode (holder). The mixture Ar+H 2 as well as O 2 and CF 4 were used as working gases: In addition, a combination of two different in-situ exposures was applied, such as e.g. hydrogen and oxygen. Structural, electrical and optical properties of the exposed surfaces were investigated using X-ray diffraction at grazing incidence, quasi-static and high-frequency C-V curve measurements, deep-level transient spectroscopy, photo-reflectance, and photoluminescence. Plasma and ion beam exposures were performed in a commercial RF capacitively coupled plasma equipment SECON XPL-200P and a commercial LPAI device, respectively. The evolution of surface properties as a function of the pressure of working gas and the duration of exposure was observed. (Authors)

  17. Sn nanothreads in GaAs: experiment and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenikhin, I.; Vyurkov, V.; Bugaev, A.; Khabibullin, R.; Ponomarev, D.; Yachmenev, A.; Maltsev, P.; Ryzhii, M.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.

    2016-12-01

    The gated GaAs structures like the field-effect transistor with the array of the Sn nanothreads was fabricated via delta-doping of vicinal GaAs surface by Sn atoms with a subsequent regrowth. That results in the formation of the chains of Sn atoms at the terrace edges. Two device models were developed. The quantum model accounts for the quantization of the electron energy spectrum in the self-consistent two-dimensional electric potential, herewith the electron density distribution in nanothread arrays for different gate voltages is calculated. The classical model ignores the quantization and electrons are distributed in space according to 3D density of states and Fermi-Dirac statistics. It turned out that qualitatively both models demonstrate similar behavior, nevertheless, the classical one is in better quantitative agreement with experimental data. Plausibly, the quantization could be ignored because Sn atoms are randomly placed along the thread axis. The terahertz hot-electron bolometers (HEBs) could be based on the structure under consideration.

  18. X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F. E-mail: vfd217@ire216.msk.su; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A

    2004-09-21

    The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 {mu}A min/(Gy cm{sup 2}). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received.

  19. X-ray imaging bilinear staggered GaAs detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmadullin, R.A.; Dvoryankin, V.F.; Dvoryankina, G.G.; Dikaev, Y.M.Yu.M.; Krikunov, A.I.; Kudryashov, A.A.; Panova, T.M.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    The multichannel bilinear X-ray detector based on epitaxial GaAs structures is developed to obtain a digital X-ray image. Each detector operates in photovoltaic mode without reverse bias that enables almost complete elimination of detector noise arising due to leakage currents. The sensitivity range of the epitaxial GaAs photovoltaic X-ray detector covers the effective energies from 8 to 120 keV. A maximum response of the detector operating in the short-circuit mode was observed at an energy of 35 keV and amounted to 30 μA min/(Gy cm 2 ). The multichannel detector was made of 1024 pixels with pitch of 0.8 mm. The spatial resolution of double staggered sensor row is twice as high as the resolution of that of single sensor row with the same pitch. Measured spatial resolution is 1.2 line-pairs/mm, contrast sensitivity not worse 1% and dynamic range defined as the ratio of maximum detectable X-ray signal to electronic noise level more than 2000 are received

  20. Bismuth alloying properties in GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, PO Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Lu, Pengfei, E-mail: photon.bupt@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, PO Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Cao, Huawei; Cai, Ningning; Yu, Zhongyuan [State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, PO Box 72, Beijing 100876 (China); Gao, Tao [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Wang, Shumin [State Key Laboratory of Functional Materials for Informatics, Shanghai Institute of Microsystem and Information Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Photonics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    First-principles calculations have been performed to investigate the structural, electronic and optical properties of bismuth alloying in GaAs nanowires. A typical model of Ga{sub 31}As{sub 31} nanowires is introduced for its reasonable band gap. The band gap of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} shrinks clearly with the increasing Bi concentration and the band edge shifts when spin–orbit coupling (SOC) is considered. The insertion of Bi atom leads to hybridization of Ga/As/Bi p states which contributes a lot around Fermi level. Scissor effect is involved. The optical properties are presented, including dielectric function, optical absorption spectra and reflectivity, which are also varied with the increasing of Bi concentrations. - Graphical abstract: Top view of Bi-doped GaAs nanowires. Ga, As, and Bi atoms are denoted with grey, purple and red balls, respectively. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A typical model of Ga{sub 31}As{sub 31} nanowires is introduced for its reasonable band gap. • The band gap of GaAs{sub 1−x}Bi{sub x} shrinks clearly with the increasing Bi concentration. • The band edge shifts when spin–orbit coupling (SOC) is considered. • The insertion of Bi atom leads to hybridization of Ga/As/Bi p states.

  1. SXPS study of model GaAs(100)/electrolyte interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Mikhail V. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Mankel, Eric; Mayer, Thomas; Jaegermann, Wolfram [Institute of Material Sciences, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    Model GaAs(100)/electrolyte interfaces are prepared in vacuum by co-adsorption of Cl{sub 2} and 2-propanol molecules at LN{sub 2} temperature. On adsorption of Cl{sub 2} molecules gallium chlorides, elemental arsenic and arsenic chlorides are formed. Co-adsorption of 2-propanol causes formation of additional GaCl{sub 3} and AsCl, as well as soluble/volatile As-based complexes, which are released from the surface depleting the sur- face by arsenic. Comparison of the As 3d and Ga 3d spectra obtained after heating the model interface to room temperature with the corresponding spectra obtained after emersion of the GaAs(100) surface from HCl/2-propanol solution allows to conclude that in HCl solution Cl{sup -} ions attack gallium sites and H{sup +} ions mostly attack arsenic sites. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Periodic nanostructures fabricated on GaAs surface by UV pulsed laser interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Huo, Dayun; Guo, Xiaoxiang; Rong, Chen; Shi, Zhenwu, E-mail: zwshi@suda.edu.cn; Peng, Changsi, E-mail: changsipeng@suda.edu.cn

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Periodic nanostructures were fabricated on GaAs wafers by four-beam laser interference patterning which have potential applications in many fields. • Significant different results were obtained on epi-ready and homo-epitaxial GaAs substrate surfaces. • Two-pulse patterning was carried out on homo-epitaxial GaAs substrate, a noticeable morphology transformation induced by the second pulse was observed. • Temperature distribution on sample surface as a function of time and position was calculated by solving the heat diffusion equations. The calculation agrees well with the experiment results. - Abstract: In this paper, periodic nanostructures were fabricated on GaAs wafers by four-beam UV pulsed laser interference patterning. Significant different results were observed on epi-ready and homo-epitaxial GaAs substrate surfaces, which suggests GaAs oxide layer has an important effect on pulsed laser irradiation process. In the case of two-pulse patterning, a noticeable morphology transformation induced by the second pulse was observed on homo-epitaxial GaAs substrate. Based on photo-thermal mode, temperature distribution on sample surface as a function of time and position was calculated by solving the heat diffusion equations.

  3. Synthesis of GaAs quantum dots on Si-layers on AlGaAs films grown on GaAs(100) substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendez-Garcia, V. H.; Zamora-Peredo, L.; Saucedo-Zeni, N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work we report a novel method for obtaining GaAs quantum dots by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on an AlGaAs underlying film. We propose to use a Si monolayer (ML) grown on AlGaAs, in order to induce a 3D nucleation during the GaAs overgrowth. The samples were prepared in a Riber 32P MBE system employing undoped Si-GaAs(100) substrates. First, a 500 nm thick layer of Al x Ga 1-x As was grown with a nominal concentration x=0.35. Several samples were grown in order to analyze the effects of changing the Si interlayer thickness, and the amount of GaAs overgrowth, on the final structures. Previous to the Si-exposure, the AlGaAs presented a (1x3) surface reconstruction which gradually turned to a (3x1) structure when the Si-thickness was 1 ML, as observed in the reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns. When the GaAs overgrowth started on this surface, transmission RHEED spots appeared and showed a considerable increase in intensity until reaching a maximum. This behavior is typical from a 3D island growth. If the GaAs overgrowth continues, the initial streaky RHEED patterns recovered indicating a 2D-growth. Thus, we prepared a sample stopping the GaAs overgrowth at the time when the diffraction 3D spot reached the maximum intensity, equivalent to 2ML of GaAs. The sample surface was analyzed in air by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Islands of 1.5 nm-height and 20x20 nm of base were clearly observed, these dimensions are suitable for applications in quantum dots. (Authors)

  4. Strain in GaAs / InAs core-shell nanowire heterostructures grown on GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermanns, Andreas; Davydok, Anton; Pietsch, Ullrich [Universitaet Siegen, Festkoerperphysik (Germany); Rieger, Torsten; Lepsa, Mihail Ion [Peter Gruenberg Institut 9, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany); JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The growth of semiconductor nanowires (NWs) has attracted significant interest in recent years due to the possible fabrication of novel semiconductor devices for future electronic and opto-electronic applications. Compared to planar heterostructures, the nanowire approach offers an advantage regarding the possibility to form heterostructures between highly lattice mismatched systems, because the free surface of the nanowires allows to relieve the strain more efficiently. One particular way to form heterostructures in the NW geometry, is the fabrication of core-shell devices, in which a NW core is surrounded by a shell of different material. The understanding of the mutual strain between core and shell, as well as the relaxation behavior of the system are crucial for the fabrication of functional devices. In this contribution we report on first X-ray diffraction measurements of GaAs-core/InAs-shell nanowires grown on GaAs(111) by molecular beam epitaxy. Using symmetric- and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction, the relaxation state of the InAs shell as well as the strain in the GaAs core are measured as function of the InAs shell thickness, showing a gradual relaxation behavior of the shell.

  5. Arsenic ambient conditions preventing surface degradation of GaAs during capless annealing at high temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, C. H.; Kondo, K.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1987-01-01

    Changes in surface morphology and composition caused by capless annealing of GaAs were studied as a function of annealing temperature, T(GaAs), and the ambient arsenic pressure controlled by the temperature, T(As), of an arsenic source in the annealing ampul. It was established that any degradation of the GaAs surface morphology could be completely prevented, providing that T(As) was more than about 0.315T(GaAs) + 227 C. This empirical relationship is valid up to the melting point temperature of GaAs (1238 C), and it may be useful in some device-processing steps.

  6. Growth Interruption Effect on the Fabrication of GaAs Concentric Multiple Rings by Droplet Epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorov A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present the molecular beam epitaxy fabrication and optical properties of complex GaAs nanostructures by droplet epitaxy: concentric triple quantum rings. A significant difference was found between the volumes of the original droplets and the final GaAs structures. By means of atomic force microscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy, we found that a thin GaAs quantum well-like layer is developed all over the substrate during the growth interruption times, caused by the migration of Ga in a low As background.

  7. Lightweight, Light-Trapped, Thin GaAs Solar Cells for Spacecraft Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-05

    improve the efficiency of this type of cell. 2 The high efficiency and light weight of the cover glass supported GaAs solar cell can have a significant...is a 3-mil cover glass and 1-mil silicone adhesive on the front surface of the GaAs solar cell. Power Output 3000 400 -{ 2400 { N 300 S18200 W/m2...the ultra-thin, light-trapped GaAs solar ceill 3. Incorporate light trapping. 0 external quantum efficiency at 850 nm increased by 5.2% 4. Develop

  8. The electronic and optical properties of quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs: a first-principles study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyang; Li, Dechun; Zhao, Shengzhi; Li, Guiqiu; Yang, Kejian

    2014-01-01

    First-principles calculations based on density functional theory have been performed for the quaternary GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy lattice-matched to GaAs. Using the state-of-the-art computational method with the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE) hybrid functional, electronic, and optical properties were obtained, including band structures, density of states (DOSs), dielectric function, absorption coefficient, refractive index, energy loss function, and reflectivity. It is found that the lattice constant of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy with y/x =1.718 can match to GaAs. With the incorporation of N and Bi into GaAs, the band gap of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y becomes small and remains direct. The calculated optical properties indicate that GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y has higher optical efficiency as it has less energy loss than GaAs. In addition, it is also found that the electronic and optical properties of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y alloy can be further controlled by tuning the N and Bi compositions in this alloy. These results suggest promising applications of GaAs1-x-y N x Bi y quaternary alloys in optoelectronic devices.

  9. Influence of arsenic flow on the crystal structure of epitaxial GaAs grown at low temperatures on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiev, G. B.; Klimov, E. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Vasiliev, A. L.; Imamov, R. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics,” (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, S. S., E-mail: s-s-e-r-p@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation); Trunkin, I. N. [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute” (Russian Federation); Maltsev, P. P. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Ultra High Frequency Semiconductor Electronics (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    The influence of arsenic flow in a growth chamber on the crystal structure of GaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at a temperature of 240°C on GaAs (100) and (111)A substrates has been investigated. The flow ratio γ of arsenic As4 and gallium was varied in the range from 16 to 50. GaAs films were either undoped, or homogeneously doped with silicon, or contained three equidistantly spaced silicon δ-layers. The structural quality of the annealed samples has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy. It is established for the first time that silicon δ-layers in “low-temperature” GaAs serve as formation centers of arsenic precipitates. Their average size, concentration, and spatial distribution are estimated. The dependence of the film structural quality on γ is analyzed. Regions 100–150 nm in size have been revealed in some samples and identified (by X-ray microanalysis) as pores. It is found that, in the entire range of γ under consideration, GaAs films on (111)A substrates have a poorer structural quality and become polycrystalline beginning with a thickness of 150–200 nm.

  10. Force sensing based on coherent quantum noise cancellation in a hybrid optomechanical cavity with squeezed-vacuum injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motazedifard, Ali; Bemani, F; Naderi, M H; Roknizadeh, R; Vitali, D

    2016-01-01

    We propose and analyse a feasible experimental scheme for a quantum force sensor based on the elimination of backaction noise through coherent quantum noise cancellation (CQNC) in a hybrid atom-cavity optomechanical setup assisted with squeezed vacuum injection. The force detector, which allows for a continuous, broadband detection of weak forces well below the standard quantum limit (SQL), is formed by a single optical cavity simultaneously coupled to a mechanical oscillator and to an ensemble of ultracold atoms. The latter acts as a negative-mass oscillator so that atomic noise exactly cancels the backaction noise from the mechanical oscillator due to destructive quantum interference. Squeezed vacuum injection enforces this cancellation and allows sub-SQL sensitivity to be reached in a very wide frequency band, and at much lower input laser powers. (paper)

  11. Force sensing based on coherent quantum noise cancellation in a hybrid optomechanical cavity with squeezed-vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motazedifard, Ali; Bemani, F.; Naderi, M. H.; Roknizadeh, R.; Vitali, D.

    2016-07-01

    We propose and analyse a feasible experimental scheme for a quantum force sensor based on the elimination of backaction noise through coherent quantum noise cancellation (CQNC) in a hybrid atom-cavity optomechanical setup assisted with squeezed vacuum injection. The force detector, which allows for a continuous, broadband detection of weak forces well below the standard quantum limit (SQL), is formed by a single optical cavity simultaneously coupled to a mechanical oscillator and to an ensemble of ultracold atoms. The latter acts as a negative-mass oscillator so that atomic noise exactly cancels the backaction noise from the mechanical oscillator due to destructive quantum interference. Squeezed vacuum injection enforces this cancellation and allows sub-SQL sensitivity to be reached in a very wide frequency band, and at much lower input laser powers.

  12. Opto-mechanical design of ShaneAO: the adaptive optics system for the 3-meter Shane Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, C.; Cabak, J.; Gavel, D.; Kupke, R.; Dillon, D.; Gates, E.; Deich, W.; Ward, J.; Cowley, D.; Pfister, T.; Saylor, M.

    2014-07-01

    A Cassegrain mounted adaptive optics instrument presents unique challenges for opto-mechanical design. The flexure and temperature tolerances for stability are tighter than those of seeing limited instruments. This criteria requires particular attention to material properties and mounting techniques. This paper addresses the mechanical designs developed to meet the optical functional requirements. One of the key considerations was to have gravitational deformations, which vary with telescope orientation, stay within the optical error budget, or ensure that we can compensate with a steering mirror by maintaining predictable elastic behavior. Here we look at several cases where deformation is predicted with finite element analysis and Hertzian deformation analysis and also tested. Techniques used to address thermal deformation compensation without the use of low CTE materials will also be discussed.

  13. Observation of the anomalous Hall effect in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M Idrish

    2007-01-01

    Devices for the direct detection of the spin current, based on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), are fabricated on n-type GaAs bulk semiconductor materials. The AHE is observed in the device when the photoinduced spin-polarized electrons are injected into it, and it is found that the effect depends on the applied electric field. The origin of the field-dependent observed Hall effect is discussed based on the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) spin relaxation mechanism. The spin-dependent Hall effect is also found to be enhanced with increasing doping concentration. The present experimental results might have potential applications in semiconductor spintronic devices since the effect is closely related to the spin Hall effect

  14. Observation of the anomalous Hall effect in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, School of Science, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong - 4331 (Bangladesh)

    2007-03-21

    Devices for the direct detection of the spin current, based on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), are fabricated on n-type GaAs bulk semiconductor materials. The AHE is observed in the device when the photoinduced spin-polarized electrons are injected into it, and it is found that the effect depends on the applied electric field. The origin of the field-dependent observed Hall effect is discussed based on the D'yakonov-Perel' (DP) spin relaxation mechanism. The spin-dependent Hall effect is also found to be enhanced with increasing doping concentration. The present experimental results might have potential applications in semiconductor spintronic devices since the effect is closely related to the spin Hall effect.

  15. Improvements of MCT MBE Growth on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, J.; Wenisch, J.; Breiter, R.; Eich, D.; Figgemeier, H.; Fries, P.; Lutz, H.; Wollrab, R.

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, continuous progress has been published in the development of HgCdTe (MCT) infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates. In this publication, further characterization of the state-of-the art 1280 × 1024 pixel, 15- μm pitch detector fabricated from this material in both the mid-wavelength (MWIR) and long-wavelength (LWIR) IR region will be presented. For MWIR FPAs, the percentage of defective pixel remains below 0.5% up to an operating temperature ( T OP) of around 100 K. For the LWIR FPA, an operability of 99.25% was achieved for a T OP of 76 K. Additionally, the beneficial effect of the inclusion of MCT layers with a graded composition region was investigated and demonstrated on current-voltage ( IV) characteristics on test diodes in a MWIR FPA.

  16. Self-healing in fractured GaAs nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Lu Chunsheng; Wang Qi; Xiao Pan; Ke Fujiu; Bai Yilong; Shen Yaogen; Wang Yanbo; Chen Bin; Liao Xiaozhou; Gao Huajian

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate a spontaneous self-healing process in fractured GaAs nanowires with a zinc blende structure. The results show that such self-healing can indeed occur via rebonding of Ga and As atoms across the fracture surfaces, but it can be strongly influenced by several factors, including wire size, number of healing cycles, temperature, fracture morphology, oriented attachment and atomic diffusion. For example, it is found that the self-healing capacity is reduced by 46% as the lateral dimension of the wire increases from 2.3 to 9.2 nm, and by 64% after 24 repeated cycles of fracture and healing. Other factors influencing the self-healing behavior are also discussed.

  17. Towards quantum dots on GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moesl, Johannes; Ludwig, Stefan [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Center for NanoScience, LMU Munich, Geschwister-Scholl- Platz 1, D-80539 Muenchen (Germany); Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna [TU Munich, Walter Schottky Institut, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching (Germany); EPF, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    Semiconductor nanowires is an emergent research topic in the field of nanoelectronics, as they form an excellent building block for 0D and 1D applications and allow novel architectures and material combinations. We study electronic transport properties of catalyst-free MBE grown GaAs nanowires, p-doped at a number of different doping levels. Detailed characterization of the wires including electronic contacts fabricated by e-beam lithography and based on palladium or annealed zinc-silver alloys are discussed. Contact properties and a pronounced hysteresis of the current through the nanowires, as a backgate-voltage is swept, are explained within tentative models. In addition we present first transport measurements on quantum dots, which are defined electrostatically as well as by etched constrictions.

  18. The apparent effect of sample surface damage on the dielectric parameters of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)], E-mail: Japie.Engelbrecht@nmmu.ac.za; Hashe, N.G. [Physics Department, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Hillie, K.T. [CSIR-NML Laboratory, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Claassens, C.H. [Physics Department, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein 9300 (South Africa)

    2007-12-15

    The dielectric and optical parameters determined by infrared reflectance spectroscopy and computer simulation of a set of GaAs substrates of various surface topologies are reported. The influence of surface damage on the parameters is noted.

  19. Sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions fabricated using molecular layer epitaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Ohno and Yutaka Oyama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we review the fundamental properties and applications of sidewall GaAs tunnel junctions. Heavily impurity-doped GaAs epitaxial layers were prepared using molecular layer epitaxy (MLE, in which intermittent injections of precursors in ultrahigh vacuum were applied, and sidewall tunnel junctions were fabricated using a combination of device mesa wet etching of the GaAs MLE layer and low-temperature area-selective regrowth. The fabricated tunnel junctions on the GaAs sidewall with normal mesa orientation showed a record peak current density of 35 000 A cm-2. They can potentially be used as terahertz devices such as a tunnel injection transit time effect diode or an ideal static induction transistor.

  20. Development of GaAs Detectors for Physics at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    Chu, Zhonghua; Krais, R; Rente, C; Syben, O; Tenbusch, F; Toporowsky, M; Xiao, Wenjiang; Cavallini, A; Fiori, F; Edwards, M; Geppert, R; Goppert, R; Haberla, C; Hornung, M F; Irsigler, R; Rogalla, M; Beaumont, S; Raine, C; Skillicorn, I; Margelevicius, J; Meshkinis, S; Smetana, S; Jones, B; Santana, J; Sloan, T; Zdansky, K; Alexiev, D; Donnelly, I J; Canali, C; Chiossi, C; Nava, F; Pavan, P; Kubasta, J; Tomiak, Z; Tchmil, V; Tchountonov, A; Tsioupa, I; Dogru, M; Gray, R; Hou, Yuqian; Manolopoulos, S; Walsh, S; Aizenshtadt, G; Budnitsky, D L; Gossen, A; Khludkov, S; Koretskaya, O B; Okaevitch, L; Potapov, A; Stepanov, V E; Tolbanov, O; Tyagev, A; Matulionis, A; Pozela, J; Kavaliauskiene, G; Kazukauskas, V; Kiliulis, R; Rinkevicius, V; Slenys, S; Storasta, J V

    2002-01-01

    % RD-8 Development of GaAs Detectors for Physics at the LHC \\\\ \\\\The aims of the collaboration are to investigate the available material options, performance and limitations of simple pad, pixel and microstrip GaAs detectors for minimum ionising particles with radiation hardness and speed which are competitive with silicon detectors. This new technology was originally developed within our university laboratories but now benefits from increasing industrial interest and collaboration in detector fabrication. Initial steps have also been taken towards the fabrication of GaAs preamplifiers to match the detectors in radiation hardness. The programme of work aims to construct a demonstration detector module for an LHC forward tracker based on GaAs.

  1. The apparent effect of sample surface damage on the dielectric parameters of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelbrecht, J.A.A.; Hashe, N.G.; Hillie, K.T.; Claassens, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    The dielectric and optical parameters determined by infrared reflectance spectroscopy and computer simulation of a set of GaAs substrates of various surface topologies are reported. The influence of surface damage on the parameters is noted

  2. Two-Photon Pumped Synchronously Mode-Locked Bulk GaAs Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, W. L.; Vaucher, A. M.; Ling, J. D.; Lee, C. H.

    1982-04-01

    Pulses 7 picoseconds or less in duration have been generated from a bulk GaAs crystal by a synchronous mode-locking technique. The GaAs crystal was optically pumped by two-photon absorption of the emission from a mode-locked Nd:glass laser. Two-photon absorption as the means of excitation increases the volume of the gain medium by increasing the pene-tration depth of the pump intensity, enabling generation of intra-cavity pulses with peak power in the megawatt range. Tuning of the wavelength of the GaAs emission is achieved by varying the temperature. A tuning range covering 840 nm to 885 nm has been observed over a temperature range from 97°K to 260°K. The intensity of the GaAs emission has also been observed to decrease as the temperature of the crystal is increased.

  3. Growth and characteristics of p-type doped GaAs nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bang; Yan, Xin; Zhang, Xia; Ren, Xiaomin

    2018-05-01

    The growth of p-type GaAs nanowires (NWs) on GaAs (111) B substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) has been systematically investigated as a function of diethyl zinc (DEZn) flow. The growth rate of GaAs NWs was slightly improved by Zn-doping and kink is observed under high DEZn flow. In addition, the I–V curves of GaAs NWs has been measured and the p-type dope concentration under the II/III ratio of 0.013 and 0.038 approximated to 1019–1020 cm‑3. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61376019, 61504010, 61774021) and the Fund of State Key Laboratory of Information Photonics and Optical Communications (Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications), China (Nos. IPOC2017ZT02, IPOC2017ZZ01).

  4. CMOS compatible route for GaAs based large scale flexible and transparent electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Droopad, Ravi; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Flexible electronics using gallium arsenide (GaAs) for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. Here we describe a state-of-the-art CMOS compatible batch fabrication process of transforming traditional electronic circuitry into large-area flexible, semitransparent platform. We show a simple release process for peeling off 200 nm of GaAs from 200 nm GaAs/300 nm AlAs stack on GaAs substrate using diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF). This process enables releasing a single top layer compared to peeling off all layers with small sizes at the same time. This is done utilizing a network of release holes which contributes to the better transparency (45 % at 724 nm wavelength) observed.

  5. Plasma treatment of porous GaAs surface formed by electrochemical etching method: Characterization and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2008-12-01

    Porous GaAs samples were formed by electrochemical anodic etching of Zn doped p-type GaAs (100) wafers at different etching parameters (time, mode of applied voltage or current and electrolyte). The effect of etching parameters and plasma surface treatment on the optical properties of the prepared sample has been investigated by using room temperature photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopic measurements in the range (400-800 nm). The surface morphological changes were studied by using atomic force microscope. It has been found that etching parameters can be controlled to produce a considerably low optical reflectivity porous GaAs layer, attractive for use in solar cells. In addition, it has been observed that the deposition of plasma polymerized HMDSO thin film on porous GaAs surface can be utilized to produce a surface with novel optical properties interesting for solar cells and optoelectronic devices. (author)

  6. Initial test of an rf gun with a GaAs cathode installed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aulenbacher, K.; Bossart, R.; Braun, H.

    1996-09-01

    The operation of an rf gun with a GaAs crystal installed as the cathode has been tested in anticipation of eventually producing a polarized electron beam for a future e + /e - collider using an rf photoinjector

  7. High microwave performance ion-implanted GaAs MESFETs on InP substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, M.; Kato, K.

    1990-01-01

    Ion implantation was employed, for the first time, in fabricating GaAs MESFETs in undoped 2 μm thick GaAs epitaxial layers directly grown on InP substrates by low-pressure MOVPE. The Si-ion-implanted GaAs layer on InP substrates showed excellent electrical characteristics: a mobility of 4300 cm 2 /Vs with a carrier density of 2 x 10 17 cm -3 at room temperature. The MESFET (0.8 μm gate length) exhibited a current-gain cutoff frequency of 25 GHz and a maximum frequency of oscillation of 53 GHz, the highest values yet reported to GaAs MESFETs on InP substrates. These results demonstrate the high potential of ion-implanted MESFETs as electronic devices for high-speed InP-based OEICs. (author)

  8. Accelerated life testing and temperature dependence of device characteristics in GaAs CHFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, M.; Leon, R.; Vu, D. T.; Okuno, J.; Johnson, A. S.

    2002-01-01

    Accelerated life testing of GaAs complementary heterojunction field effect transistors (CHFET) was carried out. Temperature dependence of single and synchronous rectifier CHFET device characteristics were also obtained.

  9. CMOS compatible route for GaAs based large scale flexible and transparent electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Nour, Maha A.

    2014-08-01

    Flexible electronics using gallium arsenide (GaAs) for nano-electronics with high electron mobility and optoelectronics with direct band gap are attractive for many applications. Here we describe a state-of-the-art CMOS compatible batch fabrication process of transforming traditional electronic circuitry into large-area flexible, semitransparent platform. We show a simple release process for peeling off 200 nm of GaAs from 200 nm GaAs/300 nm AlAs stack on GaAs substrate using diluted hydrofluoric acid (HF). This process enables releasing a single top layer compared to peeling off all layers with small sizes at the same time. This is done utilizing a network of release holes which contributes to the better transparency (45 % at 724 nm wavelength) observed.

  10. High Purity GaAs Far IR Photoconductor With Enhanced Quantum Efficieny, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal introduces an innovative concept aimed to significantly enhance the quantum efficiency of a far-infrared GaAs photoconductor and achieve sensitivity...

  11. Photovoltaic X-ray detectors based on epitaxial GaAs structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achmadullin, R.A. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Artemov, V.V. [Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, 59 Leninski pr., Moscow B-333, 117333 (Russian Federation); Dvoryankin, V.F. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation)]. E-mail: vfd217@ire216.msk.su; Dvoryankina, G.G. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Dikaev, Yu.M. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ermakov, M.G. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Ermakova, O.N. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Chmil, V.B. [Scientific State Center, High Energy Physics Institute, Protvino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Holodenko, A.G. [Scientific State Center, High Energy Physics Institute, Protvino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Kudryashov, A.A.; Krikunov, A.I.; Petrov, A.G.; Telegin, A.A. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, 1 Ac. Vvedenski square, Fryazino 141190, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Vorobiev, A.P. [Scientific State Center, High Energy Physics Institute, Protvino, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2005-12-01

    A new type of the photovoltaic X-ray detector based on epitaxial p{sup +}-n-n'-n{sup +} GaAs structures which provides a high efficiency of charge collection in the non-bias operation mode at room temperature is proposed. The GaAs epitaxial structures were grown by vapor-phase epitaxy on heavily doped n{sup +}-GaAs(1 0 0) substrates. The absorption efficiency of GaAs X-ray detector is discussed. I-V and C-V characteristics of the photovoltaic X-ray detectors are analyzed. The built-in electric field profiles in the depletion region of epitaxial structures are measured by the EBIC method. Charge collection efficiency to {alpha}-particles and {gamma}-radiation are measured. The application of X-ray detectors is discussed.

  12. RF-MMW Dipole Antenna Arrays From Laser Illuminated GaAs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Umphenour, D

    1998-01-01

    High resistivity photoconductive Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) can be used as elemental Hertzian dipole antenna arrays in which the time varying dipole current is produced by temporally modulating a laser (0.63um...

  13. Growth and characterization of molecular beam epitaxial GaAs layers on porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T. L.; Liu, J. K.; Sadwick, L.; Wang, K. L.; Kao, Y. C.

    1987-01-01

    GaAs layers have been grown on porous silicon (PS) substrates with good crystallinity by molecular beam epitaxy. In spite of the surface irregularity of PS substrates, no surface morphology deterioration was observed on epitaxial GaAs overlayers. A 10-percent Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy minimum channeling yield for GaAs-on-PS layers as compared to 16 percent for GaAs-on-Si layers grown under the same condition indicates a possible improvement of crystallinity when GaAs is grown on PS. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the dominant defects in the GaAs-on-PS layers are microtwins and stacking faults, which originate from the GaAs/PS interface. GaAs is found to penetrate into the PS layers. n-type GaAs/p-type PS heterojunction diodes were fabricated with good rectifying characteristics.

  14. Dynamical properties of tertiarybutylarsine on GaAs(0 0 1) surface

    CERN Document Server

    Ozeki, M; Tanaka, Y

    2002-01-01

    The dynamical properties of tertiarybutylarsine (TBA) was studied on GaAs(0 0 1) surface using a supersonic molecular beam. The temperature and incident energy dependence of the reflected beam revealed a reaction channel of TBA on GaAs surface with a large decrease in the activation energy from 2.7 to 1.8 eV as the incident energy increases from 0.04 to 2.5 eV.

  15. Basic mechanisms study for MIS solar cell structures on GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonash, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    The solar cell structure examined is the MIS configuration on (n) GaAs. The metal room temperature oxide/(n) GaAs materials system was studied. Metals with electronegativities varying from 2.4 (Au) to 1.5 (Al) were used as the upper electrode. The thinnest metallization that did not interfere with the measurement techniques (by introducing essentially transmission line series resistance problems across a device) was used. Photovoltaic response was not optimized.

  16. Microhardness of epitaxial layers of GaAs doped with rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulish, U.M.; Gamidov, Z.S.; Kuznetsova, I.Yu.; Petkeeva, L.N.; Borlikova, G.V.

    1989-01-01

    Results of the study of microhardness of GaAS layer doped by certain rare earths - Gd, Tb, Dy - are presented. The assumption is made that the higher is the value of the first potential of rare earth impurity ionization (i.e. the higher is the filling of 4f-shell), the lower is the effect of the element on electric and mechanical properties of GaAs epitaxial layers

  17. GaAs thin film solar cells. Final report; Duennschicht-Solarzellen aus Galliumarsenid; Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bett, A.; Bronner, W.; Cardona, S.; Ehrhardt, A.; Habermann, G.; Habich, A.; Lanyi, P.; Lutz, F.; Nguyen, T.; Schetter, C.; Sulima, O.; Welter, H.; Yavas, O.

    1992-11-01

    This R and D project focused on the development of materials and technologies for the production of GaAs solar cells on GaAs and other substrates. Three subjects were gone into on particular: Material preparation (epitaxy), solar cell technology, characterisation of materials and processes. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Forschungsvorhaben hatte die Material- und Technologieentwickung fuer die Herstellung von GaAs-Solarzellen auf Eigen- und Fremdsubstrat zum Gegenstand. Drei Hauptaufgabenbereiche waren: Materialpraeparation (Epitaxie), Solarzellentechnologie, sowie Material- und Prozesscharakterisierung. (orig.)

  18. Dielectric micro-resonator-based opto-mechanical systems for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Amir Roushdy

    In recent years, whispering gallery mode (WGM), or morphology dependent optical resonances (MDR) of dielectric micro-resonators have attracted interest with proposed applications in a wide range of areas due to the high optical quality factors, Q, they can exhibit (reaching ~ 10. 9 for silica spheres). Micro-resonator WGMs have been used in applications that include those in spectroscopy, micro-cavity laser technology, optical communications (switching, filtering and multiplexing), sensors technologies and even chemical and biological sensing. The WGM of these dielectric micro-resonators are highly sensitive to morphological changes (such as the size, shape, or refractive index) of the resonance cavity and hence, can be tuned by causing a minute change in the physical condition of the surrounding. In this dissertation, we have been creating opto-mechanical systems, which at their most basic, are extraordinarily sensitive sensors. One of the ultimate goals of this dissertation is to develop sensors capable of detecting the extremely small electric field changes. To improve the performance of the sensors, we couple a polymer cantilever beam to a dielectric micro-resonator. The eventual use of such ultra sensitive electric filed sensors could include neural-machine interfaces for advanced prosthetics devices. The work presented here includes a basic analysis and experimental investigations of the electric field sensitivity and range of micro-resonators of several different materials and geometries followed by the electric field sensor design, testing, and characterization. Also, the effects of angular velocity on the WGM shifts of spherical micro-resonators are also investigated. The elastic deformation that is induced on a spinning resonator due to the centrifugal force may lead to a sufficient shift in the optical resonances and therefore interfering with its desirable operational sensor design. Furthermore, this principle could be used for the development of

  19. Structural and optical properties of vapor-etched porous GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smida, A.; Laatar, F. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Hassen, M., E-mail: mhdhassen@yahoo.fr [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology of Sousse, City Taffala (Ibn Khaldun), 4003 Sousse (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Photovoltaic Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Energy, Tourist Route Soliman, BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2016-08-15

    This paper consists to present first results concerning the structure of porous GaAs layer (por-GaAs-L) prepared by using HF/HNO{sub 3} as acidic solution in vapor etching (VE) method. In order to clarify this method, we detail here its principle and explain how por-GaAs-Ls are formed, taking into account the influencing of the exposure time of the GaAs substrate to the acid vapor. The etched GaAs layers have been investigated by UV–visible and PL analysis. One porous layer was performed to be characterised by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), FTIR spectroscopy, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The porous structure was constituted by a nanocrystals with an average size about 6 nm. These nanocrystals were calculated from XRD peak using Scherrer's formula, AFM imaging, and also by using effective mass approximation model from effective band gap. - Highlights: • Porous GaAs layer was prepared by using Vapor etching (VE) method. • Effect of VE duration on the microstructural optical properties of the GaAs substrate • Porous structure of GaAs layer was demonstrated by using SEM and AFM microscopy.

  20. Structural and optical properties of vapor-etched porous GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smida, A.; Laatar, F.; Hassen, M.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper consists to present first results concerning the structure of porous GaAs layer (por-GaAs-L) prepared by using HF/HNO 3 as acidic solution in vapor etching (VE) method. In order to clarify this method, we detail here its principle and explain how por-GaAs-Ls are formed, taking into account the influencing of the exposure time of the GaAs substrate to the acid vapor. The etched GaAs layers have been investigated by UV–visible and PL analysis. One porous layer was performed to be characterised by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), FTIR spectroscopy, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). The porous structure was constituted by a nanocrystals with an average size about 6 nm. These nanocrystals were calculated from XRD peak using Scherrer's formula, AFM imaging, and also by using effective mass approximation model from effective band gap. - Highlights: • Porous GaAs layer was prepared by using Vapor etching (VE) method. • Effect of VE duration on the microstructural optical properties of the GaAs substrate • Porous structure of GaAs layer was demonstrated by using SEM and AFM microscopy.

  1. Singularities of current-voltage characteristics of GaAs films fabricated by pulsed ions ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabyshev, A.V.; Konusov, F.V.; Lozhnikov, S.N.; Remnev, G.E.; Saltymakov, M.S.

    2009-01-01

    A singularities and advantages of the optical, photoelectric and electrical properties of GaAs in comparison with other available materials for electronics, for example, silicon allow to manufacture on it base the devices having an advanced characteristics. The GaAs for electronics, obtained from the dense ablation plasma, possess some preferences as compared to material manufactured by traditional methods of vacuum deposition. The electrical characteristics of GaAs produced by chemical deposition were extensively studied. Purpose of this work is investigation the current-voltage characteristics of thin films of GaAs, deposited on polycrystalline corundum (polycor) from plasma forming the power ions bunch and determination of the thermal vacuum annealing effect on photoelectric and electrical properties of films. Peculiarities of optical, photoelectric and current-voltage characteristics of films obtained by ions ablation are determined by deposition conditions and resistance of initial target GaAs. The transitions between the states with low- and high conduction were revealed directly after deposition in films having the optical properties similar to amorphous materials and/or after annealing in films with properties similar to initial target GaAs. Behavior of current-voltage characteristics at vacuum annealing correlates with Schottky barrier height and photosensitivity and is accompanies of the transport mechanism change. The stable properties of films are formed at its dark conduction 10 -10 -10 -8 s and after annealing at T an =600-700 K. (authors)

  2. Photovoltaic Properties of p-Doped GaAs Nanowire Arrays Grown on n-Type GaAs(111)B Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    We report on the molecular beam epitaxy growth of Au-assisted GaAs p-type-doped NW arrays on the n-type GaAs(111)B substrate and their photovoltaic properties. The samples are grown at different substrate temperature within the range from 520 to 580 °C. It is shown that the dependence of conversion efficiency on the substrate temperature has a maximum at the substrate temperature of 550 °C. For the best sample, the conversion efficiency of 1.65% and the fill factor of 25% are obtained. PMID:20672038

  3. Structural Evolution During Formation and Filling of Self-patterned Nanoholes on GaAs (100 Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanohole formation on an AlAs/GaAs superlattice gives insight to both the “drilling” effect of Ga droplets on AlAs as compared to GaAs and the hole-filling process. The shape and depth of the nanoholes formed on GaAs (100 substrates has been studied by the cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The Ga droplets “drill” through the AlAs layer at a much slower rate than through GaAs due to differences in activation energy. Refill of the nanohole results in elongated GaAs mounds along the [01−1] direction. As a result of capillarity-induced diffusion, GaAs favors growth inside the nanoholes, which provides the possibility to fabricate GaAs and AlAs nanostructures.

  4. An Optomechanical Elevator: Transport of a Bloch Oscillating Bose–Einstein Condensate up and down an Optical Lattice by Cavity Sideband Amplification and Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Prasanna Venkatesh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give a new description, in terms of optomechanics, of previous work on the problem of an atomic Bose–Einstein condensate interacting with the optical lattice inside a laser-pumped optical cavity and subject to a bias force, such as gravity. An atomic wave packet in a tilted lattice undergoes Bloch oscillations; in a high-finesse optical cavity the backaction of the atoms on the light leads to a time-dependent modulation of the intracavity lattice depth at the Bloch frequency which can in turn transport the atoms up or down the lattice. In the optomechanical picture, the transport dynamics can be interpreted as a manifestation of dynamical backaction-induced sideband damping/amplification of the Bloch oscillator. Depending on the sign of the pump-cavity detuning, atoms are transported either with or against the bias force accompanied by an up- or down-conversion of the frequency of the pump laser light. We also evaluate the prospects for using the optomechanical Bloch oscillator to make continuous measurements of forces by reading out the Bloch frequency. In this context, we establish the significant result that the optical spring effect is absent and the Bloch frequency is not modified by the backaction.

  5. ITER TASK T252 (1995):Gamma radiation testing of a GaAs operational amplifier for instrument applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiemstra, D.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this 1995 ITER task was : to build an improved operational amplifier using GaAs MESFET technology, to build a reference voltage subcircuit using GaAs MESFET technology and to investigate the potential of GaAs HBT's to improve the noise performance of the GaAs MESFET operational amplifier. This work addresses the need for instrumentation-grade components to read sensors in an experimental fusion reactor, where the anticipated total dose for a useful service life is 3Grad(GaAs). It is an extension of our 1994 work. 3 tabs., 6 figs

  6. Comparative research on the transmission-mode GaAs photocathodes of exponential-doping structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Qian Yun-Sheng; Zhang Yi-Jun; Chang Ben-Kang

    2012-01-01

    Early research has shown that the varied doping structures of the active layer of GaAs photocathodes have been proven to have a higher quantum efficiency than uniform doping structures. On the basis of our early research on the surface photovoltage of GaAs photocathodes, and comparative research before and after activation of reflection-mode GaAs photocathodes, we further the comparative research on transmission-mode GaAs photocathodes. An exponential doping structure is the typical varied doping structure that can form a uniform electric field in the active layer. By solving the one-dimensional diffusion equation for no equilibrium minority carriers of transmission-mode GaAs photocathodes of the exponential doping structure, we can obtain the equations for the surface photovoltage (SPV) curve before activation and the spectral response curve (SRC) after activation. Through experiments and fitting calculations for the designed material, the body-material parameters can be well fitted by the SPV before activation, and proven by the fitting calculation for SRC after activation. Through the comparative research before and after activation, the average surface escape probability (SEP) can also be well fitted. This comparative research method can measure the body parameters and the value of SEP for the transmission-mode GaAs photocathode more exactly than the early method, which only measures the body parameters by SRC after activation. It can also help us to deeply study and exactly measure the parameters of the varied doping structures for transmission-mode GaAs photocathodes, and optimize the Cs-O activation technique in the future. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  7. High temperature GaAs X-ray detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lioliou, G.; Whitaker, M. D. C.; Barnett, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Two GaAs p+-i-n+ mesa X-ray photodiodes were characterized for their electrical and photon counting X-ray spectroscopic performance over the temperature range of 100 °C to -20 °C. The devices had 10 μm thick i layers with different diameters: 200 μm (D1) and 400 μm (D2). The electrical characterization included dark current and capacitance measurements at internal electric field strengths of up to 50 kV/cm. The determined properties of the two devices were compared with previously reported results that were made with a view to informing the future development of photon counting X-ray spectrometers for harsh environments, e.g., X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of planetary surfaces in high temperature environments. The best energy resolution obtained (Full Width at Half Maximum at 5.9 keV) decreased from 2.00 keV at 100 °C to 0.66 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D1, and from 2.71 keV at 100 °C to 0.71 keV at -20 °C for the spectrometer with D2. Dielectric noise was found to be the dominant source of noise in the spectra, apart from at high temperatures and long shaping times, where the main source of photopeak broadening was found to be the white parallel noise.

  8. GaAs integrated circuits and heterojunction devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlis, Colin

    1986-06-01

    The state of the art of GaAs technology in the U.S. as it applies to digital and analog integrated circuits is examined. In a market projection, it is noted that whereas analog ICs now largely dominate the market, in 1994 they will amount to only 39 percent vs. 57 percent for digital ICs. The military segment of the market will remain the largest (42 percent in 1994 vs. 70 percent today). ICs using depletion-mode-only FETs can be constructed in various forms, the closest to production being BFL or buffered FET logic. Schottky diode FET logic - a lower power approach - can reach higher complexities and strong efforts are being made in this direction. Enhancement type devices appear essential to reach LSI and VLSI complexity, but process control is still very difficult; strong efforts are under way, both in the U.S. and in Japan. Heterojunction devices appear very promising, although structures are fairly complex, and special fabrication techniques, such as molecular beam epitaxy and MOCVD, are necessary. High-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) devices show significant performance advantages over MESFETs at low temperatures. Initial results of heterojunction bipolar transistor devices show promise for high speed A/D converter applications.

  9. Semiconductor GaAs: electronic paramagnetic resonance new data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benchiguer, T.

    1994-04-01

    The topic of this study was to put to the fore, thanks to our electron spin resonance experiments, one charge transfer process, which was optically induced between the deep donor As + G a and the different acceptors, which were present in the material. We described these processes through a theoretical model, which we named charge transfer model. With this latter, we were able to trace a graph network, representing the As + G a concentration kinetics. Then we verified the compatibility of our model with one transport experiment. One experimental verification of our model were delivered, thanks to neutronic transmutation doping. The following stage was the study of defects, induced by thermal strains, to which the crystal was submitted during the cooling phase. At last we wanted to get round the non solved super hyperfine structure problem for GaAs by studying another III-V material for which she was resolved, namely gallium phosphide. (MML). 150 refs., 72 figs., 16 tabs., 3 annexes

  10. Mechanical response of wall-patterned GaAs surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bourhis, E.; Patriarche, G.

    2005-01-01

    Wall-patterned GaAs surfaces have been elaborated by photolithography and dry etching. Different surfaces were produced in order to change the aspect ratio of the walls formed at the substrate surface. The mechanical behaviour of individual walls was investigated by nanoindentation and the responses were compared to that of a standard bulk reference (flat surface). Deviation from the bulk response is detected in a load range of 1-25 mN depending on the aspect ratio of the walls. A central plastic zone criterion is proposed in view of transmission electron microscopy images of indented walls and allows the prediction of the response deviation of a given wall if its width is known. The mechanical response of the different types of walls is further investigated in terms of stiffness, total penetration of indenter and apparent hardness, and is scanned in relation to the proximity of a wall side. Overall results show that contact stiffness remains almost unaffected by aspect ratio, while penetration drastically increases because of the free sides of the wall as compared to a flat surface (bulk substrate). The application of substrate patterning for optoelectronic devices is discussed in the perspective of eliminating residual dislocations appearing in mismatched structures

  11. Point defects in GaAs and other semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrhart, P.; Karsten, K.; Pillukat, A.

    1993-01-01

    In order to understand the properties of intrinsic point defects and their interactions at high defect concentrations GaAs wafers were irradiated at 4.5 K with 3 MeV electrons up to a dose of 4 · 10 19 e - /cm 2 . The irradiated samples were investigated by X-ray Diffraction and optical absorption spectroscopy. The defect production increases linearly with irradiation dose and characteristic differences are observed for the two sublattices. The Ga-Frenkel pairs are strongly correlated and are characterized by much larger lattice relaxations (V rel = 2--3 atomic volumes) as compared to the As-Frenkel pairs (V rel ∼1 at. vol.). The dominating annealing stage around 300 K is attributed to the mobility of the Ga interstitial atoms whereas the As-interstitial atoms can recombine with their vacancies only around 500 K. These results are compared to those for InP, ZnSe and Ge. Implications for the understanding of the damage after ion irradiation and implantation are discussed

  12. Ab initio structural and vibrational properties of GaAs diamondoids and nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudar Ahmed Abdulsattar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide diamondoids structural and vibrational properties are investigated using density functional theory at the PBE/6-31(d level and basis including polarization functions. Variation of energy gap as these diamondoids increase in size is seen to follow confinement theory for diamondoids having nearly equiaxed dimensions. Density of energy states transforms from nearly single levels to band structure as we reach larger diamondoids. Bonds of surface hydrogen with As atoms are relatively localized and shorter than that bonded to Ga atoms. Ga-As bonds have a distribution range of values due to surface reconstruction and effect of bonding to hydrogen atoms. Experimental bulk Ga-As bond length (2.45 Å is within this distribution range. Tetrahedral and dihedral angles approach values of bulk as we go to higher diamondoids. Optical-phonon energy of larger diamondoids stabilizes at 0.037 eV (297 cm-1 compared to experimental 0.035 eV (285.2 cm-1. Ga-As force constant reaches 1.7 mDyne/Å which is comparable to Ga-Ge force constant (1.74 mDyne/Å. Hydrogen related vibrations are nearly constant and serve as a fingerprint of GaAs diamondoids while Ga-As vibrations vary with size of diamondoids.

  13. Modeling of altered layer formation during reactive ion etching of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutzke, A. [Max-Planck-Institute of Plasmaphysics, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Rai, A., E-mail: Abha.Rai@ipp.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institute of Plasmaphysics, EURATOM Association, D-17491 Greifswald (Germany); Schneider, R.; Angelin, E.J.; Hippler, R. [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str.6, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experimental result showing the preferential sputtering of GaAs (150 keV Ar{sup +} and thermal O on GaAs) during reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) has been reported. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model based on binary collisions (SDTrimSP) is presented to simulate RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is used to explain the reported experimental data and also the results by Grigonis and co-workers [1]. - Abstract: The binary collision based SDTrimSP model has been used to simulate the reactive ion beam etching (RIBE) of GaAs in the presence of energetic Ar ions and thermal O atoms. It includes the collisional effects, diffusive processes and chemical reactions taking place in the system. The model parameters are fitted using the experimental observations of Grigonis and co-workers [1] and validated with the experimental results obtained during the GaAs ion etching presented in this paper. A detailed analysis is presented to understand the effect of the diffusive processes and the role of O during RIBE of GaAs. It is shown how the presence of damage caused by the energetic Ar coupled with the presence of thermal O opens up chemical reaction channels which eventually leads to the preferential sputtering of Ga observed at the ion etching facility at University of Greifswald.

  14. Multilayer self-organization of InGaAs quantum wires on GaAs surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhiming M.; Kunets, Vasyl P.; Xie, Yanze Z.; Schmidbauer, Martin; Dorogan, Vitaliy G.; Mazur, Yuriy I.; Salamo, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Molecular-Beam Epitaxy growth of multiple In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As layers on GaAs (311)A and GaAs (331)A has been investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy and Photoluminescence. On GaAs (311)A, uniformly distributed In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As quantum wires (QWRs) with wider lateral separation were achieved, presenting a significant improvement in comparison with the result on single layer [H. Wen, Z.M. Wang, G.J. Salamo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84 (2004) 1756]. On GaAs (331)A, In 0.4 Ga 0.6 As QWRs were revealed to be much straighter than in the previous report on multilayer growth [Z. Gong, Z. Niu, Z. Fang, Nanotechnology 17 (2006) 1140]. These observations are discussed in terms of the strain-field interaction among multilayers, enhancement of surface mobility at high temperature, and surface stability of GaAs (311)A and (331)A surfaces.

  15. Terahertz emission from semi-insulating GaAs with octadecanthiol-passivated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaojun; Xu, Xinlong; Lu, Xinchao; Wang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) emission from octadecanthiol (ODT) passivated (1 0 0) surface of the semi-insulating GaAs was measured, and compared with those from the native oxidized and the fresh surfaces. It was shown that the self-assembled ODT monolayer can stabilize the GaAs (1 0 0) surface, and maintain a THz surface emission 1.4 times as efficient as the native oxidized surface under equal conditions. Surface passivation can reduce the built-in electric field in the depletion region of the GaAs (1 0 0), resulting in the suppression of the THz radiation to a different extent. Oxidation of GaAs surface reduces the THz amplitude mainly in the low-frequency region. These results indicate that GaAs can be made a more effective THz source by choosing molecular passivation technique. Conversely, the THz emission features such as polarity, amplitude, and phase from molecule-passivated surfaces may be used to characterize the attached molecules.

  16. Measurement of electron beam polarization produced by photoemission from bulk GaAs using twisted light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayburn, Nathan; Dreiling, Joan; McCarter, James; Ryan, Dominic; Poelker, Matt; Gay, Timothy

    2012-06-01

    GaAs photocathodes produce spin polarized electron beams when illuminated with circularly polarized light with photon energy approximately equal to the bandgap energy [1, 2]. A typical polarization value obtained with bulk GaAs and conventional circularly polarized light is 35%. This study investigated the spin polarization of electron beams emitted from GaAs illuminated with ``twisted light,'' an expression that describes a beam of light having orbital angular momentum (OAM). In the experiment, 790nm laser light was focused to a near diffraction-limited spot size on the surface of the GaAs photocathode to determine if OAM might couple to valence band electron spin mediated by the GaAs lattice. Our polarization measurements using a compact retarding-field micro-Mott polarimeter [3] have established an upper bound on the polarization of the emitted electron beam of 2.5%. [4pt] [1] D.T. Pierce, F. Meier, P. Zurcher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 26 670 (1975).[0pt] [2] C.K. Sinclair, et al., PRSTAB 10 023501 (2007).[0pt] [3] J.L. McCarter, M.L. Stutzman, K.W. Trantham, T.G. Anderson, A.M. Cook, and T.J. Gay Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. A (2010).

  17. Paths to light trapping in thin film GaAs solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianling; Fang, Hanlin; Su, Rongbin; Li, Kezheng; Song, Jindong; Krauss, Thomas F; Li, Juntao; Martins, Emiliano R

    2018-03-19

    It is now well established that light trapping is an essential element of thin film solar cell design. Numerous light trapping geometries have already been applied to thin film cells, especially to silicon-based devices. Less attention has been paid to light trapping in GaAs thin film cells, mainly because light trapping is considered less attractive due to the material's direct bandgap and the fact that GaAs suffers from strong surface recombination, which particularly affects etched nanostructures. Here, we study light trapping structures that are implemented in a high-bandgap material on the back of the GaAs active layer, thereby not perturbing the integrity of the GaAs active layer. We study photonic crystal and quasi-random nanostructures both by simulation and by experiment and find that the photonic crystal structures are superior because they exhibit fewer but stronger resonances that are better matched to the narrow wavelength range where GaAs benefits from light trapping. In fact, we show that a 1500 nm thick cell with photonic crystals achieves the same short circuit current as an unpatterned 4000 nm thick cell. These findings are significant because they afford a sizeable reduction in active layer thickness, and therefore a reduction in expensive epitaxial growth time and cost, yet without compromising performance.

  18. Pump-probe studies of travelling coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon oscillations in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y.; Qi, J.; Tolk, Norman [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 37235 (United States); Miller, J. [Naval air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA 93555 (United States); Cho, Y.J.; Liu, X.; Furdyna, J.K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Shahbazyan, T.V. [Department of Physics, Jackson State University, MS 39217 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    We report comprehensive studies of long-lived oscillations in femtosecond optical pump-probe measurements on GaAs based systems. The oscillations arise from a photo-generated coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon wave at the sample surface, which subsequently travels from the surface into the GaAs substrate, thus providing information on the optical properties of the material as a function of time/depth. Wavelength-dependent studies of the oscillations near the bandgap of GaAs indicate strong correlations to the optical properties of GaAs. We also use the coherent longitudinal acoustic phonon waves to probe a thin buried Ga{sub 0.1}In{sub 0.9}As layers non-invasively. The observed phonon oscillations experience a reduction in amplitude and a phase change at wavelengths near the bandgap of the GaAs, when it passes through the thin Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}As layer. The layer depth and thicknesses can be extracted from the oscillation responses. A model has been developed that satisfactorily characterizes the experimental results. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Temperature conditions for GaAs nanowire formation by Au-assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchernycheva, M; Harmand, J C; Patriarche, G; Travers, L; Cirlin, G E

    2006-01-01

    Molecular beam epitaxial growth of GaAs nanowires using Au particles as a catalyst was investigated. Prior to the growth during annealing, Au alloyed with Ga coming from the GaAs substrate, and melted. Phase transitions of the resulting particles were observed in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). The temperature domain in which GaAs nanowire growth is possible was determined. The lower limit of this domain (320 deg. C) is close to the observed catalyst solidification temperature. Below this temperature, the catalyst is buried by GaAs growth. Above the higher limit (620 deg. C), the catalyst segregates on the surface with no significant nanowire formation. Inside this domain, the influence of growth temperature on the nanowire morphology and crystalline structure was investigated in detail by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The correlation of the nanowire morphology with the RHEED patterns observed during the growth was established. Wurtzite GaAs was found to be the dominant crystal structure of the wires

  20. Origin of the suppression in low frequency terahertz conductivity in dilute GaAs nitride and bismide alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cocker, Tylor; Lu, Xianfeng; Cooke, David

    We have performed time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy on GaAs1-xBix (x=7%) and observed a low-frequency suppression of the real conductivity previously seen only in dilute GaAs nitrides. We have developed a modified Drude model with a frequency-dependent scattering time that provides excellent...

  1. Disruption of Higher Order DNA Structures in Friedreich's Ataxia (GAA)(n) Repeats by PNA or LNA Targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergquist, Helen; Rocha, Cristina S. J.; Alvarez-Asencio, Ruben

    2016-01-01

    Expansion of (GAA)n repeats in the first intron of the Frataxin gene is associated with reduced mRNA and protein levels and the development of Friedreich’s ataxia. (GAA)n expansions form non-canonical structures, including intramolecular triplex (H-DNA), and R-loops and are associated with epigen...

  2. Photoacoustic study of the effect of doping concentration on the transport properties of GaAs epitaxial layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    George, S.D.; Dilna, S.; Prasanth, R.; Radhakrishnan, P.; Vallabhan, C.P.G.; Nampoori, V.P.N.

    2003-01-01

    We report a photoacoustic (PA) study of the thermal and transport properties of a GaAs epitaxial layer doped with Si at varying doping concentration, grown on GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The data are analyzed on the basis of Rosencwaig and Gersho's theory of the PA effect. The

  3. Optomechanical Design of a Hard X-ray Nanoprobe Instrument with Nanometer-Scale Active Vibration Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Preissner, C.; Smolyanitskiy, A.; Maser, J.; Winarski, R.; Holt, M.; Lai, B.; Vogt, S.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a new hard x-ray nanoprobe instrument that is one of the centerpieces of the characterization facilities of the Center for Nanoscale Materials being constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. This new probe will cover an energy range of 3-30 keV with 30-nm spacial resolution. The system is designed to accommodate x-ray optics with a resolution limit of 10 nm, therefore, it requires staging of x-ray optics and specimens with a mechanical repeatability of better than 5 nm. Fast feedback for differential vibration control between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder has been implemented in the design using a digital-signal-processor-based real-time closed-loop feedback technique. A specially designed, custom-built laser Doppler displacement meter system provides two-dimensional differential displacement measurements with subnanometer resolution between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder. The optomechanical design of the instrument positioning stage system with nanometer-scale active vibration control is presented in this paper

  4. Optomechanical design of a hard x-ray nanoprobe instrument with active vibration control in nanometer scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, D.; Maser, J.; Holt, M.; Winarski, R.; Preissner, C.; Smolyanitskiy, A.; Lai, B.; Vogt, S.; Stephenson, G.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a new hard x-ray nanoprobe instrument that is one of the centerpieces of the characterization facilities of the Center for Nanoscale Materials being constructed at Argonne National Laboratory. This new probe will cover an energy range of 3-30 keV with 30-nm spatial resolution. The system is designed to accommodate x-ray optics with a resolution limit of 10 nm, therefore, it requires staging of x-ray optics and specimens with a mechanical repeatability of better than 5 nm. Fast feedback for differential vibration control between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder has been implemented in the design using a digital-signal-processor-based real-time closed-loop feedback technique. A specially designed, custom-built laser Doppler displacement meter system provides two-dimensional differential displacement measurements with subnanometer resolution between the zone-plate x-ray optics and the sample holder. The optomechanical design of the instrument positioning stage system with nanometer-scale active vibration control is presented in this paper.

  5. Experimental studies of the charge limit phenomenon in NEA GaAs photocathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, H.; Alley, R.K.; Aoyagi, H.; Clendenin, J.E.; Frisch, J.C.; Mulhollan, G.A.; Saez, P.J.; Schultz, D.C.; Turner, J.L.

    1994-06-01

    Negative electron affinity GaAs photocathodes have been in continuous use at SLAC for generating polarized electron beams since early 1992. If the quantum efficiency of a GaAs cathode is below a critical value, the maximum photoemitted charge with photons of energies close to the band gap in a 2-ns pulse is found to be limited by the intrinsic properties of the cathode instead of by the space charge limit. We have studied this novel charge limit phenomenon in a variety of GaAs photocathodes of different structures and doping densities. We find that the charge limit is strongly dependent on the cathode's quantum efficiency and the extraction electric field, and to a lesser degree on the excitation laser wavelength. In addition, we show that the temporal behavior of the charge limit depends critically on the doping density

  6. Nanoscale footprints of self-running gallium droplets on GaAs surface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Wu

    Full Text Available In this work, the nanoscale footprints of self-driven liquid gallium droplet movement on a GaAs (001 surface will be presented and analyzed. The nanoscale footprints of a primary droplet trail and ordered secondary droplets along primary droplet trails are observed on the GaAs surface. A well ordered nanoterrace from the trail is left behind by a running droplet. In addition, collision events between two running droplets are investigated. The exposed fresh surface after a collision demonstrates a superior evaporation property. Based on the observation of droplet evolution at different stages as well as nanoscale footprints, a schematic diagram of droplet evolution is outlined in an attempt to understand the phenomenon of stick-slip droplet motion on the GaAs surface. The present study adds another piece of work to obtain the physical picture of a stick-slip self-driven mechanism in nanoscale, bridging nano and micro systems.

  7. Nitride surface passivation of GaAs nanowires: impact on surface state density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, Prokhor A; Dunaevskiy, Mikhail S; Ulin, Vladimir P; Lvova, Tatiana V; Filatov, Dmitriy O; Nezhdanov, Alexey V; Mashin, Aleksander I; Berkovits, Vladimir L

    2015-01-14

    Surface nitridation by hydrazine-sulfide solution, which is known to produce surface passivation of GaAs crystals, was applied to GaAs nanowires (NWs). We studied the effect of nitridation on conductivity and microphotoluminescence (μ-PL) of individual GaAs NWs using conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and confocal luminescent microscopy (CLM), respectively. Nitridation is found to produce an essential increase in the NW conductivity and the μ-PL intensity as well evidence of surface passivation. Estimations show that the nitride passivation reduces the surface state density by a factor of 6, which is of the same order as that found for GaAs/AlGaAs nanowires. The effects of the nitride passivation are also stable under atmospheric ambient conditions for six months.

  8. Schottky barrier measurements on individual GaAs nanowires by X-ray photoemission microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Mario, Lorenzo [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Turchini, Stefano, E-mail: stefano.turchini@cnr.it [ISM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Zamborlini, Giovanni; Feyer, Vitaly [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Tian, Lin [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Schneider, Claus M. [Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI-6) and JARA-FIT, Research Center Jülich, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Fakultät für Physik and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CENIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany); Rubini, Silvia [IOM-CNR, TASC Laboratory, Basovizza 34149, Trieste (Italy); Martelli, Faustino, E-mail: faustino.martelli@cnr.it [IMM-CNR, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Rome (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The Schottky barrier at the interface between Cu and GaAs nanowires was measured. • Individual nanowires were investigated by X-ray Photoemission Microscopy. • The Schottky barrier at different positions along the nanowire was evaluated. - Abstract: We present measurements of the Schottky barrier height on individual GaAs nanowires by means of x-ray photoelectron emission microscopy (XPEEM). Values of 0.73 and 0.51 eV, averaged over the entire wires, were measured on Cu-covered n-doped and p-doped GaAs nanowires, respectively, in agreement with results obtained on bulk material. Our measurements show that XPEEM can become a feasible and reliable investigation tool of interface formation at the nanoscale and pave the way towards the study of size-dependent effects on semiconductor-based structures.

  9. Electric characterization of GaAs deposited on porous silicon by electrodeposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajnef, M.; Chtourou, R.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2010-01-01

    GaAs thin films were synthesized on porous Si substrate by the electrodeposition technique. The X-ray diffraction studies showed that the as-grown films were crystallised in mixed phase nature orthorhombic and cubic of GaAs. The GaAs film was then electrically characterized using current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) techniques by the way of Al/GaAs Schottky junctions. The electric analysis allowed us to determine the n factor and the barrier height φ b0 parameters of Al/GaAs Schottky junctions. The (C-V) characteristics were recorded at frequency signal 1 MHz in order to identify the effect of the surface states on the behaviour of the capacitance of the device.

  10. Electric characterization of GaAs deposited on porous silicon by electrodeposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lajnef, M., E-mail: Mohamed.lajnef@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et de Semi-conducteurs, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Chtourou, R.; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et de Semi-conducteurs, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, BP. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2010-03-01

    GaAs thin films were synthesized on porous Si substrate by the electrodeposition technique. The X-ray diffraction studies showed that the as-grown films were crystallised in mixed phase nature orthorhombic and cubic of GaAs. The GaAs film was then electrically characterized using current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) techniques by the way of Al/GaAs Schottky junctions. The electric analysis allowed us to determine the n factor and the barrier height {phi}{sub b0} parameters of Al/GaAs Schottky junctions. The (C-V) characteristics were recorded at frequency signal 1 MHz in order to identify the effect of the surface states on the behaviour of the capacitance of the device.

  11. Self-assisted GaAs nanowires with selectable number density on Silicon without oxide layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietti, S; Somaschini, C; Esposito, L; Sanguinetti, S; Frigeri, C; Fedorov, A; Geelhaar, L

    2014-01-01

    We present the growth of self-assisted GaAs nanowires (NWs) with selectable number density on bare Si(1 1 1), not covered by the silicon oxide. We determine the number density of the NWs by initially self-assembling GaAs islands on whose top a single NW is nucleated. The number density of the initial GaAs base islands can be tuned by droplet epitaxy and the same degree of control is then transferred to the NWs. This procedure is completely performed during a single growth in an ultra-high vacuum environment and requires neither an oxide layer covering the substrate, nor any pre-patterning technique. (paper)

  12. Electronic structure of GaAs with InAs (001) monolayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tit, N.; Peressi, M.

    1995-04-01

    The effect on the electronic structure of an InAs monomolecular plane inserted in bulk GaAs is investigated theoretically. The (InAs) 1 (GaAs) n (001) strained superlattice is studied via ab-initio self-consistent pseudopotential calculations. Both electrons and holes are localized nearby the inserted InAs monolayer, which therefore acts as a quantum well for all the charge carriers. The small thickness of the inserted InAs slab is responsible of high confinement energies for the charge carriers, and therefore the interband electron-heavy-hole transition energy is close to the energy gap of the bulk GaAs, in agreement with recent experimental data. (author). 18 refs, 4 figs

  13. Low energy Ar ion bombardment damage of Si, GaAs, and InP surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Argon bombardment damage to (100) surfaces of Si, GaAs, and InP for sputter ion-gun potentials of 1, 2, and 3 kilovolts was studied using Rutherford backscattering. Initial damage rates and saturation damage levels were determined. Bombardment damage sensitivity increased for the sequence Si, GaAs, and InP. Saturation damage levels for Si and GaAs correspond reasonably to LSS projected range plus standard deviation estimates; damage to InP exceeded this level significantly. For an ion-gun potential of 3 keV, the initial sputter yield of P from an InP surface exceeded the sputter yield of In by four atoms per incident Ar projectile. (author)

  14. Self-assembled colloidal PbS quantum dots on GaAs substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, Wei; Yamada, Fumihiko; Kamiya, Itaru

    2010-01-01

    We report the fabrication and analysis of self-assembled monolayer and bilayer films of colloidal PbS quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs (001) substrates. 1,6-hexanedithiol is used as link molecule between QDs and GaAs substrates. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements confirm the formation of PbS QD film on GaAs. For the monolayer PbS QD film, the temperature-dependent PL shows a feature typical of close-packed film. For the bilayer PbS QD film fabricated from two different mean-sized PbS QDs, we find that the stacking sequence of QDs with different size affects the quantum yield and emission wavelength of the film.

  15. Visible-light electroluminescence in Mn-doped GaAs light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam Hai, Pham; Maruo, Daiki; Tanaka, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    We observed visible-light electroluminescence (EL) due to d-d transitions in light-emitting diodes with Mn-doped GaAs layers (here, referred to as GaAs:Mn). Besides the band-gap emission of GaAs, the EL spectra show two peaks at 1.89 eV and 2.16 eV, which are exactly the same as 4 A 2 ( 4 F) → 4 T 1 ( 4 G) and 4 T 1 ( 4 G) → 6 A 1 ( 6 S) transitions of Mn atoms doped in ZnS. The temperature dependence and the current-density dependence are consistent with the characteristics of d-d transitions. We explain the observed EL spectra by the p-d hybridized orbitals of the Mn d electrons in GaAs

  16. Optimization of the GaAs et GaAs/Si annealing using halogen lamp flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanck, H.

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the work is to check whether the flash annealing of GaAs and GaAs/Si, using halogen lamps, allows an improvement in the results obtained by usual methods. The electrical activation, defects behavior and results uniformity are studied. The results on the activation and diffusion of implanted impurities are shown to be equivalent to those obtained with classical annealing methods. However, residual impurities (or defects) diffusion phenomena are restrained by the flash annealing technique. The Hall effect cartographic measurements showed an improvement of the uniformity of the implanted coating surface resistance. Flash annealing is a suitable method for the Si activation in GaAs. It allows an improvement of the GaAs results obtained with standard techniques, as well as the formation, by means of ion implantation, of active zones in the GaAs/Si layers [fr

  17. An ultra-high-speed direct digital frequency synthesizer implemented in GaAs HBT technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Gaopeng; Wu Danyu; Jin Zhi; Liu Xinyu

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a 10-GHz 8-bit direct digital synthesizer (DDS) microwave monolithic integrated circuit implemented in 1 μm GaAs HBT technology. The DDS takes a double-edge-trigger (DET) 8-stage pipeline accumulator with sine-weighted DAC-based ROM-less architecture, which can maximize the utilization ratio of the GaAs HBT's high-speed potential. With an output frequency up to 5 GHz, the DDS gives an average spurious free dynamic range of 23.24 dBc through the first Nyquist band, and consumes 2.4 W of DC power from a single -4.6 V DC supply. Using 1651 GaAs HBT transistors, the total area of the DDS chip is 2.4 x 2.0 mm 2 . (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Performance of Series Connected GaAs Photovoltaic Converters under Multimode Optical Fiber Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiqiang Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In many military and industrial applications, GaAs photovoltaic (PV converters are connected in series in order to generate the required voltage compatible with most common electronics. Multimode optical fibers are usually used to carry high-intensity laser and illuminate the series connected GaAs PV converters in real time. However, multimode optical fiber illumination has a speckled intensity pattern. The series connected PV array is extremely sensitive to nonuniform illumination; its performance is limited severely by the converter that is illuminated the least. This paper quantifies the effects of multimode optical fiber illumination on the performance of series connected GaAs PV converters, analyzes the loss mechanisms due to speckles, and discusses the maximum illumination efficiency. In order to describe the illumination dependent behavior detailedly, modeling of the series connected PV array is accomplished based on the equivalent circuit for PV cells. Finally, a series of experiments are carried out to demonstrate the theory analysis.

  19. Influence of substrate orientation on the structural properties of GaAs nanowires in MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muhammad, R., E-mail: rosnita@utm.my; Othaman, Z., E-mail: zulothaman@gmail.com; Ibrahim, Z., E-mail: zuhairi@utm.my; Sakrani, S., E-mail: samsudi3@yahoo.com [Faculty of Science, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM, Johor (Malaysia); Wahab, Y., E-mail: wyussof@gmail.com [Razak School, UniversitiTeknologi Malaysia, 54100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-04-19

    In this study, the effect of substrate orientation on the structural properties of GaAs nanowires grown by a metal organic chemical vapor deposition has been investigated. Gold colloids were used as catalyst to initiate the growth of nanowiresby the vapour-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism. From the field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), the growth of the nanowires were at an elevation angle of 90°, 60°, 65° and 35° with respect to the GaAs substrate for (111)B, (311)B, (110) and (100) orientations respectively. The preferential NW growth direction is always <111>B. High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) micrograph showed the NWs that grew on the GaAs(111)B has more structural defects when compared to others. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) indicated the presence of Au, Ga and As. The bigger diameter NWs dominates the (111)B substrate surface.

  20. Optical techniques to feed and control GaAs MMIC modules for phased array antenna applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhasin, K. B.; Anzic, G.; Kunath, R. R.; Connolly, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    A complex signal distribution system is required to feed and control GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) for phased array antenna applications above 20 GHz. Each MMIC module will require one or more RF lines, one or more bias voltage lines, and digital lines to provide a minimum of 10 bits of combined phase and gain control information. In a closely spaced array, the routing of these multiple lines presents difficult topology problems as well as a high probability of signal interference. To overcome GaAs MMIC phased array signal distribution problems optical fibers interconnected to monolithically integrated optical components with GaAs MMIC array elements are proposed as a solution. System architecture considerations using optical fibers are described. The analog and digital optical links to respectively feed and control MMIC elements are analyzed. It is concluded that a fiber optic network will reduce weight and complexity, and increase reliability and performance, but higher power will be required.

  1. Neutron-damaged GaAs detectors for use in a Compton spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammeraad, J.E.; Sale, K.E.; Wang, C.L.; Baltrusaitis, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Detectors made of GaAs are being studies for use on the focal plane of a Compton spectrometer which measures 1-MeV to 25-MeV gamma rays with high energy resolution (1% or 100 keV, whichever is greater) and 200-ps time resolution. The detectors are GaAs chips that have been neutron-damaged to improve the time response. The detectors will be used to measure fast transient signals in the current mode. The properties of various GaAs detector configurations are being studied by bombarding sample detectors with short pulses of 4-MeV to 16-MeV electrons at the Linac Facility at EG ampersand G Energy Measurements, Inc., Santa Barbara Operations. Measurements of detector sensitivity and impulse response versus detector bias, thickness, and electron beam energy and intensity have been performed and are presented. 5 refs

  2. Investigations on liquid phase electroepitaxial growth kinetics of GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouleeswaran, D.; Dhanasekaran, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a model based on solving a two-dimensional diffusion equation incorporating the electromigration effect by numerical simulation method corresponding to liquid phase electroepitaxial (LPEE) growth of GaAs, whose growth is limited by diffusion and electro migration of solute species. Using the numerical simulation method, the concentration profiles of As in Ga rich solution during the electroepitaxial growth of GaAs have been constructed in front of the growing crystal interface. Using the concentration gradient at the interface, the growth rate and thickness of the epitaxial layer of GaAs have been determined for different experimental growth conditions. The proposed model is based on the assumption that there is no convection in the solution. The results are discussed in detail

  3. Surface chemistry and growth mechanisms studies of homo epitaxial (1 0 0) GaAs by laser molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Dawei; Wu Weidong; Zhang Hong; Wang Xuemin; Zhang Hongliang; Zhang Weibin; Xiong Zhengwei; Wang Yuying; Shen Changle; Peng Liping; Han Shangjun; Zhou Minjie

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, GaAs thin film has been deposited on thermally desorbed (1 0 0) GaAs substrate using laser molecular beam epitaxy. Scanning electron microscopy, in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and in situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are applied for evaluation of the surface morphology and chemistry during growth process. The results show that a high density of pits is formed on the surface of GaAs substrate after thermal treatment and the epitaxial thin film heals itself by a step flow growth, resulting in a smoother surface morphology. Moreover, it is found that the incorporation of As species into GaAs epilayer is more efficient in laser molecular beam epitaxy than conventional molecular beam epitaxy. We suggest the growth process is impacted by surface chemistry and morphology of GaAs substrate after thermal treatment and the growth mechanisms are discussed in details.

  4. Si and gaas pixel detectors for medical imaging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    As the use of digital radiographic equipment in the morphological imaging field is becoming the more and more diffuse, the research of new and more performing devices from public institutions and industrial companies is in constant progress. Most of these devices are based on solid-state detectors as X-ray sensors. Semiconductor pixel detectors, originally developed in the high energy physics environment, have been then proposed as digital detector for medical imaging applications. In this paper a digital single photon counting device, based on silicon and GaAs pixel detector, is presented. The detector is a thin slab of semiconductor crystal where an array of 64 by 64 square pixels, 170- m side, has been built on one side. The data read-out is performed by a VLSI integrated circuit named Photon Counting Chip (PCC), developed within the MEDIPIX collaboration. Each chip cell geometrically matches the sensor pixel. It contains a charge preamplifier, a threshold comparator and a 15 bits pseudo-random counter and it is coupled to the detector by means of bump bonding. Most important advantages of such system, with respect to a traditional X-rays film/screen device, are the wider linear dynamic range (3x104) and the higher performance in terms of MTF and DQE. Besides the single photon counting architecture allows to detect image contrasts lower than 3%. Electronics read-out performance as well as imaging capabilities of the digital device will be presented. Images of mammographic phantoms acquired with a standard Mammographic tube will be compared with radiographs obtained with traditional film/screen systems

  5. Analysis of GAA/TTC DNA triplexes using nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, S V Santhana; Cheng, Xun; van Breemen, Richard B; Silks, Louis A; Gupta, Goutam

    2004-11-15

    The formation of a GAA/TTC DNA triplex has been implicated in Friedreich's ataxia. The destabilization of GAA/TTC DNA triplexes either by pH or by binding to appropriate ligands was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and positive-ion electrospray mass spectrometry. The triplexes and duplexes were identified by changes in the NMR chemical shifts of H8, H1, H4, 15N7, and 15N4. The lowest pH at which the duplex is detectable depends upon the overall stability and the relative number of Hoogsteen C composite function G to T composite function A basepairs. A melting pH (pHm) of 7.6 was observed for the destabilization of the (GAA)2T4(TTC)2T4(CTT)2 triplex to the corresponding Watson-Crick duplex and the T4(CTT)2 overhang. The mass spectrometric analyses of (TTC)6.(GAA)6 composite function(TTC)6 triplex detected ions due to both triplex and single-stranded oligonucleotides under acidic conditions. The triplex ions disappeared completely at alkaline pH. Duplex and single strands were detectable only at neutral and alkaline pH values. Mass spectrometric analyses also showed that minor groove-binding ligands berenil, netropsin, and distamycin and the intercalating ligand acridine orange destabilize the (TTC)6.(GAA)6 composite function (TTC)6 triplex. These NMR and mass spectrometric methods may function as screening assays for the discovery of agents that destabilize GAA/TTC triplexes and as general methods for the characterization of structure, dynamics, and stability of DNA and DNA-ligand complexes.

  6. Modeling the effect of deep impurity ionization on GaAs photoconductive switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, J.H.; Khanaka, G.H.; Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ionization coefficient of deep traps in GaAs is determined from a gas breakdown model together with the recent experimental data obtained at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and Boeing. Using this coefficient in our nonlinear device transport code, we have investigated theoretically the nonlinear switching phenomena in GaAs devices. The results obtained from our investigations show that if we take into consideration the effect of the field ionization of the deep traps, we can show how the Lock-On'' phenomena could occur in the device.

  7. Modeling the effect of deep impurity ionization on GaAs photoconductive switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, J.H.; Khanaka, G.H.; Druce, R.L.; Pocha, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    The ionization coefficient of deep traps in GaAs is determined from a gas breakdown model together with the recent experimental data obtained at LLNL (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and Boeing. Using this coefficient in our nonlinear device transport code, we have investigated theoretically the nonlinear switching phenomena in GaAs devices. The results obtained from our investigations show that if we take into consideration the effect of the field ionization of the deep traps, we can show how the ``Lock-On`` phenomena could occur in the device.

  8. Pseudo-Rhombus-Shaped Subwavelength Crossed Gratings of GaAs for Broadband Antireflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi; Zhang Jing; Song Guo-Feng; Chen Liang-Hui; Fan Zhong-Chao

    2010-01-01

    Holographic lithography coupled with the nonlinear response of photoresist to the exposure is adopted to fabricate porous photoresist (PR) mask. Conventional dot PR mask is also generated, and both patterns are transferred into a underlying GaAs substrate by the optimal dry etching process to obtain tapered subwavelength crossed gratings (SWCGs) to mimic the moth-eye structure. In comparison of the experiment and simulation, the closely-packed pseudo-rhombus-shaped GaAs SWCGs resulting from the porous mask outperforms the conical counterpart which comes from the dot mask, and achieves a reported lowest mean spectral reflectance of 1.1%. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  9. Electrical properties of Ga ion beam implanted GaAs epilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Yoshiro; Okamoto, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    Resistivity enhancement by 5 orders or more was realized by Ga focused ion beam implantation into n + and p + GaAs epilayers. For originally n + epilayers, this resistivity enhancement is maintained after annealing as high as 800 deg C. However this enhancement disappears after annealing at above 650 deg C for p + epilayer. This property makes GaAs high resistive only in a limited area whose minimum dimension is 0.1 μm or less, and is attractive for a device fabrication process to electrically isolate integrated elements. (author)

  10. Biexciton emission from single isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen pairs in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takamiya, Kengo; Fukushima, Toshiyuki; Yagi, Shuhei; Hijikata, Yasuto; Yaguchi, Hiroyuki [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-Okubo, Sakura-ku , Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Kuboya, Shigeyuki; Onabe, Kentaro [Department of Advanced Materials Science, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Katayama, Ryuji [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2013-12-04

    We have studied photoluminescence (PL) from individual isoelectronic traps formed by nitrogen-nitrogen (NN) pairs in GaAs. Sharp emission lines due to exciton and biexciton were observed from individual isoelectronic traps in nitrogen atomic-layer doped (ALD) GaAs. The binding energy of biexciton bound to individual isoelectronic traps was approximately 8 meV. Both the exciton and biexciton luminescence lines show completely random polarization and no fine-structure splitting. These results are desirable to the application to the quantum cryptography used in the field of quantum information technology.

  11. Plasma treatment of porous GaAs surface formed by electrochemical etching method: Characterization and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloum, S.; Naddaf, M.

    2010-01-01

    Porous GaAs samples were formed by electrochemical anodic etching of Zn doped p-type GaAs (100) wafers at different etching parameters (time, mode of applied voltage or current and electrolyte). The effect of etching parameters and plasma surface treatment on the optical properties of the prepared sample has been investigated by using room temperature photoluminescence (PL), Raman spectroscopy and reflectance spectroscopic measurements in the range (400-800 nm). The surface morphological changes were studied by using atomic force microscope. (author)

  12. Stable Amplification and High Current Drop Bistable Switching in Supercritical GaAs Tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadpanah, S.H; Jeppsson, B; Jeppesen, Palle

    1974-01-01

    Bistable switching with current drops of 40% and switching times of 100 ps are obtained in pulsed operation of 10¿m supercritically doped n+ nn+ GaAs Transferred Electron Devices (TEDs). When CW-operated the same devices exhibit a 5-17 GHz bandwidth for the stable negative resistance.......Bistable switching with current drops of 40% and switching times of 100 ps are obtained in pulsed operation of 10¿m supercritically doped n+ nn+ GaAs Transferred Electron Devices (TEDs). When CW-operated the same devices exhibit a 5-17 GHz bandwidth for the stable negative resistance....

  13. Sulfidic photochemical passivation of GaAs surfaces in alcoholic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonsmeier, T.; Ivankov, A.; Bauhofer, W.

    2005-01-01

    We report on a remarkable enhancement of the passivation effect of sulfidic solutions through illumination with above band gap light. Luminescence measurements on GaAs surfaces which have been illuminated during chemical passivation reveal in comparison to nonilluminated samples a further reduction of their surface density of states as well as a significantly increased stability of the passivation. Investigations with photoelectron spectroscopy show that illumination leads to a nearly complete removal of oxides on the surface. Measurements on Schottky diodes which have been manufactured with photochemically passivated GaAs indicate a noticeable decrease in band bending and a depinning of the Fermi level

  14. X-ray diffraction study on pressure-induced phase transformation in nanocrystalline GaAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Olsen, J. S.; Gerward, Leif

    2002-01-01

    We have shown that the onset and transition pressures of the GaAs I --> II transition are 17 GPa and 20 GPa, respectively, for both bulk and nanophase material. The observed gradual change in resistivity of nanophase GaAs,at the semiconductor-to-metal transition is explained by the two-component ......We have shown that the onset and transition pressures of the GaAs I --> II transition are 17 GPa and 20 GPa, respectively, for both bulk and nanophase material. The observed gradual change in resistivity of nanophase GaAs,at the semiconductor-to-metal transition is explained by the two...

  15. Lifetime measurements by open circuit voltage decay in GaAs and InP diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhimnathwala, H.G.; Tyagi, S.D.; Bothra, S.; Ghandhi, S.K.; Borrego, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Minority carrier lifetimes in the base of solar cells made in GaAs and InP are measured by open circuit voltage decay method. This paper describes the measurement technique and the conditions under which the minority carrier lifetimes can be measured. Minority carrier lifetimes ranging from 1.6 to 34 ns in InP of different doping concentrations are measured. A minority carrier lifetime of 6 ns was measured in n-type GaAs which agrees well with the lifetime of 5.7 ns measured by transient microwave reflection

  16. Pulse GaAs field transistor amplifier with subnanosecond time transient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidnev, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    Pulse amplifier on fast field effect GaAs transistors with Schottky barrier is described. The amplifier contains four cascades, the first three of which are made on combined transistors on the common-drain circuit. The last cascade is made on high-power field effect GaAs transistor for coordination with 50 ohm load. The amplifier operates within the range of input signals from 0.5 up to 100 mV with repetition frequency up to 16 Hz, The gain of the amplifier is ≅ 20 dB. The setting time at output pulses amplitude up to 1 V constitutes ∼ 0.2 ns

  17. Modeling and Design of Graphene GaAs Junction Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawei Kuang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene based GaAs junction solar cell is modeled and investigated by Silvaco TCAD tools. The photovoltaic behaviors have been investigated considering structure and process parameters such as substrate thickness, dependence between graphene work function and transmittance, and n-type doping concentration in GaAs. The results show that the most effective region for photo photogenerated carriers locates very close to the interface under light illumination. Comprehensive technological design for junction yields a significant improvement of power conversion efficiency from 0.772% to 2.218%. These results are in good agreement with the reported experimental work.

  18. Polarity influence on the indentation punching of thin {111} GaAs foils at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarche, G; Largeau, L; Riviere, J P; Bourhis, E Le

    2005-01-01

    Thin {111} GaAs substrates were deformed by a Vickers indenter at 350 deg. C-370 deg. C under loads ranging between 0.4 and 1.9 N. Optical microscopy and interferometry were used to observe the indented and opposite faces of the thin foils and hence to investigate the plastic flow through the samples. Attention was paid to the polarity (A or B) of the specimen surface, as GaAs is known to show a large difference between α and β dislocations mobilities. A model considering the influence of polarity is proposed to describe the material flow throughout thin samples

  19. Some Aspects of the RHEED Behavior of Low-Temperature GaAs Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemcsics, A.

    2005-01-01

    The reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) behavior manifested during MBE growth on a GaAs(001) surface under low-temperature (LT) growth conditions is examined in this study. RHEED and its intensity oscillations during LT GaAs growth exhibit some particular behavior. The intensity, phase, and decay of the oscillations depend on the beam equivalent pressure (BEP) ratio and substrate temperature, etc. Here, the intensity dependence of RHEED behavior on the BEP ratio, substrate temperature, and excess of As content in the layer are examined. The change in the decay constant of the RHEED oscillations is also discussed

  20. Temperature-Driven Change in the Unstable Growth Mode on Patterned GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadayyon-Eslami, T.; Phaneuf, R. J.; Kan, H.-C.; Calhoun, L. C.

    2006-01-01

    We observe a dramatic change in the unstable growth mode during GaAs molecular beam epitaxy on patterned GaAs(001) as the temperature is lowered through approximately 540 deg. C, roughly coincident with the preroughening temperature. Observations of the As 2 flux dependence, however, rule out thermodynamic preroughening as driving the growth mode change. Similar observations rule out the change in surface reconstruction as the cause. Instead, we find evidence that the change in the unstable growth mode can be explained by a competition between the decreased adatom collection rate on small terraces and a small anisotropic barrier to adatom diffusion downward across step bunches

  1. Reflectance-anisotropy study of the dynamics of molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs and InGaAs on GaAs(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Lastras-Martinez, A.; Lastras-Martinez, L.F. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi. Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Balderas-Navarro, R.E. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi. Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi. Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    Reflectance-Anisotropy (RA) observations during the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth of zincblende semiconductors films were carried out using the E{sub 1} optical transition as a probe. We follow the kinetics of the deposition of GaAs and In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As on GaAs(001) at growth rates of 0.2 and 0.25 ML/s, respectively. During growth we used a constant As{sub 4} or As{sub 2} flux pressure of 5 x 10{sup -6} Torr. Clear RA-oscillations were observed during growth with a period that nearly coincides with the growth period for a Ga-As bilayer. RHEED was used as an auxiliary technique in order to obtain a correlation between RHEED and RA oscillations. On the basis of our results, we argue that RAS oscillations are mainly associated to periodic changes in surface atomic structure. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Reflectance-anisotropy study of the dynamics of molecular beam epitaxy growth of GaAs and InGaAs on GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Lastras-Martinez, A.; Lastras-Martinez, L.F.; Balderas-Navarro, R.E.

    2008-01-01

    Reflectance-Anisotropy (RA) observations during the Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) growth of zincblende semiconductors films were carried out using the E 1 optical transition as a probe. We follow the kinetics of the deposition of GaAs and In 0.3 Ga 0.7 As on GaAs(001) at growth rates of 0.2 and 0.25 ML/s, respectively. During growth we used a constant As 4 or As 2 flux pressure of 5 x 10 -6 Torr. Clear RA-oscillations were observed during growth with a period that nearly coincides with the growth period for a Ga-As bilayer. RHEED was used as an auxiliary technique in order to obtain a correlation between RHEED and RA oscillations. On the basis of our results, we argue that RAS oscillations are mainly associated to periodic changes in surface atomic structure. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation by GaAs Nanowire Arrays Protected with Atomic Layer Deposited NiO x Electrocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Joy; Xu, Xiaoqing; Parameshwaran, Vijay; Baker, Jon; Bent, Stacey; Wong, H.-S. Philip; Clemens, Bruce

    2018-02-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) hydrogen production makes possible the direct conversion of solar energy into chemical fuel. In this work, PEC photoanodes consisting of GaAs nanowire (NW) arrays were fabricated, characterized, and then demonstrated for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Uniform and periodic GaAs nanowire arrays were grown on a heavily n-doped GaAs substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition selective area growth. The nanowire arrays were characterized using cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy in a non-aqueous electrochemical system using ferrocene/ferrocenium (Fc/Fc+) as a redox couple, and a maximum oxidation photocurrent of 11.1 mA/cm2 was measured. GaAs NW arrays with a 36 nm layer of nickel oxide (NiO x ) synthesized by atomic layer deposition were then used as photoanodes to drive the OER. In addition to acting as an electrocatalyst, the NiO x layer served to protect the GaAs NWs from oxidative corrosion. Using this strategy, GaAs NW photoanodes were successfully used for the oxygen evolution reaction. This is the first demonstration of GaAs NW arrays for effective OER, and the fabrication and protection strategy developed in this work can be extended to study any other nanostructured semiconductor materials systems for electrochemical solar energy conversion.

  4. GaAs detectors with an ultra-thin Schottky contact for spectrometry of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernykh, S.V., E-mail: chsv_84@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Chernykh, A.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Didenko, S.I.; Baryshnikov, F.M. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Burtebayev, N. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Britvich, G.I. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Chubenko, A.P. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Guly, V.G.; Glybin, Yu.N. [LLC “SNIIP Plus”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zholdybayev, T.K.; Burtebayeva, J.T.; Nassurlla, M. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-11

    For the first time, samples of particle detectors based on high-purity GaAs epilayers with an active area of 25 and 80 mm{sup 2} and an ultra-thin Pt Schottky barrier were fabricated for use in the spectrometry of charged particles and their operating characteristics were studied. The obtained FWHM of 14.2 (for 25 mm{sup 2} detector) and 15.5 keV (for 80 mm{sup 2} detector) on the 5.499 MeV line of {sup 238}Pu is at the level of silicon spectrometric detectors. It was found that the main component that determines the energy resolution of the detector is a fluctuation in the number of collected electron–hole pairs. This allows us to state that the obtained energy resolution is close to the limit for VPE GaAs. - Highlights: • VPE GaAs particle detectors with an active area of 25 and 80 mm{sup 2} were fabricated. • 120 Å ultra-thin Pt Schottky barrier was used as a rectifying contact. • The obtained FWHM of 14.2 keV ({sup 238}Pu) is at the level of Si spectrometric detectors. • Various components of the total energy resolution were analyzed. • It was shown that obtained energy resolution is close to its limit for VPE GaAs.

  5. Annealing of proton-damaged GaAs and 1/f noise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, X.Y.; Folter, de L.C.

    1997-01-01

    GaAs layers were grown by MBE. The layers were then damaged by 3 MeV proton irradiation and later annealed. We performed Hall effect and low-frequency noise measurements at temperatures between 77 K and 300 K after each step. Several generation - recombination noise components created by proton

  6. Modified energetics and growth kinetics on H-terminated GaAs (110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiana, B.; Benedicto, M.; Díez-Merino, L.; Tejedor, P.; Lorbek, S.; Hlawacek, G.; Teichert, C.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen modification of the surface energy of GaAs (110) epilayers, grown at high temperatures from molecular beams of Ga and As 4 , has been investigated by friction force microscopy (FFM). The reduction of the friction force observed with longer exposures to the H beam has been correlated with the lowering of the surface energy originated by the progressive de-relaxation of the GaAs (110) surface occurring upon H chemisorption. Our results indicate that the H-terminated GaAs (110) epilayers are more stable than the As-stabilized ones, with the minimum surface energy value of 31 meV/Å 2 measured for the fully hydrogenated surface. A significant reduction of the Ga diffusion length on the H-terminated surface irrespective of H coverage has been calculated from the FFM data, consistent with the layer-by-layer growth mode and the greater As incorporation coefficient determined from real-time reflection high-energy electron diffraction studies. Arsenic incorporation through direct dissociative chemisorption of single As 4 molecules mediated by H on the GaAs (110) surface has been proposed as the most likely explanation for the changes in surface kinetics observed

  7. Enhancement of conductance of GaAs sub-microwires under external stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xianlin; Deng, Qingsong; Zheng, Kun

    2018-03-01

    Semiconductors with one dimension on the micro-nanometer scale have many unique physical properties that are remarkably different from those of their bulk counterparts. Moreover, changes in the external field will further modulate the properties of the semiconductor micro-nanomaterials. In this study, we used focused ion beam technology to prepare freestanding ⟨111⟩-oriented GaAs sub-microwires from a GaAs substrate. The effects of laser irradiation and bending or buckling deformation induced by compression on the electrical transport properties of an individual GaAs sub-microwire were studied. The experimental results indicate that both laser irradiation and bending deformation can enhance their electrical transport properties, the laser irradiation resulted in a conductance enhancement of ˜30% compared to the result with no irradiation, and in addition, bending deformation changed the conductance by as much as ˜180% when the average strain was approximately 1%. The corresponding mechanisms are also discussed. This study provides beneficial insight into the fabrication of electronic and optoelectronic devices based on GaAs micro/nano-wires.

  8. Etching of GaAs substrates to create As-rich surface

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    during the manipulations of the substrate after the chemi- cal etching process. ... using the four techniques described in table 1 and for an. *Author for ... Etching of GaAs substrates to create As-rich surface. 563. Table 1. Treatment procedures used. Treatment. Techniques. 1st stage. 2nd stage. 3rd stage. 4th stage. 1. Treated ...

  9. Variations in first principles calculated defect energies in GaAs and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ab initio calculations; semi-insulating GaAs; point defects. ... We are focusing on gallium arsenide. .... gallium vacancy in S & L, P et al and N & Z will exist in triple ... gallium antisite defect that include relaxation, a negative. U-effect is ...

  10. 1 GHz GaAs Buck Converter for High Power Amplifier Modulation Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busking, E.B.; Hek, A.P. de; Vliet, F.E. van

    2012-01-01

    A fully integrated 1 GHz buck converter output stage, including on-chip inductor and DC output filtering has been realized, in a standard high-voltage breakdown GaAs MMIC technology. This is a significant step forward in designing highspeed power control of supply-modulated HPAs (high power

  11. Effects of surface passivation on twin-free GaAs nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Shermin; Chi, Chun-Yung; Shi, Teng; Wang, Yuda; Dapkus, Daniel P; Jackson, Howard E; Smith, Leigh M; Cronin, Stephen B

    2015-02-24

    Unlike nanowires, GaAs nanosheets exhibit no twin defects, stacking faults, or dislocations even when grown on lattice mismatched substrates. As such, they are excellent candidates for optoelectronic applications, including LEDs and solar cells. We report substantial enhancements in the photoluminescence efficiency and the lifetime of passivated GaAs nanosheets produced using the selected area growth (SAG) method with metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Measurements are performed on individual GaAs nanosheets with and without an AlGaAs passivation layer. Both steady-state photoluminescence and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy are performed to study the optoelectronic performance of these nanostructures. Our results show that AlGaAs passivation of GaAs nanosheets leads to a 30- to 40-fold enhancement in the photoluminescence intensity. The photoluminescence lifetime increases from less than 30 to 300 ps with passivation, indicating an order of magnitude improvement in the minority carrier lifetime. We attribute these enhancements to the reduction of nonradiative recombination due to the compensation of surface states after passivation. The surface recombination velocity decreases from an initial value of 2.5 × 10(5) to 2.7 × 10(4) cm/s with passivation.

  12. Spin-Relaxation Anisotropy in a GaAs Quantum Dot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scarlino, P.; Kawakami, E.; Stano, P.; Shafiei, M.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2014-01-01

    We report that the electron spin-relaxation time T1 in a GaAs quantum dot with a spin-1/2 ground state has a 180° periodicity in the orientation of the in-plane magnetic field. This periodicity has been predicted for circular dots as being due to the interplay of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin orbit

  13. Spin-Dephasing Anisotropy for Electrons in a Diffusive Quasi-1D GaAs Wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, J.; Last, T.; Koop, E. J.; Denega, S.; van Wees, B. J.; van der Wal, C. H.

    We present a numerical study of dephasing of electron spin ensembles in a diffusive quasi-one-dimensional GaAs wire due to the D'yakonov-Perel' spin-dephasing mechanism. For widths of the wire below the spin precession length and for equal strength of Rashba and linear Dresselhaus spin-orbit fields

  14. Accelerated GaAs growth through MOVPE for low-cost PV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubukata, Akinori; Sodabanlu, Hassanet; Watanabe, Kentaroh; Koseki, Shuichi; Yano, Yoshiki; Tabuchi, Toshiya; Sugaya, Takeyoshi; Matsumoto, Koh; Nakano, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Masakazu

    2018-05-01

    The high growth rate of epitaxial GaAs was investigated using a novel horizontal metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) reactor, from the point of view of realizing low-cost photovoltaic (PV) solar cells. The GaAs growth rate exhibited an approximately linear relationship with the amount of trimethylgalium (TMGa) supplied, up to a rate of 90 μm/h. The distribution of growth rate was observed for a two-inch wafer, along the flow direction, and the normalized profile of the distribution was found to be independent of the precursor input, from 20 to 70 μm/h. These tendencies indicated that significant parasitic prereaction did not occur in the gaseous phase, for this range of growth rate. GaAs p-n single-junction solar cells were successfully fabricated at growth rates of 20, 60, and 80 μm/h. The conversion efficiency of the cell grown at 80 μm/h was comparable to that of the 20 μm/h cell, indicating the good quality and properties of GaAs. The epitaxial growth exhibited good uniformity, as evidenced by the uniformity of the cell performance across the wafer, from the center to the edge. The result indicated the potential of high-throughput MOVPE for low-cost production, not only for PV devices but also for other semiconductor applications.

  15. Electric field effect of GaAs monolayer from first principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiongyao Wu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Using first-principle calculations, we investigate two-dimensional (2D honeycomb monolayer structures composed of group III-V binary elements. It is found that such compound like GaAs should have a buckled structure which is more stable than graphene-like flat structure. This results a polar system with out-of-plane dipoles arising from the non-planar structure. Here, we optimized GaAs monolayer structure, then calculated the electronic band structure and the change of buckling height under external electric field within density functional theory using generalized gradient approximation method. We found that the band gap would change proportionally with the electric field magnitude. When the spin-orbit coupling (SOC is considered, we revealed fine spin-splitting at different points in the reciprocal space. Furthermore, the valence and conduction bands spin-splitting energies due to SOC at the K point of buckled GaAs monolayers are found to be weakly dependent on the electric field strength. Finally electric field effects on the spin texture and second harmonic generation are discussed. The present work sheds light on the control of physical properties of GaAs monolayer by the applied electric field.

  16. Measurement and model of the infrared two-photon emission spectrum of GaAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Alex; Ginzburg, Pavel; Orenstein, Meir

    2009-07-10

    Two-photon emission from semiconductors was recently observed, but not fully interpreted. We develop a dressed-state model incorporating intraband scattering-related level broadening, yielding nondivergent emission rates. The spectrum calculations for high carrier concentrations including the time dependence of the screening buildup correspond well to our measured two-photon emission spectrum from GaAs.

  17. Modified energetics and growth kinetics on H-terminated GaAs (110)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galiana, B. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avenida de la Universidad 30, 28911 Madrid (Spain); Benedicto, M.; Díez-Merino, L.; Tejedor, P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lorbek, S.; Hlawacek, G.; Teichert, C. [Institut für Physik, Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz Josef St., 18A-8700 Leoben (Austria)

    2013-10-28

    Atomic hydrogen modification of the surface energy of GaAs (110) epilayers, grown at high temperatures from molecular beams of Ga and As{sub 4}, has been investigated by friction force microscopy (FFM). The reduction of the friction force observed with longer exposures to the H beam has been correlated with the lowering of the surface energy originated by the progressive de-relaxation of the GaAs (110) surface occurring upon H chemisorption. Our results indicate that the H-terminated GaAs (110) epilayers are more stable than the As-stabilized ones, with the minimum surface energy value of 31 meV/Å{sup 2} measured for the fully hydrogenated surface. A significant reduction of the Ga diffusion length on the H-terminated surface irrespective of H coverage has been calculated from the FFM data, consistent with the layer-by-layer growth mode and the greater As incorporation coefficient determined from real-time reflection high-energy electron diffraction studies. Arsenic incorporation through direct dissociative chemisorption of single As{sub 4} molecules mediated by H on the GaAs (110) surface has been proposed as the most likely explanation for the changes in surface kinetics observed.

  18. Surface segregation and the Al problem in GaAs quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yoon Jang; Baldwin, K. W.; West, K. W.; Shayegan, M.; Pfeiffer, L. N.

    2018-03-01

    Low-defect two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) are essential for studies of fragile many-body interactions that only emerge in nearly-ideal systems. As a result, numerous efforts have been made to improve the quality of modulation-doped AlxGa1 -xAs /GaAs quantum wells (QWs), with an emphasis on purifying the source material of the QW itself or achieving better vacuum in the deposition chamber. However, this approach overlooks another crucial component that comprises such QWs, the AlxGa1 -xAs barrier. Here we show that having a clean Al source and hence a clean barrier is instrumental to obtain a high-quality GaAs 2DES in a QW. We observe that the mobility of the 2DES in GaAs QWs declines as the thickness or Al content of the AlxGa1 -xAs barrier beneath the QW is increased, which we attribute to the surface segregation of oxygen atoms that originate from the Al source. This conjecture is supported by the improved mobility in the GaAs QWs as the Al cell is cleaned out by baking.

  19. High-Performance GaAs Nanowire Solar Cells for Flexible and Transparent Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ning; Yang, Zai-xing; Wang, Fengyun; Dong, Guofa; Yip, SenPo; Liang, Xiaoguang; Hung, Tak Fu; Chen, Yunfa; Ho, Johnny C

    2015-09-16

    Among many available photovoltaic technologies at present, gallium arsenide (GaAs) is one of the recognized leaders for performance and reliability; however, it is still a great challenge to achieve cost-effective GaAs solar cells for smart systems such as transparent and flexible photovoltaics. In this study, highly crystalline long GaAs nanowires (NWs) with minimal crystal defects are synthesized economically by chemical vapor deposition and configured into novel Schottky photovoltaic structures by simply using asymmetric Au-Al contacts. Without any doping profiles such as p-n junction and complicated coaxial junction structures, the single NW Schottky device shows a record high apparent energy conversion efficiency of 16% under air mass 1.5 global illumination by normalizing to the projection area of the NW. The corresponding photovoltaic output can be further enhanced by connecting individual cells in series and in parallel as well as by fabricating NW array solar cells via contact printing showing an overall efficiency of 1.6%. Importantly, these Schottky cells can be easily integrated on the glass and plastic substrates for transparent and flexible photovoltaics, which explicitly demonstrate the outstanding versatility and promising perspective of these GaAs NW Schottky photovoltaics for next-generation smart solar energy harvesting devices.

  20. Radiation damages and electro-conductive characteristics of Neutron-Transmutation-Doped GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuriyama, Kazuo; Sato, Masataka; Sakai, Kiyohiro [Hosei Univ., Koganei, Tokyo (Japan). Coll. of Engineering; Okada, Moritami

    1996-04-01

    Neutron Transmutation Doping (NTD) method made it possible to do homogeneous doping of impurities and to easily control the doping level. Thus, the method has been put into practice for some materials such as silicon. Here, the annealing behavior of anti-site defects generated in neutron-irradiated GaAs was studied. Electric activations of NTD-impurities were started around 550degC in P1 and P2 radiation fields, which were coincident with the beginning of extinction of electron trapping which was caused by anti-site defects due to fast neutron radiation. The electric resistivities of GaAs in neutron radiation fields; P1, P2 and P3 changed depending with the annealing temperature. The electric resistivities of GaAs in P1 and P2 fields indicate the presence of hopping conduction through radiation damages. The resistance of GaAs irradiated in P1 was smaller by nearly 2 orders than that of the untreated control. Further, the electric activation process for NTD-impurities was investigated using ESR and Raman spectroscopy. (M.N.)

  1. Promotion effect of monovalent metals (K and Cs) on the GaAs (110) surface oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeri, S.; Sberveglieri, P.; Angeli, E.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of thin (∼ 1 monolayer) overlayers of low electronegativity metals (Cs and K) on the RT oxidation behaviour of GaAs(110) cleavage surface is studied. This study was with Auger and Photoemission spectroscopies. Attention has been focused on the core-valence-valence and Auger lineshapes on the Ga and As 3d peaks. Presence of the alkali metal enhances the GaAs (110) oxidation rate several orders of magnitude above the clean surface value has been found. The range 0-100 Langmuir is investigated in detail. The oxidation process of the GaAs(110) surface in the presence of both K and Cs overlayer follows a multi-step kinetic and reaches a saturation at exposure lower than 100 Langmuir. Both Ga and As atoms are involved in the oxygen bonding. The metal enhanced semiconductor oxidation is generally reported to be a process involving predominantly the semiconductor surface atoms. However in the Cs - and K - GaAs case, an involvement of the alkali metal atoms too, reflected in the shape modification of their Auger line has been found. The promotion effect of K and Cs is discussed in terms of their low electronegativity and in comparison with the results recently reported in the literature for the other low electronegativity metals

  2. Integration of single-photon sources and detectors on GaAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Digeronimo, G.E.; Petruzzella, Maurangelo; Birindelli, Simone; Gaudio, Rosalinda; Poor, Sartoon Fattah; van Otten, Frank W.M.; Fiore, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Quantum photonic integrated circuits (QPICs) on a GaAs platform allow the generation, manipulation, routing, and detection of non-classical states of light, which could pave the way for quantum information processing based on photons. In this article, the prototype of a multi-functional QPIC is

  3. Passively model-locked Nd: YAG laser with a component GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhuhong; Qian Liejia; Chen Shaohe; Fan Dianyuan; Mao Hongwei

    1992-01-01

    An all solid-state passively mode-locked Nd: YAG laser with a 400 μm, (100) oriented GaAs component is reported for the first time and model locked pulses with a duration of 16 ps, average energy of 10 μJ were obtained with a probability of 90%

  4. Merging Standard CVD Techniques for GaAs and Si Epitaxial Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.; De Boer, W.; Van den Bogaard, A.; Nanver, L.K.

    2010-01-01

    A commercial Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) system, the ASMI Epsilon 2000 designed for Si and SiGe epitaxy, has, for the first time, been equipped for the growth of GaAs compounds in a manner that does not exclude the use of the system also for Si-based depositions. With the new system, intrinsic,

  5. Manipulation and analysis of a single dopant atom in GaAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnheijmer, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the manipulation and analysis of single dopant atoms in GaAs by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) at low temperatures. The observation of ionization rings is one of the key results, showing that we can control the charge state of a single dopant atom

  6. Effects produced in GaAs by MeV ion bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wie, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    The first part of this thesis presents work performed on the ionizing energy beam induced adhesion enhancement of thin (approx.500 A) Au films on GaAs substrates. The ionizing beam, employed in the present thesis, is the MeV ions (i.e., 16 O, 19 F, and 35 Cl), with energies between 1 and 20 MeV. Using the Scratch test for adhesion measurement, and ESCA for chemical analysis of the film substrate interface, the native oxide layer at the interface is shown to play an important role in the adhesion enhancement by the ionizing radiation. A model is discussed that explains the experimental data on the dependence of adhesion enhancement on the energy which was deposited into electronic processes at the interface. The second part of the thesis presents research results on the radiation damage in GaAs crystals produced by MeV ions. Lattice parameter dilatation in the surface layers of the GaAs crystals becomes saturated after a high dose bombardment at room temperature. The strain produced by nuclear collisions is shown to relax partially due to electronic excitation (with a functional dependence on the nuclear and electronic stopping power of bombarding ions. Data on the GaAs and GaP crystals suggest that low temperature recovery stage defects produce major crystal distortion

  7. Effect of thermal annealing on optical properties of implanted GaAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulik, M; Komarov, FF; Maczka, D

    GaAs samples doped with indium atoms by ion implantation and thermal annealed were studied using a channelling method, Rutherford backscattering, and an ellipsometry. From these measurements it was observed that the layer implanted with 3 x 10(16) cm(-2) indium dose was totally damaged and its

  8. Role of wave functions in electromagnetism : RAS from GaAs (110)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, C.M.J.; de Boeij, P.L.

    2001-01-01

    We have calculated the reflectance anisotropy for the GaAs (110) surface using the discrete cellular method. This method extends the range of application of standard discrete dipole calculations by incorporating nonlocal polarizabilitites. The method adds a second quantum mechanical channel of

  9. A new structure for comparing surface passivation materials of GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, Gregory C.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1989-01-01

    The surface recombination velocity (S sub rec) for bare GaAs is typically as high as 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 7th power cm/sec, which dramatically lowers the efficiency of GaAs solar cells. Early attempts to circumvent this problem by making an ultra thin junction (xj less than .1 micron) proved unsuccessful when compared to lowering S sub rec by surface passivation. Present day GaAs solar cells use an GaAlAs window layer to passivate the top surface. The advantages of GaAlAs in surface passivation are its high bandgap energy and lattice matching to GaAs. Although GaAlAs is successful in reducing the surface recombination velocity, it has other inherent problems of chemical instability (Al readily oxidizes) and ohmic contact formation. The search for new, more stable window layer materials requires a means to compare their surface passivation ability. Therefore, a device structure is needed to easily test the performance of different passivating candidates. Such a test device is described.

  10. Capacitance-voltage characteristics of GaAs ion-implanted structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Privalov E. N.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A noniterative numerical method is proposed to calculate the barrier capacitance of GaAs ion-implanted structures as a function of the Schottky barrier bias. The features of the low- and high-frequency capacitance-voltage characteristics of these structures which are due to the presence of deep traps are elucidated.

  11. A 2.5 gb/s GaAs ATM Mux Demux ASIC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens Kargaard; Lassen, Peter Stuhr

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a high speed GaAs ATM Mux Demur ASIC (AMDA) which is the key element in a high speed ATM Add-Drop unit. This unit is used in a new distributed ATM multiplexing-demultiplexing architecture for broadband switching systems. The Add-Drop unit...

  12. The role of proximity caps during the annealing of UV-ozone oxidized GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S. C.; Biesinger, M. C.; LaPierre, R. R.; Kruse, P.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides a deeper insight into the chemistry and physics of the common engineering practice of using a proximity cap, while annealing compound semiconductors such as GaAs. We have studied the cases of a GaAs proximity cap, a Si proximity cap, and no proximity cap. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, it has been found that annealing increases the gallium to arsenic ratio in the oxide layer in all cases. During the annealing of UV-ozone oxidized GaAs, it has been observed that GaAs proximity caps also serve as a sacrificial layer to accelerate the desorption of oxide species. In all cases surface deterioration due to pit formation has been observed, and the depth of pits is found to depend on the effective role played by the capping material. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis provides additional evidence that pits mainly consist of elemental As and gallium oxide, with most of the elemental As situated at the pit-substrate interface. Deposition of a thin layer of gold and subsequent annealing to 500 deg. C for 300 s under different capping conditions shows the use of a proximate cap to be practically insignificant in annealing Au deposited films

  13. Heat load of a GaAs photocathode in an SRF electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Erdong; Zhao Kui; Jorg Kewisch; Ilan Ben-Zvi; Andrew Burrill; Trivini Rao; Wu Qiong; Animesh Jain; Ramesh Gupta; Doug Holmes

    2011-01-01

    A great deal of effort has been made over the last decades to develop a better polarized electron source for high energy physics. Several laboratories operate DC guns with a gallium arsenide photocathode, which yield a highly polarized electron beam. However, the beam's emittance might well be improved by using a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) electron gun, which delivers beams of a higher brightness than that from DC guns because the field gradient at the cathode is higher. SRF guns with metal and CsTe cathodes have been tested successfully. To produce polarized electrons, a Gallium-Arsenide photo-cathode must be used: an experiment to do so in a superconducting RF gun is under way at BNL. Since a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) photocathode is normal conducting, a problem arises from the heat load stemming from the cathode. We present our measurements of the electrical resistance of GaAs at cryogenic temperatures, a prediction of the heat load and verification by measuring the quality factor of the gun with and without the cathode at 2 K. We simulate heat generation and flow from the GaAs cathode using the ANSYS program. By following the findings with the heat load model, we designed and fabricated a new cathode holder (plug) to decrease the heat load from GaAs. (authors)

  14. GaAs Wideband Low Noise Amplifier Design for Breast Cancer Detection System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Lei; Krozer, Viktor; Delcourt, Sebastien

    2009-01-01

    Modern wideband systems require low-noise receivers with bandwidth approaching 10 GHz. This paper presents ultra-wideband stable low-noise amplifier MMIC with cascode and source follower buffer configuration using GaAs technology. Source degeneration, gate and shunt peaking inductors are used...

  15. Energy Band Structure Studies Of Zinc-Blende GaAs and InAs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A self-consistent calculation of the structural and electronic properties of zinc blende GaAs and InAs has been carried out. The calculations were done using the full potential-linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method within the density functional theory (DFT). The exchange-correlation energy used is the ...

  16. Optical characterization of MOVPE grown δ-InAs layers in GaAs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hazdra, P.; Voves, J.; Hulicius, Eduard; Pangrác, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2005), s. 1319-1324 ISSN 1610-1634 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1010318; GA MŠk(CZ) LC510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : δ-layer * MOVPE * GaAs * photoluminescence * photocurrent * photoreflectance Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  17. X-ray structure amplitudes for GaAs and InP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1985-01-01

    The structure amplitudes of GaAs and InP are calculated taking into account the nonspherical parts of the valence electron density by means of a static bond charge model. The best known temperature factors and dispersion coefficients are employed. The calculated structure amplitudes should help determining exactly the shape of X-ray diffraction patterns. (author)

  18. Wideband Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit Frequency Converters with GaAs mHEMT Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krozer, Viktor; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Djurhuus, Torsten

    2005-01-01

    We present monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) frequency converter, which can be used for up and down conversion, due to the large RF and IF port bandwidth. The MMIC converters are based on commercially available GaAs mHEMT technology and are comprised of a Gilbert mixer cell core...

  19. Conversion Matrix Analysis of GaAs HEMT Active Gilbert Cell Mixers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Chenhui; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Krozer, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the nonlinear model of the GaAs HEMT active Gilbert cell mixer is investigated. Based on the model, the conversion gain expression of active Gilbert cell mixers is derived theoretically by using conversion matrix analysis method. The expression is verified by harmonic balance simul...

  20. Antisites and anisotropic diffusion in GaAs and GaSb

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Bracht, H.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Murphy, S. T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The significant diffusion of Ga under Ga-rich conditions in GaAs and GaSb is counter intuitive as the concentration of Ga vacancies should be depressed although Ga vacancies are necessary to interpret the experimental evidence for Ga transport

  1. Photon counting microstrip X-ray detectors with GaAs sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruat, M.; Andrä, M.; Bergamaschi, A.; Barten, R.; Brückner, M.; Dinapoli, R.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Lopez-Cuenca, C.; Lozinskaya, A. D.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Novikov, V. A.; Ramilli, M.; Redford, S.; Ruder, C.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Tolbanov, O. P.; Tyazhev, A.; Vetter, S.; Zarubin, A. N.; Zhang, J.

    2018-01-01

    High-Z sensors are increasingly used to overcome the poor efficiency of Si sensors above 15 keV, and further extend the energy range of synchrotron and FEL experiments. Detector-grade GaAs sensors of 500 μm thickness offer 98% absorption efficiency at 30 keV and 50% at 50 keV . In this work we assess the usability of GaAs sensors in combination with the MYTHEN photon-counting microstrip readout chip developed at PSI. Different strip length and pitch are compared, and the detector performance is evaluated in regard of the sensor material properties. Despite increased leakage current and noise, photon-counting strips mounted with GaAs sensors can be used with photons of energy as low as 5 keV, and exhibit excellent linearity with energy. The charge sharing is doubled as compared to silicon strips, due to the high diffusion coefficient of electrons in GaAs.

  2. Andreev reflections at interfaces between delta-doped GaAs and superconducting Al films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taboryski, Rafael Jozef; Clausen, Thomas; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev

    1996-01-01

    By placing several Si delta-doped layers close to the surface of a GaAs molecular beam epitaxy-grown crystal, we achieve a compensation of the Schottky barrier and obtain a good Ohmic contact between an in situ deposited (without breaking the vacuum) Al metallization layer and a highly modulation...

  3. Transient four-wave mixing in T-shaped GaAs quantum wires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Gislason, Hannes; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1999-01-01

    The binding energy of excitons and biexcitons and the exciton dephasing in T-shaped GaAs quantum wires is investigated by transient four-wave mixing. The T-shaped structure is fabricated by cleaved-edge overgrowth, and its geometry is engineered to optimize the one-dimensional confinement. In thi...

  4. Spin-polarized tunneling with GaAs tips in scanning tunneling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.W.J.; Jansen, R.; Kempen, van H.

    1996-01-01

    We describe a model as well as experiments on spin-polarized tunneling with the aid of optical spin orientation. This involves tunnel junctions between a magnetic material and gallium arsenide (GaAs), where the latter is optically excited with circularly polarized light in order to generate

  5. Effect of low and staggered gap quantum wells inserted in GaAs tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, K.; Claveau, Y.; Marigo-Lombart, L.; Fontaine, C.; Arnoult, A.; Piquemal, F.; Bounouh, A.; Cavassilas, N.; Almuneau, G.

    2018-04-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of the insertion of either a type I InGaAs or a type II InGaAs/GaAsSb quantum well on the performances of MBE-grown GaAs tunnel junctions (TJs). The devices are designed and simulated using a quantum transport model based on the non-equilibrium Green’s function formalism and a 6-band k.p Hamiltonian. We experimentally observe significant improvements of the peak tunneling current density on both heterostructures with a 460-fold increase for a moderately doped GaAs TJ when the InGaAs QW is inserted at the junction interface, and a 3-fold improvement on a highly doped GaAs TJ integrating a type II InGaAs/GaAsSb QW. Thus, the simple insertion of staggered band lineup heterostructures enables us to reach a tunneling current well above the kA cm‑2 range, equivalent to the best achieved results for Si-doped GaAs TJs, implying very interesting potential for TJ-based components, such as multi-junction solar cells, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers and tunnel-field effect transistors.

  6. Response of GaAs charge storage devices to transient ionizing radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetherington, D. L.; Klem, J. F.; Hughes, R. C.; Weaver, H. T.

    Charge storage devices in which non-equilibrium depletion regions represent stored charge are sensitive to ionizing radiation. This results since the radiation generates electron-hole pairs that neutralize excess ionized dopant charge. Silicon structures, such as dynamic RAM or CCD cells are particularly sensitive to radiation since carrier diffusion lengths in this material are often much longer than the depletion width, allowing collection of significant quantities of charge from quasi-neutral sections of the device. For GaAs the situation is somewhat different in that minority carrier diffusion lengths are shorter than in silicon, and although mobilities are higher, we expect a reduction of radiation sensitivity as suggested by observations of reduced quantum efficiency in GaAs solar cells. Dynamic memory cells in GaAs have potential increased retention times. In this paper, we report the response of a novel GaAs dynamic memory element to transient ionizing radiation. The charge readout technique is nondestructive over a reasonable applied voltage range and is more sensitive to stored charge than a simple capacitor.

  7. Temperature and 8 MeV electron irradiation effects on GaAs solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GaAs solar cells hold the record for the highest single band-gap cell efficiency. Successful application of these cells in advanced space-borne systems demand characterization of cell properties like dark current under different ambient conditions and the stability of the cells against particle irradiation in space. In this paper ...

  8. Twins and strain relaxation in zinc-blende GaAs nanowires grown on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piñero, J.C., E-mail: josecarlos.pinero@uca.es [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Araújo, D.; Pastore, C.E.; Gutierrez, M. [Dpto. Ciencias de los Materiales, Universidad de Cádiz, 11510, Puerto Real, Cádiz (Spain); Frigeri, C. [Istituto CNR-IMEM Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A, Fontanini, 43010, Parma (Italy); Benali, A.; Lelièvre, J.F.; Gendry, M. [INL-Institut des Nanotechnologies de Lyon, UMR 5270 Ecole Centrale de Lyon 36, Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69134, Ecully Cedex (France)

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • A TEM-HREM study of GaAs nanowires, growth over Si, is presented. • Misfit dislocations are detected in the Si/GaAs magma interface. • The study demonstrates strain relaxation through twin formation in some nanowires. - Abstract: To integrate materials with large lattice mismatch as GaAs on silicon (Si) substrate, one possible approach, to improve the GaAs crystalline quality, is to use nanowires (NWs) technology. In the present contribution, NWs are grown on <111> oriented Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses show that NWs are mainly grown alternating wurtzite and zinc blend (ZB) phases, and only few are purely ZB. On the latter, High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM) evidences the presence of twins near the surface of the NW showing limited concordance with the calculations of Yuan (2013) [1], where {111} twin planes in a <111>-oriented GaAs NW attain attractive interactions mediated by surface strain. In addition, such twins allow slight strain relaxation and are probably induced by the local huge elastic strain observed by HREM in the lattice between the twin and the surface. The latter is attributed to some slight bending of the NW as shown by the inversion of the strain from one side to the other side of the NW.

  9. The Development of a GaAs MMIC Reliability and Space Qualification Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponchak, G.; Kayali, S.; Huang, H-C.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the need for a space qualification guide, provides a brief description of some common GaAs failure mechanisms, the approach that the NASA MMIC Reliability Assurance Program is following to develop the guide, and the status of the program.

  10. GaAs circuit restructuring by multi-level laser-direct-written tungsten process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, J.G.; Doran, S.P.; Rothschild, M.; Sedlacek, J.H.C.; Ehrlich, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Laser-direct-writing processes are employed to fabricate a GaAs digital integrated circuit. The lithography-free techniques deposit and etch conductors and resistors, and remove insulating layers, thus enabling multilevel interconnections. These combined direct-write processes provide the flexibility of clip-lead prototyping on a micrometer scale

  11. Demonstration of suppressed phonon tunneling losses in phononic bandgap shielded membrane resonators for high-Q optomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaturyan, Yeghishe; Barg, Andreas; Simonsen, Anders; Villanueva, Luis Guillermo; Schmid, Silvan; Schliesser, Albert; Polzik, Eugene S

    2014-03-24

    Dielectric membranes with exceptional mechanical and optical properties present one of the most promising platforms in quantum opto-mechanics. The performance of stressed silicon nitride nanomembranes as mechanical resonators notoriously depends on how their frame is clamped to the sample mount, which in practice usually necessitates delicate, and difficult-to-reproduce mounting solutions. Here, we demonstrate that a phononic bandgap shield integrated in the membrane's silicon frame eliminates this dependence, by suppressing dissipation through phonon tunneling. We dry-etch the membrane's frame so that it assumes the form of a cm-sized bridge featuring a 1-dimensional periodic pattern, whose phononic density of states is tailored to exhibit one, or several, full band gaps around the membrane's high-Q modes in the MHz-range. We quantify the effectiveness of this phononic bandgap shield by optical interferometry measuring both the suppressed transmission of vibrations, as well as the influence of frame clamping conditions on the membrane modes. We find suppressions up to 40 dB and, for three different realized phononic structures, consistently observe significant suppression of the dependence of the membrane's modes on sample clamping-if the mode's frequency lies in the bandgap. As a result, we achieve membrane mode quality factors of 5 × 10(6) with samples that are tightly bolted to the 8 K-cold finger of a cryostat. Q × f -products of 6 × 10(12) Hz at 300 K and 14 × 10(12) Hz at 8 K are observed, satisfying one of the main requirements for optical cooling of mechanical vibrations to their quantum ground-state.

  12. The influence of γ-irradiation cobalt 60 on electrical properties of undoped GaAs treated with hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korshunov, F.P.; Kurilovich, N.F.; Prokhorenko, T.A.; Bumaj, Yu.A.; Ul'yashin, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The influence of exposition to a hydrogen plasma (hydrogenation) on the electrical properties alteration under gamma-irradiation in bulk GaAs have been investigated. It is shown that crystals hydrogenation before irradiation leads to particularly passivation of electrically active defects that are responsible for carriers scattering and removing processes in irradiated crystals. Radiation defects thermostability in hydrogenated GaAs crystals is lower than that in non hydrogenated ones. The energetic levels position of main defect that effects on electrical properties alteration after irradiation in GaAs crystals was detected. It is equal to E D =E C -0,125±0,0005 eV

  13. Solvent-mediated self-assembly of hexadecanethiol on GaAs (0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Xiaohuan; Dubowski, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Outstanding quality hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers (HDT SAM) produced on GaAs (0 0 1) due to the mediated role of water in an alcoholic environment. • HDT SAM formed in chloroform exhibit excellent electronic passivation properties in contrast to their structural characteristics. • Low dielectric constant solvents do not necessary provide conditions advantageous for the formation of high quality alkanethiol SAM. • Photoluminescence emitting materials allow to investigate the mechanisms of both electronic and chemical passivation and, thus, they are an excellent platform for studying the mechanisms of SAM formation on solid substrates. - Abstract: We have investigated the influence of solvents on the quality of hexadecanethiol (HDT) self-assembled monolayers (SAM) formed on GaAs (0 0 1) in chloroform, ethanol and ethanol/water 1:1 characterized by their increasing dielectric constants from 4.8 (chloroform) to 24.5 (ethanol) and water (80.1). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data show that the incubation in ethanol/water 1:1 solution creates conditions favouring inter-molecular interaction leading to the formation of an outstanding quality HDT SAM on GaAs (0 0 1). Incubation in low-dielectric constant solvents is not offering advantageous conditions for growing HDT SAM on GaAs. The chloroform environment, while weakening the thiol–thiol interaction, induces the oxidation of the GaAs surface and, in particular, formation of Ga 2 O 3 . This reduces the concentration of surface defects responsible for non-radiative recombination and leads to an enhanced photoluminescence emission, despite the fact that HDT SAM formed in chloroform are highly disordered, exhibiting the worst chemical passivation among the investigated samples

  14. Surface science analysis of GaAs photocathodes following sustained electron beam delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shutthanandan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of the photocathode materials employed in photoinjectors represents a challenge for sustained operation of nuclear physics accelerators and high power free electron lasers (FEL. Photocathode quantum efficiency degradation is due to residual gases in the electron source vacuum system being ionized and accelerated back to the photocathode. These investigations are a first attempt to characterize the nature of the photocathode degradation, and employ multiple surface and bulk analysis techniques to investigate damage mechanisms including sputtering of the Cs-oxidant surface monolayer, other surface chemistry effects, and ion implantation. Surface and bulk analysis studies were conducted on two GaAs photocathodes, which were removed from the JLab FEL DC photoemission gun after delivering electron beam, and two control samples. The analysis techniques include helium ion microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS, atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS. In addition, two high-polarization strained superlattice GaAs photocathode samples, one removed from the continuous electron beam accelerator facility (CEBAF photoinjector and one unused, were also analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM and SIMS. It was found that heat cleaning the FEL GaAs wafer introduces surface roughness, which seems to be reduced by prolonged use. The bulk GaAs samples retained a fairly well organized crystalline structure after delivering beam but show evidence of Cs depletion on the surface. Within the precision of the SIMS and RBS measurements, the data showed no indication of hydrogen implantation or lattice damage from ion back bombardment in the bulk GaAs wafers. In contrast, SIMS and TEM measurements of the strained superlattice photocathode show clear crystal damage in the wafer from ion back bombardment.

  15. Structural and electronic properties of isovalent boron atoms in GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krammel, C. M.; Nattermann, L.; Sterzer, E.; Volz, K.; Koenraad, P. M.

    2018-04-01

    Boron containing GaAs, which is grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy, is studied at the atomic level by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (X-STM) and spectroscopy (STS). In topographic X-STM images, three classes of B related features are identified, which are attributed to individual B atoms on substitutional Ga sites down to the second layer below the natural {110} cleavage planes. The X-STM contrast of B atoms below the surface reflects primarily the structural modification of the GaAs matrix by the small B atoms. However, B atoms in the cleavage plane have in contrast to conventional isovalent impurities, such as Al and In, a strong influence on the local electronic structure similar to donors or acceptors. STS measurements show that B in the GaAs {110} surfaces gives rise to a localized state short below the conduction band (CB) edge while in bulk GaAs, the B impurity state is resonant with the CB. The analysis of BxGa1-xAs/GaAs quantum wells reveals a good crystal quality and shows that the incorporation of B atoms in GaAs can be controlled along the [001] growth direction at the atomic level. Surprisingly, the formation of the first and fourth nearest neighbor B pairs, which are oriented along the directions, is strongly suppressed at a B concentration of 1% while the third nearest neighbor B pairs are found more than twice as often than expected for a completely spatially random pattern.

  16. Simulated and experimental spectroscopic performance of GaAs X-ray pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisogni, M.G.; Cola, A.; Fantacci, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    In pixel detectors, the electrode geometry affects the signal shape and therefore the spectroscopic performance of the device. This effect is enhanced in semiconductors where carrier trapping is relevant. In particular, semi insulating (SI) GaAs crystals present an incomplete charge collection due to a high concentration of deep traps in the bulk. In the last few years, SI GaAs pixel detectors have been developed as soft X-ray detectors for medical imaging applications. In this paper, we present a numerical method to evaluate the local charge collection properties of pixel detectors. A bi-dimensional description has been used to represent the detector geometry. According to recent models, the active region of a reverse biased SI GaAs detector is almost neutral. Therefore, the electrostatic potential inside a full active detector has been evaluated using the Laplace equation. A finite difference method with a fixed step orthogonal mesh has been adopted. The photon interaction point has been generated with a Monte Carlo method according to the attenuation length of a monochromatic X-ray beam in GaAs. The number of photogenerated carriers for each interaction has been extracted using a gaussian distribution. The induced signal on the collecting electrode has been calculated according to the Ramo's theorem and the trapping effect has been modeled introducing electron and hole lifetimes. The noise of the charge preamplifier have been also taken into account. A comparison between simulated and experimental X-ray spectra from a 241 Am source acquired with different GaAs pixel detectors has been carried out

  17. Emission of circularly polarized recombination radiation from p-doped GaAs and GaAs0.62P0.38 under the impact of polarized electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromme, B.; Baum, G.; Goeckel, D.; Raith, W.

    1989-01-01

    Circularly polarized light is emitted in radiative transitions of polarized electrons from the conduction to the valence band in GaAs or GaAs 1-x P x crystals. The degree of light polarization is directly related to the polarization of the conduction-band electrons at the instant of recombination and allows conclusions about the depolarization of electrons in the conduction band. The depolarization is caused by spin-relaxation processes. The efficiency of these processes depends on crystal type, crystal temperature, degree of doping, and kinetic energy of the electrons. Highly p-doped GaAs and GaAs 0.62 P 0.38 crystals (N A >1x10 19 atoms/cm 3 ) were bombarded with polarized electrons (initial polarization 38%), and the spectral distribution and the circular polarization of the emitted recombination radiation were measured. The initial kinetic energy of the electrons in the conduction band was varied between 5 and 1000 eV. The measurements of the spectral distribution show that the electrons are thermalized before recombination occurs, independent of their initial energy. An important thermalization process in this energy range is the excitation of crystal electrons by electron-hole pair creation. The circular polarization of the recombination radiation lies below 1% in the whole energy range. It decreases with increasing electron energy but is still of measurable magnitude at 100 eV in the case of GaAs 0.62 P 0.38 . The circular polarization is smaller for GaAs than for GaAs 0.62 P 0.38 , which we attribute to more efficient spin relaxation in GaAs

  18. Structural and morphological characterizations of ZnO films grown on GaAs substrates by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agouram, S.; Zuniga Perez, J.; Munoz-Sanjose, V. [Universitat de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Burjassot (Spain)

    2007-07-15

    ZnO films were grown on GaAs(100), GaAs(111)A and GaAs(111)B substrates by metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD). Diethylzinc (DEZn) and tertiarybutanol (t-butanol) were used as Zn and O precursors, respectively. The influence of the growth temperature and GaAs substrate orientation on the crystalline orientation and morphology of the ZnO grown films has been analysed. Crystallinity of grown films was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD); thickness and morphology of ZnO films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM results reveal significant differences between morphologies depending on growth temperature but not significant differences were detected on the texture of grown films. (orig.)

  19. High Pressure Spectroscopic Studies of AlGaAs, GaAs, and II-VI Semiconductors and Heterostructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chandrasekhar, Meera

    1997-01-01

    We have conducted four studies on three different but related materials. The first is a temperature study of a pseudomorphic epilayer of ZnSe on GaAs, where we measured the temperature dependence of the interlayer biaxial strain...

  20. GaAs monolayer: Excellent SHG responses and semi metallic to metallic transition modulated by vacancy effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozahun, Ilmira; Bahti, Tohtiaji; He, Guijie; Ghupur, Yasenjan; Ablat, Abduleziz; Mamat, Mamatrishat

    2018-05-01

    Monolayer materials are considered as a promising candidate for novel applications due to their attractive magnetic, electronic and optical properties. Investigation on nonlinear optical (NLO) properties and effect of vacancy on monolayer materials are vital to property modulations of monolayers and extending their applications. In this work, with the aid of first-principles calculations, the crystal structure, electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of GaAs monolayers with the vacancy were investigated. The result shows gallium arsenic (GaAs) monolayer produces a strong second harmonic generation (SHG) response. Meanwhile, the vacancy strongly affects structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties of GaAs monolayers. Furthermore, arsenic vacancy (VAs) brings semi metallic to metallic transition, while gallium vacancy (VGa) causes nonmagnetic to magnetic conversion. Our result reveals that GaAs monolayer possesses application potentials in Nano-amplifying modulator and Nano-optoelectronic devices, and may provide useful guidance in designing new generation of Nano-electronic devices.

  1. Influence of implantation conditions of He+ ions on the structure of a damaged layer in GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbachev, Kirill; Bailey, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation into the influence of implantation conditions (dose, energy, and target temperature) of He + ions on the damage structure of GaAs (100) substrates was performed by HRXRD, scanning electron microscopy, and Nomarski microscopy. Blistering is shown to become apparent as characteristic features of isolines in RSMs. We propose that the formation of the defects yielding a characteristic XRDS is defined by the behavior of implanted atoms in the GaAs matrix, depending on two competing processes: (1) formation of the gas-filled bubbles; (2) diffusion of the He atoms from the bubbles toward the surface and deep into the GaAs substrate. We conclude that the gas-filled bubbles change the structure of the irradiated layer, resulting in the formation of strained crystalline areas of the GaAs matrix. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Direct Growth of High-Quality InP Layers on GaAs Substrates by MOCVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. F. Yarn

    2003-01-01

    group V partial pressure, growth rate and V/III ratios. A mirror-like, uniform surface and high crystal quality of the metamorphic buffer layer directly grown on a GaAs substrate can be achieved. Finally, to investigate the performance of the metamorphic microwave devices, we also fabricate the InAlAs/InGaAs metamorphic HEMT on GaAs substrates.

  3. Mass and energy dispersive recoil spectrometry of GaAs structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, M.

    1994-01-01

    Mass and energy dispersive Recoil Spectrometry (RS) using heavy ions at energies of about 0.2Α-0.8Α MeV has attracted much interest recently due to its potential for separately and unambiguously generating information on isotopic depth distributions. The principal advantages of mass and energy dispersive RS are that both light and heavy elements can be separately studied simultaneously and problems caused by chemical matrix effects are avoided since the technique is based on high energy nucleus-nucleus scattering. In order to elucidate reactions taking place in various GaAs structures, Time of flight-Energy (ToF-E) RS was developed to allow Ga and As to be studied separately down to depths of about 500-800 nm with a depth resolution of about 16 nm at the surface. This was shown in a study of an Al x Ga 1-x As quantum-well structure. The benefits of using ToF-E RS on GaAs structures were further demonstrated in studies of Co/GaAs and CoSi 2 /GaAs reactions, as well as in a study of the composition of MOCVD grown Al x Ga 1-x As. Most recoil measurements employed 127 I at energies of about 50-90 MeV as projectiles. The recoil detector telescope consisted of a silicon energy detector and two carbon foil time pick-off detectors separated by a variable flight length of 213.5-961 mm. The reactions taking place between various thin films and GaAs were also studied using complementary techniques such as XRD, XPS and SEM. Co was found to react extensively with GaAs, already at about 300 degrees C, making it unsuitable as a contact material. Thin films of Co and Si were found to react extensively with each other and to form CoSi 2 at 500 degrees C and above. CoSi 2 , a low resistivity silicide, turned out to be stable on GaAs, at least up to 700 degrees C. Considerable grain growth could cause problems, however, in the use of CoSi 2 -contacts. 112 refs, figs, tabs

  4. Novel anti-reflection technology for GaAs single-junction solar cells using surface patterning and Au nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjo; Lam, Nguyen Dinh; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Sangin; Rotermund, Fabian; Lim, Hanjo; Lee, Jaejin

    2012-07-01

    Single-junction GaAs solar cell structures were grown by low-pressure MOCVD on GaAs (100) substrates. Micro-rod arrays with diameters of 2 microm, 5 microm, and 10 microm were fabricated on the surfaces of the GaAs solar cells via photolithography and wet chemical etching. The patterned surfaces were coated with Au nanoparticles using an Au colloidal solution. Characteristics of the GaAs solar cells with and without the micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles were investigated. The short-circuit current density of the GaAs solar cell with 2 microm rod arrays and Au nanoparticles increased up to 34.9% compared to that of the reference cell without micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs solar cell that was coated with Au nanoparticles on the patterned surface with micro-rod arrays can be improved from 14.1% to 19.9% under 1 sun AM 1.5G illumination. These results show that micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticle coating can be applied together in surface patterning to achieve a novel cost-effective anti-reflection technology.

  5. Superconducting NbN single-photon detectors on GaAs with an AlN buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Ekkehart; Merker, Michael; Ilin, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    GaAs is the material of choice for photonic integrated circuits. It allows the monolithic integration of single-photon sources like quantum dots, waveguide based optical circuits and detectors like superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) onto one chip. The growth of high quality NbN films on GaAs is challenging, due to natural occurring surface oxides and the large lattice mismatch of about 27%. In this work, we try to overcome these problems by the introduction of a 10 nm AlN buffer layer. Due to the buffer layer, the critical temperature of 6 nm thick NbN films was increased by about 1.5 K. Furthermore, the critical current density at 4.2 K of NbN flim deposited onto GaAs with AlN buffer is 50% higher than of NbN film deposited directly onto GaAs substrate. We successfully fabricated NbN SNSPDs on GaAs with a AlN buffer layer. SNSPDs were patterned using electron-beam lithography and reactive-ion etching techniques. Results on the study of detection efficiency and jitter of a NbN SNSPD on GaAs, with and without AlN buffer layer will be presented and discussed.

  6. Growth of High-Quality GaAs on Ge by Controlling the Thickness and Growth Temperature of Buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xu-Liang; Pan, Jiao-Qing; Yu, Hong-Yan; Li, Shi-Yan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Bian, Jing; Wang, Wei

    2014-12-01

    High-quality GaAs thin films grown on miscut Ge substrates are crucial for GaAs-based devices on silicon. We investigate the effect of different thicknesses and temperatures of GaAs buffer layers on the crystal quality and surface morphology of GaAs on Ge by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Through high resolution x-ray diffraction measurements, it is demonstrated that the full width at half maximum for the GaAs epilayer (Ge substrate) peak could achieve 19.3 (11.0) arcsec. The value of etch pit density could be 4×104 cm-2. At the same time, GaAs surfaces with no pyramid-shaped pits are obtained when the buffer layer growth temperature is lower than 360°C, due to effective inhibition of initial nucleation at terraces of the Ge surface. In addition, it is shown that large island formation at the initial stage of epitaxial growth is a significant factor for the final rough surface and that this initial stage should be carefully controlled when a device quality GaAs surface is desired.

  7. Shallow Levels Characterization in Epitaxial GaAs by Acousto-Optic Reflectance Shallow Levels Characterization in Epitaxial GaAs by Acousto-Optic Reflectance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Ibarra-Manzano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical spectra of light reflection are detected under an influence of ultrasonic wave (UWon a GaAs wafer. The differential spectrum is calculated as a difference between those taken under UW and without that influence on a sample. This acousto-optic differential reflectance(AODR spectrum contains some bands that represent the energetic levels of the shallow centers in a sample. A physical basis of this technique is related to a perturbation of local states by UW. Here, a method is developed for characterization of local states at the surfaces and interfaces in crystals and low-dimensional epitaxial structures based on microelectronics materials. A theoretical model is presented to explain AODR spectra. Also, experiments using epitaxial GaAs structures doped by Te were made. Finally, theoretical and experimental results show that acousto-optic reflectance is an effective tool for characterization of shallow trapping centers in epitaxial semiconductor structures.En este trabajo, utilizamos el espectro de la luz reflejada en una muestra de Arsenuro de Galio (GaAs bajo la influencia de una onda ultrasónica. El diferencial espectral es calculado como una diferencia entre el espectro del material obtenido bajo la influencia del ultrasonido y aquél obtenido sin dicha influencia. Este diferencial de reflectancia espectral acusto-óptico (AODR contiene algunas bandas que representan los niveles energéticos de los centros en la superficie de la muestra. Esta técnica está basada en la perturbación de los estados locales generada por el ultrasonido. Particularmente, este trabajo presenta un método para caracterizar los estados locales en la superficie y las interfaces en los cristales, así como estructuras epiteliales de baja dimensión basadas en materiales semiconductores. Para ello, se presenta un modelo teórico para explicar dicho espectro de reflectancia diferencial (AODR. También se realizaron experimentos con estructuras de GaAs epitelial

  8. GaAs Solar Cells on V-Grooved Silicon via Selective Area Growth: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Emily L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jain, Nikhil [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tamboli, Adele C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Vaisman, Michelle [Yale University; Li, Qiang [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Lau, Kei May [Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

    2017-08-31

    Interest in integrating III-Vs onto Si has recently resurged as a promising pathway towards high-efficiency, low-cost tandem photovoltaics. Here, we present a single junction GaAs solar cell grown monolithically on polished Si (001) substrates using V-grooves, selective area growth, and aspect ratio trapping to mitigate defect formation without the use of expensive, thick graded buffers. The GaAs is free of antiphase domains and maintains a relatively low TDD of 4x107 cm-2, despite the lack of a graded buffer. This 6.25 percent-efficient demonstration solar cell shows promise for further improvements to III-V/Si tandems to enable cost-competitive photovoltaics.

  9. The miniband spectrum in (AlAs) sub M (GaAs) sub N (111)

    CERN Document Server

    Karavaev, G F; Egunov, R M

    2002-01-01

    The electron states for energies in the conduction band of (AlAs) sub M (GaAs) sub N (111) superlattices with M >= N (N < 10) are considered. The properties of such superlattices are mainly determined by electrons of X-valley in AlAs and L-valley in GaAs. The calculations are carried out on the basis of the envelope-function model of interface band mixing. Miniband spectra, symmetry and localization of wave functions, and also probabilities of the interminiband infrared absorption are defined and analyzed. It is shown that the latter have a significant magnitude not only at light polarization along the superlattice growth axis, but also at normal incidence of a light wave to the surface. The analysis has been normal incidence of a light wave to the surface. The analysis has shown the importance of consideration of X sub 5 -states belonging to the valence band for infrared absorption

  10. Optical anisotropy induced by mechanical strain around the fundamental gap of GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega-Gallegos, J.; Lastras-Martinez, A.; Lastras-Martinez, L.F. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Balderas-Navarro, R.E. [Instituto de Investigacion en Comunicacion Optica, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, San Luis Potosi (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    We report on a theoretical-experimental study of reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS) of GaAs (001) crystals under uniaxial stress. The study was carried out in the energy region around the fundamental transition. RAS spectra in the energy range from 1.2-1.7 eV were measured with a photoelastic-modulator-based spectrometer. To induce an optical anisotropy, the GaAs crystals were thinned down to 400 {mu}m and an calibrated uniaxial stress was applied by deflection. RAS showed a line shape consisting of an oscillation at around E{sub 0}. On the basis of a perturbative approach employing the Pikus-Bir Hamiltonian, we calculated the RAS line shape and found a close agreement with the experimental spectra. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  11. Temperature dependence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions in GaAs wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Fu, J.Y.

    2016-01-01

    We have recently shown [Fu and Egues, Phys. Rev. B 91 (2015) 075408] unusual properties of the spin–orbit (SO) interaction in relatively wide quantum wells, e.g., the second subband Rashba term can vanish even in asymmetric configurations. Here we report our theoretical investigation on the temperature dependence of Rashba and Dresselhaus SO interactions in GaAs both relatively narrow and wide wells, having the electron occupancy of one and two subbands, respectively. We consider all relevant intra- and intersubband SO terms. We find that the variation of intrasubband couplings as temperatures range from 0.3 to 300 K could attain, ∼meV Å, the order of usual magnitudes for SO terms in GaAs wells. Moreover, we observe distinct behaviors of the SO interaction of the two subbands, as functions of temperature. On the other band, we find that the intersubband SO terms have a relatively weak temperature dependence.

  12. Temperature dependence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin–orbit interactions in GaAs wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W. [Department of Physics, Jining University, 273155 Qufu, Shandong (China); Fu, J.Y., E-mail: jiyongfu78@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Qufu Normal University, 273165 Qufu, Shandong (China); Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, 13560-970 São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, 13565-905 São Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-01

    We have recently shown [Fu and Egues, Phys. Rev. B 91 (2015) 075408] unusual properties of the spin–orbit (SO) interaction in relatively wide quantum wells, e.g., the second subband Rashba term can vanish even in asymmetric configurations. Here we report our theoretical investigation on the temperature dependence of Rashba and Dresselhaus SO interactions in GaAs both relatively narrow and wide wells, having the electron occupancy of one and two subbands, respectively. We consider all relevant intra- and intersubband SO terms. We find that the variation of intrasubband couplings as temperatures range from 0.3 to 300 K could attain, ∼meV Å, the order of usual magnitudes for SO terms in GaAs wells. Moreover, we observe distinct behaviors of the SO interaction of the two subbands, as functions of temperature. On the other band, we find that the intersubband SO terms have a relatively weak temperature dependence.

  13. Weak interaction between germanene and GaAs(0001) by H intercalation: A route to exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.

    2013-11-13

    Epitaxial germanene on a semiconducting GaAs(0001) substrate is studied by ab initio calculations. The germanene-substrate interaction is found to be strong for direct contact but can be substantially reduced by H intercalation at the interface. Our results indicate that it is energetically possible to take the germanene off the GaAs(0001) substrate. While mounted on the substrate, the electronic structure shows a distinct Dirac cone shift above the Fermi energy with a splitting of 175 meV. On the other hand, we find for a free standing sheet a band gap of 24 meV, which is due to the intrinsic spin orbit coupling.

  14. Spectral dependence of the refractive index of single-crystalline GaAs for optical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnichenko, V G; Nazaryants, V O; Kryukova, E B; Dianov, E M

    2010-01-01

    The refractive index of crystalline GaAs is measured by the method of interference refractometry in the wavenumber range from 10 500 to 540 cm -1 (or the wavelength range from 0.9 to 18.6 μm) with a resolution of 0.1 cm -1 . The measurement results are approximated by the generalized Cauchy dispersion formula of the 8th power. Spectral wavelength dependences of the first- and second-order derivatives of the refractive index are calculated, and the zero material dispersion wavelength is found to be λ 0 = 6.61 μm. Using three GaAs plates of different thicknesses we managed to raise the refractive index measurement accuracy up to 4 x 10 -4 or 0.02%, being nearly by an order of magnitude better than the data available.

  15. MIM capacitors with various Al2O3 thicknesses for GaAs RFIC application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jiahui; Xu Wenjun; Li Qi; Li Simin; He Zhiyi; Li Haiou; Chang Hudong; Liu Honggang; Liu Guiming

    2015-01-01

    The impact of various thicknesses of Al 2 O 3 metal—insulator—metal (MIM) capacitors on direct current and radio frequency (RF) characteristics is investigated. For 20 nm Al 2 O 3 , the fabricated capacitor exhibits a high capacitance density of 3850 pF/mm 2 and acceptable voltage coefficients of capacitance of 681 ppm/V 2 at 1 MHz. An outstanding VCC-α of 74 ppm/V 2 at 1 MHz, resonance frequency of 8.2 GHz and Q factor of 41 at 2 GHz are obtained by 100 nm Al 2 O 3 MIM capacitors. High-performance MIM capacitors using GaAs process and atomic layer deposition Al 2 O 3 could be very promising candidates for GaAs RFIC applications. (paper)

  16. The Mn site in Mn-doped GaAs nanowires: an EXAFS study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Acapito, F; Rovezzi, M; Boscherini, F; Jabeen, F; Bais, G; Piccin, M; Rubini, S; Martelli, F

    2012-01-01

    We present an EXAFS study of the Mn atomic environment in Mn-doped GaAs nanowires. Mn doping has been obtained either via the diffusion of the Mn used as seed for the nanowire growth or by providing Mn during the growth of Au-induced wires. As a general finding, we observe that Mn forms chemical bonds with As but is not incorporated in a substitutional site. In Mn-induced GaAs wires, Mn is mostly found bonded to As in a rather disordered environment and with a stretched bond length, reminiscent of that exhibited by MnAs phases. In Au-seeded nanowires, along with stretched MnAs coordination, we have found the presence of Mn in a MnAu intermetallic compound. (paper)

  17. Spectral dependence of the refractive index of single-crystalline GaAs for optical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotnichenko, V G; Nazaryants, V O; Kryukova, E B; Dianov, E M, E-mail: victor@fo.gpi.ac.r [Fibre Optics Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 38 Vavilov Street, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation)

    2010-03-17

    The refractive index of crystalline GaAs is measured by the method of interference refractometry in the wavenumber range from 10 500 to 540 cm{sup -1} (or the wavelength range from 0.9 to 18.6 {mu}m) with a resolution of 0.1 cm{sup -1}. The measurement results are approximated by the generalized Cauchy dispersion formula of the 8th power. Spectral wavelength dependences of the first- and second-order derivatives of the refractive index are calculated, and the zero material dispersion wavelength is found to be {lambda}{sub 0} = 6.61 {mu}m. Using three GaAs plates of different thicknesses we managed to raise the refractive index measurement accuracy up to 4 x 10{sup -4} or 0.02%, being nearly by an order of magnitude better than the data available.

  18. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  19. Modulation of low-frequency oscillations in GaAs MESFETs' channel current by sidegating bias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Yong; LU Shengli; ZHAO Fuchuan

    2005-01-01

    Low-frequency oscillations in channel current are usually observed when measuring the GaAs MESFET's output characteristics. This paper studies the oscillations by testing the MESFET's output characteristics under different sidegate bias conditions. It is shown that the low-frequency oscillations of channel current are directly related to the sidegate bias. In other words, the sidegate bias can modulate the oscillations. Whether the sidegate bias varies positively or negatively, there will inevitably be a threshold voltage after which the low-frequency oscillations disappear. The observation is strongly dependent upon the peculiarities of channel-substrate (C-S) junction and impact ionization of traps-EL2 under high field. This conclusion is of particular pertinence to the design of low-noise GaAs IC's.

  20. Creation of oxygen-enriched layers at the surface of GaAs single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, M.; Maczka, D.; Kobzev, A.P.

    1999-01-01

    The optical properties and the element depth profiles at the (100) plane high resistant and noncomposite GaAs single crystals implanted with In ions were investigated. The results have been compared with those obtained for virgin samples. The optic properties for all of the samples (implanted and not implanted, annealed and not annealed) have been measured using the ellipsometric method. The element depth profiles for the same samples have been obtained by the RBS and NRA techniques. It has been shown that the post-implantation annealing at a temperature more than 600 deg C leads to a ten time increase in contents of oxygen atoms in the implanted layer with respect to the not annealed sample. The thickness of the transparence layer at the surface of GaAs single crystal increases also after implantation with In ions and subsequent annealing

  1. Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietti, Sergio; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano; Fedorov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E A =1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D 0  = 0.53(×2.1±1) cm 2 s −1 that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

  2. The lower yield point of InP and GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siethoff, H.

    1987-01-01

    A study of the strain-rate and temperature dependence of the lower yield stress (τ ly ) in undoped InP and of the strain-rate dependence of τ ly in undoped and Zn-doped GaAs is reported. The deformation along (123) orientation was carried out in compression at constant strain rates ranging from 10 -5 to 10 -2 s -1 . The temperature range extended from 540 to 780 0 C. The activation energy and stress exponent of the dislocation velocity were calculated. Experiments have shown that τ ly of InP depends on temperature and strain rate in a manner similar to other semiconductors like Si and InSb, whereas τ ly of GaAs shows an unusual strain-rate dependence

  3. Final states in Si and GaAs via RF μSR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreitzman, S.R.; Pfiz, T.; Riseman, T.M.; Brewer, J.H.; Williams, D.L.; Sun-Mack, S.; Estle, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    The ionization of muonium centers in Si and GaAs have been studied using radio frequency (RF) resonant techniques. In Si all three muonic centers are detectable by RF. No evidence was found for delayed Mu and Mu * states at any temperature. However, our results on the diamagnetic final state (μ f + ) show that it is composed of prompt fractions (as seen by conventional μSR) and delayed fractions arising from the ionization of Mu * and Mu. We observe a full μ f + fraction at 317 K when the Mu relaxation rate is above 10 μs -1 . GaAs differs from the situation in Si in that we observed only a partial conversion of Mu * and Mu to a μ + final state up to 310 K in spite of the fact that the transverse field relaxation rates become very high at 150 and 250 K respectively. (orig.)

  4. Final states in Si and GaAs via RF μSR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitzman, S. R.; Pfiz, T.; Sun-Mack, S.; Riseman, T. M.; Brewer, J. H.; Williams, D. Ll.; Estle, T. L.

    1991-02-01

    The ionization of muonium centers in Si and GaAs have been studied using radio frequency (RF) resonant techniques. In Si all three muonic centers are detectable by RF. No evidence was found for delayed Mu and Mu* states at any temperature. However, our results on the diamagnetic final state (μ{f/+}) show that it is composed of prompt fractions (as seen by conventional μSR) and delayed fractions arising from the ionization of Mu* and Mu. We observe a full μ{f/+} fraction at 317 K when the Mu relaxation rate is above 10 μs-1. GaAs differs from the situation in Si in that we observed only a partial conversion of Mu* and Mu to a μ+ final state up to 310 K in spite of the fact that the transverse field relaxation rates become very high at 150 and 250 K respectively.

  5. Formation of columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots on GaAs(100)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, J.; Noetzel, R.; Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Gong, Q.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots (QDs) with homogeneous composition and shape in the growth direction are realized by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(100) substrates. The columnar (In,Ga)As QDs are formed on InAs seed QDs by alternating deposition of thin GaAs intermediate layers and monolayers of InAs with extended growth interruptions after each layer. The height of the columnar (In,Ga)As QDs is controlled by varying the number of stacked GaAs/InAs layers. The structural and optical properties are studied by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. With increase of the aspect ratio of the columnar QDs, the emission wavelength is redshifted and the linewidth is reduced

  6. Optical pumping and negative luminescence polarization in charged GaAs quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabaev, Andrew; Stinaff, Eric A.; Bracker, Allan S.; Gammon, Daniel; Efros, Alexander L.; Korenev, Vladimir L.; Merkulov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    Optical pumping of electron spins and negative photoluminescence polarization are observed when interface quantum dots in a GaAs quantum well are excited nonresonantly by circularly polarized light. Both observations can be explained by the formation of long-lived dark excitons through hole spin relaxation in the GaAs quantum well prior to exciton capture. In this model, optical pumping of resident electron spins is caused by capture of dark excitons and recombination in charged quantum dots. Negative polarization results from accumulation of dark excitons in the quantum well and is enhanced by optical pumping. The dark exciton model describes the experimental results very well, including intensity and bias dependence of the photoluminescence polarization and the Hanle effect.

  7. Weak interaction between germanene and GaAs(0001) by H intercalation: A route to exfoliation

    KAUST Repository

    Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    Epitaxial germanene on a semiconducting GaAs(0001) substrate is studied by ab initio calculations. The germanene-substrate interaction is found to be strong for direct contact but can be substantially reduced by H intercalation at the interface. Our results indicate that it is energetically possible to take the germanene off the GaAs(0001) substrate. While mounted on the substrate, the electronic structure shows a distinct Dirac cone shift above the Fermi energy with a splitting of 175 meV. On the other hand, we find for a free standing sheet a band gap of 24 meV, which is due to the intrinsic spin orbit coupling.

  8. Intermediate band solar cell simulation use InAs quantum dot in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendra P, I. B.; Rahayu, F.; Sahdan, M. F.; Darma, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Intermediate band solar cell (IBSC) has become a new approach in increasing solar cell efficiency significantly. One way to create intermediate band is by proposing quantum dots (QD) technology. One of the important aspects in utilizing IBSC is the absorption of light. In this work we simulated the influence of QD arrangement in order to increase absorption coefficient and solar cell efficiency. We also simulated the influence of QD size to capture a wider light spectrum. We present a simple calculation method with low computing power demand. Results show that the increasing in quantum dot size can increase in capturing wider spectrum of light. Arrangement InAs QD in bulk material GaAs can capture wider spectrum of light and increase the absorption coefficient. The arrangement InAs QD 2 nm in GaAs bulk can increase solar cell efficiency up to 49.68%

  9. Effect of band gap narrowing on GaAs tunnel diode I-V characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebib, A.; Hannanchi, R. [Laboratoire d' énergie et de matériaux, LabEM-LR11ES34-Université de sousse (Tunisia); Beji, L., E-mail: lotbej_fr@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire d' énergie et de matériaux, LabEM-LR11ES34-Université de sousse (Tunisia); EL Jani, B. [Unité de Recherche sur les Hétéro-Epitaxies et Applications, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Monastir, 5019 Monastir (Tunisia)

    2016-12-01

    We report on experimental and theoretical study of current-voltage characteristics of C/Si-doped GaAs tunnel diode. For the investigation of the experimental data, we take into account the band-gap narrowing (BGN) effect due to heavily-doped sides of the tunnel diode. The BGN of the n- and p-sides of tunnel diode was measured by photoluminescence spectroscopy. The comparison between theoretical results and experimental data reveals that BGN effect enhances tunneling currents and hence should be considered to identify more accurately the different transport mechanisms in the junction. For C/Si-doped GaAs tunnel diode, we found that direct tunneling is the dominant transport mechanism at low voltages. At higher voltages, this mechanism is replaced by the rate-controlling tunneling via gap states in the forbidden gap.

  10. Sulfur passivation and contact methods for GaAs nanowire solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajik, N; Peng, Z; Kuyanov, P; LaPierre, R R

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sulfur passivation on core-shell p-n junction GaAs nanowire (NW) solar cells has been investigated. Devices of two types were investigated, consisting of indium tin oxide contact dots or opaque Au finger electrodes. Lateral carrier transport from the NWs to the contact fingers was achieved via a p-doped GaAs surface conduction layer. NWs between the opaque contact fingers had sidewall surfaces exposed for passivation by sulfur. The relative cell efficiency increased by 19% upon passivation. The contribution of the thin film grown between the NWs to the total cell efficiency was estimated by removing the NWs using a sonication procedure. Mechanisms of carrier transport and photovoltaic effects are discussed on the basis of spatially resolved laser scanning measurements.

  11. Diffusion of $^{56}$Co in GaAs and SiGe alloys

    CERN Multimedia

    Koskelo, O K

    2007-01-01

    Following our previous diffusion studies performed with the modified radiotracer technique, we propose to determine the diffusion of cobalt in GaAs and SiGe alloys under intrinsic conditions. In the literature only three previous studies for Co diffusion in GaAs may be found and the results differ by over four orders of magnitude from each other. For Co diffusion in SiGe alloys no previous data is available in the literature. For Co diffusion in Ge one study may be found but the results have been obtained with material having increased dislocation density. For dislocation-free material no previous measurements are available. For such experiments we ask for two runs of 3 shifts (total of 6 shifts) with $^{56}$Co$^{+}$ ion beam.

  12. TEM study of the indentation behaviour of thin Au film on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarche, G.; Le Bourhis, E.; Faurie, D.; Renault, P.O.

    2004-01-01

    Au films of 8.9 nm thickness have been sputter deposited onto a (001) GaAs substrate at room temperature. An average grain size of 10 nm and no texture were obtained. Subsequent, nanoindentation tests were performed on the coated specimens and the mechanical response was compared to that of a bulk GaAs sample with the same crystallographic orientation. Furthermore, the loading-unloading curves were analysed in view of transmission electron microscopy plan-view images obtained on the deformed substrate-film specimens and compared to results previously reported in the literature for bulk sample. Constrained plasticity of the films was observed to occur for residual depth to thickness ratio below 0.67. Further, plastic deformation of the substrate happened on coated specimens at loads less than those required to plastically deform bare substrate

  13. Annealing of low-temperature GaAs studied using a variable energy positron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeble, D.J.; Umlor, M.T.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Lynn, K.G.; Cooke, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    The annihilation characteristics of monoenergetic positrons implanted in a molecular beam epitaxy layer of low-temperature (LT) GaAs annealed at temperatures from 300 to 600 degree C were measured. A gallium vacancy concentration of approximately 3x10 17 cm -3 is inferred for the as-grown material. The S parameter increased significantly upon anneal to 500 degree C. The dominant positron traps in samples annealed at and below 400 degree C are distinct from those acting for samples annealed to 500 or 600 degree C. The change in S parameter for the 600 degree C annealed sample compared to the GaAs substrate, S LT,600 =1.047S sub , is consistent with divacancies or larger open volume defects

  14. Electrons, holes, and excitons in GaAs polytype quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Climente, Juan I.; Segarra, Carlos; Rajadell, Fernando; Planelles, Josep, E-mail: josep.planelles@uji.es [Departament de Química Física i Analítica, Universitat Jaume I, E-12080 Castelló (Spain)

    2016-03-28

    Single and multi-band k⋅p Hamiltonians for GaAs crystal phase quantum dots are used to assess ongoing experimental activity on the role of such factors as quantum confinement, spontaneous polarization, valence band mixing, and exciton Coulomb interaction. Spontaneous polarization is found to be a dominating term. Together with the control of dot thickness [Vainorius et al., Nano Lett. 15, 2652 (2015)], it enables wide exciton wavelength and lifetime tunability. Several new phenomena are predicted for small diameter dots [Loitsch et al., Adv. Mater. 27, 2195 (2015)], including non-heavy hole ground state, strong hole spin admixture, and a type-II to type-I exciton transition, which can be used to improve the absorption strength and reduce the radiative lifetime of GaAs polytypes.

  15. Determination of the thickness of chemically removed thin layers on GaAs VPE structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, K.; Nemeth-Sallay, M.; Nemcsics, A. (Research Inst. for Technical Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary))

    1991-01-01

    Thinning of epitaxial GaAs layers was studied during the surface etching, with a special attention to submicron epitaxial structures, like MESFET or varactor-type structures. Each chemical treatment influences the crystal surface during the device preparation processes, though the possible thinning of the active layer is small. Therefore a method allowing determination of thicknesses as small as at about 20 nm of the layer removed by chemical etching from GaAs VPE structures was applied. Using special multilayered structures and a continuous electrochemical carrier concentration depth profiling, the influence of the layer thickness inhomogeneity and of some measurement errors can be minimized. Some frequently used etchants and the influence of different - so called - non-etching processes were compared in different combinations. It was shown that besides the direct etching a change of the surface conditions occurs, which influences the etch rate in the succeeding etching procedure. (orig.).

  16. In situ electron backscattered diffraction of individual GaAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prikhodko, S.V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)], E-mail: sergey@seas.ucla.edu; Sitzman, S. [Oxford Instruments America, Concord, MA 01742 (United States); Gambin, V. [Northrop Grumman Space Technology, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 (United States); Kodambaka, S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2008-12-15

    We suggest and demonstrate that electron backscattered diffraction, a scanning electron microscope-based technique, can be used for non-destructive structural and morphological characterization of statistically significant number of nanowires in situ on their growth substrate. We obtain morphological, crystal phase, and crystal orientation information of individual GaAs nanowires in situ on the growth substrate GaAs(1 1 1) B. Our results, verified using transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction analyses of the same set of wires, indicate that most wires possess a wurtzite structure with a high density of thin structural defects aligned normal to the wire growth axis, while others grow defect-free with a zincblende structure. The demonstrated approach is general, applicable to other material systems, and is expected to provide important insights into the role of substrate structure on nanowire structure on nanowire crystallinity and growth orientation.

  17. Absorption from Neutral Acceptors in GaAs and GaP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    1973-01-01

    We present a new calculation of the absorption due to transitions of holes between neutral acceptors and the various valence-band sublevels in GaAs and GaP. The acceptor wave function was approximated by a previously suggested expression for ground-state wave functions appropriate to complicated...... band extrema. Numerical calculations of the absorption from intervalence-band transitions of free holes and neutral acceptors have been performed. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained....

  18. Inhomogeneity in barrier height at graphene/Si (GaAs) Schottky junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Tomer, D.; Rajput, S.; Hudy, L. J.; Li, C. H.; Li, L.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene interfaced with a semiconductor forms a Schottky junction with rectifying properties, however, fluctuations in the Schottky barrier height are often observed. In this work, Schottky junctions are fabricated by transferring chemical vapor deposited monolayer graphene onto n-type Si and GaAs substrates. Temperature dependence of the barrier height and ideality factor are obtained by current-voltage measurements between 215 and 350 K. An increase in the zero bias barrier height and decr...

  19. Imaging performance of a Timepix detector based on semi-insulating GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaťko, B.; Zápražný, Z.; Jakůbek, J.; Šagátová, A.; Boháček, P.; Sekáčová, M.; Korytár, D.; Nečas, V.; Žemlička, J.; Mora, Y.; Pichotka, M.

    2018-01-01

    This work focused on a Timepix chip [1] coupled with a bulk semi-insulating GaAs sensor. The sensor consisted of a matrix of 256 × 256 pixels with a pitch of 55 μm bump-bonded to a Timepix ASIC. The sensor was processed on a 350 μm-thick SI GaAs wafer. We carried out detector adjustment to optimize its performance. This included threshold equalization with setting up parameters of the Timepix chip, such as Ikrum, Pream, Vfbk, and so on. The energy calibration of the GaAs Timepix detector was realized using a 241Am radioisotope in two Timepix detector modes: time-over-threshold and threshold scan. An energy resolution of 4.4 keV in FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) was observed for 59.5 keV γ-photons using threshold scan mode. The X-ray imaging quality of the GaAs Timepix detector was tested using various samples irradiated by an X-ray source with a focal spot size smaller than 8 μm and accelerating voltage up to 80 kV. A 700 μm × 700 μm gold testing object (X-500-200-16Au with Siemens star) fabricated with high precision was used for the spatial resolution testing at different values of X-ray image magnification (up to 45). The measured spatial resolution of our X-ray imaging system was about 4 μm.

  20. Ab initio study of atomic disorder on as-rich GaAs(111)A surface

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Romanyuk, Olexandr; Mutombo, Pingo; Grosse, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 641, Nov (2015), s. 330-335 ISSN 0039-6028 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP204/10/P028 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101201 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : GaAs(111) * surface reconstructions * surface kinetics * density functional theory Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.931, year: 2015

  1. Valence band photoemission from in-situ grown GaAs(100)-c(4 x 4)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiříček, Petr; Cukr, Miroslav; Bartoš, Igor; Adell, M.; Strasser, T.; Schattke, W.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 1 (2006), s. 21-26 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Surface Physics /10./. Praha, 11.07.2005-15.07.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/04/0994 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : GaAs(100)-c(4X4) * surface states * band structure * structure plot Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  2. Dielectric constant of GaAs during a subpicosecond laser-induced phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Y.; Glezer, E. N.; Mazur, E.

    1994-06-01

    We measured the time evolution of the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of GaAs following femtosecond laser pulse excitation. The data show a collapse of the average optical gap, or average bonding-antibonding energy-level separation. The rate of collapse increases with pump fluence. The decrease in the gap indicates that the pump beam induces a structural transformation from a covalent, tetrahedrally coordinated crystal to a phase with metallic cohesive properties.

  3. High quality GaAs single photon emitters on Si substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bietti, S.; Sanguinetti, S.; Cavigli, L.; Accanto, N.; Vinattieri, A.; Minari, S.; Abbarchi, M.; Isella, G.; Frigeri, C.; Gurioli, M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a method for the direct epitaxial growth of a single photon emitter, based on GaAs quantum dots fabricated by droplet epitaxy, working at liquid nitrogen temperatures on Si substrates. The achievement of quantum photon statistics up to T=80 K is directly proved by antibunching in the second order correlation function as measured with a H anbury Brown and Twiss interferometer

  4. Perubahan Sel Imun Pulpitis Akibat Biomodulasi Laser GaA1As

    OpenAIRE

    Nugrohowati Nugrohowati

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to disclose the effect of GaA1As laser biomodulation on pulpitis immune response. The use of laser is still disputable, because of the biomodulation effect of laser remains unclear, particularly on immune response of pulpitis. Laser is  astressor because it produces stress wave that may cause stress on pulp. Modulation of immune system occurred in each variable of immune system component was considred to be GAS (General Adaptation Syndrome). The applied design ...

  5. Lattice location of diffused Zn atoms in GaAs and InP single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, L.Y.; Yu, K.M.; Ben-Tzur, M.; Haller, E.E.; Jaklevic, J.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Hanson, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    We have investigated the saturation phenomenon of the free carrier concentration in p-type GaAs and InP single crystals doped by zinc diffusion. The free hole saturation occurs at 10 20 cm -3 for GaAs, but the maximum concentration for InP appears at mid 10 18 cm -3 . The difference in the saturation hole concentrations for these materials is investigated by studying the incorporation and the lattice location of the impurity zinc, an acceptor when located on a group III atom site. Zinc is diffused into the III-V wafers in a sealed quartz ampoule. Particle-induced x-ray emission with ion-channeling techniques are employed to determine the exact lattice location of the zinc atoms. We have found that over 90% of all zinc atoms occupy Ga sites in the diffused GaAs samples, while for the InP case, the zinc substitutionality is dependent on the cooling rate of the sample after high-temperature diffusion. For the slowly cooled sample, a large fraction (∼90%) of the zinc atoms form random precipitates of Zn 3 P 2 and elemental Zn. However, when rapidly cooled only 60% of the zinc forms such precipitates while the rest occupies specific sites in the InP. We analyze our results in terms of the amphoteric native defect model. We show that the difference in the electrical activity of the Zn atoms in GaAs and InP is a consequence of the different location of the Fermi level stabilization energy in these two materials

  6. Modification of the Absorption Edge of GaAs Arising from Hot-Electron Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGroddy, J. C.; Christensen, Ove

    1973-01-01

    We have observed a large enhancement of the electric-field-induced optical absorption arising from hot-electron effects in n-type GaAs at 77 K. The magnitude and field dependence of the enhancement can be approximately accounted for by a theory attributing the effect to broadening of the final...... states of the optical transitions by interaction with the nonequilibrium optical phonons produced by the hot electrons....

  7. Study on the GaAs(110) surface using emitted atom spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayone, J.E.; Sanchez, E.A.; Grizzi, O.; Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza

    1998-01-01

    The facilities implemented at Bariloche for the ion scattering spectrometry is described, and recent examples of the technique application to determine the atomic structure and the composition of metallic and semiconductor surfaces, pure and with different adsorbates. The surface analysis technique using emitted atom spectrometry is discussed. The sensitivity to the GaAs(110) surface atomic relaxation is presented, and the kinetic of hydrogen adsorption by the mentioned surface is studied

  8. Energetics and Dynamics of GaAs Epitaxial Growth via Quantum Wave Packet Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzegilenko, Fedor N.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of As(sub 2) molecule incorporation into the flat Ga-terminated GaAs(100) surface is studied computationally. The time-dependent Schrodinger equation is solved on a two-dimensional potential energy surface obtained using density functional theory calculations. The probabilities of trapping and subsequent dissociation of the molecular As(sub 2) bond are calculated as a function of beam translational energy and vibrational quantum number of As(sub 2).

  9. TIME-DEPENDENT MOSSBAUER-SPECTROSCOPY AND 119MTE-IMPLANTED GAAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MO, D; ZHANG, GL; NIESEN, L; Waard , de Hendrik

    1991-01-01

    A new type of time-dependent Mossbauer spectroscopy is proposed and realized on the basis of using the two-step decay (119m)Te --> 113Sb --> Sn-119. For the GaAs samples, implanted with a dose of 110-keV (119m)Te + 10(15) stable Te/cm2 and annealed at 600-degrees-C, the relative intensities of

  10. P-type Ge epitaxy on GaAs (100) substrate grown by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y.J.; Chia, C.K.; Liu, H.F.; Wong, L.M.; Chai, J.W.; Chi, D.Z.; Wang, S.J., E-mail: sj-wang@imre.a-star.edu.sg

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • The heterogeneous integration of p-Ge/GaAs by MOCVD indicates significance for the application in optoelectronic devices such as p-MOSFET, dual band photodetector, etc. • Many undesired pillar-structures were observed on the p-Ge epilayers and we found that the cause of the pillar-like structures was related to the Ge-Ga dimers formed during the growth. • We found that a GaAs substrate with fewer Ga or Ge danglings was helpful in suppressing the formation of the unwanted pillar-like structures and thus obtaining high quality p-Ge epilayers. - Abstract: In this work, Ga-doped Geranium (Ge) films have been grown on GaAs (100) substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Undesired pillar structures have been observed on the epilayers prepared at relatively lower temperatures. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) indicated that the pillars are mainly consisted of Ga atoms, which is totally different from that of the Ge film. It was demonstrated that the pillar structures could be reduced by simply raising the growth temperature while keeping the other growth conditions unchanged. In this regard, the growth mechanism of the pillars was related to the Ge-Ga dimers formed during the growth of p-Ge films. By further studying the influence of a GaAs or Ge buffer layer on the growth of p-Ge layers, we found that the GaAs substrate with lower density of Ga or Ge dangling bonds was helpful in suppressing the formation of the undesired pillar structures.

  11. Optical Orientation of Mn2+ Ions in GaAs in Weak Longitudinal Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, I. A.; Dzhioev, R. I.; Korenev, V. L.; Kusrayev, Yu. G.; Sapega, V. F.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.

    2011-04-01

    We report on optical orientation of Mn2+ ions in bulk GaAs subject to weak longitudinal magnetic fields (B≤100mT). A manganese spin polarization of 25% is directly evaluated by using spin-flip Raman scattering. The dynamical Mn2+ polarization occurs due to the s-d exchange interaction with optically oriented conduction band electrons. Time-resolved photoluminescence reveals a nontrivial electron spin dynamics, where the oriented Mn2+ ions tend to stabilize the electron spins.

  12. Molecular Beam Epitaxial Growth of GaAs on (631) Oriented Substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Hernandez, Esteban; Rojas Ramirez, Juan-Salvador; Contreras Hernandez, Rocio; Lopez Lopez, Maximo; Pulzara Mora, Alvaro; Mendez Garcia, Victor H.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we report the study of the homoepitaxial growth of GaAs on (631) oriented substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). We observed the spontaneous formation of a high density of large scale features on the surface. The hilly like features are elongated towards the [-5, 9, 3] direction. We show the dependence of these structures with the growth conditions and we present the possibility of to create quantum wires structures on this surface

  13. Photovoltaic characteristics of diffused P/+N bulk GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, J. M.; Keeney, R. P.; Bhat, I. B.; Bhat, K. N.; Sundaram, L. G.; Ghandhi, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The photovoltaic characteristics of P(+)N junction solar cells fabricated on bulk GaAs by an open tube diffusion technique are described in this paper.Spectral response measurements were analyzed in detail and compared to a computer simulation in order to determine important material parameters. It is projected that proper optimization of the cell parameters can increase the efficiency of the cells from 12.2 percent to close to 20 percent.

  14. InP and GaAs characterization with variable stoichiometry obtained by molecular spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massies, J.; Linh, N. T.; Olivier, J.; Faulconnier, P.; Poirier, R.

    1979-01-01

    Both InP and GaAs surfaces were studied in parallel. A molecular spray technique was used to obtain two semiconductor surfaces with different superficial compositions. The structures of these surfaces were examined by electron diffraction. Electron energy loss was measured spectroscopically in order to determine surface electrical characteristics. The results are used to support conclusions relative to the role of surface composition in establishing a Schottky barrier effect in semiconductor devices.

  15. A study of the profile of the E3 electron trap in GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kourkoutas, C.D. (TEI Athens (Greece). Dept. of Physics Chemistry and Material Technology); Kovacs, B.; Szentpali, B.; Somogyi, K. (Research Inst. for Technical Physics, Budapest (Hungary)); Euthymiou, P.C. (Athens Univ. (Greece)); Giakoumakis, G.E. (Ioannina Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Physics)

    1994-01-01

    Electron irradiation at room temperature introduces in GaAs a donor type electronic state Tx at 0.18 eV, which is associated with the E3 electron trap. The presence of Tx is observed at depths d > 1.5 [mu]m, which correspond to the limits of the depletion region under the highest applied reverse bias voltage, while the E3 trap concentration drops off into the same region. (author).

  16. A study of the profile of the E3 electron trap in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kourkoutas, C.D.; Euthymiou, P.C.; Giakoumakis, G.E.

    1994-01-01

    Electron irradiation at room temperature introduces in GaAs a donor type electronic state Tx at 0.18 eV, which is associated with the E3 electron trap. The presence of Tx is observed at depths d > 1.5 μm, which correspond to the limits of the depletion region under the highest applied reverse bias voltage, while the E3 trap concentration drops off into the same region. (author)

  17. The influence of annealing on manganese implanted GaAs films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerger, Danilo; Zhou, Shengqiang; Grenzer, Joerg; Reuther, Helfried; Anwand, Wolfgang; Gottschalch, Volker; Helm, Manfred; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2009-01-01

    Besides low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy, ion implantation provides an alternative route to incorporate Mn into GaAs above the equilibrium solubility limit. Recently, Mn implanted GaAs diluted magnetic semiconductor was obtained by pulsed laser annealing. However, post-implantation annealing can lead to the formation of secondary phases. In order to compare the post-annealing effect, we investigate GaMnAs by implanting up to 6 at% Mn followed by rapid thermal and flashlamp annealing. The structural properties were probed by high resolution X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were determined by SQUID measurements. Auger electron spectroscopy has been used to profile the depth distribution of Mn in GaAs after implantation and annealing. We elucidate after implantation a loss of As and that during rapid thermal annealing most of the Mn diffuses towards the surface. Flash lamp annealing prevents out-diffusion, but the recrystallisation efficiency is low. Only the flash lamp annealed samples reveal weak ferromagnetism.

  18. Lifetime studies of self-activated photoluminescence in heavily silicon-doped GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauncy, T.; Palsule, C. P.; Holtz, M.; Gangopadhyay, S.; Massie, S.

    1996-01-01

    We report results of a detailed temperature dependence study of photoluminescence lifetime and continuous emission properties in silicon-doped GaAs. The primary focus is on a defect-related emission at 1.269 eV (T=20 K). GaAs crystals were grown using molecular-beam epitaxy with most of the experiments conducted on a sample having a carrier concentration of 4.9×1018 cm-3. The intensity is seen to decrease above 100 K, with no corresponding decrease in the measured lifetime of 9.63+/-0.25 ns. The intensity decrease implies an activation energy of 19+/-2 meV, which is approximately one order of magnitude smaller than what was previously obtained for similar defects in Czochralski-grown GaAs with other dopants. We interpret our results in terms of a configuration coordinate model and obtain a more complete picture of the energy-level structure. The experiments indicate that the upper level in the recombination process is about 20 meV below the conduction-band continuum, with the lower state approximately 300 meV above the valence band. Our results are consistent with the identification of the corresponding defect complex microstructure as being a silicon-at-gallium substitution, weakly interacting with a gallium vacancy second-nearest neighbor, known as the Si-Y defect complex.

  19. Heterojunction Diodes and Solar Cells Fabricated by Sputtering of GaAs on Single Crystalline Si

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Silvestre

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This work reports fabrication details of heterojunction diodes and solar cells obtained by sputter deposition of amorphous GaAs on p-doped single crystalline Si. The effects of two additional process steps were investigated: A hydrofluoric acid (HF etching treatment of the Si substrate prior to the GaAs sputter deposition and a subsequent annealing treatment of the complete layered system. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM exploration of the interface reveals the formation of a few nanometer thick SiO2 interface layer and some crystallinity degree of the GaAs layer close to the interface. It was shown that an additional HF etching treatment of the Si substrate improves the short circuit current and degrades the open circuit voltage of the solar cells. Furthermore, an additional thermal annealing step was performed on some selected samples before and after the deposition of an indium tin oxide (ITO film on top of the a-GaAs layer. It was found that the occurrence of surface related defects is reduced in case of a heat treatment performed after the deposition of the ITO layer, which also results in a reduction of the dark saturation current density and resistive losses.

  20. Anisotropic Pauli Spin Blockade of Holes in a GaAs Double Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingwen; Klochan, Oleh; Hung, Jo-Tzu; Culcer, Dimitrie; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David; Hamilton, Alex

    Electrically defined semiconductor quantum dots are appealing systems for spin manipulation and quantum information processing. Thanks to the weak hyperfine interaction and the strong spin-orbit interaction, heavy-holes in GaAs are promising candidates for all-electrical spin manipulation. However, making stable quantum dots in GaAs has only become possible recently, mainly because of difficulties in device fabrication and device stability. Here we present electrical transport measurements of heavy-holes in a lateral double quantum dot based on a GaAs /AlxGa1 - x As heterostructure. We observe clear Pauli spin blockade and show that the lifting of the spin blockade by an external magnetic field is extremely anisotropic. Numerical calculations of heavy-hole transport through a double quantum dot in the presence of strong spin-orbit interaction demonstrate quantitative agreement with experimental results, which indicates that the observed anisotropy can be explained by the anisotropic hole g-factor and the surface Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling.

  1. Intense electron beams from GaAs photocathodes as a tool for molecular and atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, Claude

    2009-01-01

    We present cesium-coated GaAs photocathodes as reliable sources of intense, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams in atomic and molecular physics experiments. In long-time operation of the Electron Target of the ion storage ring TSR in Heidelberg, cold electron beams could be realised at steadily improving intensity and reliability. Minimisation of processes degrading the quantum efficiency allowed to increase the extractable current to more than 1mA at usable cathode lifetimes of 24 h or more. The benefits of the cold electron beam with respect to its application to electron cooling and electron-ion recombination experiments are discussed. Benchmark experiments demonstrate the superior cooling force and energy resolution of the photoelectron beam compared to its thermionic counterparts. The long period of operation allowed to study the long-time behaviour of the GaAs samples during multiple usage cycles at the Electron Target and repeated in-vacuum surface cleaning by atomic hydrogen exposure. An electron emission spectroscopy setup has been implemented at the photocathode preparation chamber of the Electron Target. Among others, this new facility opened the way to a novel application of GaAs (Cs) photocathodes as robust, ultraviolet-driven electron emitters. Based on this principle, a prototype of an electron gun, designed for implementation at the HITRAP setup at GSI, has been built and taken into operation successfully. (orig.)

  2. Detection of oxygen-related defects in GaAs by exo-electron emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulluvarad, Shiva S.; Naddaf, M.; Bhoraskar, S. V.

    2001-10-01

    The influence of intentional introduction of oxygen, at the surface of GaAs, on its native surface states was studied. Oxygen was made to interact with the surface of GaAs by three different means: (1) by growing native oxides, (2) exposing to oxygen plasma in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma reactor and by (3) high energy oxygen ion irradiation. Thermally stimulated exo-electron emission (TSEE) spectroscopy was used to estimate the relative densities and energies of the surface states induced by the three different modes of introducing oxygen. Out of the two native defect levels found in GaAs by TSEE; at 325 K (0.7 eV below Ec) and at 415 K (0.9 below Ec); the former is seen to get broadened or split into multiple peaks in each of the methods. Multiple peaks in TSEE signify the presence of a closely spaced band of defect levels. Therefore the results exclusively point out that oxygen-related complexes contribute to the formation of a band of defects centered at 325 K in TSEE which is correlated to an energy level 0.7 eV below Ec known as the EL2 defect level. The results reported in this paper thus confirm that the TSEE peak at 0.7 eV below Ec is related to oxygen induced defects whereas the peak at 0.9 eV is not affected by the presence of oxygen-related species.

  3. Negative ion formation in the scattering of state-selected NO+ on GaAs(110)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.S.; Greeley, J.N.; Morris, J.R.; Ferenchok, B.T.; Jacobs, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    A hyperthermal beam of state-selected NO + X 1 Σ + (v,j) impinges on a clean, well characterized GaAs(110) surface. The resulting two-electron transfer products NO-and O- are independently interrogated with a novel ion imaging technique as a function of NO + translational and vibrational energies. The products are shown to have different appearance thresholds, product translational energy distributions, and NO + vibrational energy dependencies. Most notably, vibrational energy is an order of magnitude more effective that translational energy in activating O- formation at a collision energy of 45 eV. The O- angular distribution exhibits a correlation with translational energy which is asymmetric about the surface normal. These results suggest that the probability of O- formation is dependent on the molecules point of impact with the GaAs (110) surface. The dynamical features of the NO + /GaAs(110) reaction will be discussed in terms of the three independent coordinates addressed in this experiment: the diatom internuclear separation, the molecule-surface distance, and the surface impact parameter

  4. Towards low-dimensional hole systems in Be-doped GaAs nanowires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, A. R.; Gluschke, J. G.; Jeppesen, Peter Krogstrup

    2017-01-01

    -gates produced using GaAs nanowires with three different Be-doping densities and various AuBe contact processing recipes. We show that contact annealing only brings small improvements for the moderately doped devices under conditions of lower anneal temperature and short anneal time. We only obtain good......GaAs was central to the development of quantum devices but is rarely used for nanowire-based quantum devices with InAs, InSb and SiGe instead taking the leading role. p-type GaAs nanowires offer a path to studying strongly confined 0D and 1D hole systems with strong spin–orbit effects, motivating...... our development of nanowire transistors featuring Be-doped p-type GaAs nanowires, AuBe alloy contacts and patterned local gate electrodes towards making nanowire-based quantum hole devices. We report on nanowire transistors with traditional substrate back-gates and EBL-defined metal/oxide top...

  5. Polaron binding energy and effective mass in the GaAs film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhenhua; Yan Liangxing; Tian Qiang; Li Hua; Liu Bingcan

    2012-01-01

    The binding energy and effective mass of a polaron in a GaAs film deposited on the Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As substrate are studied theoretically by using the fractional-dimensional space approach. Our calculations show that the polaron binding energy and mass shift decrease monotonously with increasing the film thickness. For the film thicknesses with L w ≤ 70Å and the substrate thicknesses with L b ≤ 200Å, the different values of the substrate thickness influence the polaron binding energy and mass shift in the GaAs film. The polaron binding energy and mass shift increase monotonously with increasing the substrate thickness. For the film thickness with L w ≥ 70Å or the substrate thicknesses with L b ≤ 200Å, the different values of the substrate thickness have no significant influence on the polaron binding energy and mass shift in the GaAs film deposited on the Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 As substrate.

  6. Interface magnetism of iron grown on sulfur and hydrogen passivated GaAs(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardasz, B.; Watkins, S. P.; Montoya, E. A.; Burrowes, C.; Girt, E.; Heinrich, B.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfur (S) and hydrogen (H) atom passivated GaAs(001) templates were used for deposition of ultrathin crystalline Fe films using molecular beam epitaxy, where the Fe thickness ranged from 10 to 45 atomic layers. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns showed that the S- and H-passivated surfaces had no and very weak (1 x 2) superlattice reconstructions, respectively. This indicates that these GaAs(001) templates have a square-like symmetry. Magnetic anisotropies were investigated using the in-plane angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance at 36 GHz. The in-plane cubic and uniaxial anisotropies and perpendicular uniaxial field were described by bulk and interface contributions, indicating that the Fe films have a high lattice coherence. The magnetic properties of the Fe films were compared to those grown on more commonly used GaAs(001) templates having a (4 x 6) reconstruction with an As-rich in-plane uniaxial symmetry. The Fe films grown on S-passivated templates exhibited unique magnetic properties caused by a decreased lattice spacing compared to the bulk Fe.

  7. Interface magnetism of iron grown on sulfur and hydrogen passivated GaAs(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kardasz, B.; Watkins, S. P.; Montoya, E. A.; Burrowes, C.; Girt, E.; Heinrich, B.

    2012-04-01

    Sulfur (S) and hydrogen (H) atom passivated GaAs(001) templates were used for deposition of ultrathin crystalline Fe films using molecular beam epitaxy, where the Fe thickness ranged from 10 to 45 atomic layers. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction patterns showed that the S- and H-passivated surfaces had no and very weak (1 x 2) superlattice reconstructions, respectively. This indicates that these GaAs(001) templates have a square-like symmetry. Magnetic anisotropies were investigated using the in-plane angular dependence of ferromagnetic resonance at 36 GHz. The in-plane cubic and uniaxial anisotropies and perpendicular uniaxial field were described by bulk and interface contributions, indicating that the Fe films have a high lattice coherence. The magnetic properties of the Fe films were compared to those grown on more commonly used GaAs(001) templates having a (4 x 6) reconstruction with an As-rich in-plane uniaxial symmetry. The Fe films grown on S-passivated templates exhibited unique magnetic properties caused by a decreased lattice spacing compared to the bulk Fe.

  8. Detecting Fermi-level shifts by Auger electron spectroscopy in Si and GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debehets, J.; Homm, P.; Menghini, M.; Chambers, S. A.; Marchiori, C.; Heyns, M.; Locquet, J. P.; Seo, J. W.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, changes in surface Fermi-level of Si and GaAs, caused by doping and cleaning, are investigated by Auger electron spectroscopy. Based on the Auger voltage contrast, we compared the Auger transition peak energy but with higher accuracy by using a more accurate analyzer and an improved peak position determination method. For silicon, a peak shift as large as 0.46 eV was detected when comparing a cleaned p-type and n-type wafer, which corresponds rather well with the theoretical difference in Fermi-levels. If no cleaning was applied, the peak position did not differ significantly for both wafer types, indicating Fermi-level pinning in the band gap. For GaAs, peak shifts were detected after cleaning with HF and (NH4)2S-solutions in an inert atmosphere (N2-gas). Although the (NH4)2S-cleaning in N2 is very efficient in removing the oxygen from the surface, the observed Ga- and As-peak shifts are smaller than those obtained after the HF-cleaning. It is shown that the magnitude of the shift is related to the surface composition. After Si-deposition on the (NH4)2S-cleaned surface, the Fermi-level shifts back to a similar position as observed for an as-received wafer, indicating that this combination is not successful in unpinning the Fermi-level of GaAs.

  9. GaAs nanowire array solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Maoqing; Huang, Ningfeng; Cong, Sen; Chi, Chun-Yung; Seyedi, M Ashkan; Lin, Yen-Ting; Cao, Yu; Povinelli, Michelle L; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-06-11

    Because of unique structural, optical, and electrical properties, solar cells based on semiconductor nanowires are a rapidly evolving scientific enterprise. Various approaches employing III-V nanowires have emerged, among which GaAs, especially, is under intense research and development. Most reported GaAs nanowire solar cells form p-n junctions in the radial direction; however, nanowires using axial junction may enable the attainment of high open circuit voltage (Voc) and integration into multijunction solar cells. Here, we report GaAs nanowire solar cells with axial p-i-n junctions that achieve 7.58% efficiency. Simulations show that axial junctions are more tolerant to doping variation than radial junctions and lead to higher Voc under certain conditions. We further study the effect of wire diameter and junction depth using electrical characterization and cathodoluminescence. The results show that large diameter and shallow junctions are essential for a high extraction efficiency. Our approach opens up great opportunity for future low-cost, high-efficiency photovoltaics.

  10. Tunneling effect on double potential barriers GaAs and PbS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastowo, S. H. B.; Supriadi, B.; Ridlo, Z. R.; Prihandono, T.

    2018-04-01

    A simple model of transport phenomenon tunnelling effect through double barrier structure was developed. In this research we concentrate on the variation of electron energy which entering double potential barriers to transmission coefficient. The barriers using semiconductor materials GaAs (Galium Arsenide) with band-gap energy 1.424 eV, distance of lattice 0.565 nm, and PbS (Lead Sulphide) with band gap energy 0.41 eV distance of lattice is 18 nm. The Analysisof tunnelling effect on double potentials GaAs and PbS using Schrodinger’s equation, continuity, and matrix propagation to get transmission coefficient. The maximum energy of electron that we use is 1.0 eV, and observable from 0.0025 eV- 1.0 eV. The shows the highest transmission coefficient is0.9982 from electron energy 0.5123eV means electron can pass the barriers with probability 99.82%. Semiconductor from materials GaAs and PbS is one of selected material to design semiconductor device because of transmission coefficient directly proportional to bias the voltage of semiconductor device. Application of the theoretical analysis of resonant tunnelling effect on double barriers was used to design and develop new structure and combination of materials for semiconductor device (diode, transistor, and integrated circuit).

  11. Intense electron beams from GaAs photocathodes as a tool for molecular and atomic physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krantz, Claude

    2009-10-28

    We present cesium-coated GaAs photocathodes as reliable sources of intense, quasi-monoenergetic electron beams in atomic and molecular physics experiments. In long-time operation of the Electron Target of the ion storage ring TSR in Heidelberg, cold electron beams could be realised at steadily improving intensity and reliability. Minimisation of processes degrading the quantum efficiency allowed to increase the extractable current to more than 1mA at usable cathode lifetimes of 24 h or more. The benefits of the cold electron beam with respect to its application to electron cooling and electron-ion recombination experiments are discussed. Benchmark experiments demonstrate the superior cooling force and energy resolution of the photoelectron beam compared to its thermionic counterparts. The long period of operation allowed to study the long-time behaviour of the GaAs samples during multiple usage cycles at the Electron Target and repeated in-vacuum surface cleaning by atomic hydrogen exposure. An electron emission spectroscopy setup has been implemented at the photocathode preparation chamber of the Electron Target. Among others, this new facility opened the way to a novel application of GaAs (Cs) photocathodes as robust, ultraviolet-driven electron emitters. Based on this principle, a prototype of an electron gun, designed for implementation at the HITRAP setup at GSI, has been built and taken into operation successfully. (orig.)

  12. GaAs photovoltaics and optoelectronics using releasable multilayer epitaxial assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongseung; Jo, Sungjin; Chun, Ik Su; Jung, Inhwa; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Meitl, Matthew; Menard, Etienne; Li, Xiuling; Coleman, James J; Paik, Ungyu; Rogers, John A

    2010-05-20

    Compound semiconductors like gallium arsenide (GaAs) provide advantages over silicon for many applications, owing to their direct bandgaps and high electron mobilities. Examples range from efficient photovoltaic devices to radio-frequency electronics and most forms of optoelectronics. However, growing large, high quality wafers of these materials, and intimately integrating them on silicon or amorphous substrates (such as glass or plastic) is expensive, which restricts their use. Here we describe materials and fabrication concepts that address many of these challenges, through the use of films of GaAs or AlGaAs grown in thick, multilayer epitaxial assemblies, then separated from each other and distributed on foreign substrates by printing. This method yields large quantities of high quality semiconductor material capable of device integration in large area formats, in a manner that also allows the wafer to be reused for additional growths. We demonstrate some capabilities of this approach with three different applications: GaAs-based metal semiconductor field effect transistors and logic gates on plates of glass, near-infrared imaging devices on wafers of silicon, and photovoltaic modules on sheets of plastic. These results illustrate the implementation of compound semiconductors such as GaAs in applications whose cost structures, formats, area coverages or modes of use are incompatible with conventional growth or integration strategies.

  13. Interface analysis of Ge ultra thin layers intercalated between GaAs substrates and oxide stacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molle, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.molle@mdm.infm.i [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Lamagna, Luca; Spiga, Sabina [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (Italy); Fanciulli, Marco [Laboratorio Nazionale MDM, CNR-INFM, Via C. Olivetti 2, 20041 Agrate Brianza (MI) (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Milano Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Brammertz, Guy; Meuris, Marc [IMEC, 75 Kapeldreef, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-01

    Capping III-V compound surfaces with Ge ultra-thin layer might be a viable pathway to passivate the electrically active interface traps which usually jeopardize the integration of III-V materials in metal-oxide-semiconductor devices. As the physical nature of such traps is intrinsically related to the chemical details of the interface composition, the structural and compositional features of the Ge/GaAs interface were thoroughly investigated in two different configurations, the atomic layer deposition of La-doped ZrO{sub 2} films on Ge-capped GaAs and the ultra-high vacuum based molecular beam deposition of GeO{sub 2}/Ge double stack on in situ prepared GaAs. In the former case, the intercalation of a Ge interface layer is shown to suppress the concentration of interface Ga-O, As-O and elemental As bonding which were significantly detected in case of the direct oxide deposition on GaAs. In the latter case, the incidence of two different in situ surface preparations, the Ar sputtering and the atomic H cleaning, on the interface composition is elucidated and the beneficial role played by the atomic H exposure in reducing the semiconductor-oxygen bonds at the interface level is demonstrated.

  14. Hydrogenation of GaAs covered by GaAlAs and subgrain boundary passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djemel, A.; Castaing, J.; Chevallier, J.; Henoc, P.

    1992-12-01

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) has been performed to study the influence of hydrogen on electronic properties of GaAs with and without a GaAlAs layer. Recombination at sub-boundaries has been examined. These extended defects have been introduced by high temperature plastic deformation. The results show that they are passivated by hydrogen. The penetration of hydrogen is slowed down by the GaAlAs layer. La cathodoluminescence (CL) a été utilisée pour étudier l'influence de l'hydrogène sur les propriétés électroniques de GaAs nu et recouvert d'une couche de GaAlAs. Le caractère recombinant des sous-joints de grains a été examiné. Ces défauts étendus ont été introduits par déformation plastique à chaud. Les résultats montrent que l'hydrogène passive ces défauts. La pénétration de l'hydrogène à l'intérieur de GaAs est retardée par la présence de la couche de GaAlAs.

  15. High-resolution X-ray diffraction characterisation of piezoelectric InGaAs / GaAs multiquantum wells and superlattices on (111)B GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz-Hervas, A.; Aguilar, M. [Madrid, Univ. (Spain). Dept. Tecnologia Electronica. E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion; Lopez, M.; Llorente, C.; Lorenzo, R.; Abril, E. J. [Valladolid, Real de Burgos Univ. (Spain). Dept. Teoria de la Senal u Comunicaciones e Ingegneria Telematica. E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion; Sacedon, A.; Sanchez, J. L.; Calleja, E.; Munoz, E. [Madrid, Univ. (Spain). Dept. Ingegnieria Electronica. E.T.S.I. Telecomunicacion

    1997-02-01

    In this paper the authors show some examples of strained InGaAs / GaAs multilayers on (111)B GaAs substrates studied by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry. The samples consisted of a multiquantum well or superlattice embedded in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n photodiode. They have analysed piezoelectric (111)B structures with 3, 7, 10, and 40 periods and different indium contents and compared the results with identical structures simultaneously grown on (001) substrates. The interpretation of the diffraction profiles has been carried out with a computer simulation model developed in our labs, which allows the calculation of symmetric and asymmetric reflections regardless of the substrate orientation or miscut angle. The agreement between the experimental scans and the theory was very satisfactory in all the samples, which has enabled us to determine the main structural parameters of the diodes, Asymmetric 224{+-} reflections on (111)B structures have been simulated for the first time. They have also compared the structural parameters obtained by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry with the results deduced from photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopies.

  16. Periodic Two-Dimensional GaAs and InGaAs Quantum Rings Grown on GaAs (001) by Droplet Epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Kar Hoo Patrick; Huang, Jian; Danner, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Growth of ordered GaAs and InGaAs quantum rings (QRs) in a patterned SiO2 nanohole template by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) using droplet epitaxy (DE) process is demonstrated. DE is an MBE growth technique used to fabricate quantum nanostructures of high crystal quality by supplying group III and group V elements in separate phases. In this work, ordered QRs grown on an ordered nanohole template are compared to self-assembled QRs grown with the same DE technique without the nanohole template. This study allows us to understand and compare the surface kinetics of Ga and InGa droplets when a template is present. It is found that template-grown GaAs QRs form clustered rings which can be attributed to low mobility of Ga droplets resulting in multiple nucleation sites for QR formation when As is supplied. However, the case of template-grown InGaAs QRs only one ring is formed per nanohole; no clustering is observed. The outer QR diameter is a close match to the nanohole template diameter. This can be attributed to more mobile InGa droplets, which coalesce from an Ostwald ripening to form a single large droplet before As is supplied. Thus, well-patterned InGaAs QRs are demonstrated and the kinetics of their growth are better understood which could potentially lead to improvements in the future devices that require the unique properties of patterned QRs.

  17. High-resolution X-ray diffraction characterisation of piezoelectric InGaAs / GaAs multiquantum wells and superlattices on (111)B GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Hervas, A.; Aguilar, M.; Lopez, M.; Llorente, C.; Lorenzo, R.; Abril, E. J.; Sacedon, A.; Sanchez, J. L.; Calleja, E.; Munoz, E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the authors show some examples of strained InGaAs / GaAs multilayers on (111)B GaAs substrates studied by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry. The samples consisted of a multiquantum well or superlattice embedded in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n photodiode. They have analysed piezoelectric (111)B structures with 3, 7, 10, and 40 periods and different indium contents and compared the results with identical structures simultaneously grown on (001) substrates. The interpretation of the diffraction profiles has been carried out with a computer simulation model developed in our labs, which allows the calculation of symmetric and asymmetric reflections regardless of the substrate orientation or miscut angle. The agreement between the experimental scans and the theory was very satisfactory in all the samples, which has enabled us to determine the main structural parameters of the diodes, Asymmetric 224± reflections on (111)B structures have been simulated for the first time. They have also compared the structural parameters obtained by high-resolution X-ray diffractometry with the results deduced from photoluminescence and photocurrent spectroscopies

  18. Tunable high-order-sideband generation and carrier-envelope-phase-dependent effects via microwave fields in hybrid electro-optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Liu-Gang; Guo, Ling-Xia; Xiong, Hao; Wu, Ying

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the high-order-sideband generation (HSG) in a hybrid cavity electro-photomechanical system in which an optical cavity is driven by two optical fields (a monochromatic pump field and a nanosecond Gaussian probe pulse with huge numbers of wave cycles), and at the same time a microwave cavity is driven by a monochromatic ac voltage bias. We show that even if the input powers of two driven optical fields are comparatively low the HSG spectra can be induced and enhanced, and the sideband plateau is extended remarkably with the power of the ac voltage bias increasing. It is also shown that the driven ac voltage bias has profound effects on the carrier-envelope-phase-dependent effects of the HSG in the hybrid cavity electro-photomechanical system. Our research may provide an effective way to control the HSG of optical fields by using microwave fields in cavity optomechanics systems.

  19. Design of a GaAs X-ray imaging sensor with integrated HEMT readout circuitry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boardman, D

    2002-01-01

    A new monolithic semi-insulating (SI) GaAs sensor design for X-ray imaging applications between 10-100keV has been proposed. Monolithic pixel detectors offer a number of advantages over hybrid bump-bonded detectors, such as high device yield, low costs and are easier to produce large scale arrays. In this thesis, an investigation is made of the use of a SI GaAs wafer as both a detector element and substrate for the epitaxially grown High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The design of the HEMT transistors, optimised for this application, were produced with the aid of the Silvaco 'Virtual Wafer Fab' simulation package. It was determined that the device characteristics would consist of a small positive threshold voltage, a low off-state drain current and high transconductance. The final HEMT transistor design, that would be integrated to a pixel detector, had a threshold voltage of 0.17V, an off-state leakage current of {approx}1nA and a transconductance of 7.4mS. A number of test detectors were characterised using an ion beam induced charge technique. Charge collection efficiency maps of the test detectors were produced to determine their quality as a X-ray detection material. From the results, the inhomogeneity of SI GaAs, homogeneity of epitaxial GaAs and granular nature of polycrystalline GaAs, were observed. The best of these detectors was used in conjunction with a commercial field effect transistor to produce a hybrid device. The charge switching nature of the hybrid device was shown and a sensitivity of 0.44pC/{mu}Gy mm{sup 2}, for a detector bias of 60V, was found. The functionality of the hybrid sensor was the same to that proposed for the monolithic sensor. The fabrication of the monolithic sensor, with an integrated HEMT transistor and external capacitor, was achieved. To reach the next stage of producing a monolithic sensor that integrates charge, requires further work in the design and the fabrication process. (author)

  20. Design of a GaAs X-ray imaging sensor with integrated HEMT readout circuitry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, D.

    2002-01-01

    A new monolithic semi-insulating (SI) GaAs sensor design for X-ray imaging applications between 10-100keV has been proposed. Monolithic pixel detectors offer a number of advantages over hybrid bump-bonded detectors, such as high device yield, low costs and are easier to produce large scale arrays. In this thesis, an investigation is made of the use of a SI GaAs wafer as both a detector element and substrate for the epitaxially grown High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs). The design of the HEMT transistors, optimised for this application, were produced with the aid of the Silvaco 'Virtual Wafer Fab' simulation package. It was determined that the device characteristics would consist of a small positive threshold voltage, a low off-state drain current and high transconductance. The final HEMT transistor design, that would be integrated to a pixel detector, had a threshold voltage of 0.17V, an off-state leakage current of ∼1nA and a transconductance of 7.4mS. A number of test detectors were characterised using an ion beam induced charge technique. Charge collection efficiency maps of the test detectors were produced to determine their quality as a X-ray detection material. From the results, the inhomogeneity of SI GaAs, homogeneity of epitaxial GaAs and granular nature of polycrystalline GaAs, were observed. The best of these detectors was used in conjunction with a commercial field effect transistor to produce a hybrid device. The charge switching nature of the hybrid device was shown and a sensitivity of 0.44pC/μGy mm 2 , for a detector bias of 60V, was found. The functionality of the hybrid sensor was the same to that proposed for the monolithic sensor. The fabrication of the monolithic sensor, with an integrated HEMT transistor and external capacitor, was achieved. To reach the next stage of producing a monolithic sensor that integrates charge, requires further work in the design and the fabrication process. (author)